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Sample records for branch retinal artery

  1. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

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    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  2. A Case of Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Uneventful Phacoemulsification

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    Daniel Dragnev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We would like to present a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following uneventful phacoemulsification, possibly caused by sub-Tenon's anaesthesia. There were no predisposing general health problems. There are two possible mechanisms: (1 mechanical effect of the bolus anaesthetic; (2 pharmacologically mediated changes in the vascular calibre. The latter mechanism is much more probable, because of the vasoconstrictive properties of both medications used. This is the first reported case of branch retinal artery occlusion after sub-Tenon's anaesthesia with preservative-free medications.

  3. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion Caused by Toxoplasmosis in an Adolescent

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    Elizabeth Chiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO, while not uncommon in elderly patient populations, is rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of a BRAO secondary to toxoplasmosis in this demographic. Case: A previously healthy 17-year-old male developed a unilateral BRAO in conjunction with inflammation and increased intraocular pressure. Family history was positive for cerebrovascular accidents in multiple family members at relatively young ages. The patient had a hypercoagulable workup as well as a cardiovascular workup which were both normal. A rheumatologic workup was unremarkable. By 3 weeks, a patch of retinitis was more easily distinguished from the BRAO and the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made. Treatment was started with prednisone and azithromycin with subsequent improvement in vision. Toxoplasma antibody levels were elevated for IgG and negative for IgM, IgA, and IgE. The etiology of the BRAO was attributed to ocular toxoplasmosis. Conclusions: Vascular occlusions are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the third case report of a BRAO in a patient in the pediatric population. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in young patients with retinal artery occlusions associated with inflammation.

  4. Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex in a Case with Unilateral Simultaneous Central Retinal Vein and Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion

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    Taylan Ozturk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous branch retinal artery and vein occlusion is a rare condition that may cause severe visual loss, and its treatment is often unrewarding. Herein, we report a case with simultaneous central retinal vein and branch retinal artery occlusion; it was successfully treated with a single dexamethasone intravitreal implant. The affected eye attained a visual acuity level of 20/25 from the visual acuity of hand motions at presentation with a residual, but relatively diminished, altitudinal scotoma during a follow-up period of 6 months.

  5. Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion

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    Mason lll JO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available John O Mason III,1,2 Shyam A Patel,1 Richard M Feist,1,2 Michael A Albert Jr,1,2 Carrie Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,3 Martin L Thomley1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Retina Consultants of Alabama, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To investigate the ocular neovascularization (ONV rate in eyes with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO or a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO, and to study factors that may influence the ONV rate secondary to CRAO.Methods: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients (286 total eyes: 83 CRAOs and 203 BRAOs who were diagnosed with a retinal artery occlusion from 1998 to 2013 at the Retina Consultants of Alabama and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between hypothesized risk factors and ONV development.Results: Twelve (14.5% of the 83 eyes with a CRAO developed ONV. Eleven of 12 eyes (91.7% had iris neovascularization, ten of 12 eyes (83.3% had neovascular glaucoma, and two of 12 eyes (16.7% had neovascularization of the optic disc. The average time for ONV development secondary to CRAO was 30.7 days, ranging from the date of presentation to 137 days. Only two (<1.0% of the 203 eyes with a BRAO developed iris neovascularization. Diabetes mellitus type 2 was a risk factor for ONV development following a CRAO with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–19.8 (P=0.02.Conclusion: ONV is an important complication of CRAO and is a less-frequent complication of BRAO. Patients with a CRAO, especially those with diabetes mellitus type 2, should be closely monitored for the first 6 months for ONV. Keywords: neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, retinal artery occlusion, central

  6. Acute and chronic spectral domain optical coherence tomography features of branch retinal artery occlusion

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    Rodrigues, Ian Aureliano Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) is a common vascular occlusive disorder. BRAO involving the posterior pole is usually symptomatic, but occasionally has very limited clinical features. We describe 2 cases where the underlying pathology was initially unclear and the diagnosis therefore not reached at presentation. Use of the latest retinal imaging, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) enabled correct diagnosis of BRAO. The images demonstrate and contrast the fine changes that can be seen in the acute and chronic phases of this condition and illustrate how the pathogenesis of BRAO is confined to the outer retinal layers. We believe the subtle presentations of this common condition that we discuss highlight how diagnosis of BRAO can often be challenging, but may be facilitated by the use of SD-OCT retinal imaging. PMID:23661655

  7. The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later

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    Cagatay Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in the right eye.

  8. Neuroretinitis with Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Female

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    Sina Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis with significant disc and peripapillary edema, branch retinal artery occlusion without macula involvement and well preserved central vision. A 15-year-old female presented with loss of vision over 4 weeks in the left eye. She had a history of cat exposure, but a cat scratch, insect bite or conjunctivitis was not reported. An inferotemporal arcuate scotoma developed during the acute phase and persisted over the course of the follow-up.

  9. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a Patient with Patent Foramen Ovale

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    Nasser Shoeibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in a patient with patent foramen ovale (PFO. Case Report: A 29-year-old female patient was referred for sudden onset superior visual field defect in her left eye. Ocular examination revealed visual acuity of 20/32 in the affected eye along with a positive relative afferent pupillary defect. A calcified white embolus was noted at the first bifurcation of the inferior temporal artery in her left eye together with mild retinal edema. With a diagnosis of BRAO, the patient received oral acetazolamide, topical timolol, ocular massage and anterior chamber paracentesis. The visual field defect partially recovered and the embolus moved to the third bifurcation level as revealed by fundus examination. An extensive workup, including neurology, rheumatology, cardiology and hematology consultation, carotid ultrasonography, transthoracic/transesophageal echocardiography and laboratory testing was performed. All results were within normal limits except for a small-sized PFO detected by transesophageal echocardiography. Low-dose aspirin therapy was initiated and over the subsequent two years, no other embolic event occurred. Conclusion: The association between PFO and BRAO has not yet been reported. Intracardiac right-to-left shunting through a PFO, accentuated by Valsalva maneuver, may predispose to embolic events while the source of initial thrombosis remains unknown.

  10. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

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    Desmond; Archer

    1992-01-01

    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  11. Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  12. Retinal artery occlusions in children.

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    Dharmasena, Aruna; Wallis, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a case of RAO in a 13 year old girl with a preceding history of hyperextension of the neck at her hairdressers for a long duration and use of her mobile phone handset resting it against the side of her neck presumably exerting some pressure on carotids during the same time. Materials and methods of this study was reported as case report and review of literature. A 13 year-old girl presented with the left supero-nasal scotoma due to an inferior temporal branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). She underwent extensive investigations and no underlying cause was discovered. She gave a history of cervical extension over a long period of time while having the hair coloured twice in the preceding week. She also mentioned that she was using her mobile phone more or less continuously during both these occasions keeping it against her neck. Given the above history it is possible that the pressure on the ipsilateral carotid arteries or the prolong neck extension may have been responsible for the formation of a platelet embolus resulting in the BRAO. In conclusion, although cerebro-vascular accidents due to 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' (JAMA 269:2085-2086, 1993) have been reported previously it has not been reported in children to our knowledge. On the other hand, 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' occurs due to a dissection of the vertebral arteries or due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during the prolonged hyperextension of the neck. The central retinal artery originates from the internal carotid circulation and it is highly unlikely for an embolus to enter the retinal circulation from the vertebral arteries. Therefore, the authors favour the possibility that the compulsive use of a mobile phone exerting pressure on the carotid arteries for a long time may have led to the formation of an embolus and subsequent RAO in this case.

  13. Idiopathic pediatric retinal artery occlusion

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    Manayath George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in a healthy young girl. An eight-year-old girl presented with sudden loss of vision in her left eye. She had a pale retina with macular edema consistent with extensive BRAO. A thorough workup was performed to determine any etiologic factor. All test results were within normal limits. Her visual acuity improved from finger counting to 20/40 over two weeks, on immediate treatment with intravenous steroids (methyl prednisolone. This case suggests that BRAO can occur in healthy children without any detectable systemic or ocular disorders and a dramatic improvement may be achieved with prompt treatment with intravenous steroids.

  14. Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan René; Rosenberg, Niels Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion....

  15. Retinal Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Young Patient with Cat Scratch Disease

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    Georgios Batsos; Kabanarou, Stamatina A.; Pantelis Fotiou; Alexandros Rouvas; Tina Xirou

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. Methods: A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyan...

  16. A histopathologic study of retinal arterial aneurysms.

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    Fichte, C; Streeten, B W; Friedman, A H

    1978-04-01

    An isolated retinal arterial aneurysm was found postmortem in the eye of a 75-year-old hypertensive woman, and multiple aneurysms were in the enucleated eye of a 68-year-old hypertensive man with neovascular glaucoma. The aneurysmal sites showed thickening of the vessel walls with hyaline, fibrin, and foamy macrophages. Fresh or organized thrombus partially filled the aneurysmal lumina. Trypsin digestion preparations in Case 2 showed a progressive severity of aneurysmal changes from the simplest "cuff" type to the hemorrhagic "b;pwout" aneurysms with a linear split in the vessel wall. Atheroma was present in the larger arterial branches and fat was in most of the aneurysmal walls. These findings suggested that damage to the arterial wall by cholesterol or other emboli, or by occlusive disease, may predispose especially hypertensive patients to arterial aneurysm formation.

  17. Retinal arterial occlusion in Takayasu′s arteritis

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    Kaushik Sushmita

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Takayasu′s arteritis is an auto-immune disorder of the large and medium-sized arteries, commonly involving the heart and its main vessels. It is now recognised that the inflammatory process of the large arteries affects regions of the walls supplied by the vasa vasorum, suggesting that primary small vessel involvement may contribute to the development of the clinico-pathological features of Takayasu aorto-arteritis. Classical ophthalmic features of the disease result from reduced ocular perfusion, which manifests as hypoxic retinal changes such as microaneurysms, arterio-venous anastomosis and non-perfused areas. Branch retinal artery occlusion has not been previously described in this condition. This case illustrates retinal arterial occlusion as the presenting feature of Takayasu′s arteritis.

  18. Imaging of Dual Ophthalmic Arteries: Identification of the Central Retinal Artery

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    Louise Louw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the origin of the central retinal artery (CRA is imperative in tailoring angiographic studies to resolve a given clinical problem. A case with dual ophthalmic arteries (OAs, characterized by different origins and distinct branching patterns, is documented for training purposes. Pre-clinical diagnosis of a 9-year-old child who presented with a sharp wire in the left-side eyeball was primarily corneal laceration. For imaging, a selected six-vessel angiographic study with the transfemoral approach was performed. Embolization was not required and the wire could be successfully removed. Right-side OA anatomy was normal, while left-side dual OAs with external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA origins were seen. The case presented with a left-side meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA anomaly via the ECA, marked by a middle meningeal artery (MMA (origin: Maxillary artery; course: Through foramen spinosum with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches, and an OA variant (course: Through superior orbital fissure with a distinct orbital branching pattern. A smaller OA (origin: ICA; course: Through optic foramen with a distinct ocular branching pattern presented with the central retinal artery (CRA. The presence of the dual OAs and the M-OA anomaly can be explained by disturbed evolutionary changes of the primitive OA and stapedial artery during development. The surgical interventionist must be aware of dual OAs and M-OA anomalies with branching pattern variations on retinal supply, because of dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomotic connections. It is of clinical significance that the origin of the CRA from the ICA or ECA must be determined to avoid complications to the vision.

  19. Retinal Arterial Occlusive Diseasein a Young Patient with Cat Scratch Disease

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    Georgios Batsos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. Methods: A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyanine angiography did not reveal choroidal involvement. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgG titers for Bartonellahenselae. Results: Cat scratch disease was diagnosed, and a 4-week course of doxycycline was initiated. The patient responded well to the antibiotics. Both retinitis and arterial occlusion were resolved, the visual field was regained and the patient reported elimination of her symptoms. Conclusions: Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal occlusive disease.

  20. Clinical Trials in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

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    Panakanti, Tandava Krishnan; Chhablani, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept) compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular) of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26957837

  1. Clinical trials in branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Tandava Krishnan Panakanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy.

  2. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

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    Siang Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  3. Sheathotomy in complicated cases of branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafoord, S.; Karlsson, N.; Cour, M. la

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non-randomized, interve......Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non...

  4. Surgical repair of pulmonary artery branches.

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    Ghez, Olivier; Saeed, Imran; Serrato, Maria; Quintero, Diana Bernal; Kreitmann, Bernard; Fraisse, Alain; Uemura, Hideki; Seale, Anna; Daubeney, Piers; McCarthy, Karen; Ho, S Yen

    2013-01-01

    Surgical repair of pulmonary artery (PA) branches encompasses many different clinical scenarios and technical challenges. The most common, such as bifurcation and central PA reconstruction, are described, as well as the challenges of complex and peripheral reconstruction.

  5. Multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusions in hyperhomocysteinemia

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    Abhijit Diwakar Gore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known modifiable risk factor for thromboembolism. Retinal vascular occlusion in patients having hyperhomocysteinemia is a known entity, particularly in young patients. However, multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is a rare condition, which can be a presentation of this disease. We present a patient who had multiple extra macular BRVO; on complete systemic workup, he was found to have raised homocysteine levels.

  6. Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion

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    Kosanović-Jaković Natalija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. Specific laboratory investigations and fluorescein angiography excluded the presence of vasculitis, collagen vascular diseases, hypercoagulable state and antiphospholipid syndrome. Conclusion. The patient met all the five of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP criteria for the metabolic syndrome: hypertension, abnormal lipid profile, abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity and hyperuricemia. Measurement of C-reactive protein is useful for the assessment of therapeutic systemic effect on any abnormality in the metabolic syndrome. Individual therapy for all risk factors in the metabolic syndrome is necessary to prevent complications such as cardiovascular, retinal vascular diseases and stroke.

  7. Selective thrombolysis performed through meningo-ophthalmic artery in central retinal artery occlusion.

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    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Halpert, Michael; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The poor natural history of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually not modified with conventional, conservative management techniques. Guidelines for selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis are still lacking. While many centers continue to perform this procedure with promising results, others are reluctant due to conflicting findings in recent studies. We present our experience in a 36-year-old male with CRAO. Based on the patient's clinical presentation, we planned to perform selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis via the ophthalmic artery. When angiography demonstrated that the retina was not supplied by the ophthalmic artery, but by a meningo-ophthalmic artery branching from the internal maxillary artery, we instead administered thrombolytic agents via the meningo-ophthalmic artery. The patient's vision recovered completely, with visual acuity and visual field examination at 30 day follow up comparable to his pre-treatment status. This case emphasizes the need for external carotid artery examination in cases of nonvisualization of the ophthalmic artery. In addition, it illustrates the successful use of the meningo-ophthalmic artery to perform selective intraarterial thrombolysis for CRAO.

  8. Retinal vessel width measurement at branchings using an improved electric field theory-based graph approach.

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    Xiayu Xu

    Full Text Available The retinal vessel width relationship at vessel branch points in fundus images is an important biomarker of retinal and systemic disease. We propose a fully automatic method to measure the vessel widths at branch points in fundus images. The method is a graph-based method, in which a graph construction method based on electric field theory is applied which specifically deals with complex branching patterns. The vessel centerline image is used as the initial segmentation of the graph. Branching points are detected on the vessel centerline image using a set of detection kernels. Crossing points are distinguished from branch points and excluded. The electric field based graph method is applied to construct the graph. This method is inspired by the non-intersecting force lines in an electric field. At last, the method is further improved to give a consistent vessel width measurement for the whole vessel tree. The algorithm was validated on 100 artery branchings and 100 vein branchings selected from 50 fundus images by comparing with vessel width measurements from two human experts.

  9. Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm. A Case Report Macroaneurisma arterial retinal. Presentación de un caso.

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    Aimé Broche Hernández

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Retinal macroaneurysms are saccular dilatations of the retinal arteries. They commonly appear in temporary arches, which are found in elderly patients with hypertension and / or generalized vascular disease. They are slightly more frequent in women. In this article we present a case with a macroaneurysm rupture that was treated with laser photocoagulation and evolved favorably.Los macroaneurismas retinianos son dilataciones saculares de las arterias retinianas, con mayor frecuencia en arcadas temporales, que se detectan en pacientes de edad avanzada con hipertensión arterial y/o enfermedad vascular generalizada; son ligeramente más frecuentes en mujeres. Se presenta un caso clínico con ruptura de un macroaneurisma, que fue tratado con fotocoagulación con láser y evolucionó favorablemente.

  10. Thrombophilic screening in retinal artery occlusion patients

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    Valeria Nagy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Valeria Nagy1, Lili Takacs1, Zita Steiber1, György Pfliegler2, Andras Berta11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Rare Diseases, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen, HungaryBackground: Retinal artery occlusion (RAO is an ischemic vascular damage of the retina, which frequently leads to sudden, mostly irreversible loss of vision. In this study, blood thrombophilic factors as well as cardiovascular risk factors were investigated for their relevance to this pathology. Thrombophilic risk factors so far not evaluated were included in the study.Patients and methods: 28 RAO patients and 81 matched control subjects were examined. From blood samples, protein C, protein S, antithrombinopathy, and factor V (Leiden mutation (FV, factor II gene polymorphism, factor VIII C level, plasminogen activity, lipoprotein(a and fibrinogen levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and presence of anticardiolipin – antiphospholipid antibodies were investigated. Possibly relevant pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease were also registered. Statistical analysis by logistic regression was performed with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the group of patients with RAO only the incidence of hypertension (OR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.30–9.70, p = 0.014 as an average risk factor showed significant difference, but thrombophilic factors such as hyperfibrinogenemia (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.29–6.57, p = 0.010 and the presence of FV (Leiden mutation (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.43–10.96, p = 0.008 increased the chances of developing this disease.Conclusions: Our results support the assumption that thrombophilia may contribute to the development of RAO besides vascular damage due to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed, however, to justify the possible use of secondary prophylaxis in form of anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy.Keywords: retinal arterial occlusion, risk factors, thrombophilia

  11. Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing

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    Arai H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Haruka Arai,1 Tsutomu Sakai,1 Kiichiro Okano,1 Ranko Aoyagi,1 Ayano Imai,2 Hiroshi Takase,2 Manabu Mochizuki,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka11Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, toxoplasma retinochoroiditis

  12. A rare case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana

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    Balamurugan, Anugraha; Srikanth, Krishnagopal

    2016-01-01

    Sirsasana is a type of headstand postural yoga in which the body is completely inverted. It is performed with or without wall support. In this position, the body is held upright supported by the forearms, while the crown of the head rests lightly on the floor. This is an advanced pose and should be attempted under the supervision of a qualified yoga instructor. The practice of Sirsasana is postulated to increase blood flow to the brain, improving memory, and other intellectual functions. It is also known to cause causes raised intraocular pressure, decompression retinopathy, glaucomatous visual field defects, central retinal vein occlusion, progression of glaucoma, optic neuropathy, and conjunctival varix thrombosis. We report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana in a patient with systemic hypertension. PMID:27512326

  13. Central retinal artery occlusion (reversible in sickle trait with glaucoma.

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    Radius, R L; Finkelstein, D

    1976-01-01

    We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion in an 18-year-old black woman with sickle-trait haemoglobinopathy and acute glaucoma after hyphaema. The central retinal artery occlusion occurred immediately after treatment of the glaucoma with osmotic agents, raising the possibility that they played a precipitating role. We suggest that osmotic agents be used with extreme caution in sickle patients with glaucoma. The occlusion was treated by anterior chamber paracentesis with eventual return of good vision. The reversibility of retinal and optic nerve function after total ischaemia is discussed. PMID:952815

  14. Mortality in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Nynne; Gade, Else; Knudsen, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the impact of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), a condition related to arteriolar wall thickening, as a prognostic marker of mortality. DESIGN: Long-term follow-up study comparing cases with background population. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with BRVO. METHODS: Diagnosis...... occlusion was found in 329 patients (173 women, 156 men) born between 1902 and 1956, who were 39 to 91 years old when diagnosed between 1973 and 1998. Follow-up was concluded on July 8, 2004, when 144 deaths were recorded in patients (74 women, 70 men), compared with an expected number of 145.5 deaths...

  15. Anomalous branching pattern of common hepatic artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S. Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of hepatic artery variations exists which is continuously proving a hindrance for the surgeons and radiologists. During routine dissection in the subhepatic region in 50 year old male cadaver for undergraduate teaching, a variation in the branching pattern of common hepatic artery was noticed. We observed an unusual branching of the common hepatic artery into seven terminal branches, of which two were left hepatic arteries, two were right gastric arteries and the remaining three were right hepatic artery, cystic artery and gastroduodenal artery. Hepatic artery proper was absent. Embryological basis of these variations were discussed. The present case is a rarity and will further throw light on the knowledge of the hepatic artery variations, thus assisting surgeons and radiologists in various surgical and diagnostic procedures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1740-1742

  16. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome Presenting as Bilateral Central Retinal Artery Occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven S. Saraf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 22-year-old African American woman presented with bilateral vision loss associated with headache. Her ocular examination was significant for bilateral retinal arterial “boxcarring,” retinal whitening, retinal hemorrhages, and cherry red spots. She was diagnosed with bilateral central retinal artery occlusions and was hospitalized due to concomitant diagnosis of stroke and hypercoagulable state. She was also found to be in heart failure and kidney failure. Rheumatology was consulted and she was diagnosed with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in association with systemic lupus erythematosus. Approximately 7 months after presentation, the patient’s vision improved and remained stable at 20/200 and 20/80.

  17. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on retinal function after experimental branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Kyhn, Maria Voss;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  18. Axial length as a risk factor to branch retinal vein occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, EA; deLavalette, VWR; vandenBrom, HJB

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether axial length is a factor in branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods: Axial length measurements in a group of 24 patients with a unilateral branch retinal Vein occlusion were compared with the axial length measurements in a control group. axial length measurements were ta

  19. A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery

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    Sharma P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

  20. Unilateral central retinal artery occlusion as the sole presenting sign of Susac syndrome in a young man: case report

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    Samira Luiza dos Apóstolos-Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 24-year-old man presenting with sudden visual loss in the left eye from a central retinal artery occlusion. An extensive clinical investigation revealed no etiology. Three weeks later, however, the patient developed hearing loss followed by encephalopathy and multiple branch retinal artery occlusions in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography confirmed retinal vascular occlusions with no sign of vasculitis. The neurological examination revealed a diffuse encephalopathy while the MRI scan disclosed several small areas of infarcts in the brain. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed on audiometry. The patient was diagnosed with Susac syndrome and treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, resulting in slight improvement and stabilization. This case shows that Susac syndrome may be diagnosed late due to the absence at onset of one or more of the symptoms of the classic triad (encephalopathy, multiple branch retinal artery occlusions and hearing loss. This case also serves to emphasize that Susac syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of central retinal artery occlusion, even in apparently healthy young men.

  1. STUDY ON VARIATIONS OF INFERIOR SEGMENTAL BRANCH OF RENAL ARTERY

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    Chandragirish S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The segmental arteries of the kidney supply the organ in such a way that, each renal pole receives its own artery while, the anterior portion between the poles is supplied by an upper and lower segmental vessel. These two arteries also include in their territory the lateral edge of the kidney and adjacent to the strip of parenchyma on the dorsal or posterior aspect of the organ. The knowledge of inferior segmental branch of renal artery is very important for surgeries in its distribution area in kidney. Materials and Methods: 100 kidneys (Fifty pairs intact with abdominal aorta were collected from department of Forensic medicine, JSS Medical College and Mysore Medical College. For study of segmental variation Corrosion cast technique method was used. The variations of inferior segmental branch of renal artery were observed and recorded. Results: In present study type I inferior segmental branch of renal artery were found in - 59% cases, type II in - 6% cases, type III in - 28% cases, type IV in - 2% cases. Conclusion: The inferior segmental artery from the anterior division of the renal artery is the commonest event –arising in 59%. This is Type I, the normal type. It arises from the renal artery (28% or from the posterior division (6% or from the aorta (2%. The knowledge of inferior segmental branch of renal artery helpful in kidney transplantation and renal surgery because these type of surgeries success mainly depends on arterial ligations.

  2. The role of branched endografts in preserving internal iliac arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielliu, I. F. J.; Bos, W. T. G. J.; Zeebregts, C. J.; Prins, T. R.; Van den Dungen, J. J. A. M.; Verhoeven, E. L. G.

    2009-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to report our treatment algorithm and early results with the use of an iliac branched device (IBD) to preserve the internal iliac artery (IIA) in the treatment of aortoiliac and solitary common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms. Methods. From September 2004 on, all patients

  3. Automatic classification of retinal vessels into arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    Separating the retinal vascular tree into arteries and veins is important for quantifying vessel changes that preferentially affect either the veins or the arteries. For example the ratio of arterial to venous diameter, the retinal a/v ratio, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as the staging of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents a supervised, automatic method that can determine whether a vessel is an artery or a vein based on intensity and derivative information. After thinning of the vessel segmentation, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. A set of features is extracted from each centerline pixel and using these each is assigned a soft label indicating the likelihood that it is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type we average the soft labels and assign this average label to each centerline pixel in the segment. We train and test the algorithm using the data (40 color fundus photographs) from the DRIVE database1 with an enhanced reference standard. In the enhanced reference standard a fellowship trained retinal specialist (MDA) labeled all vessels for which it was possible to visually determine whether it was a vein or an artery. After applying the proposed method to the 20 images of the DRIVE test set we obtained an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.88 for correctly assigning centerline pixels to either the vein or artery classes.

  4. Central retinal artery occlusion resembling Purtscher-like retinopathy

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    Etomi T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Takuji Kurimoto1, Norio Okamoto2, Hidehiro Oku1, Yuko Kanbara1, Tomohiko Etomi1, Masahiro Tonari1, Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan; 2Okamoto Eye Clinic, Suita, Osaka, JapanAbstract: This paper reports three cases of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO with Purtscher-like retinopathy and good recovery of visual function. The three cases of CRAO had similar fundus changes, ie, cotton wool patches surrounding the optic disc and whitening of the retina surrounding the fovea with a cherry red spot. Fluorescein angiography showed a delay of arm-to-retina circulation time and a partial defect of choroid circulation. Although the three cases were treated by different regimens of steroid pulse therapy and antiplatelet therapy, visual function recovered well and all disturbances of the retinal and choroid circulations resolved. Although eyes with a CRAO normally have a poor visual prognosis, our three cases responded well to the treatments and recovered good visual function. Thus, cases showing fundus changes similar to our three cases may have a pathogenesis different from that of a complete CRAO.Keywords: central retinal artery occlusion, cotton wool patches, Purtscher retinopathy, steroid therapy

  5. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

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    Petr Kolar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Individuals with end-organ damage caused by diabetes mellitus and hypertension have greatly increased risk for RVO. Socioeconomic status seems to be a risk factor too. American blacks are more often diagnosed with RVO than non-Hispanic whites. Females are, according to some studies, at lower risk than men. The role of thrombophilic risk factors in RVO is still controversial. Congenital thrombophilic diseases like factor V Leiden mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia and anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of RVO. Cigarette smoking also increases the risk of RVO as do systemic inflammatory conditions like vasculitis and Behcet disease. Ophthalmic risk factors for RVO are ocular hypertension and glaucoma, higher ocular perfusion pressure, and changes in the retinal arteries.

  6. Artery to Cystic Duct: A Consistent Branch of Cystic Artery Seen in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

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    Arshad Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled arterial bleeding during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a serious problem and may increase the risk of bile duct damage. Therefore, accurate identification of the anatomy of the cystic artery is very important. Cystic artery is notoriously known to have a highly variable branching pattern. We reviewed the anatomy of the cystic artery and its branch to cystic duct as seen through the video laparoscope. A single artery to cystic duct with the classical “H-configuration” was demonstrated in 161 (91.47% patients. This branch may cause troublesome bleeding during laparoscopic dissection in the hepatobiliary triangle. Careful identification of artery to cystic duct is helpful in the proper dissection of Calot’s triangle as it reduces the chances of hemorrhage and thus may also be helpful in prevention of extrahepatic biliary radical injuries.

  7. Scale dependence of branching in arterial and bronchial trees

    CERN Document Server

    Restrepo, J G; Hunt, B R; Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    Although models of branching in arterial and bronchial trees often predict a dependence of bifurcation parameters on the scale of the bifurcating vessels, direct verifications of this dependence with data are uncommon. We compare measurements of bifurcation parameters in airways and arterial trees of different mammals as a function of scale to general features predicted by theoretical models. We find that the size dependence is more complex than existing theories based solely on energy minimization explain, and suggest additional factors that may govern the branching at different scales.

  8. Popliteal artery branching patterns-an angiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, C.P. [Department of Radiology, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chris.laura2001@ntlworld.com; Orme, R. [Department of Radiology, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    AIM: To analyse the variations in branching patterns of the popliteal artery and infrapopliteal vessels using angiography. MATERIALS And METHODS: Femoral angiograms of 1037 lower limbs in 568 patients were examined to assess the popliteal artery branching pattern. Variations of the infrapopliteal vessels supplying the foot were assessed in 662 limbs from the same cohort of patients. RESULTS: Nine hundred and forty-one (90.7%) limbs had the usual branching pattern with anterior tibial artery (AT) arising first followed by the tibial-peroneal trunk (TPT), which then gives rise to the posterior tibial (PT) and peroneal (PR) arteries. Variations in popliteal branching pattern were seen in 96 (9.3%) limbs. The commonest variation is high origin of the AT in 47 (4.5%) limbs or trifurcation of the popliteal artery in 33 (3.2%) limbs with AT, PT and PR arising together with no true TPT. The course of AT with high origin either anterior or posterior to popliteus was almost equal [25 (2.4%) or 22 (2.1%) limbs, respectively]. Eleven limbs (1.1%) had high origin of PT and two (0.2%) had a high origin of the PR. Six hundred and fifty-five (99%) limbs had normal infrapopliteal vessels. Seven (1%) had hypoplasia-aplasia of the infrapopliteal vessels. Five (0.8%) limbs had a hypoplastic PT with the remaining 2 (0.2%) having either a hypoplastic-aplastic AT or hypoplasia-aplasia of both AT and PT. CONCLUSION: Variations in the branching of the popliteal artery occur in about 10% of patients. Knowledge of these variations is important because of the potential consequences for the management of peripheral vascular disease.

  9. Angiographic Findings of Extrahepatic Branches Originating from Hepatic Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong Wang; Ren-jie Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the presentation and variation of extrahepatic branches originating from hepatic artery by hepatic arteriography.Methods: Hepatic arteriogram of 200 cases with unresectable hepatic primary or metastatic tumors before interventional therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Two interventional radiologists independently reviewed the type, originating artery, distribution and variation of extrahepatic artery.Results: Five types of extrahepatic artery were found, with the most common type of the right gastric artery (n=156, 78%), followed by the cystic artery (n=126, 63%), accessory left gastric artery (n=19, 9.5%), hepatic falciform artery (n=5, 2.5%), and accessory left inferior phrenic artery (n=4, 2%). In 188 cases, there were extrahepatic arteries derived from hepatic proper artery or its branches, and the most frequent originating site was the right hepatic artery (130 extrahepatic branches), followed by the proper hepatic artery (103 branches), left hepatic artery (56 branches) and middle hepatic artery (3 branches). The left hepatic artery was the arising site with the multiple types of extrahepatic branches including all above branches except the cystic artery.Conclusion: Many types of extrahepatic branches usually derive from the hepatic artery or its distal branches, and its originating sites are not constant. It is important to avoid damage of extrahepatic tissue during interventional therapy for liver tumors.

  10. Investigation of retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a mouse model of retinal branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

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    Andreas Ebneter

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is a leading cause of visual impairment. Experimental models of this condition based on laser photocoagulation of retinal veins have been described and extensively exploited in mammals and larger rodents such as the rat. However, few reports exist on the use of this paradigm in the mouse. The objective of this study was to investigate a model of branch and central retinal vein occlusion in the mouse and characterize in vivo longitudinal retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal veins were experimentally occluded using laser photocoagulation after intravenous application of Rose Bengal, a photo-activator dye enhancing thrombus formation. Depending on the number of veins occluded, variable amounts of capillary dropout were seen on fluorescein angiography. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were markedly elevated early and peaked at day one. Retinal thickness measurements with spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed significant swelling (p<0.001 compared to baseline, followed by gradual thinning plateauing two weeks after the experimental intervention (p<0.001. Histological findings at day seven correlated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. The inner layers were predominantly affected by degeneration with the outer nuclear layer and the photoreceptor outer segments largely preserved. The application of this retinal vein occlusion model in the mouse carries several advantages over its use in other larger species, such as access to a vast range of genetically modified animals. Retinal changes after experimental retinal vein occlusion in this mouse model can be non-invasively quantified by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and may be used to monitor effects of potential therapeutic interventions.

  11. Automated construction of arterial and venous trees in retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiao; Abràmoff, Michael D; Garvin, Mona K

    2015-10-01

    While many approaches exist to segment retinal vessels in fundus photographs, only a limited number focus on the construction and disambiguation of arterial and venous trees. Previous approaches are local and/or greedy in nature, making them susceptible to errors or limiting their applicability to large vessels. We propose a more global framework to generate arteriovenous trees in retinal images, given a vessel segmentation. In particular, our approach consists of three stages. The first stage is to generate an overconnected vessel network, named the vessel potential connectivity map (VPCM), consisting of vessel segments and the potential connectivity between them. The second stage is to disambiguate the VPCM into multiple anatomical trees, using a graph-based metaheuristic algorithm. The third stage is to classify these trees into arterial or venous (A/V) trees. We evaluated our approach with a ground truth built based on a public database, showing a pixel-wise classification accuracy of 88.15% using a manual vessel segmentation as input, and 86.11% using an automatic vessel segmentation as input.

  12. Influence of ischemia on visual function in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion and macular edema

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    Noma H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidetaka Noma¹, Hideharu Funatsu¹, Tatsuya Mimura², Katsunori Shimada³¹Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Owada-shinden, Chiba, Japan; ²Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; ³Department of Hygiene and Public Health II, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Visual function and retinal morphology were investigated to elucidate the influence of ischemia in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO and macular edema. In 41 consecutive patients with BRVO aged 68.9 ± 10.0 years (22 women and 19 men, the area of capillary nonperfusion was measured by fluorescein angiography. Retinal thickness and retinal volume were measured by optical coherence tomography, and mean retinal sensitivity was calculated for each of 9 macular subfields. Mean visual acuity and macular sensitivity within the central subfield were not significantly correlated with the nonperfused area. However, the macular sensitivity within the central 5 subfields and all 9 subfields showed significant negative correlations with the nonperfused area. Also, macular thickness and volume within all 9 subfields were significantly correlated with the nonperfused area. In conclusion, evaluation of both the fovea and the entire macular region may be important in patients with ischemic BRVO.Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, macular edema, macular sensitivity, ischemia

  13. Reversibility of retinal ischemia due to central retinal artery occlusion by hyperbaric oxygen

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    Hadanny A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Amir Hadanny,1,2 Amit Maliar,1 Gregory Fishlev,1 Yair Bechor,1 Jacob Bergan,1 Mony Friedman,1 Isaac Avni,2,3 Shai Efrati1,2,4,5 1Sagol Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Research, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 3Opthalmology Department, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zeirifin, Israel; 4Research and Development Unit, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel; 5Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel Purpose: Ischemic retinal damage can be reversed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT as long as irreversible infarction damage has not developed. However, the time window till irreversible damage develops is still unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effect of HBOT and determine possible markers for irreversible retinal damage.Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of 225 patients treated with HBOT for central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in 1999–2015. One hundred and twenty-eight patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria: age >18 years, symptoms <20 hours, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA <0.5 logMAR.Results: Time delay from symptoms to treatment was 7.8±3.8 hours. The BCVA was significantly improved after HBOT, from 2.14±0.50 to 1.61±0.78 (P<0.0001. The proportion of patients with clinically meaningful visual improvement was significantly higher in patients without cherry-red spot (CRS compared to patients with CRS at presentation (86.0% vs 57.6%, P<0.0001. The percentage of patients with final BCVA better than 1.0 was also significantly higher in patients without CRS vs patients with CRS at presentation (61.0% vs 7.1%, P<0.0001. There was no correlation between CRS and the time from symptoms. HBOT was found to be safe, and only 5.5% of patients had minor, reversible, adverse events.Conclusion: HBOT is an effective treatment for non-arteritic CRAO as long as CRS has not formed. The fundus findings, rather

  14. Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion in Churg-Strauss syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Johansen, Sven; Hamann, Steffen Ellitsgaard

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a rare case of Churg-Strauss syndrome presenting with severe visual loss due to a combined central retinal vein and artery occlusion. METHODS: A 42-year old man with a medical history of asthma and blood hypereosinophilia developed a sudden loss of vision in his right eye. We...... describe the clinical features and evolution of the case after treatment. RESULTS: A combined occlusion of the central retinal artery and central retinal vein was diagnosed by the funduscopic appearance of retinal whitening, macular cherry-red spot, papilloedema, retinal haemorrhages in all four quadrants...... the vascular occlusion and experienced no visual improvement. CONCLUSION: Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion can occur in Churg-Strauss syndrome. We suggest that regional vasculitis may be the pathological mechanism underlying the vascular occlusions observed in our case. The condition carries...

  15. Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Ahmet; Altun, Gulengul; Olcaysu, Osman Okan; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat Fazil

    2013-01-01

    A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmo-logic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye.

  16. Simulated lipoprotein transport in the wall of branched arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbeau, M Z; Lutz, R J; Collins, W E

    2000-01-01

    Study of arterial blood flow dynamics improves our understanding of the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The transport and accumulation of macromolecules in the arterial wall can be influenced by local fluid mechanics. We used numeric simulations to investigate such transport in a T-junction model. Presumably an in vitro experiment would consist of gel segments inserted in the walls of a mechanical flow T-junction model near branch points where separation and recirculation zones are expected. The transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was investigated theoretically at these sites in a two dimensional numeric T-branch model. In the numeric model, the hydraulic conductivity of the porous gel wall segments was varied for a fixed species diffusivity to provide simulations with wall transmural Peclet numbers ranging from 0.3 to 30. Steady state flow patterns in the lumen of the two dimensional T-branch were simulated at Reynolds numbers of 250 and 500, using the software package FIDAP 7.61 to implement the finite element method. The simulations demonstrated that wall Peclet numbers greater than 1.0 were needed to achieve species concentration gradients within the wall that varied in the axial direction, thereby reflecting the influence of disturbed flow and pressure patterns in the lumen. As expected, the transmural concentration gradients were steeper when convection predominated. Blood flow in the lumen can influence the distribution of macromolecules in the arterial wall and needs to be investigated for the relevance to atherosclerosis.

  17. Iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after carotid body tumor embolization and excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel, Carlos M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after embolization and surgical resection of carotid body paraganglioma.Methods: Case report Results: One adult female patient presented with persistent unilateral visual loss after embolization with Embosphere and Contour microparticles of carotid body tumor. Fluorescein angiography revealed intraluminal microspheres in the central retinal artery ramifications. OCT revealed intraretinal spherical, hyporeflective particles with posterior shadowing. Conclusions: Central retinal artery occlusion should be assessed as a possible complication after surgical repair of head and neck paragangliomas.

  18. Central retinal artery occlusion following laser treatment for ocular ischemic aortic arch syndrome

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    Shah, Payal J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ocular ischemic syndrome is a rare blinding condition generally caused by disease of the carotid artery. We describe a 69-year-old female with a 50 pack-year smoking history with aortic arch syndrome causing bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome. Methods: The patient presented with progressive visual loss and temple pain. Slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed bilateral iris neovascularization. This finding prompted a cardiovascular work up. Panretinal photocoagulation with retrobulbar block was performed in the right eye. Results: A temporal artery biopsy was negative. The carotid duplex sound showed only a 1–39% stenosis. MRA revealed a more proximal occlusion of the aortic branch for which she underwent subclavian carotid bypass surgery. At the one month follow up, the right eye suffered profound vision loss secondary to a central retinal artery occlusion. Conclusion: Ocular neovascularization may be one of the clinical manifestations of aortic arch syndrome. This case also illustrates the limitations of relying solely on carotid duplex ultrasound testing. We caution against overly aggressive panretinal photocoagulation utilizing retrobulbar anesthesia.

  19. Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Altun,1 Gulengul Altun,2 Osman Okan Olcaysu,3 Sevda Aydin Kurna,1 Suat Fazil Aki11Clinic of Ophthalmology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pediatrics, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Clinic of Ophthalmology, Erzurum Region Education and Research Hospital, Erzurum, TurkeyAbstract: A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye.Keywords: retina, artery, occlusion, fibromuscular, dysplasia

  20. Management of acute central retinal artery occlusion: Intravenous thrombolysis is feasible and safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préterre, Cécile; Godeneche, Gaelle; Vandamme, Xavier; Ronzière, Thomas; Lamy, Matthias; Breuilly, Christophe; Urbanczyk, Cédric; Wolff, Valérie; Lebranchu, Pierre; Sevin-Allouet, Mathieu; Guillon, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Background Although acute central retinal artery occlusion is as a stroke in the carotid territory (retinal artery), its management remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of intravenous thrombolysis delivered within 6 h of central retinal artery occlusion in French stroke units. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated with intravenous alteplase (recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator), based on stroke units thrombolysis registers from June 2005 to June 2015, and we selected those who had acute central retinal artery occlusion. The feasibility was assessed by the ratio of patients that had received intravenous alteplase within 6 h after central retinal artery occlusion onset among those who had been admitted to the same hospital for acute central retinal artery occlusion. All adverse events were documented. Results Thirty patients were included. Visual acuity before treatment was limited to "hand motion", or worse, in 90% of the cases. The mean onset-to-needle time was 273 min. The individuals treated with intravenous alteplase for central retinal artery occlusion represented 10.2% of all of the patients hospitalized for central retinal artery occlusion in 2013 and 2014. We observed one occurrence of major bleeding, a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Conclusion When applied early on, intravenous thrombolysis appears to be feasible and safe, provided that contraindications are given due consideration. Whether intravenous thrombolysis is more effective than conservative therapy remains to be determined. In order to conduct a well-designed prospective randomized control trial, an organized network should be in place.

  1. Ophthalmologists saving life of a young patient presenting with sudden simultaneous bilateral retinal artery occlusions secondary to calcific emboli of cardiac origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R Bhatnagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of a young 35-year-old previously healthy male with simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye and branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye with visible calcific emboli in both eyes from calcified mitral valve diagnosed on trans-esophageal echocardiography. Patient underwent an urgent life-saving mitral valve replacement surgery within 2 days as Ophthalmologists immediately referred him to Cardiologist moment they visualized calcific emboli in both eyes with bilateral retinal artery occlusions on fundoscopy. Bilateral retinal artery occlusions suggest a source of emboli at the level of the heart or aortic arch. All patients with retinal ischemia should have a complete cardiovascular evaluation supplemented by Transesophageal echocardiography. Many times an Ophthalmologist might be the physician of first contact for patients with cardiac diseases and awareness of the disease is therefore important for all Ophthalmologists. Timely referral and management by Cardiologist/cardiac surgeon may protect patient against serious life-threatening complications.

  2. Inferior mesenteric artery branch avulsion from blunt trauma--CT findings. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M; Posniak, H; Gomes, G

    1992-01-01

    Mesenteric arterial injuries are uncommon following blunt abdominal trauma. We describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of a patient with avulsion of a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery following a low-speed motor vehicle accident.

  3. Effectiveness of combined laser photocoagulation therapy with intravitreal anti -VEGF in Retinal arterial macroaneurysms: case report

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    Fernanda Pacella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinal arterial macroaneurysms (RAM is a pathological dilatation of retinal arterial vessel. Argon laser photocoagulation has been for a long time the gold standard of many vascular diseases of the retina such as macroaneurysm. From this work emerges how the introduction of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapies have enhanced the 'effectiveness of the combination of argon laser photocoagulation in cases of persistent retinal edema, we present the case of a retinal macroaneurysm with macular hemorrhage focus and oedema in a patient with a history of systemic arterial hypertension. Methods: A 77 year-old woman patient reported sudden decline in visual acuity in the left eye; the best corrected visual acuity (BCVAwas 1/10 in left eye. Fluorescein angiography (FAG resulted in diagnosis of Macroaneurysm at the posterior pole with macular hemorrhage focus and oedema. The patient was treated with laser treatment in the left eye; after 30 days, the visual acuity was 1/50 and at optical coherence tomography (OCT the retinal profile was significantly altered. After 30 days, a single intravitreal ranibizumab injection was performed and, after 7 days, visual acuity was 1/10. After 24 months from ranibizumab-based therapy the final visual acuity was 10/10 and OCT examination revealed a normal retinal profile. Conclusion: In this case report the association of argon laser photocoagulation with intravitreal anti-VEGF injection has been proven to be effective and safe in case of persistent retinal oedema.

  4. Automated characterization of blood vessels as arteries and veins in retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsharif, Qazaleh; Tajeripour, Farshad; Pourreza, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    In recent years researchers have found that alternations in arterial or venular tree of the retinal vasculature are associated with several public health problems such as diabetic retinopathy which is also the leading cause of blindness in the world. A prerequisite for automated assessment of subtle changes in arteries and veins, is to accurately separate those vessels from each other. This is a difficult task due to high similarity between arteries and veins in addition to variation of color and non-uniform illumination inter and intra retinal images. In this paper a novel structural and automated method is presented for artery/vein classification of blood vessels in retinal images. The proposed method consists of three main steps. In the first step, several image enhancement techniques are employed to improve the images. Then a specific feature extraction process is applied to separate major arteries from veins. Indeed, vessels are divided to smaller segments and feature extraction and vessel classification are applied to each small vessel segment instead of each vessel point. Finally, a post processing step is added to improve the results obtained from the previous step using structural characteristics of the retinal vascular network. In the last stage, vessel features at intersection and bifurcation points are processed for detection of arterial and venular sub trees. Ultimately vessel labels are revised by publishing the dominant label through each identified connected tree of arteries or veins. Evaluation of the proposed approach against two different datasets of retinal images including DRIVE database demonstrates the good performance and robustness of the method. The proposed method may be used for determination of arteriolar to venular diameter ratio in retinal images. Also the proposed method potentially allows for further investigation of labels of thinner arteries and veins which might be found by tracing them back to the major vessels.

  5. Correlation between penile cavernosal artery blood flow and retinal vascular findings in arteriogenic erectile dysfunction

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    Ahmed M Emarah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Emarah1, Shawky M El-Haggar2, Ihab A Osman2, Abdel Wahab S Khafagy21Departments of Ophthalmology, 2Andrology and Sexology, Cairo University Hospital, EgyptObjectives: Arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED is a target organ disease of atherosclerosis, and therefore might be a predictor of systemic atherosclerosis. Being systemic, it might be possible to evaluate the extent of atherosclerosis from retinal vascular findings. We investigated the possible correlation between penile cavernosal artery blood flow and retinal vascular findings in patients with arteriogenic ED.Patients and methods: Sixty patients with ED were divided according to the peak systolic velocity (PSV in their penile cavernosal arteries into two groups; Group A included 30 patients with PSV less than 25 cm/sec, and Group B included 30 patients with PSV more than 35 cm/sec. Blood flow in the penile cavernosal artery was measured with color Doppler ultrasonography. All patients were assessed by ocular fundus examination under amydriatic conditions to evaluate retinal vascular atherosclerotic changes using Hyman’s classification.Results: Evidence of retinal vascular atherosclerotic changes was found in 19 patients (63.3% in Group A and in 10 patients (33.3% in Group B.Conclusions: Our study confirms the possibility of predicting penile arterial vascular status in patients with ED from their retinal vascular findings by using amydriatic simple, practical funduscopy.Keywords: erectile dysfunction, atherosclerosis, retinal vascular atherosclerosis

  6. Computer-assisted 3D reconstruction of the terminal branches of the cerebral arteries. Pt. 1. Anterior cerebral artery

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    Gloger, S. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Gloger, A. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Vogt, H. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Kretschmann, H.J. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    We present a three-dimensional anatomical computer model of the terminal branches of the anterior cerebral artery, acquired from equidistant serial anatomical slices of three brains. The reconstructions provide a clear picture from all angles of the complicated course of the terminal branches of the cerebral arteries, which can help to identify them on conventional and magnetic resonance angiography. Our rendition of the cerebral arteries can also be matched with CT, MR or PET images to indicate the areas of extension of individual branches, allowing neuromorphological and functional correlation. (orig.)

  7. Computer-assisted 3D reconstruction of the terminal branches of th cerebral arteries. Pt. 2. Middle cerebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloger, S. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Gloger, A. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Vogt, H. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Kretschmann, H.J. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    We present a three-dimensional anatomical computer model of the terminal branches of the middle cerebral artery, acquired from equidistant serial anatomical slices of three brains. The reconstructions provide a clear picture from all angles of the complicated course of the terminal branches of the cerebral arteries, which can help to identify them on conventional angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. The arteries can also be matched with CT, MR or PET images to indicate the areas of extension of individual branches, allowing neuromorphological and functional correlations. (orig.)

  8. Visual prognosis and vitreous molecules after vitrectomy for macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Hidetaka Noma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hidetaka Noma1, Hideharu Funatsu1, Tatsuya Mimura2, Shuichiro Eguchi3, Katsunori Shimada41Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Yachiyo, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Eguchi Eye Hospital, Hakodate, Japan; 4Department of Hygiene and Public Health II, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: This study investigated whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF influence the visual prognosis of patients with macular edema and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. In 47 consecutive patients (47 eyes undergoing vitrectomy, retinal thickness was examined by optical coherence tomography. Best-corrected visual acuity and the vitreous fluid levels of VEGF, sICAM-1, and PEDF were also determined. Patients were followed for at least 6 months after surgery. Vitreous fluid levels of VEGF and sICAM-1 were significantly lower in the patients with more marked improvement of visual acuity after vitrectomy, while PEDF was significantly higher. VEGF and sICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with greater postoperative improvement of macular edema, while PEDF was significantly lower. In BRVO patients, vitreous fluid levels of VEGF, sICAM-1, and PEDF may influence both the response of macular edema to vitrectomy and the visual prognosis.Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, macular edema, vitrectomy, vascular endothelial growth factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, pigment epithelium-derived factor 

  9. Incidence and Clinical Features of Neovascularization of the Iris following Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Ho; Ahn, Seong Joon; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kyu Hyung; Han, Moon-Ku; Jung, Cheolkyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the incidence of neovascularization of the iris (NVI) and clinical features of patients with NVI following acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). Methods A retrospective review of 214 consecutive CRAO patients who visited one tertiary hospital between January 2009 and January 2015 was conducted. In total, 110 patients were eligible for this study after excluding patients with arteritic CRAO, a lack of follow-up, iatrogenic CRAO secondary to cosmetic filler injection, or NVI detected before CRAO attack. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was applied until retinal arterial reperfusion was achieved, typically within 1 to 3 months. Results The incidence of NVI was 10.9% (12 out of 110 patients). Neovascular glaucoma was found in seven patients (6.4%). The mean time to NVI diagnosis after CRAO events was 3.0 months (range, 1 week to 15 months). The cumulative incidence was 5.5% at 3 months, 7.3% at 6 months, and 10.9% at 15 months. Severely narrowed ipsilateral carotid arteries were observed in only three patients (27.3%). The other nine patients (75.0%) showed no predisposing conditions for NVI, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy or central retinal vein occlusion. Reperfusion rate and prevalence of diabetes were significantly different between patients with NVI and patients without NVI (reperfusion: 0% [NVI] vs. 94.7% [no NVI], p < 0.001; diabetes: 50.0% [NVI] vs. 17.3% [no NVI], p = 0.017). Conclusions CRAO may lead to NVI and neovascular glaucoma caused by chronic retinal ischemia from reperfusion failure. Our results indicate that follow-up fluorescein angiography is important to evaluate retinal artery reperfusion after acute CRAO events, and that prophylactic treatment such as panretinal photocoagulation should be considered if retinal arterial perfusion is not recovered. PMID:27729755

  10. UNILATERAL VARIATION IN THE BRANCHING PATTERN OF RIGHT AXILLARY ARTERY: A CASE REPORT

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    A.K.Manicka Vasuki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Axillary artery and its branches are prone to have variations in their course. Knowledge about such variations are important for Radiologists in imaging techniques, Surgeons,Orthopedicians and Anesthetists in performing surgeries in the axilla and giving regional nerve blocks in the axilla.During dissection of a cadaver in the department of Anatomy, PSG IMS &R, Coimbatore, We observed a variation in the third part of right Axillary artery. From the common trunk, Subscapular artery, Anterior and Posterior circumflex humeral arteries and Profunda brachii artery arose. Third part of Axillary artery continued down as brachial artery. We are highlighting the variation in this study.

  11. A simple model of oxygen diffusion out of the retinal artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J. M.; Ning, J.; Khoobehi, B.; Rice, D. A.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility that oxygen (O2) diffusion out of the retinal artery (RA) can explain the observed significant (Ptension (PO2). O2 flux across the arterial wall was calculated by Fick's law. The percentage of O2 diffusing out of the RA were 0.6% at IOP of 10 mmHg, and 38% at IOP of 55 mmHg. Confirmation still requires measurement of blood velocity.

  12. De novo appearance of a choroidal osteoma in an eye with previous branch retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi, Mehreen; Bryant, Juanita Sonya; Alwassia, Ahmad A; Chen, Carolyn; Duker, Jay S

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the de novo appearance of a choroidal osteoma occurring 8 years after laser photocoagulation for previous branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). A 62-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic yellowish orange lesion in the macula on fundus examination of his left eye during a regular follow-up visit for bilateral BRVO associated with macular edema that had previously been treated with laser photocoagulation. The lesion was observed for 1.5 years until a decrease in vision occurred. Fundus photography revealed a yellow-to-orange, well-defined lesion in the macular region. Fluorescein angiography was consistent with choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Optical coherence tomography and B-scan ultrasonography showed features consistent with choroidal osteoma. This is the first report of the de novo appearance of a choroidal osteoma occurring years after laser photocoagulation for BRVO. CNV developed secondary to the lesion, which was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab, leading to subjective and anatomic improvement.

  13. Bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections with retinal artery occlusion after a roller coaster ride - case report and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan Arat, Yonca; Volpi, John; Arat, Anıl; Klucznik, Richard; Diaz, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    We present the first case of a woman with no significant medical history who developed dissections of bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries, as well as a retinal artery occlusion, after a roller coaster ride. A 35-year-old woman developed right-sided neck pain followed by a frontal headache immediately after a roller coaster ride. Five days after the incident, she developed complete loss of vision in her right eye for two hours. Subsequently, the vision improved but remained significantly decreased. On presentation, her visual acuity was 20/200 in the right and 20/20 in the left eye. Her fundus exam revealed retinal edema in the superotemporal retinal artery distribution without any visible emboli. Her neurological exam was otherwise normal. The cerebral angiogram showed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. The patient remained stable with conservative therapy without further worsening of vision or any new neurological deficits. Outcomes for cervicocephalic arterial dissection are usually favorable, but early diagnosis is critical for initiation of appropriate treatment of possible complications. Physicians must have a high index of suspicion for arterial dissection when patients note any headache, neck pain or vertigo triggered by violent motion after leisure activities such as roller coaster rides.

  14. Artery and vein diameter ratio measurement based on improvement of arteries and veins segmentation on retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Tachiki, Hirokazu; Ogohara, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Okumura, Susumu; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Retinal arteriolar narrowing is decided based on the artery and vein diameter ratio (AVR). Previous methods segmented blood vessels and classified arteries and veins by color pixels in the centerlines of blood vessels. AVR was definitively determined through measurement of artery and vein diameters. However, this approach was not sufficient for cases with close contact between the artery of interest and an imposing vein. Here, an algorithm for AVR measurement via new classification of arteries and veins is proposed. In this algorithm, additional steps for an accurate segmentation of arteries and veins, which were not identified using the previous method, have been added to better identify major veins in the red channel of a color image. To identify major arteries, a decision tree with three features was used. As a result, all major veins and 90.9% of major arteries were correctly identified, and the absolute mean error in AVRs was 0.12. The proposed method will require further testing with a greater number of images of arteriolar narrowing before clinical application.

  15. Ischemia induced by coronary steal through a patent mammary artery side branch: a role for embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nuno; da Silva Castro, Alexandra; Pereira, Adriana; Silva, João Carlos; Almeida, Pedro Bernardo; Andrade, Aurora; Maciel, Maria Júlia; Pinto, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Non-occlusion of the internal mammary artery side branches may cause ischemia due to flow diversion after coronary artery bypass grafting. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with recurrent angina after undergoing myocardial revascularization with a left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending bypass. He presented with impaired anterior wall myocardial perfusion in the setting of a patent left internal mammary artery side branch. Effective percutaneous treatment was carried out through coil embolization, with improved flow and clinical symptoms, confirmed through ischemia testing. Coronary steal through a patent mammary artery side branch is a controversial phenomenon and this type of intervention should be considered only in carefully selected patients.

  16. Intravitreal Triamcinolone for Acute Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: a Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Alireza Ramezani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of intravitreal triamcinolone (IVT injection for recent branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 30 phakic eyes with recent (less than 10 weeks′ duration BRVO were assigned to two groups. The treatment group (16 eyes received 4 mg IVT and the control group (14 eyes received subconjunctival sham injections. Changes in visual acuity (VA were the main outcome measure. Results: VA and central macular thickness (CMT changes were not significantly different between the study groups at any time point. Within group analysis showed significant VA improvement from baseline in the IVT group up to three months (P 0.05. Significant reduction in CMT was noticed only in the treatment group (‑172 ± 202 μm, P = 0.029 and at 4 months. Ocular hypertension occurred in 4 (25% and 2 (14.3% eyes in the IVT and control groups, respectively. Conclusion: A single IVT injection had a non-significant beneficial effect on VA and CMT in acute BRVO as compared to the natural history of the condition. The 3-month deferred treatment protocol advocated by the Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group may be a safer option than IVT injection considering its potential side effects.

  17. A modified technique for iliac artery branched endografting using a "tromboned" sheath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielliu, Ignace F. J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G.

    2008-01-01

    The iliac branched device (IBD) is the only totally endovascular option to preserve flow to the internal iliac artery for the treatment of aorto-iliac or solitary iliac artery aneurysms. This technique involves the use of two parallel guide wires, including the indwelling through-and-through wire an

  18. Surgical treatment of an aneurysm of a distal branch of the renal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Solafah; Pierret, Charles; Ba, Bakar; Mlynski, Amélie; de Kerangal, Xavier; Houlgatte, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysms of the renal artery and its branches are rare, but are associated with significant morbimortality due to the absence of clinical symptoms and hemorrhagic risk in the event of rupture. We report the case of a patient with an aneurysm of a distal branch of the right renal artery that measured 25 mm in diameter. The diagnosis and localization were obtained using selective arteriography. Treatment consisted of resection of the aneurysmal sac associated with closure with a saphenous vein patch rather than an endovascular treatment in order to preserve the nephronic capital. Right renal parenchymatous vascularization was satisfactory on arterial echo-Doppler and angioscanner assessment at 1 year.

  19. Long-Term Follow-Up of Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm: A Case Report

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    Shani Golan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the long-term effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin® therapy in a patient suffering from retinal arterial macroaneurysm. Methods: Case report of a 72-year-old female diagnosed with retinal macroaneurysm in the superior temporal artery leading to macular edema. Functional and morphological data at baseline, 4 weeks, 2 months, and 13 months following treatment with two consecutive intravitreal bevacizumab injections are presented. Results: Best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/160 at baseline to 20/20 at the3-months follow-up and remained stable through 13 months of follow-up. Central retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography decreased from 364 µm at baseline to 248 µm at the 13-months follow-up. No ocular or systemic side effects were detected. Conclusions: Intravitreal bevacizumab therapy may lead to resolution of macular edema associated with retinal macroaneurysm and consequently visual improvement. This treatment may promise a long-lasting effect but warrant further investigation in larger series.

  20. Central retinal artery resistive index and optical coherence tomography in assessment of glaucoma progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed; F.Abdel; Ghany; Samer; M.Botros; Tamer; M.El-Raggal

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relation between central retinal artery(CRA) resistive index(RI) and retinal nerve fiber thickness measured by optical coherence tomography(OCT) in assessment of disease progress in cases of open angle glaucoma.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with diagnosed open angle glaucoma were included in this study. They were examined by colored duplex ultrasonography of CRA with estimation of RI of CRA and ophthalmic artery(OA)with estimation of CRA/OA RI ratio as well as OCT measurement of the average retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness in order to assess the disease progress.RESULTS: There was strong inverse relation between the increased RI in CRA as well as the increased CRA/OA RI ratio and the decrease in average RNFL thickness in cases of open angle glaucoma.CONCLUSION: Assessment of CRA RI can indirectly assess the vascular changes associated with glaucoma and can assess the degree of retinal atrophy helping in evaluating prognosis thus guiding the choice of treatment.

  1. Case Report: Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis Due to Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

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    Ender Sener

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this case, it was reported that a 48 year old male patient with spontaneous central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO due to calcific aortic valve stenosis. He had no other systemic disease. CRAO usually occurs in elder patients with systemic risk factors. CRAO results in sudden, painless and severe vision loss. Altough, CRAO is seen rarely under 50 year old, it may appear in younger patient with aortic valve disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis caused cardiac disease.

  2. Clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy in monkeys with experimental glaucoma and temporary central retinal artery occlusion

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    Jost B Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy. Materials and Methods: The study included 16 eyes of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta - 4 eyes with experimental glaucoma, 11 eyes after experimental temporary occlusion of the central retinal artery, and 1 normal eye. On histological sections, we measured zones with different histological characteristics.On fundus photographs, alpha zone and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy were measured and correlated with the histological data. Results: The size of the clinical alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy was significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium (P = 0.05; correlation coefficient r = 0.49 and with the size of the histological region with a decreased density of retinal photoreceptors (P = 0.01; r = 0.60. The size of clinical beta zone of parapapillary atrophy significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (P <0.001; r = 0.91, with the size of the histological zone with a complete loss of photoreceptors (P <0.001; r = 0.81, and with the size of the histological zone with a closed choriocapillaris (P <0.001; r = 0.89. Conclusions: The clinically seen alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological parapapillary irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium and decreased density of retinal photoreceptors. The clinically seen beta zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium and of the photoreceptors, and a closure of the choriocapillaris.

  3. Method of Quantifying Size of Retinal Hemorrhages in Eyes with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Using 14-Square Grid: Interrater and Intrarater Reliability

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    Yuko Takashima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a method of quantifying the size of the retinal hemorrhages in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO and to determine the interrater and intrarater reliabilities of these measurements. Methods. Thirty-five fundus photographs from 35 consecutive eyes with BRVO were studied. The fundus images were analyzed with Power-Point® software, and a grid of 14 squares was laid over the fundus image. Raters were asked to judge the percentage of each of the 14 squares that was covered by the hemorrhages, and the average of the 14 squares was taken to be the relative size of the retinal hemorrhage. Results. Interrater reliability between three raters was higher when a grid with 14 squares was used (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, 0.96 than that when a box with no grid was used (ICC, 0.78. Intrarater reliability, which was calculated by the retinal hemorrhage area measured on two different days, was also higher (ICC, 0.97 than that with no grid (ICC, 0.86. Interrater reliability for five fundus pictures with poor image quality was also good when a grid with 14 squares was used (ICC, 0.88. Conclusions. Although our method is subjective, excellent interrater and intrarater reliabilities indicate that this method can be adapted for clinical use.

  4. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusions Combined with Artery Occlusions in A Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wen; Xuemei Chen; Haitai Li; Ruiduan Liao; Dezheng Wu

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This is the first report of a bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusionscombined with artery occlusions in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS). Methods: Case report. Results: A 22-year-old Chinese(male) with a positive human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection developed bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusions combinedwith artery occlusions and severe vision loss. The manifestations of the fundus andfluorescein angiography were similar in both eyes.Conclusion: This case report provides the evidences that central retinal vein and arteryocclusions are probably part of the spectrum of AIDS vascular diseases.

  5. Early retinal inflammatory biomarkers in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzel, Rodney M.; Pan, Sarah J.; Verma, Rajkumar; Wizeman, John; Crapser, Joshua; Patel, Anita R.; Lieberman, Richard; Mohan, Royce

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke is one of the most commonly used models to study focal cerebral ischemia. This procedure also results in the simultaneous occlusion of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the retina. Retinal cell death is seen days after reperfusion and leads to functional deficits; however, the mechanism responsible for this injury has not been investigated. Given that the eye may have a unique ocular immune response to an ischemic challenge, this study examined the inflammatory response to retinal ischemia in the MCAO model. Methods Young male C57B/6 mice were subjected to 90-min transient MCAO and were euthanized at several time points up to 7 days. Transcription of inflammatory cytokines was measured with quantitative real-time PCR, and immune cell activation (e.g., phagocytosis) and migration were assessed with ophthalmoscopy and flow cytometry. Results Observation of the affected eye revealed symptoms consistent with Horner’s syndrome. Light ophthalmoscopy confirmed the reduced blood flow of the retinal arteries during occlusion. CX3CR1-GFP reporter mice were then employed to evaluate the extent of the ocular microglia and monocyte activation. A significant increase in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive macrophages was seen throughout the ischemic area compared to the sham and contralateral control eyes. RT–PCR revealed enhanced expression of the monocyte chemotactic molecule CCL2 early after reperfusion followed by a delayed increase in the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Further analysis of peripheral leukocyte recruitment by flow cytometry determined that monocytes and neutrophils were the predominant immune cells to infiltrate at 72 h. A transient reduction in retinal microglia numbers was also observed, demonstrating the ischemic sensitivity of these cells. Blood–eye barrier permeability to small and large tracer molecules was increased by 72 h. Retinal microglia exhibited enhanced

  6. Experimental Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Induces Upstream Pericyte Loss and Vascular Destabilization.

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    Elisa Dominguez

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO leads to extensive vascular remodeling and is important cause of visual impairment. Although the vascular morphological changes following experimental vein occlusion have been described in a variety of models using angiography, the underlying cellular events are ill defined.We here show that laser-induced experimental BRVO in mice leads to a wave of TUNEL-positive endothelial cell (EC apoptosis in the upstream vascular network associated with a transient edema and hemorrhages. Subsequently, we observe an induction of EC proliferation within the dilated vein and capillaries, detected by EdU incorporation, and the edema resolves. However, the pericytes of the upstream capillaries are severely reduced, which was associated with continuing EC apoptosis and proliferation. The vascular remodeling was associated with increased expression of TGFβ, TSP-1, but also FGF2 expression. Exposure of the experimental animals to hypoxia, when pericyte (PC dropout had occurred, led to a dramatic increase in endothelial cell proliferation, confirming the vascular instability induced by the experimental BRVO.Experimental BRVO leads to acute endothelial cells apoptosis and increased permeability. Subsequently the upstream vascular network remains destabilized, characterized by pericyte dropout, un-physiologically high endothelial cells turnover and sensitivity to hypoxia. These early changes might pave the way for capillary loss and subsequent chronic ischemia and edema that characterize the late stage disease.

  7. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  8. Central retinal artery occlusion with concomitant ipsilateral cerebral infarction after cosmetic facial injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Ahn, Seong Joon; Woo, Se Joon; Jung, Cheolkyu; Chang, Jun Young; Chung, Jin-Heon; Han, Moon-Ku

    2014-11-15

    We report 2 cases of central retinal artery occlusion with concomitant ipsilateral cerebral infarction after cosmetic facial injections and a literature review. The 2 patients were two healthy women, in which cosmetic facial injections with autologous fat and filler were performed, respectively. The patients had no light perception at the final visit and their conditions led to memory retrieval disturbance in case 1 and right arm weakness, dysarthria, facial palsy, and ophthalmoplegia in case 2. Neuroimaging showed multifocal small infarctions in the ipsilateral frontal lobe with occlusion of the ophthalmic artery in case 1 and multiple infarctions in the ipsilateral anterior and middle cerebral artery territories with subsequent hemorrhagic transformation in case 2. Poor visual prognosis and neurological complications can occur in healthy adults undergoing cosmetic facial injection, and all patients should be informed of this risk before the procedure.

  9. Acute bilateral cerebellar infarction in the territory of the medial branches of posterior inferior cerebellar arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurer, G; Sahin, G; Cekirge, S; Tan, E; Saribas, O

    2001-10-01

    The most frequent type of cerebellar infarcts involved the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and superior cerebellar artery territories but bilateral involvement of lateral or medial branches of PICA is extremely rare. In this report, we present a 55-year-old male who admitted to hospital with vomiting, nausea and dizziness. On examination left-sided hemiparesia and ataxic gait were detected. Infarct on bilateral medial branch of PICA artery territories was found out with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique and 99% stenosis of the left vertebral artery was found out with digital subtraction arteriography. The patient was put on heparin treatment. After 3 weeks, his complaints and symptoms had disappeared except for mild gait ataxia.

  10. Sequential bilateral central retinal artery occlusion as the primary manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xuan; ZHUANG Yan; DONG Fang-tian; ZHANG Fan; CHEN You-xin

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) has been rarely reported as the primary manifestation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).The severe retinal vaso-occlusive diseases usually cause devastating and permanent damage to visual function in spite of vigorous treatment.A 42-year-old Chinese woman presented with abrupt bilateral vision loss.The diagnosis of bilateral CRAO was suggested by the ocular presentation and fluorescein angiography.Laboratory studies showed positive results of antinuclear antibody,anti-Ro/SSA anti-La/SSB; decreased levels of C3,C4 complement and normal levels of antiphospholipides antibodies (APAs).Her visual acuity deteriorated despite systemic steroid and immunosuppressant treatment.Severe vaso-occlusive retinopathy may be an earlier manifestation of SLE without elevated level of APAs.

  11. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion in a Patient with Metabolic Syndrome X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Predrag Cekić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in a patient with metabolic syndrome X. Case Report: A 64 year-old-man presented with abrupt, painless, and severe loss of vision in his left eye. Indirect ophthalmoscopy disclosed signs compatible with CRAO and laboratory investigations revealed erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 74 mm/h, C-reactive protein (CRP level of 21 mg/l, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Fluorescein angiography and immunological studies excluded other systemic disorders. The patient met the full criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program for metabolic syndrome X. Conclusion: In addition to different vascular complications such as stroke, and cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome X may be associated with retinal vascular occlusions.

  12. (Editor GUO Jian-xiu)Application of interventional diagnostic and therapeutic technique for coronary artery fine branch fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Yue-yong; ZOU Li-guang; HUANG Lan; WANG Wen-xian; SUN Qing-rong; XIAO Ying-bin

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value of angiographic diagnosis and interventional therapy of the coronary artery fine branch fistula.Methods:All of the 18 patients with coronary artery fine branch fistula underwent selective coronary arteriography,7 underwent interventional therapy, while 8 underwent prosthesis for coronary artery fistula (CAF) under extracorpored circulation. Results:Among 18 cases of coronary artery fine branch fistula, 7 happened in right coronary artery (38.9%), 11 in left coronary artery (61.1%). Among the 11 cases in left coronary artery,5 happened in descending anterior branch, 5 occurred in left circumflex branch, 1 arised from both left anterior branch and left circumflex branch. Among the 18 cases, there are 10 cases of coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula (55.6%), 5 cases of fistula draining into right atrium (27.8%), 2 cases of fistula draining into left atrium (11.1%) and 1 draining into right ventricle (5.6%). Interventional treatment was successful in 7 patients. During the 12 months' follow-up, there was no cardiovascular events. Conclusion:Selective coronary angiography is the first choice for diagnosing the coronary artery fine branch fistula. In respect of therapy, besides of surgical treatment, intervention is still a rather good measure presently.

  13. Computer-assisted 3D reconstruction of the terminal branches of the cerebral arteries. Pt. 3. Posterior cerebral artery and circle of Willis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloger, S. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Gloger, A. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Vogt, H. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Kretschmann, H.J. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany))

    1994-05-01

    We present a three-dimensional anatomical computer model of the terminal branches of the posterior cerebral artery and circle of Willis, acquired from equidistant serial anatomical slices of three brains. The reconstructions provide a clear picture from all angles of the complicated course of the terminal branches of the cerebral arteries. This can help to identify the arteries in conventional and magnetic resonance angiography. Our rendition of the cerebral arteries can be matched with CT, MR and PET images to indicate the areas of extension of the individual branches, allowing neuromorphological and functional correlations. (orig.)

  14. Central retinal artery occlusion in the 9 years old girl (Clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Markova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 9 years old girl was admitted to the Ophthalmological Department of Morozov Pediatric City Clinical Hospital with sudden persistent painless loss of vision of the left eye. Other organs and systems were without any changes. After ophthalmological examination (OS — white edema of central and peripapillar retina, a cherry red spot at the fovea the diagnosis of central retinal artery occlusion OS was formed, and treatment was started immediately. CRAO practically does not occur in pediatric ophthalmological practice. Therefore this clinical case can be of interest to clinicians and pediatric ophthalmologists.

  15. Branch facial nerve trauma after superficial temporal artery biopsy: a case report

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    Rison Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Giant cell arteritis is an emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Superficial temporal artery biopsy is the gold diagnostic standard. Complications are few and infrequent; however, facial nerve injury has been reported, leaving an untoward cosmetic outcome. This case report is to the best of our knowledge only the fourth one presented in the available literature so far regarding facial nerve injury from superficial temporal artery biopsy. Case presentation A 73-year-old Caucasian woman presented for neurological evaluation regarding eyebrow and facial asymmetry after a superficial temporal artery biopsy for presumptive giant cell arteritis-induced cephalalgia. Conclusion Damage to branches of the facial nerve may occur after superficial temporal artery biopsy, resulting in eyebrow droop. Although an uncommon and sparsely reported complication, all clinicians of various specialties involved in the care of these patients should be aware of this given the gravity of giant cell arteritis and the widespread use of temporal artery biopsy.

  16. Placement of Endovascular Stent across the Branching Arteries: Long-term Serial Evaluation of Stent-tissue Responses Overlying the Arterial Orifices in an Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Il; Chung, Jin Wook, E-mail: chungjw@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Beom [National Cancer Center of Korea, Department of Radiology and Center for Liver Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jeong Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Whal [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to investigate the effects of stenting across the branching arteries on the patency and stent-tissue responses over the branching arterial orifices. Methods: Thirteen dogs were observed after placing aortic stents across the celiac arteries (CA), superior mesenteric arteries (SMA), and renal arteries (RA). The animals were grouped according to stent types: large-cell group (n = 6) and small-cell group (n = 7). Angiography was performed to evaluate the branching artery patency at 2, 6, and 12 months after stent insertion, and the stent-tissue responses covering the orifices were evaluated on histopathologic examination. Results: All branching arteries were patent on follow-up angiography; however, three patterns of stent-tissue responses over the orifices were observed: neointimal layering, bridging septa, and papillary hyperplasia. Although neointimal layering and bridging septa were evenly observed, severe papillary hyperplasia was more frequent at SMA and CA than RA. Four RA showed less than 50% ostial patency, and localized infarct was observed in six kidneys (24%). The ostial patency tended to decrease with small-cell stent during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Various stent-tissue responses over the branching artery orifices are induced by the aortic stent covering the branching arteries and may not be easily detected by conventional angiography. Subclinical renal infarct also may occur despite patent renal angiography.

  17. STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION OF SUBSCAPULAR ARTERY BRANCHES IN MALES AND FEMALES

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    Sreenivasulu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: the subscapular arterial tree may be used as a source of microvascular grafts to replace damaged or diseased portions of arteries, particularly in the hand and forearm. The use of muscle patches, myocutaneous, osteomuscular and even muscle fascia in reconstructive surgery of the head, neck and limbs is becoming increasingly frequent. The muscles of the scapular and axillary regions, mainly the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi, are among those most commonly used in reparative surgery. The current importance of knowledge of blood supply to the muscles of the scapular region and the controversies that persist in the literature were the reasons for our study of the subscapular artery focusing on new objectives which has not yet been dealt with thoroughly in the existing literature. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : The motive for this research was the use of the muscles of the scapular region in transposition, transplantation and reparative surgery and the need for more detailed knowledge of the blood supply to these muscles. The development of reparative surgery has demanded more detailed anatomical knowledge of the blood supply and innervation of muscles in general and of those with more significant surgical application in particular. Anatomy textbooks do not describe these structures with the necessary depth, either because they were designed at a time when this type of surgery was only in its early stages, or because descriptions of the structures mentioned above were not their main objective. It is our sincere hope that this study proves useful for surgeons specializing in reparative surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS : We have studied the axillary artery and its branches in 30 cadavers, of both sexes, aged 26 to 70 years, through routine dissection on the axillary regions on both sides. RESULTS : Our research showed collateral branches to the following muscles: serratus anterior (54% in males, 30 % in females, teres major (26% in

  18. Duplex Color Doppler Evaluation of Retinal Arterial Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects without Retinopathy

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    Mashah Binte Amin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a vascular disorder affecting the microvasculature of retina. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of retina. If untreated, it may lead to blindness which is usually preventable if retinopathy is diagnosed early and treated promptly. In ophthalmology, color Doppler imaging is a new method that enables us to assess the orbital vasculature. It allows for simultaneous two dimensional anatomical and Doppler evaluations of hemodynamic characteristics of retinal artery. Objective: To observe the difference between Doppler flow velocity indices (peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity and resistive index of retinal artery in type 2 diabetic subjects without retinopathy and those of normal controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was carried out in the department of Radiology and Imaging, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM in collaboration with Ophthalmology Outpatient Department, BIRDEM, Dhaka from July 2011 to June 2013. Eighty diabetic patients without retinopathy aged 27–68 years were enrolled as cases and age and sex matched 80 healthy subjects were selected as controls. Type 1 diabetic patients, type 2 diabetics with retinopathy, hypertensive and dyslipidemic subjects were excluded from the study. All the selected subjects underwent duplex Doppler ultrasonography of both eyes using 5 to 7.5 MHZ linear phase transducer. Duplex color Doppler findings including spectral analysis (PSV, EDV and RI were recorded. Unpaired t test was done to compare blood flow velocity indices of retinal artery in type 2 diabetic patients without retinopathy and that of healthy control subjects. p value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Majority (42.5% and 47.5% of subjects were in 4th decade of life in both groups with predominance of males. The mean duration of diabetes was 4.56 ± 2.1 years. Mean peak systolic

  19. Aortic Branch Artery Pseudoaneurysms Associated with Intramural Hematoma: When and How to Do Endovascular Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G., E-mail: urossi76@hotmail.com; Seitun, Sara [IRCCS San Martino University Hospital, IST, National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Scarano, Flavio; Passerone, Giancarlo [IRCCS San Martino University Hospital, IST, National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Cardiac Surgery (Italy); Williams, David M. [University of Michigan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15

    To describe when and how to perform endovascular embolization of aortic branch artery pseudoaneurysms associated with type A and type B intramural hematoma (IMH) involving the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta (DeBakey I and III) that increased significantly in size during follow-up. Sixty-one patients (39 men; mean {+-} standard deviation age 66.1 {+-} 11.2 years) with acute IMH undergoing at least two multidetector computed tomographic examinations during follow-up for 12 months or longer were enrolled. Overall, 48 patients (31 men, age 65.9 {+-} 11.5) had type A and type B IMH involving the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta (DeBakey I and III). Among the 48 patients, 26 (54 %; 17 men, aged 64.3 {+-} 11.4 years) had 71 aortic branch artery pseudoaneurysms. Overall, during a mean follow-up of 22.1 {+-} 9.5 months (range 12-42 months), 31 (44 %) pseudoaneurysms disappeared; 22 (31 %) decreased in size; two (3 %) remained stable; and 16 (22 %) increased in size. Among the 16 pseudoaneurysms with increasing size, five of these (three intercostal arteries, one combined intercostobronchial/intercostal arteries, one renal artery), present in five symptomatic patients, had a significant increase in size (thickness >10 mm; width and length >20 mm). These five patients underwent endovascular embolization with coils and/or Amplatzer Vascular Plug. In all patients, complete thrombosis and exclusion of aortic pseudoaneurysm and relief of back pain were achieved. Aortic branch artery pseudoaneurysms associated with type A and type B IMH involving the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta (DeBakey I and III) may be considered relatively benign lesions. However, a small number may grow in size or extend longitudinally with clinical symptoms during follow-up, and in these cases, endovascular embolization can be an effective and safe procedure.

  20. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation in a single artery branch: A preliminary experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massimo; Chessa; Gianfranco; Butera; Luca; Giugno; Angelo; Micheletti; Diana; G; Negura; Mario; Carminati

    2015-01-01

    To describe preliminary experience of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, in a single pulmonary branch position. Two procedures in 2 patients from a single center are described, where implantation of percutaneous valves within a single pulmonary artery branch was technically successful. The procedural indication was pulmonary valve regurgitation and/or residual stenosis. The 2 patients were symptomatic. An Edwards Sapien? valve(Patient 1), and a Medtronic Melody? valve(Patient 2) were implanted. Both pts were discharged with an excellent valve function. In this report it is underlined that this modality is technically feasible and may be considered an option in patients with congenital heart defect under special circumstances.

  1. A REPORT OF CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION (CRAO , IN YOUNG MALES IN ITS INITIAL MANIFESTATION, AS PRIMAR Y ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME

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    Rani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: To report a case of Central Retinal Artery Occlusi on (CRAO in young males in its initial manifestation as Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome. METHODS: 32 year healthy male, with abrupt sudden painless loss of vision in r ight eye since 48 hours, with Grade 2 Relative afferent pupillary defect, visual acuity of hand movements in OD and 6/18 in OS. Fundoscopy disclosed signs compatible of central reti nal artery occlusion confirmed with FFA. Carotid Doppler imaging and echocardiography was done to determine the source. RESULTS: Antiphospholipid antibody cofactor, beta2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies, IgM, was positive with titre of more than 94 un its/ml on two occasions, 1 2 weeks apart, with normal range being less than 20 units/ml for each isotope (IgG, IgM, or IgA .According to the 2006 revised Sapporo criteria Antiphospholipid syndrome was diagnosed. Thor ough examination excluded other system involvement. Immunological studies excluded other systemic disorders. CONCLUSIONS: In literature, prevalence of CRAO is 0.85% for every 100000 and prevalence of Antiphospholipid Syndrome in patients showing a major retinal vascula r obstruction is 5% - 33%. Antiphospholipid syndrome should be ruled out in every young patient who presents with Central retinal artery occlusion. Association must be considered, as Central retinal artery occlusion could be the initial manifestation of ant iphospholipid syndrome with high risk of recurrence.

  2. Retinal arterial but not venous tortuosity correlates with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Longmuir, Susannah Q.; Mathews, Katherine D.; Longmuir, Reid A.; Joshi, Vinayak; Olson, Richard J.; Abramoff, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal-dominant disease beginning with facial and shoulder girdle weakness with variable progression. Exudative retinal detachment, retinal vessel irregularities on fluorescein angiography, and retinal vessel tortuosity have been foun

  3. Ultrasonic evaluation of central retinal artery hemodynamics in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and the correlation with disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Xia Liu; Jing-Mian Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation between central retinal artery hemodynamic characteristics in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and endothelial injury molecules as well as trophoblast cell apoptosis molecules.Methods: 45 healthy pregnant women, 37 patients with gestational hypertension and 24 patients with preeclampsia who gave birth in Obstetrics Department of our hospital between May 2013 and December 2015 were selected and included in the control group, GH group and PE group respectively. Central retinal artery ultrasonography was done to determine peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index (RI), serum was collected to determine interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17, IL-24, chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and cartilage glycoprotein 40 (YKL40) content, and placenta tissue was collected to determine Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression.Results: Central retinal artery PSV and EDV as well as XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression in placenta of GH group and PE group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05) while central retinal artery RI, serum IL-6, IL-17, IL-24, CXCL10 and YKL40 content as well as Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in placenta were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). Central retinal artery PSV and EDV as well as XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression in placenta of PE group were significantly lower than those of GH group (P<0.05) while central retinal artery RI, serum IL-6, IL-17, IL-24, CXCL10 and YKL40 content as well as Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in placenta were significantly higher than those of GH group (P<0.05). Serum IL-6, IL-17, IL-24, CXCL10 and YKL40 content as well as Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in placenta were negatively correlated with PSV and EDV, and positively correlated with RI; XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression in placenta were positively

  4. Five-year outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Nishida A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Akihiro Nishida,1,2 Hiroshi Kojima,1,2 Takanori Kameda,1,2 Michiko Mandai,1,3 Yasuo Kurimoto1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 3Laboratory for Retinal Regeneration, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan Purpose: Long-term outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV for macular edema (ME associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO have been previously reported, but the studies did not report the number of additional treatments after surgery. During 5 years of follow-up, we therefore investigated the efficacy and safety of PPV for BRVO and evaluated the incidence of additional treatments. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 25 eyes of 24 patients who underwent PPV for ME associated with BRVO and were followed up for at least 5 years. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured, and foveal thickness was assessed by optical coherence tomography. Additional treatments were also investigated. Results: The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR improved from 0.53±0.23 at baseline to 0.16±0.25 at 5 years (P<0.0001. The foveal thickness decreased from 535±222 µm at baseline to 205±143 µm at 5 years (P<0.0001. For the eyes with residual ME, the following additional treatments were performed within 5 years of follow-up: sub-Tenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide in two eyes, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in three eyes, grid laser photocoagulation in one eye, and direct photocoagulation of macroaneurysm in one eye. Additional surgeries were performed in two eyes: for one eye, phacoemulsification extraction of the ocular lens and intraocular lens implantation were performed because of cataract progression, and for the other eye, additional PPV was done for postoperative retinal detachment. Conclusion: PPV was effective for resolution of ME

  5. Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion secondary to systemic non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma

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    Shukla Dhananjay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of low-grade systemic B-cell non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL causing central retinal artery and vein occlusion, which was the only manifestation of disease recurrence. A young man with resolved systemic NHL underwent fluorescein angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography to investigate a severe unilateral visual loss. A combined vascular occlusion was observed in the right eye. Neuroimaging detected optic nerve infiltration; but no systemic/ central nervous system involvement was observed. The patient was treated with high-doses of corticosteroids and optic nerve irradiation. The optic neuropathy and vascular occlusion were resistant to treatment. The subsequent neovascular glaucoma was treated by panretinal photocoagulation, which relieved the pain, but vision was not recovered. No further recurrence was observed over the following year.

  6. Relationship between Retinal Vascular Caliber and Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

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    Marmor Alon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular caliber and cardiovascular disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD patients without diabetes and hypertension. Methods: Intention to treat study of individuals who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT during a two year period. Coronary artery disease (CAD was defined as stenosis of >50% in at least one major coronary artery. Liver and spleen density were measured by abdominal (CT; intima-media thickness (IMT by Doppler ultrasound; retinal artery and vein diameter by colored-retinal angiography; and metabolic syndrome by ATP III guidelines. Serum biomarkers of insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidant-antioxidant status were assessed. Results: Compared with 22 gender and age matched controls, the 29 NAFLD patients showed higher prevalence of coronary plaques (70% vs. 30%, p < 0.001, higher prevalence of coronary stenosis (30% vs. 15%, p < 0.001, lower retinal arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR (0.66 ± 0.06 vs. 0.71 ± 0.02, p < 0.01, higher IMT (0.98 ± 0.3 vs. 0.83 ± 0.1, p < 0.04, higher carotid plaques (60% vs. 40%, p < 0.001, higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA (4.0 ± 3.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0, p < 0.005, and higher triglyceride levels (200 ± 80 vs. 150 ± 60, p < 0.005 than controls. Multivariate analysis showed fatty liver (OR 2.5; p < 0.01, IMT (OR 2.3 p < 0.001, and retinal AVR ratio (OR 1.5, p < 0.01 to be strongly associated with CAD independent of metabolic syndrome (OR 1.2, p < 0.05. Conclusions: Patients with smaller retinal AVR (<0.7 are likely to be at increased risk for CAD and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD even without hypertension or diabetes.

  7. Branch retinal vein thrombosis and visual loss probably associated with pegylated interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciana Lofego Gon(c)alves; Alberto Queiroz Farias; Patrícia Lofego Gon(c)alves; Elbio Antonio D'Amico; Flair José Carrilho

    2006-01-01

    Ophthalmological complications with interferon therapy are usually mild and reversible, not requiring the withdrawal of the treatment. We report a case of a patient who had visual loss probably associated with interferon therapy. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection (genotype 1a) was diagnosed in a 33-year old asymptomatic man. His past medical history was unremarkable and previous routine ophthalmologic check-up was normal. Pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin were started. Three weeks later he reported painless reduction of vision. Ophthalmologic examination showed extensive intraretinal hemorrhages and cottonwool spots, associated with inferior branch retinal vein thrombosis. Antiviral therapy was immediately discontinued, but one year later he persists with severely decreased visual acuity. This case illustrates the possibility of unlredictable and severe complications during pegylated interferon therapy.

  8. Automatic Vessel Segmentation on Retinal Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yuan Yu; Chia-Jen Chang; Yen-Ju Yao; Shyr-Shen Yu

    2014-01-01

    Several features of retinal vessels can be used to monitor the progression of diseases. Changes in vascular structures, for example, vessel caliber, branching angle, and tortuosity, are portents of many diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and arterial hyper-tension. This paper proposes an automatic retinal vessel segmentation method based on morphological closing and multi-scale line detection. First, an illumination correction is performed on the green band retinal image. Next, the morphological closing and subtraction processing are applied to obtain the crude retinal vessel image. Then, the multi-scale line detection is used to fine the vessel image. Finally, the binary vasculature is extracted by the Otsu algorithm. In this paper, for improving the drawbacks of multi-scale line detection, only the line detectors at 4 scales are used. The experimental results show that the accuracy is 0.939 for DRIVE (digital retinal images for vessel extraction) retinal database, which is much better than other methods.

  9. Effects of Vitrectomy on Recurrent Macular Edema due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab

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    Tatsuya Yunoki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effects of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV on recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 eyes of 22 patients who underwent single or multiple IVB injections for macular edema due to BRVO and showed a recurrence of macular edema. All patients then underwent PPV and were followed up for more than 6 months after the surgery with examinations of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT. OCT parameters were central macular thickness (CMT and average retinal thickness in a 1-mm-diameter circular region at the fovea (MRT. Results. Mean BCVA, CRT, and MRT were significantly improved from the baseline after PPV. Greater improvement of BCVA, CRT, and MRT was obtained after 1 month of IVB than after 6 months of PPV. No eyes showed worsening of macular edema after the surgery. Conclusion. PPV improved BCVA and recurrent macular edema due to BRVO, but PPV that was less effective than IVB had been in the same patients. PPV may be one of the treatment options for recurrent macular edema due to BRVO after IVB.

  10. Long-Term Management of Complications of Retinal Artery Macroaneurysms with Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the 1-year follow-up results of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) for the management of complications of retinal artery macroaneurysms (RAM). Methods A retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series of 4 eyes of 4 patients (all female, aged 68–91 years, 3 treatment naive) treated with IAI 2 mg for complications of RAM [macular edema (ME) 2, submacular hemorrhage (SMH) 1, and vitreous hemorrhage (VH) 1] was conducted. Baseline parameters consisted of complete ocular examination, medical history, best-corrected Snellen VA, fundus photography, IVFA and SD OCT, unless precluded by VH (1). All patients completed ≥1 year follow-up. Results Baseline VA was hand motions in the eye with SMH (31 mm2 area and 1,478 μm thickness); 20/40 and 20/100 with ME (CST 390 and 337 μm, respectively), and 20/200 in the eye with VH. At 1 month, both patients with ME showed resolution of ME with CST Thrombosis of RAM was noted in all eyes and hairpin-like remodeling of artery in one. No eye required repeat injection or laser. Conclusion ME and VH from RAM were effectively treated with IAI. However, the eye with thick SMH had poor visual outcome despite thrombosis of RAM. Single IAI provided effective therapy for complications of RAM with excellent anatomical and visual results in each eye, except one with thick SMH, and merits further study.

  11. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion- A rare complication of oral contraceptive pills

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    Nidhi Pancholi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To propose a hypothesis of causal association between central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and oral contraceptive pills (OCPCase Summary:A case report-A 22 yr old, female presented with sudden painless loss of vision in OS [Right Eye] for 1 day. VA [Visual Activity] in OS was PL PR [Perception of Light and Projection of Rays] Faulty with RAPD [Relative Afferent Papillary Defect] with normal for fifteen minutes, given five hundred mg of acetazolamide orally stat, 0.4 ml of anterior chamber paracentesis done, 5400 IU LMW [Low Molecular Weight] heparin given SC[Subcutaneous] with carbogen inhalation. Retrospectively she was on oral contraceptives(Mala D for 1 month. She was not hypertensive or diabetic with normal blood, coagulation profile & carotid Doppler. She was evaluated by an intern to find the cause of coagulation disorder and was found to be normal. On first day FFA [Fundus Florescien Angiography] showed no blockage with normal cilioretinal artery perfusion established. Visual fields after one week showed central tubular vision and OCT [Ocular Coherent Tomography] showed normal fovea. After 2 weeks vision was 20/80 with persistent RAPD papilla macular bundle being perfused.

  12. Automated detection and classification of major retinal vessels for determination of diameter ratio of arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of retinal vasculatures can indicate health conditions in the body, such as the high blood pressure and diabetes. Providing automatically determined width ratio of arteries and veins (A/V ratio) on retinal fundus images may help physicians in the diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy, which may cause blindness. The purpose of this study was to detect major retinal vessels and classify them into arteries and veins for the determination of A/V ratio. Images used in this study were obtained from DRIVE database, which consists of 20 cases each for training and testing vessel detection algorithms. Starting with the reference standard of vasculature segmentation provided in the database, major arteries and veins each in the upper and lower temporal regions were manually selected for establishing the gold standard. We applied the black top-hat transformation and double-ring filter to detect retinal blood vessels. From the extracted vessels, large vessels extending from the optic disc to temporal regions were selected as target vessels for calculation of A/V ratio. Image features were extracted from the vessel segments from quarter-disc to one disc diameter from the edge of optic discs. The target segments in the training cases were classified into arteries and veins by using the linear discriminant analysis, and the selected parameters were applied to those in the test cases. Out of 40 pairs, 30 pairs (75%) of arteries and veins in the 20 test cases were correctly classified. The result can be used for the automated calculation of A/V ratio.

  13. Preliminary Clinical Observation of Arteriovenous Sheathotomy for Treatment of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Lu; Yonghao Li; Changxian Yi; Mei Li; Xiulan Lu; Jinglin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To document the anatomic and functional improvement of six patients withbranch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) following successful arteriovenous adventitialsheathotomy (AAS).Methods: Retrospective study of 6 patients (6 eyes) with BRVO treated with AAS. Allpatients were not eligible for laser photocoagulation and had both macular edema andintraretinal hemorrhage. The visual acuity was in the range of 0.4 to 0.02. All patientsunderwent pars plana vitrectomy and AAS. The clinical improvement was determined byfundus photograph, fluorescein angiography (FAG), optical coherence tomography(OCT) and multifocal electroretinography (ERG). All patients were followedpostoperatively for an average of 20 months ranging from 12 to 24 months.Results: Sheathotomy and decompression of the arteriole/venule (A/V) crossing wereachieved in all 6 patients. 5 patients have improved their best-corrected visual acuity 4lines or more. The best one could reach to 1.0. One month after the operation, fundusphotograph and FAG demonstrated the resolution of intraretinal hemorrhage, reduction ofnon-perfusion area and apparent resolution of retinal venous dilation and tortuosity. OCTconfirmed remarkable reduction of retinal thickness. The microcysts at the foveadiminished. Multifocal ERG showed the recovery of the central peak at the macular andthe peripheral response density. However, capillary nonperfusion area andmicroaneurysm were found out by FAG in four patients at the points distal to thesheathotomy three months after the operation.Conclusions: Anatomic and functional improvement of retina can be achieved in patientswith BRV0 through AAS. However, the capillary nonperfusion and microaneurysm mayfollow this surgical procedure in some cases that need further treatment with laserphotocoagulation. The better visual improvement may be expected in the patients withearlier surgical intervention.

  14. Open triple-branched stent graft applied to patient of acute type a aortic dissection with Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Changfa; Zhu, Kai; Xu, Demin; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-01

    A 57-year-old Chinese male patient presented with Standford type A aortic dissection with an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA). At operation, the ascending aorta was replaced by a mono–branch vascular prosthesis with the branch bypassing to the ARSA; the triple-branched stent graft was inserted into the true lumen of the arch and proximal descending aorta (covering the origin of the ARSA) with each sidearm graft being positioned into the aortic branches; and then its proximal end was su...

  15. Five-year outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Akihiro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Kameda, Takanori; Mandai, Michiko; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Long-term outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for macular edema (ME) associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) have been previously reported, but the studies did not report the number of additional treatments after surgery. During 5 years of follow-up, we therefore investigated the efficacy and safety of PPV for BRVO and evaluated the incidence of additional treatments. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 25 eyes of 24 patients who underwent PPV for ME associated with BRVO and were followed up for at least 5 years. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured, and foveal thickness was assessed by optical coherence tomography. Additional treatments were also investigated. Results The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) improved from 0.53±0.23 at baseline to 0.16±0.25 at 5 years (P<0.0001). The foveal thickness decreased from 535±222 µm at baseline to 205±143 µm at 5 years (P<0.0001). For the eyes with residual ME, the following additional treatments were performed within 5 years of follow-up: sub-Tenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide in two eyes, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in three eyes, grid laser photocoagulation in one eye, and direct photocoagulation of macroaneurysm in one eye. Additional surgeries were performed in two eyes: for one eye, phacoemulsification extraction of the ocular lens and intraocular lens implantation were performed because of cataract progression, and for the other eye, additional PPV was done for postoperative retinal detachment. Conclusion PPV was effective for resolution of ME associated with BRVO and improved visual acuity with a small number of additional treatments during long-term follow-up. PMID:28255227

  16. Increase of aqueous inflammatory factors in macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noma Hidetaka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 has a role in the pathogenesis of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Methods A retrospective case control study was performed in 22 patients with BRVO and macular edema, as well as 10 patients with nonischemic ocular diseases as the control group. Retinal ischemia was evaluated by measuring the area of capillary non-perfusion with Scion Image software, while the severity of macular edema was examined by optical coherence tomography. Aqueous humor samples were obtained during the performance of combined vitrectomy and cataract surgery. sICAM-1 and VEGF levels in aqueous humor and plasma specimens were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Aqueous humor levels of sICAM-1 (median: 6.90 ng/ml and VEGF (median: 169 pg/ml were significantly elevated in BRVO patients compared with the control group (median: 3.30 pg/ml and 15.6 pg/ml, respectively (P = 0.005 and P P = 0.025. In addition, aqueous levels of both sICAM-1 and VEGF were correlated with the size of the non-perfused area of the retina in BRVO patients (P = 0.021 and P P = 0.020 and P = 0.005, respectively. Conclusions Both sICAM-1 and VEGF may be involved in the pathogenesis of macular edema associated with BRVO. Measurement of aqueous humor sICAM-1 levels may be useful for assessment of BRVO patients with macular edema, in addition to measurement of VEGF.

  17. Study on the correlation of serum lipid metabolism and central retinal artery hemodynamics with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran-Yang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation of serum lipid metabolism and central retinal artery (CRA) hemodynamics with diabetic retinopathy (DR).Methods:A total of 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and divided into NDR group (non-diabetic retinopathy), NPR group (non-proliferative retinopathy), and PR group (proliferative retinopathy) with 40 cases in each group according to DR clinical staging. Moreover, 50 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group. The full automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. The color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) was used to detect EDV, PSV, RI, and PI of CRA and OA.Results:The levels of TG, TC, and LDL-C in NDG, NPR, and PR groups were gradually increased with the aggravation of retinopathy, HDL-C was reduced, the comparison among the three groups was statistically significant, and the comparison with the control group was statistically significant. EDV, PSV, and PI of CRA and OA in NDG, NPR, and PR groups were gradually increased with the aggravation of retinopathy, RI was reduced, the comparison among the three groups was statistically significant, and the comparison with the control group was statistically significant. Conclusions: The lipid metabolism disorder can promote the occurrence and development of DR. The change of CRA and OA hemodynamics is an important pathological basis for developing DR. Clinical detection of serum lipid level and monitoring of the changes of fundus artery hemocynamic parameters are of great significance in early detecting DR.

  18. Long-Term Management of Complications of Retinal Artery Macroaneurysms with Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kishore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the 1-year follow-up results of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI for the management of complications of retinal artery macroaneurysms (RAM. Methods: A retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series of 4 eyes of 4 patients (all female, aged 68–91 years, 3 treatment naive treated with IAI 2 mg for complications of RAM [macular edema (ME 2, submacular hemorrhage (SMH 1, and vitreous hemorrhage (VH 1] was conducted. Baseline parameters consisted of complete ocular examination, medical history, best-corrected Snellen VA, fundus photography, IVFA and SD OCT, unless precluded by VH (1. All patients completed ≥1 year follow-up. Results: Baseline VA was hand motions in the eye with SMH (31 mm2 area and 1,478 μm thickness; 20/40 and 20/100 with ME (CST 390 and 337 μm, respectively, and 20/200 in the eye with VH. At 1 month, both patients with ME showed resolution of ME with CST <300 μm with improvement in VA which was maintained through 1 year. VH resolved in one eye at 1 month with no recurrence after 1 year. The eye with SMH developed macular scar and had counting fingers vision at 1 year. Thrombosis of RAM was noted in all eyes and hairpin-like remodeling of artery in one. No eye required repeat injection or laser. Conclusion: ME and VH from RAM were effectively treated with IAI. However, the eye with thick SMH had poor visual outcome despite thrombosis of RAM. Single IAI provided effective therapy for complications of RAM with excellent anatomical and visual results in each eye, except one with thick SMH, and merits further study.

  19. Intravitreal bevacizumab versus triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: a matched study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jing; TAO Yong; JIANG Yan-rong; LI Xiao-xin; GAO Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder of the elderly and both intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and intravitreal bevacizumab were reported to be effective. The purpose of this study was to compare intravitreal bevacizumab with intravitreal TA for the treatment of macular edema resulting from BRVO.Methods The retrospectively comparative interventional study included a bevacizumab group of 34 BRVO patients (1.25 mg bevacizumab) and a TA group of 34 BRVO patients (4.0 mg TA), and the two groups were matched by baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Examinations were designed to be carried out at 1 day, 3 days, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after each injection. The mean follow-up was (148.43±130.56) days. Main outcome parameters were BCVA and morphometric measurements of the macula obtained by optical coherence tomography.Results In all follow-ups, the mean changes of BCVA (LogMAR) between two groups were not significantly different (P >0.10). Similarly, the rates of patients who got BCVA improvement >2 lines or lost BCVA >2 lines were not significantly different, either (P >0.10). In both groups, compared with baseline, the mean central macular thickness (CMT) got reduction from 4 weeks to 1 year after initial injection, however, which lost statistical significance at 6-month follow-up in TA group (P=0.25) and lost significance at 3-month and 6-month follow-up in bevacizumab group (P=0.07, 0.21). The mean CMT between two groups differed at 3-month follow-up (P 0.40). In TA group, retinal pigment epithelium tear occurred in 1 eye at 8 weeks after initial injection and 12 eyes (35.3%) got intraocular pressure >21 mmHg. In bevacizumab group, no severe complications were observed.Conclusion For BRVO, intravitreal bevacizumab versus intravitreal TA causes a similar increase in visual acuity and reduction of macular edema (except 3-month follow-up) with minor complications during 1 year.

  20. Retina derived relaxation is mediated by K(ir) channels and the inhibition of Ca(2+) sensitization in isolated bovine retinal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takır, Selçuk; Uydeş-Doğan, B Sönmez; Özdemir, Osman

    2015-03-01

    Retinal relaxing factor (RRF) has recently been identified as a novel paracrine regulator of retinal circulation acting differently from well known mediators of the endothelium and the retina. Herein, we aimed to characterize the relaxing mechanism of the retina, i.e. RRF, by evaluating the role of Ca(+2)-dependent and -independent signaling mechanisms as well as inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channels. Retinal relaxation was determined by placing a piece of retinal tissue just on top of the precontracted bovine retinal arteries mounted in a wire myograph. The retina produced a complete relaxation response, which display a biphasic character, in depolarized arteries contracted by L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay k 8644. Blockade of L-type Ca(2+) channel by nifedipine, inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase by cyclopiazonic acid or removal of extracellular Ca(2+) did not influence the prominent relaxation to the retina. Originally, retinal relaxation was found to be unaffected from the inhibition of myosin light chain kinase by ML7, whereas, completely abolished in the presence of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) inhibitor, Calyculin A. Moreover, the inhibition of Rho kinase by its putative inhibitor, Y-27632 displayed comparable relaxant effects to RRF in retinal arteries precontracted either by prostaglandin F2α or K(+), and augmented the moderate response to the retina in K(+) precontracted arteries. In addition, retinal relaxation was significantly inhibited and lost its biphasic character in the presence of Kir channel blocker, Ba(2+). Our results suggested that inhibition of Ca(2+) sensitization through the activation of MLCP, possibly via interfering with Rho kinase, and the opening of Kir channels are likely to be involved in the inhibitory influence of RRF on the retinal arteries.

  1. Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Associated with Intraocular Silicone Oil Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yasin Teke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many systemic and ocular factors may cause acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO. Herein, we aimed to describe a case of CRAO due to intraocular silicone oil (SO tamponade. To the best of our knowledge, a case like our has not been reported previously. A 58-yearold male patient had undergone combined pars plana vitrectomy-lensectomy and intraocular SO for lens luxation and vitreus hemorrhage associated with a blunt ocular trauma in his right eye. Two weeks after the surgery, he presented with acute vision loss in the same eye. He was diagnosed with acute CRAO and it should be related with mechanical press or raised intraocular pressure (IOP associated with SO. He was treated by partial removal of SO immediately. In spite of the regression of retina edema, his visual acuity did not improve due to optic atrophy. SO may cause CRAO due to raised IOP and/or its mechanical pressure and this complication must be kept in mind. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 238-40

  2. Color Doppler imaging features in patients presenting central retinal artery occlusion with and without giant cell arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Jianu Dragos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Central retinal artery obstruction (CRAO represents an abrupt diminution of blood flow through the CRA that is severe enough to cause ischemia of the inner retina with permanent unilateral visual loss. We presented the role of color Doppler imaging (CDI of orbital vessels and of extracranial duplex sonography (EDS in the etiological diagnosis of CRAO in two patients with clinical suspicion of unilateral CRAO. Case report. Patients were examined following the protocol which included CDI of orbital vessels and EDS. Both patients had no emboli visible on ophthalmoscopy. The B-scan ultrasound evaluation of the first patient found a small round, moderately reflective echo within the right optic nerve, 1.5 mm behind the optic disc (emboli of cholesterol. CDI of retrobulbar vessels revealed the normal right ophthalmic artery (OA hemodynamic parameters, but the first patient had no arterial flow signal on CDI at the distance of 1.5 mm behind the right optic disc. In contrast, the left eye had the normal aspect on CDI of retrobulbar vessels. The right internal carotid artery EDS identified a severe stenosis at its origin as CRA’s emboli source. The second patient had characteristic CDI findings for giant cell arteritis (GCA with eye involvement: severe diminished blood flow velocities, especially end-diastolic velocities, in both CRAs. Less abnormalities were observed in the posterior ciliary arteries, and in the ophthalmic arteries. The second patient had no systemic symptoms or signs of GCA. Conclusion. In the presented cases, the ultrasound investigation enabled prompt differentiation between central retinal artery occlusion of embolic mechanism and CRAO caused by GCA.

  3. Utility of intra-operative capnogram to detect branch pulmonary artery obstruction following total correction of tetralogy of fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch pulmonary artery obstruction is one of the prime reasons for re-operation in patients who have undergone repair for tetralogy of Fallot. Branch pulmonary artery obstruction may develop over a period of time due to dilation of right ventricular outflow tract or it may be caused by residual stenosis after inadequate repair. This may lead to differential lung perfusion causing morbidity. Intra-operative capnogram monitoring reveals ventilation−perfusion relationship. We report two cases where the capnogram helped the diagnosis and management of branch pulmonary artery obstruction. We found a redundant patch in the first and an extra length of the homograft in second case which led to the obstruction. However, but for the changes in the intraoperative capnogram, this condition may by far remain undiagnosed considering the fact that it does not produce hemodynamic changes but can lead to postoperative morbidity.

  4. Changes in central retinal artery blood flow after ocular warming and cooling in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Retinal perfusion variability impacts ocular disease and physiology. Aim: To evaluate the response of central retinal artery (CRA blood flow to temperature alterations in 20 healthy volunteers. Setting and Design: Non-interventional experimental human study. Materials and Methods: Baseline data recorded: Ocular surface temperature (OST in °C (thermo-anemometer, CRA peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV in cm/s using Color Doppler. Ocular laterality and temperature alteration (warming by electric lamp/cooling by ice-gel pack were randomly assigned. Primary outcomes recorded were: OST and intraocular pressure (IOP immediately after warming or cooling and ten minutes later; CRA-PSV and EDV at three, six and nine minutes warming or cooling. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measures ANOVA. Results: (n = 20; μ±SD: Pre-warming values were; OST: 34.5±1.02°C, CRA-PSV: 9.3±2.33cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.6±1.27cm/s. OST significantly increased by 1.96°C (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.37 after warming, but returned to baseline ten minutes later. Only at three minutes, the PSV significantly rose by 1.21cm/s (95% CI: 0.51to1.91. Pre-cooling values were: OST: 34.5±0.96°C, CRA-PSV: 9.7±2.45 cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.7±1.12cm/s. OST significantly decreased by 2.81°C (95% CI: -2.30 to -3.37 after cooling, and returned to baseline at ten minutes. There was a significant drop in CRA-PSV by 1.10cm/s (95% CI: -2.05 to -0.15 and CRA-EDV by 0.81 (95% CI: -1.47 to -0.14 at three minutes. At six minutes both PSV (95% CI: -1.38 to -0.03 and EDV (95% CI: -1.26 to -0.02 were significantly lower. All values at ten minutes were comparable to baseline. The IOP showed insignificant alteration on warming (95% CI of difference: -0.17 to 1.57mmHg, but was significantly lower after cooling (95% CI: -2.95 to -4.30mmHg. After ten minutes, IOP had returned to baseline. Conclusion : This study confirms that CRA flow significantly increases on warming and decreases on cooling

  5. Short-term effects of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (OZURDEX® on choroidal thickness in patients with naive branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Basri Arifoglu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT in patients with naïve branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO before and after intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex® injection. Methods: Thirty-nine patients with unilateral BRVO and 35 healthy subjects were included in this prospective study. Choroidal thickness was evaluated by EDI-OCT at baseline and 1 month after dexamethasone implant. Results: The mean SFCT measured in 39 patients with BRVO was 299.41 ± 55.86 µm, significantly greater than that in contralateral eyes (283.76 ± 57.44 µm; p=0.009 and control eyes (276.14 ± 39.06 µm; p=0.044. The mean SFCT after the treatment was 279.64 ± 50.96 µm, significantly thinner than that before intravitreal dexamethasone therapy (p=0.004. Conclusions: SFCT in treatment-naive BRVO eyes was significantly greater than that in contralateral eyes and healthy eyes and decreased significantly after intravitreal dexamethasone implantation.

  6. Chronic heart failure model with sequential ligation of the homonymous artery and its diagonal branch in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W G; Park, J J; Oh, S I

    2001-01-01

    We report a reliable chronic heart failure model in sheep using sequential ligation of the homonymous artery and its diagonal branch. After a left anterior thoracotomy in Corridale sheep, the homonymous artery was ligated at a point approximately 40% of the distance from the apex to the base of the heart, and after 1 hour, the diagonal vessel was ligated at a point at the same level. Hemodynamic measurements were done preligation, 30 minutes after the homonymous artery ligation, and 1 hour after diagonal branch ligation. The electrocardiograms were obtained as needed, and cardiac function was also evaluated with ultrasonography. After a predetermined interval (2 months for five animals and 3 months for two animals), the animals were reevaluated in the same way as before, and were killed for postmortem examination of their hearts. All seven animals survived the experimental procedures. Statistically significant decreases in systemic arterial blood pressure and cardiac output and increases in pulmonary artery capillary wedge pressure were observed 1 hour after sequential ligation of the homonymous artery and its diagonal branch. Untrasonographic analyses demonstrated variable degrees of anteroseptal dyskinesia and akinesia in all animals. The data from animals at 2 months after coronary artery ligation showed significant increases in central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary artery capillary wedge pressure. Left ventricular enddiastolic dimension and left ventricular end-systolic dimension on ultrasonographic studies were also increased. Electrocardiography showed severe ST elevation immediately after the ligation and pathologic Q waves were found at 2 months after ligation. The thin walled infarcted areas with chamber enlargement were clearly seen in the hearts removed at 2 and 3 months after ligation. In conclusion, we could achieve a reliable ovine model of chronic heart failure using a simple concept of sequential ligation of the

  7. Superior mesenteric arterial branch occlusion causing partial jejunal ischemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van De Winkel Nele

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ischemic bowel disease comprises both mesenteric ischemia and colonic ischemia. Mesenteric ischemia can be divided into acute and chronic ischemia. These are two separate entities, each with their specific clinical presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. However, diagnosis may be difficult due to the vague symptomatology and subtle signs. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, melena and fever. A physical examination revealed left lower quadrant tenderness and an irregular pulse. Computed tomography of her abdomen as well as computed tomography enterography, enteroscopy, angiography and small bowel enteroclysis demonstrated an ischemic jejunal segment caused by occlusion of a branch of the superior mesenteric artery. The ischemic segment was resected and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The diagnosis of segmental small bowel ischemia was confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion Mesenteric ischemia is a pathology well-known by surgeons, gastroenterologists and radiologists. Acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia are two separate entities with their own specific clinical presentation, radiological signs and therapeutic modalities. We present the case of a patient with symptoms and signs of chronic mesenteric ischemia despite an acute etiology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report presenting a case of acute mesenteric ischemia with segmental superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  8. Endovascular treatment of aortoiliac aneurysms: From intentional occlusion of the internal iliac artery to branch iliac stent graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stevo Duvnjak

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20%-40% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms can have unilateral or bilateral iliac artery aneurysms and/or ectasia. This influences and compromises the distal sealing zone during endovascular aneurysm repair. There are a few endovascular techniques that are used to treat these types of aneurysms, including intentional occlusion/over-stenting of the internal iliac artery on one or both sides, the "bell-bottom" technique, and the more recent method of using an iliac branch stent graft. In some cases, other options include the "snorkel and sandwich" technique and hybrid interventions. Pelvic ischemia, represented as buttock claudication, has been reported in 16%-55% of cases; this is followed by impotence, which has been described in 10%-17% of cases following internal iliac artery occlusion. The bellbottom technique can be used for a common iliac artery up to 24 mm in diameter given that the largest diameter of the stent graft is 28 mm. There is a paucity of data and evidence regarding the "snorkel and sandwich" technique, which can be used in a few clinical scenarios. The hybrid intervention is comprised of a surgical operation, and is not purely endovascular. The newest branch stent graft technology enables preservation of the anterograde flow of important side branches. Technical success with the newest technique ranges from 85%-96.3%, and in some small series, technical success is 100%. Buttock claudication was reported in up to 4% of patients treated with a branch stent graft at 5-year follow-up. Mid- and short-term follow-up results showed branch patency of up to 88% during the 5-6-year period. Furthermore, branch graft occlusion is a potential complication, and it has been described to occur in 1.2%-11% of cases. Iliac branch stent graft placement represents a further development in endovascular medicine, and it has a high technical success rate without serious complications.

  9. Automated image analysis for diameters and branching points of cerebral penetrating arteries and veins captured with two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugashi, Takuma; Yoshihara, Kouichi; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao; Yamada, Yukio; Masamoto, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to characterize 3-dimensional (3D) morphology of the cortical microvasculature (e.g., penetrating artery and emerging vein), using two-photon microscopy and automated analysis for their cross-sectional diameters and branching positions in the mouse cortex. We observed that both artery and vein had variable cross-sectional diameters across cortical depths. The mean diameter was similar for both artery (17 ± 5 μm) and vein (15 ± 5 μm), and there were no detectable differences over depths of 50-400 μm. On the other hand, the number of branches was slightly increased up to 400-μm depth for both the artery and vein. The mean number of branches per 0.1 mm vessel length was 1.7 ± 1.2 and 3.8 ± 1.6 for the artery and vein, respectively. This method allows for quantification of the large volume data of microvascular images captured with two-photon microscopy. This will contribute to the morphometric analysis of the cortical microvasculature in functioning brains.

  10. Multifocal central serous chorioretinopathy with photoreceptor-retinal pigment epithelium diastasis in heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Qiang; Pryds, Anders; Carlsen, Jørn;

    2015-01-01

    with clinical examination, enhanced depth optical coherence tomography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and fundus photography. RESULTS: At presentation, atypical central serous chorioretinopathy with multiple retinal pigment epithelial detachments, a thick subfoveal choroid, and dilated...

  11. Relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and incident cerebrovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies investigating the role of retinal vascular occlusions, on cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported, but the results are still inconsistent. We therefore sought to evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and CVD. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases through January 31, 2016 for studies evaluating the effect of retinal vascular occlusions on the risk of CVD. Data were abstracted using predefined criteria, and then pooled by RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 9 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with individuals without retinal vascular occlusions, both individuals with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–3.34; P = 0.005) and individuals with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.24–1.50; P < 0.00001) had higher risks of developing CVD. Additionally, both individuals with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56; P = 0.02) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03–1.48; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD. Published literatures support both RVO and RAO are associated with increased risks of CVD. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27368050

  12. Evaluation of malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries using cardiovascular computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiovascular Medicine) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Juan, Yu-Hsiang [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiovascular Medicine) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou and Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Qiushi; Huang, Hongfei; Yang, Lin [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Xie, Zhaofeng [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Chen, Jimei; Zhang, Xiaoshen [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Liang, Changhong [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Chung, Taylor [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Kwong, Raymond Y.; Saboo, Sachin S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiovascular Medicine) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    To analyze 15 cases of malposition of branch pulmonary arteries (MBPA) for the hospital-based prevalence, clinical information, surgical outcome, imaging findings, associated cardiovascular and airway abnormalities on cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We retrospectively searched for patients with MBPA from our database consisting of patients referred for CCTA due to known or suspected congenital heart disease and also from all patients receiving chest computed tomography (CT) during the same time period. We analyzed the hospital-based prevalence, image findings, associated cardiovascular anomalies, airway compression, and recorded the clinical information and surgical outcome. Our study showed 15 patients with MBPA (hospital-based prevalence: 0.33 % among patients with congenital heart disease and 0.06 % in all patients receiving chest CT or CCTA). Classic type was more common than lesser type (67 % versus 33 %). All patients had associated cardiovascular anomalies, including aortic arch abnormalities (80 %) and secondary airway compression (33 %). Surgery was performed in 67 % of cardiovascular anomalies and 60 % of airway stenoses. MBPA has a hospital-based prevalence of 0.33 % among patients with congenital heart disease and 0.06 % in all patients receiving either chest CT or CCTA. CCTA can delineate the anatomy of MBPA, associated cardiovascular and airway abnormalities for preoperative evaluation. (orig.)

  13. Outcomes of microincision vitrectomy surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Sato S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shimpei Sato,1 Maiko Inoue,2 Shin Yamane,2 Akira Arakawa,2 Mikiro Mori,1 Kazuaki Kadonosono2 1Department of Opthalmology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional effect of microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO.Methods: The medical records of 101 eyes of 101 patients who had undergone MIVS with ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to BRVO were studied. Patients were classified into ischemic and non-ischemic BRVO based on angiograph. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central foveal thickness (CFT, determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively.Results: Preoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR BCVA ± standard deviation (SD was 0.52±0.43 and mean CFT ± SD was 489.4±224.9 µm. Postoperative mean BCVA ± SD values were 0.41±0.35, 0.35±0.41, 0.29±0.36, and 0.25±0.41, and mean CFT values were 370.1±148.9, 327.5±157.5, 310.9±154.9, and 274.4±135.3 µm at 1, 3, 6, 12 months, respectively. The mean BCVA was significantly improved at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (all P<0.05, and the mean CFT was significantly decreased at all postoperative follow-up time points (all P<0.05. At the 12-month postoperative evaluation, BCVA had improved by 0.2 logMAR units in 50 eyes (60.0% with ischemic BRVO and in nine eyes (50.0% with non-ischemic BRVO. Six eyes (6.0% experienced recurrence or persistence of macular edema at 12 months postoperatively.Conclusion: MIVS with ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to BRVO is effective in improving visual acuity and foveal morphology with low recurrence of macular edema. Keywords: MIVS, ILM, BRVO, central foveal thickness, CFT

  14. Efficacy and safety of intravitreal therapy in macular edema due to branch and central retinal vein occlusion: a systematic review.

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    Amelie Pielen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intravitreal agents have replaced observation in macular edema in central (CRVO and grid laser photocoagulation in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate efficacy and safety outcomes of intravitreal therapies for macular edema in CRVO and BRVO. METHODS AND FINDINGS: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for RCTs with no limitations of language and year of publication. 11 RCTs investigating anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept and steroids (triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were evaluated. EFFICACY CRVO: Greatest gain in visual acuity after 12 months was observed both under aflibercept 2 mg: +16.2 letters (8.5 injections, and under bevacizumab 1.25 mg: +16.1 letters (8 injections. Ranibizumab 0.5 mg improved vision by +13.9 letters (8.8 injections. Triamcinolone 1 mg and 4 mg stabilized visual acuity at a lower injection frequency (-1.2 letters, 2 injections. BRVO: Ranibizumab 0.5 mg resulted in a visual acuity gain of +18.3 letters (8.4 injections. The effect of dexamethasone implant was transient after 1.9 implants in both indications. SAFETY: Serious ocular adverse events were rare, e.g., endophthalmitis occurred in 0.0-0.9%. Major differences were found in an indirect comparison between steroids and anti-VEGF agents for cataract progression (19.8-35.0% vs. 0.9-7.0% and in required treatment of increased intraocular pressure (7.0-41.0% vs. none. No major differences were identified in systemic adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VEGF agents result in a promising gain of visual acuity, but require a high injection frequency. Dexamethasone implant might be an alternative, but comparison is impaired as the effect is temporary and it has not yet been tested in PRN regimen. The ocular risk profile seems to be favorable for anti-VEGF agents in comparison to steroids. Because comparative data from head

  15. Intermittent Left Bundle Branch Block and Myocardial Ischemia in Patient Without Coronary Artery Stenosis: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-fang CHI; Hang-yuan GUO; Long-bin LIU

    2009-01-01

    @@ Left bundle branch block (LBBB), traditionally viewed as an electrophysiologic abnormality, is increas-ingly recognized for its effects on hemodynamics and patient's prognosis[1]. Exercise nuclear studies frequently show reversible perfusion defects in the absence of ob-structive coronary artery disease[2] and some patients with intermittent LBBB develop angina coincident with the onset of LBBB[3]. We report a case of intermittent LBBB with abnormal stress technetium 99mTc single-pho-ton emission computed tomography (SPECT) study and normal coronary artery angiography.

  16. Internal carotid artery pseudo occlusion with embolic cerebral ischemia and low flow in the central retinal artery: a diagnostic challenge

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    Christoph Roehrer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of internal carotid artery pseudoocclusion (ICAPO in a 60-yearold male Caucasian patient who experienced a reversible sudden loss of vision of the right eye for 10 min followed by recurrent blurring of vision as well as dysarthria and numbness in the left face. The referring ophthalmologist admitted the patient for suspicious occlusion of the internal carotid artery causing anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION.

  17. The role of modern imaging techniques in the diagnosis of malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries and possible association with microdeletion 22q11.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuturilo, Goran; Drakulic, Danijela; Krstic, Aleksandar; Gradinac, Marija; Ilisic, Tamara; Parezanovic, Vojislav; Milivojevic, Milena; Stevanovic, Milena; Jovanovic, Ida

    2013-04-01

    Malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries is a rare malformation with two forms. In the typical form, pulmonary arteries cross each other as they proceed to their respective lungs. The “lesser form” is characterised by the left pulmonary artery ostium lying directly superior to the ostium of the right pulmonary artery, without crossing of the branch pulmonary arteries. Malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries is often associated with other congenital heart defects and extracardiac anomalies, as well as with 22q11.2 microdeletion. We report three infants with crossed pulmonary arteries and one adolescent with “lesser form” of the malformation. The results suggest that diagnosis of malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries could be challenging if based solely on echocardiography, whereas modern imaging technologies such as contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography provide reliable establishment of diagnosis. In addition, we performed the first molecular characterisation of the 22q11.2 region among patients with malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries and revealed a 3-megabase deletion in two out of four patients

  18. Stenosis of the branches of the neopulmonary artery after the arterial switch operation: A cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Boban Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Cardiac MR can be used as a comprehensive non-invasive imaging technique to diagnose stenosis of the branches of the neopulmonary after the ASO, allowing evaluation of anatomy and function of the neoPA, its branches, and the differential perfusion to each lung, thus facilitating clinical decision making.

  19. The Anatomic Course of the First Jejunal Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Vein in Relation to the Superior Mesenteric Artery

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    Pavlos Papavasiliou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study is to determine the anatomic course of the first jejunal branch of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV in relation to the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. Methods. Three hundred consecutive contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scans were reviewed by a surgical oncologist with confirmation of findings by a radiologist. Results. The overall incidence of a first jejunal branch coursing anterior to the SMA was 41%. There was no correlation between patient gender and position of the jejunal branch. In addition, there was no correlation between size of the first jejunal branch and its location in relation to the SMA. The IMV drained into the SMV in 27% of the patients. The IMV drained into the SMV-portal vein confluence in 17% of patients and inserted into the splenic vein in 54%. An anterior coursing first jejunal branch statistically correlated with an IMV that drained into the SMV-portal vein confluence (=0.009. Conclusion. The first jejunal branch of the SMV has a highly variable course in relation to the SMA and has a higher incidence of an anterior location in this population than previously reported.

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Isolated Bilateral Internal Ili- ac Artery Aneurysms with a Branched Endograft: A Case Report

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    SeyedEbrahim Kassaian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated bilateral internal iliac artery (IIA aneurysm is a rare and potentially lethal disease. Endovascular repair of this disorder is a matter of debate. A symptomatic 68-year-old male presented with severe pelvic pains. Computed tomography revealed a leaking 46-mm aneurysm in the right IIA, a 27-mm aneurysm in the left IIA, and ectatic changes at a diameter of 31 mm in the right common iliac artery (CIA. Due to lower rates of morbidity and mortality, an endovascular approach was chosen instead of open surgical repair. However, due to anatomical constraints, an endograft had to be implanted in a healthy aorta in order to support an iliac branch endograft in the left CIA. Subsequently, following coil embolization of the left IIA, an iliac stent graft was extended to the right external iliac artery (EIA. Two-year follow-up CT imaging showed complete exclusion of all the aneurysms and patency of the pelvic visceral arteries. The patient is currently asymptomatic.Endovascular repair of bilateral isolated IIAs can be a feasible treatment option. However, due to limited availability of sizes in iliac branch devices currently on the market, a main body device is sometimes required to be deployed in a healthy aorta for additional endograft support.

  1. Endoscopic hemostasis with an ultrasonically activated device for hemorrhage from a branch of the maxillary artery during endoscopically assisted reduction of condylar neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Toshinori; Matsui, Yoshiro; Omura, Susumu; Tohnai, Iwai

    2013-03-01

    We describe here a case in which sudden hemorrhage from a branch of the maxillary artery during endoscopically assisted transoral reduction of condylar neck fracture was successfully controlled by endoscopic hemostasis with an ultrasonically activated device.

  2. Elk3 deficiency causes transient impairment in post-natal retinal vascular development and formation of tortuous arteries in adult murine retinae.

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    Christine Weinl

    Full Text Available Serum Response Factor (SRF fulfills essential roles in post-natal retinal angiogenesis and adult neovascularization. These functions have been attributed to the recruitment by SRF of the cofactors Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors MRTF-A and -B, but not the Ternary Complex Factors (TCFs Elk1 and Elk4. The role of the third TCF, Elk3, remained unknown. We generated a new Elk3 knockout mouse line and showed that Elk3 had specific, non-redundant functions in the retinal vasculature. In Elk3(-/- mice, post-natal retinal angiogenesis was transiently delayed until P8, after which it proceeded normally. Interestingly, tortuous arteries developed in Elk3(-/- mice from the age of four weeks, and persisted into late adulthood. Tortuous vessels have been observed in human pathologies, e.g. in ROP and FEVR. These human disorders were linked to altered activities of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the affected eyes. However, in Elk3(-/- mice, we did not observe any changes in VEGF or several other potential confounding factors, including mural cell coverage and blood pressure. Instead, concurrent with the post-natal transient delay of radial outgrowth and the formation of adult tortuous arteries, Elk3-dependent effects on the expression of Angiopoietin/Tie-signalling components were observed. Moreover, in vitro microvessel sprouting and microtube formation from P10 and adult aortic ring explants were reduced. Collectively, these results indicate that Elk3 has distinct roles in maintaining retinal artery integrity. The Elk3 knockout mouse is presented as a new animal model to study retinal artery tortuousity in mice and human patients.

  3. Obstrução arterial retiniana periférica associada com hiper-homocisteinemia: relato de caso Peripheral retinal arterial obstruction associated with hyperhomocysteinemia: case report

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    Alexandre Kazuo Misawa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A hiperhomocisteinemia é fator de risco para fenômenos trombo-embólicos retinianos associados a quadro de oclusão vascular venosa e arterial. Descrevemos um paciente com obstrução arterial retiniana periférica, sem sinais de vasculite ativa, associada a proliferação de neovasos com tração vítreo-retiniana e hemorragia vítrea recidivante. O alto nível sérico de homocisteína decorrente de deficiência de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico, sem outras alterações na cascata da coagulação, inclusive com a pesquisa do fator V de Leiden, sugere que a hiper-homocisteinemia esteja diretamente ligada como fator causal deste quadro clínico. Embora apresentasse PPD elevado, o diagnóstico diferencial mais importante de doença de Eales foi menos considerado por ser diagnóstico de exclusão. O controle do quadro clínico foi feito com suplemento de vitaminas (B12 e ácido fólico e fotocoagulação retiniana periférica. A homocisteína plasmática total deve ser dosada em pacientes com obstrução vascular retiniana, já que a hiper-homocisteinemia é fator de risco modificável e de fácil tratamento por meio de dieta ou suplementação vitamínica.Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for thromboembolic events of the retina associated with vascular venous or arterial occlusion. We describe a patient with occlusion of the peripheral arteriolar network without active vasculitis, associated with neovascular proliferation, peripheral vitreous-retinal traction and relapsing vitreous hemorrhage. The high serum homocysteine level resulting from vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency, without further changes in the coagulation cascade including the test for Leiden's Factor V, indicates hyperhomocysteinemia as a direct causal factor in this clinical condition. Despite a high PPD, Eales Disease, a major differential diagnosis, was not fully considered, since it is established by exclusion. The patient was treated with photocoagulation and vitamin

  4. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments

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    Shirakata Y

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yukari Shirakata,1 Kouki Fukuda,1 Tomoyoshi Fujita,1 Yuki Nakano,1 Hiroyuki Nomoto,2 Hidetaka Yamaji,3 Fumio Shiraga,4 Akitaka Tsujikawa1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, 2Nomoto Eye Clinic, Himeji, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. Results: After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031 and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit. With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA. At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048. The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012. Conclusion: For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a

  5. Branched-chain amino acid treatment before transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroki Nishikawa; Yukio Osaki; Tadashi Inuzuka; Haruhiko Takeda; Jun Nakajima; Fumihiro Matsuda; Shin-ichiro Henmi

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To examine the significance of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) treatment before transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS:This study included 99 patients who underwent TACE therapy for HCC at our hospital and were followed up without treatment for at least 6 mo between January 2004 and January 2010.They were divided into 2 groups:those receiving BCAA granules (n =40) or regular diet (n =59,control).Data obtained were retrospectively analyzed (prior to TACE,and 1 wk,1,3,and 6 mo after TACE) in terms of nutritional condition and clinical laboratory parameters (serum albumin level and Child-Pugh score),both of which are determinants of hepatic functional reserve.RESULTS:The BCAA group comprised 27 males and 13 females with a mean age of 69.9 ± 8.8 years.The patients of the BCAA group were classified as follows:Child-Pugh A/B/C in 22/15/3 patients,and Stage Ⅱ/Ⅲ/IVA HCC in 12/23/5 patients,respectively.The control group comprised 32 males and 27 females with a mean age of 73.2 ± 10.1 years.In the control group,9 patients had chronic hepatitis,Child-Pugh A/B/C in 39/10/1 patients,and Stage I/Ⅱ /Ⅲ/IVA HCC in 1/11/35/12 patients,respectively.Overall,both serum albumin level and Child-Pugh score improved significantly in the BCAA group as compared with the control 3 and 6 mo after TACE (P < 0.05).Further analysis was performed by the following categorization:(1) child-Pugh classification; (2) liver cirrhosis subgroup with a serum albumin level > 3.5 g/dL; and (3) epirubicin dose.A similar trend indicating a significant improvement of all variables in the BCAA group was noted (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION:Treatment with BCAA granules in patients who have undergone TACE for HCC is considered useful to maintain their hepatic functional reserve.

  6. Iatrogenic Injury of Profunda Femoris Artery Branches after Intertrochanteric Hip Screw Fixation for Intertrochanteric Femoral Fracture: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Nikolaos Patelis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of arterial rupture of the profunda femoris arterial branches, following dynamic hip screw (DHS fixation for an intertrochanteric femoral fracture, is presented. Bleeding is controlled by coil embolization, but, later on, the patient underwent orthopedic material removal due to an infection of a large femoral hematoma.

  7. Prolongation of injection interval after switching therapy from ranibizumab to aflibercept in Japanese patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Mizuki; Sai, Ryuto; Fukuda, Masahide; Azumi, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the outcome of switching therapy from ranibizumab to aflibercept in Japanese patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in daily practice. Materials and methods This retrospective study enrolled 15 eyes in 15 Japanese patients with ME secondary to BRVO who had been receiving a pro re nata regimen of ranibizumab and had provided written informed consent to switch to aflibercept therapy. The intravitreal injection interval, central retinal thickness, and visual acuity were evaluated before and after switching. Results The mean period of ranibizumab treatment was 11.8±4.2 months. The mean observation period after switching to aflibercept was 10.6±3.4 months, and seven patients were observed for more than 12 months after switching. The mean intravitreal injection interval was prolonged by 23.6 days with aflibercept (68.2±26.4 days with ranibizumab vs 91.8±33.2 days with aflibercept; P=0.0011). The mean intravitreal injection interval just before the switch was 81.3±35.6 days and was significantly prolonged to 100.8±34.2 days just after the switch to aflibercept (P=0.0309). The mean central retinal thickness did not change before or after the switch to aflibercept (295±55 μm with ranibizumab vs 276±25 μm with aflibercept; P=0.12). The mean visual acuity also remained at an improved level after the switch. No systemic or ocular side effects were evident during the study period. Conclusion Switching therapy from ranibizumab to aflibercept in Japanese patients with ME secondary to BRVO prolonged the intravitreal injection interval without anatomical or functional degradation.

  8. Endovascular treatment for hemothorax via contralateral internal thoracic artery branch after Nuss procedure – A case report

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    Daisuke Kanamori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nuss procedure is performed widely as a standard surgical treatment for pectus excavatum. Compared to conventional methods, the Nuss procedure excels in cosmetic terms and involves fewer complications. A 14-year-old boy developed right hemothorax with a sudden shock one month after the Nuss procedure. We identified the bleeding from left internal thoracic artery (ITA branch and achieved hemostasis by endovascular coil embolization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first to report that the ITA on the contralateral side of the hemothorax was responsible for the bleeding.

  9. Subthreshold Micropulse Photocoagulation for Persistent Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion including Best-Corrected Visual Acuity Greater Than 20/40

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    Keiji Inagaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the efficacy of subthreshold micropulse diode laser photocoagulation (SMDLP for persistent macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA > 20/40, thirty-two patients (32 eyes with macular edema secondary to BRVO were treated by SMDLP. After disease onset, all patients had been followed for at least 6 months prior to treatment. Baseline Snellen visual acuity was used to categorize the eyes as BCVA ≤ 20/40 (Group I or BCVA > 20/40 (Group II. Main outcome measures were reduction in central macular thickness (CMT in optical coherence tomography (OCT and BCVA at 6 months. In the total subject-pool at 6 months, BCVA had not changed significantly but CMT was significantly reduced. Group I exhibited no significant change in CMT at 3 months but exhibited significant reductions at 6 and 12 months. Group II exhibited a marginally significant reduction in CMT at 3 months and a significant reduction at 6 months. In patients with persistent macular edema secondary to BRVO, SMDLP appears to control macular edema with minimal retinal damage. Our findings suggest that SMDLP is an effective treatment method for macular edema in BRVO patients with BCVA > 20/40.

  10. Unusual retinal manifestations of PORN combined complications of central retinal artery and vein occlusions%并发视网膜中央动静脉阻塞的特殊PORN1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E-Shawn Goh; Stephen C.B.Teoh; Albert T.H.Lim

    2008-01-01

    ·AIM:To describe an unusual combination of retinal manifestations in an AIDS patient with progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN),complicated by combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).·METHODS:A case report.·RESULTS:The patient presented with PORN with primary optic nerve involvement complicated by combined central retinal artery occlusion(CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion(CRVO) as a primary manifestation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV).Aggressive treatment with intravitreal and specific systemic anti-VZV therapy,in addition to systemic highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) achieved retinal quiescence with sparing of the fellow eye.Visual outcome of the affected eye was poor.·CONCLUSION:We present the first report of PORN associated with the unusual combined complications of CRAO and CRVO. Aggressive local treatment was combined with systemic therapy,which achieved local control and empirical prophylaxis for the fellow eye.%目的:报道1例艾滋病患者特殊的进行性外层视网膜坏死(PORN),同时合并视网膜中央动脉及静脉阻塞.方法:病例报告.结果:患者表现为进行性外层视网膜坏死,视神经亦受累,合并视网膜中央动静脉阻塞,与带状疱疹性视网膜病变的最初表现一样.积极的治疗包括玻璃体腔和特异性系统抗带状疱疹病毒治疗,以及强化的抗逆转录病毒治疗(HAART).视网膜坏死静止,对侧眼未受累,而患眼的视力极差.结论:首次报道了1例并发视网膜中央动静脉阻塞的特殊PORN,积极的局部联合系统治疗使得局部病情控制,并预防了对侧眼发病.

  11. [A case of multiple aneurysms originated from the superior mesenteric artery branch, and a review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, T; Shirakura, T; Usui, M; Kashii, A; Kanazawa, K; Shimizu, H

    1988-11-01

    A case of multiple aneurysm of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) branch is presented. A 54-year-old man with sudden onset of back pain was admitted to our hospital. Severe abdominal pain was developed and he fell into shock. Selective angiography of the SMA demonstrated aneurysm of the accessory middle colic artery to splenic flexure. Laparotomy disclosed much intraperitoneal blood and a large clot under the pancreatic body with a gushing hemorrhage. The bleeding vessel was ligated and sutured. The postoperative course was uneventful, but the subsequent angiography revealed another aneurysm of SMA branch, which was not able to be seen in the previous angiography because of overlapping with main SMA trunk. Resection of the aneurysm was done. The etiology of the latter aneurysm was suggested to be medial degeneration histologically. Fourty-nine cases of SMA aneurysm from the Japanese literature were reviewed and discussed. Emphasis is placed on early diagnostic laparotomy for appropriate management and the role of angiography in confirmation of bleeding site in case of spontaneous intraabdominal hemorrhage.

  12. Summarising the retinal vascular calibres in healthy, diabetic and diabetic retinopathy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontidis, Georgios; Al-Diri, Bashir; Hunter, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Retinal vessel calibre has been found to be an important biomarker of several retinal diseases, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Quantifying the retinal vessel calibres is an important step for estimating the central retinal artery and vein equivalents. In this study, an alternative method to the already established branching coefficient (BC) is proposed for summarising the vessel calibres in retinal junctions. This new method combines the mean diameter ratio with an alternative to Murray׳s cube law exponent, derived by the fractal dimension,experimentally, and the branch exponent of cerebral vessels, as has been suggested in previous studies with blood flow modelling. For the above calculations, retinal images from healthy, diabetic and DR subjects were used. In addition, the above method was compared with the BC and was also applied to the evaluation of arteriovenous ratio as a biomarker of progression from diabetes to DR in four consecutive years, i.e. three/two/one years before the onset of DR and the first year of DR. Moreover, the retinal arteries and veins around the optic nerve head were also evaluated. The new approach quantifies the vessels more accurately. The decrease in terms of the mean absolute percentage error was between 0.24% and 0.49%, extending at the same time the quantification beyond healthy subjects.

  13. Cerebral blood flow volume measurements of the carotid artery and ipsilateral branches using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2011-01-01

    The optimal velocity encoding of phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC MRA) in measuring cerebral blood flow volume (BFV) ranges from 60 to 80 cm/s. To verify the accuracy of two-dimensional (2D) PC MRA, the present study localized the region of interest at blood vessels of the neck using PC MRA based on three-dimensional time-of-flight sequences, and the velocity encodingwas set to 80 cm/s. Results of the measurements showed that the error rate was 7.0 ± 6.0%in the estimation of BFV in the internal carotid artery, the external carotid artery and the ipsilateralcommon carotid artery. There was no significant difference, and a significant correlation in BFV between internal carotid artery + external carotid artery and ipsilateral common carotid artery. Inaddition, the BFV of the common carotid artery was correlated with that of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The main error was attributed to the external carotid artery and its branches. Therefore,after selecting the appropriate scanning parameters and protocols, 2D PC MRA is more accuratein the determination of BFV in the carotid arteries.

  14. A case report and brief review of the literature on bilateral retinal infarction following cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trethowan Brian A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postoperative visual loss is a devastating perioperative complication. The commonest aetiologies are anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION, posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (PION, and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO. These appear to be related to certain types of operation, most commonly spinal and cardiac bypass procedures; with the rest divided between: major trauma causing excessive blood loss; head/neck and nasal or sinus surgery; major vascular procedures (aortic aneurysm repair, aorto-bifemoral bypass; general surgery; urology; gynaecology; liposuction; liver transplantation and duration of surgery. The non-surgical risk factors are multifactorial: advanced age, prolonged postoperative anaemia, positioning (supine v prone, alteration of venous drainage of the retina, hypertension, smoking, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, hypercoagulability, hypotension, blood loss and large volume resuscitation. Other important cardiac causes are septic emboli from bacterial endocarditis and emboli caused by atrial myxomata. The majority of AION cases occur during CPB followed by head/neck surgery and prone spine surgery. CPB is used to allow coronary artery bypass grafting on a motionless heart. It has many side-effects and complications associated with its use and we report here a case of bilateral retinal infarction during routine coronary artery bypass grafting in a young male patient with multiple risk factors for developing this complication despite steps to minimise its occurrence.

  15. Iatrogenic dissection of the celiac artery and its branches during TAE for HCC: results of follow-up in 30 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univrsity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang Hae [College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-01-15

    The authors analyzed 30 patients whose celiac artery or its branches were dissected during the procedure of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and were followed up angiographically. The incidence of arterial dissection was 1.25%. The dissection occurred most frequently in the celiac artery (40% 12/30) and the proper hepatic artery (28% 7/30). The frequency of arterial dissection was affected by the status of the vessel and the experience of the operator. The follow-up angiography revealed complete recanalization in 40% (12/30), irregularity and narrowing of the lumen in 23% (7/30), pseudoaneurysm formation in 23% (7/30), and complete obstruction in 13% (4/30) of the cases. The rate of recanalization in the celiac artery was lower than that of any other arteries in our series. Recanalization to a certain degree without therapeutic intervention was observed in 72% of the dissected arteries enabling and contributing to subsequent successful TAE within 2 months in 78% of the patients with the dissection.

  16. Applied anatomic study about the central retinal artery in SD rats%SD大鼠视网膜中央动脉的应用解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万炜; 刘政海; 伍校琼; 王晓晟; 罗学港

    2013-01-01

    目的 为建立稳定可靠的视神经损伤动物模型寻求解剖学依据.方法 用红色乳胶灌注技术显示正常SD大鼠视网膜中央动脉的来源、分支、分布及其与视神经的关系,并采用体视显微镜摄片测量;明胶墨汁灌注技术显示距眼球后极2.0mm或6.0 nun处横断视神经后视网膜的血供. 结果 视网膜中央动脉及其分支在视神经鞘内始终与视神经干伴行,视网膜中央动脉起始部到眼球后极的距离为(5.784±0.054)mm;距离眼球后极6.0 mm处鞘内视神经横断组大鼠视网膜单位面积血管数日高于其他部位横断组.结论 在制备视神经损伤SD大鼠模型时,损伤视神经应在鞘内进行,损伤部位距眼球后极6.0 mm最佳.%Objective To provide anatomical basis for establishment of a reliable animal model of optic nerve injury.Method Red latex perfusion technology was used to observe the origin,course,distribution of central retinal artery,and its relationship with the optic nerve in normal SD rats and measurement about several parameters was made on the micrographs recorded using the stereoscopic microscope; Moreover,gelatin-ink perfusion technique was adopted to demonstrate the blood supply of the retina with the optic nerve transected at 2.0 mm and 6.0 mm posterior to the posterior pole of the eye.Result Our study shown the central retinal artery and its branches run with the optic nerve at its course within the optic nerve sheath; the origin of the central retinal artery was located (5.784±0.054) mm posterior to the posterior pole of the eye; the vascular density of the central retinal nerve is highest at the sectional surface of it 6.0 mm posteior to the posterior role of the eye.Conclusion In the preparation of the SD rats model with nerve injury,transection should be made within the sheath,with the best place of the transection being located 6.0 mm posterior to the posterior pole of the eye.

  17. Os ramos ventriculares posteriores das artérias coronárias no homem The posterior ventricular branches of the coronary arteries in the human heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Ortale

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os ramos ventriculares posteriores no tecido adiposo epicárdico e propor um novo critério de análise da distribuição desses ramos, conforme a classificação tradicional, a fim de determinar a predominância ou o equilíbrio entre as artérias coronárias no suprimento arterial do coração. MÉTODOS: Dissecados 40 corações obtidos de necroscopias de adultos, fixados em solução de formol e a face posterior de cada ventrículo dividida em oito áreas, aproximadamente iguais, para a classificação morfológica da circulação coronariana. Foram considerados os três tipos tradicionais: A dominância da direita, B tipo balanceado e C dominância da esquerda e analisados o número, o diâmetro e as áreas de terminação dos ramos ventriculares posteriores no epicárdio. RESULTADOS: Os ramos verificados e sua freqüência foram: ramo marginal esquerdo - 100%; ramos posteriores do ventrículo esquerdo: lateral - 75%, intermédio - 82,5% e medial - 87,5%; ramo interventricular posterior - 95%; ramos posteriores do ventrículo direito: medial - 40%, intermédio - 32,5% e lateral - 40%; ramo diagonal posterior do ventrículo direito - 17,5%; ramo marginal direito - 95%. Foram encontrados 62,5% de dominância da artéria coronária direita, 25% de tipo balanceado e 12,5% de dominância da coronária esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: O método adotado permitiu-nos uma classificação mais precisa dos casos analisados nos tipos de distribuição coronariana. O tipo de dominância da artéria coronária direita foi o prevalente, seguido do equilíbrio e da dominância esquerda.OBJECTIVE: To describe the trajectory of the posterior ventricular branches of the coronary arteries in the epicardial adipose tissue, and to propose a new criterion for analyzing the distribution of these branches, according to the traditional classification, to determine the predominance or balance of the coronary arteries in the arterial supply to the heart

  18. Pseudoaneureysm of Carotid Artery and Its Branches Caused by Local Suppuration A Report of 6 Cases%颈部感染性假性动脉瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义; 张金哲

    1987-01-01

    作者三十年间共收治了6例颈部感染性假性动脉瘤.本文就该症的病理临床表现进行了总结.提出了治疗意见.%Caused by pyogenic infection of deep cervical lymph nodes, the pseudoaneurysms of the carotid artery and its branches in the neck are rare. Six cases were handled in the past 30 years. They were three cases of aneurysm of lignual artery, one of external carotid artery, one of internal carotid artery and one of an unidentified branch of the external carotid artery. Outstanding symptoms and signs are as follows: infection in the neck; hematemesis with or without choking resulting from the ruptured aneurysm into the throat; hoarseness, dysphagia, and Horner's syndrome caused by pres sure on vagus, hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal or sympathetic nerves. Pseudoaneurysm as a complication of local suppuration usually lacks of typical findings of an aneurysm, such as expansile pulsation and systolic bruit. It might be misdiagnosed as an abscess. And if incorrectly treated with incision and drainage, blood would gush out terribly from the wound. It should be emphasized that a experimental puncture is preferable. During operation, a temporary occlusion on the proximal part of the feeding vessels must be done before the exploration and ligation of the perforated artery. Thus treated, all the six cases survired without permanent neurologic sequelae.

  19. [Application of retinal oximeter in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Jianmin; Wang, Ningli

    2015-11-01

    Retinal oximeter is a new machine which has been used in the diagnose, treatment and research of several ophthalmic diseases for recent years. It allows ophthalmologists to gain retinal oxygen saturation directly. Therefore, retinal oximeter might be useful for ophthalmologists to understand ophthalmic diseases more deeper and clarify the impact of ischemia on retinal function. It has been reported in the literatures that retinal oximeter has potentially useful diagnostic and therapeutic indications in various eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein and artery occlusion, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, et al. In this thesis, the application of retinal oximeter in ophthalmology is reviewed.

  20. [Use of an iliac branched endoprostheis in endovascular treatment for an abdominal aortic aneurysm combined with aneurysms of both common iliac arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaev, T E; Kuchin, I V; Lepilin, P M; Kolegaev, A S; Medvedeva, I S; Komlev, A E; Akchurin, R S

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm appears to be combined with aneurysmatic lesions of the common iliac arteries in 30-40% of cases. Like abdominal aortic aneurysms, aneurysms of the common iliac arteries rarely manifest themselves clinically. The lethality rate in case of rupture is comparable to that for rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. During endoprosthetic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms combined with aneurysms of the common iliac arteries, in order to prevent endoleaks and to improve the distal zone of fixation of endografts surgeons often resort to embolization of internal iliac arteries, which may lead to ischaemic postoperative complications. One of the methods of preserving pelvic blood flow is the use of an iliac branched endograft. A series of studies evaluating long-term outcomes demonstrated that this method proved to be both safe and effective, and with the suitable anatomy is a method of choice in high surgical risk patients. The present article deals with a clinical case report concerning bilateral endoprosthetic repair of the common iliac arteries, combined with endoprosthetic repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, with the description of technical peculiarities of implanting an iliac branched graft.

  1. Retinal artery occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3;chap 54E. Sanborn ... eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3;chap 14. Yanoff ...

  2. Association of branched-chain amino acids with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery disease risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyue Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have determined that branched-chain (BCAAs and aromatic (AAAs amino acids are strongly correlated with obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia and are strong predictors of diabetes. However, it is not clear if these amino acids are capable of identifying subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD, particularly with subclinical atherosclerosis who are at risk of developing CAD. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy two Chinese subjects (272 males and 200 females, 42-97 y of age undergoing physical exams were recruited at random for participation in the cross-sectional study. Serum BCAAs and AAAs were measured using our previously reported isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Bilateral B-mode carotid artery images for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT were acquired at end diastole and cIMT values more than 0.9 mm were categorized as increased. Correlations of BCAAs with cIMT and other CAD risk factors were analyzed. RESULTS: BCAAs and AAAs were significantly and positively associated with risk factors of CAD, e.g., cIMT, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, TG, apoB, apoB/apoAI ratio, apoCII, apoCIII and hsCRP, and were significantly and negatively associated with HDL-C and apoAI. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.175, P<0.001, log BCAA (β = 0.147, P<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.141, P = 0.012 were positively and independently associated with cIMT. In the logistic regression model, the most and only powerful laboratory factor correlated with increased cIMT was BCAA (the odds ratio of the fourth quartile compared to the first quartile was 2.679; P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: BCAAs are independently correlated with increased cIMT. This correlation would open a new field of research in the mechanistic understanding and risk assessment of CAD.

  3. Using a Surgeon-modified Iliac Branch Device to Preserve the Internal Iliac Artery during Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Single-center Experiences and Early Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wei Wu; Chen Lin; Bao Liu; Chang-Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:To evaluate the feasibility of a new surgeon-modified iliac branch device (IBD) technique to maintain pelvic perfusion in the management of common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysm during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR).Methods:From January 2011 to December 2013,a new surgeon-modified IBD technique was performed in department of vascular surgery of Peking Union Medical College Hospital in five patients treated for CIA aneurysm with or without abdominal aortic aneurysm.A stent-graft limb was initially deployed in vitro,anastomosed with vascular graft,creating a modified IBD reloaded into a larger sheath,with or without a guidewire preloaded into the side branch.The reloaded IBD was then placed in the iliac artery,with a covered stent bridging internal iliac artery and the branch.Finally,a bifurcated stent-graft was deployed,and a limb device was used to connect the main body and IBD.Results:Technical successes were obtained in all patients.The mean follow-up length was 24 months (range:6-38 months).All grafts remained patent without any sign of endoleaks.There were no aneurysm ruptures,deaths,or other complications related to pelvic flow.Conclusions:Using the surgeon-modified IBD to preserve pelvic flow is a feasible endovascular technique and an appealing solution for personalized treatment of CIA aneurysm during EVAR.

  4. Using a Surgeon-modified Iliac Branch Device to Preserve the Internal Iliac Artery during Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Single-center Experiences and Early Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the feasibility of a new surgeon-modified iliac branch device (IBD technique to maintain pelvic perfusion in the management of common iliac artery (CIA aneurysm during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2013, a new surgeon-modified IBD technique was performed in department of vascular surgery of Peking Union Medical College Hospital in five patients treated for CIA aneurysm with or without abdominal aortic aneurysm. A stent-graft limb was initially deployed in vitro, anastomosed with vascular graft, creating a modified IBD reloaded into a larger sheath, with or without a guidewire preloaded into the side branch. The reloaded IBD was then placed in the iliac artery, with a covered stent bridging internal iliac artery and the branch. Finally, a bifurcated stent-graft was deployed, and a limb device was used to connect the main body and IBD. Results: Technical successes were obtained in all patients. The mean follow-up length was 24 months (range: 6-38 months. All grafts remained patent without any sign of endoleaks. There were no aneurysm ruptures, deaths, or other complications related to pelvic flow. Conclusions: Using the surgeon-modified IBD to preserve pelvic flow is a feasible endovascular technique and an appealing solution for personalized treatment of CIA aneurysm during EVAR.

  5. A simple bracing technique to correct kinking of arterial branches to avoid ischemic sequelae during neurovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Motoyama

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The insertion of prostheses with fibrin glue into the crotch of a kinked artery for repair is considered a simple and useful method for correcting a kinked artery that avoids ischemic sequelae.

  6. 视网膜动脉硬化与颈动脉内膜中层厚度相关性的分析%Analysis of retinal artery atherosclerosis and carotid artery intima-media thickness correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨其热; 佟艳秋(通讯作者); 赵全良

    2014-01-01

    With the improvement of living standards of our people and changes in diet , atherosclerosis tends to increase , which is char-acterized by intimal involvement began , more performance for the eye retina arteriosclerosis .This paper analyzes the relationship and relat-ed factors between retinal arteriosclerosis with IMT .The results show that a growing number of retinal artery atherosclerosis with carotid in -timal thickening , IMT and retinal arteriosclerosis is a mutual influence , mutual causal relationship in diabetics .Carotid stenosis , especial-ly the internal carotid artery stenosis can directly affect the retinal blood supply .Therefore , early diagnosis helps to evaluate the situation whole body atherosclerosis .For coronary heart disease , hypertension , cerebrovascular accident and CRAO patients and high -risk groups play a good warning , delaying disease progression .%随着我国人民生活水平的提高和饮食习惯的改变,动脉硬化呈增高趋势,其特点是受累病变的内膜开始,眼部多表现为视网膜动脉硬化。本文对视网膜动脉硬化与IMT相关性及相关因素进行观察分析。结果表明,越来越多的视网膜动脉粥样硬化合并颈动脉内膜增厚,糖尿病患者IMT与视网膜动脉硬化是相互影响,互为因果的关系。颈动脉狭窄特别是颈内动脉狭窄可直接影响视网膜血供。因此,早期诊断有助于判定全身动脉硬化情况,对冠心病、高血压、脑血管意外以及CRAO等患者及高危人群起到良好的警示作用,延缓疾病的进展。

  7. Calcification at orifices of aortic arch branches is a reliable and significant marker of stenosis at carotid bifurcation and intracranial arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shigeki, E-mail: shigekiyamada3@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery and Stroke Center, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji, E-mail: hashiken8022@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Kishiwada Municipal Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Ogata, Hideki, E-mail: hidogata@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshihiko, E-mail: ynabe@magic.odn.ne.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Oshima, Marie, E-mail: marie@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Miyake, Hidenori, E-mail: hi-miyake@hamamatsuh.rofuku.go.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Simple rating scale for calcification in the cervical arteries and the aortic arch on multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) was evaluated its reliability and validity. Additionally, we investigated where is the most representative location for evaluating the calcification risk of carotid bifurcation stenosis and atherosclerotic infarction in the overall cervical arteries covering from the aortic arch to the carotid bifurcation. Method: The aortic arch and cervical arteries among 518 patients (292 men, 226 women) were evaluated the extent of calcification using a 4-point grading scale for MDCTA. Reliability, validity and the concomitant risk with vascular stenosis and atherosclerotic infarction were assessed. Results: Calcification was most frequently observed in the aortic arch itself, the orifices from the aortic arch, and the carotid bifurcation. Compared with the bilateral carotid bifurcations, the aortic arch itself had a stronger inter-observer agreement for the calcification score (Fleiss’ kappa coefficients; 0.77), but weaker associations with stenosis and atherosclerotic infarction. Calcification at the orifices of the aortic arch branches had a stronger inter-observer agreement (0.74) and enough associations with carotid bifurcation stenosis and intracranial stenosis. In addition, the extensive calcification at the orifices from the aortic arch was significantly associated with atherosclerotic infarction, similar to the calcification at the bilateral carotid bifurcations. Conclusions: The orifices of the aortic arch branches were the novel representative location of the aortic arch and overall cervical arteries for evaluating the calcification extent. Thus, calcification at the aortic arch should be evaluated with focus on the orifices of 3 main branches.

  8. Fifty-eight cases of ocular ischemic diseases caused by carotid artery stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Rong-jiang; LIU Shao-rui; LI Xiao-min; ZHUO Ye-hong; TIAN Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Background The blood supply to the eye comes from the retinal central vascular system of the ophthalmic artery and the ciliary vascular system. The ophthalmic artery stems from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. If occlusion or stenosis occurs in the carotid artery, the blood perfusion to the ophthalmic artery becomes insufficient, leading to signs and symptoms of anterior and posterior ocular ischemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of ocular ischemic diseases caused by carotid artery stenosis.Methods This study was a retrospective review of 145 patients with carotid artery stenosis. Fifty-eight patients who had symptoms of ocular ischemic disease caused by carotid artery stenosis formed group A and the other 87 patients who only had carotid artery stenosis formed group B. We analyzed the causes and course of disease, and relative risk factors,by comparing the two groups.Results The degree of carotid artery stenosis in group A was higher than that in group B. And group A had a greater decrease of ophthalmic artery flow. Male, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking were significantly related to carotid artery stenosis. Amaurosis fugax was the most common ocular symptom in group A. The ocular ischemic diseases mainly included ischemic optic neuropathy, central/branch retinal artery occlusion, ophthalmoplegia externa, and ocular ischemic syndrome.Conclusions Carotid artery stenosis correlates with ocular ischemic diseases. Ophthalmologists must observe for ocular symptoms, which were the onset symptoms in some patients.

  9. Arterial diameter of the celiac trunk and its branches: anatomical study Diâmetro arterial do tronco celíaco e seus ramos: estudo anatômico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto da Silveira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Despite the fact that anatomical variations of the celiac trunk are well explored in the literature, information on these vessels diameters is scanty. The aims of the present study were to describe the arterial diameters of the celiac trunk and its main branches, and to investigate if these diameters are altered in those cases presenting anatomical variations of these vessels. METHODS: Twenty-one formalin fixed adult male cadavers were appropriately dissected for the celiac trunk identification and arterial diameter measurements. Arteries measured included the celiac trunk and its main branches (splenic artery, left gastric artery and common hepatic artery, as the proper hepatic artery, right gastric artery, the left and right hepatic arteries and the gastroduodenal artery. RESULTS: From the 21 cadavers, 6 presented anatomical variations of, at least, one of the above mentioned branches. The average arterial diameter comparisons between groups (normal and variable clearly showed smaller diameters for variable vessels, but with no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Our data indicates the possibility of a diameter reduction of the celiac trunk main branches in the presence of anatomical variations. This should be taken into account on the selection for the liver transplantation donors.OBJETIVO: Embora as variações arteriais do tronco celíaco e seus ramos estejam bem documentadas na literatura, o mesmo não ocorre com as descrições dos diâmetros dessas artérias. O presente estudo tem por objetivo descrever os diâmetros arteriais do tronco celíaco e seus ramos em indivíduos normais, bem como investigar se esses diâmetros se apresentam alterados em indivíduos com variação anatômica desses vasos. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos 21 cadáveres adultos, do sexo masculino, previamente fixados em formol a 10% que foram dissecados apropriadamente para a exposição do tronco celíaco e seus ramos. Com o auxílio de um paquímetro digital

  10. Tomographic Evaluation of Prevalence, Position, and Diameter of the Intraosseous Branch of the Posterior Superior Alveolar Artery in Fully Edentulous Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes; Abdala, Marciel Antônio; Nary-Filho, Hugo; Sakakura, Celso Eduardo; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia; Leite, Felipe Coletti

    2017-03-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence, position, and diameter of the intraosseous branch (IObr) of the posterior superior alveolar artery in fully edentulous patients. Two-hundred five computed tomography scans of fully edentulous patients were analyzed. The presence of the IObr was investigated in the coronal plane at the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. In patients in whom the IObr was detected, the artery diameter was measured, and the distance from the artery to the bone crest of the alveolar ridge, the maxillary sinus floor, and the distance of the maxillary sinus floor to the bone crest of the alveolar ridge were measured as well. A descriptive statistical analysis of these parameters was conducted. The IObr was identified in the maxillary sinus in 105 tomography images (51.2%), and its diameter varied between 0.8 and 3.3 mm (1.29 ± 0.49 mm). The IObr presented with an artery diameter less than 1 mm in 29% of the patients, between 1 and 2 mm diameter in 61% of the patients and with a diameter larger than 2 mm in 10% of patients. Regarding the IObr topography, the distance from the artery to the floor of the maxillary sinus was 9.62 ± 4.59 mm, and the distance from the artery to the top of crestal bone was 15.15 ± 4.47 mm. At least 10% of edentulous patients are at risk of bleeding complications during interventions in the maxillary sinus.

  11. Comparison of myocardial infarction with sequential ligation of the left anterior descending artery and its diagonal branch in dogs and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W G; Shin, Y C; Hwang, S W; Lee, C; Na, C Y

    2003-04-01

    We report a comparison of the effects of myocardial infarction in dogs and sheep using sequential ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and its diagonal branch (DA), with hemodynamic, ultrasonographic and pathological evaluations. Five animals were used in each group. After surgical preparation, the LAD was ligated at a point approximately 40% of the distance from the apex to the base of the heart, and after one hour, the DA was ligated at the same level. Hemodynamic and ultrasonographic measurements were performed preligation, 30 minutes after LAD ligation, and 1 hour after DA ligation. As a control, two animals in each group were used for the simultaneous ligation of the LAD and the DA. Two months after the coronary ligation, the animals were evaluated as previously, and killed for postmortem examination of their hearts. All seven animals in the dog group survived the experimental procedures, while in the sheep group only animals with sequential ligation of the LAD and DA survived. Statistically significant decreases in systemic arterial blood pressure and cardiac output, and an increase in the pulmonary artery capillary wedge pressure (PACWP) were observed one hour after sequential ligation of the LAD and its DA in the sheep, while only systemic arterial pressures decreased in the dog. Ultrasonographic analyses demonstrated variable degrees of anteroseptal dyskinesia and akinesia in all sheep, but in no dogs. Data two months after coronary artery ligation showed significant increases in central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and PACWP in the sheep, but not in the dog. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and left ventricular end-systolic dimension in ultrasonographic studies were also increased only in the sheep. Pathologically, the well-demarcated thin-walled transmural anteroseptal infarcts with chamber enlargement were clearly seen in all specimens of sheep, and only-mild-to-moderate chamber enlargements with endocardial

  12. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert;

    2013-01-01

    , Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral...... arterial oxygen saturation and the optical density ratio over retinal arteries revealed an approximately linear relationship (R(2) = 0.74, p = 3.4 x 10(-9)). In order to test the validity of applying the arterial calibration to veins, we compared non-invasive oximetry measurements to invasive pO2...

  13. Retinal flow cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, C; Veilleux, I; Lee, H; Pitsillides, C M; Côté, D; Lin, C P

    2007-12-01

    The in vivo flow cytometer is an instrument capable of continuous, real-time monitoring of fluorescently labeled cells in the circulation without the need to draw blood samples. However, the original system probes a single vessel in the mouse ear; the small sample volume limits the sensitivity of the technique. We describe an in vivo retinal flow cytometer that simultaneously probes five artery-vein pairs in the mouse eye by circularly scanning a small laser spot rapidly around the optic nerve head. We demonstrate that the retinal flow cytometer detects about five times more cells per minute than the original in vivo flow cytometer does in the ear.

  14. Pelvic injuries in combination with vascular lesions of branches from the iliac artery: Outcome - Incidence - Treatment strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H.; Klemt, C.; Uhrmeister, P.

    2002-01-01

    with combined bony and arterial pelvic injuries. Data include all patients with pelvic injury treated at the Department of Traumatology of the University of Freiburg/Germany between 1991 and 1999 (5 years prospectively, 4 years retrospectively recorded). 17 (3.74%) of 454 patients with pelvic trauma suffered...... hemoglobin or initial systolic blood pressure appear not to be valuable as prognostic factors. In contrast, amount of necessary transfusions within the first 24 hours in the subgroup of patients that died was almost twice as high when compared to all patients with pelvic injury suggesting that fast...

  15. Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT in patients with left bundle branch block suspected for coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engbers, Elsemiek M.; Mouden, Mohamed [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Timmer, Jorik R.; Ottervanger, Jan Paul [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on sequential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/ CT imaging starting with stress-first SPECT. Consecutive symptomatic low- to intermediate-risk patients without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for SPECT/CT were included from an observational registry. If stress SPECT was abnormal, additional rest SPECT and, if feasible, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) were acquired. Of the 5,018 patients, 218 (4.3 %) demonstrated LBBB. Patients with LBBB were slightly older than patients without LBBB (65±12 vs. 61±11 years, p<0.001). Stress SPECT was more frequently abnormal in patients with LBBB (82 % vs. 46 %, p<0.001). After reviewing stress and rest images, SPECT was normal in 43 % of the patients with LBBB, compared to 77 % of the patients without LBBB (p<0.001). Sixty-four of the 124 patients with LBBB and abnormal stress-rest SPECT underwent CCTA (52 %), which could exclude obstructive CAD in 46 of the patients (72 %). Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT is not the optimal imaging protocol in patients with LBBB, as the majority of these patients have potentially false-positive stress SPECT. First-line testing using CCTA may be more appropriate in low- to intermediate-risk patients with LBBB. (orig.)

  16. Loss of caveolin-1 causes blood-retinal barrier breakdown, venous enlargement, and mural cell alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaowu; Fliesler, Steven J; Zhao, You-Yang; Stallcup, William B; Cohen, Alex W; Elliott, Michael H

    2014-02-01

    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and related vascular changes are implicated in several ocular diseases. The molecules and mechanisms regulating BRB integrity and pathophysiology are not fully elucidated. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) ablation results in loss of caveolae and microvascular pathologies, but the role of Cav-1 in the retina is largely unknown. We examined BRB integrity and vasculature in Cav-1 knockout mice and found a significant increase in BRB permeability, compared with wild-type controls, with branch veins being frequent sites of breakdown. Vascular hyperpermeability occurred without apparent alteration in junctional proteins. Such hyperpermeability was not rescued by inhibiting eNOS activity. Veins of Cav-1 knockout retinas exhibited additional pathological features, including i) eNOS-independent enlargement, ii) altered expression of mural cell markers (eg, down-regulation of NG2 and up-regulation of αSMA), and iii) dramatic alterations in mural cell phenotype near the optic nerve head. We observed a significant NO-dependent increase in retinal artery diameter in Cav-1 knockout mice, suggesting that Cav-1 plays a role in autoregulation of resistance vessels in the retina. These findings implicate Cav-1 in maintaining BRB integrity in retinal vasculature and suggest a previously undefined role in the retinal venous system and associated mural cells. Our results are relevant to clinically significant retinal disorders with vascular pathologies, including diabetic retinopathy, uveoretinitis, and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  17. Retinal occlusive vasculer disorder and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ortak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease that affected older women with many ocular manifestations. Also, these systemic diseases can cause retinal vein occlusion and arterial occlusion that lead to serious and permanent visual loss. Rheumatoid arthritis's the most common manifestation is that retinal vasculitis and retinal vascular complications are associated with this complication. In this review, retinal vascular occlusive diseases are presented to associated with rheumatoid arthritis in literature. Rheumatoid arthritis and its complications have been outlined and was made to create a new perspective. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(1.000: 71-73

  18. AUTOMATIC RETINAL VESSEL TORTUOSITY MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhal Khdhair El Abbadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vascular vessels have the role to indicate the retinal diseases and for systematic diseases when there are any abnormalities in retinal vascular pattern. A characteristic of the vascular pattern that is appreciated by clinicians is vascular tortuosity, i.e., how curved or kinked a blood vessel, either vein or artery, appears along its course. In this study we suggest a novel mask filter to track the blood vessel along its course and measuring the blood vessels tortuosity over the entire human retinal vessel network in fundus eye image, by using the arc to chord ratio. The suggested algorithm tested with straight and curve hand drawing lines and gives high accurate results.

  19. Clinical Application of Skin Flap Pedicled with Dorsal Carpal Branch of Ulnar Artery%尺动脉腕上支皮瓣在手部皮肤缺损中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任静; 张金鹏; 范永红; 宋家祥; 张勇; 刘峰; 吕晓峰; 李智; 赵爱彬; 朱明雨; 朱庭标; 顾浩

    2013-01-01

      目的:总结应用尺动脉腕上支皮瓣修复手、腕部软组织缺损。方法:对11例手、腕部软组织缺损应用尺动脉腕上支皮瓣修复的治疗进行回顾性分析。结果:除2例皮瓣边缘部分坏死,其余皮瓣全部成活,术后稍显臃肿,功能恢复满意。结论:尺动脉腕上支皮瓣具有取材方便、血供可靠、不牺牲主干血管等优点,是修复手、腕部软组织缺损的理想皮瓣。%Objective:To summary clinical application of skin flap pedicled with dorsal carpal branch of ulnar artery to reconstruct soft tissue defects of hand or wrist.Methods: Surgical outcome of 11 cases of soft tissue defects of hands or wrists which were reconstructed by skin flap pedicled with dorsal carpal branch of ulnar artery were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Good coverage of the defects has been achieved except partial necrosis of flap edge in two cases. The limbs seem to be slightly Bulging after surgery but function well. Conclusion:The major advantage of skin flap pedicled with dorsal carpal branch of ulnar artery should be it’ s easy dissection and reliable blood supply. In the same time, major vascular do not need to be sacrificed. Skin flap pedicled with dorsal carpal branch of ulnar artery might be an ideal choice to reconstruct soft tissue defect of hand or wrist.

  20. Identifying All True Vessels from Segmented Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delucta Mary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of retinal blood vessel morphology have been shown to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The wrong identification of vessels may result in a large variation of these measurements, leading to a wrong clinical diagnosis Both the arteries and veins of the retina are generally binary trees, whose properties can be considered either locally or globally. Measurable geometrical changes in diameter, branching angle, length, or tortuosity, as a result of disease, have been described in retinal blood vessels. The detection and measurement of retinal blood vessels can be used to quantify the severity of disease such as hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis, as part of the process of automated diagnosis of disease or in the assessment of the progression of therapy. Thus, a reliable method of vessel detection and quantification would be valuable. In this paper, we address the problem of identifying true vessels as a postprocessing step to vascular structure segmentation. We model the segmented vascular structure as a vessel segment graph and formulate the problem of identifying vessels as one of finding the optimal forest in the graph given a set of constraints.

  1. The relationship between association of microalbuminuria and retinal vessel diameter in population with essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio(UACR) and the diameter of retinal vessel in population with essential hypertension inFujian coastal area.Methods Central retinal artery and

  2. Retinal vascular changes in hypertensive patients in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleye ST

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sunday Tunji Oluleye,1 Bolutife Ayokunu Olusanya,1 Abiodun Moshood Adeoye2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria Background: Earlier studies in Nigeria reported the rarity of retinal vascular changes in hypertensives. The aim of this study was to describe the various retinal vascular changes in the hypertensive patients of Nigeria.Patients and methods: Nine hundred and three hypertensive patients were studied. This study was approved by the ethical and research committee of the University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were measured. Cardiac echocardiography was performed on 156 patients. All patients had dilated fundoscopy and fundus photography using the Kowa portable fundus camera and an Apple iPhone with 20 D lens. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (Version 21.Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years with a male:female ratio of 1. No retinopathy was found in 556 (61.5% patients. In all, 175 (19.4% patients had features of hypertensive retinopathy. Retinal vascular occlusion was a significant finding in 121 patients (13.4%, of which branch retinal vein occlusion, 43 (4.7%, and central retinal vein occlusion, 30 (3.3%, were the most prominent ones in cases. Hemicentral retinal vein occlusion, 26 (2.9%, and central retinal artery occlusion, 17 (1.9%, were significant presentations. Other findings included nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in five (0.6% patients, hypertensive choroidopathy in seven (0.8% patients, and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment in five (0.6% patients. Left ventricular (LV geometry was abnormal in 85 (55.5% patients. Concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy were observed in 43 (27.6%, 26 (17.2%, and 15 (9.7% patients, respectively. LV

  3. 视网膜血管管径与颈动脉狭窄患者脑梗死发生的相关性分析%Relation between retinal vessel diameters and carotid artery stenosis patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵露; 谢国丽; 王佳琳; 王艳玲

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察探讨视网膜血管管径与颈动脉狭窄患者脑梗死发生的相关性.方法 彩色多普勒血流显像检查确诊的颈动脉狭窄患者87例174只眼纳入研究.患者中,男性49例,女性38例;平均年龄(65.25±7.85)岁.以是否有脑梗死将患者分为脑梗死组和对照组,分别为34、53例.两组患者间年龄(t=1.916)、男性构成比(x2=0.142)、颈动脉狭窄程度(x2=0.785)比较,差异均无统计学意义(P=0.059、0.706、0.675).散瞳后拍摄以黄斑和视盘之间中点为中心周围45°彩色眼底像,包括视盘、黄斑、颞侧黄斑区上下血管弓以及距离视盘边缘2个视盘直径(DD)的鼻侧区域.应用IVAN计算机图像分析软件,测量距视盘边缘1/2~1DD范围内视网膜动静脉的血管直径.主要参数为视网膜中央动脉直径(CRAE)、视网膜中央静脉直径(CRVE)、视网膜动静脉比值(ARV).视网膜血管管径与脑梗死关系行logistic回归分析.结果 脑梗死组CRVE、CRAE、AVR分别为(132.90±20.67)、(243.47±43.92)μm和0.56±0.10;对照组分别为(145.26±21.59)、(224.99±32.35) μm和0.68±0.13.两组CRVE、CRAE、AVR比较,差异均有统计学意义(t=-2.648、2.257、-4.631,P<0.05).多因素logistic回归分析,控制年龄、吸烟、低密度脂蛋白混杂因素后,CRAE与脑梗死发生相关性降低,CRVE与脑梗死发生呈显著相关(P=0.015、0.011).结论 CRAE降低、CRVE增加是颈动脉狭窄患者脑梗死发生的危险因素;对颈动脉狭窄患者脑梗死发生有一定预测价值.%Objective To investigate the relationship between retinal vessel diameters and cerebral infarction of carotid artery stenosis patients.Methods Eighty seven patients (174 eyes) with carotid stenosis were included in this study.There were 49 males and 38 females,with an average age of (65.25±7.85) years.Thirty-four patients were suffered from cerebral infarction (cerebral infarction group),and the other 53 patients had no cerebral

  4. Acute occlusion of the left subclavian artery with artery dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Subclavian steal syndrome is cerebral or brain stem ischemia resulting from diversion of blood flow from the basilar artery to the subclavian artery, which is caused by occlusive disease of either the subclavian artery or the innominate artery before they branch off at the vertebral artery. In the patients with subclavian steal syndrome the subclavian artery is fed by retrograde flow from the vertebral artery via the carotids and the circle of Willis.

  5. 指固有动脉终末背侧支皮瓣修复指端缺损的疗效观察%Repair of fingertip defect with double flaps based on the end dorsal branches of the digital artery and dorsal metacarpal artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于吉文; 霍永峰; 顾光学; 厉雷明; 王彤; 盛路新

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨应用指固有动脉终末背侧支皮瓣修复指端组织缺损的临床疗效. 方法 2007年3月—2011年10月,应用指固有动脉终末背侧支岛状皮瓣修复指端组织缺损6例. 结果 术后6例皮瓣全部成活,随访1~12个月,平均7.3个月,皮瓣血运良好,色泽及弹性与受区周围皮肤基本一致. 皮瓣无明确皮神经支配,感觉恢复较差,术后6~12个月,皮瓣两点辨别觉为6~8 mm,对冷热觉不敏感,对针刺等疼痛刺激有感觉. 结论 指固有动脉终末背侧支岛状皮瓣修复指端组织缺损是一种可行手术方法.%Objective To study the effect of flap based on the end dorsal branches of the digital artery on repairing of fingertip soft tissue loss. Methods From March 2007 to October 2008, the reverse flap of the end dorsal branches of digital artery was harvested for coverage of fingertip soft tissue loss for 6 cases, at the same time the reverse flap of dorsal metacarpal artery to repair dorsal donor site. Among the 6 patients, 2 cases were index fingers, 1 case was middle finger, 3 cases were ring fingers. Results All flaps survived completely. Follow-up of 1~12 months in the 6 cases, averaged 7.3 months. The blood supply and texture of the flaps was fine, and the color and elasticity was of little difference to the ambient. The skin nerves of the double flaps were not connected, and the sensibility of the flaps was poorly recovered, and the two-point discrimination was 6~8 mm in sensate flap which based on the end dorsal branches of digital artery, while it was 8-10 mm in sensate flap which based on the dorsal metacarpal artery during 6-12 months postoperative. Conclusion Double flaps based on the end dorsal branches of the digital artery and dorsal metacarpal artery is a realistic and effective method to repair fingertip defect.

  6. Efeito da tibolona sobre parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana Tibolone's effect on retinal and ophthalmic arteries flowmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Martins de Souza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do uso da tibolona sobre os parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana. MÉTODOS: realizou-se ensaio clínico, prospectivo, longitudinal, aleatorizado, controlado com placebo, duplo-cego, no qual dentre 100 mulheres na menopausa, 50 usaram o princípio ativo tibolona 2,5 mg (Grupo Tib e 50, o placebo para formar o grupo controle (Grupo Plac. No Grupo Tib, das 50 mulheres que iniciaram o estudo, 44 retornaram após 84 dias para a finalização dos exames. No Grupo Plac retornaram 47 delas. As artérias oftálmica e retiniana foram estudadas, determinando-se o índice de resistência (IR, índice de pulsatilidade (IP e relação sístole/diástole (S/D. As aferições foram feitas antes e 84 dias após a medicação. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student para amostras independentes na comparação das medianas entre os grupos e para amostras dependentes na comparação entre as medianas dentro do mesmo grupo. RESULTADOS: as características das mulheres nos dois grupos foram semelhantes em relação à idade, ao tempo de menopausa, ao índice de massa corporal, à pressão arterial, à paridade e à freqüência cardíaca. O Grupo Tib apresentou as seguintes medianas: IR(pré=0,71±0,05, IR(pós=0,72±0,08 (p=0,43; IP(pré=1,29±0,22, IP(pós=1,30±0,25 (p=0,4 e SD(pré=3,49±0,77, SD(pós=3,65±0,94 (p=0,32. Na artéria retiniana foram obtidas as seguintes medianas na artéria oftálmica: IR(pré=0,67±0,09, IR(pós=0,69±0,10 (p=0,7; IP(pré=1,20±0,29, IP(pós=1,22±0,3 (p=0,2 e SD(pré=3,29±0,95, SD(pós=3,30±1,07 (p=0,3. Os grupos tibolona e controle não apresentaram diferenças significantes nos índices quando avaliados ao final do estudo. CONCLUSÕES: a tibolona, na dose de 2,5 mg, não apresenta efeitos sobre os índices doppler das artérias oftálmica e retiniana.PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of tibolone use on dopplervelocimetric parameters of ophthalmic and retinal arteries

  7. Retinitis pigmentosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartong, Dyonne T.; Berson, Eliot L.; Dryja, Thaddeus P.

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary degenerations of the human retina are genetically heterogeneous, with well over 100 genes implicated so far. This Seminar focuses on the subset of diseases called retinitis pigmentosa, in which patients typically lose night vision in adolescence, side vision in young adulthood, and centra

  8. Apports du bilan étiologique des occlusions de l'artère centrale de la rétine et de ses branches et conséquences thérapeutiques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coisy, S; Leruez, S; Ebran, J-M;

    2013-01-01

    Retinal artery occlusions (RAO) are severe conditions threatening vision, affecting the subsequent mortality of these patients.......Retinal artery occlusions (RAO) are severe conditions threatening vision, affecting the subsequent mortality of these patients....

  9. Retinal and choroidal intravascular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Li, Xiao Qiang; Cordtz, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    flow in the retinal vessels in patients with ocular ischaemic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion were both associated with lower reflectivity of the blood and an unstructured intravascular SD-OCT profile. Discussion:  This qualitative in vivo study found a characteristically structured SD...

  10. Frosted branch angiitis, neuroretinitis as initial ocular manifestation in Behçet disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mujaini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet disease is an idiopathic, multisystem disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of orogenital ulceration and vasculitis of the veins and arteries of all calibers. Ocular involvement may affect the conjunctiva, sclera, uveal tract, vitreous, blood vessels, and retina. Many theories have pointed toward an autoimmune response behind its pathogenesis, which may be triggered by exposure to an infectious agent. Frosted branch angiitis is characterized by vascular inflammation, sheathing, retinal edema, and retinal hemorrhages. The disease may be idiopathic in a majority of the cases or may be associated with ocular and systemic pathology. Association between Behηet disease, Frosted branch angiitis, and neuroretinitis is not reported in literature. This uncommon combination reflects the varied systemic and ocular manifestations in Behηet disease, especially in patients who are not diagnosed and treated in time. We hereby report a case of bilateral frosted branch angiitis and neuroretinitis in a young male from Middle-east, suffering from Behçet disease.

  11. Retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme cases may have a rapid evolution over two decades or a slow progression that never leads to blindness. In some cases, the clinical presentation is a cone-rod dystrophy, in which the decrease in visual acuity predominates over the visual field loss. RP is usually non syndromic but there are also many syndromic forms, the most frequent being Usher syndrome. To date, 45 causative genes/loci have been identified in non syndromic RP (for the autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and digenic forms. Clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of night blindness and peripheral visual field defects, lesions in the fundus, hypovolted electroretinogram traces, and progressive worsening of these signs. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, but is not usually performed due to the tremendous genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Genetic counseling is always advised. Currently, there is no therapy that stops the evolution of the disease or restores the vision, so the visual prognosis is poor. The therapeutic approach is restricted to slowing down the degenerative process by sunlight protection and vitaminotherapy, treating the complications (cataract and macular edema, and helping patients to cope with the social and psychological impact of blindness. However, new therapeutic strategies are emerging from intensive research (gene therapy, neuroprotection, retinal prosthesis.

  12. Repairing of fingertip defect with topographical anterograde flap pedicled with digital artery trunk or branch%带指掌侧固有动脉或其分支局部顺行皮瓣修复指端缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宏伟; 吴杰; 江标; 连素文; 邹育才; 肖瑛; 赵资坚; 林丽贤

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨带指掌侧固有动脉或其分支局部顺行皮瓣修复指端缺损的临床效果。方法总结2011年6月至2014年6月期间,采用带指掌侧固有动脉或其分支局部顺行皮瓣转移修复的83例118个指端缺损的临床资料。结果92个皮瓣顺利成活。7个背侧旋转皮瓣、5个V-Y推进皮瓣在术后24 h内出现动脉危象,9个背侧旋转皮瓣、5个掌侧旋转皮瓣在术后24 h内出现静脉危象。视循环危象具体情况分别采用拆除皮瓣周边、蒂部部分缝线,皮瓣小切口放血,皮瓣按摩,改变手指体位,患指制动等方法处理。动脉危象皮瓣4个存活,8个部分坏死。静脉危象皮瓣8个存活,6个部分坏死。皮瓣供区植皮57/62例(91.9%)全部成活。67例99指获得3~12个月、平均5.5个月的随访。皮瓣色泽红润、质地柔软、外观自然、不臃肿,与周围皮肤接近。皮瓣蒂部不臃肿。指端饱满,外形良好。两点辨别觉8~12 mm,无痛性瘢痕形成,无严重触痛。患指各关节活动基本正常,无关节坚硬。患者能适应正常工作与生活,对指端感觉及伤指外形均较满意。按中华医学会手外科学会上肢部分功能评定试用标准评定,优63指,良20指,可16指,优良率83.8%。结论带指掌侧固有动脉或其分支局部顺行皮瓣修复指端缺损,方法简便,无需复杂显微外科技术,效果满意,对供区影响小,成功率高,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To investigate the clinical outcomes of repairing fingertip defects by transferring topographical anterograde flaps pedicled with digital artery trunk or branch. Methods From Jun. 2011 to Jun. 2014, 118 fingers in 83 cases with fingertip defects were treated with topographical anterograde flaps pedicled with digital artery trunk or branch. We recorded and generalized the clinical materials. Results 92 flaps survived uneventfully. 7 digital artery dorsal

  13. Description of the celiac artery in domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Geeverghese

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to define the origin and distribution of the celiac artery and its collateral branches in 15 fowls from the Columba livia species, which were obtained from the Zoonosis Control Center of Brasilia, Brazil. In order to mark the arterial system of the specimens, the left brachiocephalic trunk was canullated and a colored water-latex solution was injected there. Afterwards, fowls were fixed in a 10% v/v formaldehyde solution and dissected with appropriate equipment, presenting the results described in this paper. The celiac artery originated from the ventral face of the descendent aorta. The first collateral branch arose from the celiac artery itself, forming the esophageal artery. Then, the celiac artery has bifurcated into two branches, named left and right branches of the celiac artery. The left branch emitted the proventricular ventral artery, followed by the splenic arteries, proventricular dorsal artery, and the left hepatic artery. The left branch has bifurcated into two branches, known as ventral and left gastric arteries. The right branch emitted the right hepatic artery, followed by the ileal artery and the right gastric artery. Finally, the right branch turned into the pancreaticoduodenal artery. Our findings showed a great similarity with the avian lineages of the Gallus gallus species, except for the lack of ileocecal artery, cystic branches, and dorsal gastric artery.

  14. Retinal vascular changes in hypertensive patients in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluleye, Sunday Tunji; Olusanya, Bolutife Ayokunu; Adeoye, Abiodun Moshood

    2016-01-01

    Background Earlier studies in Nigeria reported the rarity of retinal vascular changes in hypertensives. The aim of this study was to describe the various retinal vascular changes in the hypertensive patients of Nigeria. Patients and methods Nine hundred and three hypertensive patients were studied. This study was approved by the ethical and research committee of the University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were measured. Cardiac echocardiography was performed on 156 patients. All patients had dilated fundoscopy and fundus photography using the Kowa portable fundus camera and an Apple iPhone with 20 D lens. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (Version 21). Results The mean age of patients was 57 years with a male:female ratio of 1. No retinopathy was found in 556 (61.5%) patients. In all, 175 (19.4%) patients had features of hypertensive retinopathy. Retinal vascular occlusion was a significant finding in 121 patients (13.4%), of which branch retinal vein occlusion, 43 (4.7%), and central retinal vein occlusion, 30 (3.3%), were the most prominent ones in cases. Hemicentral retinal vein occlusion, 26 (2.9%), and central retinal artery occlusion, 17 (1.9%), were significant presentations. Other findings included nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in five (0.6%) patients, hypertensive choroidopathy in seven (0.8%) patients, and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment in five (0.6%) patients. Left ventricular (LV) geometry was abnormal in 85 (55.5%) patients. Concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy were observed in 43 (27.6%), 26 (17.2%), and 15 (9.7%) patients, respectively. LV hypertrophy was found in 42 (27%) patients, while 60 (39%) patients had increased relative wall thickness. In this study, bivariate analysis showed a correlation between LV relative wall thickness and severity of retinopathy in both eyes

  15. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... and blood glucose, variations in retinal blood vessel diameters and blood pressure were predominantly attributable to genetic effects. A genetic influence may have a role in individual susceptibility to hypertension and other vascular diseases. The results suggest that retinal vessel diameters...

  16. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.;

    2014-01-01

    ) and retinal venular calibre (central retinal vein equivalent) were measured computer-assisted on retinal photographs. Data on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and smoking were collected...... only. Blood pressure had the strongest effect on arteriolar calibre, with a decrease in calibre of 3.6m (women)/4.1m (men) per standard deviation increase in mean arterial blood pressure. Retinal venular calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, BMI, HDL and LDL cholesterol....... Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men...

  17. 分支补片在28例肝移植肝动脉重建中的应用%Application of Branch Patch in Hepatic Artery Reconstruction of 28 Cases of Liver Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝明利; 谷川; 何玉中; 刘振文; 朱志军; 沈中阳

    2001-01-01

    介绍在肝移植肝动脉重建中,避免因吻合肝动脉口径相差过大,造成内膜损伤、术后狭窄和血栓形成的方法。方法:利用分支补片技术,将供肝肝总动脉和胃十二指肠动脉分叉处,修整成肝固有动脉补片。将受体肝固有动脉和胃十二指肠动脉分叉处,修整成肝总动脉补片,相吻合重建肝动脉。结果:在28例肝移植肝动脉重建中均一次吻合成功,术后随访1~12个月,经多普勒超声监测,管腔通畅,血流速正常。3例发生高流速、高阻力,肝穿刺活检证实为排异反应,应用甲基强的松龙冲击治疗缓解,血流速恢复正常。结论:本方法解决了吻合血管之间口径相差过大,易致吻合后吻合口缩窄的问题,加大了吻合口处口径,延长了动脉,减低了吻合口张力。出血极少,明显缩短了手术时间。%To introduce the application of branch patch in hepatic artery reconstruction of 28 cases of liver transplantation. Methods: The proper hepatic patch was made with the bifurcation of common hepatic and gastroduodenal arteries in donors, and the common hepatic branch patch was utilized with the bifurcation of the proper hepatic and gastroduodenal arteries in recipients. Then, the two patches were anastomosed to reconstruct the hepatic artery. All cases were followed up from 1 to 12 months with Doppler ultrasonography after operation. Results: The patent lumen and normal blood flow speed occurred in 25 eases, and the high flow speed and high resistance occurred in other 3 cases. This high flow speed returned to normal level after methylprednisolone impact treatment. Conclusion: This method may resolve the problem of the difference between the calibers of anastomosed arteries and decrease the tension of the arteries and bleeding. The operating time is also shortened significantly.

  18. 缝合神经的指固有动脉背支血管链皮瓣修复指远端皮肤缺损%Repair of fingertip defect with proper digital artery lateral cutaneous branch-chain flap accompanied with dorsal digital nerve or dorsal branch of proper digital nerve coaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 魏鹏; 周丹亚; 胡瑞斌; 滕晓峰; 陈宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of using proper digital artery lateral cutaneous branch-chain flap with dorsal digital nerves or dorsal branch of proper digital nerye for repairing of fingertip defect.Methods From December 2008 to November 2009, 24 cases (26 digits) of fingertip defect were treated with proper digital artery lateral cutaneous branch-chain flap.The flap was designed on the lateral side of the proximal phalanx of the injured finger with its long axis running on the lateral midline of the finger.The vascular pedicle was 0.8 to 1.0 cm wide.The pivot point was at the distal 1/3 of the middle phalanx upon which the flap was reversed to repair the defect of the fingertip.The dorsal digital nerve or dorsal branch of proper digital nerve was included in the flap and coapted with the nerve in the wound to reconstruct sensation of the injured finger.Results All 26 flaps survived.Postoperative follow-up period was 6 to 8 months.All these flaps recovered with satisfying and quality, excellent sensation with 4 to 8 mm two-point discrimination.ROM of the interphalangeal joint of the injured finger was good.Conclusion Proper digital artery lateral cutaneous branchchain flap transfer with nerve coaptation is an ideal method for repairing fingertip defect.The surgery is simple.Reliable blood supply can be achieved without sacrificing the proper digital artery.Coaptation of the nerve restores sensation at the fingertip.There is minor donor site damage and very few complications.%目的 探讨缝合神经的指固有动脉背支血管链皮瓣修复指远端皮肤缺损的疗效.方法 2008年12月至2009年11月,对24例26指指远端皮肤缺损患者,以指固有动脉背侧支形成的血管链为血供,于近节指体侧方设计皮瓣,皮瓣轴线为指体侧方中线,皮瓣蒂宽0.8~1.0cm,皮瓣转折点为中节指体中远端,逆行转移修复指远端皮肤缺损,皮瓣携带指固有神经背侧支或指背神经与创面指神经断端进行缝合

  19. 桡动脉肌间隙远、近段皮支链皮瓣的解剖学基础%The radial artery cutaneous branches-chain flap:anatomy and clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超; 徐聪; 张伟; 李宏亮; 谭为; 丁自海

    2012-01-01

    目的 为桡动脉肌间隙远、近段皮支链皮瓣带蒂转位修复腕部及肘部小范围组织缺损提供解剖学基础.方法 选用新鲜男尸正常上肢标本12侧:10侧乳胶灌注显微解剖,2侧制作铸型标本研究桡动脉从肱桡肌与桡侧腕屈肌肌间隙发出皮支的解剖形态学特点.以桡骨茎突至外上髁连线中点为分界划分前臂远、近两段.结果 (1)桡动脉发出肌间隙皮支9.1支,其中前臂远段发出皮支6.8支,直径(0.45±0.14)mm,蒂长(1.2±0.48 )cm;前臂近段发出皮支2.3支,直径(0.68±0.12)mm,蒂长(1.9±0.53 )cm.桡动脉在前臂远、近两段发出的肌间隙皮支的参数差异比较均有统计学意义(P<0.05);(2)在桡骨茎突近端(3.0±0.67)cm和肱骨外上髁远端(9.01 ±1.74)cm,分别有直径(0.59±0.08)mm,蒂长(1.41±0.26)cm和直径(0.67±).09)mm,蒂长(1.87±0.62 )cm恒定粗大皮支从肌间隙穿出;(3)相邻皮支穿深筋膜后,其终末支间形成与肌间隙长轴平行的血管链.结论 以桡动脉肌间隙远、近段皮支设计带蒂转位皮支链皮瓣可用于修复腕部及肘部小范围软组织损伤,避免了其主干动脉的破坏.%Objective To provide anatomic information for repairing small tissue defects in hands and forearm with cutaneous branches-chain flaps pedicled with radial and ulnar arteries. Methods A total of 12 male cadaveric specimens were included in the study: 10 underwent latex perfusion for microanatomy, 2 were made into vessel cast for morphologic observation of cutaneous branch of radial artery passed between the brachioradialis muscle and the flexor carpi radialis muscle. Forearm was divided into proximal and distal segments by the midpoint between the radial styloid and the lateral epicondyle. Results ①A total of 9.1 intermuscular cutaneous branches issued from radial artery, of which, 6.8 from the distal forearm and 2.3 from the proximal end, with the diameter of (0.45±0.14) mm and pedicle length of (1.2±0

  20. Branched-chain amino acids increase arterial blood ammonia in spite of enhanced intrinsic muscle ammonia metabolism in patients with cirrhosis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2011-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used in attempts to reduce blood ammonia in patients with cirrhosis and intermittent hepatic encephalopathy based on the hypothesis that BCAA stimulate muscle ammonia detoxification. We studied the effects of an oral dose of BCAA on the skeletal muscle...... the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia and the A-V measurements were used to measure the total ammonia metabolism across the thigh muscle. After intake of BCAA, blood ammonia increased more than 30% in both groups of subjects (both P ....05). BCAA intake led to a massive glutamine release from the muscle (cirrhotic patients, P BCAA enhanced the intrinsic muscle metabolism of ammonia but not the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia in both the patients with cirrhosis and in the healthy...

  1. Acute necrotizing retinal vasculitis as onset of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monov, Simeon; Hristova, Ruska; Dacheva, Rositza; Toncheva, Reni; Shumnalieva, Russka; Shoumnalieva-Ivanova, Viara; Monova, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation, and deposition of immune complexes in tissues and organs. SLE can involve any region of the visual system. Although ocular manifestations are not part of the classification criteria for SLE, they can be observed in up to one-third of the patients with SLE. They are rarely reported at the time of disease onset. Retinal vasculitis is usually associated with active generalized disease. Due to its low frequency, we report a case of acute necrotizing retinal vasculitis as onset of SLE. Patient concerns and diagnosis: A 25-year-old white female was referred to the rheumatology clinic with gradually and rapid deterioration of the vision due to abnormal vessel permeability in the right fundus with edema along the vessels, occlusion of arterial branches in the middle periphery with leakage of the dye in these areas and indentical but less prominent changes with cotton wool spots in the papillomacular area and extensive hemorrhages in the left eye. The onset of malar rash, arthralgias and positive antinuclear, anti-double stranded DNA, anti-ribosomal P and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies with decreased C4 complement levels, as well as the positive lupus-band test confirmed the diagnosis of SLE. Interventions: Aggressive immunomodulating therapy with high-dose methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and cyclophosphamide was used for suppression of the disease activity followed by azathioprine as maintaince therapy. Outcomes: Substantial improvement and partial resorption of the vasculitic changes, including central retinal artery and vein, was achieved prominently in the left eye. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and written informed consent was obtained from the patient. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary

  2. 颞浅动脉顶支扩张岛状皮瓣在修复头皮缺损中的应用%Application of the parietal branches of superficial temporal artery island flap in complex scalp defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楷; 李爱林; 赵月强; 余墨声; 罗定安; 吴晓蔚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of the parietal branches of superficial temporal artery island flap in the complex scalp defects.Methods A parietal branches of superficial temporal artery island flap on the ectatic scalp flap was designed to repair the complex scalp defects in 25cases and the repairing effect was observed.Results The island flaps were survived completely in 24patients,in which 1 patient had partial necrosis because of the flap tension was too large,but healed after local dressing and debridement.After followed up 6~ 12 months,the color and texture of the flap were the same to the surrounding normal scalp,and the shape was satisfactory.The flap donor site of hair growth was good,with well healing and no obvious complications.Conclusions The parietal branches of superficial temporal artery island flap can repair the complex scalp defects with the flexible flap design and movement.The flap survives well and the repair area is large.The flap and the surrounding scalp connects good.Therefore,it is a good method strongly recommended for small area complex scalp defects repair in clinics.%目的 探讨颞浅动脉顶支扩张岛状皮瓣在修复复杂头皮缺损中的应用.方法 通过在扩张头皮瓣上设计以颞浅动脉顶支为蒂的岛状皮瓣,转移修复复杂头皮缺损25例,并观察其愈合和修复效果.结果 25例患者,24例皮瓣完全存活,1例患者因皮瓣张力过大出现部分坏死,但通过清创及换药后愈合.术后随访6~12个月,头皮缺损修复部位与周围皮肤色泽、质地相似,外形恢复满意,皮瓣供受区毛发生长良好,创面愈合良好,无并发症发生.结论 应用颞浅动脉顶支为蒂的岛状扩张皮瓣修复复杂头皮缺损,皮瓣存活良好,皮瓣设计、转移灵活,修复范围较大,皮瓣与周边头皮衔接良好,是修复复杂头皮缺损的一种良好方法,值得应用和推广.

  3. Microanatomy of intracranial segment of vertebral artery and its main branches in surgery adopt far lateral approach%远外侧入路手术中椎动脉颅内段的显微解剖应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付万新; 康春华; 彭志强; 李少鹏

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss how to protect the intracranial vertebral artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery by observing and measuring the intracranial vertebral artery in the surgery adopt far lateral approach. Methods Mimicking far lateral approach, 20 adult cadaveric heads connected to neck fixed with 10% formalin were dissected. Intracranial segment of the vertebral arteries and their main branches were exposed and measured under operating microscope. Results The intracranial vertebral artery joined with the contralateral one into the basilar artery after traveling through the atlanto-occipital sulcus. The relationship between the vertebral artery and the hypoglossal nerve is close. Thirty sides (75%) of the vertebral arteries traveled to pons medulla sulcus in front of the hypoglossal nerve roots and 2 sides (5%) behind the hypoglossal nerve roots, while 8 sides (20%) traveled among the hypoglossal nerve roots; 70% of the vertebral arteries were contacted to the hypoglossal nerve roots, 30% of which compressed the hypoglossal nerve. The main branches of intracranial segment of the vertebral arteries were the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries, the anterior spinal arteries, the posterior meningeal arteries,and some perforating arteries. Posterior inferior cerebellar arteries all originated from the intracranial vertebral artery were the largest vertebral artery's branches; their trip was mostly loop-shaped and they had close relationship with Ⅸ, Ⅹ, Ⅺ cranial nerves. The starting points of the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries were different, even in the same specimen, but most of them originated from the upper 1/3intracranial vertebral artery. No anterior inferior cerebellar artery was noted originated from the vertebral artery in our specimen. Anterior spinal arteries originated from the vertebral arteries joined with the branches of the bilateral vertebral arteries and traveled down through the tortuous anterior median fissure to supply the

  4. Variação do fluxo sanguíneo da artéria central da retina durante as diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual ovulatório Central retinal artery blood flow variation during menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Viana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência vascular da artéria central da retina, por meio do fluxo Doppler, nas diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual ovulatório. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional, longitudinal e prospectivo com avaliação de 34 mulheres saudáveis, submetidas a estudo dopplerfluxométrico do fundo do olho para avaliação da resistência vascular da artéria central da retina nas posições sentada e deitada, durante quatro fases do ciclo menstrual: fase folicular inicial, fase folicular média, fase periovulatória e fase lútea média. A confirmação da ovulação no ciclo de estudo foi feita pela dosagem de progesterona sérica na fase lútea média. Foram avaliados os índices de pulsatilidade (IP e de resistência, e as velocidades máxima, mínima e média. RESULTADOS: a idade média foi de 29,7 anos. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os índices obtidos para ambos os olhos; assim, utilizamos as médias dos índices para realizar o cálculo estatístico. Quando comparadas às posições de realização do exame, detectou-se um IP maior na posição sentada; assim, as análises foram avaliadas em separado, respeitando-se a posição da paciente. O IP da artéria central da retina, avaliado com a paciente deitada, variou durante o ciclo menstrual, apresentando-se significativamente mais baixo nas fases folicular média (1,5±0,3 e periovulatória (1,5±0,3 quando comparadas às fases folicular precoce (1,7±0,4 e lútea média (1,7±0,4. Quando a avaliação foi feita com a paciente sentada não foram observadas diferenças para as diferentes fases do ciclo. CONCLUSÕES: num ciclo menstrual ovulatório ocorre diminuição da resistência vascular na artéria central da retina e posterior reversão do efeito, como demonstrado pelas variações do IP.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vascular blood flow of the central retinal arteries using dopplervelocimetry in the different phases of the ovulatory menstrual cycle. METHODS: we performed

  5. Central retinal vein occlusion concomitant with dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Velaitham, Punithamalar; Vijayasingham, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection is on the rise and there is increasing number of ocular complications that are being reported. Most common ocular complications are macular edema, macular hemorrhages, and foveolitis. There are case reports on branch retinal vessel occlusions. Most of the ocular complications are attributed to the bleeding tendency and transudative process in dengue viral infection. This is a case report of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) concomitant with dengu...

  6. Retinal blood flow velocity in patients with active uveitis using the retinal function imager

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xing; Kedhar Sanjay; Bhoomibunchoo Chavakij

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest a link between macular edema and retinal blood flow velocity (RBFV).The effects of inflammation in the retinal blood vessels are not clearly understood.We want to evaluate the differences in retinal blood flow velocities of patients with active uveitis and healthy controls using the retinal function imager (RFI)and determine the correlation between retinal blood flow veiocity and central macular thickness in uveitis patients.Methods Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients with active anterior uveitis and 51 eyes of 51 normal control subjects were enrolled.Retinal blood flow velocities evaluated by RFI and central macular thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography (SLO-OCT) were obtained.Differences among the groups were assessed using Stata statistical software.Results Ten eyes had uveitic cystoid macular edema (CME).Median (first quartile,third quartile) venous velocity for uveitic eyes with CME,uveitic eyes without CME,and controls were 2.09 (1.92,2.44),2.64 (2.32,2.86),and 2.82 (2.39,3.53) mm/s respectively.Median (first and quartile) arterial velocity for uveitic eyes with CME,uveitic eyes without CME,and controls were 3.79 (3.61,4.09),3.46 (2.86,4.12),and 3.93 (3.35,4.65) mm/s.Uveitic eyes with CME had significantly lower venous velocity than controls (P=0.044).There was a strong linear relationship between venous velocity and central retinal thickness (P=-0.007).Conclusions Retinal venous velocities were significantly decreased in eyes with uveitic CME relative to controls.Decreased venous velocity was correlated with increased central retinal thickness in uveitic eyes.

  7. Case Report: Coronary arterial spasm in single right coronary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhi JIA; Qi-jun SHAN; Zhi-jian YANG; Tie-bing ZHU; Lian-sheng WANG; Ke-jiang CAO; Wen-zhu MA

    2009-01-01

    We presented a case of anomalous single-coronary artery detected incidentally during routine coronary angiography. A 32-year-old male Chinese patient presented with recurrent pre-syncope and six episodes of syncope. Coronary angiography and coronary-computed tomography (CT)-angiography performed by a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) revealed that the patient had a single large right coronary artery. A moderately large branch originated from the proximal part of the single right coronary artery and extended to the left, passing the anterior to the pulmonary artery, and divided into the anterior descending artery branch and circumflex branch at the base of the left auricular appendage. The episodes of the syncope were suspected to be caused by coronary arterial spasm, so this patient was on a regimen of 30 mg of diltiazem every 6 h and had no recurrence of syncope during follow-up.

  8. Endoprótese ramificada de artéria ilíaca interna no tratamento de aneurisma aórtico associado a aneurisma bilateral das artérias ilíacas comuns Branched stent-graft to the internal iliac artery for treatment of aortic aneurysm associated with bilateral common iliac artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Martins da Volta Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A embolização das artérias ilíacas internas é usualmente realizada durante a correção endovascular dos aneurismas aorto-ilíacos, visando prevenir a ocorrência de endoleak. Entretanto, é freqüente a associação desse procedimento com inúmeras seqüelas pós-operatórias, em decorrência da diminuição do fluxo sangüíneo pélvico. Em virtude disso, torna-se necessário o desenvolvimento de dispositivos e estratégias para a preservação das artérias ilíacas internas durante a correção endovascular dos aneurismas aorto-ilíacos. Descrevemos aqui o emprego pioneiro de uma endoprótese ramificada Helical Sidebranch (Cook para a artéria ilíaca interna, realizado com sucesso técnico imediato e controle pós-operatório satisfatório.Embolization of internal iliac arteries is usually performed during endovascular repair of aortoiliac aneurysms, with the aim of preventing occurrence of endoleaks. However, the association of this procedure with several postoperative sequelae is frequent, due to reduced pelvic blood flow. For this reason, there is the need to develop devices and strategies to preserve internal iliac arteries during endovascular repair of aortoiliac aneurysms. In this study, we describe a pioneering use of a Helical Sidebranch (Cook branched stent-graft to the internal iliac artery, which was performed with immediate technical success and satisfactory postoperative control.

  9. Effect of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel current and cytosolic calcium concentrations in retinal artery smooth muscle cells on diabetic retinal artery tension%视网膜动脉平滑肌细胞中大电导钙离子激活钾通道电流和钙离子浓度变化对糖尿病视网膜动脉收缩的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵珺; 姚勇; 孙尉; 王如兴

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complications of the retina,retinal vascular smooth muscle cells of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) is a major factor in regulating vasomotor and hemodynamic.Currently,functional changes of BK channel in retinal artery smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) and its role in DR were rarely reported.Objective This study was to investigate the early vascular damage mechanisms in DR by detecting the changes of BK channels current,calcium concentration and open probability (NP0) of BK channel with different calcium concentration in RASMCs of normal and diabetic rats.Method Fifty SPF SD 8-12 weeks old rats were randomly divided into normal control group and diabetic model group.Forty diabetic rats was intraperitoneally injected with 60 mg/kg streptozotocin to form type 1 diabetic model,10 rats (the normal control group) were injected sodium citrate solution with the same manner.Fluorescent probe was applied to detect calcium concentration in rat RASMCs;RASMCs were isolated by using enzyme digestion,and BK-channel electric currents and calcium concentrations in the RASMCs were measured by whole-cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence assay,respectively.The NP0 of BK channel was measured by single patch clamp technique.Results Diabetic models were successfully established in 36 rats with the success rate 90%.When stimulation voltage is greater than 60 mV,the current density of BK channel in RASMCs of diabetic model group decreased;when stimulating voltage was 100 mV,the BK channel currents of RASMCs in the normal control group and diabetic model group were (100±23) PA/PF and (50 ± 7) PA/PF,the difference was statistically significant (t =19.80,P < 0.05).After adding specific BK channel blocker African scorpion toxin 100 nmol,the BK channel current in the normal control group significantly reduced,and that in the diabetes model group was not significantly changed;the calcium ion

  10. Retinal remodeling in human retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B W; Pfeiffer, R L; Ferrell, W D; Watt, C B; Marmor, M; Marc, R E

    2016-09-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) in the human is a progressive, currently irreversible neural degenerative disease usually caused by gene defects that disrupt the function or architecture of the photoreceptors. While RP can initially be a disease of photoreceptors, there is increasing evidence that the inner retina becomes progressively disorganized as the outer retina degenerates. These alterations have been extensively described in animal models, but remodeling in humans has not been as well characterized. This study, using computational molecular phenotyping (CMP) seeks to advance our understanding of the retinal remodeling process in humans. We describe cone mediated preservation of overall topology, retinal reprogramming in the earliest stages of the disease in retinal bipolar cells, and alterations in both small molecule and protein signatures of neurons and glia. Furthermore, while Müller glia appear to be some of the last cells left in the degenerate retina, they are also one of the first cell classes in the neural retina to respond to stress which may reveal mechanisms related to remodeling and cell death in other retinal cell classes. Also fundamentally important is the finding that retinal network topologies are altered. Our results suggest interventions that presume substantial preservation of the neural retina will likely fail in late stages of the disease. Even early intervention offers no guarantee that the interventions will be immune to progressive remodeling. Fundamental work in the biology and mechanisms of disease progression are needed to support vision rescue strategies.

  11. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  12. The blood pressure-induced diameter response of retinal arterioles decreases with increasing diabetic maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Jeppesen, Peter; Knudsen, Søren Tang;

    2006-01-01

    were measured using the Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA, Imedos, Germany) before, during, and after an increase in the blood pressure induced by isometric exercise. Additionally, the retinal thickness was measured using optical coherence tomography scanning. RESULTS: The arterioles contracted during......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the diameter response of retinal arterioles and retinal thickness in patients with different stages of diabetic maculopathy during an increase in the arterial blood pressure. METHODS: Four groups each consisting of 19 individuals were studied. Group...

  13. Imaging polarimetry and retinal blood vessel quantification at the epiretinal membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Elsner, Ann E.; Cheney, Michael C.; Usui, Masahiko; Iwasaki, Takuya

    2007-05-01

    We evaluated a polarimetry method to enhance retinal blood vessels masked by the epiretinal membrane. Depolarized light images were computed by removing the polarization retaining light reaching the instrument and were compared with parallel polarized light images, average reflectance images, and the corresponding images at 514 nm. Contrasts were computed for retinal vessel profiles for arteries and veins. Contrasts were higher in the 514 nm images in normal eyes but higher in the depolarized light image in the eyes with epiretinal membranes. Depolarized light images were useful for examining the retinal vasculature in the presence of retinal disease.

  14. Retinal oximetry in patients with ischaemic retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rilvén, Sandra; Torp, Thomas Lee; Grauslund, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The retinal oximeter is a new tool for non-invasive measurement of retinal oxygen saturation in humans. Several studies have investigated the associations between retinal oxygen saturation and retinal diseases. In the present systematic review, we examine whether there are associations between...

  15. Correlation Factor Analysis of Retinal Microvascular Changes in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Duru; Huang Zhongning

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate correlation between retinal microvascular signs and essential hypertension classification. Methods The retinal microvascular signs in patients with essential hypertension were assessed with the indirect biomicroscopy lens, the direct and the indirect ophthalmoscopes were used to determine the hypertensive retinopathy grades and retinal arteriosclerosis grades.The rank correlation analysis was used to analysis the correlation these grades with the risk factors concerned with hypertension. Results Of 72 cases with essential hypertension, 28 cases complicated with coronary disease, 20 cases diabetes, 41 cases stroke,17 cases renal malfunction. Varying extent retinal arterioscleroses were found in 71 cases, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage, 2 cases with retina edema, 4 cases with retinal hard exudation, 5 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation, 2 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and cotton wool spot, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and microaneurysms,1 case with retinal edema and hard exudation, 1 case with retinal microaneurysms, 1 case with branch retinal vein occlusion. The rank correlation analysis showed that either hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades were correlated with risk factor lamination of hypertension (r=0.25 or 0.31, P<0.05), other correlation factors included age and blood high density lipoprotein concerned about hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades, but other parameters, namely systolic or diastolic pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose,blood urea nitrogen and blood creatinine were not confirmed in this correlation analysis (P > 0.05).Conclusions Either hypertensive retinopathy grade or retinal arteriosclerosis grade is close with the hypertension risk factor lamination, suggesting that the fundus examination of patients with

  16. Applied anatomy of a reverse medial femoral condyle periosteal flap pedicled with the infrapatellar branch of Descending Genicular artery%膝降血管髌下支蒂股骨内侧髁骨膜瓣逆行转位术的应用解剖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金堆; 林加福; 郑和平; 徐皓

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide anatomical basis of medial femoral condyle periosteal flap pedicled with the infrapatellar branch of the descending genicular artery for reconstruction of the knee joint.Methods 30 embalmed lower limbs of adult cadavers perfused with the red latex were used for this anatomical study.The adductor tubercle and medial femoral codyle were observational landmarks, the followings were observed: the course, branch and distribution of the branch of the desceding genicular artery to the knee joint.Results The articular branch of descending genicular artery above the inferior edge of medial femoral condyle (5.9±1.2)cm always gives off two mian branches: the periosteal branch and the infrapatellar branch.The original diameter of the periosteal branch is( 1.3±0.2 )mm, and it travels along the medial femoral condyle (4.8± 1.1)cm in length; the original diameter of the infrapatellar branch is(1.3±0.2)mm, and its length is (6.6±1.5)cm.Conclusion The medial femoral condyle periosteai flap pedicled with the infrapatellar branch of the descending genicular artery can be developed to repair bone injuries of knee joint.%目的 为膝降血管髌下支蒂股骨内侧髁骨膜瓣修复膝关节而缺损提供解剖学基础.方法 在30侧动脉内灌注红色乳胶的成人下肢标本上,以收肌结节、股骨内侧髁为观测点解剖观测膝降动脉关节支的走行、分支与分布.另在1侧新鲜标本上进行摹拟手术.结果 膝降血管关节支在距股骨内侧髁下缘上(5.9c1.2)cm处发出两大分支:①骨膜支起始外径(1.3±0.2)mm,在股骨内侧髁面上走行距离为(4.8±1.1)cm;②髌下支起始外径为(1.3±0.2)mm,向下走行距离为(6.6±1.5)cm.结论 可形成膝降血管髌下支一骨膜支蒂股骨内侧髁骨膜瓣逆行转位修复膝关节而缺损.

  17. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  18. Genetic loci for retinal arteriolar microcirculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Sim

    Full Text Available Narrow arterioles in the retina have been shown to predict hypertension as well as other vascular diseases, likely through an increase in the peripheral resistance of the microcirculatory flow. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study in 18,722 unrelated individuals of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium and the Blue Mountain Eye Study, to identify genetic determinants associated with variations in retinal arteriolar caliber. Retinal vascular calibers were measured on digitized retinal photographs using a standardized protocol. One variant (rs2194025 on chromosome 5q14 near the myocyte enhancer factor 2C MEF2C gene was associated with retinal arteriolar caliber in the meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts at genome-wide significance of P-value <5×10(-8. This variant was replicated in an additional 3,939 individuals of European ancestry from the Australian Twins Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (rs2194025, P-value = 2.11×10(-12 in combined meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts. In independent studies of modest sample sizes, no significant association was found between this variant and clinical outcomes including coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction or hypertension. In conclusion, we found one novel loci which underlie genetic variation in microvasculature which may be relevant to vascular disease. The relevance of these findings to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.

  19. Genetic loci for retinal arteriolar microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Xueling; Jensen, Richard A; Ikram, M Kamran; Cotch, Mary Frances; Li, Xiaohui; MacGregor, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Smith, Albert Vernon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Glazer, Nicole L; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Psaty, Bruce M; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B; Jonasson, Fridbert; Launer, Lenore J; Attia, John; Baird, Paul N; Harrap, Stephen; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Inouye, Michael; Rochtchina, Elena; Scott, Rodney J; Viswanathan, Ananth; Li, Guo; Smith, Nicholas L; Wiggins, Kerri L; Kuo, Jane Z; Taylor, Kent D; Hewitt, Alex W; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Sun, Cong; Young, Terri L; Mackey, David A; van Zuydam, Natalie R; Doney, Alex S F; Palmer, Colin N A; Morris, Andrew D; Rotter, Jerome I; Tai, E Shyong; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Vingerling, Johannes R; Siscovick, David S; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y

    2013-01-01

    Narrow arterioles in the retina have been shown to predict hypertension as well as other vascular diseases, likely through an increase in the peripheral resistance of the microcirculatory flow. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study in 18,722 unrelated individuals of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium and the Blue Mountain Eye Study, to identify genetic determinants associated with variations in retinal arteriolar caliber. Retinal vascular calibers were measured on digitized retinal photographs using a standardized protocol. One variant (rs2194025 on chromosome 5q14 near the myocyte enhancer factor 2C MEF2C gene) was associated with retinal arteriolar caliber in the meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts at genome-wide significance of P-value <5×10(-8). This variant was replicated in an additional 3,939 individuals of European ancestry from the Australian Twins Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (rs2194025, P-value = 2.11×10(-12) in combined meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts). In independent studies of modest sample sizes, no significant association was found between this variant and clinical outcomes including coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction or hypertension. In conclusion, we found one novel loci which underlie genetic variation in microvasculature which may be relevant to vascular disease. The relevance of these findings to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.

  20. [Transposition of Great Artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Takeshi; Shimpo, Hideto

    2015-07-01

    Transposition of the great artery is one of common congenital cardiac disease resulting cyanosis. Death occurs easily in untreated patients with transposition and intact ventricular septal defect (VSD) in infancy at a few days of age when posterior descending coronary artery (PDA) closed. Since there are 2 parallel circulations, flow from pulmonary to systemic circulation is necessary for systemic oxygenation, and Balloon atrial septostomy or prostaglandin infusion should be performed especially if patient do not have VSD. Although the advent of fetal echocardiography, it is difficult to diagnose the transposition of the great arteries (TGA) as abnormality of great vessels is relatively undistinguishable. The diagnosis of transposition is in itself an indication for surgery, and arterial switch procedure is performed in the case the left ventricle pressure remains more than 2/3 of systemic pressure. Preoperative diagnosis is important as associated anomalies and coronary artery branching patterns are important to decide the operative indication and timing of surgery.

  1. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  2. Systematization and description of the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base in turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voll, Juliana; Campos, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Thirty turtle brains (Trachemys scripta elegans) were injected with latex to systematize and describe the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base. The internal carotid arteries had one intercarotid anastomosis. At the level of the tuber cinereum, the internal carotid artery bifurcated into its terminal branches, the rostral and the caudal branches. The rostral branch emitted the rostral choroid artery, the orbital artery, and a series of middle cerebral arteries. After giving off the last middle cerebral artery, the rostral branch continued as the rostral cerebral artery in the cerebral longitudinal fissure, and had one anastomosis with its contralateral homologous artery, the rostral communicating artery, making the first rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. Next, the rostral cerebral arteries anastomosed forming a rostral interhemispheric artery, making the second rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. The internal carotid artery, after emitting its rostral branch, continued caudally as the caudal branch. The caudal branch ran caudally along the ventral surface of the mesencephalic tegmentum, emitted the caudal cerebral artery and the mesencephalic artery, and continued caudomedially while progressively narrowing, and anastomosed with its contralateral homologous artery, forming the basilar artery. The narrower portion also emitted the trigeminal artery. The anastomosis of the caudal branches closed the cerebral arterial circle caudally. The internal carotid arteries exclusively supplied the cerebral arterial circle of the turtle. Anat Rec, 299:1090-1098, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Novel Neuroprotective Strategies in Ischemic Retinal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabadfi, Krisztina; Mester, Laszlo; Reglodi, Dora; Kiss, Peter; Babai, Norbert; Racz, Boglarka; Kovacs, Krisztina; Szabo, Aliz; Tamas, Andrea; Gabriel, Robert; Atlasz, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    Retinal ischemia can be effectively modeled by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, which leads to chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the entire rat retina. The complex pathways leading to retinal cell death offer a complex approach of neuroprotective strategies. In the present review we summarize recent findings with different neuroprotective candidate molecules. We describe the protective effects of intravitreal treatment with: (i) urocortin 2; (ii) a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, diazoxide; (iii) a neurotrophic factor, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide; and (iv) a novel poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (HO3089). The retinoprotective effects are demonstrated with morphological description and effects on apoptotic pathways using molecular biological techniques. PMID:20386654

  4. Dez anos de experiência com artéria torácica interna direita através do seio transverso na revascularização da artéria circunflexa e seus ramos Ten years of experience with the right thoracic internal artery through transversus sinus in the left circunflex artery and his branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Roberto Gerola

    1993-12-01

    angioplastia, 7 apresentaram infarto do miocárdio não fatal e 1 paciente foi reoperado por oclusão das duas artérias torácicas internas. Foram realizados 69 cateterismos pós-operatórios, sendo 38 imediatos e 31 tardios, num período que variou de 3 a 120 meses (média de 51,6 meses. No período pós-operatório imediato, ATIE estava pérvia em 37 casos (97% e a ATID em 36 (95%. No reestudo tardio, a ATIE estava pérvia em 30 pacientes (97% e a ATID em 29 (92,7%. A análise atuarial mostrou que a percentagem de casos que apresentavam a ATIE pérvia foi de 97,6% em 1 ano e de 93,8% aos 5-10 anos de seguimento, enquanto que a incidência de casos em que a ATID estava pérvia foi de 92,1% em 1 ano e de 84,1% em 5 e 10 anos. Os resultados apresentados mostram que a revascularização de ramos da artéria coronária esquerda com as ATI E e ATI D proporciona aos pacientes uma boa evolução tardia, em decorrência da baixa incidência de eventos cardíacos durante o período estudado. A alta incidência de enxertos pérvios em 10 anos, com a utilização da ATID posicionada através do seio transverso, sugere que esta opção técnica deve ser sempre lembrada na revascularização da artéria circunflexa e seus ramos.From April 1983 to November 1993,185 patients were submitted to myocardial revascularization using bilateral thoracic internal artery. The left internal thoracic artery was used to left anterior descending artery and the right internal thoracic artery was used through transversus sinus to circunflex artery and his branches. We performed 38 angiographic studies during the late follow-up and demonstrated that the right internal thoracic artery was patent in 29 patients (92.7% and the left internal thoracic artery in 30 (97%. We conclude that myocardial revascularyzation should be performed using bilateral internal thoracic artery routinely.

  5. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels with small conductance in bradykinin-induced vasodilation of porcine retinal arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel; Bek, Toke

    2009-01-01

    (Ca)) conductance are involved in regulation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in retinal arterioles was investigated. METHODS: Porcine retinal arterioles (diameter approximately 112 microm, N = 119) were mounted in microvascular myographs for isometric tension recordings. The arterioles were contracted......(Ca) channels contribute to NO-mediated relaxation induced by bradykinin and NS309 and, hence, may play an important role in retinal arterial endothelial function....

  6. Variation in the Branching Pattern of the Superficial Palmar Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalatha S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe a rare variation in the superficial palmar arch (SPA encountered during routine cadaveric dissection. SPA was formed by the superficial branches of ulnar and radial arteries which provided a proper digital branch to the ulnar side of the little finger and three common palmar digital branches to the medial four digits. Additionally a first common digital artery was seen to emerge from the radial side of SPA which further divided into the arteria princeps pollicis and arteria radialis indicis. We also found a small communicating branch between the arteria princeps pollicis and the radial artery in the anatomical snuff box. Such arterial variations in the palm due to alteration in the developmental sequence remains a crucial issue in the reconstructive hand surgeries, especially while dealing with the innovative microsurgical procedures, where these varied patterns act as pivotal points around which successful results of various advanced surgical procedures revolve.

  7. Repair of the hand′s soft tissue defect with free flap taken from the supra-wrist branch of the ;ulnar artery%尺动脉腕上支皮瓣修复手部软组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿亮; 刘彬; 尚希福

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical effect of free flap taken from the supra-wrist branch of ulnar artery in re-construction of extensive soft tissue defects of hands. Methods 15 patients of skin and soft tissue defects were re-paired with free flaps taken from supra-wrist branch of ulnar artery. The defect sizes were 5 cm × 8 cm~6 cm × 13 cm. Results All the free flaps survived completely without vascular crisis or necrosis. All the patients were followed up from 6 months to 12 months. Texure,color,appearance and function of skin flaps had a good recovery. Conclu-sions Free flap taken from supra-wrist branch of ulnar artery used in the reconstruction of extensive soft tissue de-fects of the hands can achieve good clinical efficacy with advantages of safety and reliability.%目的:探讨应用尺动脉腕上支皮瓣修复手部软组织缺损的临床疗效。方法采用尺动脉腕上支皮瓣修复15例手部软组织缺损患者,创面面积为5 cm ×8 cm~6 cm ×13 cm。结果15例15块皮瓣全部成活,未发生血管危象,无皮瓣边缘坏死。15例均获随访,时间6~12个月。皮瓣质地、色泽外观及感觉功能恢复满意。结论应用尺动脉腕上支皮瓣修复手部软组织缺损疗效满意。

  8. A systematic study of the brain base arteries in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty heads with neck segments of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo were dissected for a systematic study of the arteries. The frequency of the arteries found was: Cerebral carotid artery, intercarotid anastomosis and internal ophthalmic artery (100%. Caudal branch of the cerebral carotid artery to the right (R vestigial artery (70% and developed (30% and to the left (L developed (70% and vestigial artery (30%. Ventral tectal mesencephalic artery in (70% to R and (30% to L was the direct branch of the cerebral carotid artery to L (70% and to R (30% collateral branch of the developed caudal branch. Basilar artery to L in (70% and to R (30% formed from the developed caudal branch; rostral ventral cerebellar artery present (86.7% and absent (13.3% to R and L. Caudal ventral cerebellar artery to R single (73.3%, double (23.3% and triple (3.3%; caudal ventral cerebellar artery to L single (73.3% and double (26.7%. Dorsal spinal artery branch of caudal ventral cerebellar artery to R (80% and to L (73.3%. The rostral branch of cerebral carotid artery showed as collateral branches the single caudal cerebral artery to R (100% and to L (96.7% while in (3.3% it was double. The middle cerebral artery was single to R and L (100%. Cerebroethmoidal artery to R and L (100% with its collateral branch to single rostral cerebral artery (90% to R and (86.7% to L and double (10% to R and (13.3% to L. Ethmoidal artery to R and to L (100% single. The cerebral arterial circle was rostrally and caudally opened, so that the cerebral blood supply was exclusively made by the carotid system.

  9. Nrf2 Is an Attractive Therapeutic Target for Retinal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that binds to antioxidant response elements located in the promoter region of genes encoding many antioxidant enzymes and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Activation of Nrf2 functions is one of the critical defensive mechanisms against oxidative stress in many species. The retina is constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species, and oxidative stress is a major contributor to age-related macular diseases. Moreover, the resulting inflammation and neuronal degeneration are also related to other retinal diseases. The well-known Nrf2 activators, bardoxolone methyl and its derivatives, have been the subject of a number of clinical trials, including those aimed at treating chronic kidney disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and mitochondrial myopathies. Recent studies suggest that Nrf2 activation protects the retina from retinal diseases. In particular, this is supported by the finding that Nrf2 knockout mice display age-related retinal degeneration. Moreover, the concept has been validated by the efficacy of Nrf2 activators in a number of retinal pathological models. We have also recently succeeded in generating a novel Nrf2 activator, RS9, using a biotransformation technique. This review discusses current links between retinal diseases and Nrf2 and the possibility of treating retinal diseases by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  10. Nrf2 Is an Attractive Therapeutic Target for Retinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Nakagami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that binds to antioxidant response elements located in the promoter region of genes encoding many antioxidant enzymes and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Activation of Nrf2 functions is one of the critical defensive mechanisms against oxidative stress in many species. The retina is constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species, and oxidative stress is a major contributor to age-related macular diseases. Moreover, the resulting inflammation and neuronal degeneration are also related to other retinal diseases. The well-known Nrf2 activators, bardoxolone methyl and its derivatives, have been the subject of a number of clinical trials, including those aimed at treating chronic kidney disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and mitochondrial myopathies. Recent studies suggest that Nrf2 activation protects the retina from retinal diseases. In particular, this is supported by the finding that Nrf2 knockout mice display age-related retinal degeneration. Moreover, the concept has been validated by the efficacy of Nrf2 activators in a number of retinal pathological models. We have also recently succeeded in generating a novel Nrf2 activator, RS9, using a biotransformation technique. This review discusses current links between retinal diseases and Nrf2 and the possibility of treating retinal diseases by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  11. [Branch retinal vein occlusion: high time for cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk management is common in patients suffering from manifest cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. It is generally accepted that medication is the most effective treatment for reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients. Re

  12. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-08-10

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids.

  13. Integration of retinal image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Lucia

    1998-10-01

    In this paper a method for noise reduction in ocular fundus image sequences is described. The eye is the only part of the human body where the capillary network can be observed along with the arterial and venous circulation using a non invasive technique. The study of the retinal vessels is very important both for the study of the local pathology (retinal disease) and for the large amount of information it offers on systematic haemodynamics, such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. In this paper a method for image integration of ocular fundus image sequences is described. The procedure can be divided in two step: registration and fusion. First we describe an automatic alignment algorithm for registration of ocular fundus images. In order to enhance vessel structures, we used a spatially oriented bank of filters designed to match the properties of the objects of interest. To evaluate interframe misalignment we adopted a fast cross-correlation algorithm. The performances of the alignment method have been estimated by simulating shifts between image pairs and by using a cross-validation approach. Then we propose a temporal integration technique of image sequences so as to compute enhanced pictures of the overall capillary network. Image registration is combined with image enhancement by fusing subsequent frames of a same region. To evaluate the attainable results, the signal-to-noise ratio was estimated before and after integration. Experimental results on synthetic images of vessel-like structures with different kind of Gaussian additive noise as well as on real fundus images are reported.

  14. Rare anatomic variation of left gastric artery and right hepatic artery in a female cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, Theodore; Chatzikokolis, Stamatis; Zachariadis, Michael; Troupis, George; Anagnostopoulou, Sofia; Skandalakis, Panayiotis

    2008-05-01

    The present report describes a rare case in which the left gastric artery arises directly from the abdominal aorta and the right hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery, as observed during the dissection of a female cadaver. The left gastric artery usually rises as one of the three branches of the celiac trunk, which was originally described by Haller in 1756, whereas the right hepatic artery usually originates from the proper hepatic artery. The knowledge of the typical anatomy of the abdominal arteries, and their variations, is especially important due to the numerous interventions performed in the abdominal area.

  15. Retinal vessel diameter changes induced by transient high perfusion pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ying; Zhao; Ping-Jun; Chang; Fang; Yu; Yun-E; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To investigate the effects of transient high perfusion pressure on the retinal vessel diameter and retinal ganglion cells.·METHODS: The animals were divided into four groups according to different infusion pressure and infusion time(60 mm Hg-3min, 60 mm Hg-5min, 100 mm Hg-3min, 100 mm Hg-5min). Each group consisted of six rabbits. The left eye was used as the experimental eye and the right as a control. Retinal vascular diameters were evaluated before, during infusion, immediately after infusion, 5min, 10 min and 30 min after infusion based on the fundus photographs. Blood pressure was monitored during infusion. The eyes were removed after 24 h.Damage to retinal ganglion cell(RGC) was analyzed by histology.·RESULTS: Retina became whiten and papilla optic was pale during perfusion. Measurements showed significant decrease in retinal artery and vein diameter during perfusion in all of the four groups at the proximal of the edge of the optic disc. The changes were significant in the 100 mm Hg-3min group and 100 mm Hg-5min group compared with 60 mm Hg-3min group(P 1=0.025, P 2=0.000).The diameters in all the groups recovered completely after 30 min of reperfusion. The number of RGC)showed no significant changes at the IOP in 100 mm Hg with5 min compared with contralateral untreated eye(P >0.05).·CONCLUSION: Transient fluctuations during infusion lead to temporal changes of retinal vessels, which could affect the retinal blood circulation. The RGCs were not affected by this transient fluctuation. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of pressure during realtime phacoemusification on retinal blood circulation.

  16. STUDY OF POSTERIOR DIVISION OF INTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan P Havaldar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The internal iliac artery originates from the common iliac artery at the level of sacroiliac joint. The internal iliac artery descends posterior to the greater sciatic foramen thereby dividing into anterior and posterior divisions. The posterior division of the internal iliac artery is known to give rise to three main branches i.e. iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery. Accidental haemorrhage is common during erroneous interpretation of anomalous blood vessels. The knowledge of the normal and the abnormal anatomy of the branches of the internal iliac artery is essential for obstetric surgeons. Methods: 50 adult human pelvic halves were procured from embalmed cadavers of J.J.M. Medical College and S.S.I.M.S & R.C, Davangere, Karnataka, India for the study. Results: Out of 50 specimens, ilio-lumbar artery took origin from posterior division, directly in 22 specimens (44%, with obturator artery in 5 specimens (10% and with superior gluteal artery in 2 specimens (4%. From anterior division, with obturator artery in 6 specimens (12% and with inferior gluteal artery in 1 specimen (2%. From common trunk, as direct branch in 10 specimens (20%, with lateral sacral artery in 1 specimen (2%, with vertebral branch in 1 specimen (2%, with superior gluteal artery in 1 specimen (2% and was found to be absent in 1 specimen (2%. Posterior division of internal iliac artery given origin directly to superior gluteal artery in 44 specimens (88%, with ilio-lumbar artery in 1 specimen (2%, with obturator artery in 2 specimens (4%. Lateral sacral artery from posterior division was observed in 38 specimens (76% and unpaired origin was observed in 7 specimens (14%. Conclusion: Internal iliac artery supplies the pelvic viscera and musculature the knowledge of its branches helpful in pelvis surgeries.

  17. Bioelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, James D.

    2016-05-01

    Retinal prosthesis have been translated to clinical use over the past two decades. Currently, two devices have regulatory approval for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa and one device is in clinical trials for treatment of age-related macular degeneration. These devices provide partial sight restoration and patients use this improved vision in their everyday lives to navigate and to detect large objects. However, significant vision restoration will require both better technology and improved understanding of the interaction between electrical stimulation and the retina. In particular, current retinal prostheses do not provide peripheral visions due to technical and surgical limitations, thus limiting the effectiveness of the treatment. This paper reviews recent results from human implant patients and presents technical approaches for peripheral vision.

  18. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  19. Retinal Detachment in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Renata Silva do

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an obstetric disease of unknown cause that affects approximately 5% of pregnant women. The visual system may be affected with variable intensity, being the retinal detachment a rare complication. The retinal detachment in preeclampsia is usually bilateral and serous, and its pathogenesis is related to the choroidal ischemia secondary to an intense arteriolar vasospasm. The majority of patients have complete recovery of vision with clinical management, and surgery is unnecessary. This is a case report of a 27 year old patient who developed the severe form of preeclampsia on her first pregnancy. She had progressive blurred vision, until she could see only shadows. Ophthalmic examination diagnosed spread and bilateral retinal detachment. With blood pressure control at postpartum, the patient had her retina reattached, and recovery of vision.

  20. Astrocyte-derived vascular endothelial growth factor stabilizes vessels in the developing retinal vasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Scott

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays a critical role in normal development as well as retinal vasculature disease. During retinal vascularization, VEGF is most strongly expressed by not yet vascularized retinal astrocytes, but also by retinal astrocytes within the developing vascular plexus, suggesting a role for retinal astrocyte-derived VEGF in angiogenesis and vessel network maturation. To test the role of astrocyte-derived VEGF, we used Cre-lox technology in mice to delete VEGF in retinal astrocytes during development. Surprisingly, this only had a minor impact on retinal vasculature development, with only small decreases in plexus spreading, endothelial cell proliferation and survival observed. In contrast, astrocyte VEGF deletion had more pronounced effects on hyperoxia-induced vaso-obliteration and led to the regression of smooth muscle cell-coated radial arteries and veins, which are usually resistant to the vessel-collapsing effects of hyperoxia. These results suggest that VEGF production from retinal astrocytes is relatively dispensable during development, but performs vessel stabilizing functions in the retinal vasculature and might be relevant for retinopathy of prematurity in humans.

  1. Flow patterns on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography reveal flow directions at retinal vessel bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Li, Xiao Q; Munch, Inger C

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study intravascular characteristics of flowing blood in retinal vessels using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Examination of selected arterial bifurcations and venous sites of confluence in 25 healthy 11-year-old children recruited as an ad hoc subsample...... be determined using SD-OCT. This feature may assist the identification of flow reversal near sites of vascular occlusion, the analysis of blood flow near vascular malformations and the segmentation of retinal SD-OCT images....

  2. Retinal research using the perfused mammalian eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, G

    2001-05-01

    The effort to isolate and maintain alive in vitro an intact mammalian eye is rewarded by the full control provided over the arterial input and exclusion of systemic regulatory or compensatory mechanisms. Electrical recording of typical light-evoked field potentials from retina and optic nerve can be complemented by single-cell recording. Thus, light-induced electrical activity reflects the function of the retinal pigment epithelium, of the layers of the retina and of the ganglion cells or their axons. Retinal function in vitro is documented by electrophysiological and morphological methods revealing subtle features of retinal information processing as well as optic nerve signals that approach-at threshold stimulus intensity-the human psychophysical threshold. Such sensitivity of third-order retinal neurons is described for the first time. This well controlled in vitro preparation has been used successfully for biophysical, metabolic and pharmacological studies. Examples are provided that demonstrate the marked sensibility of the rod system to changes in glucose supply. Moreover, histochemical identification of glycogen stores revealed labeling of the second- and third-order neurons subserving the rod system, in addition to labeling of Müller (glial) cells in the cat retina. The glycogen content of the cat retina is augmented by prolonged anesthesia, largely depleted by ischemia after enucleation and enhanced by insulin. Pharmacological experiments using agonists and antagonists of putative retinal neurotransmitters are summarized and outlined using the muscarinic cholinergic agonist QNB as an example. Actions and uptake of the neuromodulator adenosine are presented in detail, including inhibitory effects on physiologically characterized ganglion cells. Neuronal effects of adenosine are distinguished from those resulting from vasodilatation and from glycogenolysis induced by the neuromodulator. To open the blood-retina barrier, a hyperosmotic challenge can be

  3. Retinal vascular calibre and response to light exposure and serial imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Sjølie, Anne K.; Mathiesen, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    and vein equivalents (CRAE and CRVE). Outcome measures were difference in calibres after prior light versus prior dark exposure and difference in calibre during each of the two imaging sequences. Results: CRVE was wider with prior light exposure (2.7%, p = 0.0001), comparing the first image in each image......Purpose: To investigate whether retinal vessel calibre measurements on optical retinal photography are affected by light and dark exposure prior to photography and whether the vessel calibre changes during an imaging sequence of several images. Methods: Digital optical retinal photographs were...... obtained from 32 healthy adults in two separate image sequences of six images during 1 min; one sequence with 10 min of dark exposure and one with 10 min of light exposure prior to imaging. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibres were measured computer-assisted and summarized as central retinal artery...

  4. A CADAVERIC STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN THE ORIGIN OF LATERAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Pradipkumar Darji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lateral circumflex femoral artery is a branch of the profunda femoris artery, which is the largest branch of femoral artery. The knowledge of origin and branching patterns of the lateral circumflex femoral artery is valuable for various surgeries and clinical procedures. Objectives: To determine mode of origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery and to determine the distance of origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery from the origin of profunda femoris artery and from mid-inguinal point. Materials and Method: 130 femoral triangles were studied and various measurements were noted and analysed from the department of anatomy of various Medical colleges of Gujarat. Result and conclusion: The lateral circumflex femoral artery originated from profunda femoris artery in 119 cases and from femoral artery in 11 cases. In most of the cases, the distance of origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery from the origin of profunda femoris artery was ranging from 11 to 40 mm on both the sides.

  5. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  6. Retinal locus for scanning text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T; Sharma, Manoj K; Grose, Susan A; Maino, Joseph H

    2006-01-01

    A method of mapping the retinal location of text during reading is described in which text position is plotted cumulatively on scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images. Retinal locations that contain text most often are the brightest in the cumulative plot, and locations that contain text least often are the darkest. In this way, the retinal area that most often contains text is determined. Text maps were plotted for eight control subjects without vision loss and eight subjects with central scotomas from macular degeneration. Control subjects' text maps showed that the fovea contained text most often. Text maps of five of the subjects with scotomas showed that they used the same peripheral retinal area to scan text and fixate. Text maps of the other three subjects with scotomas showed that they used separate areas to scan text and fixate. Retinal text maps may help evaluate rehabilitative strategies for training individuals with central scotomas to use a particular retinal area to scan text.

  7. Quantitative retinal blood flow mapping from fluorescein videoangiography using tracer kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M; Guthrie, Micah; Hones, Logan; Sinha, Lagnojita; St Lawrence, Keith; Kang-Mieler, Jennifer J

    2015-05-15

    Abnormal retinal blood flow (RBF) has been associated with numerous retinal pathologies, yet existing methods for measuring RBF predominantly provide only relative measures of blood flow and are unable to quantify volumetric blood flow, which could allow direct patient to patient comparison. This work presents a methodology based on linear systems theory and an image-based arterial input function to quantitatively map volumetric blood flow from standard fluorescein videoangiography data, and is therefore directly translatable to the clinic. Application of the approach to fluorescein retinal videoangiography in rats (4 control, 4 diabetic) demonstrated significantly higher RBF in 4-5 week diabetic rats as expected from the literature.

  8. Learning about Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that detect light). Photoreceptor cells capture and process light helping us to see. As these cells breakdown and die, patients experience progressive vision loss. The most common feature of all forms of RP is a ... cells that detect dim light) and cones (retinal cells that detect light and ...

  9. Retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of retinal vein occlusion. These measures include: Eating a low-fat diet Getting regular exercise Maintaining an ideal weight Not smoking Aspirin or other blood thinners may help prevent blockages in the other eye. Controlling diabetes may ...

  10. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  11. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors of the brain and spinal cord. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... NCINeuroOncology@mail.nih.gov . Our News The Neuro-Oncology Branch Welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as New Branch ...

  12. 指固有动脉皮支血管链逆行侧方皮瓣修复手指软组织缺损%Flap Pedicled with Lateral Vascular Chain of Cutaneous Branch of Digital Artery to Repair the Soft Tissue Defect of the Distal Finger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 王浩; 潘朝晖

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨指固有动脉皮支血管链逆行侧方皮瓣修复手指远端软组织缺损的效果。方法以指固有动脉背侧皮支上行支、下行支形成的链式吻合供血,在手指近节侧方切取皮瓣。皮瓣的轴线是手指侧方中线,皮瓣旋转点为中节指体中远端,皮瓣的蒂部宽度为0.5~1.0cm。皮瓣携带指背神经与创面指神经断端进行缝合修复,重建手指感觉。逆行移位皮瓣修复指端创面32例。结果32例皮瓣全部成活。术后随访6个月~1年,皮瓣外形与正常相近,弹性、色泽良好。缺损饱满而不臃肿,质地柔软,有排汗功能,两点辨别觉达5~9 mm。结论采用指固有动脉皮支血管链逆行侧方皮瓣一期修复指端缺损,疗程短,效果好,操作简单,血供可靠,不牺牲指固有动脉、神经,供区损伤小,术后并发症少,并且能重建皮瓣感觉,是一种理想的手术修复方法。%Objective To explore the effect of flap pedicled with lateral vascular chain of cutaneous branch of digital artery to re -pair the soft tissue defect of the distal finger .Methods The flap based on the dorsal cutaneous branch of digital artery ,the ascending branch and the descending branch formation of supply vascular chain in the finger's lateral.The axis of the flap was finger lateral midline , the rotation point of flap was the middle finger of the distal , and the pedicle width of flap was 0.5~1.0cm.Flap repaird dorsal nerve and stump nerve , reconstructed of the finger's feeling.Retrograde transposition of flap in 32 cases to repair finger end .Results All flaps survived in 32 cases. After followed up for 6 months~1 years,flap had the normal close,elastic,good colour.Defect was full and not bloated , and soft texture,had the function that discharge sweat ,two-point discrimination Jueda 5~9mm.Conclusion Flap pedicled with lateral vascular chain of cutane-ous branch of digital artery to repair the

  13. Prevalence of outer retinal tubulation in eyes with choroidal neovascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Giachetti Filho, Richard Geraldo; Zacharias,Leandro Cabral; Monteiro,Thaís Vera; Preti, Rony Carlos; Pimentel, Sérgio Gianoti

    2016-01-01

    Background Outer retinal tubulations (ORTs) are branching tubular structures located in the outer nuclear layer of the retina. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of ORTs observed in eyes with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) undergoing treatment with anti-angiogenic intravitreous injection (IVI) with anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) at the Ophthalmology Department of a tertiary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods This is a descriptive study based on medic...

  14. Duration of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment predicts recovery of retinal sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rose

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision to treat a disease is often based on the presence or absence of symptoms, one prototype case being rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Detachment of the neural retina from the pigment epithelium is a major cause of anatomical and functional dysfunction of the retina, where retinal recovery is inversely related to duration of detachment. The purpose of retinal reattachment is to effect recovery of the photoreceptors and pigment epithelium from degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the critical duration of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment resulting in optimal retinal recovery after reattachment. A prospective study was conducted at a private hospital in Yogyakarta. Thirty five eyes were involved in this study. Three months after reattachment, central retinal recovery was measured by means of a Goldmann manual kinetic perimeter. The results showed that retinal recovery developed three months after surgery if the onset of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was less than 28 days before surgery. The results were not significant if the onset of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was more than 35 days. Although the Goldmann manual kinetic perimeter can efficiently detect central retinal sensitivity, it should be supported by more sensitive tools to evaluate the anatomy and function of the retina.

  15. [Bilateral coronary artery-pulmonary artery fistulas in a case with unstable angina pectoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepez, Alper; Kaya, Ergün Bariş; Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Bilateral coronary artery fistulas originating from both right and left coronary arteries are rare congenital abnormalities. A 58-year-old man presented with chest pain unrelated to exertion. Coronary angiography showed a fistula originating from the level of the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and a 95% stenosis just distal to the fistula. Right coronary angiography showed another fistula originating from the ostium of the right coronary artery. Both fistulas drained into the pulmonary artery. Coronary bypass surgery was performed for the LAD lesion using the left internal mammary artery graft, during which both fistulas were ligated. No complications were encountered postoperatively.

  16. Peripapillary retinal thermal coagulation following electrical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Tandon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have presented the case report of a 20 year old boy who suffered an electric injury shock, following which he showed peripapillary retinal opacification and increased retinal thickening that subsequently progressed to retinal atrophy. The fluorescein angiogram revealed normal retinal circulation, thus indicating thermal damage to retina without any compromise to retinal circulation.

  17. Flicker stimulated retinal perfusion changes assessed with high-speed Doppler tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Tilman; Singh, Amardeep S. G.; Frily, Karine; Blatter, Cedric; Villiger, Martin; Pache, Christoph; Lasser, Theo; Leitgeb, R. A.

    2010-02-01

    We developed a high speed Doppler tomography system together with flow extraction algorithms that provide a flexible tool to assess retinal perfusion. The aim of the present study is to stimulate perfusion by flickering with light of adjustable color and to measure changes depending on light frequency and flicker location. We observed relative changes in arterial flow velocity during flicker stimulation up to 50%. We found in arteries close to the optic nerve head the highest flicker response at a frequency of 8Hz. We believe that a multimodal functional imaging concept is of high value for an accurate and early diagnosis and understanding of retinal pathologies and pathogenesis.

  18. Morphological description of collateral branches from the abdominal aorta of lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Costa Macedo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tamandua tetradactyla, Xenarthra, is a native species from South America which, due to the few number of studies on its biology, still has many unknown aspects in its morphology. Taking into account the importance of morphological data for various studies, this paper aimed to elucidate the branching of the abdominal aorta in this species to foster the development of further studies. To do this, 4 specimens were used, 2 male and 2 female, all young, from the Bauxite Mine – Paragominas, Para, Brazil, donated after death due to running over to the Animal Morphology Research Laboratory (LaPMA of Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia (UFRA. The arterial system was filled with contrasted latex and the animals were fixed in a formaldehyde solution (10%, and then dissected, in order to evidence the abdominal aorta and its collateral branches. The parietal branches consisted of 1 pair of caudal phrenic arteries, 2 pairs of intercostal arteries, and 3 pairs of lumbar arteries. Among the visceral branches, stood out: celiac artery; cranial mesenteric artery; adrenal arteries; renal arteries; caudal mesenteric artery; and external, internal, and median sacral iliac arteries, formed from the final portion of the abdominal aorta. Testicular and ovarian arteries originated from the renal arteries, differing from that described in various species.

  19. Empirical description of bronchial and nonbronchial arteries with MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hong, E-mail: yuhong.2002@hotmail.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: cjr.liushiyuan@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li Huimin, E-mail: yuhongphd@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Xiao Xiangsheng, E-mail: cjr.xxsh@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Dong Weihua, E-mail: dongweihua2000@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries using multi-detector row helical computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in patients with pulmonary disorders. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age, 63.4 years; range, 20-82 years) with congenital and acquired pulmonary disorders of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries underwent multi-detector row helical computed tomographic angiography of the thorax using a 16-detector row scanner. Each of these patients had experienced an episode of hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiogram data, which included maximum intensity projections, multiplanar reconstruction, and three-dimensional volume-rendered images, were used to retrospectively analyse the characteristics of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries. Results: We identified a total of 128 bronchial arteries (76 on the right side and 52 on the left) in 39 patients. We detected 42 nonbronchial systemic artery branches, including 19 internal mammary artery branches, 8 subclavian artery branches, 8 inferior phrenic artery branches, 5 intercostal artery branches, 1 thyrocervical trunk branch, and 1 celiac trunk branch. Thirty-five dilated and tortuous nonbronchial systemic arteries entered into the lung parenchyma and extended down to the lesions. Every case, except the one case of sequestration, was associated with pleural thickening where the vascular structures passed through the extrapleural fat. Conclusions: The variations in both the bronchial artery anatomy and the location and type of the nonbronchial arteries were great. Nonbronchial arteries may be a significant source of hemoptysis. MDCT angiography can be used to detect detailed anatomical information about the origins and courses of bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries and their pathophysiologic features.

  20. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yee Li

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are good for "eye health" according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated orally with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. Paraffin-embedded retinal sections were prepared. Viable cells were counted; apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, aquaporin-4 (AQP4, poly(ADP-ribose (PAR and nitrotyrosine (NT were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB was examined by IgG extravasations. Apoptosis and decreased viable cell count were found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and the inner nuclear layer (INL of the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Additionally, increased retinal thickness, GFAP activation, AQP4 up-regulation, IgG extravasations and PAR expression levels were observed in the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Many of these changes were diminished or abolished in the LBP-treated I/R retina. Pre-treatment with LBP for 1 week effectively protected the retina from neuronal death, apoptosis, glial cell activation, aquaporin water channel up-regulation, disruption of BRB and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that LBP may have a neuroprotective role to play in ocular diseases for which I/R is a feature.

  1. Serum lipid profiles and dyslipidaemia are associated with retinal microvascular changes in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Guo, Xinxing; Ding, Xiaohu; He, Mingguang

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the relationship between serum lipid parameters and retinal microvascular calibres in children and adolescents. A total of 950 participants aged 7 to 19 years were recruited. Central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) were measured from digital retinal images. Serological testing was performed to obtain lipid profiles. Dyslipidaemia was defined according to the US national expert panel guideline. After adjusted for age, sex, mean arterial blood pressure, axial length, body mass index and the fellow retinal vascular calibre, no significant association was found between retinal vascular diameters and any lipid parameters (all P > 0.05) in children younger than 12 years. Among the adolescents 12 years and older, increased triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoB were associated with decrease in CRAE (β = −1.33, −1.83, −1.92 and −7.18, P = 0.031, 0.003, 0.006, and 0.009, respectively). Compared with normolipidemic counterparts, adolescents with dyslipidaemia had significantly narrower retinal arteriolar diameters. No significant relationship between lipid subclass levels and CRVE was revealed in adolescents. The present findings suggest that the elevation of atherogenic lipids in adolescents is closely related to the adverse changes of retinal arterioles. Dyslipidaemia may affect systemic microvasculature from childhood on. PMID:28317946

  2. Influence of cataract surgery and blood pressure changes caused by sodium restriction on retinal vascular diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoshi Tano

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Takatoshi Tano1, Yoshimune Hiratsuka2, Koichi Ono1, Akira Murakami11Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; 2National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To investigate the impact of cataract surgery and blood pressure changes induced by one week of sodium restriction on retinal vascular diameter.Methods: Fundus photographs of 200 patients were obtained before and one week after cataract surgery. For one week after admission, 100 patients received sodium restriction and 100 patients (ie, the control group did not receive sodium restriction. The diameter of the retinal vessels and blood pressure were compared between the sodium restriction group and the control group. The vascular diameter was measured using an objective computer-based method.Results: Neither group had a significant change in the diameter of the retinal vessels after cataract surgery. Although there was no significant change in retinal arterial and venular diameter in the sodium restriction group, one-week sodium restriction significantly reduced mean blood pressure. However, multiple linear regression analyses indicated that an increase in retinal arteriolar diameter was significantly associated with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and alcohol intake.Conclusion: Cataract surgery and blood pressure reduction induced by one week of sodium restriction resulted in no significant change in retinal arteriolar diameter.Keywords: cataract surgery, hypertension, retinal blood vessel diameter, retinal fundus camera, sodium restriction.

  3. Visible-light OCT to quantify retinal oxygen metabolism (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao F.; Yi, Ji; Chen, Siyu; Liu, Wenzhong; Soetikno, Brian T.

    2016-03-01

    We explored, both numerically and experimentally, whether OCT can be a good candidate to accurately measure retinal oxygen metabolism. We first used statistical methods to numerically simulate photon transport in the retina to mimic OCT working under different spectral ranges. Then we analyze accuracy of OCT oximetry subject to parameter variations such as vessel size, pigmentation, and oxygenation. We further developed an experimental OCT system based on the spectral range identified by our simulation work. We applied the newly developed OCT to measure both retinal hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) and retinal retinal flow. After obtaining the retinal sO2 and blood velocity, we further measured retinal vessel diameter and calculated the retinal oxygen metabolism rate (MRO2). To test the capability of our OCT, we imaged wild-type Long-Evans rats ventilated with both normal air and air mixtures with various oxygen concentrations. Our simulation suggested that OCT working within visible spectral range is able to provide accurate measurement of retinal MRO2 using inverse Fourier transform spectral reconstruction. We called this newly developed technology vis-OCT, and showed that vis-OCT was able to measure the sO2 value in every single major retinal vessel around the optical disk as well as in micro retinal vessels. When breathing normal air, the averaged sO2 in arterial and venous blood in Long-Evans rats was measured to be 95% and 72%, respectively. When we challenge the rats using air mixtures with different oxygen concentrations, vis-OCT measurement followed analytical models of retinal oxygen diffusion and pulse oximeter well.

  4. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  5. Retinal flow cytometer

    OpenAIRE

    Alt, C.; Veilleux, I.; H. Lee; Pitsillides, C. M.; Côté, D.; Lin, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The in vivo flow cytometer is an instrument capable of continuous, real-time monitoring of fluorescently labeled cells in the circulation without the need to draw blood samples. However, the original system probes a single vessel in the mouse ear; the small sample volume limits the sensitivity of the technique. We describe an in vivo retinal flow cytometer that simultaneously probes five artery–vein pairs in the mouse eye by circularly scanning a small laser spot rapidly around the optic nerv...

  6. Arterial vascularization of the brain of the agouti (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766

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    Roberto Sávio Bessa da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti, a rodent that is geographically distributed throughout South America, is greatly valued for its meat. This paper describes the arterial vascularization of the base of the agouti’s brain, characterizing behavior, and arterial origin and distribution. Ten animals from the Center for the Multiplication of Wild Animals (CEMAS/UFERSA were used and the study was approved by SISBIO (report number 32413- 1 and the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA/UFERSA (protocol 02/2010. After euthanasia, the animals were incised in the thoracic cavity by an injection of red-stained Neoprene latex 650 and the skulls were subsequently opened. The brains were extracted from the skulls for ventral surface analysis and then fixed in an aqueous 10% formaldehyde solution. The agouti’s arterial vascularization of the brain has two main components, namely the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. The agouti’s carotid system accounts for vascularization of almost the entire forebrain, while the vertebrobasilar system accounts for vascularization of almost the entire posterior brain (medulla oblongata, pyramid, trapezoid body, cerebellum, bridge, and part of the third caudal section of the forebrain through the caudal cerebral arteries originating from the terminal branches of the basilar artery. The main arteries on the brain surface include the basilar artery, which is unique, and the arterial pairs, specifically the vertebral arteries, cerebellar caudal arteries, trigeminal artery, rostral cerebellar artery, basilar terminal branch artery, cerebral caudal artery, communicating caudal branch of the cerebral carotid artery, cerebral carotid artery, communicating branch rostral cerebral carotid artery, choroidal rostral artery, medial branch of the communicating branch rostral artery, internal ophthalmic artery, middle cerebral artery, and rostral cerebral artery.

  7. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Eye Diseases Hereditary; Retinal Disease; Achromatopsia; Bardet-Biedl Syndrome; Bassen-Kornzweig Syndrome; Batten Disease; Best Disease; Choroidal Dystrophy; Choroideremia; Cone Dystrophy; Cone-Rod Dystrophy; Congenital Stationary Night Blindness; Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome; Fundus Albipunctatus; Goldmann-Favre Syndrome; Gyrate Atrophy; Juvenile Macular Degeneration; Kearns-Sayre Syndrome; Leber Congenital Amaurosis; Refsum Syndrome; Retinitis Pigmentosa; Retinitis Punctata Albescens; Retinoschisis; Rod-Cone Dystrophy; Rod Dystrophy; Rod Monochromacy; Stargardt Disease; Usher Syndrome

  8. Superior thyroid artery origin in Caucasian Greeks: A new classification proposal and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Raikos, Athanasios; Foundos, Ioannis; Noussios, George; Lazaridis, Nikolaos; Njau, Samouel N

    2011-09-01

    Studies on the origin of the superior thyroid artery, define that it could originate either from the external carotid artery, (at the level of common carotid bifurcation), or from the common carotid artery. However, there is a classical anatomic knowledge that the superior thyroid artery is a branch of the external carotid artery. Variability in the anatomy of the superior thyroid artery was studied on 100 carotids. Moreover, a review about the origin of superior thyroid artery between recent and previous cadaveric, autopsy, and angiographic studies, on adults and fetuses, was carried out. The superior thyroid artery originated from the external carotid artery in 39% and at the level of carotid bifurcation and common carotid artery in 61% of cases. The anterior branches of the external carotid artery were separate in 76% of cases, while common trunks between the arteries were found in 24% of the specimens. A new classification proposal on the origin of the superior thyroid artery is also suggested. In this study, the origin of superior thyroid artery is considered at the level of the carotid bifurcation and not from the external carotid artery as stated in many classical anatomy textbooks. This has a great impact on the terminology when referring to the anterior branches of the external carotid artery, which could be termed as anterior branches of the cervical carotid artery. Head and neck surgeons must be familiar with anatomical variations of the superior thyroid artery in order to achieve a better surgical outcome.

  9. Multiple coarctation of the pulmonary artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicle, Oguz; Yilmaz, Erkan E-mail: eyilmaz@kordon.deu.edu.tr

    2000-12-01

    Pulmonary artery coarctation is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by single or multiple stenoses of the pulmonary arteries and their branches. There are only a few reports describing the radiological film of this entity. In this paper we report the case of a 68 year-old woman who presented with dyspnea. The scintigraphic, examination of the lungs gave the misleading impression of pulmonary embolism, and only angiography and magnetic resonance imaging established the correct diagnosis of multiple coarctations of the pulmonary artery.

  10. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve

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    Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx. One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7: to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle.

  11. Branches of the abdominal aorta in Aotus azarae infulatus

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    Bianca Mendonça Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aotus is found in South America and is known for its nocturnal habit. The morphology of the genus is poorly understood even though it is used in biomedical research. The objective of this study was to identify the collateral branches of the abdominal aorta of two females and one male Aotus azarae infulatus (commonly known as the night monkey. The vessels were observed and stained with Neoprene latex and radiopaque contrast. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde via intramuscular and intracavitary routes, dissected and radiographed. It was observed that the celiac artery was divided into three subjacent branches, the gastric, hepatic and splenic arteries. The left and right renal arteries originated from a common trunk in two animals (animals 1 and 2, while the adrenal artery in one of the animals was derived from the celiac trunk and renal artery (animal 2. In one animal the mesenteric artery flow gave rise to individual cranial rectal, sigmoid and left colic arteries (animal 3. In the three animals the abdominal aorta bifurcated in the final portion of the abdomen, with the external and internal iliac artery on each side, and then the median sacral artery. These anatomical variations need to be identified and reported because these animals are frequently used in clinical and surgical, veterinary practices.

  12. Retinal Thickening and Photoreceptor Loss in HIV Eyes without Retinitis.

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    Cheryl A Arcinue

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of structural changes in HIV retinae (i.e., photoreceptor density and retinal thickness in the macula compared with age-matched HIV-negative controls.Cohort of patients with known HIV under CART (combination Antiretroviral Therapy treatment were examined with a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera to assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT to assess retinal layers and retinal thickness.Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients (n = 6 HIV-positive and 6 HIV-negative were imaged with the adaptive optics camera. In each of the regions of interest studied (nasal, temporal, superior, inferior, the HIV group had significantly less mean cone photoreceptor density compared with age-matched controls (difference range, 4,308-6,872 cones/mm2. A different subset of forty eyes of 20 patients (n = 10 HIV-positive and 10 HIV-negative was included in the retinal thickness measurements and retinal layer segmentation with the SD-OCT. We observed significant thickening in HIV positive eyes in the total retinal thickness at the foveal center, and in each of the three horizontal B-scans (through the macular center, superior, and inferior to the fovea. We also noted that the inner retina (combined thickness from ILM through RNFL to GCL layer was also significantly thickened in all the different locations scanned compared with HIV-negative controls.Our present study shows that the cone photoreceptor density is significantly reduced in HIV retinae compared with age-matched controls. HIV retinae also have increased macular retinal thickness that may be caused by inner retinal edema secondary to retinovascular disease in HIV. The interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE, as well as possible low-grade ocular inflammation causing diffuse inner retinal edema, may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients without overt retinitis.

  13. The long-term relation among retinal arteriolar narrowing, blood pressure, and incident severe hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Liew, Gerald; Tan, Ava G; Wong, Tien Yin; Leeder, Stephen R; Smith, Wayne; Shankar, Anoop; Mitchell, Paul

    2008-07-01

    The authors assessed associations between retinal vascular signs and incident severe hypertension in an older population-based cohort. At baseline (1992-1994), 3,654 residents aged 49-97 years living in the Blue Mountains area west of Sydney, Australia, were examined; respectively, 2,335 (75.1%) and 1,952 (76%) survivors were reexamined 5 and 10 years later. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured, and average central retinal artery and central retinal vein equivalents for that eye were estimated. Severe hypertension was defined by previous diagnosis of hypertension plus antihypertensive medication use or by systolic blood pressure > or =160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > or =100 mmHg at examinations. Of the 1,424 participants at risk, 618 developed severe hypertension over 10 years (cumulative incidence = 47.7%, 95% confidence interval: 44.9, 50.5). Participants who subsequently developed severe hypertension had significantly narrower mean central retinal artery equivalents than those who did not (187.0 vs. 191.9 mum, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, mean arterial blood pressure, and plasma glucose and triglyceride levels, baseline narrowing central retinal artery equivalent was associated with increased risk of severe hypertension (per standard deviation reduction, odds ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.2; narrowest vs. widest quintile, odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.1). These findings support structural narrowing in small arteries and arterioles antecedent to clinical onset of severe hypertension.

  14. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Reona; Tanimoto, Yoshimasa; Kishimoto, Miori; Shibata, Hideshi

    2016-02-01

    The rabbit, which is widely used as an experimental animal and is also popular as a companion animal, has a flat and elongated spleen with the longitudinal hilus running along its visceral surface. The spleen receives via the hilus an arterial supply that is essential for splenic nutrition and normal functioning. However, the distribution and variation of the arteries to the spleen have not been studied in detail. This study investigated anatomical variations of splenic arterial supply in 33 New Zealand White rabbits with a colored latex injection into arteries. We also examined whether the length of the spleen correlated with the number of the splenic branches of the splenic artery. The splenic artery always arose as the first independent branch of the celiac artery and ran along the splenic hilus to usually provide 6 (range, 3 to 10) splenic branches to the spleen. There was a moderate correlation (R=0.6) between the number of splenic branches and the longitudinal length of the spleen. The splenic branches often arose as a trunk or trunks in common with short gastric arteries. The number of common trunk(s) was usually 1 (range, 0 to 4). The data showed that the pattern and number of arterial branches to the spleen varied according to the individual animal, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing experimental and veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits.

  15. Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery

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    Pai S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular surgeon. The purpose of this study was to define the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA and its various branches in the Indian population. Methods: Ten MCAs were studied from five cadaveric brain specimens. The authors studied the outer diameter, length, branches, perforators and site of these on the main trunk (M1, the division of the main trunk, the secondary trunks and their various cortical branches using the operating microscope under 5-20x magnification. Results: The outer diameter of the MCA main trunk ranges from 2.5 to 4 mm with a mean of 3.35 mm. The superolateral branches consisted of polar temporal artery and anterior temporal artery that had a common origin and sometimes the uncal artery or the accessory uncal artery. Perforators or lenticulostriate arteries were seen in the inferomedial surface all along the length of M1. Eight bifurcations and two trifurcations were noted. Cortical branches and their origin are discussed. Conclusion: Although the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA in Indian population correlated with the findings in the western literature, some structural and statistical variations were noted.

  16. Descolamento de retina seroso em paraganglioma: relato de caso Serous retinal detachment in paraganglioma: case report

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    Oscar Villas Boas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de uma paciente gestante com hipertensão arterial resistente ao tratamento e descolamento seroso bilateral de retina. Confirmou-se, pelo exame anátomo-patológico, ser um paraganglioma.The authors describe a case of a pregnant patient with arterial hypertension that resists to the treatment and retinal bilateral serous detachment. It was confirmed to be a paraganglioma by anatomicopathological examination.

  17. Retinal vascular tree reconstruction with anatomical realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai-Shun; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Chih-Hsiangng; Sofka, Michal; Chen, Shih-Jen; Lin, Wei-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the goals of automatically extracting vessel segments and constructing retinal vascular trees with anatomical realism, this paper presents and analyses an algorithm that combines vessel segmentation and grouping of the extracted vessel segments. The proposed method aims to restore the topology of the vascular trees with anatomical realism for clinical studies and diagnosis of retinal vascular diseases, which manifest abnormalities in either venous and/or arterial vascular systems. Vessel segments are grouped using extended Kalman filter which takes into account continuities in curvature, width, and intensity changes at the bifurcation or crossover point. At a junction, the proposed method applies the minimum-cost matching algorithm to resolve the conflict in grouping due to error in tracing. The system was trained with 20 images from the DRIVE dataset, and tested using the remaining 20 images. The dataset contained a mixture of normal and pathological images. In addition, six pathological fluorescein angiogram sequences were also included in this study. The results were compared against the groundtruth images provided by a physician, achieving average success rates of 88.79% and 90.09%, respectively.

  18. Perceptual Fading without Retinal Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Po-Jang; Colas, Jaron T.

    2012-01-01

    A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading and disappears from consciousness. This startling phenomenon is commonly believed to arise from local bottom-up sensory adaptation to edge information that occurs early in the visual pathway, such as in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus or retinal ganglion cells. Here…

  19. Retinal detachment surgery without cryotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chignell, A H; Markham, R H

    1981-01-01

    A series of cases of retinal detachment treated without the application of cryotherapy at the time of surgery has been studied. The omission of cryotherapy while not interfering with retinal reattachment, carries the risk of redetachment at a later date. Macular pucker may still occur in spite of the absence of cryotherapy.

  20. Retinal vascular geometry and its association to microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M L; Broe, R; Frydkjaer-Olsen, U

    2017-01-01

    of patients with T1DM participated in a clinical examination in 2011. Blood and urine analyses were done and retinal images taken. PDR was defined as Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study level 61 or above, nephropathy as albumin-creatinin ratio ≥300 mg/g, and neuropathy as vibration perception threshold......PURPOSE: To examine associations between retinal vascular geometry (tortuosity, branching coefficient [BC] and length-diameter ratio [LDR]) and diabetic proliferative retinopathy (PDR), nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: A cohort...... >25 Volt. Retinal vessel parameters were measured using semi-automated software. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to investigate correlations between retinal vascular parameters and outcomes. Models were adjusted for other variables (sex, age, duration of diabetes, systolic and diastolic...

  1. One day wonder: Fast resolution of macular edema following intravitreal ranibizumab in retinal venous occlusions

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    Lalit Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular edema is a significant cause of vision loss in patients with central retinal vein occlusions and branch retinal vein occlusions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF appears to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of this disease. Anti-VEGF therapy, such as intravitreal ranibizumab provides an effective treatment against vision-threatening macular edema. We report three patients of retinal vein occlusion with macular edema who demonstrated overnight resolution of macular edema following treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg. 3D optical coherence tomography (Optovue was used as a tool for comparison of the macular thickness before and after treatment. The significant reductions in the central foveal thickness demonstrated in these patients one night after intravitreal injections could have significant influence on modifying current treatment protocols. Early treatment of macular edema related to retinal venous occlusive disease with anti-VEGF injections could result in faster visual rehabilitation in these patients.

  2. Melons are branched polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  3. Retinal hemodynamic oxygen reactivity assessed by perfusion velocity, blood oximetry and vessel diameter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver Niels; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Larsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the oxygen reactivity of a fundus photographic method of measuring macular perfusion velocity and to integrate macular perfusion velocities with measurements of retinal vessel diameters and blood oxygen saturation. METHODS: Sixteen eyes in 16 healthy volunteers were studied at two...... examination sessions using motion-contrast velocimetry and retinal oximetry with vessel diameter corrections. To test oxygen reactivity, participants were examined during normoxia, after 15 min of hyperoxia and finally after 45 min of normoxia. Repeatability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients...... retinal arterial oxygen saturation from 95.1 ± 5.0% to 96.6 ± 6.4% (p = 0.038) and increased retinal venous oxygen saturation from 62.9 ± 6.7% to 70.3 ± 7.8% (p = 0.0010). Parameters returned to baseline levels after subsequent normoxia. Saturation and vessel diameter ICCs were 0.88-0.98 (range...

  4. [Retinal vascular changes--predictive and prognostic factor in systemic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicol, Anca Delia; Bogdănici, Tudor; Bogdănici, Camelia

    2014-01-01

    The retinal circulation represents a unique window for the direct, non invazive in vivo status of the systemic mycrocirculation, but it can also offer scientific support for theories related strictly to ocular diseases, such as glaucoma (vascular theory). The interaction between intraocular pressure, retinal vessels and cerebrospinal fluid pressure located at the retrolaminar part of the optic nerve has been of great interest for both ophthalmologists or neuroscientists, both clinicians and researchers. The retinal vascular bed has structural and functional similarities with other vascular teritories such as Central Nervous System (CNS), kidneys and heart, so as for the ophthalmologist any vascular change in the retina can signalize a systemic disease (diabetes mellitus, stroke, arterial hypertension) that is more or less symptomatic for the patient. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to reviview recent literature data related to the connections between different hemodynamic structures and their impact on the retinal blood flow.

  5. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  6. Microvascular network topology of the human retinal vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, S; Brab, M; Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Reim, M; Schmid-Schönbein, H

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of blood flow in the human retinal vessels requires a detailed picture of the microvascular network topology. In order to lay the foundation for a quantitative microcirculatory network analysis of the human retina, a novel technique for tissue preparation and network characterization was developed. After injection of hydrogen peroxide into the human bulb, the microvasculature was filled with oxygen produced by endothelial catalase and visualized after embedding in a mixture of cedar oil and gum damar. The vessel topology was documented in the form of photomicrographs, which permitted complete reconstruction of the microvasculature on transparent overlays. By considering the complete capillary system it was possible to divide the retinal network into dichotomous, asymmetric arteriolar and venular trees. The Strahler ordering method, which considers both dichotomous and side branching configurations, was selected and applied to analyze the retinal vascular trees, using the capillaries as the zero order reference vessels. The number of vessel segments was found to be an approximate logarithmic function of the order number, in accordance with Horton's law. Vessel lengths within each order were found to be log-normal distributed, and median lengths for different orders could be approximated by a 2nd degree polynomial curve. Diameters within each order could be approximated by a Gaussian distribution, and the mean values for different orders could be expressed by an exponential curve. These data provide the basis for conductance, pressure and flow computations within the retinal microvessels.

  7. Retinal oxygen saturation evaluation by multi-spectral fundus imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoobehi, Bahram; Ning, Jinfeng; Puissegur, Elise; Bordeaux, Kimberly; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Beach, James

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a multi-spectral method to measure oxygen saturation of the retina in the human eye. Methods: Five Cynomolgus monkeys with normal eyes were anesthetized with intramuscular ketamine/xylazine and intravenous pentobarbital. Multi-spectral fundus imaging was performed in five monkeys with a commercial fundus camera equipped with a liquid crystal tuned filter in the illumination light path and a 16-bit digital camera. Recording parameters were controlled with software written specifically for the application. Seven images at successively longer oxygen-sensing wavelengths were recorded within 4 seconds. Individual images for each wavelength were captured in less than 100 msec of flash illumination. Slightly misaligned images of separate wavelengths due to slight eye motion were registered and corrected by translational and rotational image registration prior to analysis. Numerical values of relative oxygen saturation of retinal arteries and veins and the underlying tissue in between the artery/vein pairs were evaluated by an algorithm previously described, but which is now corrected for blood volume from averaged pixels (n > 1000). Color saturation maps were constructed by applying the algorithm at each image pixel using a Matlab script. Results: Both the numerical values of relative oxygen saturation and the saturation maps correspond to the physiological condition, that is, in a normal retina, the artery is more saturated than the tissue and the tissue is more saturated than the vein. With the multi-spectral fundus camera and proper registration of the multi-wavelength images, we were able to determine oxygen saturation in the primate retinal structures on a tolerable time scale which is applicable to human subjects. Conclusions: Seven wavelength multi-spectral imagery can be used to measure oxygen saturation in retinal artery, vein, and tissue (microcirculation). This technique is safe and can be used to monitor oxygen uptake in humans. This work

  8. Assessing the Causality between Blood Pressure and Retinal Vascular Caliber through Mendelian Randomisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Jun; Liao, Jiemin; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Ikram, M. Kamran; Shyong, Tai E.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to determine the association between blood pressure (BP) and retinal vascular caliber changes that were free from confounders and reverse causation by using Mendelian randomisation. A total of 6528 participants from a multi-ethnic cohort (Chinese, Malays, and Indians) in Singapore were included in this study. Retinal arteriolar and venular caliber was measured by a semi-automated computer program. Genotyping was done using Illumina 610-quad chips. Meta-analysis of association between BP, and retinal arteriolar and venular caliber across three ethnic groups was performed both in conventional linear regression and Mendelian randomisation framework with a genetic risk score of BP as an instrumental variable. In multiple linear regression models, each 10 mm Hg increase in systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial BP (MAP) was associated with significant decreases in retinal arteriolar caliber of a 1.4, 3.0, and 2.6 μm, and significant decreases in retinal venular caliber of a 0.6, 0.7, and 0.9 μm, respectively. In a Mendelian randomisation model, only associations between DBP and MAP and retinal arteriolar narrowing remained yet its significance was greatly reduced. Our data showed weak evidence of a causal relationship between elevated BP and retinal arteriolar narrowing.

  9. Acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Hernán Ocampo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Clinical features in a case of acute retinal necrosis are described as well as its diagnostic approach and response to early treatment. Methods: This is a descriptive and retrospective study case report of a 26 year old male patient who arrived to the emergency room with a three day history of sudden visual loss in the right eye (RE. At initial evaluation a visual acuity of hand movements in the RE, 20/15 in the left eye (LE and a right relative afferent pupillary defect were found. Fundoscopy revealed profuse soft exudates and hemorrhages involving posterior pole, inferior hemiretina and superotemporal periphery. Infectious workup and fluoresceinic angiography were made and positive serologies for herpes virus types 1 and 2, without HIV, were found. A diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis was made and treatment with intravenous valgancyclovir for two weeks and intra-vitreous triamcinolone for severe vasculitis, was given. Then a 3 months treatment with oral antiviral agents was prescribed. Results: Patient’s evolution showed improvement with treatment and at two and a half months of follow up, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye, normal slit lamp examination, tonometry of 12 mm Hg and fundoscopy improved when compared to initial pictures.Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosing ARN taking into account clinical findings. Prompt intravenous and intra-vitreous treatments are needed to achieve good clinical and functional outcomes and to avoid central nervous system complications.

  10. Cone pathway function in relation to asymmetric carotid artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Holfort, Stig K;

    2013-01-01

    in the same patient. Results:  Ophthalmic systolic pressure was 95.8 ± 13.1 mmHg on the side with the highest degree of carotid artery stenosis (mean 94.0%) and 111.7 ± 10.3 mmHg in the fellow eyes on the side with the lesser degree of stenosis (mean 33.9%). Summed mfERG implicit times (N1 and P1) were 3......Purpose:  To examine retinal function in relation to retinal perfusion pressure in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Methods:  Thirteen patients with carotid artery stenosis without clinical eye disease underwent assessment of ophthalmic artery systolic blood pressure (OSP) by ocular...... pneumoplethysmography, carotid artery obstructive disease by ultrasonography, intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry, retinal perfusion by fluorescein angiography and retinal function by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Data analysis compared the eye on the most stenotic side with the fellow eye...

  11. Angiosome of the fibular artery as anatomic basis for free composite fibular flap

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlović Radovan; Milisavljević Milan; Tabaković Dejan; Ćetković Mila; Bumbaširević Marko

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. The free osteoseptocutaneus fibular flap is, anatomically, an angiosome of the fibular artery. Knowledge of detailed topography anatomy of the fibular artery and its branches is necessary for successful creation and elevation of the flap. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine topography of the tissue of the leg supplied only by the fibular artery, to describe topography relations of the branches of the fibular artery, their number, anastomoses, vascular plexus and the...

  12. CLINICAL STUDY OF RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSIONS AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyavathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is the most common retinal occlusive disorder encountered by Ophthalmologists and is usually associated with a variable amount of visual loss. This is the second most common retinal vascular disease next to diabetic retinopathy. Liebreich initially described dramatic obstruction of veins as retinal apoplexy. Leber ( 1 (1877 reported the first case of BRVO and called it Hem orrhagic retinitis. RVO most commonly affects the venous blood supply of the entire retina (CRVO or a quadrant drained by one of the branches (BRVO or less commonly the superior or inferior half of the retina alone is affected (HCRVO. For discussion and management purpose RVO is broadly classified into six clinical entities includes (1 Non - ischemic CRVO (2 Ischemic CRVO (3 Non ischemic HCRVO (4Ischemic HCRVO (5 Major BRVO (6Macular BRVO. So much of confusion still exists regarding its natural histo ry, degree of severity, management and its progression. The clinical study of RVO is taken up mainly with a view to study the importance of systemic risk factors in etiopathogenisis of RVO, to study the clinical features and effectiveness of treatment in m odification of the natural course and complications of RVO. Depending on type of venous occlusion patient may present with loss of central vision frequently noticed on waking up in the morning, or field contraction, erythropsia, floates, black spots. Episo des of amaurosis fugax lasts for minutes to hours may be present. There may be metamor - phopsia. Signs of decreased visual acuty, RAPD, visual field defects are observed. Fundus picture shows Retinal hemorrhages distributed based on type of venous occlusion . In ischemic CRVO the picture shows “berries on a twig”. Various sequel & complications include macular edema, anterior segment and retinal neovascularisation, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment may be encountered. Various risk factors include Hypert ension, Diabetes, Hyper lipidemia, IHD

  13. Retinal vessel diameters and their correlation with retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet; Cuneyt; Ozmen; Zeynep; Aktas; Burcin; Kepez; Yildiz; Murat; Hasanreisoglu; Berati; Hasanreisoglu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare retinal artery-vein diameters(RAVDs)of patients with pseudoexfoliation(PSX) syndrome with healthy controls and investigate the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness parameters and RAVDs.METHODS: Seventeen eyes with PSX and 17 eyes of age-matched controls were included in the study. All participants underwent routine ophthalmological examination, Humphrey visual field and RNFL examination by using Stratus OCT. Retinal images were obtained by using a retinal camera(Topcon 501X).RAVDs were measured from inferior nasal, inferior temporal, superior nasal and superior temporal arcuates by using IMAGEnet software. Superior, inferior, nasal,temporal and average RNFL thicknesses were recorded.RAVDs and RNFL parameters in groups and correlations were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U and Spearmann correlation tests.RESULTS: Only inferior quadrant and average RNFL thickness were detected thinner in the PSX group compared with control group(P =0.009, P =0.038,respectively). No statistically significant difference regarding RAVDs was found between two groups.CONCLUSION: RAVDs seems to be comparable in the PSX and control group. RNFL is thinner in the inferior quadrant in the PSX group. RNFL thickness and RAVDs show significant correlations in both groups. This correlation doesn’t seem to be specific to PSX.

  14. TRAS principles blight arterial bypass and plasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A new concept--Tissue Requisitions (Principle I/Relinquishes (Principle II Arterial Supply--of TRAS principles is introduced to help appreciate the failures/successes of modern medicine′s attempts at restoring arterial flow in luminally compromised coronary/carotid fields, an invasive branch rightly called vascular ReRheology, which comprises diagnosing/treating arterial blocks. The technical wizardry of arterial reconstruction (bypass or lumen--restoration (plasty has to reckon with the TRAS principles all the time.

  15. The iliac periosteal flap with ascending branch of lateral femoral circumflex artery for the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease%带旋股外侧动脉升支髂骨骨膜瓣植入治疗儿童股骨头缺血性坏死

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅维民; 赵德伟; 王本杰; 马志杰; 王建川

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨应用带旋股外侧动脉升支髂骨骨膜瓣植入治疗儿童股骨头缺血性坏死的临床效果及意义. 方法 分析自2008年1月至2012年5月在我院应用带旋股外侧动脉升支髂骨骨膜瓣植入治疗的18例患者资料.随访时间24~60个月,平均38个月,随访时间截止2014年5月.随访时行X线片检查并进行临床体格检查,Harris评分系统评估手术效果. 结果 X线见16例患者术后骨膜瓣愈合良好,骨骺高度逐渐恢复,股骨头变圆.2例股骨头出现变扁、塌陷.Mose法结合X线所得结果优良率为88.9%.Harris评分从术前平均(72.3±4.9)分提高到术后平均(91.3±2.4)分,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 应用带旋股外侧动脉升支髂骨骨膜瓣植入是儿童股骨头缺血性坏死的一种有效治疗方法.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of the iliac periosteal flap with ascending branch of lateral femoral circumflex artery for the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.Methods Followed-up 18 patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease who had undergone the treatment of iliac periosteal flap with ascending branch of lateral femoral circumflex artery from January,2008 to May,2012 in our hospital.Minimum follow-up time was from 24 to 60 months,and the average time was 38 months.The followed-up period ended in May,2014.Assessed the effect of surgery by X-ray,clinical examination and Harris scoring system.Results Sixteen patients had good healing with iliac periosteal flap according to X-ray show.Their epiphyseal height recovered and the femoral head rounded gradually.Two cases became flat and collapse.The result of excellent and good rate was 88.9% by Mose method combined with the results of X-ray.The average Harris hip score improved from 72.3 ± 4.9 points preoperatively to 91.3 ± 2.4 points postoperatively.The difference of the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion The transfer of iliac periosteal

  16. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidney can often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury or trauma to ...

  17. Treatment of Laser-Induced Retinal Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-29

    Distribution List (enclosed) bI’TF rruIoN STATEMEN A Approved for publi reljaso Disatbunon Unlimited TREATMENT OF LASER-INDUCED RETINAL INJURIES FINAL...suprathreshold retinal laser lesions II. Subthreshold retinal laser lesions III. Effect of steroid treatment on laser-induced retinal injury Discussion and...In the present study we investigated the effect of corticosteroid treatment of argon laser-induced retinal injury on vitreal accumulation of both

  18. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Araújo Pinho Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints.

  19. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  20. Branched Polymer Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We show that correlation functions for branched polymers correspond to those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves, as has been widely believed. In particular, the two-point function behaves as 1/p^4, not as 1/p^2. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  1. Woven coronary artery: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursaklioglu, Hurkan; Iyisoy, Atila; Celik, Turgay

    2006-10-26

    Woven coronary artery is an extremely rare and clearly undefined coronary malformation. Up to now, very few cases have been reported. In this anomaly, epicardial coronary artery are branched into thin channels at any segment of the coronary artery and then these longitudinal twisted thin channels merge again as the main coronary lumen. This anomaly is regarded as a benign condition since there is completely normal blood flow after the distal segment of the abnormal coronary artery. In this case report, we present a 48-year-old male patient with a woven coronary artery anomaly in the circumflex artery and who had been followed up for 5 years.

  2. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  3. A Diagnostic Dilemma of Recurrent Disseminated Peritoneal Leiomyomatosis with Hypertrophied Omental Vessels: Imaging and Embolization of Omental Branches with Positive Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Chander; Hans, Deepak; Vora, Maulik

    2017-01-01

    We present a case report of recurrent disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis in a 30-year-old female with a past history of laparoscopic myomectomy by a technique of morcellation for a large fibroid in 2014. After one year she presented in 2015 with a well-defined oval shaped fibroid along the anterior abdominal wall, which was supplied by the 10th intercostal artery and a branch of right internal mammary artery. She was again presented after 1 year in 2016 with a large pelvic-abdominal fibroid with blood supply from the omental artery, a branch from the right gastroepiploic artery, and sigmoid branches of inferior mesenteric artery.

  4. Retinal Microvascular Abnormalities in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated with Congenital Retinal Macrovessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Shinji; Endoh, Katsuhisa; Tampo, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report a case of retinal microvascular abnormalities in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) associated with congenital retinal macrovessels. An abnormal retinal macrovessel, crossing the macula horizontally, was detected in the right eye. Additionally, retinal microvascular abnormalities were detected. Eight years after the initial visit, the retinal microvascular abnormalities were noted to have changed substantially. We speculate that retinal microvascular abnormalities in NF1 may change dynamically over the years. PMID:23781366

  5. Retinal Microvascular Abnormalities in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated with Congenital Retinal Macrovessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Makino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of retinal microvascular abnormalities in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 associated with congenital retinal macrovessels. An abnormal retinal macrovessel, crossing the macula horizontally, was detected in the right eye. Additionally, retinal microvascular abnormalities were detected. Eight years after the initial visit, the retinal microvascular abnormalities were noted to have changed substantially. We speculate that retinal microvascular abnormalities in NF1 may change dynamically over the years.

  6. Fatal dissection of the pulmonary artery in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Degano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 41-yr-old patient with chronic stable idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH presented with sudden chest pain and unusual dyspnoea during physical exertion. The patient had been diagnosed with PAH at the age of 12 yrs and was in New York Heart Association functional class I/II. The patient was being treated with an anticoagulant regimen, low-dose diuretics and continuous intravenous epoprostenol therapy. A computed tomography scan showed ancient massive thrombi in dilated central pulmonary arteries, which were not haemodynamically significant (perfusion lung scans did not demonstrate segmental or larger defects, and extensive dissection of the right pulmonary artery starting from the intermediate branch. Due to the extensiveness of the dissection, the patient was immediately considered for heart–lung transplantation, but died 72 h after the onset of symptoms. Permission for post mortem examination was denied. Pulmonary artery dissection should be suspected in PAH patients presenting with chest pain and worsening dyspnoea. In the current case, the factors possibly associated with increased risk for dissection may include dilatation of the pulmonary artery, local inflammation favoured by in situ thrombosis, and acute increase of pulmonary pressure secondary to physical exertion. Extensive pulmonary artery dissection is a life-threatening complication of PAH, and urgent heart/lung transplantation might be the treatment of choice in eligible patients. In addition, better identification of the risk factors for pulmonary artery dissection may help in considering transplantation for selected patients at risk.

  7. 单心室生理矫治手术后肺动脉狭窄的置入肺动脉支架治疗%Stent implantation for treatment of branch pulmonary artery and anastomosis stenosis in children with univentricular hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖; 刘廷亮; 高伟; 黄美容; 吴怡蓓; 徐欣怡

    2016-01-01

    目的 评价支架治疗单心室生理矫治手术后肺动脉分支和吻合口狭窄的临床应用价值.方法 2014年3月至2015年1月,8例单心室术后肺动脉分支狭窄或吻合口狭窄的患儿行支架置入术,男6例,女2例;年龄4.0~8.5岁,平均6.6岁;体质量13.8~ 25.6 kg,平均19.5 kg.Glenn术后5例,Fontan术后3例.支架置入术后次日、术后1、3、6、12个月行经胸超声心动图、心电图及X线胸片检查观察支架有无移位、测定该部位压力阶差以及是否有心律失常.结果 8例患儿共成功置入9枚支架,其中6例置入左肺动脉,1例置入右肺动脉,1例右肺动脉远端分支及吻合口各置入1枚支架.所有患儿无术中并发症,狭窄处血管内径由术前(3.63±2.06) mm增加至(7.89±1.62) mm,P<0.01.1例术后自行停用抗凝剂致支架内血栓形成,其余患儿随访中无并发症.结论 单心室术后肺动脉分支及吻合口狭窄即使压差不明显也要积极干预,尤其是有反复胸腔积液、心包积液、失蛋白肠病及心功能不全的患儿.支架置入是有效的治疗模式.%Objective Patients with single-ventricle physiology pose a wide variety of therapeutic challenges.Pulmonary artery or anastomosis stenosis in single-ventricle physiology will have only subtle hemodynamic derangements due to the lack of the pumping chamber to force blood across the stenosis.This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of the stent implantation for treatment of branch pulmonary artery and anastomosis stenosis in children with univentricular hearts.Methods Retrospective analysis of 8 implanted stents between March 2014 and January 2015 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center.Transthoracic echocardiography,chest roentgenography and electrocardiography were carried out as follow-up studies at the second day after operation and 1,3,6,12 months after the procedure.Results In all of eight patients (6 males and 2 females),5 cases were post

  8. The ophthalmic branch of the Gutenberg Health Study: study design, cohort profile and self-reported diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Höhn

    Full Text Available This paper describes the study design, methodology, cohort profile and self-reported diseases in the ophthalmological branch of the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS.The GHS is an ongoing, prospective, interdisciplinary, single-center, population-based cohort study in Germany. The main goals of the ophthalmological section are to assess the prevalence and incidence of ocular diseases and to explore risk factors, genetic determinants and associations with systemic diseases and conditions. The eye examination at baseline included a medical history, self-reported eye diseases, visual acuity, refractive errors, intraocular pressure, visual field, pachymetry, keratometry, fundus photography and tear sampling. The 5-year follow-up visit additionally encompassed optical coherence tomography, anterior segment imaging and optical biometry. The general examination included anthropometry; blood pressure measurement; carotid artery ultrasound; electrocardiogram; echocardiography; spirometry; cognitive tests; questionnaires; assessment of mental conditions; and DNA, RNA, blood and urine sampling.Of 15,010 participants (aged 35-74 years at the time of inclusion, ocular data are available for 14,700 subjects (97.9%. The mean visual acuity (standard deviation, mean spherical equivalent, median decimal visual acuity, and mean intraocular pressure were 0.08 (0.17 logMar, -0.42 (2.43 diopters, 0.9 and 14.24 (2.79 mm Hg, respectively. The frequencies of self-reported strabismus, glaucoma, surgery for retinal detachment and retinal vascular occlusions were 2.7%, 2.3%, 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively.The GHS is the most extensive dataset of ophthalmic diseases and conditions and their risk factors in Germany and one of the largest cohorts worldwide. This dataset will provide new insight in the epidemiology of ophthalmic diseases and related medical specialties.

  9. [Retinal vasculitis in lupic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, P; Laroche, L; Krulik, M; Prier, A M; Saraux, H; Canuel, C; Debray, J

    1985-01-01

    Three cases of retinal vasculitis in SLE-type diseases are reported. The first was central retinal vein occlusion occurring during clinical remission of SLE in a 55 year old black female. Prednisone maintenance therapy was unchanged and visual loss rapidly regressed with heparin therapy. The second case was a 33 year old black female in whom SLE was discovered following relapsing bilateral optic neuritis. A progressive visual improvement was obtained with high dose of prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). The third cas was a 17 year old white girl with retinal vasculitis. She had an unclassified connective tissue disease inaugurated by optic neuritis at the age of 10. High dose prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) was effective on the visual loss. Retinal vasculitis lesions in SLE and their therapy are reviewed.

  10. Anatomic study of the dorsal arterial system of the hand Estudo anatômico do sistema arterial dorsal da mão

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Rosa de Rezende; Rames Mattar Júnior; Álvaro Baik Cho; Oswaldo Hideo Hasegawa; Samuel Ribak

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the dorsal arterial system of the hand received less attention than the palmar system. The studies concerning dorsal arterial anatomy present some controversies regarding the origin and presence of the dorsal metacarpal artery branches. Knowledge of the anatomy of dorsal metacarpal arteries is especially applied in the surgical planning for flaps taken from the dorsum of the hand. The purpose of this study is to analyze the arterial anatomy of the dorsum of the hand, compare our...

  11. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  12. Filling in the retinal image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, James; Piantanida, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The optics of the eye form an image on a surface at the back of the eyeball called the retina. The retina contains the photoreceptors that sample the image and convert it into a neural signal. The spacing of the photoreceptors in the retina is not uniform and varies with retinal locus. The central retinal field, called the macula, is densely packed with photoreceptors. The packing density falls off rapidly as a function of retinal eccentricity with respect to the macular region and there are regions in which there are no photoreceptors at all. The retinal regions without photoreceptors are called blind spots or scotomas. The neural transformations which convert retinal image signals into percepts fills in the gaps and regularizes the inhomogeneities of the retinal photoreceptor sampling mosaic. The filling-in mechamism plays an important role in understanding visual performance. The filling-in mechanism is not well understood. A systematic collaborative research program at the Ames Research Center and SRI in Menlo Park, California, was designed to explore this mechanism. It was shown that the perceived fields which are in fact different from the image on the retina due to filling-in, control some aspects of performance and not others. Researchers have linked these mechanisms to putative mechanisms of color coding and color constancy.

  13. Retinal implants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Alice T; Margo, Curtis E; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-07-01

    Retinal implants present an innovative way of restoring sight in degenerative retinal diseases. Previous reviews of research progress were written by groups developing their own devices. This systematic review objectively compares selected models by examining publications describing five representative retinal prostheses: Argus II, Boston Retinal Implant Project, Epi-Ret 3, Intelligent Medical Implants (IMI) and Alpha-IMS (Retina Implant AG). Publications were analysed using three criteria for interim success: clinical availability, vision restoration potential and long-term biocompatibility. Clinical availability: Argus II is the only device with FDA approval. Argus II and Alpha-IMS have both received the European CE Marking. All others are in clinical trials, except the Boston Retinal Implant, which is in animal studies. Vision restoration: resolution theoretically correlates with electrode number. Among devices with external cameras, the Boston Retinal Implant leads with 100 electrodes, followed by Argus II with 60 electrodes and visual acuity of 20/1262. Instead of an external camera, Alpha-IMS uses a photodiode system dependent on natural eye movements and can deliver visual acuity up to 20/546. Long-term compatibility: IMI offers iterative learning; Epi-Ret 3 is a fully intraocular device; Alpha-IMS uses intraocular photosensitive elements. Merging the results of these three criteria, Alpha-IMS is the most likely to achieve long-term success decades later, beyond current clinical availability.

  14. Retinal prosthesis for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Eyal; Maia, Mauricio; Weiland, James D; Greenberg, Robert J; Fujii, Gildo Y; Torres, Gustavo; Piyathaisere, Duke V; O'Hearn, Thomas M; Liu, Wentai; Lazzi, Gianluca; Dagnelie, Gislin; Scribner, Dean A; de Juan, Eugene; Humayun, Mark S

    2002-01-01

    Most of current concepts for a visual prosthesis are based on neuronal electrical stimulation at different locations along the visual pathways within the central nervous system. The different designs of visual prostheses are named according to their locations (i.e., cortical, optic nerve, subretinal, and epiretinal). Visual loss caused by outer retinal degeneration in diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration can be reversed by electrical stimulation of the retina or the optic nerve (retinal or optic nerve prostheses, respectively). On the other hand, visual loss caused by inner or whole thickness retinal diseases, eye loss, optic nerve diseases (tumors, ischemia, inflammatory processes etc.), or diseases of the central nervous system (not including diseases of the primary and secondary visual cortices) can be reversed by a cortical visual prosthesis. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of current and future concepts of retinal and optic nerve prostheses. This article will begin with general considerations that are related to all or most of visual prostheses and then concentrate on the retinal and optic nerve designs. The authors believe that the field has grown beyond the scope of a single article so cortical prostheses will be described only because of their direct effect on the concept and technical development of the other prostheses, and this will be done in a more general and historic perspective.

  15. Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm treated using stent-graft implantation and retrograde gastroduodenal artery coil embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Antonio; Patti, Maria Teresa [Ospedale Ferrarotto, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Catania (Italy); Ragazzi, Salvatore; Piazza, Diego [Ospedale Vittorio Emanuele, Department of Surgery I, Catania (Italy); Tsetis, Dimitrios [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece); Lupattelli, Tommaso [Multimedica Holding, Department of Interventional Radiology, Sesto S. Giovanni (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Endovascular treatment options for visceral artery pseudoaneurysms depend on lesion location and size. Exclusion methods fall into two categories, embolization and stent placement, and these procedures aim to exclude the pseudoaneurysm from the circulation and if possible to maintain distal blood flow. Embolization of the afferent artery can be used in pseudoaneurysms that arise from a donor artery without collateral supply such as a visceral branch, whereas in the case of visceral arteries with well-established collateral supply, the embolization of both proximal and distal branches to the pseudoaneurysm is mandatory in preventing backflow from the collateral circulation. A direct embolization delivering coils or glue into the sac can also be performed if the aneurismal neck is narrow. Stent-graft placement represents another option to exclude the pseudoaneurysm, in the case of wide neck, reduced arterial tortuosity and large-diameter arteries. We present a case of common hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm involving the gastroduodenal artery origin treated by a combination of techniques. An hepatic stent-graft implantation plus retrograde embolization of the gastroduodenal artery through the pancreaticoduodenal anastomosis from the superior mesenteric artery was performed. (orig.)

  16. Hybrid Endovascular Aorta Repair with Simultaneous Supra-aortic Branch or Iliac Branch Revascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-hong Zheng; Nim Choi; Hong-ru Deng; CU Kouk; Kun Yu; Furtado Rui

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe a hybrid endovascular procedure for aorta repair with different kinds of bypass followed by concomitant placement of stent graft in the aorta.Methods From June 2007 to May 2008,5 consecutive patients who presented with aortic aneurysm or dissection were treated with a new hybrid aorta repair technique.Complete surgical rerouting of supra-aortic vessels was simultaneously created by endovascular repair of aortic arch aneurysm with stent graft.Hybrid left carotid-subclavian bypass with stent graft deployment covering the ostium of the left subclavian artery was performed in a Debakey type Ⅲ aortic dissection case.The supra-aortic branch was revascularized in 2 cases from ascending aorta to bilateral common carotid arteries using a 16-8 mm bifurcated graft,then total aortic arch and descending artery was occluded with stent-graft.The left carotid artery to the left subclavian artery bypass was created in 1 case,followed by stent-graft deployment.Two cases of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm underwent left external iliac artery to left internal iliac artery bypass by a retroperineal route,then hybrid procedure was performed with bifurcated stent-graft.All stent grafts were deployed via a retrograde femoral artery approach in 5 patients.Results Technical success with complete aneurysmal exclusion was achieved in all patients.There was no incidence of endoleak.During a follow-up period of 2 to 10 months,documented perioperative neurologic events did not occur in all patients.One patient suffered from adult respiratory distress syndrome.After received tracheostomy,he recovered later.There was one death resulting from a postoperative myocardial infarction.Conclusion Hybrid arch repair provides an alternative therapy to patients otherwise considered prohibitively high risk for traditional open arch and thoracoabdominal aorta repair.

  17. [Ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the renal artery associated with segmental arterial mediolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Kosuke; Kikuchii, Mina; Kondo, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Yoji; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Masahiro, Nakano; Hidetoshi, Ehara; Deguchii, Takashi; Shinoda, Ikuo

    2008-07-01

    We present a 71-year-old woman with spontaneous perinephric hematoma due to a rupture of pseudoaneurysm of the right renal artery on the fourth day after radical cystectomy and bilateral ureterocutaneostomy for bladder cancer. This patient received steroid therapy for chronic rheumatoid arthritis for several years. The digital subtraction angiography of the right renal artery showed two pseudoaneurysms in the anterior inferior segmental branch and the posterior inferior segmental branch. Transarterial coil embolization of the right renal artery proximally and distally to the two aneurysms was performed without complications. Moreover, the additional angiography showed typical string-of-beads appearance and small aneurysms in abdominal visceral arteries, suggesting segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) as a possible etiology. Differential diagnoses of SAM are discussed.

  18. Anomalous Origin of the Left Atrial Branch from the Left Main Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Gholoobi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old woman was referred for coronary angiography with the chief complaint of exertional angina and dyspnea of a very long duration during routine daily physical activities. She had a history of poorly controlled hypertension and dyslipidemia. Coronary angiography revealed diffuse three-vessel disease. Interestingly, an unusual branch was noted originating from the mid shaft of the left main trunk with a funnel-shaped root and travelling the course of a left atrial (LA branch (Figures 1 and 2.The left main coronary artery (LMCA usually bifurcates into two major branches: the left anterior descending (LAD and left circumflex (LCx arteries. In some patients, the LMCA trifurcates into the LAD, LCx, and a branch artery named ramus intermedius. This third branch arises between the LAD and LCx arteries. The LCx artery gives rise to one or two left atrial circumflex branches which supply the lateral and posterior aspects of the left atrium. According to our extensive search of the literature, this is the first case to be reported with the LA branch originating from the LMCA.

  19. Usefulness of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor combined with dexamethasone implant for retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Moosang Kim Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medcine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Kangwon, KoreaI read with great interest the recent study by Michalska-Małecka et al1 published in the journal Clinical Interventions in Aging. The authors investigated the impact of intravitreal dexamethasone implant on macular morphology and functions in eyes with macular edema (ME secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. I congratulate the authors for their enlightening study and would like to make some contributions to the study.Read the original article by Michalska-Małecka and colleagues.

  20. Isolated retinal cotton wool spot after coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsachilis, Nikolaos; Brar, Manpreet; Marinescu, Anca I. C.; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2013-01-01

    Visual symptoms after coronary angiography are rarely encountered and mostly related to contrast induced transient cortical blindness or retinal artery occlusions. We report an intriguing case of a 50-year-old woman, who presented with vision deterioration in her right eye 12 h after coronary angiography for cardiac palpitation. Fundoscopy and optical coherence tomography scan revealed an isolated parafoveal cotton wool spot in her right eye that has totally resolved 6 weeks after initial presentation. This is the first case report of this rare post coronary angiography complication. PMID:23772127

  1. Isolated retinal cotton wool spot after coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kopsachilis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual symptoms after coronary angiography are rarely encountered and mostly related to contrast induced transient cortical blindness or retinal artery occlusions. We report an intriguing case of a 50-year-old woman, who presented with vision deterioration in her right eye 12 h after coronary angiography for cardiac palpitation. Fundoscopy and optical coherence tomography scan revealed an isolated parafoveal cotton wool spot in her right eye that has totally resolved 6 weeks after initial presentation. This is the first case report of this rare post coronary angiography complication.

  2. A prospective case-control study to investigate retinal microvascular changes in acute dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Petrina; Lye, David C; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Cheung, Carol Y; Thein, Tun-Linn; Wong, Joshua G; Agrawal, Rupesh; Li, Ling-Jun; Wong, Tien-Yin; Gan, Victor C; Leo, Yee-Sin; Teoh, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Dengue infection can affect the microcirculation by direct viral infection or activation of inflammation. We aimed to determine whether measured retinal vascular parameters were associated with acute dengue infection. Patients with acute dengue were recruited from Communicable Diseases Center, Singapore and age-gender-ethnicity matched healthy controls were selected from a population-based study. Retinal photographs were taken on recruitment and convalescence. A spectrum of quantitative retinal microvascular parameters (retinal vascular caliber, fractal dimension, tortuosity and branching angle) was measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. (Singapore I Vessel Assessment, version 3.0). We included 62 dengue patients and 127 controls. Dengue cases were more likely to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular calibers (158.3 μm vs 144.3 μm, p dengue coincided with decrease in retinal vascular calibers and venular fractal dimension. Dengue patients have altered microvascular network in the retina; these changes may reflect pathophysiological processes in the immune system.

  3. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  4. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly.......60-1.62). The presence of IRBBB was not associated with any adverse outcome.ConclusionIn this cohort study, RBBB and IRBBB were two to three times more common among men than women. Right bundle branch block was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality, whereas IRBBB was not. Contrary...

  5. cGMP-Phosphodiesterase Inhibition Prevents Hypoxia-Induced Cell Death Activation in Porcine Retinal Explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-González, Lorena; Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Hervás, David; Marín, María Pilar; Lahoz, Agustin; Millán, José María

    2016-01-01

    Retinal hypoxia and oxidative stress are involved in several retinal degenerations including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, central retinal artery occlusion, or retinopathy of prematurity. The second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) has been reported to be protective for neuronal cells under several pathological conditions including ischemia/hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the accumulation of cGMP through the pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) with Zaprinast prevented retinal degeneration induced by mild hypoxia in cultures of porcine retina. Exposure to mild hypoxia (5% O2) for 24h reduced cGMP content and induced retinal degeneration by caspase dependent and independent (PARP activation) mechanisms. Hypoxia also produced a redox imbalance reducing antioxidant response (superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) and increasing superoxide free radical release. Zaprinast reduced mild hypoxia-induced cell death through inhibition of caspase-3 or PARP activation depending on the cell layer. PDE inhibition also ameliorated the effects of mild hypoxia on antioxidant response and the release of superoxide radical in the photoreceptor layer. The use of a PKG inhibitor, KT5823, suggested that cGMP-PKG pathway is involved in cell survival and antioxidant response. The inhibition of PDE, therefore, could be useful for reducing retinal degeneration under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. PMID:27861632

  6. Retinal vascular caliber is associated with cardiovascular biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation: the POLA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Daien

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Retinal vascular caliber has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk and is predictive of cardiovascular pathology, including stroke and coronary heart disease. Oxidative stress, as well as inflammatory mechanisms, plays a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, plaque rupture and vascular thrombotic propensity. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between retinal vascular calibers and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in subjects free of cardiovascular pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from a community-dwelling cohort comprising 1224 individuals aged 60 years and over, without a history of coronary or peripheral artery disease or stroke. Retinal vascular caliber was measured from fundus photographs using semi-automated standardized imaging software. Oxidative stress was evaluated using plasma superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3 activities, and inflammatory state was assessed using plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and orosomucoid. RESULTS: In a multivariate model controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, larger retinal arteriolar caliber was independently related to higher level of GPx-3 activity (p = 0.003 whereas larger venular caliber was associated with higher levels of hsCRP (p = 0.0001 and orosomucoid (p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: In the present study, biomarkers of oxidative stress regulation and inflammation were independently associated with retinal vascular calibers. This suggests that an assessment of retinal vessels may offer early and non-invasive detection of subclinical vascular pathology.

  7. Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A J; See, M S; Ellis, H

    2008-01-01

    The superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) is highly vulnerable to trauma and iatrogenic injury. This study aimed to map the course of the SBRN in the context of surgical approaches and identify a safe area of incision for de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Twenty-five forearms were dissected. The SBRN emerged from under brachioradialis by a mean of 8.31 cm proximal to the radial styloid (RS), and remained radial to the dorsal tubercle of the radius by a mean of 1.49 cm. The nerve divided into a median of four branches. The first branch arose a mean of 4.92 cm proximal to the RS, traveling 0.49 cm radial to the first compartment of the extensor retinaculum, while the main nerve remained ulnar to it by 0.64 cm. All specimens had branches underlying the traditional transverse incision for de Quervain's release. A 2.5-cm longitudinal incision proximal from the RS avoided the SBRN in 17/25 cases (68%). In 20/25 specimens (80%), the SBRN underlay the cephalic vein. In 18/25 (72%), the radial artery was closely associated with a sensory nerve branch near the level of the RS (SBRN 12/25, lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (LCNF) 6/25.) A longitudinal incision in de Quervain's surgery may be preferable. Cannulation of the cephalic vein in the distal third of the forearm is best avoided. The close association between the radial artery and first branch of the SBRN or the LCNF may explain the pain often experienced during arterial puncture. Particular care should be taken during radial artery harvest to avoid nerve injury.

  8. Missing correlation of retinal vessel diameter with high-altitude headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Gabriel; Fischer, M Dominik; Schommer, Kai; Bärtsch, Peter; Gekeler, Florian; Schatz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The most common altitude-related symptom, high-altitude headache (HAH), has recently been suggested to originate from restricted cerebral venous drainage in the presence of increased inflow caused by hypoxia. In support of this novel hypothesis, retinal venous distension was shown to correlate with the degree of HAH. We quantified for the first time retinal vessel diameter changes at 4559 m using infrared fundus images obtained from a state of the art Spectralis™ HRA+OCT with a semiautomatic VesselMap 1® software. High-altitude exposure resulted in altered arterial and venous diameter changes at high altitude, however, independent of headache burden. PMID:25356382

  9. Hybrid aortic endovascular repair with one stage supra-aortic branch or tliac artery revascularization%一期杂交手术治疗弓部和胸腹段主动脉病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑月宏; 蔡念; 邓鸿儒; 郭昌宇; Rui Furtado

    2009-01-01

    Objective Repair of aortic arch aneurysm is technically demanding and usually requiring complex circulatory management. Operative morbidity and mortality may be prohibitive with traditional surgical intervention. We described our experience with 5 hybrid endovascular procedure for aorta repair with different kinds of bypass followed by concomitant placement of stent graft in the aorta. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 5 consecutive patients presenting with aortic aneurysm or dissection from 2007 to 2008 treated by the hybrid aorta repair. Complete surgical rerouting of the supra-aortic vessels was followed by endovascular repair of aortic arch aneurysm with a Zenith TX2 stent graft. Hybrid left carotid-subclavian bypass with Zenith stent graft deployment covering the ostium of the LSA was performed in a Debakey type Ⅲ aortic dissection case. Procedures were successfully completed with exclusion of the aortic aneurysm. All stent grafts were deployed retrograde from the femoral artery in these patients. Results Technical success with complete aneurysmal exclusion was achieved in all patients (100%). At a follow-up period of 2-10 months, there was no incidence of endoleak. Documented perioperative neurelogic events did not occurred in all patients. Postoperatively one patient suffered from ARDS and cardiac failure and recovered. One patient died of myocardial infarction. Conclusions Hybrid arch repair provides an alternative to patients otherwise considered prohibitively high risk for traditional open arch and thoracoabdominal aorta repair.%目的 总结单中心手术结合微创的杂交技术,同期治疗弓部、胸腹段主动脉病变的经验.方法 回顾性分析2007年6月至2008年5月在澳门仁伯爵综合医院应用杂交技术,同期治疗主动脉病变5例的临床资料.其中胸降主动脉瘤累及半弓合并夹层1例,弓降主动脉瘤1例,DebarkeyⅢ型急性主动脉夹层1例,累及双侧髂总、髂内

  10. Regarding optical coherence tomography grading of ischemia in central retinal venous occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Koushik TripathyDepartment of Vitreoretina and Uvea, ICARE Eye Hospital & Postgraduate Institute, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaThe author read with interest the article by Browning et al.1 The author humbly wants to discuss a few facts.1. The article1 discusses grading of retinal ischemia based on optical coherence tomography features in central retinal venous occlusion. As coexisting central retinal arterial occlusion or cilioretinal arterial occlusion may also cause inner retinal hyper-reflectivity, exclusion of such cases is an important consideration before implicating central retinal venous occlusion for the ischemia. Extensive intraretinal hemorrhages are other important hindrances to the evaluation of the perfusion status of the retina using both fluorescein angiogram and optical coherence tomography.2. It would be interesting to know the gonioscopic findings, especially neovascularization of the anterior chamber angle if it was performed at presentation and during the follow-ups.3. The manuscript documented that the incidence of anterior segment neovascularization at 1 year was 8.9% in severe ischemia group.1 The incidence of anterior segment neovascularization in perfused groups was higher (15.4% and 17.6% for mild and moderate ischemia, respectively. Although the sample size was low, such findings are contrary to the literature2 and require further discussion. Authors' replyDavid J Browning, Omar S Punjabi, Chong LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, P.A., Charlotte, NC, USA We thank Dr Tripathy for his interest in our article and would respond to his above-mentioned points.1. We agree that excluding eyes with cilioretinal artery and central retinal artery occlusions is necessary to be able to attribute inner retinal reflectivity changes to central retinal vein occlusion. Cilioretinal artery occlusion is associated with a band of ischemic retinal whitening and central retinal artery occlusion

  11. Retinal vascular oximetry during ranibizumab treatment of central retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; la Cour, Morten; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of intravitreal injections of the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor ranibizumab on retinal oxygenation in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS: Retinal oxygen saturation in patients with CRVO was analysed using the Oxymap Retin...

  12. Cilioretinal Artery Territory Infarction Associated With Papilledema in a Patient With Neurofibromatosis Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroo, Omar A; Mohamed, Moin D; Graham, Elizabeth M; Mann, Samantha S; Plant, Gordon T; Afridi, Shazia K; Hammond, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    Cilioretinal artery territory infarction can occur in isolation or in association with other vascular compromise of the retinal circulation. Our patient, an 18-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis type 2, developed a cilioretinal artery territory infarction in the setting of papilledema. Our case, together with one previous report, suggests that cilioretinal artery territory infarction in the context of papilledema, although rare, is a real entity.

  13. Angiographic features of unilateral nonbifurcating cervical carotid artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    En, Na Lae [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Nonbifurcating cervical carotid artery is a rare anomaly of the common carotid artery (CCA), in which the branches of the external carotid artery (ECA) arise directly from the CCA or proximal internal carotid artery without bifurcation, and therefore there is no proximal main trunk of the ECA. We report a unilateral nonbifurcating cervical carotid artery of a 67-year-old woman, incidentally found during cerebral aneurismal treatment.

  14. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion of right coronary artery in patient with dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Muhammad; Hartono, Beny; Iskandarsyah, Kurniawan; Nguyen, Thach N

    2013-07-01

    Situs inversus with dextrocardia is rare congenital anomaly. Coronary artery disease in such patients is quite rare. We reported a 52-year-old man with dextrocardia and chronic total occlusion at the proximal right coronary artery just after conus branch and severe stenosis at the proximal left anterior descending artery. He underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting of total occluded right coronary artery and simultaneously stenting of the proximal left anterior descending artery.

  15. A CADAVERIC STUDY OF VARIATION IN BRANCHING PATTERN OF COELIAC TRUNK IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayamma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: purpose of present study was to describe the variations in the branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Caeliac trunk is one of the ventral branch of abdominal aorta.it arises from the abdominal aorta opposite to intervertebral disc of T12 & L1 vertebrae.it has short course of 1.5 cm after which it terminates by dividing in to three branches splenic artery , left ga stric artery and common hepatic artery. Here we report unusual branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Knowledge of such variations in branching pattern of caeliac trunk is very important for surgeons , anatomists and anaesthetists. METHODS : The present study is done on 30 cadavers irrespective of sex in department of Anatomy in KURNOOL MEDICAL COLLEGE , Kurnool. According to dissection guidelines of cunnighams practical manual of Anatomy. RESULTS: The present study was an attempt to study the occurrence of the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk. The available literature was reviewed. The coeliac trunk took origin from the ventral surface of the aorta in all the 30 specimens. The various patterns were normal hepatolienogastric trunk in 92% , lienogastric trunk in. In one Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern o f specimen , coeliac trunk divided into common hepati c & splenic arteries , the left gastric artery took origin from the splenic artery. CONCLUSION : In my study out of 30 specimens 92% belonged to Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. This classification is according to LIPSCHUTZ (1917. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk.

  16. Impedance matching at arterial bifurcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N

    1993-01-01

    Reflections of pulse waves will occur in arterial bifurcations unless the impedance is matched continuously through changing geometric and elastic properties. A theoretical model is presented which minimizes pulse wave reflection through bifurcations. The model accounts for the observed linear changes in area within the bifurcation, generalizes the theory to asymmetrical bifurcations, characterizes changes in elastic properties from parent to daughter arteries, and assesses the effect of branch angle on the mechanical properties of daughter vessels. In contradistinction to previous models, reflections cannot be minimized without changes in elastic properties through bifurcations. The theoretical model predicts that in bifurcations with area ratios (beta) less than 1.0 Young's moduli of daughter vessels may be less than that in the parent vessel if the Womersley parameter alpha in the parent vessel is less than 5. Larger area ratios in bifurcations are accompanied by greater increases in Young's moduli of branches. For an idealized symmetric aortic bifurcation (alpha = 10) with branching angles theta = 30 degrees (opening angle 60 degrees) Young's modulus of common iliac arteries relative to that of the distal abdominal aorta has an increase of 1.05, 1.68 and 2.25 for area ratio of 0.8, 1.0 and 1.15, respectively. These predictions are consistent with the observed increases in Young's moduli of peripheral vessels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  18. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  19. Multimode geodesic branching components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D.; Voges, E.

    1983-01-01

    Geodesic branching components are investigated for multimode guided wave optics. Geodesic structures with particular properties, e.g. focussing star couplers, are derived by a synthesis technique based on a theorem of Toraldo di Francia. Experimentally, the geodesic surfaces are printed on acrylic glass and are spin-coated with organic film waveguides.

  20. Retinal vessels caliber changes after strabismus surgery: results of 6mo follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Peng; Fu, Jing; Zhou, Jin-Qiong; Wang, Xiao-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Ying; Liu, Ning-Pu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of strabismus surgery on retinal vessels calibers with digital color fundus photographs. METHODS Two hundred consecutive strabismus patients underwent surgery, and 118 patients (female/male, 55/63) who finished 6-month follow-up were finally included in this study. Optic disc-centered digital color fundus photographs of both eyes of all patients were taken prior to surgery and 6mo post surgery. The retinal vascular caliber of 116 operated eyes were measured using the computer program IVAN. The operated eyes were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical methods, recession of one muscle, one muscle recession and one muscle folding, one muscle resection and one muscle recession. The effect of number of altered muscles on retinal vessels was analyzed using statistic software SPSS 16.0. RESULTS The mean age was 12.4±8.6y. Averaged central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) of all patients was 120.31±23.02 µm preoperatively, and 122.87±15.93 µm six months after surgery. Averaged central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) was 171.11±31.73 µm preoperatively and 175.02±21.00 µm postoperatively. There was no significant difference of averaged CRAE (P=0.22) or CRVE (P=0.19) before and after operation. Averaged arteriole to venule ratio (AVR) was 0.71±0.07 before surgery and 0.70±0.07 after surgery. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative retinal vessels calibers among different surgical groups did not show significant differences. Also, there was no advantage of rectus muscle folding to muscle resection. CONCLUSION Up to 6mo after strabismus surgery, the retinal vascular calibers were not altered. No more than two muscles in one surgery are safe for retinal perfusion. PMID:27672600

  1. [Congenital retinal folds in different clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, M

    2005-01-01

    We present 12 clinical cases of congenital retinal folds with different etiologies: posterior primitive vitreous persistency and hyperplasia (7 cases),retinocytoma (1 case). retinopathy of prematurity (1 case), astrocytoma of the retina (1 case), retinal vasculitis (1 case), Goldmann-Favre syndrome (1 case). Etiopathogenic and nosological aspects are discussed; the congenital retinal folds are interpreted as a symptom in a context of a congenital or acquired vitreo-retinal pathology.

  2. Modified technique for reconstructing the visceral arteries in thoracoabdominal aortic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Haruhiko; Funatsu, Toshihiro; Taniguchi, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We present a modified technique for reconstructing the visceral arteries in thoracoabdominal aortic repair. After the proximal and distal anastomosis of a main tubular graft with four pre-sewn side branches, each visceral artery is cannulated and perfused with 25 °C blood (sum total, 800 mL/min). Then, each side branch is placed around the main graft, forming a gently curved loop around it. Finally, the orifice of each visceral artery is sutured to a side branch. This technique prevents kinking of the side branches and enables hemostasis to be secured with a clear view of all the suture lines.

  3. Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Altun A; Altun G; Olcaysu OO; Kurna SA; Aki SF

    2013-01-01

    Ahmet Altun,1 Gulengul Altun,2 Osman Okan Olcaysu,3 Sevda Aydin Kurna,1 Suat Fazil Aki11Clinic of Ophthalmology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pediatrics, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Clinic of Ophthalmology, Erzurum Region Education and Research Hospital, Erzurum, TurkeyAbstract: A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Su...

  4. Arterial supply to the cloacal bursa of Hybro PG lineage hens (Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Ozanam Carneiro e Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the origin, number and disposition of the arterial vessels and their branches which irrigated the cloacal bursas of 30 hens (Gallus gallus of the Hybro PG lineage. First of all, the left isquiadic artery from the samples was cannulated and injected with a 50% colored solution of Neoprene latex “450”; then, we continued the experiment with dissection whose results confi rmed that the cloacal bursa was supplied by direct branches from the left and right internal pudendal arteries and bursocloacal arteries in 100% of the cases, varying only in terms of the numbers and disposition of their branches. There were also some branches from the median caudal artery (23% and left external pudendal (3.33%. The total number of branches varied from 1 to 4 and their distribution was unique in each sample.

  5. Brain morphometry and arterial circuit formation in New Zealand rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina de Oliveira Portugal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the main ramifications of basilar artery, arterial circuit formation, and brain morphometry in adult rabbits of both sexes. We performed cannulation of the thoracic aorta through lateral incision, fixation with 10% formaldehyde solution, and filling of the arterial system with colored latex solution. We performed craniotomy, brain removal and morphometry, as well as dissection for observing the main ramifications of the basilar artery and arterial circuit formation. Mean and standard error of the basilar artery length were1.293 cm ± 0.024 in females and 1.227 cm ± 0.025 in males. In all rabbits dissected, the basilar artery stemmed from the anastomosis of vertebral arteries, right and left, giving rise to the caudal cerebellar artery, varied branches to bulb and pons, terminal branches, and rostral cerebellar arteries. Arteries at the base of the brain depended on the carotid and vertebral-basilar systems. The arterial brain circuit was rostrally closed in 10 males and 12 females and caudally closed in all animals dissected.

  6. Choroidal melanoma clinically simulating a retinal angioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, J.A.; Joffe, L.; Guibor, P.

    1978-01-01

    An amelanotic fundus lesion in a 35-year-old man was associated with a dilated retinal vessel, thus suggesting the diagnosis of retinal angioma. Fluorescein angiography and B-scan ultrasonography were not diagnostic, but a radioactive phosphorus uptake test suggested the lesion was malignant. The enucleated globe showed a malignant choroidal melanoma drained by a large retinal vein.

  7. Choroidal melanoma clinically simulating a retinal angioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, J A; Joffe, L; Guibor, P

    1978-01-01

    An amelanotic fundus lesion in a 35-year-old man was associated with a dilated retinal vessel, thus suggesting the diagnosis of retinal angioma. Fluorescein angiography and B-scan ultrasonography were not diagnostic, but a radioactive phosphorus uptake test suggested the lesion was malignant. The enucleated globe showed a malignant choroidal melanoma drained by a large retinal vein.

  8. Exploring the retinal connectome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Shaw, Margaret V.; Yang, Jia-Hui; DeMill, David; Lauritzen, James S.; Lin, Yanhua; Rapp, Kevin D.; Mastronarde, David; Koshevoy, Pavel; Grimm, Bradley; Tasdizen, Tolga; Whitaker, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Purpose A connectome is a comprehensive description of synaptic connectivity for a neural domain. Our goal was to produce a connectome data set for the inner plexiform layer of the mammalian retina. This paper describes our first retinal connectome, validates the method, and provides key initial findings. Methods We acquired and assembled a 16.5 terabyte connectome data set RC1 for the rabbit retina at ≈2 nm resolution using automated transmission electron microscope imaging, automated mosaicking, and automated volume registration. RC1 represents a column of tissue 0.25 mm in diameter, spanning the inner nuclear, inner plexiform, and ganglion cell layers. To enhance ultrastructural tracing, we included molecular markers for 4-aminobutyrate (GABA), glutamate, glycine, taurine, glutamine, and the in vivo activity marker, 1-amino-4-guanidobutane. This enabled us to distinguish GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells; to identify ON bipolar cells coupled to glycinergic cells; and to discriminate different kinds of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells based on their molecular signatures and activity. The data set was explored and annotated with Viking, our multiuser navigation tool. Annotations were exported to additional applications to render cells, visualize network graphs, and query the database. Results Exploration of RC1 showed that the 2 nm resolution readily recapitulated well known connections and revealed several new features of retinal organization: (1) The well known AII amacrine cell pathway displayed more complexity than previously reported, with no less than 17 distinct signaling modes, including ribbon synapse inputs from OFF bipolar cells, wide-field ON cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells, and extensive input from cone-pathway amacrine cells. (2) The axons of most cone bipolar cells formed a distinct signal integration compartment, with ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses targeting diverse cell types. Both ON and OFF bipolar cells receive

  9. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  10. PERSISTENT MEDIAN ARTERY ASSOCIATED WITH SUPERFICIA L RADIAL ARTERY AT THE WRIST- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasabarinathan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vascular variations are usually the result of deve lopmental anomaly during the formation of blood vessels in any respective part of the body. In this case a rare unilateral variation was found on the left upper limb during rou tine dissection in the Department of Anatomy. Brachial artery divided into radial artery and a common trunk. The common trunk in turn divided into ulnar, median and common inteross eous artery. The median artery was palmar type, had two proper palmar digital branches in t he palm. The radial artery had normal course in the forearm till the junction between upper two third and lower one third where it turned dorsally and reached the anatomical snuff bo x and ran superficial to the abductor pollicis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor carpi radialis longus along the cephalic vein medially and superficial branch of radial nerve late rally. The median artery, arose from the common trunk, had pierced the median nerve about 4cm from its origin then ran along the median nerve in the forearm thereby reached the palm where it gave off two common palmar digital branches but did not anastomose with the ul nar artery hence formed incomplete superficial palmar arch. But on the right side no suc h variations found. These vascular variations have been studied in detail and their cl inical implications and embryological significance are emphasized.

  11. Anatomical study of encephalic arterial circuit in Eira barbara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Costa de Macedo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eira barbara is a mustelid with a wide distribution in Latin America, and it is commonly known as the grey-headed tayra. In view of the lack of information regarding the anatomy of mustelids, as well the importance of a vascular model for the understanding of neurological lesions in the central nervous system, this study aimed to determine the morphology and composition of the encephalic arterial circuit of E. barbara, to provide data for future studies. Accordingly, we used two young male specimens, obtained from the area of the Paragominas Bauxite Mine, PA, Brazil, donated to LaPMA after their death. The arterial system was filled with red-colored neoprene latex, and the specimens were then fixed in 10% formaldehyde and dissected for systematization of the blood vessels. The specimens showed the arterial circuit in the base of the brain supplied by the internal carotid arteries and basilar artery. The internal carotid artery, after crossing the dura mater, continued cranially giving rise to the medial cerebral arteries and ending as cranial cerebral arteries that anastomose, closing the arterial circuit rostrally. The caudal communicating arteries integrated the basilar artery with the arterial circle and gave rise to the caudal cerebral and rostral cerebellar arteries. The basilar artery formed the main branches, the medial and caudal cerebellar arteries.

  12. Assessment of coronary artery lesions in children with Kawasaki disease: evaluation of MSCT in comparison with 2-D echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yanlin; Wang, Hong; Yu, Xianyi; Chen, Rui [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Shenyang (China); Hou, Yang [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shenyang (China)

    2009-11-15

    Transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography is an effective method for detecting coronary arterial injury in Kawasaki disease. However, its accuracy in the diagnosis of coronary arterial lesions is limited. To investigate the value of multislice spiral CT for coronary angiography for observing the coronary arterial injury caused by infantile Kawasaki disease. Coronary angiography, using a 64-slice spiral CT scanner, and 2-D echocardiography were performed in 48 children with Kawasaki disease in whom the position, internal diameter, and length of each coronary artery were measured. MSCT showed coronary artery injury in 15 of the 48 children. Among these 15 children, 20 coronary artery branches showed complications, including the left coronary artery branches in 15 (31.2%) and the right coronary artery branches in 5 (10.4%). Complications in the left coronary artery branches included dilation in 12 (25.0%) and stenosis, calcification and the combination of the two in one each, and the right coronary artery branches showed dilation; two branches also showed beaded changes. MSCT also showed dilation in the left anterior descending arteries in two children. These children showed no abnormality on 2-D echocardiography. MSCT is a valuable examination method for detecting coronary artery injury in Kawasaki disease. (orig.)

  13. [Study on preferred retinal locus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing-Fa; Hu, Jian-Min; Xu, Duan-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Preferred retinal locus (PRL) is always found in the age-related macular degeneration and other macular damages in patients with low vision, and it is a very important anatomic position in patients with central vision impairment to achieve the rehabilitation. In recent years, the training of preferred retinal locus (PRL) has become a research hotspot of low vision rehabilitation, it can clearly improve functional vision and quality of life. The authors reviewed relevant literatures, and summarized the definition, position, characteristics, training and clinical implications of the PRL.

  14. Angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis and retinal-choroidal anastomosis after treatments in eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Masaaki Saito,1 Tomohiro Iida,1,2 Mariko Kano,1 Kanako Itagaki11Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis (RRA and retinal-choroidal anastomosis (RCA for eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab injections as monotherapy or intravitreal bevacizumab combined with photodynamic therapy.Methods: In this interventional, consecutive case series, we retrospectively reviewed five naïve eyes from four patients (mean age 80 years treated with three consecutive monthly intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL injections as initial treatment, and followed up for at least 3 months. In cases with over 3 months of follow-up and having recurrence of RAP or leakage by fluorescein angiography, retreatment was performed with a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection and photodynamic therapy.Results: Indocyanine green angiography showed RRA in three eyes with subretinal neovascularization and RCA in two eyes with choroidal neovascularization at baseline. At 3 months after baseline (month 3, neither the RRA nor RCA was occluded in any eye on indocyanine green angiography. Retreatment with intravitreal bevacizumab plus photodynamic therapy was performed in three eyes at months 3 (persistent leakage on fluorescein angiography, 6, and 7 (recurrence of RAP lesion, which achieved obvious occlusion of the RRA and RCA. Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 0.13 to 0.21 at month 3 (P = 0.066. No complications or systemic adverse events were noted.Conclusion: Although intravitreal bevacizumab for RAP was effective in improving visual acuity during short-term follow-up, intravitreal bevacizumab could not achieve complete occlusion of RRA and RCA, which could

  15. Application of a modified regularization procedure for estimating oxygen tension in large retinal blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Isa; Ansari, Rashid; Samil Yetik, I.; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2010-03-01

    Phosphorescence lifetime measurement based on a frequency domain approach is used to estimate oxygen tension in large retinal blood vessels. The classical least squares (LS) estimation was initially used to determine oxygen tension indirectly from intermediate variables. A spatial regularized least squares (RLS) method was later proposed to reduce the high variance of oxygen tension estimated by LS method. In this paper, we provide a solution using a modified RLS (MRLS) approach that utilizes prior knowledge about retinal vessels oxygenation based on expected oxygen tension values in retinal arteries and veins. The performance of MRLS method was evaluated in simulated and experimental data by determining the bias, variance, and mean absolute error (MAE) of oxygen tension measurements and comparing these parameters with those derived with the use of LS and RLS methods.

  16. Critical branching neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  17. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  18. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  19. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  20. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented. We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  1. 旋股外侧动脉降支侧支皮瓣修复下肢软组织缺损%CLINICAL RESULTS OF FLAP PEDICLED WITH COLLATERAL BRANCH OF DESCENDING RARUS OF LATERAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY FOR REPAIRING LOWER LIMB SOFT TISSUE DEFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智伟; 余斌; 覃承诃; 罗吉伟; 胡岩君

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical results of the flap pedicled with collateral branch of descending rarus of lateral circumflex femoral artery with digital three-dimensional reconstruction technique for lower limb soft tissue defects. Methods Between March 2009 and January 2010, 7 patients with lower limb soft tissue defects were treated with free flap pedicled with collateral branch of descending rarus of lateral circumflex femoral artery. There were 6 males and 1 female with an age range from 6 to 51 years. They were injured by traffic accident (4 cases), or by object hit from height (3 cases). The locations were foot in 2 cases, ankle in 2 cases, and anterior tibia in 3 cases. The disease duration was 8 hours to 40 days (mean,20 days). All the cases complicated by exposure of tendons or bones. The areas of soft tissue defect ranged from 12 cm × 7 cm to 20 cm × 14 cm. Free flaps were transplanted at 4 to 16 days after symptomatic treatment. Before operation, all the flaps were designed with digital three-dimensional reconstruction technique. The size of flaps ranged from 15 cm × 9 cm to 22 cm × 16 cm.The donor sites were closed directly in all cases. Results All the flaps survived. The wounds and incisions at donor sites healed by first intention. All the patients were followed up 6 to 12 months. The texture, appearance, and function of the flaps were satisfactory, and no complication occurred. All the flaps had protective sensation, which could meet the requirement of the daily life. The function of ankle was satisfactory with normal walk; the extension was 19-22° and the flexion was 30-36°. No obvious scar formed at donor sites. Conclusion The flap pedicled with collateral branch of descending rarus of lateral circumflex femoral artery has reliable blood supply, easy operation, little influence on the donor site, and high success rate with digital three-dimensional reconstruction technique. It is an excellent option for repairing lower limb soft

  2. 带蒂尺动脉腕上皮支皮瓣修复对侧手指脱套伤%REPAIR OF COMPLICATED DEGLOVING INJURIES OF OPPOSITE FINGER WITH AKIN UNITED FLAPS PEDICLED WITH DORSAL CARPAL BRANCH OF ULNAR ARTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳运康; 鲁晓波; 张忠杰; 葛建华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of akin united flaps pedicled with dorsal carpal branch of ulnar artery in repairing complicated degloving injuries of the opposite fingers. Methods Between August 2005 and August 2009, 11 cases of complicated degloving injuries of single finger were treated, including 8 males and 3 females with an average age of 26 years (range, 19-55 years). The defect locations were thumb in 1 case, index finger in 7 cases, and middle finger in 3 cases, including 9 cases of mechanical injury and 2 cases of traffic accident injury. The extent of skin avulsion was the proximal segments or beyond the middle segment of finger with a defect range from 5.0 cm × 4.5 cm to 8.0 cm x 5.5 cm. Complicated injuries included phalangeal fracture in 2 cases, extensor tendon injury in 3 cases, flexor and extensor tendon injuries in 1 case,digital vascular injury in 9 cases, and digital nerve injury in 6 cases. The time from injury to operation was 2-18 hours (mean, 4.8 hours). The akin united flaps were designed on the basis of anatomical distribution of the dorsal carpal branch of ulnar artery. The proximally pedicled flaps enclosed palmar finger, and the distally pedided flaps enclosed dorsal finger. The size of flaps ranged from 10 cm × 3 cm to 16 cm × 3 cm. The donor sites were sutured directly. After 3 weeks, the pedicle was cut. Results Light yellow secretion and eczema on the flap were observed in 1 case at 3 days, were cured after 2 weeks of dressing change; other flaps survived and healing of incisions by first intention was achieved. The incisions at donor sites healed by first intention. The secondary plastic operation was performed in 2 cases because of bulky flaps at 3 months after operation. Eleven patients were followed up postoperatively 6-12 months (8 months on average). The texture and appearance of all the flaps were satisfactory.The two-point discrimination was 12-20 mm with satisfactory recovery of finger function at 6 months

  3. 桡动脉返支骨瓣移植治疗手舟骨AO-B型陈旧性骨折%Application of bone flap pedicled on retrograde branch of radial artery for treatment of old scaphoid bone fractures of type AO-B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙庆鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨应用桡动脉茎突返支骨瓣治疗手舟骨AO-B型陈旧性骨折的临床疗效。方法:2007年10月到2011年10月采用桡动脉返支骨瓣移植术治疗41例陈旧性手舟骨骨折患者,男26例,女15例;年龄16~43岁,平均(27.3±4.5)岁;手术前病程6~22个月,平均11个月。均属于AO分型的B型,即手舟骨腰部陈旧性骨折。术前及术后6个月复查时对所有患者腕部功能依据Cooney腕关节评分系统评分,同时在随访过程中注意观察患者骨愈合情况。结果:36例患者获完整随访,随访时间4~15个月,平均(8.3±2.4)个月。所用患者手术切口愈合良好,无感染等并发症发生。随访过程中影像学证实骨折均完全愈合,患者Cooney腕关节评分由术前53.61±13.97提高到术后的81.81±8.71(P<0.01)。末次随访时疗效优13例,良8例,中15例。结论:桡动脉返支骨瓣移植术是一有效治疗陈旧性手舟骨骨折的方法,其治疗方法科学、疗效确切,具有较高的临床应用价值。%Objective:To investigate application of the bone flap pedicled on the retrograde branch of radial artery for treatment of old scaphoid bone fractures of type AO-B. Methods:From October 2007 to October 2011,41 patients with old scaphoid bone fractures of type AO-B were treated by transplantation of the bone flap pedicled on the retrograde branch of ra⁃dial artery including 26 males and 15 females with an average of(27.3 ± 4.5)years old ranging from 16 to 43 years old. The courses before operation ranged from 6 to 22 months with an average of 11 months. All fractures belonged to the type B of AO classification,that is old wrist fracture of scaphoid bone. All patients' wrist function(pain,function,motion,grip strength) were evaluated by Cooney's modified wrist scoring system before and 6 months after operation,and the conditions of bone heal⁃ing were observed during the follow up time. Results

  4. Pedal arteries of monkeys, with special reference to the plantar metatarsal arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinenoya,Hitoshi

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Japanese, Formosan and crab-eating monkeys, the dorsal metatarsal arteries and their lateral distal perforating branches were well developed and supplied, directly or via the catella plantaris distalis, the plantar digital arteries. In the black ape, the plantar digital arteries arose from the medial plantar artery. The plantar metatarsal arteries of these monkeys, including the black ape, arose from the catella plantaris proximalis or deep plantar arch and were classified into the superficial plantar metatarsal (sM, superficial plantar intermetatarsal (sI, deep plantar metatarsal (dM and deep plantar intermetatarsal (dI arteries in relation to the interosseous muscles and metatarsal bones. This classification largely coincides with that of the human hand and foot (Murakami, 1969, 1971 and the monkey hand (Nakai et al., 1987.

  5. Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms arising from within a hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingkoe, C M; Chang, S D; Legiehn, G M; Weiss, A

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 70-year-old man with a large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) containing two pseudoaneurysms measuring up to 2 cm in diameter. The pseudoaneurysms and part of the HCC were supplied by branches from the middle colic artery, which arises from the superior mesenteric artery. This complex arterial vasculature was visualised on CT and confirmed with conventional angiography. PMID:21088082

  6. Progression from stenosis to occlusion in the proximal native coronary artery after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihito; Ishii, Hideki; Oshima, Hideki; Shibata, Yohei; Tatami, Yosuke; Osugi, Naohiro; Ota, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Susumu; Usui, Akihiko; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-07-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is an established treatment for multivessel coronary artery disease. However, problematic situations are occasionally encountered after CABG, such as disease progression in the native coronary artery with graft occlusion, which causes difficulty in revascularization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the native coronary artery after CABG. Between 2009 and 2012 in our institution, 351 patients underwent CABG, and 768 bypass grafts were anastomosed to non-occluded coronary arteries. Of these, 489 bypass grafts had available early postoperative angiographic results (≤6 months) suitable for assessment in this study. We defined malignant graft failure after CABG to be bypass graft occlusion and de novo complete occlusion of the target native coronary artery proximal to the graft anastomosis site. In the early angiographic results, 17 grafts were occluded (17/489; 3.5 %). Two of the grafts displayed malignant graft failure (a saphenous vein graft to the right coronary artery and a saphenous vein graft to the diagonal branch) (2 of 17 occluded grafts, and 2 of 489 studied grafts). Of the patent bypass grafts, 24 involved progression to occlusion in the proximal native coronary artery (19 saphenous vein grafts, 4 left internal thoracic artery grafts, and 1 right internal thoracic artery graft). Malignant graft failure was uncommon during short-term follow-up after CABG. At the same time, disease progression in the proximal native coronary artery from stenosis to occlusion following patent bypass grafting was relatively common, especially for vein grafts.

  7. Multiple vascular anomalies involving testicular, suprarenal arteries and lumbar veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jyothsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. There are reports about variant origin and course of these arteries. Accessory testicular artery is also a common finding but its providing origin to inferior suprarenal artery is an important observation. During a routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 55-year-old male cadaver, unique vascular abnormality was observed. On the left side, a common arterial trunk originating from abdominal aorta immediately branched to give rise to superior testicular and inferior suprarenal arteries, the former after a short course hooked by the left suprarenal vein. In addition, the left suprarenal vein, second left lumbar vein, and left testicular vein joined to form a common trunk which drained into the left renal vein. A sound knowledge of vascular variations in relation to the kidney and suprarenal gland is important to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity.

  8. Isolated Left Pulmonary Artery Agenesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis without any cardiovascular malformation is a rare anomaly. We present the imaging findings of a patient who was diagnosed as isolated left pulmonary artery agenesis. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital due to dyspnea during exercise for five years. Chest X-ray revealed minimally small left pulmonary hilum and left lung. She was admitted to our clinic with the suspicion of pulmonary artery pathology. Absent perfusion of the left lung with normal ventilation was visualized on scintigraphy. MDCT angiography of pulmonary arteries showed absent left main pulmonary artery with systemic collaterals around left hemithorax. Pulmonary artery agenesis can be asymptomatic and isolated until adulthood. Both scintigraphy and CT angiography images of pulmonary artery agenesis of a patient are rare in the literature. Pulmonary ventilation- perfusion scintigraphy can be used not only for pulmonary embolism but also pathologies involving pulmonary artery and its branches. (MIRT 2012;21:80-83

  9. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  10. Arterial supply of the thoracic lobes of the thymus in dogs of the Great Dane race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marques Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The origins, numbers and type of arterial branches responsible for the blood supply of thoracic lobes of the thymus were studied in 28 stillborn dogs of the Great Dane, of which 18 were males and 10 were females. The arterial systems of these animals were filled with aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex “450”, 50%. After, the specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. The lobes of the thymus were supplied by direct or indirect arterial branches coming from the right and left internal thoracic arteries, pericardiacophrenicas arteries, right and left costocervicais trunks, and left subclavian artery. The left subclavian artery and brachiocephalic trunk emitted direct branches towards the left thoracic lobe of the thymus.

  11. [Progress of research in retinal image registration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lun; Wei, Lifang; Pan, Lin

    2011-10-01

    The retinal image registration has important applications in the processes of auxiliary diagnosis and treatment for a variety of diseases. The retinal image registration can be used to measure the disease process and the therapeutic effect. A variety of retinal image registration techniques have been studied extensively in recent years. However, there are still many problems existing and there are numerous research possibilities. Based on extensive investigation of existing literatures, the present paper analyzes the feature of retinal image and current challenges of retinal image registration, and reviews the transformation models of the retinal image registration technology and the main research algorithms in current retinal image registration, and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of various types of algorithms. Some research challenges and future developing trends are also discussed.

  12. Mechanical properties of mesenteric arteries in diabetic rats : consequences of outward remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crijns, F R; Wolffenbuttel, B H; De Mey, J G; Struijker Boudier, H A

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes induces hemodynamic and biochemical changes that can influence mechanical properties of arteries. Structure and mechanics of mesenteric small arteries were investigated in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (duration 7-9 wk). The external diameter of mesenteric artery branches was me

  13. Retinal imaging and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindne

  14. Multiple vascular anomalies involving renal, testicular and suprarenal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations of blood vessels of the abdomen is important during operative, diagnostic and endovascular pro- cedures. During routine dissection of the abdominal cavity, we came across multiple vascular anomalies involving renal, suprarenal and testicular arteries. The left kidney was supplied by two renal arteries originating together from the abdomi- nal aorta, and the right kidney was supplied by two accessory renal arteries, one of which was arising from the right renal artery and the other one from the aorta (about 2 inches below the origin of the renal artery. Accessory renal veins were present on both sides. The right testicular artery was arising from the lower accessory renal artery. The left testicular artery was looping around the inferior tributary of the left renal vein, whereby forming a sharp kink. The left middle suprarenal artery was diving into three small branches; the upper two branches were supplying the left suprarenal gland, whereas the lower branch was supplying the left kidney. Furthermore, detailed literature and the clinical and surgical importance of the case are discussed. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(3.000: 168-171

  15. The Rheology of Blood Flow in a Branched Arterial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibeshi, Shewaferaw S; Collins, William E

    2005-01-01

    Blood flow rheology is a complex phenomenon. Presently there is no universally agreed upon model to represent the viscous property of blood. However, under the general classification of non-Newtonian models that simulate blood behavior to different degrees of accuracy, there are many variants. The power law, Casson and Carreau models are popular non-Newtonian models and affect hemodynamics quantities under many conditions. In this study, the finite volume method is used to investigate hemodynamics predictions of each of the models. To implement the finite volume method, the computational fluid dynamics software Fluent 6.1 is used. In this numerical study the different hemorheological models are found to predict different results of hemodynamics variables which are known to impact the genesis of atherosclerosis and formation of thrombosis. The axial velocity magnitude percentage difference of up to 2 % and radial velocity difference up to 90 % is found at different sections of the T-junction geometry. The size of flow recirculation zones and their associated separation and reattachment point's locations differ for each model. The wall shear stress also experiences up to 12 % shift in the main tube. A velocity magnitude distribution of the grid cells shows that the Newtonian model is close dynamically to the Casson model while the power law model resembles the Carreau model. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Rheologie von Blutströmungen ist ein komplexes Phänomen. Gegenwärtig existiert kein allgemein akzeptiertes Modell, um die viskosen Eigenschaften von Blut wiederzugeben. Jedoch gibt es mehrere Varianten unter der allgemeinen Klassifikation von nicht-Newtonschen Modellen, die das Verhalten von Blut mit unterschiedlicher Genauigkeit simulieren. Die Potenzgesetz-, Casson und Carreau-Modelle sind beliebte nicht-New-tonsche Modelle und beeinflussen die hämodynamischen Eigenschaften in vielen Situationen. In dieser Studie wurde die finite Volumenmethode angewandt, um die hämodynamischen Vorhersagen dieser Modelle zu untersuchen. Um die finite Volumenmethode zu implementieren, wurde die Fluiddynamiksoftware Fluent 6.1 verwendet. In dieser numerischen Studie wurde gefunden, dass die unterschiedlichen hämorheologischen Modelle unterschiedliche Resultate für die hämodynamischen Grössen vorhersagen, von denen bekannt ist, dass sie die Entstehung von Arteriosklerose und die Bildung von Thrombose beeinflussen. Es wurde gefunden, dass die relative Differenz der axialen Geschwindigkeit bis zu 2% und die der radialen Geschwindigkeit bis zu 90% in unterschiedlichen Abschnitten der T-Verbindung beträgt. Die Grösse der Strömungszirkulationszonen und ihrer dazugehörigen Trennungs- und Vereinigungspunkte differieren für jedes Modell. Die Scherspannung an der Wand erfährt ebenfalls eine Verschiebung im Hauptrohr von bis zu 12%. Der Verlauf der Geschwindigkeit auf den Gitterzellen zeigt, dass das Newtonsche Modell mit Bezug auf die Dynamik dem Casson-Modell nahe ist, während das Potenzgesetzmodell dem Carreau-Modell ähnlich ist. R#ENTITYSTARTX000E9;SUM#ENTITYSTARTX000E9;: La rhéologie de l'écoulement sanguin est un phénomène complexe. Présentement, il n'y a pas de consensus universel sur le modèle qui représente la propriété visqueuse du sang. Cependant, parmi la classification générale des modèles non-Newtoniens qui simulent le comportement du sang avec différents degrés de précision, il y a plusieurs différences. Les lois de puissance, les modèles de Casson et Carreau sont des modèles non-Newtoniens populaires et ont un effet sur les quantités hémodynamiques sous plusieurs conditions. Dans cette étude, la méthode de volume fini est utilisée pour explorer les prédictions hémodynamiques de chacun de ces modèles. Pour implémenter la méthode de volume fini, le logiciel de calcul de dynamique des fluides Fluent 6.1 a été utilisé. Dans cette étude numérique, les différents modèles hémorhéologiques tendent à prédire des résultats différents pour les variables hémodynamiques qui sont reconnues comme ayant un impact sur la genèse de l'artériosclérose et de la thrombose. Une différence jusqu'à 2% dans l'amplitude de la vélocité axiale et une différence jusqu'à 90% dans la vélocité radiale sont découverts dans différentes sections d'une géométrie de type jonction en T. La taille des zones de re-circulation d'écoulement et les localisations des points de séparation et de rattachement qui leur sont associées, diffèrent pour chacun des modèles. La contrainte de cisaillement aux parois présente également un déplacement de 12% dans le tube principal. La distribution de l'amplitude de vitesse dans les cellules du maillage montre que le modèle Newtonien est dynamiquement proche du modèle de Casson tandis que le modèle en loi de puissance ressemble au modèle de Carreau.

  16. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  17. Retinal detachment in a patient with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muh-Shy; Ho, Tzyy-Chang; Chang, Ching-Chung; Hou, Ping-Kang

    2007-01-01

    We report extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers in a 42-year-old patient with retinal detachment. Fundus examination revealed a horseshoe-shaped tear near the temporal edge. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed and firm vitreo-retinal adhesion was noticed in the area of extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers. Following vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade, the retina was reattached successfully. In conclusion, retinal detachment may develop in patients with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers. Vitrectomy may be performed to treat this condition.

  18. Distal run-off vessel of descending branch of lateral femoral circumflex artery used for reconstruction of extremity defects with free anterolateral thigh flap%旋股外动脉降支远端血管在股前外侧游离皮瓣修复四肢创面中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓清; 朱跃良; 徐永清; 梅良斌; 王毅; 范新宇; 董凯旋

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨旋股外动脉降支远端血管在股前外侧游离皮瓣修复四肢创面中的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析2009年3月至2013年6月采用带旋股外动脉降支远端血管的股前外侧游离皮瓣修复的14例四肢组织缺损患者资料,男13例,女1例;平均年龄为34.6岁(8~ 57岁).组织缺损部位:足踝部8例,小腿部3例,手部3例.创面缺损面积为5.5cm×4.5cm~25.0cm×14.0 cm.降支远端血管以Flow-through皮瓣方式同时完成血管重建和创面覆盖4例,以Flow-through皮瓣方式保留受区血管连续性6例,以重组嵌合皮瓣方式串联第2足趾同时完成创面覆盖与食指再造1例,以串联横支穿支皮瓣完成足背大创面修复1例,术后血管危象探查中降支远端血管以备用血管发挥作用2例. 结果 14例患者降支远端血管的分离时间为3~7 min,平均4.6 min.降支远端血管平均长度为3.8 cm(1.5 ~6.0 cm).所有患者均未因降支远端血管的切取而出现相关并发症.14例患者术后获2~18个月(平均6.4个月)随访.所有患者皮瓣均完全成活,随访过程中无感染、坏死发生,质地、色泽均良好.8例足踝部缺损及3例小腿部缺损患者均恢复行走功能,足远端血供良好.3例手部缺损患者功能恢复良好. 结论 在股前外侧游离皮瓣修复四肢创面中旋股外动脉降支远端血管分离容易,切取后对供区无额外损伤,且可以根据不同手术目的保留适当长度,以Flow-through皮瓣、重组嵌合皮瓣及备用血管等方式发挥重要作用.%Objective To explore the value of the distal run-off vessel of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in reconstruction of extremity defects with free anterolateral thigh flap.Methods From March 2009 to June 2013,14 patients with extremity defects were repaired with free anterolateral thigh flap that carried the distal run-off vessel of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery

  19. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  20. Cookie branching random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Christian; Kochler, Thomas; Müller, Sebastian; Popov, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk on $\\Z$, where the particles behave differently in visited and unvisited sites. Informally, each site on the positive half-line contains initially a cookie. On the first visit of a site its cookie is removed and particles at positions with a cookie reproduce and move differently from particles on sites without cookies. Therefore, the movement and the reproduction of the particles depend on the previous behaviour of the population of particles. We study the question if the process is recurrent or transient, i.e., whether infinitely many particles visit the origin or not.

  1. Branch formation during organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  2. Effect of birth parameters on retinal vascular caliber: the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cong; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Wong, Tien Y; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Cochrane, Jenny; MacKinnon, Jane R; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Hewitt, Alex W; Liew, Gerald; Dwyer, Terence; Scurrah, Katrina; Mackey, David A

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies reported an association between smaller birth size and narrower retinal vascular caliber, but it remains unclear whether this association is attributed to confounding by shared environment or genetic factors. At a mean age of 9.3 years, 266 twins (49 monozygotic and 84 dizygotic pairs) in the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania underwent an ophthalmic examination including retinal photography. Retinal vascular caliber was measured using a validated protocol. The majority of these twins were also in the Tasmanian Infant Health Study, which prospectively collected data on birth parameters and antenatal maternal factors. We conducted the main analysis using linear mixed models, accounting for birth set clustering. Both the within-pair (-9.73; 95% CI: -14.68 to -4.77 microm per 5-cm decrease in birth length) and between-pair associations (-7.15; 95% CI: -11.54 to -3.01) with retinal arteriolar caliber were significant and of similar magnitude (difference in effect, P=0.61), after adjusting for age, sex, maternal smoking, mean arterial blood pressure, and other confounders. These associations remained within dizygotic and monozygotic pairs. Analyses of head circumference and retinal arteriolar caliber were similar to those of birth length (within-pair regression coefficient: -2.41; 95% CI: -5.09 to 0.28; between-pair regression coefficient: -2.60; 95% CI: -5.00 to -0.19). For birth weight, only a between-pair association was evident (-7.28; 95% CI: -13.07 to -1.48). This study demonstrates a consistent association between smaller birth size and narrower retinal arterioles in twins. The independent effect of shorter birth length on retinal arteriolar caliber supports a role for twin-specific supply line factors affecting fetal growth on vascular structure.

  3. A Rare Case of Aneurysm of Arc of Riolan Artery and Gastroduodenal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athiyappan Kumaresh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc of Riolan is a collateral channel that connects the proximal superior mesenteric artery (SMA or its middle colic branch and the proximal inferior mesenteric artery or its left colic branch in case of stenosis of either of the arteries. A 65-year-old diabetic female presented with vague abdominal pain. Ultrasonography showed a large aneurysm within the abdomen in the left lumbar region. Computed tomography (CT angiography done showed severe diffuse atherosclerotic calcification of the abdominal aorta with complete occlusion of the celiac trunk and mild stenosis of SMA origin. The arc of Riolan was seen between the middle colic artery and the ascending branch of the left colic artery, with a large saccular aneurysm in its mid section. No evidence of rupture or hematoma was visible. Another saccular aneurysm was also seen involving the gastro-duodenal and the pancreatico-duodenal collateral arcade. As far as we know, this is the first case of arc of Riolan artery aneurysm to be reported in English literature.

  4. Coronary artery fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... A coronary artery fistula is often congenital, meaning that it is present at birth. It generally occurs when one of the coronary arteries ...

  5. Cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Shuang; YE Jun-jie; ZHAO Jia-liang; LI Tai-sheng; HAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most severe intraocular complication that results in total retinal destruction and loss of visual acuity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to investigate the fundus characteristics, systemic manifestations and therapeutic outcomes of CMV retinitis associated with AIDS.Methods It was a retrospective case series. CMV retinitis was present in 39 eyes (25 patients). Best corrected visual acuities, anterior segment, fundus features, fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of the patients with CMV retinitis associated with AIDS were analyzed. Intravitreal injections of ganciclovir (400 μg) were performed in 4 eyes (2 patients).Results Retinal vasculitis, dense, full-thickness, yellow-white lesions along vascular distribution with irregular granules at the border, and hemorrhage on the retinal surface were present in 28 eyes. The vitreous was clear or mildly opaque.Late stage of the retinopathy was demonstrated in 8 eyes characterized as atrophic retina, sclerotic and attenuated vessels, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy, and optic nerve atrophy. Retinal detachment was found in 3 eyes. The average CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood of the patients with CMV retinitis was (30.6±25.3) ×106/L (range,(0-85) × 106/L). After intravitreal injections of ganciclovir, visual acuity was improved and fundus lesions regressed.Conclusions CMV retinitis is the most severe and the most common intraocular complication in patients with AIDS. For the patients with yellow-white retinal lesions, hemorrhage and retinal vasculitis without clear cause, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology should be performed. Routine eye examination is also indicated in HIV positive patients.

  6. Branching patterns of intramural coronary vessels determined by microangiography using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A; Mori, H; Tanaka, E; Mohammed, M U; Tanaka, Y; Sekka, T; Ito, K; Shinozaki, Y; Hyodo, K; Ando, M; Umetani, K; Tanioka, K; Kubota, M; Abe, S; Handa, S; Nakazawa, H

    1999-06-01

    The intramural coronary artery (IMCA) with a diameter of 50-500 micrometers is critical for blood supply to the inner layers of heart muscle. We introduced digital measurement to microangiography using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and quantified branching patterns of the IMCA, the epicardial coronary artery (EPCA), and the distal ileal artery (DIA). The pre- and postbranching diameters were measured (95-1,275 micrometers) in seven dogs. A typical arterial segment divided into two nearly equivalent branches, and a regression line of daughter-to-mother diameter plots was almost identical among the EPCA (y = 0.838x - 16.7 in micrometers), IMCA (y = 0.737x - 2.18), and DIA (y = 0.755x + 8.63). However, a considerable difference was present at a segment where a proximal IMCA branched off from an EPCA (y = 0.182x + 90.2). Moreover, a proximal IMCA diameter had no relationship to the branching order from an EPCA. The precision of this method was confirmed by the good correlation of diameter measurements between two independent observers (r = 0.999, y = 1.02x - 1.07). In conclusion, using digital microangiography we demonstrated that the self-similar branching pattern of coronary arteries was discrete at the connection between the IMCA and EPCA.

  7. Local effects of atherosclerotic plaque on arterial distensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannattasio, C; Failla, M; Emanuelli, G; Grappiolo, A; Boffi, L; Corsi, D; Mancia, G

    2001-11-01

    Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia are characterized by a reduction in arterial distensibility and by accelerated atherosclerosis. Whether arterial stiffening is an inherent feature of these conditions or just the consequence of the atherosclerotic clinical or subclinical lesions is not known, however. Our aim was to obtain information on this issue by directly measuring, in humans, arterial distensibility both at the site of an atherosclerotic lesion and at the proximal normal site. In 10 patients (8 men; mean+/-SEM age, 65.2+/-3.4 years) affected by monolateral hemodynamic significant internal carotid artery stenosis, we measured arterial distensibility (Wall Track System; PIE Medical) bilaterally, both at the internal carotid artery and at the common carotid artery level. In the common carotid artery, measurements were made 3 cm below the bifurcation. In the affected internal carotid artery, measurements were made at the plaque shoulder (wall thickness of 2 mm). Measurements were made in the contralateral internal carotid artery at a symmetrical level. Arterial wall thickness was measured in the same site of arterial distensibility. Arterial distensibility was less in the internal than in the common carotid artery, with a marked reduction at the plaque internal carotid artery level compared with the corresponding contralateral site (-45%, P<0.01). It was also less, however, in the common carotid artery branching into the atherosclerotic internal carotid artery than in the contralateral common carotid artery (-25%, P<0.05). Wall thickness was similar in the 2 common carotid arteries and obviously greater in the affected internal carotid artery than in the contralateral artery. Arterial distensibility was markedly less in the internal carotid artery where there was a plaque compared with the intact contralateral internal carotid artery; it was also less, however, in the common carotid artery of the affected side in comparison with the contralateral

  8. 侧裂池蛛网膜结构及其与大脑中动脉分级关系的解剖学研究%Anatomical study of arachnoidal structures around sylvain fissure and it’s relationship to the branches of middle cerebral artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆云涛; 漆松涛; 刘忆; 陈铭; 潘军; 石瑾; 刘亚伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究颅内侧裂池蛛网膜层次及其和大脑中动脉(MCA)各级分支间的关系及其临床意义。方法取成人尸头6例(12侧),显微镜下观察外侧裂膜性结构层次及侧裂池构成,解剖MCA各支分布及其和膜性层次间的关系。结果侧裂池由外向内共有4层蛛网膜结构,分别是远外侧侧裂膜(FLSa)、外侧侧裂膜(LSa)、中间侧裂膜(MiSa,内层和外层)和内侧侧裂膜(MeSa)。12侧标本中,4层膜性结构均完整的6侧。FLSa通常菲薄,覆盖在侧裂浅静脉表面,和静脉外膜粘连紧密;LSa相对致密,构成了侧裂池的真正外侧壁,并分隔MCA M3和M4段;沿MCA M3段走行,有相对菲薄的MiSa浅层覆盖并将其固定在侧裂池内;在M2和M3段交汇处,见相对致密的MiSa深层,包绕M3段起始部,并将侧裂池分为前后两部,3侧标本中该层菲薄稀疏,呈网眼状;而在M1和M2段间有非常致密的MeSa,分隔侧裂池和颈内动脉池,5侧标本中,该膜菲薄呈网眼状。结论侧裂池蛛网膜的分层分布和MCA各级动脉关系密切,掌握其解剖特点有利于术中充分解剖侧裂池和颈内动脉池。其膜性分布的个体化差异,可能影响MCA动脉瘤的出血方式。%Objective This study aims to investigate the layers of arachnoidal structures and illustrate the relationship between the arachnoid membranes with branches of middle cerebral artery (MCA). The related clinical issues are discussed. Methods Six cases of adult cadaveric heads (twelve sides) were dissected under the microscopy. The construction of Sylvain fissure cistern and the different layers of arachnoidal membranes were observed. The course of MCA’s branches and its relationship to the aforementioned membranes were analyzed. Results A total of four layers of membranes composed the sylvain fissure cistern. From outer to inner, it was far lateral sylvain arachnoid (FLSa), lateral

  9. [Vitreo-retinal surgery for complicated retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Z

    1993-07-01

    93 eyes (93 patients) of complicated retinal detachment were treated with vitreo-retinal surgery. Among the series, 75 eyes were rhegmatogenous with PVR C3-D3 in 66 eyes (88.0%), while the remaining 18 eyes were traction induced. None of the cases had giant tears or complicating diabetes. On discharge from the hospital, the operation was effective in 62 cases (66.7%), in whom the retina was totally reattached or only a small amount of subretinal fluid remained. In a group of 40 eyes where the inert gas SF6 was used, the operation was effective in 30 cases (75.0%). 41 cases were followed up postoperatively for over 3 months, averaging 13.7 months, to find the operative results stable in 33 eyes (80.5%), with the visual acuity improved in 22 cases (66.7%), unchanged in 9 cases (27.3%), and decreased in 2 cases (6.0%). The operative procedures, the peeling of pre-retinal membrane, the effect of PVR severity on the operative results, and the promotion of operative efficacy by application of wide encircling buckle and inert gas tamponade were discussed.

  10. [Arterial vascularization of the triceps sural muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, J L; Mestdagh, H; Procyk, S; Depreux, R

    1984-01-01

    The triceps surae muscle, the dorsal and medial leg skin constitute a very important reserve of muscular and myocutaneous flaps. The material on which the study was carried out consisted of 20 legs from standard cadavers. The superficialis femoral artery was injected with terebenthene and minimum mixture. The medial head of gastrocnemius is 23.3 em long, 6.9 cm wide, 1.25 mm thick at distal third. Its dominant blood supply is carried by the medialis gastrocnemius artery. It rises from popliteal artery 1.2 cm above the femoral tibial articulation with 1.9 mm diameter. It runs 3 cm down before entering muscle where it provides 2 or 3 mean branches. These branches give musculocutaneous arteries to the skin of the dorsal leg. The same study was performed for the lateral head of gastrocnemius and soleus. We studied also arteries of dorsomedial leg skin. The characteristics of long saphenous and short saphenous arteries were described. These muscles and dorsomedial leg skin can be used as muscular or myocutaneous flap for covering defects between the lower leg and the lower thigh.

  11. Brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana revisited: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kachlik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews in detail the superficial brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana superficialis, a very rare variant of the main arterial trunks of the upper limb. It branches either from the axillary artery or the brachial artery, descends superficially in the arm (similar to the course of the superficial brachial artery and continues across the cubital fossa, runs superficially in the forearm, approaches the median nerve and enters the carpal canal to reach the hand. It usually terminates in the superficial palmar arch. The first drawing was published, in 1830, and the first description was published, in 1844. Altogether, to our knowledge, only 31 cases of a true, superficial brachiomedian artery have been reported (Some cases are incorrectly reported as superficial brachioradiomedian artery or superficial brachioulnomedian artery. Based on a meta-analysis of known, available studies, the incidence is 0.23% in Caucasians and 1.48% in Mongolians. Knowing whether or not this arterial variant is present is important in clinical medicine and relevant for: The catheterization via the radial or ulnar artery; harvesting the vascular pedicle for a forearm flap based on the radial, ulnar or superficial brachiomedian arteries; the possible collateral circulation in cases of the arterial closure; and the surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Its presence can elevate the danger of an injury to the superficially located variant artery or of an accidental injection.

  12. A STUDY OF ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF VERMIFORM APPENDIX IN HUMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosmani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The surgical procedures like appendicectomy, demands a precise knowledge of vascular anatomy of ileocolic region. The aim of th is study is to study the arterial supply of the appendix, findings of which may reveal more anatomica l facts about the arteries of appendix and their variations. Total 52 specimens of caecum a nd appendix with their arteries intact were collected, cleaned and dissected. The ileocolic art ery and its branches to the appendix were traced carefully and observations were recorded. Th e ileocolic artery arises independently from superior mesenteric artery in 96.88% of cases and en ds by dividing into superior and inferior division in 93.76% of cases. The appendicular artery arises from inferior division in 46.88%, ileal branch 28.13%, ileocolic artery 18.75% and fr om arterial arcade in 6.25% of cases. 21.87% of cases showed additional appendicular artery. KEYWORDS: Caecum, appendix, ileocolic artery, appendicular arter y.

  13. Arterial vascularization patterns of the splenium: An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilogullari, G; Comert, A; Ozdemir, M; Brohi, R A; Ozgural, O; Esmer, A F; Egemen, N; Karahan, S T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). The splenium is unique in that it is part of the largest commissural tract in the brain and a region in which pathologies are seen frequently. An exact description of the arterial vascularization of this part of the CC remains under debate. Thirty adult human brains (60 hemispheres) were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. Then, the brains were fixed in formaldehyde, and dissections were performed using a surgical microscope. The diameter of the arterial branches supplying the splenium of the CC at their origin was investigated, and the vascularization patterns of these branches were observed. Vascular supply to the splenium was provided by the anterior pericallosal artery (40%) from the anterior circulation and by the posterior pericallosal artery (88%) and posterior accessory pericallosal artery (50%) from the posterior circulation. The vascularization pattern of the splenium differs in each hemisphere and is usually supplied by multiple branches. The arterial vascularization of the splenium of the CC was studied comprehensively considering the ongoing debate and the inadequacy of the studies on this issue currently available in the literature. This anatomical knowledge is essential during the treatment of pathologies in this region and especially for splenial arteriovenous malformations.

  14. Advances in Retinal Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous progress has been made in recent years to generate retinal cells from pluripotent cell sources. These advances provide hope for those suffering from blindness due to lost retinal cells. Understanding the intrinsic genetic network in model organisms, like fly and frog, has led to a better understanding of the extrinsic signaling pathways necessary for retinal progenitor cell formation in mouse and human cell cultures. This review focuses on the culture methods used by different groups, which has culminated in the generation of laminated retinal tissue from both embryonic and induced pluripotent cells. The review also briefly describes advances made in transplantation studies using donor retinal progenitor and cultured retinal cells.

  15. 中节指动脉及其背侧支为蒂逆行岛状皮瓣修复指端缺损%Repair of fingertip defect with reverse island flap based on middle phalange of digital artery and its dorsal branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐锋; 柯于海; 周望高; 熊懿; 张振伟; 游楚红

    2015-01-01

    目的:介绍一种对手指供区损伤较小的皮瓣修复手指指端缺损的方法。方法对15例手指指端缺损患者,以指固有动脉中段及其背侧支为蒂,设计手指中节指背岛状皮瓣进行修复。若需重建皮瓣感觉,则在切取皮瓣时,于皮瓣近端切取适当长度的指固有神经背侧支,与伤指指固有神经缝合。结果15指皮瓣及植皮全部成活,5指术后2 d皮瓣远端出现水疱,未予处理,术后7 d水疱开始萎缩吸收,术后2周水疱消失。术后随访3~9个月,皮瓣成活好,质地柔软,外形满意,颜色与患指周围皮肤相近,两点辨别觉6~9 mm,远指间关节屈伸功能无明显障碍。手功能根据ATM法评定:优10例,良5例。结论中节指动脉及其背侧支为蒂逆行岛状皮瓣是修复指端缺损较理想的方法之一。%Objective To introduce a flap which injured slightly on the donor sites, in repairing the fingertip defect. Methods 15 cases with defect on 15 fingers tip were treated with this island flaps. When the flap was used to repair defect at finger pulp, the dorsal branch of the digital proper nerve in the flap was kept to be anastomosed to the digital proper nerve at the recipient finger. Results All the flaps and skin grafts survived. Blister happened in 5 flaps 2 days after operation, which healed spontaneously without necrosis. The blister begin to shrink and be obsorption 7 days after operation, and disappear 2 weeks after operation. All cases were followed up for 3~9 months. The color, texture and contour of the flaps were good. The two-point discrimination distance was 6~9 mm on the flaps. No obvious functional problem was found in DIP motion. The hand function was assessed as excellent in 10 fingers, good in 5 fingers. Conclusion The reverse island flap based on middle phalange of digital artery and its dorsal branches is an ideal method to repair the fingertip defect.

  16. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  17. A coincidental variation of the axillary artery: the brachioradial artery and the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Konarik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery was encountered and described in a left upper limb of a male cadaver. A series of 214 upper limbs of Caucasian race was dissected. A variant artery, stemming from the very end of the axillary artery followed a superficial course distally. It passed the cubital fossa, ran on the lateral side of the forearm as usual radial artery, crossed ventrally to the palm and terminated in the deep palmar arch. This vessel is a case of the brachioradial artery (incorrectly termed as the “radial artery with high origin”. Moreover, it was associated with another variation, concerning the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is essential for radiodiagnostic, surgical and traumatologic procedures. The superficially located artery brings an elevated danger of heavy bleeding in all unexpected situations, its variant branching can cause problems in radial catheterization procedures and the anomalously coursing other arterial variant poses an elevated danger in surgical procedures concerning the surgical neck of humerus.

  18. Compact Laser Doppler Flowmeter (LDF Fundus Camera for the Assessment of Retinal Blood Perfusion in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle Mentek

    Full Text Available Noninvasive techniques for ocular blood perfusion assessment are of crucial importance for exploring microvascular alterations related to systemic and ocular diseases. However, few techniques adapted to rodents are available and most are invasive or not specifically focused on the optic nerve head (ONH, choroid or retinal circulation. Here we present the results obtained with a new rodent-adapted compact fundus camera based on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF.A confocal miniature flowmeter was fixed to a specially designed 3D rotating mechanical arm and adjusted on a rodent stereotaxic table in order to accurately point the laser beam at the retinal region of interest. The linearity of the LDF measurements was assessed using a rotating Teflon wheel and a flow of microspheres in a glass capillary. In vivo reproducibility was assessed in Wistar rats with repeated measurements (inter-session and inter-day of retinal arteries and ONH blood velocity in six and ten rats, respectively. These parameters were also recorded during an acute intraocular pressure increase to 150 mmHg and after heart arrest (n = 5 rats.The perfusion measurements showed perfect linearity between LDF velocity and Teflon wheel or microsphere speed. Intraclass correlation coefficients for retinal arteries and ONH velocity (0.82 and 0.86, respectively indicated strong inter-session repeatability and stability. Inter-day reproducibility was good (0.79 and 0.7, respectively. Upon ocular blood flow cessation, the retinal artery velocity signal substantially decreased, whereas the ONH signal did not significantly vary, suggesting that it could mostly be attributed to tissue light scattering.We have demonstrated that, while not adapted for ONH blood perfusion assessment, this device allows pertinent, stable and repeatable measurements of retinal blood perfusion in rats.

  19. Quiver Varieties and Branching

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    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  20. Retinal Cell Degeneration in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Niwa; Hitomi Aoki; Akihiro Hirata; Hiroyuki Tomita; Green, Paul G.; Akira Hara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of various retinal cell degeneration models in animal induced by chemicals (N-methyl-d-aspartate- and CoCl2-induced), autoimmune (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis), mechanical stress (optic nerve crush-induced, light-induced) and ischemia (transient retinal ischemia-induced). The target regions, pathology and proposed mechanism of each model are described in a comparative fashion. Animal models of retinal cell degeneration provide insi...

  1. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; E.PICKARD; Patricia; J.SOLLARS

    2010-01-01

    A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina.These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells(ipRGCs) express a photopigment,melanopsin,that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input.Although relatively few in number,ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels.Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate rather than vertebrate photoreceptors.ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions.ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus(SCN),a circadian oscillator and biological clock,and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle.ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body.ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina,providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light.Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries,current progress and directions for future investigation.

  2. Acute STEMI in the setting of a single coronary artery anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cian; Khider, Wisam; Caplice, Noel

    2015-05-13

    We report a case of a patient admitted with an acute ST elevation myocardial infarction following occlusion of his right coronary artery, successfully treated with thrombectomy and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Coronary angiography and multislice CT revealed a single right coronary artery with two anomalous branches (constituting the left coronary system); one branch passed between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta before dividing into three separate branches, while the other anomalous branch passed anterior to the pulmonary trunk, consistent with a Yamanaka R-IIIC classification. The course of this Yamanaka R-IIIC subtype is unusual as both anomalous branches combine to form a dual origin left anterior descending artery. The course of these anomalous branches places the patient at an increased risk of future myocardial ischaemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death. As symptoms typically develop on exertion, this cohort may benefit from exercise myocardial perfusion imaging to identify high-risk patients.

  3. Retinal Macroglial Responses in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de Hoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes and Müller cells (retinal macroglia provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors. Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removing metabolic waste products, regulate local blood flow, induce the blood-retinal barrier (BRB, play fundamental roles in local immune response, and protect neurons from oxidative damage. In response to polyetiological insults, glia cells react with a process called reactive gliosis, seeking to maintain retinal homeostasis. When malfunctioning, macroglial cells can become primary pathogenic elements. A reactive gliosis has been described in different retinal pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetes, glaucoma, retinal detachment, or retinitis pigmentosa. A better understanding of the dual, neuroprotective, or cytotoxic effect of macroglial involvement in retinal pathologies would help in treating the physiopathology of these diseases. The extensive participation of the macroglia in retinal diseases points to these cells as innovative targets for new drug therapies.

  4. A systematic study of the brain base arteries in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    Fernanda de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The brains of 30 New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were injected with red stained latex. The arteries of the ventral surface of the brain were systematized on the right (R and on the left (L side with the respective percentage of appearance: the aortic arch emitted the braquicephalic trunk and the left subclavian artery (83.3%; or the braquicephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery (16.7%. The braquicephalic trunk emitted the right and the left common carotid arteries and the right subclavian artery (83.3%; or the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery (16.7%. The common carotid arteries were divided into external and internal carotid arteries (96.7% on the R, 100% on the L.. The internal carotid artery to the R was present (96.7% and absent (3.3%, and to the L, was present (100%. The rostral choroidal artery to the R was collateral branch of the rostral branch of the internal carotid artery (83.3%, collateral branch of caudal branch of the internal carotid artery (16.7%, and to the L was collateral branch of the rostral branch of the internal carotid artery (93.3%, collateral branch of the caudal branch of the internal carotid artery (6.7%. The middle cerebral artery to the R and to the L was single (80% and double (20%. The rostral cerebral artery to the R had middle caliber (90%, thin caliber (6.7% and too thin caliber (3.3%, and to the L had middle caliber (76.7%, thin caliber (16.7% and too thin caliber (6.7%. The internal ethmoidal artery was absent (73.3%, present and single (26.7%. The caudal cerebral artery to the R was single (66.7%, double (26.7% and triple (6.7%, and to the L was single (63.3% and double (36.7%. The terminal branches of the right and left vertebral arteries were present (100%, and formed the basilar artery (100%. The ventral spinal artery was present (100%. The caudal cerebellar artery, to the R was single (43.3%, single with labyrinthic artery

  5. Gender-Dependent Effects of Enriched Environment and Social Isolation in Ischemic Retinal Lesion in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Farkas, Jozsef; Gabriel, Robert; Reglodi, Dora

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to have many positive effects on brain structure and function. Numerous studies have proven that enriched environment can reduce the lesion induced by toxic and traumatic injuries. Impoverished environment, on the other hand, can have deleterious effects on the outcome of neuronal injuries. We have previously shown that enriched conditions have protective effects in retinal injury in newborn rats. It is well-known that the efficacy of neuroprotective strategies can depend on age and gender. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and social isolation in retinal ischemia. We used bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce retinal hypoperfusion in adult Wistar rats of both genders. Groups were housed in standard, enriched or impoverished conditions. Impoverished environment was induced by social isolation. Retinas were processed for histological analysis after two weeks of survival. In the present study, we show that (1) enriched environment has protective effects in adult ischemic retinal lesion, while (2) impoverished environment further increases the degree of ischemic injury, and (3) that these environmental effects are gender-dependent: females are less responsive to the positive effects of environmental enrichment and more vulnerable to retinal ischemia in social isolation. In summary, our present study shows that the effects of both positive and negative environmental stimuli are gender-dependent in ischemic retinal lesions. PMID:23921682

  6. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  7. [Efferent innervation of the arteries of human leptomeninx in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, V M; Kotsiuba, A E; Babich, E V

    2009-01-01

    Structure of the efferent nerve plexuses (adrenergic, acetylcholinestherase- and cholinacetyltranspherase-positive, NO-dependent), was studied in the arteries of human leptomeninx with different diameters. Material was obtained from the corpses of the healthy people and of the patients with initial stages of arterial hypertension (AH). It was shown that the concentrations of cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and varicosities in axon terminal part, innervating the arteries with the diameters ranging from 450 till 100 microm, were not significantly different. In these arteries, NO-ergic plexuses were also detected. In patients with AH, regardless the arterial diameters, the significant increase (up to 15-20%) of adrenergic nerve fiber and varicosity concentrations was found. The changes in cholinergic nerve fiber concentration were found to depend on the vessel diameter: the significant decrease of these parameter was observed only in arteries with the diameter of 100-200 microm. No significant changes in nerve plexus concentration was noticed in the arteries with greater or smaller diameter. In NO-ergic neural conductors, the enzyme activity decreased only in the large arteries, and remained almost unchanged in the small vascular branches. The changes in the vasomotor innervation described in AH, are interpreted as a vasomotor innervation dysfunction of the leptomeninx arteries that may result in the hemodynamic disturbances.

  8. Clinical features of a rare anatomical variation of the posterior tibial and fibular arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliveira Portilho

    Full Text Available Abstract The posterior tibial artery normally arises from tibial-fibular trunk at the popliteal fossa, together with the fibular artery. The classic course of the posterior tibial artery is to run between the triceps surae muscle and muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg before continuing its course posteriorly to the medial malleolus, while the fibular artery runs through the lateral margin of the leg. Studies of both arteries are relevant to the fields of angiology, vascular surgery and plastic surgery. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of an anastomosis between the posterior tibial artery and the fibular artery in their distal course. The two arteries joined in an unusual “X” format, before division of the posterior tibial artery into plantar branches. We also provide a literature review of unusual variations and assess the clinical and embryological aspects of both arteries in order to contribute to further investigations regarding these vessels.

  9. Stenting of Variant Left Carotid Artery Using Brachial Artery Approach in a Patient with Unusual Type of Bovine Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gürel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine aortic arch is the most frequently encountered variation in human aortic arch branching. A 63-year-old Asian male presented with symptomatic severe stenosis of left carotid artery originating from the brachiocephalic trunk. Selective engagement to the left carotid artery was unsuccessful using transfemoral approach. We reported on a successful left carotid artery stenting case using right brachial artery approach in a bovine aortic arch. This paper is worthy of reporting in terms of guiding physicians for interventional procedures in these types of challenging cases.

  10. Hepatic Arterial Configuration in Relation to the Segmental Anatomy of the Liver; Observations on MDCT and DSA Relevant to Radioembolization Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoven, Andor F. van den, E-mail: a.f.vandenhoven@umcutrecht.nl; Leeuwen, Maarten S. van, E-mail: m.s.vanleeuwen@umcutrecht.nl; Lam, Marnix G. E. H., E-mail: m.lam@umcutrecht.nl; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: mbosch@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeCurrent anatomical classifications do not include all variants relevant for radioembolization (RE). The purpose of this study was to assess the individual hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern and to develop an individualized RE treatment strategy based on an extended classification.MethodsThe hepatic vascular anatomy was assessed on MDCT and DSA in patients who received a workup for RE between February 2009 and November 2012. Reconstructed MDCT studies were assessed to determine the hepatic arterial configuration (origin of every hepatic arterial branch, branching pattern and anatomical course) and the hepatic segmental vascularization territory of all branches. Aberrant hepatic arteries were defined as hepatic arterial branches that did not originate from the celiac axis/CHA/PHA. Early branching patterns were defined as hepatic arterial branches originating from the celiac axis/CHA.ResultsThe hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern could be assessed in 110 of 133 patients. In 59 patients (54 %), no aberrant hepatic arteries or early branching was observed. Fourteen patients without aberrant hepatic arteries (13 %) had an early branching pattern. In the 37 patients (34 %) with aberrant hepatic arteries, five also had an early branching pattern. Sixteen different hepatic arterial segmental vascularization patterns were identified and described, differing by the presence of aberrant hepatic arteries, their respective vascular territory, and origin of the artery vascularizing segment four.ConclusionsThe hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern show marked individual variability beyond well-known classifications of anatomical variants. We developed an individualized RE treatment strategy based on an extended anatomical classification.

  11. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  12. Reverse island flap with dorsal branch of the proper palmar digital artery for repair of distal finger skin defect in 60 cases%指掌侧固有动脉背侧支逆行岛状皮瓣修复手指远端皮肤缺损60例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓东; 黄辉强; 陈锦涛; 张沛钠; 张先强; 吴喜钦

    2016-01-01

    目的 报道指掌侧固有动脉背侧支逆行岛状皮瓣修复手指远端皮肤缺损的临床疗效. 方法 自2011年1月至2015年1月,应用指掌侧固有动脉背侧支逆行岛状皮瓣修复手指远端皮肤缺损60例60指.其中示指30指,中指15指,环指10指,小指5指.切取皮瓣面积1.2cm×1.7cm~3.2cm×3.6cm,皮瓣内携带指同有神经背侧支与创面指神经断端进行显微修复,重建皮肤的感觉.供区取腕部或上臂内侧远端全厚植皮.采用英国医学研究会对感觉评定标准对感觉恢复进行评定. 结果 本组60例60指,皮瓣全部成活.12指皮瓣出现张力性水泡,经拆线后,皮瓣顺利成活.随访根据中华医学会手外科学会上肢部分功能评定试用标准TAM法评定:优50指,良10指,优良率100%;48指皮瓣感觉恢复至S4级,12指恢复至S3级;两点辨别觉5~8mm,平均6.5 mm;患者远、近指间关节平均活动度恢复优良.皮瓣肤色红润,质地柔软,无臃肿,无色素沉着,无畏寒表现,无瘢痕增生及挛缩,皮肤痛觉无过敏及再次手术. 结论 此皮瓣对于手指远端皮肤缺损修复是一种简单易行、不损伤主要动脉及神经、感觉恢复良好、术后并发症少、皮瓣成活优良的方法,值得基层医院推广.%Objective To explore the clinical effect of dorsal digital artery reverse island flap in the repair of distal finger skin defect.Methods From January,2011 to January,2015,60 fingers of 60 cases with dorsal branch of the digital artery were used to repair the defect of the distal finger skin.The 30 refers to the index finger,middle finger 15 fingers,10 ring fingers and 5 little fingers.Harvested area of 1.2 cm ×1.7 cm to 3.2 cm × 3.6 cm,the wrist or distal medial arm full thickness skin graft donor site.Evaluation of sensory recovery by the British Medical Research Association.Results All flaps survived.Twelve finger flap tension blisters,and the flaps survived after the stitches.Follow-up of 60 cases

  13. Arterial supply to the cloacal bursa of the Lhoman White LSL lineage fowl (Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Primo Bombonato

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A study has been carried out on the origin, number and disposition of the arterial branches supplying the cloacal bursas of 30 female fowl (Gallus gallus of the Lhoman White LSL lineage, aged between eight and ten weeks. The right isquiadic artery was cannulated and injected with a 50% colored solution of Neoprene latex “450”. Next, the samples were fixed with a 10% formalin solution through deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracavitary injections for a period of at least 48 hours. Dissections confirmed that the cloacal bursa was supplied by direct branches from the right bursocloacal arteries in 29 cases (96.67%, the left bursocloacal arteries in 28 cases (93.33%, the right cloacal arteries in 13 cases (43.33%, and the left cloacal arteries in 15 cases (50%. The number of branches from the arteries, independent of their origin, varied from two to six. There were two branches in 5 cases (16.67%, three branches in 14 cases (46.67%, four branches in 3 cases (10%, five branches in 6 cases (20%, and six branches in 1 case (3.33%. The distribution of the vessels was unique in each sample.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Persistent Epistaxis due to Pseudoaneurysm Formation of the Ophthalmic Artery Secondary to Nasogastric Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcuk, Hakan, E-mail: hakanselcuk73@yahoo.com; Soylu, Nur; Albayram, Sait; Selcuk, Dogan; Ozer, Harun; Kocer, Naci; Islak, Civan [Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology (Turkey)

    2005-04-15

    We present the case of a 60-year-old man with persistent epistaxis for 20 days that had started 2 weeks after removal of a nasogastric tube placed for an abdominal operation. There was no pathologic finding at selective facial and internal maxillary artery injections. An injury to the ethmoidal branches of the ophthalmic arteries or other arterial origins of bleeding was suspected. The internal carotid artery angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of an anterior ethmoidal branch of the left ophthalmic artery. The pseudoaneurysm was occluded with NBCA-histoacryl (25%) injection.

  15. AN EXCEPTIONAL CASE OF QUADRUPLE RENAL ARTERIES & T WIN RENAL VEINS WITH CROWDED HILAR ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The renal vasculature was always a subject of varia tions both in the number and pattern of portal of entry into kidney and Perihilar placement of the artery, vein and pelvis. Good anatomical insight is an essential prerequisite besides the surgical expertise. The cadaveric dissection revealed a Right Kidney supplied by Quadruple renal arteries & Drained by two renal veins. The main renal artery (MRA was arising from antero lateral aspect and the accessory renal artery was arising from anterior as pect of aorta 1cm distal to the former vessel. Only the MRA showed Fork Pattern Branching with fou r anterior segmental arteries and one posterior segmental artery in the pre hilar region. T he first and fourth segmental arteries showed a small subsidiary branch and a large tortuo us subsidiary branch respectively. The later along with the branch running downwards and lateral from lower renal artery formed a common trunk and pierced the capsule and entered int o the substance of the kidney anteriorly about 2cm lateral to the hilum, thus forming an abe rrant artery. The upper polar artery was seen arising from the lower supra renal artery. The main renal vein (MRV, was formed by two formative tributaries of which one is larger and ot her being smaller. The later was seen just anterior to the third anterior segmental branch of MRA. Accessory renal vein was formed by only one tributary encircled by the fourth anterior segmental artery and posterior segmental artery. There was crowding of structures seen with altered hilar anatomy in both vertical and horizontal disposition. Such a rare combination of extra renal multiple arterio-venous variation is of worth concern to the urologists harvesting ki dneys from the live donors for performing transplantation procedures. Partial nephrectomies for the hilar tumors and for Radiologists during interpretation of the angiograms.

  16. Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; de Bruin, J

    1981-11-01

    Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer in rabbit eyes is studied by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that retinal striations noted ophthalmoscopically in these eyes represent individual fiber bundles, Axon bundles are compartmentalized within tissue tunnels comprised of elongated processes of glial cell origin.

  17. Argus II retinal prosthesis system: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This review focuses on a description of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Argus II; Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) that was approved for humanitarian use by the FDA in 2013 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa with bare or no light perception vision. The article describes the components of Argus II, the studies on the implant, and future directions.

  18. Retinal ischemia and embolism. Causes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijman, C.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The ocular fundus allows direct visualization of the retinal vasculature, blood vessels that are part of the cerebral circulation. Unraveling the causes of retinal ischemia may provide further insight in the pathophysiological processes that underlie cerebral ischemia. The primary aim of the studies

  19. Effects of platelet-derived growth factor on the function of smooth muscle cells from different orders of pulmonary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国桓

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the functional responses of normal rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells(PASMCs)from different orders of pulmonary artery to the platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF).Methods The pulmonary artery branches were gently isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats(250-350 g)and eventually cut into three groups according to the vascular grading:the

  20. The cell stress machinery and retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Dimitra; Aguilà, Monica; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Novoselov, Sergey S; Parfitt, David A; Cheetham, Michael E

    2013-06-27

    Retinal degenerations are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterised by progressive loss of vision due to neurodegeneration. The retina is a highly specialised tissue with a unique architecture and maintaining homeostasis in all the different retinal cell types is crucial for healthy vision. The retina can be exposed to a variety of environmental insults and stress, including light-induced damage, oxidative stress and inherited mutations that can lead to protein misfolding. Within retinal cells there are different mechanisms to cope with disturbances in proteostasis, such as the heat shock response, the unfolded protein response and autophagy. In this review, we discuss the multiple responses of the retina to different types of stress involved in retinal degenerations, such as retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. Understanding the mechanisms that maintain and re-establish proteostasis in the retina is important for developing new therapeutic approaches to fight blindness.

  1. Prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Bregnhøj, Jesper F;

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with data from the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry that comprises all patients in Denmark with generalized retinal....... RESULTS: Of the 5,602,628 Danish citizens on January 1, 2013, 1622 patients were registered as having a generalized retinal dystrophy and were alive and living in Denmark, corresponding to a prevalence of 1:3,454. In 28% of cases the eye condition was part of a syndrome, while the remaining 72% had eye...... disease only. Aside from simplex cases (45%), the most common hereditary pattern was autosomal recessive (23%). CONCLUSION: This epidemiological survey demonstrates that the prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population is 1:3454. Many of the dystrophies are the subjects of clinical...

  2. Emergency off-pump coronary artery surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahzad G Raja; Zulfiqar Haider; Haider Zaman

    2004-01-01

    Background Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting is fast-becoming a procedure of choice for elective revascularization in high-risk patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease. However, the role of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for patients with acute coronary syndromes requiring emergency revascularization still requires validation. We present our experience to show the feasibility of off-pump coronary artery surgery as an emergency revascularization technique. Methods From April 2001 to September 2003, emergency (operation within 24 hours after hospitalization) coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was performed in 66 patients with a mean age of (66.9±5.4) years (range 49-72 years). They presented acute coronary syndromes with 38 patients on platelet glycoprotein Ⅱb/Ⅲa receptor antagonists. All patients underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery via sternotomy with the intention of complete coronary revascularization.Results An average of 2.9 grafts per patient were performed and the posterior descending artery and marginal branches of the circumflex artery were grafted in 83.3% of the patients. There were 4 events of intraoperative cardiac instability, precipitated by occlusion of right coronary artery or positioning of a cardiomegaly heart, leading to immediate conversion to CPB. The mortality rate was 3% (2/66). Two patients suffered postoperative stroke while three needed hemofiltration for acute renal failure. Post surgery elective coronary angiography (n=46) showed no significant stenosis.Conclusion Emergency off-pump coronary artery surgery with complete revascularization is feasible in patients with acute coronary syndrome with low morbidity and mortality and excellent early results.

  3. Bilateral Progressive Obliterative Retinal Vasculitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, 10 cases of a special type of retinal vasculitis are reported, which was characterized by progressive obliteration of vessels in both eyes, developed from the periphery to the posterior ploe, and was complicated by vitreous hemorrhage (5 eyes) and neovascular glaucoma (5 eyes) in later stage. The visual acuity was 0. 05 in 10 eyes (50%). Argon laser pho-tocoagulation seemed to be able to retard the natural course of the disease. Fundus changes, differential diagnosis and treatment etc are...

  4. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  5. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of ...

  6. Acute retinal ischemia caused by controlled low ocular perfusion pressure in a porcine model. Electrophysiological and histological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Warfvinge, Karin; Scherfig, Erik;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, and characterize a porcine model of acute, controlled retinal ischemia. The controlled retinal ischemia was produced by clamping the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in the left eye to 5 mm Hg for 2 h. The OPP was defined as mean arterial blood pressure...... (MAP) minus the intraocular pressure (IOP). It was clamped to 0-30 mm Hg by continuous monitoring of MAP and adjustment of the IOP, which was controlled by cannulation of the anterior chamber. Inner retinal function was assessed by induced multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) with comparisons...... of the amplitudes obtained in the experimental, left eye, and the control, right eye. Quantitative histology was performed to measure the survival of ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells 2-6 weeks after the ischemic insult. An OPP of 5 mm Hg for 2h induced significant reductions in the amplitudes...

  7. Cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of the paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina de Souza Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 is a medium-sized rodent that occurs in Brazil; however, there is little information regarding its morphology. The goal of this study was to describe the origin and branching of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of this rodent in order to contribute to comparative anatomy studies. Ten animals (males and females were used. After death, their thoracic inlet was opened between the fourth and sixth ribs to expose the thoracic aorta, which was cannulated caudally. A stained, neoprene latex solution was then injected, in order to fill the arterial system, and the preparations were fixed in a 10% aqueous formalin solution for over 72h. The fixed specimens were dissected to identify the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery started at the abdominal aorta, caudally to the celiac artery, and originated in the following arterial branches: caudal pancreatic duodenal, pancreatic, jejunal, ileum colic and cecal. The origin of the caudal mesenteric artery occurred next to the end of abdominal aorta and this vessel issued the left colic artery and cranial rectal artery from which the sigmoid arteries initiated. It was found that there was little difference in the branching pattern of the arteries compared to other rodents and domestic mammals.

  8. Structural alterations of the retinal microcirculation in the "prehypertensive" high- normal blood pressure state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Buzzi, Silvia; Dell'Oro, Raffaella; Mineo, Claudia; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Seravalle, Gino; Lonati, Laura; Cuspidi, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    The high-normal blood pressure (also known as prehypertension) is a clinical condition characterized by an increased cardiovascular risk as well as by the presence of target organ damage. This include an increased left ventricular mass, an endothelial dysfunction and an early renal functional and structural damage. Whether this is the case also for alterations of retinal vessels network, which are frequently detectable in established hypertension, is still largey undefined. The present paper, after discussing the main characteristics of the high-normal blood pressure state, will review the different approaches used throughout the years for assessing retinal microcirculatory network. Data collected by our group in subjects with high normal blood pressure will be also discussed, showing that arterial venular ratio values are reduced in this individuals with high-normal blood pressure and more so in established hypertension. These data indicate that retinal microvascular alterations 1) are of early appearance in the clinical course of hypertension and 2) are of frequent detection in the high-normal blood pressure state. The possible hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic mechanisms resposible for these structural alteations of the retinal microcirculation will be also discussed.

  9. Cell Therapy Applications for Retinal Vascular Diseases: Diabetic Retinopathy and Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susanna S

    2016-04-01

    Retinal vascular conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion, remain leading causes of vision loss. No therapy exists to restore vision loss resulting from retinal ischemia and associated retinal degeneration. Tissue regeneration is possible with cell therapy. The goal would be to restore or replace the damaged retinal vasculature and the retinal neurons that are damaged and/or degenerating from the hypoxic insult. Currently, various adult cell therapies have been explored as potential treatment. They include mesenchymal stem cells, vascular precursor cells (i.e., CD34+ cells, hematopoietic cells or endothelial progenitor cells), and adipose stromal cells. Preclinical studies show that all these cells have a paracrine trophic effect on damaged ischemic tissue, leading to tissue preservation. Endothelial progenitor cells and adipose stromal cells integrate into the damaged retinal vascular wall in preclinical models of diabetic retinopathy and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mesenchymal stem cells do not integrate as readily but appear to have a primary paracrine trophic effect. Early phase clinical trials have been initiated and ongoing using mesenchymal stem cells or autologous bone marrow CD34+ cells injected intravitreally as potential therapy for diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion. Adipose stromal cells or pluripotent stem cells differentiated into endothelial colony-forming cells have been explored in preclinical studies and show promise as possible therapies for retinal vascular disorders. The relative safety or efficacy of these various cell therapies for treating retinal vascular disorders have yet to be determined.

  10. Demarcation laser photocoagulation induced retinal necrosis and rupture resulting in large retinal tear formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Carlos; Pieramici, Dante J; Matsui, Rodrigo; Rabena, Melvin; Graue, Federico

    2015-06-01

    Retinal tears after laser photocoagulation are a rare complication that occurs after intense laser. It is talked about among retina specialist occurring particularly at the end of a surgical case while applying endophotocoagulation; to the best our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature of a large retinal tear induced after attempted in-office demarcation laser photocoagulation (DLP) that simulated a giant retinal tear. DLP has been employed in the management of selected cases of macula sparring rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Even though extension of the retinal detachment through the "laser barrier" is considered a failure of treatment, few complications have been described with the use of this less invasive retinal detachment repair technique. We describe a case of a high myopic woman who initially was treated with demarcation laser photocoagulation for an asymptomatic retinal detachment associated with a single horseshoe tear and a full thickness large retinal tear was created where the laser was placed. Intense laser photocoagulation resulted in abrupt laser induced retinal necrosis and rupture creating this large retinal break. Proper laser technique should reduce the risks associated with this procedure.

  11. The Clinical Application of Styloid Process of Periosteal Flap Pedicled of Retrograde Branch of Radial Artery Transposition for Repairing Old Scaphoid Fracture%逆行桡动脉返支的桡骨茎突骨膜瓣移植转位修复腕舟骨陈旧性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛常英; 谭慎兴; 曹哲; 曹松丽; 唐胜建; 梁晓琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical curative effect of styloid process of radius periosteal flap pedicled of recurrent branch of radial artery retrograde transposition grafting repair old nonunion of scaphoid fracture . Methods From May 2013 to March 2015 ,admitted to the wrist of old scaphoid nonunion 9 patients ,were used to trans-position periosteal flap repair ,while at the fracture section implants BMP complexes induce osteogenesis .During operation cut periosteal flap that ranging from about 1.0cm ×0.5cm~1.2cm ×0.6cm,which was curl implanted to the set bone groove .Limb function spaces immobilization and early rehabilitation after the operation .Assessing the wrist function re-covery according to Krimmer clinical scoring system consist of pain ,the range of motion and grip strength .Results The group follow up 3 to 16 months postoperatively ,CT revealed that the fractures were anatomic reduction and bone healing time of about 3 months to 6 months,an average of about 4 months.There is no infection,nonunion,traumatic arthritis and other complications;and Krimmer clinical scoring system assessment:excellent in 6 cases,good in 2 cases,medium in 1case ,good rate of 89%.Conclusion The use of radial styloid periosteal flap vascularized repair old scaphoid nonunion , improves the healing rate ,has reliable curative effect and obtains satisfactory results .%目的 探讨以逆行桡动脉返支为蒂的桡骨茎突骨膜瓣移植转位修复腕舟骨陈旧性骨折不愈合的临床疗效. 方法 2013年5月~2015年3月,对收治的腕舟骨陈旧性骨折不愈合的9例患者,均采用以逆行桡动脉返支为蒂的桡骨茎突骨膜瓣移植转位修复骨折不愈合,同时于骨折端植入BMP复合物诱导成骨. 术中切取预定骨膜瓣大小,将其卷曲植入设定骨槽内,骨膜瓣面积范围约1.0cm ×0.5cm~1.2cm ×0.6cm. 术后患肢功能位外固定制动,早期康复训练;按Krimmer临床评分系统对腕部的疼痛情况、关节活动

  12. Lingual and facial arteries arising from the external carotid artery in a common trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, Theodore G; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Paraschos, Alexandros; Michalinos, Adamantios; Protogerou, Vassilis; Vlasis, Konstantinos; Troupis, George; Skandalakis, Panayiotis

    2011-02-01

    The present study describes analytically a rare case in which lingual and facial arteries arise together from an external carotid artery in a common trunk. Thirty anatomic dissections were performed on 15 cadavers in the macroscopic laboratory in the Department of Anatomy of the Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. One common trunk from which originated lingual and facial arteries was found. The frequency of this morphology is measured at 6 per cent. The length of the common trunk is measured at 7.3 mm between its origin and its diversion at the facial artery and lingual artery, its diameter at 2.8 mm, its distance from carotid bifurcation at 7.9 mm, and from the superior thyroid artery at 3.3 mm. At the left side of the neck region, facial and lingual arteries arose separately. The anatomic variations of the branching pattern of the external carotid artery and the micrometric values of the vessels are especially important as a result of the numerous operations performed in the neck region that implicate various specialties such as general surgery, head and neck surgery, plastic surgery, and maxillofacial surgery.

  13. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  14. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  15. Systematization, description and territory of the caudal cerebral artery of the brain in broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty heads with the neck segment of Caiman latirostris were used. The animals were provided from a creation center called Mister Caiman, under the authorization of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama. Animals were sacrificed according to the slaughtering routine of the abattoir, and the heads were sectioned at the level of the third cervical vertebra. The arterial system was washed with cold saline solution, with drainage through jugular veins. Subsequently, the system was filled with red colored latex injection. Pieces were than fixed in 20% formaldehyde, for seven days. The brains were removed, with a spinal cord segment, the duramater removed and the arteries dissected. At the level of the hypophysis, the internal carotid artery gave off a rostral branch, and a short caudal branch, continuing, naturally, as the caudal cerebral artery. This artery projected laterodorsalwards and, as it overpassed the optic tract, gave off its I (the first central branch. Penetrated in the cerebral transverse fissure, emitting the diencephalic artery and next its II (second central branch. Still inside the fissure, originated occipital hemispheric branches and a pineal branch. Emerged from the cerebral transverse fissure, over the occipital pole of the cerebral hemisphere. Projected rostralwards, sagital to the cerebral longitudinal fissure, as interhemispheric artery. This artery gave off medial and convex hemispheric branches to the respective surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres, anastomosed with its contralateral homologous, forming the common ethmoidal artery. This artery entered the fissure between the olfactory peduncles, emerging ventrally and dividing into ethmoidal arteries, right and left, which progressed towards the nasal cavities, vascularizing them. The territory of the caudal cerebral artery included the most caudal area of the base of the cerebral hemisphere, its convex surface, the olfactory

  16. [The rete mirabile of the maxillary artery of the lion (Panthera leo, L. 1758)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackowiak, H

    1989-12-01

    Seventeen lion heads were examined. Their arteries were injected with colored supervinyl-chloride (dissolved in acetone) after which the heads were macerated biologically. The rete mirabile of the maxillary artery was located extracranially and was formed by numerous arteries that arose from the dorsal and medial surfaces of the maxillary artery. The rete released branches (rami retis) which entered the cranial cavity through the orbital fissure where they anastomosed with the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery. The extracranial portion of the internal carotid was found to be obliterated. Some other arteries leaving the rete anastomosed with the internal ophthalmic artery before it entered the optic canal. The following further arteries left the rete: A. ethmoidalis externa, A. ophthalmica externa, rami musculares and ramus pterygoideus. The rete mirabile of the maxillary artery in the lion provides the principal source of the blood for the brain; it also supplies the orbit.

  17. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalam, K V; Sambhav, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software) helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA). Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases.

  18. Assessment of blood-retinal barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinores, S A

    1995-01-01

    The blood-retinal barrier consists of two components which are comprised of the retinal vascular endothelium and the retinal pigment epithelium, respectively. Its functional integrity can be recognized by tight junctions between these cells with a paucity of endocytic vesicles within them and the presence of the molecules that regulate the ionic and metabolic gradients that constitute the barrier. The barrier is compromised in several disease processes and by a variety of agents, but in most cases the location and mechanism for barrier failure is not understood. Perfusion with a variety of radiolabeled tracer molecules, vitreous fluorophotometry, or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to quantitate blood-retinal barrier leakage. Fluorescein angiography or magnetic resonance imaging can localize sites of leakage in vivo with limited resolution. Evans blue dye can be used to visualize blood-retinal barrier failure in gross pathological specimens and immuno-histochemical labeling of serum proteins such as albumin or fibrinogen can be used to localize sites of blood-retinal barrier breakdown by light microscopy. Tracers such as horseradish peroxidase, microperoxidase, or lanthanum, or the immunocytochemical demonstration of albumin can be used to reveal blood-retinal barrier breakdown at the ultrastructural level and provide insights into the mechanisms involved. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of each of these methods to aid in selection of the appropriate techniques to derive the desired information.

  19. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  20. Optical coherence tomography angiography in retinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Chalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD, retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA. Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases.

  1. Genomic analysis of mouse retinal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Blackshaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate retina is comprised of seven major cell types that are generated in overlapping but well-defined intervals. To identify genes that might regulate retinal development, gene expression in the developing retina was profiled at multiple time points using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. The expression patterns of 1,051 genes that showed developmentally dynamic expression by SAGE were investigated using in situ hybridization. A molecular atlas of gene expression in the developing and mature retina was thereby constructed, along with a taxonomic classification of developmental gene expression patterns. Genes were identified that label both temporal and spatial subsets of mitotic progenitor cells. For each developing and mature major retinal cell type, genes selectively expressed in that cell type were identified. The gene expression profiles of retinal Müller glia and mitotic progenitor cells were found to be highly similar, suggesting that Müller glia might serve to produce multiple retinal cell types under the right conditions. In addition, multiple transcripts that were evolutionarily conserved that did not appear to encode open reading frames of more than 100 amino acids in length ("noncoding RNAs" were found to be dynamically and specifically expressed in developing and mature retinal cell types. Finally, many photoreceptor-enriched genes that mapped to chromosomal intervals containing retinal disease genes were identified. These data serve as a starting point for functional investigations of the roles of these genes in retinal development and physiology.

  2. Feeding Arteries of Primary Tongue Cancers on Intra-arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitani, Takeshi, E-mail: kamitani@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Kawanami, Satoshi, E-mail: kawanami-01@mac.com [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsuo, Yoshio, E-mail: yymatsuo@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yonezawa, Masato, E-mail: ymasato@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yamasaki, Yuzo, E-mail: yyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu, E-mail: minagao@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yamanouchi, Torahiko, E-mail: tora0228@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake, E-mail: h-yabu@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa, E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nakashima, Torahiko, E-mail: nakatora@qent.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi, E-mail: honda@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the frequency and the predictive factor of each feeding artery on intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) in primary tongue cancer.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated 20 patients who received IAIC for primary tongue cancer. The main and accompanying feeding arteries were identified on super-selective angiography of the branches of the external carotid artery. Tumor diameter, and extension to the contralateral side, tongue extrinsic muscles (TEMs), and lateral mesopharyngeal wall were determined based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography findings.ResultsThe main feeding artery was the ipsilateral lingual artery (LA) in 15 of the 20 examined tumors and the contralateral LA in the other 5. Ten cancers had only one feeding artery, and multiple feeding arteries were detected in the remaining 10. Tumors >4 cm (n = 9), those with extension to the contralateral side (n = 13), and those with extension to TEMs (n = 15) were supplied by significantly larger numbers of feeding arteries compared to tumors without these features (P = 0.01, 0.049, and 0.02, respectively). The frequency of feeding from the contralateral LA was 64 % (9/14) and 17 % (1/6) in tumors with and without extension to the contralateral side, respectively. Feeding from a facial artery (FA) was not detected in tumors ≤4 cm, while 5 of the 9 (56 %) tumors >4 cm were supplied by a FA (P = 0.01).ConclusionA careful search for feeding arteries is required, especially in large tumors with extension to the contralateral side or to TEMs.

  3. Clinical importance of the middle meningeal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Przemyslaw; Skrzat, Janusz; Walocha, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Middle meningeal artery (MMA)is an important branch which supplies among others cranial dura mater. It directly attaches to the cranial bones (is incorporated into periosteal layer of dura mater), favors common injuries in course of head trauma. This review describes available data on the MMA considering its varability, or treats specific diseases or injuries where the course of MMA may have clinical impact.

  4. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  5. Automatic diagnosis of retinal diseases from color retinal images

    CERN Document Server

    Jayanthi, D; SwarnaParvathi, S

    2010-01-01

    Teleophthalmology holds a great potential to improve the quality, access, and affordability in health care. For patients, it can reduce the need for travel and provide the access to a superspecialist. Ophthalmology lends itself easily to telemedicine as it is a largely image based diagnosis. The main goal of the proposed system is to diagnose the type of disease in the retina and to automatically detect and segment retinal diseases without human supervision or interaction. The proposed system will diagnose the disease present in the retina using a neural network based classifier.The extent of the disease spread in the retina can be identified by extracting the textural features of the retina. This system will diagnose the following type of diseases: Diabetic Retinopathy and Drusen.

  6. Transient Presyncope Secondary to Posterior Descending Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Moffat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 64-year-old male initially presenting with presyncope and bradycardia, without any anginal symptoms or objective evidence of myocardial ischemia. A stress test induced no physical symptoms but revealed a left bundle branch block with multiple preventricular contractions on electrocardiogram. Subsequent catheterization revealed severe obstructive disease throughout the coronary arteries. He was treated percutaneously on two separate heart catheterizations. The presyncope and bradycardia resolved after reperfusion of the posterior descending artery.

  7. Significance of coronary artery calcification demonstrated by computed tomography in detecting coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraki, Teruo; Akiyama, Yoko; Kita, Masahide [Iwakuni national Hospital, Yamaguchi (Japan)] [and others

    2002-02-01

    Serial 27 patients with angina attack were enrolled in this trial. Plain computed tomography (CT) of the chest and coronary angiogram were performed simultaneously. Calcification of main branch of coronary arteies (left main trunk, left anterior desending artery, left circumflex artery, right coronary artery) was judged visually. More than 50% stenosis was defined significant by quantitative coronary angiogram. Correlation between calcified lesions detected by CT and angiographic stenoses showed high specificity and negative predictive value was also high (sensitity=58%, specificity=80%, positive predictive value=27%, negative predictive value=94%, p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between patients with calcification of corornary artery and angiographic stenosis. The present study showed the low probability of significant stenosis without calcification and the high probability with multiple calcified lesions. (author)

  8. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  9. Radiation effects on branched polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    We observed crosslinking and scission caused by gamma radiation in linear and branched polysilanes which have from 5% to 33% of the branching points. The crosslinking reactions become predominant for the irradiation with branching density increasing. The cleavage did not take place exclusively at the branching points and branching polysilanes are sensitive to radiation extraordinary as compared with linear polysilane from a careful study of the radiolysis products of a series of polysilanes. This is due to the increasing Si {center_dot} contributing to the crosslinking reaction and that they are not resonance-stabilized by double bonds as the reaction mechanism in the irradiated polysilanes. However, the gelation curve in linear PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} is almost consistent with that in branching PMPS, indicating that the size of chemical track is responsible for the gel fraction. The crosslinking G value for high molecular weight PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} was drastically decreased as compared with that for low molecular weight. It suggests that there are a large number of intramolecular crosslinking points for high molecular weight PMPS. (author)

  10. [New drug therapy for retinal degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohguro, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal degeneration characterized by nyctalopia, ring scotoma, and bone-spicule pigmentation of the retina. So far, no effective therapy has been found for RP. As a possible molecular etiology of RP, retina-specific gene deficits are most likely involved, but little has been identified in terms of intracellular mechanisms leading to retinal photoreceptor cell death at post-translational levels. In order to find an effective therapy for RP, we must look for underlying common mechanisms that are responsible for the development of RP, instead of designing a specific therapy for each of the RP types with different causes. Therefore, in the present study, several animal models with different causes of RP were studied, including (1)Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats with a deficit of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function caused by rhodopsin mutation; (2) P23H rats, (3) S334ter rats, (4) photo stress rats, (5) retinal degeneration (rd) mice with a deficit of phosphodiesterase(PDE) function; and (6) cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) model rats with a deficit of recoverin-dependent photoreceptor adaptation function. In each of these models, the following assessments were made in order to elucidate common pathological mechanisms among the models: (1) retinal function assessed by electroretinogram (ERG), (2) retinal morphology, (3) retinoid analysis, (4) rhodopsin regeneration, (5) rhodopsin phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and (6) cytosolic cGMP levels. We found that unregulated photoreceptor adaptation processes caused by an imbalance of rhodopsin phosphorylation and dephosphorylation caused retinal dysfunction leading to photoreceptor cell death. As possible candidate drugs for normalizing these retinal dysfunctions and stopping further retinal degeneration, nilvadipine, a Ca channel blocker, retinoid derivatives, and anthocyanine were chosen and tested to determine their effect on the above animal models with

  11. Photostress Testing Device for Diagnosing Retinal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Swan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Retinal diseases such as Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD affect nearly one in three elderly patients. ARMD damages the central vision photoreceptors in the fovea. The Photostress Test is a simple technique for testing for the early effects of ARMD. Here, the illumination sources in a novel self-administered Photostress Testing device were modeled for safety and distribution in illumination software. After satisfying the design constraints in the model, a prototype of the illumination system was fabricated and tested to confirm the modeling results. The resultant prototype can be used to aid in the diagnosis of retinal disease and is well within retinal safety levels.

  12. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S; Gopal, L

    1996-12-01

    Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil), as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membranes adherent to the retina, manipulate retinal detachments and mechanically flatten detached retina. Over the longer term, silicone oil maintains intraocular tamponade. One should be cognizant of the potential uses, benefits and risks of each of these vitreous substitutes.

  13. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Sandeep

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil, as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membranes adherent to the retina, manipulate retinal detachments and mechanically flatten detached retina. Over the longer term, silicone oil maintains intraocular tamponade. One should be cognizant of the potential uses, benefits and risks of each of these vitreous substitutes.

  14. Long-term outcomes in patients undergoing vitrectomy for retinal detachment due to viral retinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida DRP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available David RP Almeida,1 Eric K Chin,1 Ryan M Tarantola,1 Elizabeth O Tegins,1 Christopher A Lopez,1 Herbert Culver Boldt,1 Karen M Gehrs,1 Elliott H Sohn,1 Stephen R Russell,1 James C Folk,1 Vinit B Mahajan1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA Purpose: To determine the outcomes in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD secondary to viral retinitis. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive, noncomparative, interventional case series of 12 eyes in ten patients with RRD secondary to viral retinitis. Results of vitreous or aqueous biopsy, effect of antiviral therapeutics, time to retinal detachment, course of visual acuity, and anatomic and surgical outcomes were investigated. Results: There were 1,259 cases of RRD during the study period, with 12 cases of RRD secondary to viral retinitis (prevalence of 0.95%. Follow-up was available for a mean period of 4.4 years. Varicella zoster virus was detected in six eyes, herpes simplex virus in two eyes, and cytomegalovirus in two eyes. Eight patients were treated with oral valacyclovir and two patients with intravenous acyclovir. Lack of optic nerve involvement correlated with improved final visual acuity of 20/100 or greater. Pars plana vitrectomy (n=12, silicone-oil tamponade (n=11, and scleral buckling (n=10 provided successful anatomic retinal reattachment in all cases, with no recurrent retinal detachment and no cases of hypotony during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Varicella zoster virus was the most frequent cause of viral retinitis, and lack of optic nerve involvement was predictive of a favorable visual acuity prognosis. Vitrectomy with silicone-oil tamponade and scleral buckle placement provided stable anatomical outcomes. Keywords: viral retinitis, acute retinal necrosis, herpetic retinitis, vitrectomy, retinal detachment 

  15. The cost-effectiveness of the Argus II retinal prosthesis in Retinitis Pigmentosa patients

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a hereditary genetic disease causing bilateral retinal degeneration. RP is a leading cause of blindness resulting in incurable visual impairment and drastic reduction in the Quality of life of the patients. Second Sight Medical Products Inc. developed Argus II, a retinal prosthesis system for treating RP. Argus II is the world’s first ever-commercial implant intended to restore some vision in the blind patients. The objective of this study was to assess...

  16. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin in the treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Mesa Gutiérrez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Mesa Gutiérrez, Luis Arias Barquet, Josep Maria Caminal Mitjana, Sergi Prades Almolda, Nùria Planas Domènech, Octavi Pujol Goita, Marc Rubio Caso, Jorge Arruga GinebredaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab in the treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Methods: Prospective study, noncomparative, interventional case series. Twelve consecutive patients (12 eyes with macular edema associated with nonischemic retinal vein occlusion were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg. All subjects underwent standardized ophthalmic evaluation at baseline and at weeks 1, 4, 12, and 24, consisting of visual acuity (VA measurement using ETDRS charts, and imaging with ocular coherence tomography evaluating changes in foveal thickness (FT and macular volume (MV.Results: The median age was 66 years (± 4.16, and the median duration of symptoms was 4 months (± 1.81. There were six cases of inferior branch vein occlusion and six cases of superior branch retinal vein occlusion. Mean VA improved from 1.32 ± 0.24 (logMAR values at baseline to 0.8 ± 0.15 (p = 0.0003 at the 6-month follow-up. The macular edema responded promptly, and a trend to restoration of normal macular anatomy was observed at by the seventh day. Mean FT improved from 615.50 ± 116.29 microns to 420 ± 72.53 microns (p = 0.001, and the mean MV improved from 19.81 ± 2.31mm3 to 9.23 ± 1.38 (p = 0.0001 at the 6-month follow-up.Keywords: Bevacizumab, retinal vein occlusion, intravitreal injection, vascular endothelial growth factor

  17. A general principle governs vision-dependent dendritic patterning of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Ping; Sun, Jin Hao; Tian, Ning

    2014-10-15

    Dendritic arbors of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) collect information over a certain area of the visual scene. The coverage territory and the arbor density of dendrites determine what fraction of the visual field is sampled by a single cell and at what resolution. However, it is not clear whether visual stimulation is required for the establishment of branching patterns of RGCs, and whether a general principle directs the dendritic patterning of diverse RGCs. By analyzing the geometric structures of RGC dendrites, we found that dendritic arbors of RGCs underwent a substantial spatial rearrangement after eye-opening. Light deprivation blocked both the dendritic growth and the branch patterning, suggesting that visual stimulation is required for the acquisition of specific branching patterns of RGCs. We further showed that vision-dependent dendritic growth and arbor refinement occurred mainly in the middle portion of the dendritic tree. This nonproportional growth and selective refinement suggest that the late-stage dendritic development of RGCs is not a passive stretching with the growth of eyes, but rather an active process of selective growth/elimination of dendritic arbors of RGCs driven by visual activity. Finally, our data showed that there was a power law relationship between the coverage territory and dendritic arbor density of RGCs on a cell-by-cell basis. RGCs were systematically less dense when they cover larger territories regardless of their cell type, retinal location, or developmental stage. These results suggest that a general structural design principle directs the vision-dependent patterning of RGC dendrites.

  18. Blood flow mechanics and oxygen transport and delivery in the retinal microcirculation: multiscale mathematical modeling and numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causin, Paola; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Malgaroli, Francesca; Sacco, Riccardo; Harris, Alon

    2016-06-01

    The scientific community continues to accrue evidence that blood flow alterations and ischemic conditions in the retina play an important role in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. Many factors influence retinal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation, including blood pressure, blood rheology, oxygen arterial permeability and tissue metabolic demand. Since the influence of these factors on the retinal circulation is difficult to isolate in vivo, we propose here a novel mathematical and computational model describing the coupling between blood flow mechanics and oxygen ([Formula: see text]) transport in the retina. Albeit in a simplified manner, the model accounts for the three-dimensional anatomical structure of the retina, consisting in a layered tissue nourished by an arteriolar/venular network laying on the surface proximal to the vitreous. Capillary plexi, originating from terminal arterioles and converging into smaller venules, are embedded in two distinct tissue layers. Arteriolar and venular networks are represented by fractal trees, whereas capillary plexi are represented using a simplified lumped description. In the model, [Formula: see text] is transported along the vasculature and delivered to the tissue at a rate that depends on the metabolic demand of the various tissue layers. First, the model is validated against available experimental results to identify baseline conditions. Then, a sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the influence of blood pressure, blood rheology, oxygen arterial permeability and tissue oxygen demand on the [Formula: see text] distribution within the blood vessels and in the tissue. This analysis shows that: (1) systemic arterial blood pressure has a strong influence on the [Formula: see text] profiles in both blood and tissue; (2) plasma viscosity and metabolic consumption rates have a strong influence on the [Formula: see text] tension at the level of the retinal ganglion cells; and (3) arterial [Formula: see text

  19. Zygomatico-orbital artery as a recipient vessel for microsurgical head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Takuya; Sawamoto, Naoya; Hirai, Rintaro; Arikawa, Masaki

    2013-07-01

    The selection of recipient vessels in head and neck reconstruction is one of the key factors influencing its difficulty and outcome. We report a case of a microsurgical scalp reconstruction using the zygomatico-orbital artery as a recipient vessel.A 71-year-old woman had intractable skin ulcers on her head after neurosurgeries. Computed tomography angiography findings showed that the superficial temporal artery was obstructed and that the zygomatico-orbital artery ran forward and upward. She underwent scalp reconstruction using a free anterior lateral thigh flap. The zygomatico-orbital artery was dissected distally, cut, and turned over cranially. The diameter of the zygomatico-orbital artery was 1.2 mm. The blood flow through the zygomatico-orbital artery was sufficient. The thinned scalp area was excised, and some of the titanium devices and infectious tissues were removed. An anterior lateral thigh flap measuring 20 × 9 cm was harvested and transferred to the defect in the head. The discrepancy in calibers was within double, and the zygomatico-orbital artery fit the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. The flap was transferred successfully.The zygomatico-orbital artery is one of the branches from the external carotid artery and supports the suprazygomatic territory. The zygomatico-orbital artery is present in 78% to 92% of people and originates from the superficial temporal artery and sometimes from the frontal branch of superficial temporal artery. The mean diameter of the zygomatico-orbital artery at origin is reported to be 1.20 mm. The zygomatico-orbital artery is another option as a recipient vessel in head and neck reconstruction.

  20. 合并视网膜大血管阻塞的系统性红斑狼疮的临床观察%Clinical observation of systemic lupus erythematosus complicated with major retinal vascular occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乔; 聂尚武; 王晓琴; 陈盼

    2015-01-01

    ?AIM: To observe the clinical characteristics of the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus ( SLE ) complicated with major retinal vascular occlusion. ?METHODS:Seventeen patients ( 21 eyes ) with SLE complicated with major retinal vascular occlusion were selected as the experimental group from January 2010 to January 2014 in our hospital.Thirty cases ( 60 eyes ) of SLE patients without retinopathy were selected as the control group. Ocular and systemic examination and related laboratory tests, including various autoimmune antibodies, were taken. Clinical symptoms and signs were recorded. ?RESULTS:In the experimental group, 13 cases were uniocular, 4 cases were bilocular, in which there were central retinal vein occlusion ( CRVO ) in 7 eyes ( 33%) , branch retinal vein occlusion ( BRVO ) in 9 eyes ( 43%) , central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in 3 eyes(14%), branch retinal artery occlusion ( BRAO ) in 1 eye ( 5%) , CRAO combined with CRVO in 1 eye ( 5%).The best corrected visual acuity ( BCVA ) of the experimental group was significantly worse than that of the control group.The incidence of skin erythema ( 76%) , fever ( 59%) , arthritis ( 53%) , central nervous system symptoms ( headache and neuropsychiatric abnormalities) ( 76%) , pleurisy ( 41%) were significantly higher than those of the control group.The positive rate of anti ds-DNA antibody ( 100%) and antiphospholipid antibody (65%), the decrease of C3(82%), the elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate ( 100%) , thrombocytopenia ( 65%) were significantly higher than those of the control group. The score of SLEDAI ( systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index ) was 20.24 ±4.66 prompting SLE in moderate or severe active stage. ? CONCLUSION: In SLE patients with major retinal vascular occlusion, the visual acuity was severely damaged, the multi-system was affected in varying degrees, and all of the patients were in moderate and severe activity period. There may be a correlation between

  1. Laminins and retinal vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Malia M; Lefebvre, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling vascular development, both normal and pathological, are not yet fully understood. Many diseases, including cancer and diabetic retinopathy, involve abnormal blood vessel formation. Therefore, increasing knowledge of these mechanisms may help develop novel therapeutic targets. The identification of novel proteins or cells involved in this process would be particularly useful. The retina is an ideal model for studying vascular development because it is easy to access, particularly in rodents where this process occurs post-natally. Recent studies have suggested potential roles for laminin chains in vascular development of the retina. This review will provide an overview of these studies, demonstrating the importance of further research into the involvement of laminins in retinal blood vessel formation.

  2. Photodiode circuits for retinal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, J D; Cogan, S F; Mathieson, K; Sher, A; Palanker, D V

    2011-10-01

    Photodiode circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution retinal prostheses. While several of these systems have been constructed and some even implanted in humans, existing descriptions of the complex optoelectronic interaction between light, photodiode, and the electrode/electrolyte load are limited. This study examines this interaction in depth with theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Actively biased photoconductive and passive photovoltaic circuits are investigated, with the photovoltaic circuits consisting of one or more diodes connected in series, and the photoconductive circuits consisting of a single diode in series with a pulsed bias voltage. Circuit behavior and charge injection levels were markedly different for platinum and sputtered iridium-oxide film (SIROF) electrodes. Photovoltaic circuits were able to deliver 0.038 mC/cm(2) (0.75 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50- μm platinum electrodes, and 0.54-mC/cm(2) (11 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50-μ m SIROF electrodes driven with 0.5-ms pulses of light at 25 Hz. The same pulses applied to photoconductive circuits with the same electrodes were able to deliver charge injections as high as 0.38 and 7.6 mC/cm(2) (7.5 and 150 nC/phase), respectively. We demonstrate photovoltaic stimulation of rabbit retina in-vitro, with 0.5-ms pulses of 905-nm light using peak irradiance of 1 mW/mm(2). Based on the experimental data, we derive electrochemical and optical safety limits for pixel density and charge injection in various circuits. While photoconductive circuits offer smaller pixels, photovoltaic systems do not require an external bias voltage. Both classes of circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prostheses.

  3. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: The Phantom Menace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinthakis, Nikolaos; Abdulkareem, Nada; Farag, Mohamed; Gorog, Diana A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 66-year-old lady with chest pain, without dynamic 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and normal serial troponin. Coronary angiography revealed a linear filing defect in the first obtuse marginal branch of the circumflex artery indicating coronary artery dissection, with superadded thrombus. She was managed medically with dual antiplatelet therapy and has responded well. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of cardiac chest pain, which can be missed without coronary angiography. Unlike most other lesions in patients with unstable symptoms, where coronary intervention with stenting is recommended, patients with SCAD generally fare better with conservative measures than with intervention, unless there is hemodynamic instability. PMID:28197295

  4. Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E A; Chung, M; Dubra, A; Hunter, J J; Merigan, W H; Williams, D R

    2011-03-01

    Adaptive optics imaging of cone photoreceptors has provided unique insight into the structure and function of the human visual system and has become an important tool for both basic scientists and clinicians. Recent advances in adaptive optics retinal imaging instrumentation and methodology have allowed us to expand beyond cone imaging. Multi-wavelength and fluorescence imaging methods with adaptive optics have allowed multiple retinal cell types to be imaged simultaneously. These new methods have recently revealed rod photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, and the smallest retinal blood vessels. Fluorescence imaging coupled with adaptive optics has been used to examine ganglion cells in living primates. Two-photon imaging combined with adaptive optics can evaluate photoreceptor function non-invasively in the living primate retina.

  5. Regulatory and Economic Considerations of Retinal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankoor R; Williams, George A

    2016-01-01

    The advent of anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion and diabetes mellitus has prevented blindness in tens of thousands of people. However, the costs of these drugs are without precedent in ophthalmic drug therapeutics. An analysis of the financial implications of retinal drugs and the impact of the Food and Drug Administration on treatment of retinal disease must include not only an evaluation of the direct costs of the drugs and the costs associated with their administration, but also the cost savings which accrue from their clinical benefit. This chapter will discuss the financial and regulatory issues associated with retinal drugs.

  6. [Retinal vein occlusion in a young patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Mihail; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Sarbu, Laura; Avram, Corina; Camburu, Raluca; Stamate, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a case report of a 27 years old pacient with central retinal vein occlussion and macular edema. The pacient has a significant reduction of the macular aedema with complete recovery of vision after the treatment.

  7. [Intraocular hypertension after retinal detachment surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, O; Cristescu, R; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R

    2012-01-01

    This papers presents a case of a patient with retinal detachment, 3 days ago operated (posterior vitrectomy, internal tamponament with silicon oil 1000) who developed increased ocular pressure following silicon oil output in the anterior chamber.

  8. The treatment of bullous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D; Chignell, A H; Inglesby, D V; Little, B C; Franks, W

    1992-01-01

    We describe the results of a consecutive series of 97 cases of bullous superior retinal detachment treated by conventional surgery. The retinal detachments were characterized by either a single retinal break or multiple retinal breaks confined within 1 clock hour and no proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The surgery involved sequential drainage of subretinal fluid, injection of air, cryotherapy and the application of local explant. All cases would otherwise be suitable for pneumatic retinopexy. The anatomical success rate was 85.5% with a single operation and 97% with further procedures. We report on the complications encountered and appraise the advantages and disadvantages of this operation. Forty-five of the 97 cases had detachment of the macula for less than 2 weeks, and 35 of the 45 (80%) achieved a visual acuity of 6/18 or better. These visual results challenge the assertion that better visual outcome might be attained with pneumatic retinopexy.

  9. [Ocular hypertension after surgery for retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, O; Cristescu, R; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R

    2012-01-01

    This papers presents a case of a patient with retinal detachement, 3 days ago operated (posterior vitrectomy internal tamponament with silicon oil 1000) who develop increased ocular pressure following silicon oil output in the anterior chamber.

  10. VARIABILITY OF ORIGIN OF OBTURATOR ARTERY AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obturator artery is a branch of anterior division of internal iliac artery. It normally runs anteroinferiorly on the lateral wall of pelvis to the upper part of the obturator foramen and leaves the pelvis by passing through the obturator canal. On its course, the artery is accompanied by the obturator nerve and vein. It supplies the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh. A severe and potentially lethal complication in pelvic injuries is arterial bleeding commonly involving the branches of the internal iliac artery, namely the lateral sacral, iliolumbar, obturator, vesical and inferior gluteal arteries. A sound knowledge of retro-pubic pelvic vascular anatomy is pivotal for successful performance of endoscopic procedures such as total extra-peritoneal inguinal hernioplasty or laparoscopic herniorraphy. The context and purpose of the study: This study is an attempt to analyse the origin, course, distribution of obturator artery in pelvis and their clinical implication. Result: out of 60 formalin fixed pelvic halves 36.6% of the specimens, (26.67% in males and 10% in females the origin of obturator artery was found to be normal from anterior division of internal iliac artery. About 63.63% from various other sources. Conclusion: This knowledge of variation in the origin of obturator artery is important while doing pelvic and groin surgeries requiring appropriate ligation. Such aberrant origins may be a significant source for persistent bleeding in the setting of acute trauma. Knowledge regarding the variations of obturator artery is useful during surgeries of fracture and direct or indirect inguinal, femoral and obturator hernias.

  11. HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIUM SIZED ARTERIES OF NECK IN RELATION WITH THEIR PULSE PRESSURE AND PULSATORY POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: There are several studies on the microstructure of main arteries of the body but limited have been dealt with the neck arteries. It has been mentioned that the vascular pathologies like the thrombo-embolism, atherosclerosis and infarction are common in the branches of vertebral and internal carotid artery as compared to the branches of external carotid artery. OBJECTIVE: To study the histological structure of the 3 medium sized arteries of neck namely external carotid, internal carotid and vertebral artery, calculation of their mean pulse pressure and pulsatory power and to find any association between them if present. METHOD: Fresh samples of external carotid, internal carotid and vertebral artery each measuring 10mm in length were taken from five cadavers and prepared for histological examination under microscope using orcein and H&E stain. The mean pressure and pulsatory power of these arteries were calculated by taking the measurements such as wall thickness, lumen circumference, arterial wall area, and smooth muscle fibre density in tunica media in that arterial segment. RESULT: The pulsatory power of external carotid artery, internal carotid artery and vertebral artery is found to be 120, 273.3, 400 Joules /heart beat and the mean pressure is 17.1 mm Hg, 27.3 mm Hg and 33.3 mm Hg respectively. CONCLUSION: The thickness of tunica media of an artery is directly proportional to its pulsatory power. The mean pulse pressure, pulsatory power as well the number of smooth muscles fibres in tunica media are more in internal carotid artery and vertebral artery in comparison to external carotid artery. It may be a very important reason why vascular pathologies are less common in branches of external carotid as compare to internal carotid and vertebral artery.

  12. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  13. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  14. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Sandeep; Gopal Lingam

    1996-01-01

    Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil), as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membrane...

  15. Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Liew; Jie Jin Wang; Elena Rochtchina; Tien Yin Wong; Paul Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken ...

  16. An angiographic atlas of intracranial arterial diameters associated with cerebral aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocco, J; Huston, John; Fargen, Kyle M; Torner, James; Brown, Robert D; Groen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The successful treatment of intracranial aneurysms is dependent on a full understanding of the anatomic relationship of a given aneurysm to its parent artery(s) and nearby branches. Furthermore, new endovascular technologies are often limited by size constraints. Currently, there is no

  17. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  18. Pro-neurotrophins secreted from retinal ganglion cell axons are necessary for ephrinA-p75NTR-mediated axon guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broom Emma R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinotectal map formation develops via topographically specific guidance and branching of retinal axons in their target area. This process is controlled, in part, by reverse signalling of ephrinAs expressed on retinal axons. As glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecules, ephrinAs require transmembrane co-receptors to exert this function, for which the two neurotrophin receptors, p75NTR and TrkB, were recently proposed. Results We show here that the ligands for these receptors, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor (proBDNF and its processed form, BDNF, respectively, control the branching of retinal axons antagonistically, which they mediate by inducing the corresponding neurotrophin receptor-ephrinA complexes. Moreover, scavenging proneurotrophins, by adding antibodies specific for the pro-domain of proBNDF or a soluble extracellular domain of p75NTR, abolish repellent ephrinA reverse signalling in the stripe assay. Conclusions This indicates that retinal cells secrete proneurotrophins, inducing the ephrinA-p75NTR interaction and enabling repellent axon guidance. The antagonistic functions of proBDNF and BDNF raise the possibility that topographic branching is controlled by local control of processing of proneurotrophins.

  19. A CASE REPORT ON HIGH ORIGIN OF RADIAL ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Bondage

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of radial artery (RA as an access to heart and for other procedures and surgeries make it significant. The context and purpose: The RA is a common access port for coronary angiography (CAG, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, and coronary artery bypass graft Surgery (CABG, RA cannulation, along with others. Results: In this case report, we want to present a case of unilateral high origin of RA arising as branch of brachial artery in the proximal 1/3rd of arm. Conclusions, brief summary and potential implications: Misdiagnosis, complications during medical procedures and increased possibility of injury are the most common dangers of having a superficial RA.

  20. Retinal iron homeostasis in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delu eSong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for life, but excess iron can be toxic. As a potent free radical creator, iron generates hydroxyl radicals leading to significant oxidative stress. Since iron is not excreted from the body, it accumulates with age in tissues, including the retina, predisposing to age-related oxidative insult. Both hereditary and acquired retinal diseases are associated with increased iron levels. For example, retinal degenerations have been found in hereditary iron overload disorders, like aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich’s ataxia, and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Similarly, mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin and its homolog hephaestin showed age-related retinal iron accumulation and retinal degeneration with features resembling human age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Post mortem AMD eyes have increased levels of iron in retina compared to age-matched healthy donors. Iron accumulation in AMD is likely to result, in part, from inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress, all of which can cause iron dysregulation. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies that iron in the retinal pigment epithelium and retina is chelatable. Iron chelation protects photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE in a variety of mouse models. This has therapeutic potential for diminishing iron-induced oxidative damage to prevent or treat AMD.

  1. Diagnostic imaging in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Mitamura-Aizawa, Sayaka; Nagasawa, Toshihiko; Katome, Takashi; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Naito, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a progressive inherited retinal disease, and patients with RP have reduced visual function caused by a degeneration of the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). At the end stage of RP, the degeneration of the photoreceptors in the fovea reduces central vision, and RP is one of the main causes of acquired blindness in developed countries. Therefore, morphological and functional assessments of the photoreceptors in the macula area can be useful in estimating the residual retinal function in RP patients. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established method of examining the retinal architecture in situ. The photoreceptor inner/outer segment (IS/OS) junction is observed as a distinct, highly reflective line by OCT. The presence of the IS/OS junction in the OCT images is essential for normal visual function. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) results from the accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE cells and has been used to investigate RPE and retinal function. More than one-half of RP patients have an abnormally high density parafoveal FAF ring (AF ring). The AF ring represents the border between functional and dysfunctional retina. In this review, we shall summarize recent progress on diagnostic imaging in eyes with RP.

  2. Retinal Vascular Fractals and Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Ong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinal microvascular network changes have been found in patients with age-related brain diseases such as stroke and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. We examine whether retinal microvascular network changes are also present in preclinical stages of dementia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 300 Chinese participants (age: ≥60 years from the ongoing Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study who underwent detailed clinical examinations including retinal photography, brain imaging and neuropsychological testing. Retinal vascular parameters were assessed from optic disc-centered photographs using a semiautomated program. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered, and cognitive function was summarized as composite and domain-specific Z-scores. Cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND and dementia were diagnosed according to standard diagnostic criteria. Results: Among 268 eligible nondemented participants, 78 subjects were categorized as CIND-mild and 69 as CIND-moderate. In multivariable adjusted models, reduced retinal arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions were associated with an increased risk of CIND-mild and CIND-moderate. Reduced fractal dimensions were associated with poorer cognitive performance globally and in the specific domains of verbal memory, visuoconstruction and visuomotor speed. Conclusion: A sparser retinal microvascular network, represented by reduced arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions, was associated with cognitive impairment, suggesting that early microvascular damage may be present in preclinical stages of dementia.

  3. Retinal synaptic regeneration via microfluidic guiding channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping-Jung; Liu, Zongbin; Zhang, Kai; Han, Xin; Saito, Yuki; Xia, Xiaojun; Yokoi, Kenji; Shen, Haifa; Qin, Lidong

    2015-08-28

    In vitro culture of dissociated retinal neurons is an important model for investigating retinal synaptic regeneration (RSR) and exploring potentials in artificial retina. Here, retinal precursor cells were cultured in a microfluidic chip with multiple arrays of microchannels in order to reconstruct the retinal neuronal synapse. The cultured retinal cells were physically connected through microchannels. Activation of electric signal transduction by the cells through the microchannels was demonstrated by administration of glycinergic factors. In addition, an image-based analytical method was used to quantify the synaptic connections and to assess the kinetics of synaptic regeneration. The rate of RSR decreased significantly below 100 μM of inhibitor glycine and then approached to a relatively constant level at higher concentrations. Furthermore, RSR was enhanced by chemical stimulation with potassium chloride. Collectively, the microfluidic synaptic regeneration chip provides a novel tool for high-throughput investigation of RSR at the cellular level and may be useful in quality control of retinal precursor cell transplantation.