WorldWideScience

Sample records for branch length estimation

  1. Probabilistic divergence time estimation without branch lengths: dating the origins of dinosaurs, avian flight and crown birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, G T; Bapst, D W; Friedman, M; Davis, K E

    2016-11-01

    Branch lengths-measured in character changes-are an essential requirement of clock-based divergence estimation, regardless of whether the fossil calibrations used represent nodes or tips. However, a separate set of divergence time approaches are typically used to date palaeontological trees, which may lack such branch lengths. Among these methods, sophisticated probabilistic approaches have recently emerged, in contrast with simpler algorithms relying on minimum node ages. Here, using a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for Mesozoic dinosaurs, we apply two such approaches to estimate divergence times for: (i) Dinosauria, (ii) Avialae (the earliest birds) and (iii) Neornithes (crown birds). We find: (i) the plausibility of a Permian origin for dinosaurs to be dependent on whether Nyasasaurus is the oldest dinosaur, (ii) a Middle to Late Jurassic origin of avian flight regardless of whether Archaeopteryx or Aurornis is considered the first bird and (iii) a Late Cretaceous origin for Neornithes that is broadly congruent with other node- and tip-dating estimates. Demonstrating the feasibility of probabilistic time-scaling further opens up divergence estimation to the rich histories of extinct biodiversity in the fossil record, even in the absence of detailed character data. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Finding the optimal lengths for three branches at a junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldenberg, M J; Horsfield, K

    1983-09-21

    This paper presents an exact analytical solution to the problem of locating the junction point between three branches so that the sum of the total costs of the branches is minimized. When the cost per unit length of each branch is known the angles between each pair of branches can be deduced following reasoning first introduced to biology by Murray. Assuming the outer ends of each branch are fixed, the location of the junction and the length of each branch are then deduced using plane geometry and trigonometry. The model has applications in determining the optimal cost of a branch or branches at a junction. Comparing the optimal to the actual cost of a junction is a new way to compare cost models for goodness of fit to actual junction geometry. It is an unambiguous measure and is superior to comparing observed and optimal angles between each daughter and the parent branch. We present data for 199 junctions in the pulmonary arteries of two human lungs. For the branches at each junction we calculated the best fitting value of x from the relationship that flow alpha (radius)x. We found that the value of x determined whether a junction was best fitted by a surface, volume, drag or power minimization model. While economy of explanation casts doubt that four models operate simultaneously, we found that optimality may still operate, since the angle to the major daughter is less than the angle to the minor daughter. Perhaps optimality combined with a space filling branching pattern governs the branching geometry of the pulmonary artery.

  3. Acoustic length correction of closed cylindrical side-branched tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Z. L.

    2005-05-01

    A numerical approach based on the three-dimensional boundary element method (BEM) is developed to determine the acoustic length correction of closed cylindrical side-branched tube mounted perpendicular to a cylindrical main pipe. The effects of Helmholtz number and finite length of side-branched tube on the acoustic length correction are examined, and a curve-fitting expression is provided for the acoustically long side-branched tube. For a pipe-mounted concentric Helmholtz resonator, the transmission loss and resonance frequency are predicted by using the 3-D BEM and the corrected 1-D analytical approach to assess the accuracy and applicability of the latter, as well as to illustrate the importance of acoustic length correction for an accurate prediction of resonance frequency of the pipe-mounted resonator.

  4. Branch length similarity entropy-based descriptors for shape representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ohsung; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, we showed that the branch length similarity (BLS) entropy profile could be successfully used for the shape recognition such as battle tanks, facial expressions, and butterflies. In the present study, we proposed new descriptors, roundness, symmetry, and surface roughness, for the recognition, which are more accurate and fast in the computation than the previous descriptors. The roundness represents how closely a shape resembles to a circle, the symmetry characterizes how much one shape is similar with another when the shape is moved in flip, and the surface roughness quantifies the degree of vertical deviations of a shape boundary. To evaluate the performance of the descriptors, we used the database of leaf images with 12 species. Each species consisted of 10 - 20 leaf images and the total number of images were 160. The evaluation showed that the new descriptors successfully discriminated the leaf species. We believe that the descriptors can be a useful tool in the field of pattern recognition.

  5. Geometric ergodicity of a hybrid sampler for Bayesian inference of phylogenetic branch lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spade, David A; Herbei, Radu; Kubatko, Laura S

    2015-10-01

    One of the fundamental goals in phylogenetics is to make inferences about the evolutionary pattern among a group of individuals, such as genes or species, using present-day genetic material. This pattern is represented by a phylogenetic tree, and as computational methods have caught up to the statistical theory, Bayesian methods of making inferences about phylogenetic trees have become increasingly popular. Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees requires sampling from intractable probability distributions. Common methods of sampling from these distributions include Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods, and one way that both of these methods can proceed is by first simulating a tree topology and then taking a sample from the posterior distribution of the branch lengths given the tree topology and the data set. In many MCMC methods, it is difficult to verify that the underlying Markov chain is geometrically ergodic, and thus, it is necessary to rely on output-based convergence diagnostics in order to assess convergence on an ad hoc basis. These diagnostics suffer from several important limitations, so in an effort to circumvent these limitations, this work establishes geometric convergence for a particular Markov chain that is used to sample branch lengths under a fairly general class of nucleotide substitution models and provides a numerical method for estimating the time this Markov chain takes to converge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Lachapelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS is presented. It combines the user’s step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor’s signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand’s motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  7. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

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    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  8. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

    2014-12-01

    To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Estimation of rainfall indices for the determination of length of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004) to determine the length of growing season and timing of arable crop cultivation in Ogun State. Secondary rainfall data was obtained from the four meteorological stations in the State and subjected to arithmetic calculations for estimation of ...

  10. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF TUBULAR LENGTH FROM THIN VERTICAL SECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle V Clausen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study tubular structures are represented by stem villous arteries of the human placenta. The architecture of the vascular tree in the human placenta makes it appropriate to use vertical histological sections. Describing tubules, estimates of total length and diameter are informative. The aim of the study was to derive a new stereological estimator of the total length of circular tubules observed in thin vertical sections. Design: Dual perfusion fixed human placentas. Systematic, uniformly random sampling of vertical sections. Five-μm-sections were stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and the vertical axis was identified in all sections. A test system with cycloid test lines was used. Since tubular surface area is proportional to length and diameter, S ∝ πdL, surface-weightening is equivalent to diameter×lengthweightening. As each diameter (extra weight is known, one may eliminate the diameter-weightening by computing the harmonic mean diameter, which is thus the correct, length-weighted mean tubular diameter, dL = d hS . Surface area is estimated in the ordinary way from vertical sections, and with unbiased and robust estimates of S and dL respectively, total length may be estimated L = S / πdhs Conclusion: A new stereological estimator of total length of a circular tubular structure observed in thin vertical sections is presented.

  11. Estimation of gestational age from gall-bladder length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaykumar, K; Udaykumar, Padmaja; Nagesh, K R

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a precise duration of gestation is vital in situations such as infanticide and criminal abortions. The present study attempted to estimate the gestational age of the foetus from gall-bladder length. Foetuses of various gestational age groups were dissected, and the length of the gall bladder was measured. The results were analysed, and a substantial degree of correlation was statistically confirmed. This novel method is helpful when the foetus is fragmented, putrefied or eviscerated, where this method can be used as an additional parameter to improve the accuracy of foetal age estimation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Regional blood flow analysis and its relationship with arterial branch lengths and lumen volume in the coronary arterial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Wong, Jerry T

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of visually assessing coronary artery disease are well known. These limitations are particularly important in intermediate coronary lesions (30-70% diameter stenosis) where it is difficult to determine whether a particular lesion is the cause of ischaemia. Therefore, a functional measure of stenosis severity is needed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the expected maximum coronary blood flow in an arterial tree is predictable from its sum of arterial branch lengths or lumen volume. Using a computer model of a porcine coronary artery tree, an analysis of blood flow distribution was conducted through a network of millions of vessels that included the entire coronary artery tree down to the first capillary branch. The flow simulation results show that there is a linear relationship between coronary blood flow and the sum of its arterial branch lengths. This relationship holds over the entire arterial tree. The flow simulation results also indicate that there is a 3/4 er relation between coronary blood flow (Q) and the sum of its arterial lumen volume (V). Moreover, there is a linear relationship between normalized Q and normalized V raised to a power of 3/4 over the entire arterial tree. These results indicate that measured arterial branch lengths or lumen volumes can be used to predict the expected maximum blood flow in an arterial tree. This theoretical maximum blood flow, in conjunction with an angiographically measured blood flow, can potentially be used to calculate fractional flow reserve based entirely on angiographic data

  13. Context Tree Estimation in Variable Length Hidden Markov Models

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    We address the issue of context tree estimation in variable length hidden Markov models. We propose an estimator of the context tree of the hidden Markov process which needs no prior upper bound on the depth of the context tree. We prove that the estimator is strongly consistent. This uses information-theoretic mixture inequalities in the spirit of Finesso and Lorenzo(Consistent estimation of the order for Markov and hidden Markov chains(1990)) and E.Gassiat and S.Boucheron (Optimal error exp...

  14. Stature estimation from hand and phalanges lengths of Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sahar Refaat; Kamal, Nashwa Nabil

    2010-04-01

    Estimation of stature from extremities plays an important role in identifying the deceased in forensic examinations. This study examines the relationship between stature and hand and phalanges lengths among Egyptians. Stature, hand and phalanges lengths of 159 subjects, 82 males and 77 females (18-25years) were measured. Statistical analysis indicated that bilateral variation was insignificant for all measurements. Sex differences were significant for all measurements. Linear and multiple regression equations for stature estimation were calculated. Correlation coefficients were found to be positive, but little finger measurements of male and distal phalanges of female fingers were not correlated with stature. Regression equations were checked for accuracy by comparing the estimated stature and actual stature.

  15. Estimation of the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries using a vessel length-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Soon-Sung; Ji, Yoon Cheol; Shin, Eun-Seok; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Sung Joon; Shim, Eun Bo

    2016-08-01

    Flow resistances exerted in the coronary arteries are the key parameters for the image-based computer simulation of coronary hemodynamics. The resistances depend on the anatomical characteristics of the coronary system. A simple and reliable estimation of the resistances is a compulsory procedure to compute the fractional flow reserve (FFR) of stenosed coronary arteries, an important clinical index of coronary artery disease. The cardiac muscle volume reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images has been used to assess the resistance of the feeding coronary artery (muscle volume-based method). In this study, we estimate the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries by using a novel method. Based on a physiological observation that longer coronary arteries have more daughter branches feeding a larger mass of cardiac muscle, the method measures the vessel lengths from coronary angiogram or CT images (vessel length-based method) and predicts the coronary flow resistances. The underlying equations are derived from the physiological relation among flow rate, resistance, and vessel length. To validate the present estimation method, we calculate the coronary flow division over coronary major arteries for 50 patients using the vessel length-based method as well as the muscle volume-based one. These results are compared with the direct measurements in a clinical study. Further proving the usefulness of the present method, we compute the coronary FFR from the images of optical coherence tomography.

  16. Is length an appropriate estimator to characterize pulmonary alveolar capillaries? A critical evaluation in the human lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlfeld, Christian; Weibel, Ewald R.; Hahn, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Stereological estimations of total capillary length have been used to characterize changes in the alveolar capillary network (ACN) during developmental processes or pathophysiological conditions. Here, we analyzed whether length estimations are appropriate to describe the 3D nature of the ACN. Semi...... resulted in a mean of 2,746 km (SD: 722 km). Because of the geometry of the ACN both approaches carry an unpredictable bias. The bias incurred by the design-based approach is proportional to the ratio between radius and length of the capillary segments in the ACN, the number of branching points...... and the winding of the capillaries. The model-based approach is biased because of the real noncylindrical shape of capillaries and the network structure. In conclusion, the estimation of the total length of capillaries in the ACN cannot be recommended as the geometry of the ACN does not fulfill the requirements...

  17. Relationships between root diameter, root length and root branching along lateral roots in adult, field-grown maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Pagès, Loïc; Wu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Root diameter, especially apical diameter, plays an important role in root development and function. The variation in diameter between roots, and along roots, affects root structure and thus the root system's overall foraging performance. However, the effect of diameter variation on root elongation, branching and topological connections has not been examined systematically in a population of high-order roots, nor along the roots, especially for mature plants grown in the field. A method combining both excavation and analysis was applied to extract and quantify root architectural traits of adult, field-grown maize plants. The relationships between root diameter and other root architectural characteristics are analysed for two maize cultivars. The basal diameter of the lateral roots (orders 1-3) was highly variable. Basal diameter was partly determined by the diameter of the bearing segment. Basal diameter defined a potential root length, but the lengths of most roots fell far short of this. This was explained partly by differences in the pattern of diameter change along roots. Diameter tended to decrease along most roots, with the steepness of the gradient of decrease depending on basal diameter. The longest roots were those that maintained (or sometimes increased) their diameters during elongation. The branching density (cm(-1)) of laterals was also determined by the diameter of the bearing segment. However, the location of this bearing segment along the mother root was also involved - intermediate positions were associated with higher densities of laterals. The method used here allows us to obtain very detailed records of the geometry and topology of a complex root system. Basal diameter and the pattern of diameter change along a root were associated with its final length. These relationships are especially useful in simulations of root elongation and branching in source-sink models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals

  18. Estimation of papaya leaf area using the central vein length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campostrini Eliemar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Four genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L. two from the 'Solo' group (Sunrise Solo and Improved Sunrise Solo line 72/12 and two from the 'Formosa' group (Tainung 02 and Known-You 01, grown in Macaé, RJ, Brazil (lat. 22(0 24' S, long. 41(0 42' W, were used in this study. Twenty-five mature leaves from each genotype were sampled four and five months after seedling transplant to the field to determine the length of the leaf central vein (LLCV and the leaf area (LA. According to covariance analyses there were no significant differences in the slope and intercept of the mathematical models calculated for each genotype. Thus, a single mathematical model (Log LA = 0.315 + 1.85 Log LLCV, R²=0.898 was adjusted to estimate the LA using the length of LLCV for the four genotypes. An unique model can be applied to estimate the LA for the four papaya genotypes using LLCV in the range from 0.25 to 0.60 m, and for papaya trees 150 to 180 days after transplanting.

  19. Estimating the Propagation of Interdependent Cascading Outages with Multi-Type Branching Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Junjian; Ju, Wenyun; Sun, Kai

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-type branching process is applied to describe the statistics and interdependencies of line outages, the load shed, and isolated buses. The offspring mean matrix of the multi-type branching process is estimated by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and can quantify the extent of outage propagation. The joint distribution of two types of outages is estimated by the multi-type branching process via the Lagrange-Good inversion. The proposed model is tested with data generated by the AC OPA cascading simulations on the IEEE 118-bus system. The largest eigenvalues of the offspring mean matrix indicate that the system is closer to criticality when considering the interdependence of different types of outages. Compared with empirically estimating the joint distribution of the total outages, good estimate is obtained by using the multitype branching process with a much smaller number of cascades, thus greatly improving the efficiency. It is shown that the multitype branching process can effectively predict the distribution of the load shed and isolated buses and their conditional largest possible total outages even when there are no data of them.

  20. Wheat root length and not branching is altered in the presence of neighbours, including blackgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Jessica A.; Guillaume, Gaëtan; French, Stephanie A.; Colaço, Renato D. D. R.; Davies, Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of neighbouring plants on crop root system architecture may directly interfere with water and nutrient acquisition, yet this important and interesting aspect of competition remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of the weed blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots was tested, since a low density of this species (25 plants m-2) can lead to a 10% decrease in wheat yield and herbicide resistance is problematic. We used a simplified growth system based on gelled medium, to grow wheat alongside a neighbour, either another wheat plant, a blackgrass or Brachypodium dystachion individual (a model grass). A detailed analysis of wheat seminal root system architecture showed that the presence of a neighbour principally affected the root length, rather than number or diameter under a high nutrient regime. In particular, the length of first order lateral roots decreased significantly in the presence of blackgrass and Brachypodium. However, this effect was not noted when wheat plants were grown in low nutrient conditions. This suggests that wheat may be less sensitive to the presence of blackgrass when grown in low nutrient conditions. In addition, nutrient availability to the neighbour did not modulate the neighbour effect on wheat root architecture. PMID:28542446

  1. Improvement of economic potential estimation methods for enterprise with potential branch clusters use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ya. Nusinov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research determines that the current existing methods of enterprise’s economic potential estimation are based on the use of additive, multiplicative and rating models. It is determined that the existing methods have a row of defects. For example, not all the methods take into account the branch features of the analysis, and also the level of development of the enterprise comparatively with other enterprises. It is suggested to level such defects by an account at the estimation of potential integral level not only by branch features of enterprises activity but also by the intra-account economic clusterization of such enterprises. Scientific works which are connected with the using of clusters for the estimation of economic potential are generalized. According to the results of generalization it is determined that it is possible to distinguish 9 scientific approaches in this direction: the use of natural clusterization of enterprises with the purpose of estimation and increase of region potential; the use of natural clusterization of enterprises with the purpose of estimation and increase of industry potential; use of artificial clusterization of enterprises with the purpose of estimation and increase of region potential; use of artificial clusterization of enterprises with the purpose of estimation and increase of industry potential; the use of artificial clusterization of enterprises with the purpose of clustering potential estimation; the use of artificial clusterization of enterprises with the purpose of estimation of clustering competitiveness potential; the use of natural (artificial clusterization for the estimation of clustering efficiency; the use of natural (artificial clusterization for the increase of level at region (industries development; the use of methods of economic potential of region (industries estimation or its constituents for the construction of the clusters. It is determined that the use of clusterization method in

  2. Estimating single-tree branch biomass of Norway spruce by airborne laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauglin, Marius; Dibdiakova, Janka; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik

    2013-05-01

    The use of forest biomass for bioenergy purposes, directly or through refinement processes, has increased in the last decade. One example of such use is the utilization of logging residues. Branch biomass constitutes typically a considerable part of the logging residues, and should be quantified and included in future forest inventories. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is widely used when collecting data for forest inventories, and even methods to derive information at the single-tree level has been described. Procedures for estimation of single-tree branch biomass of Norway spruce using features derived from ALS data are proposed in the present study. As field reference data the dry weight branch biomass of 50 trees were obtained through destructive sampling. Variables were further derived from the ALS echoes from each tree, including crown volume calculated from an interpolated crown surface constructed with a radial basis function. Spatial information derived from the pulse vectors were also incorporated when calculating the crown volume. Regression models with branch biomass as response variable were fit to the data, and the prediction accuracy assessed through a cross-validation procedure. Random forest regression models were compared to stepwise and simple linear least squares models. In the present study branch biomass was estimated with a higher accuracy by the best ALS-based models than by existing allometric biomass equations based on field measurements. An improved prediction accuracy was observed when incorporating information from the laser pulse vectors into the calculation of the crown volume variable, and a linear model with the crown volume as a single predictor gave the best overall results with a root mean square error of 35% in the validation.

  3. Can anchovy age structure be estimated from length distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis provides a new time-series of proportions-at-age 1, together with associated standard errors, for input into assessments of the resource. The results also caution against the danger of scientists reading more information into data than is really there. Keywords: anchovy, effective sample size, length distribution, ...

  4. Calcaneotalar ratio: a new concept in the estimation of the length of the calcaneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Vikram; Stephens, Terry J; Kindl, Radek; Ang, Andy; Tay, Wei-Han; Asaid, Rafik; McCullough, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the calcaneal length after calcaneal fractures is vital to restoring the normal biomechanics of the foot, because it acts as an important lever arm to the plantarflexors of the foot. However, estimation of the length of the calcaneus to be reconstructed in comminuted calcaneal fractures can be difficult. We propose a new method to reliably estimate the calcaneal length radiographically by defining the calcaneotalar length ratio. A total of 100 ankle radiographs with no fracture in the calcaneus or talus taken in skeletally mature patients were reviewed by 6 observers. The anteroposterior lengths of the calcaneus and talus were measured, and the calcaneotalar length ratio was determined. The ratio was then used to estimate the length of the calcaneus. Interobserver reliability was determined using Cronbach's α coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The mean length of the calcaneus was 75 ± 0.6 mm, and the mean length of the talus was 59 ± 0.5 mm. The calcaneotalar ratio was 1.3. Using this ratio and multiplying it by the talar length, the mean average estimated length of the calcaneus was within 0.7 mm of the known calcaneal length. Cronbach's α coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient showed excellent interobserver reliability. The proposed calcaneotalar ratio is a new and reliable method to radiographically estimate the normal length of the calcaneus when reconstructing the calcaneus. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Focal length estimation guided with object distribution on FocaLens dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Shunli; Zhao, Sicong; Zhang, Li

    2017-05-01

    The focal length information of an image is indispensable for many computer vision tasks. In general, focal length can be obtained via camera calibration using specific planner patterns. However, for images taken by an unknown device, focal length can only be estimated based on the image itself. Currently, most of the single-image focal length estimation methods make use of predefined geometric cues (such as vanishing points or parallel lines) to infer focal length, which constrains their applications mainly on manmade scenes. The machine learning algorithms have demonstrated great performance in many computer vision tasks, but these methods are seldom used in the focal length estimation task, partially due to the shortage of labeled images for training the model. To bridge this gap, we first introduce a large-scale dataset FocaLens, which is especially designed for single-image focal length estimation. Taking advantage of the FocaLens dataset, we also propose a new focal length estimation model, which exploits the multiscale detection architecture to encode object distributions in images to assist focal length estimation. Additionally, an online focal transformation approach is proposed to further promote the model's generalization ability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model trained on FocaLens can not only achieve state-of-the-art results on the scenes with distinct geometric cues but also obtain comparable results on the scenes even without distinct geometric cues.

  6. Blind sequence-length estimation of low-SNR cyclostationary sequences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vlok, JD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available performance bound Estimation algorithm 1 takes the index k of the maximum value of the mean-square correlation sequence ρ(k) as the estimated sequence length Nest. The sequence length will therefore be estimated correctly if the peak of ρ(k) is located at k... the estimated sequence length Nest, and technique 1 can therefore only provide the correct answer as long as k = N is considered within the range of k. The positions of segments within the intercepted signal and the value of L will also influence the performance...

  7. Phase Behavior of Blends of Linear and Branched Polyethylenes on Micron-Length Scales via Ultra-Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agamalian, M.M.; Alamo, R.G.; Londono, J.D.; Mandelkern, L.; Wignall, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    SANS experiments on blends of linear, high density (HD) and long chain branched, low density (LD) polyethylenes indicate that these systems form a one-phase mixture in the melt. However, the maximum spatial resolution of pinhole cameras is approximately equal to 10 3 and it has therefore been suggested that data might also be interpreted as arising from a bi-phasic melt with large a particle size ( 1 m), because most of the scattering from the different phases would not be resolved. We have addressed this hypothesis by means of USANS experiments, which confirm that HDPEILDPE blends are homogenous in the melt on length scales up to 20 m. We have also studied blends of HDPE and short-chain branched linear low density polyethylenes (LLDPEs), which phase separate when the branch content is sufficiently high. LLDPEs prepared with Ziegler-Natta catalysts exhibit a wide distribution of compositions, and may therefore be thought of as a blend of different species. When the composition distribution is broad enough, a fraction of highly branched chains may phase separate on m-length scales, and USANS has also been used to quantify this phenomenon

  8. Usefulness of telomere length in DNA from human teeth for age estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Ana Belén; González-Herrera, Lucas; Valenzuela, Aurora

    2018-03-01

    Age estimation is widely used to identify individuals in forensic medicine. However, the accuracy of the most commonly used procedures is markedly reduced in adulthood, and these methods cannot be applied in practice when morphological information is limited. Molecular methods for age estimation have been extensively developed in the last few years. The fact that telomeres shorten at each round of cell division has led to the hypothesis that telomere length can be used as a tool to predict age. The present study thus aimed to assess the correlation between telomere length measured in dental DNA and age, and the effect of sex and tooth type on telomere length; a further aim was to propose a statistical regression model to estimate the biological age based on telomere length. DNA was extracted from 91 tooth samples belonging to 77 individuals of both sexes and 15 to 85 years old and was used to determine telomere length by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results suggested that telomere length was not affected by sex and was greater in molar teeth. We found a significant correlation between age and telomere length measured in DNA from teeth. However, the equation proposed to predict age was not accurate enough for forensic age estimation on its own. Age estimation based on telomere length in DNA from tooth samples may be useful as a complementary method which provides an approximate estimate of age, especially when human skeletal remains are the only forensic sample available.

  9. Stature estimation from the length of the sternum in South Indian males: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kumar, G Pradeep; Rao, P P Jagadish; Lobo, Stany W; Uysal, Selma; Krishan, Kewal; Kalthur, Sneha G; Nagesh, K R; Shettigar, Sunder

    2009-11-01

    Estimation of stature is one of the important initial steps during forensic analysis of human skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to derive a linear regression formula for estimating stature of adult South Indian males from the length of the sternum. The study included 35 male sternums of South Indian origin dissected from cadavers during medico-legal autopsies. The linear regression equation [Stature=117.784 + (3.429 x Sternal length)] was derived to estimate the stature from the length of the sternum. The correlation coefficient was 0.638. The standard error of the estimate was 5.64 cm. This preliminary study concludes that the length of the sternum can be used as a tool for stature estimation in adult South Indian males.

  10. Estimating the minimum delay optimal cycle length based on a time-dependent delay formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Y. Zakariya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For fixed time traffic signal control, the well-known Webster’s formula is widely used to estimate the minimum delay optimal cycle length. However, this formula overestimates the cycle length for high degrees of saturation. In this paper, we propose two regression formulas for estimating the minimum delay optimal cycle length based on a time-dependent delay formula as used in the Canadian Capacity Guide and the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM. For this purpose, we develop a search algorithm to determine the minimum delay optimal cycle length required for the regression analysis. Numerical results show that the proposed formulas give a better estimation for the optimal cycle length at high intersection flow ratios compared to Webster’s formula.

  11. Preoperative estimation of tibial nail length--because size does matter.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, J G

    2012-11-01

    Selecting the correct tibial nail length is essential for satisfactory outcomes. Nails that are inserted and are found to be of inappropriate length should be removed. Accurate preoperative nail estimation has the potential to reduce intra-operative errors, operative time and radiation exposure.

  12. Relationships between root diameter, root length and root branching along lateral roots in adult, field-grown maize

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qian; Pag?s, Lo?c; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root diameter, especially apical diameter, plays an important role in root development and function. The variation in diameter between roots, and along roots, affects root structure and thus the root system?s overall foraging performance. However, the effect of diameter variation on root elongation, branching and topological connections has not been examined systematically in a population of high-order roots, nor along the roots, especially for mature plants grown in the f...

  13. Transport-constrained extensions of collision and track length estimators for solutions of radiative transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Rong; Spanier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop novel extensions of collision and track length estimators for the complete space-angle solutions of radiative transport problems. We derive the relevant equations, prove that our new estimators are unbiased, and compare their performance with that of more conventional estimators. Such comparisons based on numerical solutions of simple one dimensional slab problems indicate the the potential superiority of the new estimators for a wide variety of more general transport problems

  14. Estimation of stature from the length of the sternum in South Indian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Nagesh, K R; Monteiro, Francis N P; Kumar, G Pradeep; Kanchan, Tanuj; Uysal, Selma; Rao, P P Jagadish; Rastogi, Prateek; Lobo, Stany W; Kalthur, Sneha G

    2011-08-01

    Estimation of stature is one of the principal elements in practical forensic casework involving examination of skeletal remains. The present study was undertaken to estimate stature from the length of the sternum in South Indian females using a linear regression equation. The material for the present study consisted of intact sternums belonging to adult females of South Indian origin aged between 25 and 35 years of age obtained during medico-legal autopsies. The length of the sternum was measured as the combined length of the manubrium and the mesosternum (body of the sternum) from the incisura jugularis (central suprasternal notch) to the mesoxiphoid junction along the mid-sagittal plane using vernier calipers. A linear regression equation [Stature = 111.599 + (3.316 × Length of the sternum)] was derived to estimate stature from the length of the sternum. The correlation coefficient was 0.639. The standard error of the estimate was 4.11 cm. The present study concludes that the length of the sternum is a reliable predictor of stature in adult South Indian females and can be used as a tool for stature estimation when better predictors of stature like the long bones of the limbs are not available when examining skeletal remains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Pedestrian Stride Length Estimation from IMU Measurements and ANN Based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR can be used for continuous position estimation when satellite or other radio signals are not available, and the accuracy of the stride length measurement is important. Current stride length estimation algorithms, including linear and nonlinear models, consider a few variable factors, and some rely on high precision and high cost equipment. This paper puts forward a stride length estimation algorithm based on a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN, using a consumer-grade inertial measurement unit (IMU; it then discusses various factors in the algorithm. The experimental results indicate that the error of the proposed algorithm in estimating the stride length is approximately 2%, which is smaller than that of the frequency and nonlinear models. Compared with the latter two models, the proposed algorithm does not need to determine individual parameters in advance if the trained neural net is effective. It can, thus, be concluded that this algorithm shows superior performance in estimating pedestrian stride length.

  16. Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seedling vigor in tomatoes determines the quality and growth of fruits and total plant productivity. It is well known that the salient effects of environmental stresses appear on the internode length; the length between adjoining main stem node (henceforth called node. In this study, we develop a method for internode length estimation using image processing technology. The proposed method consists of three steps: node detection, node order estimation, and internode length estimation. This method has two main advantages: (i as it uses machine learning approaches for node detection, it does not require adjustment of threshold values even though seedlings are imaged under varying timings and lighting conditions with complex backgrounds; and (ii as it uses affinity propagation for node order estimation, it can be applied to seedlings with different numbers of nodes without prior provision of the node number as a parameter. Our node detection results show that the proposed method can detect 72% of the 358 nodes in time-series imaging of three seedlings (recall = 0.72, precision = 0.78. In particular, the application of a general object recognition approach, Bag of Visual Words (BoVWs, enabled the elimination of many false positives on leaves occurring in the image segmentation based on pixel color, significantly improving the precision. The internode length estimation results had a relative error of below 15.4%. These results demonstrate that our method has the ability to evaluate the vigor of tomato seedlings quickly and accurately.

  17. Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Guo, Wei; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2016-07-07

    Seedling vigor in tomatoes determines the quality and growth of fruits and total plant productivity. It is well known that the salient effects of environmental stresses appear on the internode length; the length between adjoining main stem node (henceforth called node). In this study, we develop a method for internode length estimation using image processing technology. The proposed method consists of three steps: node detection, node order estimation, and internode length estimation. This method has two main advantages: (i) as it uses machine learning approaches for node detection, it does not require adjustment of threshold values even though seedlings are imaged under varying timings and lighting conditions with complex backgrounds; and (ii) as it uses affinity propagation for node order estimation, it can be applied to seedlings with different numbers of nodes without prior provision of the node number as a parameter. Our node detection results show that the proposed method can detect 72% of the 358 nodes in time-series imaging of three seedlings (recall = 0.72, precision = 0.78). In particular, the application of a general object recognition approach, Bag of Visual Words (BoVWs), enabled the elimination of many false positives on leaves occurring in the image segmentation based on pixel color, significantly improving the precision. The internode length estimation results had a relative error of below 15.4%. These results demonstrate that our method has the ability to evaluate the vigor of tomato seedlings quickly and accurately.

  18. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  19. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie McCann

    Full Text Available Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods, branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively with no prevailing direction.

  20. Natural spline interpolation and exponential parameterization for length estimation of curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozera, R.; Wilkołazka, M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper tackles the problem of estimating a length of a regular parameterized curve γ from an ordered sample of interpolation points in arbitrary Euclidean space by a natural spline. The corresponding tabular parameters are not given and are approximated by the so-called exponential parameterization (depending on λ ∈ [0, 1]). The respective convergence orders α(λ) for estimating length of γ are established for curves sampled more-or-less uniformly. The numerical experiments confirm a slow convergence orders α(λ) = 2 for all λ ∈ [0, 1) and a cubic order α(1) = 3 once natural spline is used.

  1. Estimation of age structure of fish populations from length-frequency data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.D.; Adams, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    A probability model is presented to determine the age structure of a fish population from length-frequency data. It is shown that when the age-length key is available, maximum-likelihood estimates of the age structure can be obtained. When the key is not available, approximate estimates of the age structure can be obtained. The model is used for determination of the age structure of populations of channel catfish and white crappie. Practical applications of the model to impact assessment are discussed

  2. Blood capillary length estimation from three-dimensional microscopic data by image analysis and stereology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubínová, Lucie; Mao, Xiao Wen; Janáček, Jiří

    2013-08-01

    Studies of the capillary bed characterized by its length or length density are relevant in many biomedical studies. A reliable assessment of capillary length from two-dimensional (2D), thin histological sections is a rather difficult task as it requires physical cutting of such sections in randomized directions. This is often technically demanding, inefficient, or outright impossible. However, if 3D image data of the microscopic structure under investigation are available, methods of length estimation that do not require randomized physical cutting of sections may be applied. Two different rat brain regions were optically sliced by confocal microscopy and resulting 3D images processed by three types of capillary length estimation methods: (1) stereological methods based on a computer generation of isotropic uniform random virtual test probes in 3D, either in the form of spatial grids of virtual "slicer" planes or spherical probes; (2) automatic method employing a digital version of the Crofton relations using the Euler characteristic of planar sections of the binary image; and (3) interactive "tracer" method for length measurement based on a manual delineation in 3D of the axes of capillary segments. The presented methods were compared in terms of their practical applicability, efficiency, and precision.

  3. Standing Height and its Estimation Utilizing Foot Length Measurements in Adolescents from Western Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine standing height in both Kosovan genders in the Western Region as well as its association with foot length, as an alternative to estimating standing height. A total of 664 individuals (338 male and 326 female participated in this research. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of ISAK. The relationships between body height and foot length were determined using simple correlation coefficients at a ninety-five percent confidence interval. A comparison of means of standing height and foot length between genders was performed using a t-test. After that a linear regression analysis were carried out to examine extent to which foot length can reliably predict standing height. Results displayed that Western Kosovan male are 179.71±6.00cm tall and have a foot length of 26.73±1.20cm, while Western Kosovan female are 166.26±5.23cm tall and have a foot length of 23.66±1.06cm. The results have shown that both genders made Western-Kosovans a tall group, a little bit taller that general Kosovan population. Moreover, the foot length reliably predicts standing height in both genders; but, not reliably enough as arm span. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo as the results from Western-Kosovans don’t correspond to the general values.

  4. A method for estimating age of Danish medieval sub-adults based on long bone length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primeau, C.; Lynnerup, Niels; Friis, Laila Saidane

    2012-01-01

    for aging archaeological Danish sub-adults from the medieval period based on diaphyseal lengths. The problem with using data on Danish samples, which have been derived from a different population, is the possibility of skewing age estimates. In this study 58 Danish archaeological sub-adults were examined...

  5. Estimating Transformation Length in Linear- to Minimum-Phase Transformation Using Cepstrums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen

    1997-01-01

    response of the minimum-phase FIR-filter. The transformation length estimation is made using the absolute value of the dominating zero in the linear-phase FIR-filter and the maximum allowed amplitude and phase deviation of the disturbing function. Two examples are given. The first one verifies...

  6. The Grid Method in Estimating the Path Length of a Moving Animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddingius, J.; Schilstra, A.J.; Thomas, G.

    1983-01-01

    (1) The length of a path covered by a moving animal may be estimated by counting the number of times the animal crosses any line of a grid and applying a conversion factor. (2) Some factors are based on the expected distance through a randomly crossed square; another on the expected crossings of a

  7. A new method for sex estimation from maxillary suture length in a Thai population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthubua, Apichat; Ruengdit, Sittiporn; Das, Srijit

    2017-01-01

    Sex estimation is one of the crucial procedures in the biological profile identification of human skeletal remains. Knowing sex of unknown case can lead to accurate and appropriate methods for predicting age, stature, ancestry, or even personal identification. Skull is one of the most reliable one among other skeletons and it is usually retained for both archaeological and forensic contexts. Although many morphological features and metric measurements of skull have been studied for sexing, but to the best of our knowledge is no study on maxillary suture length for sex estimation. Therefore, this study aims to develop a new sex estimation method for a Thai population by determining three maxillary suture lengths: anterior, transverse, and posterior maxillary suture, by computerizing amount of pixel obtained from photographs of these sutures. The present study was conducted on 190 Thai bone samples of which 96 were males and 94 were females. Independent t test revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.01) between males and females in all maxillary suture measurements. Equations derived from prediction model, which required three maxillary suture lengths gave 76.8421% accuracy from the leave-one-out cross validation in estimating sex percentage accuracies in predicting sex from these equations, which were relatively moderate. This study provides a novel and objective sex estimation method for Thais. It suggests that maxillary suture length can be applied for sex estimation. The new computerized technique will contribute basis knowledge and method for sex estimation, especially when only base of skull is available in forensic circumstance. PMID:29354297

  8. The Correlation between Mixing Length and Metallicity on the Giant Branch: Implications for Ages in the Gaia Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayar, Jamie; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Stello, Dennis; Mints, Alexey; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Maraston, Claudia; Serenelli, Aldo; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Basu, Sarbani; Bird, J. C.; Cohen, R. E.; Cunha, Katia; Elsworth, Yvonne; García, Rafael A.

    2017-01-01

    In the updated APOGEE- Kepler catalog, we have asteroseismic and spectroscopic data for over 3000 first ascent red giants. Given the size and accuracy of this sample, these data offer an unprecedented test of the accuracy of stellar models on the post-main-sequence. When we compare these data to theoretical predictions, we find a metallicity dependent temperature offset with a slope of around 100 K per dex in metallicity. We find that this effect is present in all model grids tested, and that theoretical uncertainties in the models, correlated spectroscopic errors, and shifts in the asteroseismic mass scale are insufficient to explain this effect. Stellar models can be brought into agreement with the data if a metallicity-dependent convective mixing length is used, with Δ α ML,YREC ∼ 0.2 per dex in metallicity, a trend inconsistent with the predictions of three-dimensional stellar convection simulations. If this effect is not taken into account, isochrone ages for red giants from the Gaia data will be off by as much as a factor of two even at modest deviations from solar metallicity ([Fe/H] = −0.5).

  9. The Correlation between Mixing Length and Metallicity on the Giant Branch: Implications for Ages in the Gaia Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayar, Jamie; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, OH 43210 (United States); Stello, Dennis [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Mints, Alexey [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Vía Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Maraston, Claudia [ICG—University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, PO1 3FX, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Serenelli, Aldo [Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC-IEEC), Carrer de Can Magrans, Barcelona, E-08193 (Spain); Bastien, Fabienne A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bird, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Circle, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cohen, R. E. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional-MCTI (Brazil); Elsworth, Yvonne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); García, Rafael A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DRF-CNRS, Université Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2017-05-01

    In the updated APOGEE- Kepler catalog, we have asteroseismic and spectroscopic data for over 3000 first ascent red giants. Given the size and accuracy of this sample, these data offer an unprecedented test of the accuracy of stellar models on the post-main-sequence. When we compare these data to theoretical predictions, we find a metallicity dependent temperature offset with a slope of around 100 K per dex in metallicity. We find that this effect is present in all model grids tested, and that theoretical uncertainties in the models, correlated spectroscopic errors, and shifts in the asteroseismic mass scale are insufficient to explain this effect. Stellar models can be brought into agreement with the data if a metallicity-dependent convective mixing length is used, with Δ α {sub ML,YREC} ∼ 0.2 per dex in metallicity, a trend inconsistent with the predictions of three-dimensional stellar convection simulations. If this effect is not taken into account, isochrone ages for red giants from the Gaia data will be off by as much as a factor of two even at modest deviations from solar metallicity ([Fe/H] = −0.5).

  10. The Correlation between Mixing Length and Metallicity on the Giant Branch: Implications for Ages in the Gaia Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayar, Jamie; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Stello, Dennis; Mints, Alexey; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Maraston, Claudia; Serenelli, Aldo; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Basu, Sarbani; Bird, J. C.; Cohen, R. E.; Cunha, Katia; Elsworth, Yvonne; García, Rafael A.; Girardi, Leo; Hekker, Saskia; Holtzman, Jon; Huber, Daniel; Mathur, Savita; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Mosser, B.; Shetrone, Matthew; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Stassun, Keivan; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Zasowski, Gail; Roman-Lopes, A.

    2017-05-01

    In the updated APOGEE-Kepler catalog, we have asteroseismic and spectroscopic data for over 3000 first ascent red giants. Given the size and accuracy of this sample, these data offer an unprecedented test of the accuracy of stellar models on the post-main-sequence. When we compare these data to theoretical predictions, we find a metallicity dependent temperature offset with a slope of around 100 K per dex in metallicity. We find that this effect is present in all model grids tested, and that theoretical uncertainties in the models, correlated spectroscopic errors, and shifts in the asteroseismic mass scale are insufficient to explain this effect. Stellar models can be brought into agreement with the data if a metallicity-dependent convective mixing length is used, with Δα ML,YREC ˜ 0.2 per dex in metallicity, a trend inconsistent with the predictions of three-dimensional stellar convection simulations. If this effect is not taken into account, isochrone ages for red giants from the Gaia data will be off by as much as a factor of two even at modest deviations from solar metallicity ([Fe/H] = -0.5).

  11. Crystal Structure of Full-length Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv Glycogen Branching Enzyme; Insights of N-Terminal [beta]-Sandwich in Sustrate Specifity and Enzymatic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kuntal; Kumar, Shiva; Sharma, Shikha; Garg, Saurabh Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Suhail; Xu, H. Eric; Agrawal, Pushpa; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam (NU Sinapore); (Van Andel); (IMT-India)

    2010-07-13

    The open reading frame Rv1326c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv encodes for an {alpha}-1,4-glucan branching enzyme (MtbGlgB, EC 2.4.1.18, Uniprot entry Q10625). This enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 13 and catalyzes the branching of a linear glucose chain during glycogenesis by cleaving a 1 {yields} 4 bond and making a new 1 {yields} 6 bond. Here, we show the crystal structure of full-length MtbGlgB (MtbGlgBWT) at 2.33-{angstrom} resolution. MtbGlgBWT contains four domains: N1 {beta}-sandwich, N2 {beta}-sandwich, a central ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} domain that houses the catalytic site, and a C-terminal {beta}-sandwich. We have assayed the amylase activity with amylose and starch as substrates and the glycogen branching activity using amylose as a substrate for MtbGlgBWT and the N1 domain-deleted (the first 108 residues deleted) Mtb{Delta}108GlgB protein. The N1 {beta}-sandwich, which is formed by the first 105 amino acids and superimposes well with the N2 {beta}-sandwich, is shown to have an influence in substrate binding in the amylase assay. Also, we have checked and shown that several GH13 family inhibitors are ineffective against MtbGlgBWT and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB. We propose a two-step reaction mechanism, for the amylase activity (1 {yields} 4 bond breakage) and isomerization (1 {yields} 6 bond formation), which occurs in the same catalytic pocket. The structural and functional properties of MtbGlgB and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB are compared with those of the N-terminal 112-amino acid-deleted Escherichia coli GlgB (EC{Delta}112GlgB).

  12. Training Sequence Length Optimization for a Turbo-Detector Using Decision-Directed Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Hadj Kacem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of optimization of the training sequence length when a turbo-detector composed of a maximum a posteriori (MAP equalizer and a MAP decoder is used. At each iteration of the receiver, the channel is estimated using the hard decisions on the transmitted symbols at the output of the decoder. The optimal length of the training sequence is found by maximizing an effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR taking into account the data throughput loss due to the use of pilot symbols.

  13. Applying fuzzy logic to estimate the parameters of the length-weight relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Bitar

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated three mathematical procedures to estimate the parameters of the relationship between weight and length for Cichla monoculus: least squares ordinary regression on log-transformed data, non-linear estimation using raw data and a mix of multivariate analysis and fuzzy logic. Our goal was to find an alternative approach that considers the uncertainties inherent to this biological model. We found that non-linear estimation generated more consistent estimates than least squares regression. Our results also indicate that it is possible to find consistent estimates of the parameters directly from the centers of mass of each cluster. However, the most important result is the intervals obtained with the fuzzy inference system.

  14. Applying fuzzy logic to estimate the parameters of the length-weight relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, S D; Campos, C P; Freitas, C E C

    2016-05-03

    We evaluated three mathematical procedures to estimate the parameters of the relationship between weight and length for Cichla monoculus: least squares ordinary regression on log-transformed data, non-linear estimation using raw data and a mix of multivariate analysis and fuzzy logic. Our goal was to find an alternative approach that considers the uncertainties inherent to this biological model. We found that non-linear estimation generated more consistent estimates than least squares regression. Our results also indicate that it is possible to find consistent estimates of the parameters directly from the centers of mass of each cluster. However, the most important result is the intervals obtained with the fuzzy inference system.

  15. Estimation of economic crisis influence on the basic branches and prospective projects in the Murmansk region

    OpenAIRE

    Leus, S.; Istomin, A.

    2009-01-01

    World financial crisis affected national economies to a different degree. There is also applicable inequality on the level of certain regions subjects of the Russian Federation. The article makes an attempt to analyze the main backbone branches of Murmansk region economy real sector in phase of crisis phenomena growth, ways of its overcoming are considered.

  16. Estimate of Extinction Probability of Bisexual Galton-Watson Branching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zarabi Zadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a bisexual Galton-Watson branching process is studied. Monte Carlo method is purposed to calculate the extinction probability. For certain class of processes ${{Z_{n}}}$ extinction probability is calculated and simulated, when initially population size ${(Z_{0}}$ has a different value, then results of two methods are compared.

  17. On estimating workload in branch-and-bound global optimization algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berenguel, J.L.; Casado, L.G.; Garcia, I.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2013-01-01

    In general, solving Global Optimization (GO) problems by Branch-and-Bound (B&B) requires a huge computational capacity. Parallel execution is used to speed up the computing time. As in this type of algorithms, the foreseen computational workload (number of nodes in the B&B tree) changes

  18. Estimation of stature from index and ring finger length in a North Indian adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Asha, Ningthoukhongjam

    2012-07-01

    The identification of commingled mutilated remains is a challenge to forensic experts and hence, a need of studies on estimation of stature from various body parts in different population groups. Such studies can help in narrowing down the pool of possible victim matches in cases of identification from dismembered remains. Studies pertaining to stature estimation among adolescents are limited owing to the ongoing growth process and growth spurt during adolescent period. In view of the limited literature on the estimation of stature in adolescent group, the present preliminary research was taken up to report the correlation between index and ring finger length and stature in a North Indian adolescent population. Three anthropometric measurements; Stature, Index finger length (IFL) and ring finger length (RFL) were taken on the subjects included in the study. Mean stature, IFL and RFL were significantly larger in males than females. Statistically significant correlation was observed between stature, IFL and RFL in right and left hands. Pearson correlation (r) was higher among males than females. Among males and females correlation coefficient was higher for the IFL than the RFL. The present research derives the linear regression models and multiplication factors for estimating stature from IFL and RFL and concludes that the living stature can be predicted from the IFL and RFL with a reasonable accuracy in adolescent population of North India. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. [Estimation of the body length from the hand bones in adult subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Zamiatina, A O

    2008-01-01

    A method for estimation of the body length from the wrist bones in adult subjects is reported for the first time. Carpal, metacarpal, and phalangeal bone length in 108 skeletons of Caucasoid subjects (stored in the collections of the Department of Anthropology, M V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, and Museum of Anthropology, Sankt Peterburg State University) was measured to the nearest 0.1 mm by the method of R. Martin. The SPSS programs were used to calculate multiple regression equations allowing for the determination of the body length from the lengths of carpal bones (to the accuracy within +/- 46.1 mm), metacarpal bones 1-V (to the accuracy within +/- 56.7 to 48.6 mm), their combinations (to the accuracy +/- 49.1 to 47.9 mm), and the longitudinal size of radii I-V (to within +/- 50.8-44.4 mm). The precision of the estimation was as high as +/- 3.5 mm provided all the wrist bones were available for the measurement. It is concluded that the results of verification of this method may be applied in the practice of forensic medicine.

  20. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Stamoulis, Catherine; Bixby, Sarah D.; Breen, Micheal A.; Connolly, Susan A.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  1. The PVC technique a method to estimate the dissipation length scale in turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chih-Ming; Zohar, Yitshak

    1997-12-01

    A time-averaged length scale can be defined by a pair of successive turbulent-velocity derivatives, i.e. [dnu(x)/ dxn][prime prime or minute]/ [dn+1u(x)/ dxn+1][prime prime or minute]. The length scale associated with the zeroth- and the first-order derivatives, u[prime prime or minute]/u[prime prime or minute]x, is the Taylor microscale. In isotropic turbulence, this scale is the average length between zero crossings of the velocity signal. The average length between zero crossings of the first velocity derivative, i.e. u[prime prime or minute]x/u[prime prime or minute]xx, can be reliably obtained by using the peak-valley-counting (PVC) technique. We have found that the most probable scale, rather than the average, equals the wavelength at the peak of the dissipation spectrum in a plane mixing layer (Zohar & Ho 1996). In this study, we experimentally investigate the generality of applying the PVC technique to estimate the dissipation scale in three basic turbulent shear flows: a flat-plate boundary layer, a wake behind a two-dimensional cylinder and a plane mixing layer. We also analytically explore the quantitative relationships among this length scale and the Kolmogorov and Taylor microscales.

  2. INCLUSION RATIO BASED ESTIMATOR FOR THE MEAN LENGTH OF THE BOOLEAN LINE SEGMENT MODEL WITH AN APPLICATION TO NANOCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Niilo-Rämä

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel estimator for estimating the mean length of fibres is proposed for censored data observed in square shaped windows. Instead of observing the fibre lengths, we observe the ratio between the intensity estimates of minus-sampling and plus-sampling. It is well-known that both intensity estimators are biased. In the current work, we derive the ratio of these biases as a function of the mean length assuming a Boolean line segment model with exponentially distributed lengths and uniformly distributed directions. Having the observed ratio of the intensity estimators, the inverse of the derived function is suggested as a new estimator for the mean length. For this estimator, an approximation of its variance is derived. The accuracies of the approximations are evaluated by means of simulation experiments. The novel method is compared to other methods and applied to real-world industrial data from nanocellulose crystalline.

  3. Estimation of Sex From Index and Ring Finger Lengths in An Indigenous Population of Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Jaydip; Ghosh, Ahana; Mondal, Nitish; Krishan, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Forensic anthropology involves the identification of human remains for medico-legal purposes. Estimation of sex is an essential element of medico-legal investigations when identification of unknown dismembered remains is involved. Aim The present study was conducted with an aim to estimate sex from index and ring finger lengths of adult individuals belonging to an indigenous population of eastern India. Materials and Methods A total of 500 unrelated adult individuals (18-60 years) from the Rajbanshi population (males: 250, females: 250) took part in the study. A total of 400 (males: 200, 200 female) participants were randomly used to develop sex estimation models using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis (BLR). A separate group of 200 adults (18-60 years) from the Karbi tribal population (males 100, females 100) were included to validate the results obtained on the Rajbanshi population. The univarate and bivariate models derived on the study group (n=400) were tested on hold-out sample of Rajbanshi participants (n=100) and the other test population of the Karbi (n=200) participants. Results The results indicate that Index Finger Length (IFL) and Ring Finger Length (RFL) of both hands were significantly longer in males as compared to females. The ring finger was longer than the index finger in both sexes. The study successfully highlights the existence of sex differences in IFL and RFL (p<0.05). No sex differences were however, observed for the index and ring finger ratio. The predictive accuracy of IFL and RFL in sex estimation ranged between 70%-75% (in the hold out sample from the Rajbanshi population) and 60-66% (in the test sample from the Karbi population). A Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis was performed to test the predictive accuracy after predicting the probability of IFL and RFL in sex estimation. The predicted probabilities using ROC analysis were observed to be higher on the left side and in multivariate analysis. Conclusion The

  4. Live Weight Estimation by Chest Girth, Body Length and Body Volume Formula in Minahasa Local Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Takaendengan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted in the regency of Minahasa to estimate horse live weight using its chest girth, body length and body volume formula (cylinder volume formula represented by animal chest girth and body length dimensions, particularly focused in Minahasa local horses. Data on animal live weight (LW, body length (BL, chest girth (CG and body volume were collected from 221 stallions kept by traditional household farmers. Animal body volume was calculated using cylinder volume formula with CG and BL as the components of its formula. Regression analysis was carried out for LW with all the linear body measurements. The data were classified on the basis of age. Age significantly (P0.05. Animal live weight was predicted by simple regression models using dependent variable (Y of the animal live weight and independent variable (X of the animal body measurement, either body length, chest girth, or body volume. The correlations between all pairs of measurements were highly significant (P<0.01 for all age groups. Regression analysis showed that live weight could be predicted accurately from body volume (R2= 0.92 and chest girth (R2= 0.90. Simple regression model that can be recommended to predict horse live weight based on body volume with their age groups ranging from 3 to ≥10 years old was as follow: Live weight (kg= 5.044 + 1.87088 body volume (liters. The analyses of data on horse chest girth, body length and body volume formula provided quantitative measure of body size and shape that were desirable, as they enable genetic parameters for these traits to be estimated and also included in breeding programs.

  5. Bootstrap method of interior-branch test for phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, T

    1996-04-01

    Statistical properties of the bootstrap test of interior branch lengths of phylogenetic trees have been studied and compared with those of the standard interior-branch test in computer simulations. Examination of the properties of the tests under the null hypothesis showed that both tests for an interior branch of a predetermined topology are quite reliable when the distribution of the branch length estimate approaches a normal distribution. Unlike the standard interior-branch test, the bootstrap test appears to retain this property even when the substitution rate varies among sites. In this case, the distribution of the branch length estimate deviates from a normal distribution, and the standard interior-branch test gives conservative confidence probability values. A simple correction method was developed for both interior-branch tests to be applied for testing the reliability of tree topologies estimated from sequence data. This correction for the standard interior-branch test appears to be as effective as that obtained in our previous study, though it is much simpler. The bootstrap and standard interior-branch tests for estimated topologies become conservative as the number of sequence groups in a star-like tree increases.

  6. Fractal-Based Lightning Channel Length Estimation from Convex-Hull Flash Areas for DC3 Lightning Mapping Array Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Eric C.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Carey, Larry D.; Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; MacGorman, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    We will use VHF Lightning Mapping Array data to estimate NOx per flash and per unit channel length, including the vertical distribution of channel length. What s the best way to find channel length from VHF sources? This paper presents the rationale for the fractal method, which is closely related to the box-covering method.

  7. Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Aliyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.

  8. Studies on the Estimation of Stature from Hand and Foot Length of an Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Saka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the estimation of stature from hand and foot length of an individual are essential study in personal identification. Aim and Objectives: This study is to find out correlation between statures with hand and foot dimensions in both sexes and gender comparison from an individual in Lautech Staff College in Ogbomoso and College ogbomoso and College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Material and Methods: A sample of 140 students and staff; 70 male and 70 female Students and staff of Lautech Staff College in Ogbomoso and College ogbomoso and College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, between 16-35years were considered and measurements were taken for each of the parameters. Gender differences for the two parameters were determined using Student t-test. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r was used to examine the relationship between two anthropometric parameters and standing height (stature. All these measurements were done by using standard anthropometric instruments and standard anthropometric techniques. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the males mean values are not significantly difference when compared with females mean values in all measured parameters. The study showed significant (p<0.001 positive correlation between the stature with hand lengths and foot lengths. The hand and foot length provide accurate and reliable means in establishing the height of an individual. Conclusion: This study will be useful for forensic scientists and anthropologists as well as anatomists in ascertain medico-legal cases

  9. Estimation of fracture toughness and critical crack length of zircaloy pressure tube from ring tension test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Anantharaman, S.; Balakrishnan, K.S.; Sriharsha, H.K.

    1999-09-01

    Transverse fracture, toughness data of zircaloy pressure tubes are needed for assuring leak-before-break, if any, during their in-reactor residence. These data are conventionally computed from burst tests and/or using compact tension specimens. A study was undertaken to derive fracture toughness of zircaloy in the temperature range ambient to 300 deg C, from the transverse tensile properties. The fracture toughness properties so derived were used to estimate the values of critical crack length of zircaloy pressure tubes in the above temperature range. (author)

  10. Image Analytical Approach for Needle-Shaped Crystal Counting and Length Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian X.; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Jensen, Linda G.

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of nucleation and crystal growth rates from microscopic information is of critical importance. This can be an especially challenging task if needle growth of crystals is observed. To address this challenge, an image analytical method for counting of needle-shaped crystals and estimating...... their length is presented. Since the current algorithm has a number of parameters that need to be optimized, a combination of simulation of needle crystal growth and Design of Experiments was applied to identify the optimal parameter settings for the algorithm. The algorithm was validated for its accuracy...... in different scenarios of simulated needle crystallization, and subsequently, the algorithm was applied to study the influence of additive on antisolvent crystallization. The developed algorithm is robust for quantifying heavily intersecting needle crystals in optical microscopy images, and has the potential...

  11. Branched-chain fatty acids in the neonatal gut and estimated dietary intake in infancy and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; Glahn, Raymond P; Bae, SangEun; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) are primarily saturated fatty acids (FA) with a methyl branch, usually near the terminal methyl group. BCFA are abundant in bacteria, skin, and vernix caseosa but have seldom been studied with respect to human nutrition. They are constituents of the term newborn infant gut lumen, being swallowed as vernix particulate components of amniotic fluid in the last trimester of normal pregnancy. We recently showed that BCFA protect against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the rat pup model. Dietary BCFA at levels similar to those found in human vernix reduced NEC incidence by more than 50%, increased the abundance of BCFA-containing bacteria, and increased the expression of ileal anti-inflammatory IL-10. The few published reports of BCFA in human milk enable an estimate that breastfed infants consume 19 mg BCFA per 100 ml milk. Dietary BCFA consumption from milk fat and other ruminant products, the main sources of dietary BCFA, is more than 400 mg BCFA per day in adult Americans. This estimate exceeds by severalfold the average dietary intake of bioactive FA, such as docosahexaenoic acid. BCFA are bioactive, abundant but neglected components of the human food supply. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Ling, C.-H.; Gartner, J.W.; Wang, P.-F.

    1999-01-01

    A field investigation of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of participate matter in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, during March-April 1995. Using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers, detailed measurements of turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m above bed have been obtained. A global method of data analysis was used for estimating bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress (or friction velocities u*). Field data have been examined by dividing the time series of velocity profiles into 24-hour periods and independently analyzing the velocity profile time series by flooding and ebbing periods. The global method of solution gives consistent properties of bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u*) in South Bay. Estimated mean values of zo and u* for flooding and ebbing cycles are different. The differences in mean zo and u* are shown to be caused by tidal current flood-ebb inequality, rather than the flooding or ebbing of tidal currents. The bed shear stress correlates well with a reference velocity; the slope of the correlation defines a drag coefficient. Forty-three days of field data in South Bay show two regimes of zo (and drag coefficient) as a function of a reference velocity. When the mean velocity is >25-30 cm s-1, the ln zo (and thus the drag coefficient) is inversely proportional to the reference velocity. The cause for the reduction of roughness length is hypothesized as sediment erosion due to intensifying tidal currents thereby reducing bed roughness. When the mean velocity is <25-30 cm s-1, the correlation between zo and the reference velocity is less clear. A plausible explanation of scattered values of zo under this condition may be sediment deposition. Measured sediment data were inadequate to support this hypothesis, but the proposed hypothesis warrants further field investigation.

  13. Multistage point relascope and randomized branch sampling for downed coarse woody debris estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine

    2002-01-01

    New sampling methods have recently been introduced that allow estimation of downed coarse woody debris using an angle gauge, or relascope. The theory behind these methods is based on sampling straight pieces of downed coarse woody debris. When pieces deviate from this ideal situation, auxillary methods must be employed. We describe a two-stage procedure where the...

  14. An Empirical Approach for Estimating Stress-Coupling Lengths for Marine-Terminating Glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellyn Mary Enderlin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Variability in the dynamic behavior of marine-terminating glaciers is poorly understood, despite an increase in the abundance and resolution of observations. When paired with ice thicknesses, surface velocities can be used to quantify the dynamic redistribution of stresses in response to environmental perturbations through computation of the glacier force balance. However, because the force balance is not purely local, force balance calculations must be performed at the spatial scale over which stresses are transferred within glacier ice, or the stress-coupling length (SCL. Here we present a new empirical method to estimate the SCL for marine-terminating glaciers using high-resolution observations. We use the empirically-determined periodicity in resistive stress oscillations as a proxy for the SCL. Application of our empirical method to two well-studied tidewater glaciers (Helheim Glacier, SE Greenland, and Columbia Glacier, Alaska, USA demonstrates that SCL estimates obtained using this approach are consistent with theory (i.e., can be parameterized as a function of the ice thickness and with prior, independent SCL estimates. In order to accurately resolve stress variations, we suggest that similar empirical stress-coupling parameterizations be employed in future analyses of glacier dynamics.

  15. Noise Attenuation Estimation for Maximum Length Sequences in Deconvolution Process of Auditory Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of maximum length sequence (m-sequence has been found beneficial for recovering both linear and nonlinear components at rapid stimulation. Since m-sequence is fully characterized by a primitive polynomial of different orders, the selection of polynomial order can be problematic in practice. Usually, the m-sequence is repetitively delivered in a looped fashion. Ensemble averaging is carried out as the first step and followed by the cross-correlation analysis to deconvolve linear/nonlinear responses. According to the classical noise reduction property based on additive noise model, theoretical equations have been derived in measuring noise attenuation ratios (NARs after the averaging and correlation processes in the present study. A computer simulation experiment was conducted to test the derived equations, and a nonlinear deconvolution experiment was also conducted using order 7 and 9 m-sequences to address this issue with real data. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the NAR is essentially independent of the m-sequence order and is decided by the total length of valid data, as well as stimulation rate. The present study offers a guideline for m-sequence selections, which can be used to estimate required recording time and signal-to-noise ratio in designing m-sequence experiments.

  16. Kernel density estimation applied to bond length, bond angle, and torsion angle distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Patrick; Korb, Oliver; Cole, Jason

    2014-05-27

    We describe the method of kernel density estimation (KDE) and apply it to molecular structure data. KDE is a quite general nonparametric statistical method suitable even for multimodal data. The method generates smooth probability density function (PDF) representations and finds application in diverse fields such as signal processing and econometrics. KDE appears to have been under-utilized as a method in molecular geometry analysis, chemo-informatics, and molecular structure optimization. The resulting probability densities have advantages over histograms and, importantly, are also suitable for gradient-based optimization. To illustrate KDE, we describe its application to chemical bond length, bond valence angle, and torsion angle distributions and show the ability of the method to model arbitrary torsion angle distributions.

  17. Decision support for hospital bed management using adaptable individual length of stay estimations and shared resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert; Geisler, Sandra; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2013-01-07

    Elective patient admission and assignment planning is an important task of the strategic and operational management of a hospital and early on became a central topic of clinical operations research. The management of hospital beds is an important subtask. Various approaches have been proposed, involving the computation of efficient assignments with regard to the patients' condition, the necessity of the treatment, and the patients' preferences. However, these approaches are mostly based on static, unadaptable estimates of the length of stay and, thus, do not take into account the uncertainty of the patient's recovery. Furthermore, the effect of aggregated bed capacities have not been investigated in this context. Computer supported bed management, combining an adaptable length of stay estimation with the treatment of shared resources (aggregated bed capacities) has not yet been sufficiently investigated. The aim of our work is: 1) to define a cost function for patient admission taking into account adaptable length of stay estimations and aggregated resources, 2) to define a mathematical program formally modeling the assignment problem and an architecture for decision support, 3) to investigate four algorithmic methodologies addressing the assignment problem and one base-line approach, and 4) to evaluate these methodologies w.r.t. cost outcome, performance, and dismissal ratio. The expected free ward capacity is calculated based on individual length of stay estimates, introducing Bernoulli distributed random variables for the ward occupation states and approximating the probability densities. The assignment problem is represented as a binary integer program. Four strategies for solving the problem are applied and compared: an exact approach, using the mixed integer programming solver SCIP; and three heuristic strategies, namely the longest expected processing time, the shortest expected processing time, and random choice. A baseline approach serves to compare these

  18. ESTIMATION OF SPORTS-TECHNICAL READINESS OF STUDENTS OF METHODICAL BRANCH «FOOTBALL» MSUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamonin Andrey Valentinovich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Increase of sports-technical skill in sports occurs on the basis of last achievements of the theory and physical training and sports practice. Development of football isn't possible without search and introduction in training process of optimum pedagogical models of perfection of physical and technical readiness of football players. Such pedagogical models should be applied, as in groups of initial preparation, so at the subsequent grade levels, including in student's football. Modern training process (pedagogical model, should be under construction on objective indicators of physical, technical and special readiness (so-called feedback. However, the estimation of sports-technical readiness at sports schools on football is reduced only to testing of speed, jumps, juggling, dribbling and a shoot for goal. The same criteria are applied and in student's football. Unfortunately, the given control exercises not in a condition to the full to reflect level of physical and technical readiness of the football player. For more objective estimation of special readiness it is necessary to use the test tasks revealing a level of development of coordination abilities of game structure game and competitive activity (game in football. It will allow trainers to have fuller picture of readiness of the football player, in respect of its professional (football skills. As a result coach have possibility to trace level of a condition of the various parties of sports readiness (physical, technical and coordination student's youth engaged in football at each stage of long-term preparation.

  19. The Growth Points of Regional Economy and Regression Estimation for Branch Investment Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Pavlovna Goridko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article develops the methodology of using investment multipliers to identify growth points for a regional economy. The paper discusses various options for the assessment of multiplicative effects caused by investments in certain sectors of the economy. All calculations are carried out on the example of economy of the Republic of Tatarstan for the period 2005–2015. The instrument of regression modeling using the method of least squares, permits to estimate sectoral and cross-sectoral investment multipliers in the economy of the Republic of Tatarstan. Moreover, this method allows to assess the elasticity of gross output of regional economy and its individual sectors depending on investment in various sectors of the economy. Calculations results allowed to identify three growth points of the economy of the Republic of Tatarstan. They are mining industry, manufacturing industry and construction. The success of a particular industry or sub-industry in a country or a region should be measured not only by its share in macro-system’s gross output or value added, but also by the multiplicative effect that investments in the industry have on the development of other industries, on employment and on general national or regional product. In recent years, the growth of the Russian was close to zero. Thus, it is crucial to understand the structural consequences of the increasing investments in various sectors of the Russian economy. In this regard, the problems solved in the article are relevant for a number of countries and regions with a similar economic situation. The obtained results can be applied for similar estimations of investment multipliers as well as multipliers of government spending, and other components of aggregate demand in various countries and regions to identify growth points. Investments in these growth points will induce the greatest and the most evident increment of the outcome from the macro-system’s economic activities.

  20. Uncertainties estimation in surveying measurands: application to lengths, perimeters and areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covián, E.; Puente, V.; Casero, M.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper develops a series of methods for the estimation of uncertainty when measuring certain measurands of interest in surveying practice, such as points elevation given a planimetric position within a triangle mesh, 2D and 3D lengths (including perimeters enclosures), 2D areas (horizontal surfaces) and 3D areas (natural surfaces). The basis for the proposed methodology is the law of propagation of variance-covariance, which, applied to the corresponding model for each measurand, allows calculating the resulting uncertainty from known measurement errors. The methods are tested first in a small example, with a limited number of measurement points, and then in two real-life measurements. In addition, the proposed methods have been incorporated to commercial software used in the field of surveying engineering and focused on the creation of digital terrain models. The aim of this evolution is, firstly, to comply with the guidelines of the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures), as the international reference agency in the field of metrology, in relation to the determination and expression of uncertainty; and secondly, to improve the quality of the measurement by indicating the uncertainty associated with a given level of confidence. The conceptual and mathematical developments for the uncertainty estimation in the aforementioned cases were conducted by researchers from the AssIST group at the University of Oviedo, eventually resulting in several different mathematical algorithms implemented in the form of MATLAB code. Based on these prototypes, technicians incorporated the referred functionality to commercial software, developed in C++. As a result of this collaboration, in early 2016 a new version of this commercial software was made available, which will be the first, as far as the authors are aware, that incorporates the possibility of estimating the uncertainty for a given level of confidence when computing the aforementioned surveying

  1. Spatial distribution and size of small canopy gaps created by Japanese black bears: estimating gap size using dropped branch measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori

    2013-06-10

    Japanese black bears, a large-bodied omnivore, frequently create small gaps in the tree crown during fruit foraging. However, there are no previous reports of black bear-created canopy gaps. To characterize physical canopy disturbance by black bears, we examined a number of parameters, including the species of trees in which canopy gaps were created, gap size, the horizontal and vertical distribution of gaps, and the size of branches broken to create gaps. The size of black bear-created canopy gaps was estimated using data from branches that had been broken and dropped on the ground. The disturbance regime was characterized by a highly biased distribution of small canopy gaps on ridges, a large total overall gap area, a wide range in gap height relative to canopy height, and diversity in gap size. Surprisingly, the annual rate of bear-created canopy gap formation reached 141.3 m2 ha-1 yr-1 on ridges, which were hot spots in terms of black bear activity. This rate was approximately 6.6 times that of tree-fall gap formation on ridges at this study site. Furthermore, this rate was approximately two to three times that of common tree-fall gap formation in Japanese forests, as reported in other studies. Our findings suggest that the ecological interaction between black bears and fruit-bearing trees may create a unique light regime, distinct from that created by tree falls, which increases the availability of light resources to plants below the canopy.

  2. Estimating Length of Stay by Patient Type in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry C; Bennett, Mihoko V; Schulman, Joseph; Gould, Jeffrey B; Profit, Jochen

    2016-07-01

    Objective Develop length of stay prediction models for neonatal intensive care unit patients. Study Design We used data from 2008 to 2010 to construct length of stay models for neonates admitted within 1 day of age to neonatal intensive care units and surviving to discharge home. Results Our sample included 23,551 patients. Median length of stay was 79 days when birth weight was g. Risk factors for longer length of stay varied by weight. Units with shorter length of stay for one weight group had shorter lengths of stay for other groups. Conclusion Risk models for comparative assessments of length of stay need to appropriately account for weight, particularly considering the cutoff of 1,500 g. Refining prediction may benefit counseling of families and health care systems to efficiently allocate resources. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Automatic string generation for estimating in vivo length changes of the medial patellofemoral ligament during knee flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Matthias; Diether, Salomon; Vlachopoulos, Lazaros; Fucentese, Sandro; Fürnstahl, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    Modeling ligaments as three-dimensional strings is a popular method for in vivo estimation of ligament length. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm for automated generation of non-penetrating strings between insertion points and to evaluate its feasibility for estimating length changes of the medial patellofemoral ligament during normal knee flexion. Three-dimensional knee models were generated from computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 healthy subjects. The knee joint under weight-bearing was acquired in four flexion positions (0°-120°). The path between insertion points was computed in each position to quantify string length and isometry. The average string length was maximal in 0° of flexion (64.5 ± 3.9 mm between femoral and proximal patellar point; 62.8 ± 4.0 mm between femoral and distal patellar point). It was minimal in 30° (60.0 ± 2.6 mm) for the proximal patellar string and in 120° (58.7 ± 4.3 mm) for the distal patellar string. The insertion points were considered to be isometric in 4 of the 10 subjects. The proposed algorithm appears to be feasible for estimating string lengths between insertion points in an automatic fashion. The length measurements based on CT images acquired under physiological loading conditions may give further insights into knee kinematics.

  4. Development of software and modification of Q-FISH protocol for estimation of individual telomere length in immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkovskaya, M Sh; Bogomolov, A G; Knauer, N Yu; Rubtsov, N B; Kozlov, V A

    2017-04-01

    Telomere length is an important indicator of proliferative cell history and potential. Decreasing telomere length in the cells of an immune system can indicate immune aging in immune-mediated and chronic inflammatory diseases. Quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) of a labeled (C 3 TA[Formula: see text] peptide nucleic acid probe onto fixed metaphase cells followed by digital image microscopy allows the evaluation of telomere length in the arms of individual chromosomes. Computer-assisted analysis of microscopic images can provide quantitative information on the number of telomeric repeats in individual telomeres. We developed new software to estimate telomere length. The MeTeLen software contains new options that can be used to solve some Q-FISH and microscopy problems, including correction of irregular light effects and elimination of background fluorescence. The identification and description of chromosomes and chromosome regions are essential to the Q-FISH technique. To improve the quality of cytogenetic analysis after Q-FISH, we optimized the temperature and time of DNA-denaturation to get better DAPI-banding of metaphase chromosomes. MeTeLen was tested by comparing telomere length estimations for sister chromatids, background fluorescence estimations, and correction of nonuniform light effects. The application of the developed software for analysis of telomere length in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was demonstrated.

  5. Estimating nerve excitation thresholds to cutaneous electrical stimulation by finite element modeling combined with a stochastic branching nerve fiber model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Hennings, Kristian; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2011-04-01

    Electrical stimulation of cutaneous tissue through surface electrodes is an often used method for evoking experimental pain. However, at painful intensities both non-nociceptive Aβ-fibers and nociceptive Aδ- and C-fibers may be activated by the electrical stimulation. This study proposes a finite element (FE) model of the extracellular potential and stochastic branching fiber model of the afferent fiber excitation thresholds. The FE model described four horizontal layers; stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, and hypodermal used to estimate the excitation threshold of Aβ-fibers terminating in dermis and Aδ-fibers terminating in epidermis. The perception thresholds of 11 electrodes with diameters ranging from 0.2 to 20 mm were modeled and assessed on the volar forearm of healthy human volunteers by an adaptive two-alternative forced choice algorithm. The model showed that the magnitude of the current density was highest for smaller electrodes and decreased through the skin. The excitation thresholds of the Aδ-fibers were lower than the excitation thresholds of Aβ-fibers when current was applied through small, but not large electrodes. The experimentally assessed perception threshold followed the lowest excitation threshold of the modeled fibers. The model confirms that preferential excitation of Aδ-fibers may be achieved by small electrode stimulation due to higher current density in the dermoepidermal junction.

  6. Problems associated with pooling mark-recapture data prior to estimating stopover length for migratory passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara R. Morris; Erica M. Turner; David A. Liebner; Amanda M. Larracuente; H. David Sheets

    2005-01-01

    One measure of the importance of a stopover site is the length of time that migrants spend at an area, however measuring the time birds spend at a stopover site has proven difficult. Most banding studies have presented only minimum length of stopover, based on the difference between initial capture and final recapture of birds that are captured more than once. Cormack-...

  7. Telomerecat: A ploidy-agnostic method for estimating telomere length from whole genome sequencing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmery, James H. R.; Smith, Mike L.; Lynch, Andy G.; Huissoon, Aarnoud; Furnell, Abigail; Mead, Adam; Levine, Adam P.; Manzur, Adnan; Thrasher, Adrian; Greenhalgh, Alan; Parker, Alasdair; Sanchis-Juan, Alba; Richter, Alex; Gardham, Alice; Lawrie, Allan; Sohal, Aman; Creaser-Myers, Amanda; Frary, Amy; Greinacher, Andreas; Themistocleous, Andreas; Peacock, Andrew J.; Marshall, Andrew; Mumford, Andrew; Rice, Andrew; Webster, Andrew; Brady, Angie; Koziell, Ania; Manson, Ania; Chandra, Anita; Hensiek, Anke; Veld, Anna Huis In't; Maw, Anna; Kelly, Anne M.; Moore, Anthony; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Attwood, Antony; Herwadkar, Archana; Ghofrani, Ardi; Houweling, Arjan C.; Girerd, Barbara; Furie, Bruce; Treacy, Carmen M.; Millar, Carolyn M.; Sewell, Carrock; Roughley, Catherine; Titterton, Catherine; Williamson, Catherine; Hadinnapola, Charaka; Deshpande, Charu; Toh, Cheng-Hock; Bacchelli, Chiara; Patch, Chris; Geet, Chris Van; Babbs, Christian; Bryson, Christine; Penkett, Christopher J.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Watt, Christopher; Bethune, Claire; Booth, Claire; Lentaigne, Claire; McJannet, Coleen; Church, Colin; French, Courtney; Samarghitean, Crina; Halmagyi, Csaba; Gale, Daniel; Greene, Daniel; Hart, Daniel; Allsup, David; Bennett, David; Edgar, David; Kiely, David G.; Gosal, David; Perry, David J.; Keeling, David; Montani, David; Shipley, Debbie; Whitehorn, Deborah; Fletcher, Debra; Krishnakumar, Deepa; Grozeva, Detelina; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Thompson, Dorothy; Josifova, Dragana; Maher, Eamonn; Wong, Edwin K. S.; Murphy, Elaine; Dewhurst, Eleanor; Louka, Eleni; Rosser, Elisabeth; Chalmers, Elizabeth; Colby, Elizabeth; Drewe, Elizabeth; McDermott, Elizabeth; Thomas, Ellen; Staples, Emily; Clement, Emma; Matthews, Emma; Wakeling, Emma; Oksenhendler, Eric; Turro, Ernest; Reid, Evan; Wassmer, Evangeline; Raymond, F. Lucy; Hu, Fengyuan; Kennedy, Fiona; Soubrier, Florent; Flinter, Frances; Kovacs, Gabor; Polwarth, Gary; Ambegaonkar, Gautum; Arno, Gavin; Hudson, Gavin; Woods, Geoff; Coghlan, Gerry; Hayman, Grant; Arumugakani, Gururaj; Schotte, Gwen; Cook, H. Terry; Alachkar, Hana; Lango Allen, Hana; Lango-Allen, Hana; Stark, Hannah; Stauss, Hans; Schulze, Harald; Boggard, Harm J.; Baxendale, Helen; Dolling, Helen; Firth, Helen; Gall, Henning; Watson, Henry; Longhurst, Hilary; Markus, Hugh S.; Watkins, Hugh; Simeoni, Ilenia; Emmerson, Ingrid; Roberts, Irene; Quinti, Isabella; Wanjiku, Ivy; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Thaventhiran, James; Whitworth, James; Hurst, Jane; Collins, Janine; Suntharalingam, Jay; Payne, Jeanette; Thachil, Jecko; Martin, Jennifer M.; Martin, Jennifer; Carmichael, Jenny; Maimaris, Jesmeen; Paterson, Joan; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Gebhart, Johanna; Davis, John; Pasi, John; Bradley, John R.; Wharton, John; Stephens, Jonathan; Rankin, Julia; Anderson, Julie; Vogt, Julie; von Ziegenweldt, Julie; Rehnstrom, Karola; Megy, Karyn; Talks, Kate; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Yates, Katherine; Freson, Kathleen; Stirrups, Kathleen; Gomez, Keith; Smith, Kenneth G. C.; Carss, Keren; Rue-Albrecht, Kevin; Gilmour, Kimberley; Masati, Larahmie; Scelsi, Laura; Southgate, Laura; Ranganathan, Lavanya; Ginsberg, Lionel; Devlin, Lisa; Willcocks, Lisa; Ormondroyd, Liz; Lorenzo, Lorena; Harper, Lorraine; Allen, Louise; Daugherty, Louise; Chitre, Manali; Kurian, Manju; Humbert, Marc; Tischkowitz, Marc; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Erwood, Marie; Scully, Marie; Veltman, Marijke; Caulfield, Mark; Layton, Mark; McCarthy, Mark; Ponsford, Mark; Toshner, Mark; Bleda, Marta; Wilkins, Martin; Mathias, Mary; Reilly, Mary; Afzal, Maryam; Brown, Matthew; Rondina, Matthew; Stubbs, Matthew; Haimel, Matthias; Lees, Melissa; Laffan, Michael A.; Browning, Michael; Gattens, Michael; Richards, Michael; Michaelides, Michel; Lambert, Michele P.; Makris, Mike; de Vries, Minka; Mahdi-Rogers, Mohamed; Saleem, Moin; Thomas, Moira; Holder, Muriel; Eyries, Mélanie; Clements-Brod, Naomi; Canham, Natalie; Dormand, Natalie; Zuydam, Natalie Van; Kingston, Nathalie; Ghali, Neeti; Cooper, Nichola; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Yeatman, Nigel; Roy, Noémi; Shamardina, Olga; Alavijeh, Omid S.; Gresele, Paolo; Nurden, Paquita; Chinnery, Patrick; Deegan, Patrick; Yong, Patrick; Man, Patrick Yu Wai; Corris, Paul A.; Calleja, Paul; Gissen, Paul; Bolton-Maggs, Paula; Rayner-Matthews, Paula; Ghataorhe, Pavandeep K.; Gordins, Pavel; Stein, Penelope; Collins, Peter; Dixon, Peter; Kelleher, Peter; Ancliff, Phil; Yu, Ping; Tait, R. Campbell; Linger, Rachel; Doffinger, Rainer; Machado, Rajiv; Kazmi, Rashid; Sargur, Ravishankar; Favier, Remi; Tan, Rhea; Liesner, Ri; Antrobus, Richard; Sandford, Richard; Scott, Richard; Trembath, Richard; Horvath, Rita; Hadden, Rob; MackenzieRoss, Rob V.; Henderson, Robert; MacLaren, Robert; James, Roger; Ghurye, Rohit; DaCosta, Rosa; Hague, Rosie; Mapeta, Rutendo; Armstrong, Ruth; Noorani, Sadia; Murng, Sai; Santra, Saikat; Tuna, Salih; Johnson, Sally; Chong, Sam; Lear, Sara; Walker, Sara; Goddard, Sarah; Mangles, Sarah; Westbury, Sarah; Mehta, Sarju; Hackett, Scott; Nejentsev, Sergey; Moledina, Shahin; Bibi, Shahnaz; Meehan, Sharon; Othman, Shokri; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Holden, Simon; McGowan, Simon; Staines, Simon; Savic, Sinisa; Burns, Siobhan; Grigoriadou, Sofia; Papadia, Sofia; Ashford, Sofie; Schulman, Sol; Ali, Sonia; Park, Soo-Mi; Davies, Sophie; Stock, Sophie; Ali, Souad; Deevi, Sri V. V.; Gräf, Stefan; Ghio, Stefano; Wort, Stephen J.; Jolles, Stephen; Austin, Steve; Welch, Steve; Meacham, Stuart; Rankin, Stuart; Walker, Suellen; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Holder, Susan; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Richardson, Sylvia; Kuijpers, Taco; Bariana, Tadbir K.; Bakchoul, Tamam; Everington, Tamara; Renton, Tara; Young, Tim; Aitman, Timothy; Warner, Timothy Q.; Vale, Tom; Hammerton, Tracey; Pollock, Val; Matser, Vera; Cookson, Victoria; Clowes, Virginia; Qasim, Waseem; Wei, Wei; Erber, Wendy N.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Astle, William; Egner, William; Turek, Wojciech; Henskens, Yvonne; Tan, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Telomere length is a risk factor in disease and the dynamics of telomere length are crucial to our understanding of cell replication and vitality. The proliferation of whole genome sequencing represents an unprecedented opportunity to glean new insights into telomere biology on a previously

  8. A method for estimating the fibre length in fibre-PLA composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinga-Carrasco, G; Solheim, O; Lenes, M; Larsen, A

    2013-04-01

    Wood pulp fibres are an important component of environmentally sound and renewable fibre-reinforced composite materials. The high aspect ratio of pulp fibres is an essential property with respect to the mechanical properties a given composite material can achieve. The length of pulp fibres is affected by composite processing operations. This thus emphasizes the importance of assessing the pulp fibre length and how this may be affected by a given process for manufacturing composites. In this work a new method for measuring the length distribution of fibres and fibre fragments has been developed. The method is based on; (i) dissolving the composites, (ii) preparing the fibres for image acquisition and (iii) image analysis of the resulting fibre structures. The image analysis part is relatively simple to implement and is based on images acquired with a desktop scanner and a new ImageJ plugin. The quantification of fibre length has demonstrated the fibre shortening effect because of an extrusion process and subsequent injection moulding. Fibres with original lengths of >1 mm where shortened to fibre fragments with length of <200 μm. The shortening seems to be affected by the number of times the fibres have passed through the extruder, the amount of chain extender and the fraction of fibres in the polymer matrix. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. Transport-Constrained Extensions of Collision and Track Length Estimators for Solutions of Radiative Transport Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rong; Spanier, Jerome

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we develop novel extensions of collision and track lengh estimators for the complete space-angle solutions of radiative transport problems. We derive the relevant equations, prove that our new estimators are unbiased, and compare their performance with that of more conventional ) estimators. Such comparisons based on numerical solutions of simple one dimensional slab problems indicate the the potential superiority of the new estimators for a wide variety of more general transport problems.

  10. Estimation of Length and Order of Polynomial-based Filter Implemented in the Form of Farrow Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vukotic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital polynomial-based interpolation filters implemented using the Farrow structure are used in Digital Signal Processing (DSP to calculate the signal between its discrete samples. The two basic design parameters for these filters are number of polynomial-segments defining the finite length of impulse response, and order of polynomials in each polynomial segment. The complexity of the implementation structure and the frequency domain performance depend on these two parameters. This contribution presents estimation formulae for length and polynomial order of polynomial-based filters for various types of requirements including attenuation in stopband, width of transitions band, deviation in passband, weighting in passband/stopband.

  11. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    this calibration to make a regional reconstruction of paleosalinity in the Black Sea, calculated by averaging out process length variation observed at four core sites from the Black Sea with high sedimentation rates and dated by multiple mollusk shell ages. Results show a very gradual change of salinity from ∼14...

  12. Increasing the accuracy and precision of relative telomere length estimates by RT qPCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eastwood, Justin R.; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon; Peters, Anne

    As attrition of telomeres, DNA caps that protect chromosome integrity, is accelerated by various forms of stress, telomere length (TL) has been proposed as an indicator of lifetime accumulated stress. In ecological studies, it has been used to provide insights into ageing, life history trade-offs,

  13. Growth estimation of mangrove cockle Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Bivalvia: application and evaluation of length-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Flores

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth is one of the key processes in the dynamic of exploited resources, since it provides part of the information required for structured population models. Growth of mangrove cockle, Anadara tuberculosa was estimated through length-based methods (ELEFAN I y NSLCA and using diverse shell length intervals (SLI. The variability of L∞, k and phi prime (Φ` estimates and the effect of each sample were quantified by jackknife techniques. Results showed the same L∞ estimates from ELEFAN I and NSLCA across each SLI used, and all L∞ were within the expected range. On the contrary, k estimates differed between methods. Jackknife estimations uncovered the tendency of ELEFAN I to overestimate k with increases in SLI, and allowed the identification of differences in uncertainty (PE and CV between both methods. The average values of Φ`derived from NSCLA1.5 and length-age sources were similar and corresponded to ranges reported by other authors. Estimates of L∞, k and Φ` from NSCLA1.5 were 85.97mm, 0.124/year and 2.953 with jackknife and 86.36mm de L∞, 0.110/year de k and 2.914 de Φ` without jackknife, respectively. Based on the observed evidence and according to the biology of the species, NSCLA is suggested to be used with jackknife and a SLI of 1.5mm as an ad hoc approach to estimate the growth parameters of mangrove cockle. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 159-170. Epub 2011 March 01.

  14. ESTIMATION OF BURSTS LENGTH AND DESIGN OF A FIBER DELAY LINE BASED OBS ROUTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHA AWASTHI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand for higher bandwidth is increasing day by day and this ever growing demand cannot be catered to with current electronic technology. Thus new communication technology like optical communication needs to be used. In the similar context OBS (optical burst switching is considered as next generation data transfer technology. In OBS information is transmitted in forms of optical bursts of variable lengths. However, contention among the bursts is a major problem in OBS system, and for contention resolution defection routing is mostly preferred. However, deflection routing increases delay. In this paper, it is shown that the arrival of very large bursts is rare event, and for moderate burst length the buffering of contending burst can provide very effective solution. However, in case of arrival of large bursts deflection can be used.

  15. Blood Capillary Length Estimation from Three-Dimensional Microscopic Data by Image Analysis and Stereology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubínová, Lucie; Mao, X. W.; Janáček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2013), s. 898-906 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME09010; GA MŠk(CZ) LH13028; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : capillaries * confocal microscopy * image analysis * length * rat brain * stereology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.757, year: 2013

  16. A method for estimating age of medieval sub-adults from infancy to adulthood based on long bone length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primeau, Charlotte; Friis, Laila Saidane; Sejrsen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    AND METHODS: A total of 183 skeletal sub-adults from the Danish medieval period, were aged from radiographic images. Linear regression formulae were then produced for individual bones. Age was then estimated from the femur length using three different methods: equations developed in this study, data based...... as later than the medieval period, although this would require further testing. The quadratic equations are suggested to yield more accurate ages then using simply linear regression equations. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......OBJECTIVES: To develop a series of regression equations for estimating age from length of long bones for archaeological sub-adults when aging from dental development cannot be performed. Further, to compare derived ages when using these regression equations, and two other methods. MATERIAL...

  17. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Ji Eun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm 3 ). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m 2 /kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  18. Different methods to estimate the Einstein-Markov coherence length in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stresing, R.; Kleinhans, D.; Friedrich, R.; Peinke, J.

    2011-04-01

    We study the Markov property of experimental velocity data of different homogeneous isotropic turbulent flows. In particular, we examine the stochastic “cascade” process of nested velocity increments ξ(r):=u(x+r)-u(x) as a function of scale r for different nesting structures. It was found in previous work that, for a certain nesting structure, the stochastic process of ξ(r) has the Markov property for step sizes larger than the so-called Einstein-Markov coherence length lEM, which is of the order of magnitude of the Taylor microscale λ [Phys. Lett. APYLAAG0375-960110.1016/j.physleta.2006.06.053 359, 335 (2006)]. We now show that, if a reasonable definition of the effective step size of the process is applied, this result holds independently of the nesting structure. Furthermore, we analyze the stochastic process of the velocity u as a function of the spatial position x. Although this process does not have the exact Markov property, a characteristic length scale lu(x)≈lEM can be identified on the basis of a statistical test for the Markov property. Using a method based on the matrix of transition probabilities, we examine the significance of the non-Markovian character of the velocity u(x) for the statistical properties of turbulence.

  19. Handover Management for VoWLAN Based on Estimation of AP Queue Length and Frame Retries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswar, Muhammad; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Kadobayashi, Youki; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    Switching a communication path from one Access Point (AP) to another in inter-domain WLANs is a critical challenge for delay-sensitive applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP) because communication quality during handover (HO) is more likely to be deteriorated. To maintain VoIP quality during HO, we need to solve many problems. In particular, in bi-directional communication such as VoIP, an AP becomes a bottleneck with the increase of VoIP calls. As a result, packets queued in the AP buffer may experience a large queuing delay or packet losses due to increase in queue length or buffer overflow, thereby causing the degradation of VoIP quality for the Mobile Nodes (MNs) side. To avoid this degradation, MNs need to appropriately and autonomously execute HO in response to the change in wireless network condition, i.e., the deterioration of wireless link quality and the congestion state at the AP. In this paper, we propose an HO decision strategy considering frame retries, AP queue length, and transmission rate at an MN for maintaining VoIP quality during HO. Through simulation experiments, we then show that our proposed method can maintain VoIP quality during HO by properly detecting the wireless network condition.

  20. Estimating cubic volume of small diameter tree-length logs from ponderosa and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank; James M. Cahill

    1984-01-01

    A sample of 351 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and 509 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) logs were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used formulas for estimating cubic volume. Smalian's formula, Bruce's formula, and Huber's formula were tested to determine which...

  1. Influence of syllable train length and performance end effects on estimation of phonation threshold pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faver, Katherine Y; Plexico, Laura W; Sandage, Mary J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the number of syllables collected and performance end effects had a significant effect on phonation threshold pressure (PTP) estimates. Ten adult females with normal voices produced five- and seven-syllable trains of /pi/ at low, modal, and high pitches. The results were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance to determine whether a difference existed in PTP when a five-syllable train was collected versus when a seven-syllable train was collected and whether the typically discarded first and last syllables within a train differed from the middle syllables. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in estimated PTP values when calculated from a five-syllable versus a seven-syllable train or between the first, middle, and last syllables within a train. Based on these findings, it appears that a five-syllable train provides adequate information from which to estimate PTP values. Furthermore, these findings also suggest that within the five-syllable train, any three adjacent syllables could be used to estimate PTP. These findings are significant in developing a clinically standardized, effective, and efficient method for collecting PTP. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The distribution of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval lengths and its implications for estimating post mortem intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Colin; Heaton, Viv; De Haan, Dorine

    2016-01-01

    The length or stage of development of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae may be used to estimate a minimum postmortem interval, often by targeting the largest individuals of a species in the belief that they will be the oldest. However, natural variation in rate of development, and therefore length, implies that the size of the largest larva, as well as the number of larvae longer than any stated length, will be greater for larger cohorts. Length data from the blow flies Protophormia terraenovae and Lucilia sericata were collected from one field-based and two laboratory-based experiments. The field cohorts contained considerably more individuals than have been used for reference data collection in the literature. Cohorts were shown to have an approximately normal distribution. Summary statistics were derived from the collected data allowing the quantification of errors in development time which arise when different sized cohorts are compared through their largest larvae. These errors may be considerable and can lead to overestimation of postmortem intervals when making comparisons with reference data collected from smaller cohorts. This source of error has hitherto been overlooked in forensic entomology.

  3. Correlation Lengths for Estimating the Large-Scale Carbon and Heat Content of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Gille, S. T.; Verdy, A.

    2018-02-01

    The spatial correlation scales of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon, heat content, and carbon and heat exchanges with the atmosphere are estimated from a realistic numerical simulation of the Southern Ocean. Biases in the model are assessed by comparing the simulated sea surface height and temperature scales to those derived from optimally interpolated satellite measurements. While these products do not resolve all ocean scales, they are representative of the climate scale variability we aim to estimate. Results show that constraining the carbon and heat inventory between 35°S and 70°S on time-scales longer than 90 days requires approximately 100 optimally spaced measurement platforms: approximately one platform every 20° longitude by 6° latitude. Carbon flux has slightly longer zonal scales, and requires a coverage of approximately 30° by 6°. Heat flux has much longer scales, and thus a platform distribution of approximately 90° by 10° would be sufficient. Fluxes, however, have significant subseasonal variability. For all fields, and especially fluxes, sustained measurements in time are required to prevent aliasing of the eddy signals into the longer climate scale signals. Our results imply a minimum of 100 biogeochemical-Argo floats are required to monitor the Southern Ocean carbon and heat content and air-sea exchanges on time-scales longer than 90 days. However, an estimate of formal mapping error using the current Argo array implies that in practice even an array of 600 floats (a nominal float density of about 1 every 7° longitude by 3° latitude) will result in nonnegligible uncertainty in estimating climate signals.

  4. Estimation of Stature from Percutaneous Tibia Length of Indigenes of Bekwara Ethnic Group of Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu Godfrey Esomonu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating stature by developing linear regression equations which incorporate the features of fragmented body parts or human skeletal remains has been employed by many forensic anthropologists to establish the identity of victims of mass disaster although all formulas are ethnic, age, and gender specific. The study is aimed at using the percutaneous tibia length (PCTL to deriving a specific regression equation formula which could be used to estimate the stature of adult indigenes of Bekwara ethnic group in Cross River State. A total number of 600 subjects within the age range of 21–45 years were recruited randomly for this research (300 males and 300 females. Observed height and PCTL were measured using the standard anthropometric technique, respectively. Stature was estimated from PCTL using simple regression analysis. On analysis of the data, the mean PCTL for male was found to be 43.60 ± 2.31 cm while that of female was 42.55 ± 2.83 cm. The observed height was 165.80 ± 6.88 cm and 156.70 ± 6.06 cm for male and female, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the male values of the measured parameters were significantly higher than the corresponding female values. The linear regression equations derived for male and female for the estimation of height using the PCTL was found to be 5.289 (PCTL + (−64.78 and 4.230 (TL + (−23.28, respectively. It was concluded that stature can be estimated using the length of an intact mutilated leg. Thus, the data of this study are recommended in anthropological studies for stature estimation among the ethnic group under study.

  5. Empirical evaluation of humpback whale telomere length estimates : Quality control and factors causing variability in the singleplex and multiplex qPCR methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Berube, Martine; Robbins, Jooke; Palsboll, Per J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Telomeres, the protective cap of chromosomes, have emerged as powerful markers of biological age and life history in model and non-model species. The qPCR method for telomere length estimation is one of the most common methods for telomere length estimation, but has received recent

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt γ-ray emission in proton therapy using a specific track length estimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kanawati, W; Létang, J M; Sarrut, D; Freud, N; Dauvergne, D; Pinto, M; Testa, É

    2015-01-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) variance reduction technique is developed for prompt-γ emitters calculations in proton therapy. Prompt-γ emitted through nuclear fragmentation reactions and exiting the patient during proton therapy could play an important role to help monitoring the treatment. However, the estimation of the number and the energy of emitted prompt-γ per primary proton with MC simulations is a slow process. In order to estimate the local distribution of prompt-γ emission in a volume of interest for a given proton beam of the treatment plan, a MC variance reduction technique based on a specific track length estimator (TLE) has been developed. First an elemental database of prompt-γ emission spectra is established in the clinical energy range of incident protons for all elements in the composition of human tissues. This database of the prompt-γ spectra is built offline with high statistics. Regarding the implementation of the prompt-γ TLE MC tally, each proton deposits along its track the expectation of the prompt-γ spectra from the database according to the proton kinetic energy and the local material composition. A detailed statistical study shows that the relative efficiency mainly depends on the geometrical distribution of the track length. Benchmarking of the proposed prompt-γ TLE MC technique with respect to an analogous MC technique is carried out. A large relative efficiency gain is reported, ca. 10 5 . (paper)

  7. A method for estimating age of medieval sub-adults from infancy to adulthood based on long bone length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeau, Charlotte; Friis, Laila; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    To develop a series of regression equations for estimating age from length of long bones for archaeological sub-adults when aging from dental development cannot be performed. Further, to compare derived ages when using these regression equations, and two other methods. A total of 183 skeletal sub-adults from the Danish medieval period, were aged from radiographic images. Linear regression formulae were then produced for individual bones. Age was then estimated from the femur length using three different methods: equations developed in this study, data based on a modern population (Maresh: Human growth and development (1970) pp 155-200), and, lastly, based on archeological data with known ages (Rissech et al.: Forensic Sci Int 180 (2008) 1-9). As growth of long bones is known to be non-linear it was tested if the regression model could be improved by applying a quadratic model. Comparison between estimated ages revealed that the modern data result in lower estimated ages when compared to the Danish regression equations. The estimated ages using the Danish regression equations and the regression equations developed by Rissech et al. (Forensic Sci Int 180 (2007) 1-9) were very similar, if not identical. This indicates that the growth between the two archaeological populations is not that dissimilar. This would suggest that the regression equations developed in this study may potentially be applied to archaeological material outside Denmark as well as later than the medieval period, although this would require further testing. The quadratic equations are suggested to yield more accurate ages then using simply linear regression equations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Park, A Young

    2010-01-01

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  9. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  10. submitter Estimation of stepping motor current from long distances through cable-length-adaptive piecewise affine virtual sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveri, Alberto; Masi, Alessandro; Storace, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a piecewise affine virtual sensor is used for the estimation of the motor-side current of hybrid stepper motors, which actuate the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) collimators at CERN. The estimation is performed starting from measurements of the current in the driver, which is connected to the motor by a long cable (up to 720 m). The measured current is therefore affected by noise and ringing phenomena. The proposed method does not require a model of the cable, since it is only based on measured data and can be used with cables of different length. A circuit architecture suitable for FPGA implementation has been designed and the effects of fixed point representation of data are analyzed.

  11. ESTIMATING A DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH OF STAY AND FUTURE RECIDIVISM IN SERIOUS JUVENILE OFFENDERS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas A.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Schubert, Carol A.; Fagan, Jeffrey; Piquero, Alex R.; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of sanctions on subsequent criminal activity is of central theoretical importance in criminology. A key question for juvenile justice policy is the degree to which serious juvenile offenders respond to sanctions and/or treatment administered by the juvenile court. The policy question germane to this debate is finding the level of confinement within the juvenile justice system that maximizes the public safety and therapeutic benefits of institutional confinement. Unfortunately, research on this issue has been limited with regard to serious juvenile offenders. We use longitudinal data from a large sample of serious juvenile offenders from two large cities to 1) estimate a causal treatment effect of institutional placement, as opposed to probation, on future rate of rearrest and 2) investigate the existence of a marginal effect (i.e., benefit) for longer length of stay once the institutional placement decision had been made. We accomplish the latter by determining a dose-response relationship between the length of stay and future rates of rearrest and self-reported offending. The results suggest that an overall null effect of placement exists on future rates of rearrest or self-reported offending for serious juvenile offenders. We also find that, for the group placed out of the community, it is apparent that little or no marginal benefit exists for longer lengths of stay. Theoretical, empirical, and policy issues are outlined. PMID:20052309

  12. Ventricular cycle length characteristics estimative of prolonged RR interval during atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Biviano, Angelo B; Gambhir, Alok; Einstein, Andrew J; Garan, Hasan

    2014-03-01

    When atrial fibrillation (AF) is incessant, imaging during a prolonged ventricular RR interval may improve image quality. It was hypothesized that long RR intervals could be predicted from preceding RR values. From the PhysioNet database, electrocardiogram RR intervals were obtained from 74 persistent AF patients. An RR interval lengthened by at least 250 ms beyond the immediately preceding RR interval (termed T0 and T1, respectively) was considered prolonged. A two-parameter scatterplot was used to predict the occurrence of a prolonged interval T0. The scatterplot parameters were: (1) RR variability (RRv) estimated as the average second derivative from 10 previous pairs of RR differences, T13-T2, and (2) Tm-T1, the difference between Tm, the mean from T13 to T2, and T1. For each patient, scatterplots were constructed using preliminary data from the first hour. The ranges of parameters 1 and 2 were adjusted to maximize the proportion of prolonged RR intervals within range. These constraints were used for prediction of prolonged RR in test data collected during the second hour. The mean prolonged event was 1.0 seconds in duration. Actual prolonged events were identified with a mean positive predictive value (PPV) of 80% in the test set. PPV was >80% in 36 of 74 patients. An average of 10.8 prolonged RR intervals per 60 minutes was correctly identified. A method was developed to predict prolonged RR intervals using two parameters and prior statistical sampling for each patient. This or similar methodology may help improve cardiac imaging in many longstanding persistent AF patients. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comprimento das estacas e parte do ramo para formação de mudas de pinhão-manso Length of cuttings and the part of the branch section for production of Jatropha seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane L. S. de Lima

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, a propagação do pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas é realizada através de sementes; e em muitas situações a propagação vegetativa é uma importante alternativa para a propagação desta espécie. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar como o comprimento e a parte do ramo de onde se extraem as estacas influenciam a capacidade de enraizamento adventício e de crescimento de mudas de pinhão-manso. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, sendo os fatores três posições da estaca no ramo (apical, mediana e basal e quatro comprimentos de estaca (10, 15, 20 e 25 cm. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e dez estacas por parcela. Aos 70 dias após o estaqueamento foi avaliado o número de brotações e de ramos formados, o comprimento dos ramos, número de folhas, área foliar, número de raízes, massa seca de brotações e massa seca de raízes, cujos resultados indicaram que a posição do ramo em que se extrai a estaca de pinhão-manso (base, meio ou ápice não influencia o crescimento inicial ou a formação das mudas; no entanto, o comprimento da estaca modifica o crescimento inicial das mudas sendo que o maior crescimento é obtido com estacas em torno de 22 cm.Jatropha curcas is traditionally propagated by seed. However, in several situations the vegetative propagation is an important alternative and its technology needs to be developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the length and the portion of the branch from where the cuttings are extracted, influence the rooting and growth capacity of Jatropha cuttings. The treatments were arranged in a 3 x 4 factorial design, with three cutting positions (apical, middle and basal and four cutting lengths (10, 15, 20, and 25 cm. A completely randomized design with four replications and ten cuttings per plot was adopted. At 70 days after planting, the cuttings were evaluated for the number of sprouts and

  14. Growth estimation of mangrove cockle Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Bivalvia: application and evaluation of length-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Flores

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth is one of the key processes in the dynamic of exploited resources, since it provides part of the information required for structured population models. Growth of mangrove cockle, Anadara tuberculosa was estimated through length-based methods (ELEFAN I y NSLCA and using diverse shell length intervals (SLI. The variability of L∞, k and phi prime (Φ` estimates and the effect of each sample were quantified by jackknife techniques. Results showed the same L∞ estimates from ELEFAN I and NSLCA across each SLI used, and all L∞ were within the expected range. On the contrary, k estimates differed between methods. Jackknife estimations uncovered the tendency of ELEFAN I to overestimate k with increases in SLI, and allowed the identification of differences in uncertainty (PE and CV between both methods. The average values of Φ`derived from NSCLA1.5 and length-age sources were similar and corresponded to ranges reported by other authors. Estimates of L∞, k and Φ` from NSCLA1.5 were 85.97mm, 0.124/year and 2.953 with jackknife and 86.36mm de L∞, 0.110/year de k and 2.914 de Φ` without jackknife, respectively. Based on the observed evidence and according to the biology of the species, NSCLA is suggested to be used with jackknife and a SLI of 1.5mm as an ad hoc approach to estimate the growth parameters of mangrove cockle. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 159-170. Epub 2011 March 01.El crecimiento es uno de los procesos clave en la dinámica de los recursos explotados. En este estudio se estimó el crecimiento de la concha prieta Anadara tuberculosa por medio de métodos basados en tallas (ELEFAN I y NSLCA y usando distintos intervalos de clase de talla (ICT. La variabilidad de los estimadores para L∞y k, y el efecto de cada muestra e ICT fueron cuantificados por la técnica de jackknife. ELEFAN I y NSLCA producen una misma estimación de L∞para cada uno de los ICT. Por el contrario, para k ambos métodos estiman diferentes valores. Las

  15. Aerodynamic roughness length estimation from very high-resolution imaging LIDAR observations over the Heihe basin in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Colin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Roughness length of land surfaces is an essential variable for the parameterisation of momentum and heat exchanges. The growing interest in the estimation of the surface turbulent flux parameterisation from passive remote sensing leads to an increasing development of models, and the common use of simple semi-empirical formulations to estimate surface roughness. Over complex surface land cover, these approaches would benefit from the combined use of passive remote sensing and land surface structure measurements from Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR techniques. Following early studies based on LIDAR profile data, this paper explores the use of imaging LIDAR measurements for the estimation of the aerodynamic roughness length over a heterogeneous landscape of the Heihe river basin, a typical inland river basin in the northwest of China. The point cloud obtained from multiple flight passes over an irrigated farmland area were used to separate the land surface topography and the vegetation canopy into a Digital Elevation Model (DEM and a Digital Surface Model (DSM respectively. These two models were then incorporated in two approaches: (i a strictly geometrical approach based on the calculation of the plan surface density and the frontal surface density to derive a geometrical surface roughness; (ii a more aerodynamic approach where both the DEM and DSM are introduced in a Computational Fluid Dynamics model (CFD. The inversion of the resulting 3-D wind field leads to a fine representation of the aerodynamic surface roughness. Examples of the use of these three approaches are presented for various wind directions together with a cross-comparison of results on heterogeneous land cover and complex roughness element structures.

  16. Estimation of axial curvature of anterior sclera: correlation between axial length and anterior scleral curvature as affected by angle kappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Mok; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-10-07

    BACKGROUND: Though the development and fitting of scleral contact lenses are expanding steadily, there is no simple method to provide scleral metrics for scleral contact lens fitting yet. The aim of this study was to establish formulae for estimation of the axial radius of curvature (ARC) of the anterior sclera using ocular biometric parameters that can be easily obtained with conventional devices. A semi-automated stitching method and a computational analysis tool for calculating ARC were developed by using the ImageJ and MATLAB software. The ARC of all the ocular surface points were analyzed from the composite horizontal cross-sectional images of the right eyes of 24 volunteers; these measurements were obtained using anterior segment optical coherence tomography for a previous study (AS-OCT; Visante). Ocular biometric parameters were obtained from the same volunteers with slit-scanning topography and partial coherence interferometry. Correlation analysis was performed between the ARC at 8 mm to the axis line (ARC[8]) and other ocular parameters (including age). With ARC obtained on several nasal and temporal points (7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 mm from the axis line), univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to develop a model for estimating ARC with the help of ocular biometric parameters. Axial length, spherical equivalent, and angle kappa showed correlations with temporal ARC[8] (tARC[8]; Pearson's r = 0.653, -0.579, and -0.341; P = 0.001, 0.015, and 0.015, respectively). White-to-white corneal diameter (WTW) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) showed correlation with nasal ARC[8] (nARC[8]; Pearson's r = -0.492 and -0.461; P = 0.015 and 0.023, respectively). The formulae for estimating scleral curvatures (tARC, nARC, and average ARC) were developed as a function of axial length, ACD, WTW, and distance from the axis line, with good determinant power (72 - 80 %; SPSS ver. 22.0). Angle kappa showed strong

  17. Estimating age from recapture data: integrating incremental growth measures with ancillary data to infer age-at-length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Link, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture–recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated

  18. MAGNETIC QUENCHING OF TURBULENT DIFFUSIVITY: RECONCILING MIXING-LENGTH THEORY ESTIMATES WITH KINEMATIC DYNAMO MODELS OF THE SOLAR CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Nandy, Dibyendu

    2011-01-01

    The turbulent magnetic diffusivity in the solar convection zone is one of the most poorly constrained ingredients of mean-field dynamo models. This lack of constraint has previously led to controversy regarding the most appropriate set of parameters, as different assumptions on the value of turbulent diffusivity lead to radically different solar cycle predictions. Typically, the dynamo community uses double-step diffusivity profiles characterized by low values of diffusivity in the bulk of the convection zone. However, these low diffusivity values are not consistent with theoretical estimates based on mixing-length theory, which suggest much higher values for turbulent diffusivity. To make matters worse, kinematic dynamo simulations cannot yield sustainable magnetic cycles using these theoretical estimates. In this work, we show that magnetic cycles become viable if we combine the theoretically estimated diffusivity profile with magnetic quenching of the diffusivity. Furthermore, we find that the main features of this solution can be reproduced by a dynamo simulation using a prescribed (kinematic) diffusivity profile that is based on the spatiotemporal geometric average of the dynamically quenched diffusivity. This bridges the gap between dynamically quenched and kinematic dynamo models, supporting their usage as viable tools for understanding the solar magnetic cycle.

  19. Intercomparison of methods for the estimation of displacement height and roughness length from single-level eddy covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexander; van de Boer, Anneke; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Moene, Arnold; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    The displacement height d and roughness length z0 are parameters of the logarithmic wind profile and as such these are characteristics of the surface, that are required in a multitude of meteorological modeling applications. Classically, both parameters are estimated from multi-level measurements of wind speed over a terrain sufficiently homogeneous to avoid footprint-induced differences between the levels. As a rule-of thumb, d of a dense, uniform crop or forest canopy is 2/3 to 3/4 of the canopy height h, and z0 about 10% of canopy height in absence of any d. However, the uncertainty of this rule-of-thumb becomes larger if the surface of interest is not "dense and uniform", in which case a site-specific determination is required again. By means of the eddy covariance method, alternative possibilities to determine z0 and d have become available. Various authors report robust results if either several levels of sonic anemometer measurements, or one such level combined with a classic wind profile is used to introduce direct knowledge on the friction velocity into the estimation procedure. At the same time, however, the eddy covariance method to measure various fluxes has superseded the profile method, leaving many current stations without a wind speed profile with enough levels sufficiently far above the canopy to enable the classic estimation of z0 and d. From single-level eddy covariance measurements at one point in time, only one parameter can be estimated, usually z0 while d is assumed to be known. Even so, results tend to scatter considerably. However, it has been pointed out, that the use of multiple points in time providing different stability conditions can enable the estimation of both parameters, if they are assumed constant over the time period regarded. These methods either rely on flux-variance similarity (Weaver 1990 and others following), or on the integrated universal function for momentum (Martano 2000 and others following). In both cases

  20. Cardiac-Specific Conversion Factors to Estimate Radiation Effective Dose From Dose-Length Product in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sigal; Halliburton, Sandra; Thompson, Carla M; Xu, Yanping; Chelliah, Anjali; Jambawalikar, Sachin R; Peng, Boyu; Peters, M Robert; Jacobs, Jill E; Ghesani, Munir; Jang, James J; Al-Khalidi, Hussein; Einstein, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to determine updated conversion factors (k-factors) that would enable accurate estimation of radiation effective dose (ED) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and calcium scoring performed on 12 contemporary scanner models and current clinical cardiac protocols and to compare these methods to the standard chest k-factor of 0.014 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 . Accurate estimation of ED from cardiac CT scans is essential to meaningfully compare the benefits and risks of different cardiac imaging strategies and optimize test and protocol selection. Presently, ED from cardiac CT is generally estimated by multiplying a scanner-reported parameter, the dose-length product, by a k-factor which was determined for noncardiac chest CT, using single-slice scanners and a superseded definition of ED. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor radiation detectors were positioned in organs of anthropomorphic phantoms, which were scanned using all cardiac protocols, 120 clinical protocols in total, on 12 CT scanners representing the spectrum of scanners from 5 manufacturers (GE, Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba). Organ doses were determined for each protocol, and ED was calculated as defined in International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103. Effective doses and scanner-reported dose-length products were used to determine k-factors for each scanner model and protocol. k-Factors averaged 0.026 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 (95% confidence interval: 0.0258 to 0.0266) and ranged between 0.020 and 0.035 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 . The standard chest k-factor underestimates ED by an average of 46%, ranging from 30% to 60%, depending on scanner, mode, and tube potential. Factors were higher for prospective axial versus retrospective helical scan modes, calcium scoring versus coronary CTA, and higher (100 to 120 kV) versus lower (80 kV) tube potential and varied among scanner models (range of average k-factors: 0.0229 to 0.0277 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 ). Cardiac k

  1. Effects of time-series length and gauge network density on rainfall climatology estimates in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, E.; Arevalo, J.; Carmona-Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Despite recent advances in the development of satellite sensors for monitoring precipitation at high spatial and temporal resolutions, the assessment of rainfall climatology still relies strongly on ground-station measurements. The Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) is one of the most popular stations database available for the international community. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of these stations is not always homogeneous and the record length largely varies for each station. This study aimed to evaluate how the number of years recorded in the GHCN stations and the density of the network affect the uncertainties of annual rainfall climatology estimates in Latin America. The method applied was divided in two phases. In the first phase, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate how the number of samples and the characteristics of rainfall regime affect estimates of annual average rainfall. The simulations were performed using gamma distributions with pre-defined parameters, which generated synthetic annual precipitation records. The average and dispersion of the synthetic records were then estimated through the L-moments approach and compared with the original probability distribution that was used to produce the samples. The number of records (n) used in the simulation varied from 10 to 150, reproducing the range of number of years typically found in meteorological stations. A power function, in the form RMSE= f(n) = c.na, where the coefficients were defined as a function of the rainfall statistical dispersion, was applied to fit the errors. In the second phase of the assessment, the results of the simulations were extrapolated to real records obtained by the GHCN over Latin America, creating estimates of errors associated with number of records and rainfall characteristics in each station. To generate a spatially-explicit representation of the uncertainties, the errors in each station were interpolated using the inverse distance

  2. Effects of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development on dendritic length, branching, and spine density in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James P; Suggs, Lisa E; Lusk, Alexandra V; Parker, Matthew O; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T; Akers, Katherine G; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2012-09-01

    Reductions in measures of dendritic morphology in the agranular insular cortex have been identified as consequences of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol in the rat. Motivated by the strong connectivity between this region of frontal cortex and the striatum and a growing body of data linking specific components of the mesocortical/limbic system to effects of ethanol and ethanol self-administration, the current study investigated the effects of moderate fetal ethanol exposure on the dendritic morphology of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in several regions of the striatum. Throughout gestation, pregnant rat dams either consumed a saccharin solution (control) or achieved average daily blood ethanol concentrations of 84 mg% via voluntary consumption of a 5% ethanol solution. The brains of adult male offspring were extracted and processed for Golgi-Cox staining. MSNs from the dorsomedial striatum, dorsolateral striatum and the nucleus accumbens core and shell were sampled for analysis. Relative to saccharin controls, robust reductions in dendritic length and branching, but not spine density, were observed in the shell of the nucleus accumbens in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats. No significant prenatal ethanol effects were found in the other regions of the striatum. These findings suggest that exposure to moderate levels of ethanol in utero can have profound effects on brain regions related to reward processing and provide possible clues relevant to understanding increased self-administration of drugs of abuse in animals exposed to ethanol during brain development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How to Appropriately Calculate Effective Dose for CT Using Either Size-Specific Dose Estimates or Dose-Length Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Samuel L; Mirro, Amy E; Moore, Bria M; Kaufman, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to show how to calculate effective dose in CT using size-specific dose estimates and to correct the current method using dose-length product (DLP). Data were analyzed from 352 chest and 241 abdominopelvic CT images. Size-specific dose estimate was used as a surrogate for organ dose in the chest and abdominopelvic regions. Organ doses were averaged by patient weight-based populations and were used to calculate effective dose by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report 103 method using tissue-weighting factors (EICRP). In addition, effective dose was calculated using population-averaged CT examination DLP for the chest and abdominopelvic region using published k-coefficients (EDLP = k × DLP). EDLP differed from EICRP by an average of 21% (1.4 vs 1.1) in the chest and 42% (2.4 vs 3.4) in the abdominopelvic region. The differences occurred because the published kcoefficients did not account for pitch factor other than unity, were derived using a 32-cm diameter CT dose index (CTDI) phantom for CT examinations of the pediatric body, and used ICRP 60 tissue-weighting factors. Once it was corrected for pitch factor, the appropriate size of CTDI phantom, and ICRP 103 tissue-weighting factors, EDLP improved in agreement with EICRP to better than 7% (1.4 vs 1.3) and 4% (2.4 vs 2.5) for chest and abdominopelvic regions, respectively. Current use of DLP to calculate effective dose was shown to be deficient because of the outdated means by which the k-coefficients were derived. This study shows a means to calculate EICRP using patient size-specific dose estimate and how to appropriately correct EDLP.

  4. Effects of cane length and diameter and judgment type on the constant error ratio for estimated height in blindfolded, visually impaired, and sighted participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Leung, Cherng-Yee; Wang, Hsiu-Feng

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of blindfolded, visually impaired, and sighted individuals to estimate object height as a function of cane length, cane diameter, and judgment type. 48 undergraduate students (ages 20 to 23 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Participants were divided into low-vision, severely myopic, and normal-vision groups. Five stimulus heights were explored with three cane lengths, varying cane diameters, and judgment types. The participants were asked to estimate the stimulus height with or without reference to a standard block. Results showed that the constant error ratio for estimated height improved with decreasing cane length and comparative judgment. The findings were unclear regarding the effect of cane length on haptic perception of height. Implications were discussed for designing environments, such as stair heights, chairs, the magnitude of apertures, etc., for visually impaired individuals.

  5. Optimum sample length for estimating anchovy size distribution and the proportion of juveniles per fishing set for the Peruvian purse-seine fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Joo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The length distribution of catches represents a fundamental source of information for estimating growth and spatio-temporal dynamics of cohorts. The length distribution of caught is estimated based on samples of catched individuals. This work studies the optimum sample size of individuals at each fishing set in order to obtain a representative sample of the length and the proportion of juveniles in the fishing set. For that matter, we use anchovy (Engraulis ringens length data from different fishing sets recorded by observers at-sea from the On-board Observers Program from the Peruvian Marine Research Institute. Finally, we propose an optimum sample size for obtaining robust size and juvenile estimations. Though the application of this work corresponds to the anchovy fishery, the procedure can be applied to any fishery, either for on board or inland biometric measurements.

  6. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis to incorporate age uncertainty in growth curve analysis and estimates of age from length: Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, L.K.; Runge, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Age estimation of individuals is often an integral part of species management research, and a number of ageestimation techniques are commonly employed. Often, the error in these techniques is not quantified or accounted for in other analyses, particularly in growth curve models used to describe physiological responses to environment and human impacts. Also, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive methods to estimate age are needed. This research aims to provide two Bayesian methods to (i) incorporate age uncertainty into an age-length Schnute growth model and (ii) produce a method from the growth model to estimate age from length. The methods are then employed for Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses. After quantifying the uncertainty in the aging technique (counts of ear bone growth layers), we fit age-length data to the Schnute growth model separately by sex and season. Independent prior information about population age structure and the results of the Schnute model are then combined to estimate age from length. Results describing the age-length relationship agree with our understanding of manatee biology. The new methods allow us to estimate age, with quantified uncertainty, for 98% of collected carcasses: 36% from ear bones, 62% from length.

  7. Empirical evaluation of humpback whale telomere length estimates; quality control and factors causing variability in the singleplex and multiplex qPCR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Bérubé, Martine; Robbins, Jooke; Palsbøll, Per J

    2012-09-06

    Telomeres, the protective cap of chromosomes, have emerged as powerful markers of biological age and life history in model and non-model species. The qPCR method for telomere length estimation is one of the most common methods for telomere length estimation, but has received recent critique for being too error-prone and yielding unreliable results. This critique coincides with an increasing awareness of the potentials and limitations of the qPCR technique in general and the proposal of a general set of guidelines (MIQE) for standardization of experimental, analytical, and reporting steps of qPCR. In order to evaluate the utility of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation in non-model species, we carried out four different qPCR assays directed at humpback whale telomeres, and subsequently performed a rigorous quality control to evaluate the performance of each assay. Performance differed substantially among assays and only one assay was found useful for telomere length estimation in humpback whales. The most notable factors causing these inter-assay differences were primer design and choice of using singleplex or multiplex assays. Inferred amplification efficiencies differed by up to 40% depending on assay and quantification method, however this variation only affected telomere length estimates in the worst performing assays. Our results suggest that seemingly well performing qPCR assays may contain biases that will only be detected by extensive quality control. Moreover, we show that the qPCR method for telomere length estimation can be highly precise and accurate, and thus suitable for telomere measurement in non-model species, if effort is devoted to optimization at all experimental and analytical steps. We conclude by highlighting a set of quality controls which may serve for further standardization of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation, and discuss some of the factors that may cause variation in qPCR experiments.

  8. Empirical evaluation of humpback whale telomere length estimates; quality control and factors causing variability in the singleplex and multiplex qPCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Morten

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomeres, the protective cap of chromosomes, have emerged as powerful markers of biological age and life history in model and non-model species. The qPCR method for telomere length estimation is one of the most common methods for telomere length estimation, but has received recent critique for being too error-prone and yielding unreliable results. This critique coincides with an increasing awareness of the potentials and limitations of the qPCR technique in general and the proposal of a general set of guidelines (MIQE for standardization of experimental, analytical, and reporting steps of qPCR. In order to evaluate the utility of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation in non-model species, we carried out four different qPCR assays directed at humpback whale telomeres, and subsequently performed a rigorous quality control to evaluate the performance of each assay. Results Performance differed substantially among assays and only one assay was found useful for telomere length estimation in humpback whales. The most notable factors causing these inter-assay differences were primer design and choice of using singleplex or multiplex assays. Inferred amplification efficiencies differed by up to 40% depending on assay and quantification method, however this variation only affected telomere length estimates in the worst performing assays. Conclusion Our results suggest that seemingly well performing qPCR assays may contain biases that will only be detected by extensive quality control. Moreover, we show that the qPCR method for telomere length estimation can be highly precise and accurate, and thus suitable for telomere measurement in non-model species, if effort is devoted to optimization at all experimental and analytical steps. We conclude by highlighting a set of quality controls which may serve for further standardization of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation, and discuss some of the factors that may cause

  9. Estimated Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Upper Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch in Kansas City, Missouri, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    In the interest of improved public safety during flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, completed a flood-inundation study of the Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road to 63rd Street, of Indian Creek from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, and of Dyke Branch from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation at selected flood stages on the Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch. The results of this study spatially interpolate information provided by U.S. Geological Survey gages, Kansas City Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time gages, and the National Weather Service flood-peak prediction service that comprise the Blue River flood-alert system and are a valuable tool for public officials and residents to minimize flood deaths and damage in Kansas City. To provide public access to the information presented in this report, a World Wide Web site (http://mo.water.usgs.gov/indep/kelly/blueriver) was created that displays the results of two-dimensional modeling between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street, estimated flood-inundation maps for 13 flood stages, the latest gage heights, and National Weather Service stage forecasts for each forecast location within the study area. The results of a previous study of flood inundation on the Blue River from 63rd Street to the mouth also are available. In addition the full text of this report, all tables and maps are available for download (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5068). Thirteen flood-inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for water-surface elevations from 763.8 to 787.8 feet referenced to the Blue River at the 63rd Street Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time stream gage operated by the city of Kansas City, Missouri. Each map is associated with gages at Kenneth Road, Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71

  10. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Jorge A; Haydel, K Farish; Davila, Tania; Desai, Manisha; Bryson, Susan; Haskell, William L; Matheson, Donna; Robinson, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT) algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB), and physical activity (PA). 268 7-11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4-7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points. WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p algorithms (all p algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy.

  11. A track length estimator method for dose calculations in low-energy X-ray irradiations. Implementation, properties and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacci, F.; Delaire, F.; Letang, J.M.; Sarrut, D.; Smekens, F.; Freud, N. [Lyon-1 Univ. - CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Centre Leon Berard (France); Mittone, A.; Coan, P. [LMU Munich (Germany). Dept. of Physics; LMU Munich (Germany). Faculty of Medicine; Bravin, A.; Ferrero, C. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Gasilov, S. [LMU Munich (Germany). Dept. of Physics

    2015-05-01

    The track length estimator (TLE) method, an 'on-the-fly' fluence tally in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, recently implemented in GATE 6.2, is known as a powerful tool to accelerate dose calculations in the domain of low-energy X-ray irradiations using the kerma approximation. Overall efficiency gains of the TLE with respect to analogous MC were reported in the literature for regions of interest in various applications (photon beam radiation therapy, X-ray imaging). The behaviour of the TLE method in terms of statistical properties, dose deposition patterns, and computational efficiency compared to analogous MC simulations was investigated. The statistical properties of the dose deposition were first assessed. Derivations of the variance reduction factor of TLE versus analogous MC were carried out, starting from the expression of the dose estimate variance in the TLE and analogous MC schemes. Two test cases were chosen to benchmark the TLE performance in comparison with analogous MC: (i) a small animal irradiation under stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy conditions and (ii) the irradiation of a human pelvis during a cone beam computed tomography acquisition. Dose distribution patterns and efficiency gain maps were analysed. The efficiency gain exhibits strong variations within a given irradiation case, depending on the geometrical (voxel size, ballistics) and physical (material and beam properties) parameters on the voxel scale. Typical values lie between 10 and 103, with lower levels in dense regions (bone) outside the irradiated channels (scattered dose only), and higher levels in soft tissues directly exposed to the beams.

  12. Selection criteria for scoring amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) positively affect the reliability of population genetic parameter estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Doris; Poncet, Bénédicte N; Manel, Stéphanie; Rioux, Delphine; Gielly, Ludovic; Taberlet, Pierre; Gugerli, Felix

    2010-04-01

    A reliable data set is a fundamental prerequisite for consistent results and conclusions in population genetic studies. However, marker scoring of genetic fingerprints such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) is a highly subjective procedure, inducing inconsistencies owing to personal or laboratory-specific criteria. We applied two alternative marker selection algorithms, the newly developed script scanAFLP and the recently published AFLPScore, to a large AFLP genome scan to test how population genetic parameters and error rates were affected. These results were confronted with replicated random selections of marker subsets. We show that the newly developed marker selection criteria reduced the mismatch error rate and had a notable influence on estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation. Both effects are likely to influence biological inference. For example, genetic diversity (HS) was 29% lower while genetic differentiation (FST) was 8% higher when applying scanAFLP compared with AFLPScore. Likewise, random selections of markers resulted in substantial deviations of population genetic parameters compared with the data sets including specific selection criteria. These randomly selected marker sets showed surprisingly low variance among replicates. We conclude that stringent marker selection and phenotype calling reduces noise in the data set while retaining patterns of population genetic structure.

  13. Volume of myocardium perfused by coronary artery branches as estimated from 3D micro-CT images of rat hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Patricia E.; Naessens, Lauren C.; Seaman, Catherine A.; Reyes, Denise A.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2000-04-01

    Average myocardial perfusion is remarkably consistent throughout the heart wall under resting conditions and the velocity of blood flow is fairly reproducible from artery to artery. Based on these observations, and the fact that flow through an artery is the product of arterial cross-sectional area and blood flow velocity, we would expect the volume of myocardium perfused to be proportional to the cross-sectional area of the coronary artery perfusing that volume of myocardium. This relationship has been confirmed by others in pigs, dogs and humans. To test the body size-dependence of this relationship we used the hearts from rats, 3 through 25 weeks of age. The coronary arteries were infused with radiopaque microfil polymer and the hearts scanned in a micro- CT scanner. Using these 3D images we measured the volume of myocardium and the arterial cross-sectional area of the artery that perfused that volume of myocardium. The average constant of proportionality was found to be 0.15 +/- 0.08 cm3/mm2. Our data showed no statistically different estimates of the constant of proportionality in the rat hearts of different ages nor between the left and right coronary arteries. This constant is smaller than that observed in large animals and humans, but this difference is consistent with the body mass-dependence on metabolic rate.

  14. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Banda

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB, and physical activity (PA.268 7-11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4-7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA, moderate (MPA, and vigorous (VPA PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points.WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p < .0001, but did not vary significantly by epoch length when using the ≥ 20 minute consecutive zero or Choi WT algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001. Across all epoch lengths, minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA also varied significantly across all sets of activity cut-points with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001.The common practice of converting WT algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy.

  15. Step-Detection and Adaptive Step-Length Estimation for Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning at Various Walking Speeds Using a Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ngoc-Huynh; Truong, Phuc Huu; Jeong, Gu-Min

    2016-09-02

    We propose a walking distance estimation method based on an adaptive step-length estimator at various walking speeds using a smartphone. First, we apply a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based smoother on the acceleration data collected by the smartphone to remove the interference signals. Then, we analyze these data using a set of step-detection rules in order to detect walking steps. Using an adaptive estimator, which is based on a model of average step speed, we accurately obtain the walking step length. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, we examine the distance estimation for four different distances and three speed levels. The experimental results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms conventional estimation methods in terms of accuracy.

  16. Empirical evaluation of humpback whale telomere length estimates; quality control and factors causing variability in the singleplex and multiplex qPCR methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Bérubé, Martine; Robbins, Jooke

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Telomeres, the protective cap of chromosomes, have emerged as powerful markers of biological age and life history in model and non-model species. The qPCR method for telomere length estimation is one of the most common methods for telomere length estimation, but has received recent...... critique for being too error-prone and yielding unreliable results. This critique coincides with an increasing awareness of the potentials and limitations of the qPCR technique in general and the proposal of a general set of guidelines (MIQE) for standardization of experimental, analytical, and reporting...... steps of qPCR. In order to evaluate the utility of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation in non-model species, we carried out four different qPCR assays directed at humpback whale telomeres, and subsequently performed a rigorous quality control to evaluate the performance of each assay. RESULTS...

  17. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  18. Asteroseismology of old open clusters with Kepler: direct estimate of the integrated red giant branch mass-loss in NGC 6791 and 6819

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglio, A.; Brogaard, Karsten Frank; Stello, D.

    2012-01-01

    Mass-loss of red giant branch (RGB) stars is still poorly determined, despite its crucial role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Thanks to the recent detection of solar-like oscillations in G–K giants in open clusters with Kepler, we can now directly determine stellar masses...... for a statistically significant sample of stars in the old open clusters NGC 6791 and 6819. The aim of this work is to constrain the integrated RGB mass-loss by comparing the average mass of stars in the red clump (RC) with that of stars in the low-luminosity portion of the RGB [i.e. stars with L≲L(RC)]. Stellar...... masses were determined by combining the available seismic parameters νmax and Δν with additional photometric constraints and with independent distance estimates. We measured the masses of 40 stars on the RGB and 19 in the RC of the old metal-rich cluster NGC 6791. We find that the difference between...

  19. Estimation of Length-Weight Relationship and Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 from Two Different Culture Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine and compare the proximate composition and length weight relationship of C. gariepinus from two culture systems (earthen and concrete ponds. The fish samples were collected from three fish farms with same cultural condition in different areas of Obio-akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Result on the length- weight relationship revealed that C.gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a total length of 15.50- 49.00cm with a mean of 32.71cm and weight of 150-625g, while total length of C. gariepinus reared in the earthen pond ranged from 19.90-58.0cm with a mean of 39.8cm and weight of 195-825g. The T- test shows that the total length of earthen pond were significantly higher than the concrete tank and the weight in the earthen pond was significantly higher than the concrete tank. Parameters of proximate composition analysed were moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and fiber from the fish flesh. Protein content showed a significantly higher in the earthen ponds than the concrete tanks. Ash contents varied from 1.5±1.66-7.4±0.67% in the concrete tanks and were significantly higher than the earthen ponds which ranged from 3.1±0.94-4.5±2.11%. Lipid was significantly higher in earthen ponds than concrete tanks. Generally, the two culture systems have a significant influence on length–weight relationship and nutritional value of C. gariepinus. However, C. gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a heavier body weight than earthen pond and also C. gariepinus reared in earthen pond had highest nutritive values than the concrete tank.

  20. 'Length'at Length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    He was interested to know how `large' is the set of numbers x for which the series is convergent. Here large refers to its length. But his set is not in the class ♢. Here is another problem discussed by Borel. Consider .... have an infinite collection of pairs of new shoes and want to choose one shoe from each pair. We have an ...

  1. Estimating the hemodynamic influence of variable main body-to-iliac limb length ratios in aortic endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Xenakis, Antonios; Georgiadis, George S

    2018-02-01

    We conducted a computational study to assess the hemodynamic impact of variant main body-to-iliac limb length (L1/L2) ratios on certain hemodynamic parameters acting on the endograft (EG) either on the normal bifurcated (Bif) or the cross-limb (Cx) fashion. A customary bifurcated 3D model was computationally created and meshed using the commercially available ANSYS ICEM (Ansys Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA) software. The total length of the EG, was kept constant, while the L1/L2 ratio ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 in the Bif and Cx reconstructed EG models. The compliance of the graft was modeled using a Fluid Structure Interaction method. Important hemodynamic parameters such as pressure drop along EG, wall shear stress (WSS) and helicity were calculated. The greatest pressure decrease across EG was calculated in the peak systolic phase. With increasing L1/L2 it was found that the Pressure Drop was increasing for the Cx configuration, while decreasing for the Bif. The greatest helicity (4.1 m/s2) was seen in peak systole of Cx with ratio of 1.5 whereas its greatest value (2 m/s2) was met in peak systole in the Bif with the shortest L1/L2 ratio (0.3). Similarly, the maximum WSS value was highest (2.74Pa) in the peak systole for the 1.5 L1/L2 of the Cx configuration, while the maximum WSS value equaled 2 Pa for all length ratios of the Bif modification (with the WSS found for L1/L2=0.3 being marginally higher). There was greater discrepancy in the WSS values for all L1/L2 ratios of the Cx bifurcation compared to Bif. Different L1/L2 rations are shown to have an impact on the pressure distribution along the entire EG while the length ratio predisposing to highest helicity or WSS values is also determined by the iliac limbs pattern of the EG. Since current custom-made EG solutions can reproduce variability in main-body/iliac limbs length ratios, further computational as well as clinical research is warranted to delineate and predict the hemodynamic and clinical effect of variable

  2. Estimating length of stay in publicly-funded residential and nursing care homes: a retrospective analysis using linked administrative data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steventon Adam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about how long people stay in care homes is needed to plan services, as length of stay is a determinant of future demand for care. As length of stay is proportional to cost, estimates are also needed to inform analysis of the long-term cost effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing admissions to care homes. But estimates are rarely available due to the cost of repeatedly surveying individuals. Methods We used administrative data from three local authorities in England to estimate the length of publicly-funded care homes stays beginning in 2005 and 2006. Stays were classified into nursing home, permanent residential and temporary residential. We aggregated successive placements in different care home providers and, by linking to health data, across periods in hospital. Results The largest group of stays (38.9% were those intended to be temporary, such as for rehabilitation, and typically lasted 4 weeks. For people admitted to permanent residential care, median length of stay was 17.9 months. Women stayed longer than men, while stays were shorter if preceded by other forms of social care. There was significant variation in length of stay between the three local authorities. The typical person admitted to a permanent residential care home will cost a local authority over £38,000, less payments due from individuals under the means test. Conclusions These figures are not apparent from existing data sets. The large cost of care home placements suggests significant scope for preventive approaches. The administrative data revealed complexity in patterns of service use, which should be further explored as it may challenge the assumptions that are often made.

  3. Maximum likelihood inference of small trees in the presence of long branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sarah L; Goldman, Nick

    2014-09-01

    The statistical basis of maximum likelihood (ML), its robustness, and the fact that it appears to suffer less from biases lead to it being one of the most popular methods for tree reconstruction. Despite its popularity, very few analytical solutions for ML exist, so biases suffered by ML are not well understood. One possible bias is long branch attraction (LBA), a regularly cited term generally used to describe a propensity for long branches to be joined together in estimated trees. Although initially mentioned in connection with inconsistency of parsimony, LBA has been claimed to affect all major phylogenetic reconstruction methods, including ML. Despite the widespread use of this term in the literature, exactly what LBA is and what may be causing it is poorly understood, even for simple evolutionary models and small model trees. Studies looking at LBA have focused on the effect of two long branches on tree reconstruction. However, to understand the effect of two long branches it is also important to understand the effect of just one long branch. If ML struggles to reconstruct one long branch, then this may have an impact on LBA. In this study, we look at the effect of one long branch on three-taxon tree reconstruction. We show that, counterintuitively, long branches are preferentially placed at the tips of the tree. This can be understood through the use of analytical solutions to the ML equation and distance matrix methods. We go on to look at the placement of two long branches on four-taxon trees, showing that there is no attraction between long branches, but that for extreme branch lengths long branches are joined together disproportionally often. These results illustrate that even small model trees are still interesting to help understand how ML phylogenetic reconstruction works, and that LBA is a complicated phenomenon that deserves further study. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  4. Asteroseismology of old open clusters with Kepler: direct estimate of the integrated red giant branch mass-loss in NGC 6791 and 6819

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miglio, A.; Brogaard, K.; Stello, D.; Chaplin, W.J.; D'Antona, F.; Montalbán, J.; Basu, S.; Bressan, A.; Grundahl, F.; Pinsonneault, M.; Serenelli, A.M.; Elsworth, Y.; Hekker, S.; Kallinger, T.; Mosser, B.; Ventura, P.; Bonanno, A.; Noels, A.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Szabo, R.; Li, J.; McCauliff, S.; Middour, C.K.; Kjeldsen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mass-loss of red giant branch (RGB) stars is still poorly determined, despite its crucial role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Thanks to the recent detection of solar-like oscillations in G-K giants in open clusters with Kepler, we can now directly determine stellar masses for a

  5. A Knowledge-Based Step Length Estimation Method Based on Fuzzy Logic and Multi-Sensor Fusion Algorithms for a Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Lai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for pedestrian navigation has increased along with the rapid progress in mobile and wearable devices. This study develops an accurate and usable Step Length Estimation (SLE method for a Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR system with features including a wide range of step lengths, a self-contained system, and real-time computing, based on the multi-sensor fusion and Fuzzy Logic (FL algorithms. The wide-range SLE developed in this study was achieved by using a knowledge-based method to model the walking patterns of the user. The input variables of the FL are step strength and frequency, and the output is the estimated step length. Moreover, a waist-mounted sensor module has been developed using low-cost inertial sensors. Since low-cost sensors suffer from various errors, a calibration procedure has been utilized to improve accuracy. The proposed PDR scheme in this study demonstrates its ability to be implemented on waist-mounted devices in real time and is suitable for the indoor and outdoor environments considered in this study without the need for map information or any pre-installed infrastructure. The experiment results show that the maximum distance error was within 1.2% of 116.51 m in an indoor environment and was 1.78% of 385.2 m in an outdoor environment.

  6. Isotopically sensitive branching and its effect on the observed intramolecular isotope effects in cytochrome P-450 catalyzed reactions: a new method for the estimation of intrinsic isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.P.; Korzekwa, K.R.; Rettie, A.E.; Trager, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Two selectively deuterated n-octanes (octane-1- 2 H 3 and octane-1,2,3- 2 H 7 ) were synthesized and subjected to hydroxylation by phenobarbital-induced rat liver microsomes and purified cytochrome P-450b. The results of these experiments provide evidence which clarifies the interplay between a branched reaction pathway and the equilibration of an enzyme-substrate complex, in determining the magnitude of an observed isotope effect. An equation is derived that allows limits to placed on the intrinsic isotope effect. The equation is based on the observed isotope effect and the regioselectivity of a branch reaction pathway, catalyzed by an enzyme that forms two products via a single enzyme-substrate complex. The intrinsic isotope effect for the formation of 1-octanol was determined by this equation to lie between 9.5 and 9.8

  7. Automatic landslide length and width estimation based on the geometric processing of the bounding box and the geomorphometric analysis of DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculiţǎ, Mihai

    2016-08-01

    The morphology of landslides is influenced by the slide/flow of the material downslope. Usually, the distance of the movement of the material is greater than the width of the displaced material (especially for flows, but also the majority of slides); the resulting landslides have a greater length than width. In some specific geomorphologic environments (monoclinic regions, with cuesta landforms type) or as is the case for some types of landslides (translational slides, bank failures, complex landslides), for the majority of landslides, the distance of the movement of the displaced material can be smaller than its width; thus the landslides have a smaller length than width. When working with landslide inventories containing both types of landslides presented above, the analysis of the length and width of the landslides computed using usual geographic information system techniques (like bounding boxes) can be flawed. To overcome this flaw, I present an algorithm which uses both the geometry of the landslide polygon minimum oriented bounding box and a digital elevation model of the landslide topography for identifying the long vs. wide landslides. I tested the proposed algorithm for a landslide inventory which covers 131.1 km2 of the Moldavian Plateau, eastern Romania. This inventory contains 1327 landslides, of which 518 were manually classified as long and 809 as wide. In a first step, the difference in elevation of the length and width of the minimum oriented bounding box is used to separate long landslides from wide landslides (long landslides having the greatest elevation difference along the length of the bounding box). In a second step, the long landslides are checked as to whether their length is greater than the length of flow downslope (estimated with a flow-routing algorithm), in which case the landslide is classified as wide. By using this approach, the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve value for the classification of the long vs. wide

  8. Length of Distal Resection Margin after Partial Mesorectal Excision for Upper Rectal Cancer Estimated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondeven, Peter; Hagemann-Madsen, Rikke Hjarnø; Bro, Lise

    BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer requires surgery for cure. Partial mesorectal excision (PME) is suggested for tumours in the upper rectum and implies transection of the mesorectum perpendicular to the bowel a minimum of 5 cm below the tumour. Reports have shown distal mesorectal tumour spread of up to 5...... cm from the primary tumour; therefore, guidelines for cancer of the upper rectum recommend PME with a distal resection margin (DRM) of at least 5 cm or total mesorectal excision (TME). PME exerts a hazard of removing less than 5 cm - leaving microscopic tumour cells that have spread in the mesorectum....... Studies at our department have shown inadequate DRM in 75 % of the patients estimated by post-operative MRI of the pelvis and by measurements of the histopathological specimen. Correspondingly, a higher rate of local recurrence in patients surgically treated with PME for rectal cancer - compared to TME...

  9. The application of total vertical projections for the unbiased estimation of the length of blood vessels and other structures by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N; Howard, C V; Cruz-Orive, L M; Edwards, R H

    1991-01-01

    A new stereological method has recently been developed to estimate the total length of a bounded curve in 3D from a sample of projections about a vertical axis. Unlike other methods based on serial section reconstructions, the new method is unbiased (i.e., it has zero systematic error). A basic requirement, not difficult to fulfill in many cases, is that the masking of one structure by another is not appreciable. The application of the new method to real curvilinear structures using a clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imager is illustrated. The first structure measured was a twisted water-filled glass tube of known length. The accuracy of the method was assessed: With six vertical projections, the tube length was measured to within 2% of the true value. The second example was a living bonsai tree, and the third was a clinical application of MR angiography. The possibility of applying the method to other scientific disciplines, for example, the monitoring of plant root growth, is discussed.

  10. Branching geodesics in normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2002-01-01

    We study branching extremals of length functionals on normed spaces. This is a natural generalization of the Steiner problem in normed spaces. We obtain criteria for a network to be extremal under deformations that preserve the topology of networks as well as under deformations with splitting. We discuss the connection between locally shortest networks and extremal networks. In the important particular case of the Manhattan plane, we get a criterion for a locally shortest network to be extremal

  11. Long chain branching of PLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liangliang; Xu, Yuewen; Fahnhorst, Grant; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2017-05-01

    A trifunctional aziridine linker, trimethylolpropane tris(2-methyl-1-aziridinepropionate) (TTMAP), was melt blended with linear polylactic acid (PLA) to make star branched PLA. Adding pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) led to long chain branched (LCB) PLA. Mixing torque evolution during melt processing revealed high reactivity of aziridine with the carboxyl end group on PLA and an incomplete reaction of PMDA with the hydroxyl end group. Star-shaped PLA exhibited higher viscosity but no strain hardening in extensional flow while LCB PLA showed significant extensional hardening. Excess TTMAP in the branching reaction resulted in gel formation, which led to failure at low strain in extension. PMDA conversion was estimated based on gelation theory. The strain rate dependence of extensional hardening indicated that the LCB PLA had a low concentration of long chain branched molecules with an H-shaped topology. Unlike current methods used to branch PLA, free radical chemistry or use of an epoxy functional oligomers, our branching strategy produced strain hardening with less increase in shear viscosity. This study provides guidelines for design of polymers with low shear viscosity, which reduces pressure drop in extrusion, combined with strong extensional hardening, which enhances performance in processes that involve melt stretching.

  12. [Estimating nonstructural carbon content of tree crown considering its spatial variability: A case study on Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-yan; Wang, Chuan-kuan

    2015-08-01

    Using Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica as test materials, we examined the variability in nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) concentrations in the branches with different basal diameters with a branch analysis method and explored potential errors in estimating the crown-scale NSC content introduced from various sampling protocols. The results showed that organs significantly influenced the crown NSC concentrations for both species. The mean concentrations of the sum of soluble sugars and starch (TNC) of the leaves, new twigs, old branches, and dead branches were 17.6%, 12.6%, 5.7% and 2.9%, respectively. Most of the NSC concentrations in leaves and new twigs varied insignificantly with basal diameter, age, length and height of the branch. However, the NSC concentration in old branches increased significantly with decreasing the basal diameter, age and length of the branch, and with increasing the relative height of the branch. Among the branch traits, basal diameter was the best predictor for the NSC concentration of the old branch (the R2 between 0.87 and 0.95). The mean TNC contents of leaves, new branches, and old branches for the two species accounted for 28%, 2% and 70% of the crown TNC content, respectively. Considering the effect of the spatial variability in the estimation of NSC content, we recommend the sampling protocol that applies the NSC concentration of new twigs and old branches with a diameter of 3 cm to up-scale the crown NSC content as a simple and practical method.

  13. Accurate Bond Lengths to Hydrogen Atoms from Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction by Including Estimated Hydrogen ADPs and Comparison to Neutron and QM/MM Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Birger; Lübben, Jens; Mebs, Stefan; Wagner, Armin; Luger, Peter; Flaig, Ralf

    2017-04-03

    Amino acid structures are an ideal test set for method-development studies in crystallography. High-resolution X-ray diffraction data for eight previously studied genetically encoding amino acids are provided, complemented by a non-standard amino acid. Structures were re-investigated to study a widely applicable treatment that permits accurate X-H bond lengths to hydrogen atoms to be obtained: this treatment combines refinement of positional hydrogen-atom parameters with aspherical scattering factors with constrained "TLS+INV" estimated hydrogen anisotropic displacement parameters (H-ADPs). Tabulated invariom scattering factors allow rapid modeling without further computations, and unconstrained Hirshfeld atom refinement provides a computationally demanding alternative when database entries are missing. Both should incorporate estimated H-ADPs, as free refinement frequently leads to over-parameterization and non-positive definite H-ADPs irrespective of the aspherical scattering model used. Using estimated H-ADPs, both methods yield accurate and precise X-H distances in best quantitative agreement with neutron diffraction data (available for five of the test-set molecules). This work thus solves the last remaining problem to obtain such results more frequently. Density functional theoretical QM/MM computations are able to play the role of an alternative benchmark to neutron diffraction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  16. A semi-analytical method to estimate the effective slip length of spreading spherical-cap shaped droplets using Cox theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörner, M.; Cai, X.; Alla, H.; Yue, P.

    2018-03-01

    The Cox–Voinov law on dynamic spreading relates the difference between the cubic values of the apparent contact angle (θ) and the equilibrium contact angle to the instantaneous contact line speed (U). Comparing spreading results with this hydrodynamic wetting theory requires accurate data of θ and U during the entire process. We consider the case when gravitational forces are negligible, so that the shape of the spreading drop can be closely approximated by a spherical cap. Using geometrical dependencies, we transform the general Cox law in a semi-analytical relation for the temporal evolution of the spreading radius. Evaluating this relation numerically shows that the spreading curve becomes independent from the gas viscosity when the latter is less than about 1% of the drop viscosity. Since inertia may invalidate the made assumptions in the initial stage of spreading, a quantitative criterion for the time when the spherical-cap assumption is reasonable is derived utilizing phase-field simulations on the spreading of partially wetting droplets. The developed theory allows us to compare experimental/computational spreading curves for spherical-cap shaped droplets with Cox theory without the need for instantaneous data of θ and U. Furthermore, the fitting of Cox theory enables us to estimate the effective slip length. This is potentially useful for establishing relationships between slip length and parameters in numerical methods for moving contact lines.

  17. Biodosimetry estimation using the ratio of the longest:shortest length in the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) method applying autocapture and automatic image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jorge E; Romero, Ivonne; Gregoire, Eric; Martin, Cécile; Lamadrid, Ana I; Voisin, Philippe; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; García, Omar

    2014-09-01

    The combination of automatic image acquisition and automatic image analysis of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) spreads was tested as a rapid biodosimeter protocol. Human peripheral lymphocytes were irradiated with (60)Co gamma rays in a single dose of between 1 and 20 Gy, stimulated with phytohaemaglutinin and incubated for 48 h, division blocked with Colcemid, and PCC-induced by Calyculin A. Images of chromosome spreads were captured and analysed automatically by combining the Metafer 4 and CellProfiler platforms. Automatic measurement of chromosome lengths allows the calculation of the length ratio (LR) of the longest and the shortest piece that can be used for dose estimation since this ratio is correlated with ionizing radiation dose. The LR of the longest and the shortest chromosome pieces showed the best goodness-of-fit to a linear model in the dose interval tested. The application of the automatic analysis increases the potential use of the PCC method for triage in the event of massive radiation causalities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  18. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...

  19. The evolutionary rates of HCV estimated with subtype 1a and 1b sequences over the ORF length and in different genomic regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manqiong Yuan

    Full Text Available Considerable progress has been made in the HCV evolutionary analysis, since the software BEAST was released. However, prior information, especially the prior evolutionary rate, which plays a critical role in BEAST analysis, is always difficult to ascertain due to various uncertainties. Providing a proper prior HCV evolutionary rate is thus of great importance.176 full-length sequences of HCV subtype 1a and 144 of 1b were assembled by taking into consideration the balance of the sampling dates and the even dispersion in phylogenetic trees. According to the HCV genomic organization and biological functions, each dataset was partitioned into nine genomic regions and two routinely amplified regions. A uniform prior rate was applied to the BEAST analysis for each region and also the entire ORF. All the obtained posterior rates for 1a are of a magnitude of 10(-3 substitutions/site/year and in a bell-shaped distribution. Significantly lower rates were estimated for 1b and some of the rate distribution curves resulted in a one-sided truncation, particularly under the exponential model. This indicates that some of the rates for subtype 1b are less accurate, so they were adjusted by including more sequences to improve the temporal structure.Among the various HCV subtypes and genomic regions, the evolutionary patterns are dissimilar. Therefore, an applied estimation of the HCV epidemic history requires the proper selection of the rate priors, which should match the actual dataset so that they can fit for the subtype, the genomic region and even the length. By referencing the findings here, future evolutionary analysis of the HCV subtype 1a and 1b datasets may become more accurate and hence prove useful for tracing their patterns.

  20. Estimation of the Latitude, the Gnomon`s Length and Position About Sinbeop-Jipyeong-Ilgu in the Late of Joseon Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lee, Yong Sam; Kim, Sang Hyuk; Choi, Won-Ho; Ham, Seon Young

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the characteristics of a horizontal sundial from the Joseon Dynasty were investigated. Korea’s Treasure No. 840 (T840) is a Western-style horizontal sundial where hour-lines and solar-term-lines are engraved. The inscription of this sundial indicates that the latitude (altitude of the north celestial pole) is 37° 39´, but the gnomon is lost. In the present study, the latitude of the sundial and the length of the gnomon were estimated based only on the hour-lines and solar-termlines of the horizontal sundial. When statistically calculated from the convergent point obtained by extending the hourlines, the latitude of this sundial was 37° 15´ ± 26´, which showed a 24´ difference from the record of the inscription. When it was also assumed that a convergent point is changeable, the estimation of the sundial’s latitude was found to be sensitive to the variation of this point. This study found that T840 used a vertical gnomon, that is, perpendicular to the horizontal plane, rather than an inclined triangular gnomon, and a horn-shaped mark like a vertical gnomon is cut on its surface. The length of the gnomon engraved on the artifact was 43.1 mm, and in the present study was statistically calculated as 43.7 ± 0.7 mm. In addition, the position of the gnomon according to the original inscription and our calculation showed an error of 0.3 mm.

  1. Estimation of the Latitude, the Gnomon’s Length and Position About Sinbeop-Jipyeong-Ilgu in the Late of Joseon Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Hee Mihn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the characteristics of a horizontal sundial from the Joseon Dynasty were investigated. Korea’s Treasure No. 840 (T840 is a Western-style horizontal sundial where hour-lines and solar-term-lines are engraved. The inscription of this sundial indicates that the latitude (altitude of the north celestial pole is 37° 39´, but the gnomon is lost. In the present study, the latitude of the sundial and the length of the gnomon were estimated based only on the hour-lines and solar-termlines of the horizontal sundial. When statistically calculated from the convergent point obtained by extending the hourlines, the latitude of this sundial was 37° 15´ ± 26´, which showed a 24´ difference from the record of the inscription. When it was also assumed that a convergent point is changeable, the estimation of the sundial’s latitude was found to be sensitive to the variation of this point. This study found that T840 used a vertical gnomon, that is, perpendicular to the horizontal plane, rather than an inclined triangular gnomon, and a horn-shaped mark like a vertical gnomon is cut on its surface. The length of the gnomon engraved on the artifact was 43.1 mm, and in the present study was statistically calculated as 43.7 ± 0.7 mm. In addition, the position of the gnomon according to the original inscription and our calculation showed an error of 0.3 mm.

  2. Apple fruit diameter and length estimation by using the thermal and sunshine hours approach and its application to the digital orchard management information system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    Full Text Available In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012 of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT, an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT, an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit.

  3. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  4. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  5. Right ventricular volume estimation with cine MRI; A comparative study between Simpson's rule and a new modified area-length method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawachika, Takashi (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-04-01

    To quantitate right ventricular (RV) volumes easily using cine MRI, we developed a new method called 'modified area-length method (MOAL method)'. To validate this method, we compared it to the conventional Simpson's rule. Magnetom H15 (Siemens) was used and 6 normal volunteers and 21 patients with various RV sizes were imaged with ECG triggered gradient echo method (FISP, TR 50 ms, TE 12 ms, slice thickness 9 mm). For Simpson's rule transverse images of 12 sequential views which cover whole heart were acquired. For the MOAL method, two orthogonal views were imaged. One was the sagittal view which includes RV outflow tract and the other was the coronal view defined from the sagittal image to cover the whole RV. From these images the area (As, Ac) of RV and the longest distance between RV apex and pulmonary valve (Lmax) were determined. By correlating RV volumes measured by Simpson's rule to As*Ac/Lmax the RV volume could be estimated as follows: V=0.85*As*Ac/Lmax+4.55. Thus the MOAL method demonstrated excellent accuracy to quantitate RV volume and the acquisition time abbreviated to one fifth compared with Simpson's rule. This should be a highly promising method for routine clinical application. (author).

  6. A QUANTITATIVE METHOD FOR ANALYSING 3-D BRANCHING IN EMBRYONIC KIDNEYS: DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNIQUE AND PRELIMINARY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fricout

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The normal human adult kidney contains between 300,000 and 1 million nephrons (the functional units of the kidney. Nephrons develop at the tips of the branching ureteric duct, and therefore ureteric duct branching morphogenesis is critical for normal kidney development. Current methods for analysing ureteric branching are mostly qualitative and those quantitative methods that do exist do not account for the 3- dimensional (3D shape of the ureteric "tree". We have developed a method for measuring the total length of the ureteric tree in 3D. This method is described and preliminary data are presented. The algorithm allows for performing a semi-automatic segmentation of a set of grey level confocal images and an automatic skeletonisation of the resulting binary object. Measurements of length are automatically obtained, and numbers of branch points are manually counted. The final representation can be reconstructed by means of 3D volume rendering software, providing a fully rotating 3D perspective of the skeletonised tree, making it possible to identify and accurately measure branch lengths. Preliminary data shows the total length estimates obtained with the technique to be highly reproducible. Repeat estimates of total tree length vary by just 1-2%. We will now use this technique to further define the growth of the ureteric tree in vitro, under both normal culture conditions, and in the presence of various levels of specific molecules suspected of regulating ureteric growth. The data obtained will provide fundamental information on the development of renal architecture, as well as the regulation of nephron number.

  7. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  8. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  9. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  11. Modeling branching in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.; Vos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant.

  12. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    2012-01-24

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  14. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Palsson: Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands Biennial Bottom Trawl Survey estimates of catch per unit effort, biomass, population at length, and associated tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOA/AI Bottom Trawl Estimate database contains abundance estimates for the Alaska Biennial Bottom Trawl Surveys conducted in the Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian...

  15. Determination of the length and position of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) by correlation of external measurements with combined radiographic and manometric estimations in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, M.A.; Waterman, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fifty DSH cats were studied radiographically and a highly significant linear correlation was found between the length of the oesophagus measured to the diaphragmatic line on the radiographs and the externally measured distance from the lower jaw incisor teeth to the anterior border of the head of 10th rib. A subsequent manometric study utilizing this correlation in 40 cats suggests that the functional lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) is situated almost at the level of the diaphragm in the cat. Significant differences were found between the length of the LOS in cats anaesthetized with ketamine compared to alphaxalone-alphadolone or xylazine-ketamine-atropine. The mean lengths of the LOS was 1.42 +/- 0.3 cm. The findings of this study indicate that external measurements can be used to position catheters for accurate oesophageal manometry in the cat

  16. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  17. BranchAnalysis2D/3D automates morphometry analyses of branching structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Aditya; Muñoz-Estrada, Jesús; Bourgeois, Justin R; Nalwalk, Julia W; Pumiglia, Kevin M; Sheen, Volney L; Ferland, Russell J

    2018-01-15

    Morphometric analyses of biological features have become increasingly common in recent years with such analyses being subject to a large degree of observer bias, variability, and time consumption. While commercial software packages exist to perform these analyses, they are expensive, require extensive user training, and are usually dependent on the observer tracing the morphology. To address these issues, we have developed a broadly applicable, no-cost ImageJ plugin we call 'BranchAnalysis2D/3D', to perform morphometric analyses of structures with branching morphologies, such as neuronal dendritic spines, vascular morphology, and primary cilia. Our BranchAnalysis2D/3D algorithm allows for rapid quantification of the length and thickness of branching morphologies, independent of user tracing, in both 2D and 3D data sets. We validated the performance of BranchAnalysis2D/3D against pre-existing software packages using trained human observers and images from brain and retina. We found that the BranchAnalysis2D/3D algorithm outputs results similar to available software (i.e., Metamorph, AngioTool, Neurolucida), while allowing faster analysis times and unbiased quantification. BranchAnalysis2D/3D allows inexperienced observers to output results like a trained observer but more efficiently, thereby increasing the consistency, speed, and reliability of morphometric analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  19. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging

  20. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...

  1. In utero exposure to diethylstilboestrol or 4-n-nonylphenol in rats: Number of Sertoli cells, diameter and length of seminiferous, tubules estimated by stereological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Majken; Pilegaard, Kirsten; Ladefoged, Ole

    2002-01-01

    The effects on testis weight and histopathology were studied in 11-day-old male Wistar rats after prenatal exposure to peanut oil (control), diethylstilboestrol 30 mug/kg b.wt./day, or 4-n-nonylphenol 75 mg/kg b.wt./day from gestational day 11 to 18. Additionally, the diameter and length of semin......The effects on testis weight and histopathology were studied in 11-day-old male Wistar rats after prenatal exposure to peanut oil (control), diethylstilboestrol 30 mug/kg b.wt./day, or 4-n-nonylphenol 75 mg/kg b.wt./day from gestational day 11 to 18. Additionally, the diameter and length...

  2. Estimation of stature and length of limb segments in children and adolescents from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamyan, Davit O.; Gazarian, Aram; Braillon, Pierre M.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropometric standards vary among different populations, and renewal of these reference values is necessary. To produce formulae for the assessment of limb segment lengths. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of 413 Caucasian children and adolescents (170 boys, 243 girls) aged from 6 to 18 years were retrospectively analysed. Body height and the lengths of four long bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) were measured. The validity (concurrent validity) and reproducibility (intraobserver reliability) of the measurement technique were tested. High linear correlations (r > 0.9) were found between the mentioned five longitudinal measures. Corresponding linear regression equations for the most important relationships were derived. The tests of validity and reproducibility revealed a good degree of precision of the applied technique. The reference formulae obtained from the analysis of whole-body DEXA scans will be useful for anthropologists, and forensic and nutrition specialists, as well as for prosthetists and paediatric orthopaedic surgeons. (orig.)

  3. Accurate Bond Lengths to Hydrogen Atoms from Single?Crystal X?ray Diffraction by Including Estimated Hydrogen ADPs and Comparison to Neutron and QM/MM Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Birger; L?bben, Jens; Mebs, Stefan; Wagner, Armin; Luger, Peter; Flaig, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Amino acid structures are an ideal test set for method?development studies in crystallography. High?resolution X?ray diffraction data for eight previously studied genetically encoding amino acids are provided, complemented by a non?standard amino acid. Structures were re?investigated to study a widely applicable treatment that permits accurate X?H bond lengths to hydrogen atoms to be obtained: this treatment combines refinement of positional hydrogen?atom parameters with aspherical s...

  4. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers

  5. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M., E-mail: john.dealy@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C4 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  6. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a single...... state in each iteration to expanding a set of states. We prove that it is generally sound and optimal for two A* implementations and show how a new BDD technique called branching partitioning can be used to efficiently expand sets of states. The framework is general. It applies to any heuristic function...... framework. The algorithms outperform the ordinary A* algorithm in almost all domains. In addition, they can improve the complexity of A* exponentially and often dominate both A* and blind BDD-based search by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, they have substantially better performance than BDDA...

  7. Bisexual branching diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytnik, Leonid; Adler, Robert J.

    1993-12-01

    The limiting behavior of large systems of two types of Brownian particles undergoing bisexual branching is studied. Particles of each type generate individuals of both types, and the respective branching law is asymptotically critical for the two dimensional system, while being subcritical for each individual population. The main result of the paper is that the limiting behavior of suitably scaled sums and differences of the two populations is given by a pair of measure and distribution valued processes which, together, determine the limit behaviors of the individual populations. Proofs are based on the martingale problem approach to general state space processes. The fact that the limit involves both measure and distribution valued processes requires the development of some new methodologies of independent interest.

  8. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  9. Large sample approximations of probabilities of correct evolutionary tree estimation and biases of maximum likelihood estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Simulation studies have been the main way in which properties of maximum likelihood estimation of evolutionary trees from aligned sequence data have been studied. Because trees are unusual parameters and because fitting is computationally intensive, such studies have a heavy computational cost. We develop an asymptotic framework that can be used to obtain probabilities of correct topological reconstruction and study other properties of likelihood methods when a single split is poorly resolved. Simulations suggest that while approximations to log likelihood differences are better for less well-resolved topologies, approximations to probabilities of correct reconstruction are generally good. We used the approximations to investigate biases in estimation and found that maximum likelihood estimation has a long-branch-repels bias. This differs from the long-branch-attracts bias often reported in the literature because it is a different form of bias. For maximum likelihood estimation, usually long-branch-attracts bias results arise in the presence of model misspecification and are a form of statistical inconsistency where the estimated tree converges upon an incorrect tree with long edges together. Here, by bias we mean a tendency to favour a particular topology when data are generated from a four-taxon star tree. While we find a tendency to favour the tree with long branches apart, with more extreme long edges, a strong small sequence-length long-branch-attracts bias overwhelms the long-branch-repels bias. The long-branch-repels bias generalizes to five and six taxa in the sense that subtrees containing taxa that are all distant from the poorly resolved split repel each other.

  10. Measurement of Tau Lepton Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, N.

    2003-12-19

    We present {tau}{sup -} lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample of {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} events, we examine the resonance structure of the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270) and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the {tau}{sup -} lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, {mu}, {pi}, and K.

  11. A review of statistical estimators for risk-adjusted length of stay: analysis of the Australian and new Zealand intensive care adult patient data-base, 2008–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background For the analysis of length-of-stay (LOS) data, which is characteristically right-skewed, a number of statistical estimators have been proposed as alternatives to the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression with log dependent variable. Methods Using a cohort of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 2008–2009, 12 different methods were used for estimation of intensive care (ICU) length of stay. These encompassed risk-adjusted regression analysis of firstly: log LOS using OLS, linear mixed model [LMM], treatment effects, skew-normal and skew-t models; and secondly: unmodified (raw) LOS via OLS, generalised linear models [GLMs] with log-link and 4 different distributions [Poisson, gamma, negative binomial and inverse-Gaussian], extended estimating equations [EEE] and a finite mixture model including a gamma distribution. A fixed covariate list and ICU-site clustering with robust variance were utilised for model fitting with split-sample determination (80%) and validation (20%) data sets, and model simulation was undertaken to establish over-fitting (Copas test). Indices of model specification using Bayesian information criterion [BIC: lower values preferred] and residual analysis as well as predictive performance (R2, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), mean absolute error [MAE]) were established for each estimator. Results The data-set consisted of 111663 patients from 131 ICUs; with mean(SD) age 60.6(18.8) years, 43.0% were female, 40.7% were mechanically ventilated and ICU mortality was 7.8%. ICU length-of-stay was 3.4(5.1) (median 1.8, range (0.17-60)) days and demonstrated marked kurtosis and right skew (29.4 and 4.4 respectively). BIC showed considerable spread, from a maximum of 509801 (OLS-raw scale) to a minimum of 210286 (LMM). R2 ranged from 0.22 (LMM) to 0.17 and the CCC from 0.334 (LMM) to 0.149, with MAE 2.2-2.4. Superior residual behaviour was established for

  12. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  13. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V₅ and V₆). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V₅ and V₆.

  14. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  15. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  16. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notion...... which, in the general parametric case, corresponds to finding suitable parameter valuations such that one system can approximately simulate another. Although the distance considers a potentially infinite set of transition sequences we demonstrate that there exists an upper bound on the length...

  17. Software development for estimating the conversion factor (k-factor) at suitable scan areas, relating the dose length product to the effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Syouichi; Kato, Ryouichi; Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We developed a k-factor-creator software (kFC) that provides the k-factor for CT examination in an arbitrary scan area. It provides the k-factor from the effective dose and dose-length product by Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners and CT-EXPO. To assess the reliability, we compared the kFC-evaluated k-factors with those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 102. To confirm the utility, the effective dose determined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was evaluated by a phantom study and k-factor studies. In the CCTA, the effective doses were 5.28 mSv in the phantom study, 2.57 mSv (51%) in the k-factor of ICRP, and 5.26 mSv (1%) in the k-factor of the kFC. Effective doses can be determined from the kFC-evaluated k-factors in suitable scan areas. Therefore, we speculate that the flexible k-factor is useful in clinical practice, because CT examinations are performed in various scan regions. (authors)

  18. The importance of record length in estimating the magnitude of climatic changes: an example using 175 years of lake ice-out dates in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that lake ice-out (break-up) dates in the Northern Hemisphere are useful indicators of late winter/early spring climate change. Trends in lake ice-out dates in New England, USA, were analyzed for 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 year periods ending in 2008. More than 100 years of ice-out data were available for 19 of the 28 lakes in this study. The magnitude of trends over time depends on the length of the period considered. For the recent 25-year period, there was a mix of earlier and later ice-out dates. Lake ice-outs during the last 50 years became earlier by 1.8 days/decade (median change for all lakes with adequate data). This is a much higher rate than for longer historical periods; ice-outs became earlier by 0.6 days/decade during the last 75 years, 0.4 days/ decade during the last 100 years, and 0.6 days/decade during the last 125 years. The significance of trends was assessed under the assumption of serial independence of historical ice-out dates and under the assumption of short and long term persistence. Hypolimnion dissolved oxygen (DO) levels are an important factor in lake eutrophication and coldwater fish survival. Based on historical data available at three lakes, 32 to 46 % of the interannual variability of late summer hypolimnion DO levels was related to ice-out dates; earlier ice-outs were associated with lower DO levels.

  19. Integrating over Higgs branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Shatashvili, S.

    2000-01-01

    We develop some useful techniques for integrating over Higgs branches in supersymmetric theories with 4 and 8 supercharges. In particular, we define a regularized volume for hyperkaehler quotients. We evaluate this volume for certain ALE and ALF spaces in terms of the hyperkaehler periods. We also reduce these volumes for a large class of hyperkaehler quotients to simpler integrals. These quotients include complex coadjoint orbits, instanton moduli spaces on R 4 and ALE manifolds, Hitchin spaces, and moduli spaces of (parabolic) Higgs bundles on Riemann surfaces. In the case of Hitchin spaces the evaluation of the volume reduces to a summation over solutions of Bethe ansatz equations for the non-linear Schroedinger system. We discuss some applications of our results. (orig.)

  20. Reducing the Cost of Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    technique that branch. We will examine some alternative pipeline Scomputers use to reach higher single- processo structures, determine why they impact...fast compare can be done during the ID phase of on the MIPS de : .i..’ough the use of compare-and- the instruction as soon as the register operands are...squashing is Compare Needed 2 3 never done when branches are taken. Table 6 shows the breakdown of comparisons used in Squashing control : the branch

  1. Can the branching exponent reliably relate the branching indexes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2015), s. 80-84 ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching exponent * branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.294, year: 2015

  2. Evaluating a non-destructive method for calibrating tree biomass equations derived from tree branching architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacFarlane, D.W.; Kuyah, S.; Mulia, R.; Dietz, J.; Muthuri, C.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2014-01-01

    Functional branch analysis (FBA) is a promising non-destructive alternative to the standard destructive method of tree biomass equation development. In FBA, a theoretical model of tree branching architecture is calibrated with measurements of tree stems and branches to estimate the coefficients of

  3. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  4. Modelling primary branch growth based on a multilevel nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to random effects, various time series correlation structures were evaluated to account for residual autocorrelation, and the AR(1) and ARMA(1,1) structures were selected for the branch diameter and length growth models, respectively. Model validation results using an independent data set confirmed that ...

  5. Fractional baud-length coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

  6. Synthesis and prospects of application of branched polyarylenes in electroluminescent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, A I; Kushakova, N C; Shapovalov, A V; Babushkina, M A; Khotina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Published data on branched organic polymers — polyarylenes possessing photo- and electroluminescence properties — are summarized. Methods for the synthesis of these polymers are presented. Various structures of branched polymers are described, and the relationship between the structure and spectral properties of polymers is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of controlling the length of connecting aromatic conjugated units during the synthesis of branched polymers and, consequently, tuning the emission wavelength. The bibliography includes 206 references

  7. Cambial activity in dry and rainy season on branches from woody species growing in Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen R. Marcati; Silvia R. Machado; Diego Sotto Podadera; Natalia O. Totti de Lara; Fabio Bosio; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal cambial activity was investigated in one- to three-year-old branch modules (branch constructional units) of ten woody species from cerrado sensu stricto, a savanna-like ecosystem, of southernBrazil. Relationships between cambial activity and environmental factors (precipitation, temperature,day length) and leaf production were tested using...

  8. Ontogenetic modulation of branch size, shape, and biomechanics produces diversity across habitats in the Bursera simaruba clade of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Aguirre-Hernández, Rebeca; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    Organismal size and shape inseparably interact with tissue biomechanical properties. It is therefore essential to understand how size, shape, and biomechanics interact in ontogeny to produce morphological diversity. We estimated within species branch length-diameter allometries and reconstructed the rates of ontogenetic change along the stem in mechanical properties across the simaruba clade in the tropical tree genus Bursera, measuring 376 segments from 97 branches in nine species in neotropical dry to rain forest. In general, species with stiffer materials had longer, thinner branches, which became stiffer more quickly in ontogeny than their counterparts with more flexible materials. We found a trend from short stature and flexible tissues to tall statures and stiff tissues across an environmental gradient of increasing water availability, likely reflecting a water storage-mechanical support tradeoff. Ontogenetic variation in size, shape, and mechanics results in diversity of habits, for example, rapid length extension, sluggish diameter expansion, and flexible tissues results in a liana, as in Bursera instabilis. Even species of similar habit exhibited notable changes in tissue mechanical properties with increasing size, illustrating the inseparable relationship between organismal proportions and their tissue mechanics in the ontogeny and evolution of morphological diversity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  10. Evaluation of sampling strategies to estimate crown biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna P Poudel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Depending on tree and site characteristics crown biomass accounts for a significant portion of the total aboveground biomass in the tree. Crown biomass estimation is useful for different purposes including evaluating the economic feasibility of crown utilization for energy production or forest products, fuel load assessments and fire management strategies, and wildfire modeling. However, crown biomass is difficult to predict because of the variability within and among species and sites. Thus the allometric equations used for predicting crown biomass should be based on data collected with precise and unbiased sampling strategies. In this study, we evaluate the performance different sampling strategies to estimate crown biomass and to evaluate the effect of sample size in estimating crown biomass. Methods Using data collected from 20 destructively sampled trees, we evaluated 11 different sampling strategies using six evaluation statistics: bias, relative bias, root mean square error (RMSE, relative RMSE, amount of biomass sampled, and relative biomass sampled. We also evaluated the performance of the selected sampling strategies when different numbers of branches (3, 6, 9, and 12 are selected from each tree. Tree specific log linear model with branch diameter and branch length as covariates was used to obtain individual branch biomass. Results Compared to all other methods stratified sampling with probability proportional to size estimation technique produced better results when three or six branches per tree were sampled. However, the systematic sampling with ratio estimation technique was the best when at least nine branches per tree were sampled. Under the stratified sampling strategy, selecting unequal number of branches per stratum produced approximately similar results to simple random sampling, but it further decreased RMSE when information on branch diameter is used in the design and estimation phases. Conclusions Use of

  11. Measurement of tau lepton branching fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, Neil Allen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-09-30

    We present τ- lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample of τ- → vτK-π+π- events, we examine the resonance structure of the K-π+π- system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for τ- → vτK$-\\atop{1}$(1270) and τ- → vτK$-\\atop{1}$(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the τ- lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, μ, π, and K.

  12. Structure and Hydration of Highly-Branched, Monodisperse Phytoglycogen Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Jonathan D; Atkinson, John; Papp-Szabo, Erzsebet; Stanley, Christopher; Diallo, Souleymane O; Perticaroli, Stefania; Baylis, Benjamin; Mahon, Perry; Ehlers, Georg; Katsaras, John; Dutcher, John R

    2016-03-14

    Phytoglycogen is a naturally occurring polysaccharide nanoparticle made up of extensively branched glucose monomers. It has a number of unusual and advantageous properties, such as high water retention, low viscosity, and high stability in water, which make this biomaterial a promising candidate for a wide variety of applications. In this study, we have characterized the structure and hydration of aqueous dispersions of phytoglycogen nanoparticles using neutron scattering. Small angle neutron scattering results suggest that the phytoglycogen nanoparticles behave similar to hard sphere colloids and are hydrated by a large number of water molecules (each nanoparticle contains between 250% and 285% of its mass in water). This suggests that phytoglycogen is an ideal sample in which to study the dynamics of hydration water. To this end, we used quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) to provide an independent and consistent measure of the hydration number, and to estimate the retardation factor (or degree of water slow-down) for hydration water translational motions. These data demonstrate a length-scale dependence in the measured retardation factors that clarifies the origin of discrepancies between retardation factor values reported for hydration water using different experimental techniques. The present approach can be generalized to other systems containing nanoconfined water.

  13. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  14. Surgical anatomy of the axillary nerve branches to the deltoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leechavengvongs, Somsak; Teerawutthichaikit, Tanawit; Witoonchart, Kiat; Uerpairojkit, Chairoj; Malungpaishrope, Kanchai; Suppauksorn, Sunikom; Chareonwat, Boonsong

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the innervation of the posterior deltoid muscle by the anterior branch of the axillary nerve have been reported. The objective of this study is to clarify the anatomy of the axillary nerve branches to the deltoid muscle. One hundred and twenty-nine arms (68 right and 61 left) from 88 embalmed cadavers (83 male and 46 female) were included in the study. The anterior and posterior branches of the axillary nerve were identified and their lengths were measured from the point of emergence from the axillary nerve to their terminations in the deltoid muscle. In all cases, the axillary nerves split into two branches (anterior and posterior) within the quadrangular space and none split within the deltoid muscle. In all specimens, the anterior and middle parts of the deltoid muscle received their nerve supplies from the anterior branch of the axillary nerve. The posterior part of the deltoid muscle was supplied only by the anterior branch of the axillary nerve in 2.3% of the specimens, from the posterior branch in 8.5%, and from both branches in 89.1%. There were two sub-branches of the anterior branch in 4.7% of the specimens. The anterior branch of the axillary nerve supplied not only the anterior and middle parts of the deltoid muscle but also the posterior part in most cases (91.5%). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Asymmetric Branching in Biological Resource Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, Alexander Byers

    There is a remarkable relationship between an organism's metabolic rate (resting power consumption) and the organism's mass. It may be a universal law of nature that an organism's resting metabolic rate is proportional to its mass to the power of 3/4. This relationship, known as Kleiber's Law, appears to be valid for both plants and animals. This law is important because it implies that larger organisms are more efficient than smaller organisms, and knowledge regarding metabolic rates are essential to a multitude of other fields in ecology and biology. This includes modeling the interactions of many species across multiple trophic levels, distributions of species abundances across large spatial landscapes, and even medical diagnostics for respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies. Previous models of vascular networks that seek to identify the origin of metabolic scaling have all been based on the unrealistic assumption of perfectly symmetric branching. In this dissertation I will present a theory of asymmetric branching in self-similar vascular networks (published by Brummer et al. in [9]). The theory shows that there can exist a suite of vascular forms that result in the often observed 3/4 metabolic scaling exponent of Kleiber's Law. Furthermore, the theory makes predictions regarding major morphological features related to vascular branching patterns and their relationships to metabolic scaling. These predictions are suggestive of evolutionary convergence in vascular branching. To test these predictions, I will present an analysis of real mammalian and plant vascular data that shows: (i) broad patterns in vascular networks across entire animal kingdoms and (ii) within these patterns, plant and mammalian vascular networks can be uniquely distinguished from one another (publication in preparation by Brummer et al.). I will also present results from a computational study in support of point (i). Namely, that asymmetric branching may be the optimal strategy to

  16. Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.

  17. Single Crystalline Cadmium Sulfide Nanowires with Branched Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qingyi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report the synthesis of branched single crystal CdS nanowires. This branched CdS nanostructure is prepared by a simple surfactant-directing method, which is of particular interest as it uses readily available reagents and provides a convenient route to high-yield single crystal nanowires but with branched shape. These branched nanowires have an average diameter of about 40 nm and length up to several micrometers. A possible mechanism has been proposed and the addition of surfactant dodecylthiol into the two mixed-solvents would play an importance effect on the structure of the product. Based on the mechanism, by controlling the synthesis conditions, such as the ratios between the surfactant, inorganic solvent, and organic solvent, other kinds of nanostructures based on CdS nanowires were also prepared. Photoluminescence (PL measurement reveals that the branched CdS nanowires have a strong emission at about 700 nm which might be due to its special structure.

  18. Branching ratio and growth of tree-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, K; Woldenberg, M J

    1986-01-01

    Dichotomously branching trees were generated by computer using random terminal and random segmental growth. The branching ratio (Rb) of such a tree during growth oscillates periodically as new branches are added. The magnitude of the oscillations diminishes as the tree enlarges and Rb converges towards an expected value. This phenomenon was investigated using the reverse of the growth process, that is by terminal or segmental subtraction of branches from existing trees. These were either computer generated trees or mammalian bronchial tree data. The oscillations of Rb thus obtained were similar to those obtained during growth and were used to calculate convergent values of Rb. In addition, an estimate of convergent Rb was obtained from the mean of the maximum and minimum Rb of the first oscillation occurring when the least number of branches had been subtracted. Values of Rb obtained by these methods were compared with those obtained by taking the antilogarithm of the slope of the regression of log number of branches against order. With large trees the results are similar, but with smaller trees a more reliable Rb is given by the means of the oscillations. We find that Rb values from the bronchial trees are different from those generated by random segmental growth and are not always in good agreement with random terminal growth. Some other growth process must therefore be operative in the bronchial tree.

  19. Equações de volume para galhos de espécies em diferentes grupos de valor econômico em uma Floresta Ombrófila Mista / Selection of mathematical equations to estimate the volume of branches for diferent groups of economic value in an Araucaria Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geedre Adriano Borsoi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi testar equações matemáticas e estimar o volume de galhos para espécies de três grupos de valor econômico em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, situada na região nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foi realizada a cubagem rigorosa dos galhos de 287 árvores-amostra. Além dos galhos de cada árvore selecionada, o restante do fuste comercial (resíduo foi considerado na determinação do volume total de galhos. As árvores-amostra selecionadas foram separadas e classificadas em grupos de valor econômico. Dez modelos volumétricos foram testados, sendo que para a seleção do melhor modelo foram analisados o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o coeficiente de variação; os desvios médios relativos, desvio absoluto relativo, o valor ponderado e a distribuição gráfica dos valores residuais. A divisão da floresta em grupos de valor comercial mostrou-se eficiente no ajuste de equações matemáticas. As equações selecionadas para estimar o volume de galhos foram: “1 de Meyer”, para o grupo de baixo valor; a “5 de Spurr”, para o grupo de médio valor, a “2 de Meyer – modificada”, para o grupo de alto valor comercial; e a “equação 3, de Naslund – modificada”, para a floresta.AbstractThe objective of this study was to test mathematical equations, and estimate the volume of branches for groups of three species of economic value in an area of Araucaria Forest, located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul. Rigorous scaling of branches of 287 sample trees were performed. Besides considering the branches of each tree selected, the rest of the commercial tree trunks (residue were taken into account for the determination of the total amount of branches. The selected sample trees were separated and classified into groups of economic value. Ten volumetric models were tested. For selecting the best model, the analysis focused on the determination coefficient, the

  20. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  1. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  2. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. PERSONALISED DENTURES WITH BRANCHING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Puneet; Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: While the basic process of making dentures has chang ed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help labor atories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value t o patients. Unlike the conventional “linear” methods which foll ow specific steps in a cookbook fashion, the Branching Technique is a dynamic conce pt which can be adjusted to meet the clinical needs of each patient. Thi...

  4. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  5. Modern prospects of development of branch of solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchkina, Veronika

    2017-10-01

    Advantages of solar energy for modern companies are evident already. Article describes mechanism of the solar electricity generation. Process of production of solar modules with appliance of the modern technologies of sun energy production. The branch of solar energy “green energy” become advanced in Russia and has a stable demand. Classification of investments on the different stages of construction projects of solar power plants and calculation of their economic efficiency. Studying of introduction of these technologies allows to estimate the modern prospects of development of branch of solar power.

  6. Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Velasco, Miguel; Martinez, Rodrigo; Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Contains papers presented at the Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications (WBPA09), held in Badajoz, Spain, April 20-23, 2009, which deal with theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory

  7. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daqiu; Gong, Saijie; Hao, Zhaojun; Meng, Jiasong; Tao, Jun

    2015-10-14

    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the "wedding flower". However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ) application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application.

  8. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiu Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application.

  9. Anatomical traits associated with absorption and mycorrhizal colonization are linked to root branch order in twenty-three Chinese temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dali; Xia, Mengxue; Wei, Xing; Chang, Wenjing; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zhengquan

    2008-01-01

    * Different portions of tree root systems play distinct functional roles, yet precisely how to distinguish roots of different functions within the branching fine-root system is unclear. * Here, anatomy and mycorrhizal colonization was examined by branch order in 23 Chinese temperate tree species of both angiosperms and gymnosperms forming ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular-mycorrhizal associations. * Different branch orders showed marked differences in anatomy. First-order roots exhibited primary development with an intact cortex, a high mycorrhizal colonization rate and a low stele proportion, thus serving absorptive functions. Second and third orders had both primary and secondary development. Fourth and higher orders showed mostly secondary development with no cortex or mycorrhizal colonization, and thus have limited role in absorption. Based on anatomical traits, it was estimated that c. 75% of the fine-root length was absorptive, and 68% was mycorrhizal, averaged across species. * These results showed that: order predicted differences in root anatomy in a relatively consistent manner across species; anatomical traits associated with absorption and mycorrhizal colonization occurred mainly in the first three orders; the single diameter class approach may have overestimated absorptive root length by 25% in temperate forests.

  10. Properties of Confined Star-Branched and Linear Chains. A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romiszowski, P.; Sikorski, A.

    2004-01-01

    A model of linear and star-branched polymer chains confined between two parallel and impenetrable surfaces was built. The polymer chains were restricted to a simple cubic lattice. Two macromolecular architectures of the chain: linear and star branched (consisted of f = 3 branches of equal length) were studied. The excluded volume was the only potential introduced into the model (the athermal system). Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using a sampling algorithm based on chain's local changes of conformation. The simulations were carried out at different confinement conditions: from light to high chain's compression. The scaling of chain's size with the chain length was studied and discussed. The influence of the confinement and the macromolecular architecture on the shape of a chain was studied. The differences in the shape of linear and star-branched chains were pointed out. (author)

  11. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  12. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  13. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    OpenAIRE

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, sho...

  14. Action of a diffusible target-derived chemoattractant on cortical axon branch induction and directed growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Lopez-Mascaraque, L; Heffner, C D; O'Leary, D D

    1994-10-01

    Cortical axons innervate their brainstem target, the basilar pons, by the initiation and extension of collateral branches interstitially along their length. To address whether a diffusible pons-derived chemoattractant controls these events, we used cocultures in collagen matrices and time-lapse microscopy. Pontine explants enhanced by 5-fold the de novo initiation of transient branches along cortical axons; most branches were directed toward pons. Of the branches extended toward pons, 2%-3% were stabilized; those extended away were not. Pontine explants also enhanced the stable bifurcation of growth cones and prompted directional changes by growth cone turning and collateral extension. These effects were distance dependent and mimicked by pons-conditioned medium. This evidence indicates that the pons activity promotes branch initiation interstitially along cortical axons, a novel property for a chemoattractant, and provides a directional cue for their growth. These findings suggest that the pons chemoattractant serves as a diffusible target-recognition molecule.

  15. The effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seeds and branches of Euonymus fortunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Yan; Inner Mongolia Agriculture Univ., Huhhot; Zhang Guosheng; Lu Renqiang; Pan Qinghua

    2006-01-01

    Seeds and plant branches of Euonymus fortunei were irradiated with 60 Co γ-ray. The results showed that after irradiation, seed germination rate, emergence rate and surviving rate were restrained, and it was negatively correlated with irradiation dose increasing significantly. The first euphylis period was delayed compared with control. Seedling height decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Semi-lethal dose of Euonymus fortunei seeds was 128.56 Gy. Branch irradiation could cause significantly number and length reduced, and it is correlated with irradiation dose increasing. The semi-lethal dose for Euonymus fortunei branches was 95.54 Gy. (authors)

  16. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  17. Crack analysis in main steam branch connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churier-Bossennec, H.; Faidy, C.; Ignaccolo, S.; Proix, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Welded pipe connections in main steam line may contain defaults in the weld region. These flaws are modelized as cracks in order to analyse their stability. Their shapes and positions are strongly variable; parametric computations are then very useful. An other need is to look for the critical crack, i.e. the minimum length and the worst position of the crack which lead to instability. Simplified methods had been developed, in order to analyse easily and quickly cracks stability. These ones are based on stress intensity factors, determined from stresses values in branch connections without defaults. 3D finite element computations are then needed, for any loading, to provide stresses used in the analyse. These results are stored in a database. An user friend software, named MSPIQ, has been developed: it is based on these data. The user gives the cracks dimensions and positions, and MSPIQ provides elastic Stress Intensity Factors, Kj (with plastic correction) for any physical loading of the line. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  18. Effective elastic properties of sintered materials with branched cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedelinski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The aim of work is analysis of sintered materials with branched cracks growing from the voids situated at corners of fibers. The material is modelled as a two-dimensional linear-elastic structure using the boundary element method (BEM). The materials without voids and with voids having different shapes are considered. The influence of lengths of cracks and shapes of voids on stress intensity factors (SIF) and effective elastic properties (the Young modulus and the Poisson ratio) are studied. The overall properties of the sintered materials are determined by considering the representative volume element (RVE) with large number of branched cracks. The sensitivity of effective elastic properties on boundary conditions imposed on the RVE is studied.

  19. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  20. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than...

  1. A New Formula to Estimate the Length of Right Upper Extremity Vein from Elbow Crease to Carina Calculated by Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Insertion through Right Basilic Vein Puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Eui Yong; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Sung Hye; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Kwan Seop; Yoon, Dae Young; Im, Hyoung June

    2012-01-01

    To measure the length of the upper extremity vein between the elbow crease and the carina (elbow crease to carina length, ECL), to facilitate the appropriate positioning of the tip of the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). A total of 124 patients (64 men and 60 women; mean age 65.2 ± 15.4 years; range, 21-90 years) inserted with PICC through the right basilic vein under fluoroscopy were included in this retrospective study. The ECL was determined as follows: ECL = (distance from elbow crease to puncture site) + (the catheter length of PICC) - (distance from carina to catheter tip on post-procedural chest radiograph). We analyzed the relationship between ECL and patient height. The mean ECL through right basilic vein was 42.07 ±4.03 cm (27.5 to 52.2 cm). ECL was found to be significantly correlated with patient height: ECL (cm) = 0.24 X patient height (cm) + 3.75. The formula developed in our study would be helpful for predicting the optimal catheter length during a blind bedside procedure of PICC via the right basilic vein.

  2. A New Formula to Estimate the Length of Right Upper Extremity Vein from Elbow Crease to Carina Calculated by Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Insertion through Right Basilic Vein Puncture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Eui Yong; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Sung Hye; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Kwan Seop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dae Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangdong Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym University Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To measure the length of the upper extremity vein between the elbow crease and the carina (elbow crease to carina length, ECL), to facilitate the appropriate positioning of the tip of the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). A total of 124 patients (64 men and 60 women; mean age 65.2 {+-} 15.4 years; range, 21-90 years) inserted with PICC through the right basilic vein under fluoroscopy were included in this retrospective study. The ECL was determined as follows: ECL = (distance from elbow crease to puncture site) + (the catheter length of PICC) - (distance from carina to catheter tip on post-procedural chest radiograph). We analyzed the relationship between ECL and patient height. The mean ECL through right basilic vein was 42.07 {+-}4.03 cm (27.5 to 52.2 cm). ECL was found to be significantly correlated with patient height: ECL (cm) = 0.24 X patient height (cm) + 3.75. The formula developed in our study would be helpful for predicting the optimal catheter length during a blind bedside procedure of PICC via the right basilic vein.

  3. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  4. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  5. Clinical characteristics of external iliac artery branch injury in pelvic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke; Maeda, Shigenobu; Ishida, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Toru; Yoshikawa, Jun

    2017-11-01

    The clinical characteristics of an injury of external iliac artery branches in blunt pelvic trauma have not yet been sufficiently studied. We evaluated the relationship between injury characteristics and the presence of an injury to external iliac artery branches in blunt pelvic trauma. A retrospective review of patients admitted with blunt pelvic trauma was conducted over an 11-year period. Charts were reviewed for age, gender, injury characteristics, injury severity score, length of stay in the intensive care unit, transfusion requirements, and fracture pattern. Of 286 blunt pelvic trauma patients, 90 patients (31%) underwent pelvic angiography. Of those patients, 10 (11%) had the injuries of the branches of external iliac artery and 88 (97%) had the injuries of the branches of internal iliac artery. Those patients with external iliac artery branch injuries were significantly associated with hemodynamic instability, when compared to those without external iliac artery branch injuries. There were no significant differences between the patients with and without external iliac artery branch injury with regard to the anatomical characteristics of pelvic trauma. Blunt pelvic trauma with hemodynamic instability may be associated with concomitant external iliac artery branch injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Out of the 320 male sheep examined, 87(27.2%) were infected, while 9(19.1%) of the 47 females examined were infected (Table 2). Infection varied from one abattoir to another. Age related distribution of P. cervi is shown in Table 3. Out of 356 adult sheep (>2yrs) examined, 35. Full Length Research Article. 12 ...

  7. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment.......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... with known values, the accuracy of the soVBGF parameter estimation was evaluated. The results indicate that both optimisation approaches are capable of finding high scoring solutions, yet settings regarding the initial restructuring process for LFQ bin scoring (i.e. "moving average,") and the fixing...

  8. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  9. ACPSEM (NZ Branch) annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The 1998 annual meeting of the New Zealand Branch of the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine was held at the Christchurch School of Medicine over 26-27 November 1998, and attracted a record number of around 45 registrations. The meeting serves a number of purposes but one of the primary ones is to bring together scientists in medicine from around the country to compare notes on practices and advances, particularly in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology physics. Following the meeting format established over recent years, separate workshops were devoted to radiotherapy physics and developments in the regional centres represented, and to practical issues relating to medical physics in diagnostic radiology. The workshops were held in parallel with presentations of scientific papers covering a wide range of topics, but with about half relating to engineering applications in medicine. (author)

  10. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  11. Optimized Ultrawideband and Uniplanar Minkowski Fractal Branch Line Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jahanbakht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-Euclidean Minkowski fractal geometry is used in design, optimization, and fabrication of an ultrawideband (UWB branch line coupler. Self-similarities of the fractal geometries make them act like an infinite length in a finite area. This property creates a smaller design with broader bandwidth. The designed 3 dB microstrip coupler has a single layer and uniplanar platform with quite easy fabrication process. This optimized 180° coupler also shows a perfect isolation and insertion loss over the UWB frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz.

  12. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Length of excitable knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucher, Fabian; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present extensive numerical simulations of an excitable medium to study the long-term dynamics of knotted vortex strings for all torus knots up to crossing number 11. We demonstrate that FitzHugh-Nagumo evolution preserves the knot topology for all the examples presented, thereby providing a field theory approach to the study of knots. Furthermore, the evolution yields a well-defined minimal length for each knot that is comparable to the ropelength of ideal knots. We highlight the role of the medium boundary in stabilizing the length of the knot and discuss the implications beyond torus knots. We also show that there is not a unique attractor within a given knot topology.

  14. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild catfish Mystus bleekeri from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan. ... Linear regression analysis was used, first to compute the degree of relationship between length and weight and then among total (TL), standard (SL) and fork lengths (FL). LWR exhibited a highly ...

  16. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  17. Species abundance, length weight relationships of selected fishes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal abundance and length-weight relationships of 25 species of fish inhabiting the fresh water ecosystem of Mu river, - Fiidi-Makurdi were estimated from 441 specimens caught with different kinds of gears (set basket ... The parameters (a and b) of length -weight relationship of the form (a* Lb= VV) were estimated.

  18. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  19. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants.

  20. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that…

  1. An archetypal mechanism for branching organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Branched structures are ubiquitous in nature, both in living and non-living systems. While the functional benefits of branching organogenesis are straightforward, the developmental mechanisms leading to the repeated branching of epithelia in surrounding mesoderm remain unclear. Both molecular and physical aspects of growth control seem to play a critical role in shape emergence and maintenance. On the molecular side, the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between epithelial tips and distal mesenchyme seems to be common to branched organs. On the physical side, the branching process seems to require a mechanism of real-time adaptation to local geometry, as suggested by the self-avoiding nature of branching events. In this paper, we investigate the outcomes of a general three-dimensional growth model, in which epithelial growth is implemented as a function of ligand income, while the mesenchyme is considered as a proliferating viscous medium. Our results suggest that the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between distal and proximal mesenchyme implies a growth instability of the epithelial sheet, resulting in spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. While the general nature of the model prevents one from fitting the development of specific organs, it suggests that few ingredients are actually required to achieve branching organogenesis.

  2. Conformal branching rules and modular invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)

  3. Short cervical length dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Anju; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. With research efforts, the rate of PTB decreased to 11.4% in 2013. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) cervical length (CL) screening predicts PTB. In asymptomatic singletons without prior spontaneous PTB (sPTB), TVU CL screening should be done. If the cervix is 20 mm or less, vaginal progesterone is indicated. In asymptomatic singletons with prior sPTB, serial CL screening is indicated. In multiple gestations, routine cervical screening is not indicated. In symptomatic women with preterm labor, TVU CL screening and fetal fibronectin testing is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  5. Primary length standard adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Robert; Guttenová, Jana

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with problems and techniques connected with primary length standard adjusting, which includes disassembling of the device and by use of the secondary laser with collimated beam and diffraction laws successively reassembling of the laser. In the reassembling process the device was enhanced with substituting the thermal grease cooling of cold finger by copper socket cooler. This improved external cooling system enables more effective cooling of molecular iodine in the cell, which allows better pressure stability of iodine vapor and easier readjustment of the system.

  6. Short branches lead to systematic artifacts when BLAST searches are used as surrogate for phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Amanda A; Harlow, Timothy J; Gogarten, J Peter

    2017-02-01

    Long Branch Attraction (LBA) is a well-known artifact in phylogenetic reconstruction when dealing with branch length heterogeneity. Here we show another phenomenon, Short Branch Attraction (SBA), which occurs when BLAST searches, a phenetic analysis, are used as a surrogate method for phylogenetic analysis. This error also results from branch length heterogeneity, but this time it is the short branches that are attracting. The SBA artifact is reciprocal and can be returned 100% of the time when multiple branches differ in length by a factor of more than two. SBA is an intended feature of BLAST searches, but becomes an issue, when top scoring BLAST hit analyses are used to infer Horizontal Gene Transfers (HGTs), assign taxonomic category with environmental sequence data in phylotyping, or gather homologous sequences for building gene families. SBA can lead researchers to believe that there has been a HGT event when only vertical descent has occurred, cause slowly evolving taxa to be over-represented and quickly evolving taxa to be under-represented in phylotyping, or systematically exclude quickly evolving taxa from analyses. SBA also contributes to the changing results of top scoring BLAST hit analyses as the database grows, because more slowly evolving taxa, or short branches, are added over time, introducing more potential for SBA. SBA can be detected by examining reciprocal best BLAST hits among a larger group of taxa, including the known closest phylogenetic neighbors. Therefore, one should look for this phenomenon when conducting best BLAST hit analyses as a surrogate method to identify HGTs, in phylotyping, or when using BLAST to gather homologous sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting the compliance and sway properties of tree branches used by the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam van Casteren

    Full Text Available The tropical arboreal environment is a mechanically complex and varied habitat. Arboreal inhabitants must adapt to changes in the compliance and stability of supports when moving around trees. Because the orangutan is the largest habitual arboreal inhabitant, it is unusually susceptible to branch compliance and stability and therefore represents a unique animal model to help investigate how animals cope with the mechanical heterogeneity of the tropical canopy. The aim of this study was to investigate how changes in compliance and time of oscillation of branches are related to easily observable traits of arboreal supports. This should help predict how supports react mechanically to the weight and mass of a moving orangutan, and suggest how orangutans themselves predict branch properties. We measured the compliance and time of oscillation of branches from 11 tree species frequented by orangutans in the rainforest of Sumatra. Branches were pulled at several points along their length using a force balance at the end of a stiff rope, and the local diameter of the branch and the distance to its base and tip were measured. Compliance was negatively associated with both local diameter and length to the tip of the branch, and positively, if weakly, associated with length from the trunk. However, branch diameter not only predicted compliance best, but would also be easiest for an orangutan to observe. In contrast, oscillation times of branches were largely unaffected by local diameter, and only significantly increased at diameters below 2 cm. The results of this study validate previous field research, which related locomotory modes to local branch diameter, while suggesting how arboreal animals themselves sense their mechanical environment.

  8. Countability of Planck Boxes in Quantum Branching Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2002-04-01

    Two popular paradigms of cosmological quantum branching are Many World (MW) model of parallel universes (Everett, Deutsch) and inflationary quantum foam (IQF) model (Guth, Linde). Taking Planck L,T units as physically smallest, our Big Bang miniverse with size 10E28 cm and duration 10E18 sec has some 10E244 (N) elementary 4D Planck Boxes (PB) in its entire spacetime history. Using combinatorics, N! (about 10E10E247) is upper estimate for number of all possible 4D states, i.e. scale of "eternal return" (ER; Nietzsche, Eliade) for such miniverses. To count all states in full Megaverse (all up and down branches of infinite tree of all MW and/or IQF miniverses) we recall that all countable infinities have same (aleph-naught) cardinality (Cantor). Using Godel-type numbering, count PB in our miniverse by primes. This uses first N primes. Both MW and IQF models presume splitting of miniverses as springing (potentially) from each PB, making each PB infinitely rich, inexhaustible and unique. Next branching level is counted by integers p1Ep2, third level by p1Ep2Ep3 integers, etc, ad infinitum. To count in up and down directions from "our" miniverse, different branching subsets of powers of primes can be used at all levels of tower exponentiation. Thus, all PB in all infinitude of MW and/or IQF branches can be uniquely counted by never repeating integers (tower exponents of primes), offering escape from grim ER scenarios.

  9. A simple but usually fast branch-and-bound algorithm for the capacitated facility location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. To guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions to the Lagrangean...... subproblem. Branching decisions are then based on this estimated (fractional) primal solution. Extensive numerical results reveal that the method is much faster and more robust than other state-of-the-art methods for solving the CFLP exactly....

  10. Measurement of D-meson branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Colino, N.; Ladron de Guevara, P.

    1986-01-01

    Charm data from 360 GeV/c π - p interactions are used to give results on D-meson branching ratios. The analysis is based on 114 charm events containing 183 observed charm particle decays. We present topological branching ratios and decay multiplicities, as well as the following inclusive branching ratios of D-mesons: B(Dsup(+-)->Ksup(-+) + anything) = 0.16+-0.08, B(D 0 ->Ksup(+-) + anything) = 0.44+-0.11, B(Dsup(+-)->esup(+-) + 2,4 charged hadrons) = 0.07+-0.07, B(D 0 ->esup(+-) + anything) = 0.17+-0.07. (orig./HSI)

  11. Effect of water-droplets on flow-induced pulsations in pipe with two closed-side branches: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanna, F.; Golliard, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study experiments are conducted on the flow within a horizontal pipe with two closed side branches of equal length. This configuration is referred to as "quasi-cross configuration" as the distance between the two closed side branches is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength of the first

  12. Maintaining realism in auditory length-perception experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length......-estimation experiment. A comparison of the length-estimation accuracy for the three presentation methods indicates that the choice of presentation method is important for maintaining realism and for maintaining the acoustic cues utilized by listeners in perceiving length....

  13. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  14. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  15. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with correlation length of electrostatic turbulence. First, the model of drift waves turbulence is presented. Then, the radial correlation length is determined analytically with toroidal coupling and non linear coupling. (TEC). 5 refs

  16. OsRAMOSA2 Shapes Panicle Architecture through Regulating Pedicel Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The panicle architecture of rice is an important characteristic that influences reproductive success and yield. It is largely determined by the number and length of the primary and secondary branches. The number of panicle branches is defined by the inflorescence meristem state between determinacy and indeterminacy; for example, the maize ramosa2 (ra2 mutant has more branches in its tassel through loss of spikelet determinacy. Some genes and factors influencing the number of primary and secondary branches have been studied, but little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying pedicel development, which also influences panicle architecture. We report here that rice OsRAMOSA2 (OsRA2 gene modifies panicle architecture through regulating pedicel length. Ectopic expression of OsRA2 resulted in a shortened pedicel while inhibition of OsRA2 through RNA interference produced elongated pedicel. In addition, OsRA2 influenced seed morphology. The OsRA2 protein localized to the nucleus and showed transcriptional activation in yeast; in accordance with its function in pedicel development, OsRA2 mRNA was enriched in the anlagen of axillary meristems, such as primary and secondary branch meristems and the spikelet meristems of young panicles. This indicates a conserved role of OsRA2 for shaping the initial steps of inflorescence architecture. Genetic analysis revealed that OsRA2 may control panicle architecture using the same pathway as that of the axillary meristem gene LAX1 (LAX PANICLE1. Moreover, OsRA2 acted downstream of RCN2 in regulating pedicel and branch lengths, but upstream of RCN2 for control of the number of secondary branches, indicating that branch number and length development in the panicle were respectively regulated using parallel pathway. Functional conservation between OsRA2 and AtLOB, and the conservation and diversification of RA2 in maize and rice are also discussed.

  17. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  18. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitar Tyanev; Stefka Popova

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009) concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump...

  19. Multiprogrammation fast branch driver for microcomputer MICRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Josef; Lacroix, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the FIFO memories of the microcomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC programm (command, test, read, write) is loaded in the 1K FIFO buffer of the Micral before execution time and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,5μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape [fr

  20. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  1. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx. One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7: to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle.

  2. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the radial correlation length of an electrostatic drift wave turbulence is analytically determined in various regimes. The analysis relies on the calculation of a range of mode non linear interaction, which is an instantaneous correlation length. The link with the usual correlation length has not been investigated yet. (TEC). 5 refs

  3. Conformations and solution properties of star-branched polyelectrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisov, O.V.; Zhulina, E.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Ballauff, M.; Muller, A.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of star-like polyelectrolytes (PEs) exhibit distinctive features that originate from the topological complexity of branched macromolecules. In a salt-free solution of branched PEs, mobile counterions preferentially localize in the intramolecular volume of branched macroions.

  4. Correcting length-frequency distributions for imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, André R.; Hawkins, John A.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling gear selects for specific sizes of fish, which may bias length-frequency distributions that are commonly used to assess population size structure, recruitment patterns, growth, and survival. To properly correct for sampling biases caused by gear and other sources, length-frequency distributions need to be corrected for imperfect detection. We describe a method for adjusting length-frequency distributions when capture and recapture probabilities are a function of fish length, temporal variation, and capture history. The method is applied to a study involving the removal of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu by boat electrofishing from a 38.6-km reach on the Yampa River, Colorado. Smallmouth Bass longer than 100 mm were marked and released alive from 2005 to 2010 on one or more electrofishing passes and removed on all other passes from the population. Using the Huggins mark–recapture model, we detected a significant effect of fish total length, previous capture history (behavior), year, pass, year×behavior, and year×pass on capture and recapture probabilities. We demonstrate how to partition the Huggins estimate of abundance into length frequencies to correct for these effects. Uncorrected length frequencies of fish removed from Little Yampa Canyon were negatively biased in every year by as much as 88% relative to mark–recapture estimates for the smallest length-class in our analysis (100–110 mm). Bias declined but remained high even for adult length-classes (≥200 mm). The pattern of bias across length-classes was variable across years. The percentage of unadjusted counts that were below the lower 95% confidence interval from our adjusted length-frequency estimates were 95, 89, 84, 78, 81, and 92% from 2005 to 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions are widely used in fisheries science and management. Our simple method for correcting length-frequency estimates for imperfect detection could be widely applied when mark–recapture data

  5. Combining living anionic polymerization with branching reactions in an iterative fashion to design branched polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Hayashi, Mayumi; Hirao, Akira

    2010-06-16

    This paper reviews the precise synthesis of many-armed and multi-compositional star-branched polymers, exact graft (co)polymers, and structurally well-defined dendrimer-like star-branched polymers, which are synthetically difficult, by a commonly-featured iterative methodology combining living anionic polymerization with branched reactions to design branched polymers. The methodology basically involves only two synthetic steps; (a) preparation of a polymeric building block corresponding to each branched polymer and (b) connection of the resulting building unit to another unit. The synthetic steps were repeated in a stepwise fashion several times to successively synthesize a series of well-defined target branched polymers. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Improvement in deuterium recovery from water–isotope mixture by thermal diffusion in the device of branch columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ching-Chun; Yeh, Ho-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Recovery of deuterium by thermal diffusion from water–isotope mixture has been investigated. • The undesirable remixing effect can be reduced by employing the device of branch columns. • Deuterium recoveries were compared with that in a single column of the same total column length. • Considerable recovery improvement is obtainable in the device of branch columns, instead of in a single-column device. - Abstract: Deuterium recovery from water–isotopes mixture using thermal diffusion can be improved by employing the branch column device, instead of single column devices, with the same total column length. The remixing effect due to convection currents in a thermal diffusion column for heavy water enrichment is thus reduced and separation improvement increases when the flow rate or the total column length increases. The improvement in separation can reach about 50% for the numerical example given

  7. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  8. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  9. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: • Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways • Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually • Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or “compartment” • Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU • Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, • Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs • Computing the

  10. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  11. Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Steven Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.

  12. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Dimensional reduction for directed branched polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrie, John Z.

    2004-03-01

    Dimensional reduction occurs when the critical behaviour of one system can be related to that of another system in a lower dimension. We show that this occurs for directed branched polymers (DBP) by giving an exact relationship between DBP models in D + 1 dimensions and repulsive gases at negative activity in D dimensions. This implies relations between exponents of the two models: ggr(D + 1) = agr(D) (the exponent describing the singularity of the pressure), and ngrbottom(D + 1) = ngr(D) (the correlation length exponent of the repulsive gas). It also leads to the relation thgr(D + 1) = 1 + sgr(D), where sgr(D) is the Yang-Lee edge exponent. We derive exact expressions for the number of DBP of size N in two dimensions.

  13. Length- weight relationships, condition factor (K) and relative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationship and condition factors were estimated for Dentex congoensis and Dentex angolensis of the family sparidae trawled from Nigeria Coastal water in 2009. A total number of 534 specimens ranging from 7.2 – 3.0 cm in total length and 5.4 – 489.8 g in weight were analyzed. The lengthweight ...

  14. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Macrobrachium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationship and condition factor of 24 months samples of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Herklots, 1857, from the Lagos – Lekki lagoon system were estimated. The parameters a and b of the length-weight relationship were -4.72 and 2.92 for male while the corresponding female values were -4.98 and 3.01.

  15. Length Frequency Distribution And Sex Ratio Of Macrobrachium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length frequency distribution and sex ratio of Macrobrachium macrobrachion sampled by cane traps in the Lagos –Lekki lagoon system were estimated from May 2002 to April 2004. The total number of size classes for the first and second year for both male and female ranged from 10 – 12. The length range was 3 to 14cm ...

  16. Dendritic Branch Intersections Are Structurally Regulated Targets for Efficient Axonal Wiring and Synaptic Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchas, Monika; Baranes, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic clustering on dendritic branches enhances plasticity, input integration and neuronal firing. However, the mechanisms guiding axons to cluster synapses at appropriate sites along dendritic branches are poorly understood. We searched for such a mechanism by investigating the structural overlap between dendritic branches and axons in a simplified model of neuronal networks - the hippocampal cell culture. Using newly developed software, we converted images of meshes of overlapping axonal and dendrites into topological maps of intersections, enabling quantitative study of overlapping neuritic geometry at the resolution of single dendritic branch-to-branch and axon-to-branch crossings. Among dendro-dendritic crossing configurations, it was revealed that the orientations through which dendritic branches cross is a regulated attribute. While crossing angle distribution among branches thinner than 1 µm appeared to be random, dendritic branches 1 µm or wider showed a preference for crossing each other at angle ranges of either 50°–70° or 80°–90°. It was then found that the dendro-dendritic crossings themselves, as well as their selective angles, both affected the path of axonal growth. Axons displayed 4 fold stronger tendency to traverse within 2 µm of dendro-dendritic intersections than at farther distances, probably to minimize wiring length. Moreover, almost 70% of the 50°–70° dendro-denritic crossings were traversed by axons from the obtuse angle’s zone, whereas only 15% traversed through the acute angle’s zone. By contrast, axons showed no orientation restriction when traversing 80°–90° crossings. When such traverse behavior was repeated by many axons, they converged in the vicinity of dendro-dendritic intersections, thereby clustering their synaptic connections. Thus, the vicinity of dendritic branch-to-branch crossings appears to be a regulated structure used by axons as a target for efficient wiring and as a preferred site for synaptic

  17. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of precise robotic lesion length measurement on stent length selection: ramifications for stent savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul T; Kruse, Kevin R; Kroll, Christopher R; Patterson, Janet Y; Esposito, Michele J

    2015-09-01

    Coronary stent deployment outcomes can be negatively impacted by inaccurate lesion measurement and inappropriate stent length selection (SLS). We compared visual estimate of these parameters to those provided by the CorPath 200® Robotic PCI System. Sixty consecutive patients who underwent coronary stent placement utilizing the CorPath System were evaluated. The treating physician assessed orthogonal images and provided visual estimates of lesion length and SLS. The robotic system was then used for the same measures. SLS was considered to be accurate when visual estimate and robotic measures were in agreement. Visual estimate SLSs were considered to be "short" or "long" if they were below or above the robotic-selected stents, respectively. Only 35% (21/60) of visually estimated lesions resulted in accurate SLS, whereas 33% (20/60) and 32% (19/60) of the visually estimated SLSs were long and short, respectively. In 5 cases (8.3%), 1 less stent was placed based on the robotic lesion measurement being shorter than the visual estimate. Visual estimate assessment of lesion length and SLS is highly variable with 65% of the cases being inaccurately measured when compared to objective measures obtained from the robotic system. The 32% of the cases where lesions were visually estimated to be short represents cases that often require the use of extra stents after the full lesion is not covered by 1 stent [longitudinal geographic miss (LGM)]. Further, these data showed that the use of the robotic system prevented the use of extra stents in 8.3% of the cases. Measurement of lesions with robotic PCI may reduce measurement errors, need for extra stents, and LGM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fruiting branch K+ level affects cotton fibre elongation through osmoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashuo eYang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fibre length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fibre elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fibre length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1 on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibres were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax is the parameter that best reflects the change in fibre elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analysed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fibre length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibres, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fibre length in late season bolls.

  20. Electronic branching ratio of the τ lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Procario, M.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Jones, C.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Nandi, S.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yelton, J.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Sadoff, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Γ(τ→e bar ν e ν τ )/Γ 1 , where Γ 1 is the τ decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231±0.0044±0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the τ lepton to electrons, B e =0.192±0.004±0.006

  1. Branching random walks with displacements coming from a power law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parthanil Roy Joint work with Ayan Bhattacharya and Rajat Subhra Hazra

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... What is a Branching Random Walk ? Rougly speaking, a branching random walk is a growing collection of particles (or organisms) which starts from a single particle, branch and spread independently of their positions and of the other particles. Parthanil Roy (I.S.I.). Branching random walk. July 04, 2015.

  2. Branching random walks with displacements coming from a power law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parthanil Roy Joint work with Ayan Bhattacharya and Rajat Subhra Hazra

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... Branching Random Walk: Description in Words. Parthanil Roy (I.S.I.). Branching random walk. July 04, 2015. 6 / 14 ... independent of each other. This gives rise to the Generation 1. The displacements are (positive and) independent of the branching mechanism. Parthanil Roy (I.S.I.). Branching random walk.

  3. Heterotachy and long-branch attraction in phylogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigue Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probabilistic methods have progressively supplanted the Maximum Parsimony (MP method for inferring phylogenetic trees. One of the major reasons for this shift was that MP is much more sensitive to the Long Branch Attraction (LBA artefact than is Maximum Likelihood (ML. However, recent work by Kolaczkowski and Thornton suggested, on the basis of simulations, that MP is less sensitive than ML to tree reconstruction artefacts generated by heterotachy, a phenomenon that corresponds to shifts in site-specific evolutionary rates over time. These results led these authors to recommend that the results of ML and MP analyses should be both reported and interpreted with the same caution. This specific conclusion revived the debate on the choice of the most accurate phylogenetic method for analysing real data in which various types of heterogeneities occur. However, variation of evolutionary rates across species was not explicitly incorporated in the original study of Kolaczkowski and Thornton, and in most of the subsequent heterotachous simulations published to date, where all terminal branch lengths were kept equal, an assumption that is biologically unrealistic. Results In this report, we performed more realistic simulations to evaluate the relative performance of MP and ML methods when two kinds of heterogeneities are considered: (i within-site rate variation (heterotachy, and (ii rate variation across lineages. Using a similar protocol as Kolaczkowski and Thornton to generate heterotachous datasets, we found that heterotachy, which constitutes a serious violation of existing models, decreases the accuracy of ML whatever the level of rate variation across lineages. In contrast, the accuracy of MP can either increase or decrease when the level of heterotachy increases, depending on the relative branch lengths. This result demonstrates that MP is not insensitive to heterotachy, contrary to the report of Kolaczkowski and Thornton

  4. Semi-automated tabulation of the 3D topology and morphology of branching networks using CT: application to the airway tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauret, V.; Bailey, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Detailed information on biological branching networks (optical nerves, airways or blood vessels) is often required to improve the analysis of 3D medical imaging data. A semi-automated algorithm has been developed to obtain the full 3D topology and dimensions (direction cosine, length, diameter, branching and gravity angles) of branching networks using their CT images. It has been tested using CT images of a simple Perspex branching network and applied to the CT images of a human cast of the airway tree. The morphology and topology of the computer derived network were compared with the manually measured dimensions. Good agreement was found. The airways dimensions also compared well with previous values quoted in literature. This algorithm can provide complete data set analysis much more quickly than manual measurements. Its use is limited by the CT resolution which means that very small branches are not visible. New data are presented on the branching angles of the airway tree. (author)

  5. Assessing allometric models to predict vegetative growth of mango (Mangifera indica; Anacardiaceae) at the current-year branch scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Frédéric; Lauri, Pierre-Éric

    2012-03-01

    Accurate and reliable predictive models are necessary to estimate nondestructively key variables for plant growth studies such as leaf area and leaf, stem, and total biomass. Predictive models are lacking at the current-year branch scale despite the importance of this scale in plant science. We calibrated allometric models to estimate leaf area and stem and branch (leaves + stem) mass of current-year branches, i.e., branches several months old studied at the end of the vegetative growth season, of four mango cultivars on the basis of their basal cross-sectional area. The effects of year, site, and cultivar were tested. Models were validated with independent data and prediction accuracy was evaluated with the appropriate statistics. Models revealed a positive allometry between dependent and independent variables, whose y-intercept but not the slope, was affected by the cultivar. The effects of year and site were negligible. For each branch characteristic, cultivar-specific models were more accurate than common models built with pooled data from the four cultivars. Prediction quality was satisfactory but with data dispersion around the models, particularly for large values. Leaf area and stem and branch mass of mango current-year branches could be satisfactorily estimated on the basis of branch basal cross-sectional area with cultivar-specific allometric models. The results suggested that, in addition to the heteroscedastic behavior of the variables studied, model accuracy was probably related to the functional plasticity of branches in relation to the light environment and/or to the number of growth units composing the branches.

  6. Synthesis of copper hydroxide branched nanocages and their transformation to copper oxide

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.

    2014-08-21

    Copper oxide nanostructures have been explored in the literature for their great promise in the areas of energy storage and catalysis, which can be controlled based on their shape. Herein we describe the synthesis of complex branched nanocages of copper hydroxide with an alternating stacked morphology. The size of the nanocages\\' core and the length of the branches can be controlled by the temperature and ratio of surfactant used, varying the length from 85 to 232 nm long, and varying the core size from 240 to 19 nm. The nanostructures\\' unique morphology forms by controlling the growth of an initial spherical seed, and the crystallization of the anisotropic arms. The Cu(OH)2 nanostructures can be converted to polycrystalline CuO branched nanocages and Cu2O nanoframes. We show that the branched nanocage morphology of CuO has markedly superior catalytic properties to previous reports with CuO nanomaterials, resulting in a rapid and efficient catalyst for C-S coupling. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. Lifestyle assessment of branched tetraether source bacteria via root systems of different age and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Arnaud; Gocke, Martina; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.; Fosse, Céline; Derenne, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    root exudates in living root systems. In ancient root systems from Germany, the concentration of branched GDGTs was higher in the rhizoliths than in the former rhizosphere and the reference sediment, suggesting that branched GDGT source bacteria might also feed on root remains. In addition, some calcified root systems from Hungary were decarbonatized with hydrochloric acid prior to GDGT analysis. This did not significantly change the abundance and distribution of branched GDGTs, suggesting that branched GDGT source microorganisms are closely connected to the root surfaces. Consequently, in the close rhizosphere, branched GDGT distribution and thus GDGT-derived temperature estimates might be influenced by the presence of roots, which is likely not the case in distant soils. In summary, the results from living and ancient root systems suggest that branched GDGTs might be produced by different bacterial communities in living and ancient root systems and/or that branched GDGT source bacteria might change their feeding depending on substrate availability.

  8. Estimation and comparison of effective dose (E) in standard chest CT by organ dose measurements and dose-length-product methods and assessment of the influence of CT tube potential (energy dependency) on effective dose in a dual-source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jijo; Banckwitz, Rosemarie; Krauss, Bernhard; Vogl, Thomas J; Maentele, Werner; Bauer, Ralf W

    2012-04-01

    To determine effective dose (E) during standard chest CT using an organ dose-based and a dose-length-product-based (DLP) approach for four different scan protocols including high-pitch and dual-energy in a dual-source CT scanner of the second generation. Organ doses were measured with thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) in an anthropomorphic male adult phantom. Further, DLP-based dose estimates were performed by using the standard 0.014mSv/mGycm conversion coefficient k. Examinations were performed on a dual-source CT system (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens). Four scan protocols were investigated: (1) single-source 120kV, (2) single-source 100kV, (3) high-pitch 120kV, and (4) dual-energy with 100/Sn140kV with equivalent CTDIvol and no automated tube current modulation. E was then determined following recommendations of ICRP publication 103 and 60 and specific k values were derived. DLP-based estimates differed by 4.5-16.56% and 5.2-15.8% relatively to ICRP 60 and 103, respectively. The derived k factors calculated from TLD measurements were 0.0148, 0.015, 0.0166, and 0.0148 for protocol 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Effective dose estimations by ICRP 103 and 60 for single-energy and dual-energy protocols show a difference of less than 0.04mSv. Estimates of E based on DLP work equally well for single-energy, high-pitch and dual-energy CT examinations. The tube potential definitely affects effective dose in a substantial way. Effective dose estimations by ICRP 103 and 60 for both single-energy and dual-energy examinations differ not more than 0.04mSv. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Length-weight measurements were taken from well-preserved fish specimens from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as index of relative importance. The length-frequency analysis showed a size distribution with a ...

  10. Comparison of fiber length analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Guay; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Walter Rantanen; Nicole Malandri; Aimee Stephens; Kathleen Mattingly; Matt Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several fiber new fiber length analyzers have been developed and brought to market. The new instruments provide faster measurements and the capability of both laboratory and on-line analysis. Do the various fiber analyzers provide the same length, coarseness, width, and fines measurements for a given fiber sample? This paper provides a comparison of...

  11. Design of Finite Word Length Linear-Phase FIR Filters in the Logarithmic Number System Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Asad Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logarithmic number system (LNS is an attractive alternative to realize finite-length impulse response filters because of multiplication in the linear domain being only addition in the logarithmic domain. In the literature, linear coefficients are directly replaced by the logarithmic equivalent. In this paper, an approach to directly optimize the finite word length coefficients in the LNS domain is proposed. This branch and bound algorithm is implemented based on LNS integers and several different branching strategies are proposed and evaluated. Optimal coefficients in the minimax sense are obtained and compared with the traditional finite word length representation in the linear domain as well as using rounding. Results show that the proposed method naturally provides smaller approximation error compared to rounding. Furthermore, they provide insights into finite word length properties of FIR filters coefficients in the LNS domain and show that LNS FIR filters typically provide a better approximation error compared to a standard FIR filter.

  12. A health statistic for length of stay by reporting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R S; Speiglman, R

    1997-01-01

    Managers of long-term care organizations lack usable information about patterns of stay, because the time spent by residents typically exceeds the length of reporting and reimbursement periods. Formulas for estimating lengths of stay often yield unstable estimates of long-term stays. Consequently, little insight is gained into changes that may be occurring in stay patterns as the organization adapts its service processes to shifts in markets. An alternative length of stay statistic is proposed from which patterns of stay can be more clearly discerned. Examples utilizing both simulated and field data are presented to highlight the advantages associated with the new statistic.

  13. Key-length analysis of double random phase encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-20

    Double random phase encoding (DRPE) is a classical optical symmetric-key encryption method. DRPE prevents the key length from being determined because of its redundancy between encryption and decryption, unlike digital symmetric-key cryptographies. In our study, we numerically analyzed the key length of DRPE based on key-space analysis. We estimated the key length of DRPE by calculating the inverse value of the cumulative probability of the normal distribution that was estimated from samples of DRPE and then discuss security against brute-force attacks.

  14. Length-Biased Weighted Lomax Distribution: Statistical Properties and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaq Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of length-biased distribution can be employed in development of proper models for lifetime data. Length-biased distribution is a special case of the more general form known as weighted distribution. In this paper we introduce a new class of length-biased weighted Lomax distribution, (LBWLD. The statistical properties of this distribution are derived and the model parameters are estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and the observed information matrix is determined. An application to real data set is finally presented for illustration.

  15. Ternarity and Obligatory Branching in Piraha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Daniel

    It is argued that the analysis of stress placement in Piraha offers important new evidence on the proper characterization of prosodic organization and the notational devices necessary to express this organization. It is shown that Piraha stress placement is intractable to either a grid account or a binary branching analysis, but that an insightful…

  16. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  17. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  18. Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julie

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing project at Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries illustrates how utilizing established assessment guidelines, stakeholder input, and a clear understanding of audience and curriculum needs may all be used to optimize a collection. Academic branch libraries often have clear collection development limitations in terms of…

  19. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  20. Variants of the left aortic arch branches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type C (Courtesy of Rutherford. Vascular. Surgery. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 19954). Fig. 1. Type A. Abstract. The normal aorta has three branches from its arch, but variations in this pattern are not uncommon. Our interest was to correlate the docu- mented statistics to the variants observed in our patients. This was.

  1. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...

  2. Dynamics of target recognition by interstitial axon branching along developing cortical axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastmeyer, M; O'Leary, D D

    1996-02-15

    Corticospinal axons innervate their midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal targets by extending collateral branches interstitially along their length. To establish that the axon shaft rather than the axonal growth cone is responsible for target recognition in this system, and to characterize the dynamics of interstitial branch formation, we have studied this process in an in vivo-like setting using slice cultures from neonatal mice containing the entire pathway of corticospinal axons. Corticospinal axons labeled with the dye 1,1'-dioctodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (or Dil) were imaged using time-lapse video microscopy of their pathway overlying the basilar pons, their major hindbrain target. The axon shaft millimeters behind the growth cone exhibits several dynamic behaviors, including the de novo formation of varicosities and filopodia-like extensions, and a behavior that we term "pulsation," which is characterized by a variable thickening and thining of short segments of the axon. An individual axon can have multiple sites of branching activity, with many of the branches being transient. These dynamic behaviors occur along the portion of the axon shaft overlying the basilar pons, but not just caudal to it. Once the collaterals extend into the pontine neuropil, they branch further in the neuropil, while the parent axon becomes quiescent. Thus, the branching activity is spatially restricted to specific portions of the axon, as well as temporally restricted to a relatively brief time window. These findings provide definitive evidence that collateral branches form de novo along corticospinal axons and establish that the process of target recognition in this system is a property of the axon shaft rather than the leading growth cone.

  3. Lesion length assessment using a new vessel caliper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolyn, Robert; Dixon, Simon R; Almany, Steven L; Korotko, Joe; Huang, Raywin R; O'Neill, William W

    2003-02-01

    Assessment of coronary lesion length using visual estimation or quantitative coronary angiography can be unreliable. We tested the accuracy of a new handheld caliper device to measure lesion length in a bench-top model and in eight patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Caliper-derived length measurements were compared to the known reference distance in the bench-top model and visual or intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-derived measurements in vivo. In the coronary model, caliper-derived measurements were accurate and correlated well with known reference distances regardless of the angiographic projection. During PCI, there was a poor correlation between the best visual estimate of length and IVUS-derived measurements. In contrast, caliper-derived measurements correlated closely with IVUS-derived measurements. This handheld caliper provides a simple and accurate method of assessing intracoronary lesion length and may be particularly useful during coronary stenting and when adjunctive brachytherapy is performed. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Dynamic rupture activation of backthrust fault branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

    2015-03-01

    We perform dynamic rupture simulations to investigate the possible reactivation of backthrust branches triggered by ruptures along a main thrust fault. Simulations with slip-weakening fault friction and uniform initial stress show that fast propagation speed or long propagation distance of the main rupture promotes reactivation of backthrust over a range of branch angles. The latter condition may occur separately from the former if rupture speed is limited by an increasing slip-weakening distance towards the junction direction. The results suggest a trade-off between the amplitude and duration of the dynamic stress near the main rupture front for backthrust reactivation. Termination of the main rupture by a barrier can provide enhanced loading amplitude and duration along a backthrust rooted near the barrier, facilitating its reactivation especially with a high frictional resistance. The free surface and depth-dependent initial stress can have several additional effects. The sign of the triggered motion along the backthrust can be reversed from thrust to normal if a deeply nucleated main rupture breaks the free surface, while it is preserved as thrust if the main rupture is terminated by a barrier at depth. The numerical results are discussed in relation to several recent megathrust earthquakes in Sumatra, Chile, and Japan, and related topics such as branch feedbacks to the main fault. The dynamic view on backthrust fault branching provided by the study fills a gap not covered by quasi-static models or observations. A specific examined case of antithetic fault branching may be useful for indicating a barrier-like behavior along the main fault.

  5. Regression equations for the estimation of radial length from its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HD) were measured using digital vernier caliper while the circumference of the radial head and the circumference at the radial tuberosity were measured using an anthropometric tape. Pearson correlation and Persian regression were used to derive the liner regression equations for the measured parameters that showed a ...

  6. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  7. Mass and age of red giant branch stars observed with LAMOST and Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yaqian; Xiang, Maosheng; Bi, Shaolan

    2018-01-01

    Obtaining accurate and precise masses and ages for large numbers of giant stars is of great importance for unraveling the assemblage history of the Galaxy. In this paper, we estimate masses and ages of 6940 red giant branch (RGB) stars with asteroseismic parameters deduced from Kepler photometry...

  8. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  9. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  10. Self-Consistent Field Theories for the Role of Large Length-Scale Architecture in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, David

    At large length-scales, the architecture of polymers can be described by a coarse-grained specification of the distribution of branch points and monomer types within a molecule. This includes molecular topology (e.g., cyclic or branched) as well as distances between branch points or chain ends. Design of large length-scale molecular architecture is appealing because it offers a universal strategy, independent of monomer chemistry, to tune properties. Non-linear analogs of linear chains differ in molecular-scale properties, such as mobility, entanglements, and surface segregation in blends that are well-known to impact rheological, dynamical, thermodynamic and surface properties including adhesion and wetting. We have used Self-Consistent Field (SCF) theories to describe a number of phenomena associated with large length-scale polymer architecture. We have predicted the surface composition profiles of non-linear chains in blends with linear chains. These predictions are in good agreement with experimental results, including from neutron scattering, on a range of well-controlled branched (star, pom-pom and end-branched) and cyclic polymer architectures. Moreover, the theory allows explanation of the segregation and conformations of branched polymers in terms of effective surface potentials acting on the end and branch groups. However, for cyclic chains, which have no end or junction points, a qualitatively different topological mechanism based on conformational entropy drives cyclic chains to a surface, consistent with recent neutron reflectivity experiments. We have also used SCF theory to calculate intramolecular and intermolecular correlations for polymer chains in the bulk, dilute solution, and trapped at a liquid-liquid interface. Predictions of chain swelling in dilute star polymer solutions compare favorably with existing PRISM theory and swelling at an interface helps explain recent measurements of chain mobility at an oil-water interface. In collaboration

  11. 76 FR 71343 - Ethics, Independence, Arm's-Length Role, Ex Parte Communications and Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION [FCA-PS-81; NV 11-25] Ethics, Independence, Arm's-Length Role, Ex Parte...) and the public. The FCA Board also is committed to the ethics principles and laws governing all Executive Branch employees and to the Agency's strong ethics program. DATES: Effective Date: November 7...

  12. Spatial correlation length of normalized cone data in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Griffiths, D. V.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    it is rarely estimated during routine site investigations. Results from two different sites in the north of Denmark are reported in this paper, indicating quite strong anisotropy due to the depositional process, with significantly shorter spatial correlation lengths in the vertical direction. It is observed...... that the normalized cone resistance is a better estimator of spatial trends than the normalized friction ratio....

  13. Comparison of fish-community size spectra based on length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of fish-community size spectra are promising indicators of the impact of fishing on fish assemblages. Size spectra consist of logarithmic graphs of abundance plotted against fish body size. Size spectra may either be constructed from length frequency data or estimated from the mean sizes and abundances of the ...

  14. 6 Length-Weight Relationship and Growth.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    conversion of an equation of growth in length into an equation of growth in ... suggesting allometric growth. Except L. dumerilli, L¥ .... allometric growth. Growth parameters. Fig. 2a shows estimation of growth parameters using Wetherall's method for M. bananensis from the Volta estuary, providing estimate of L¥ as 20.5 cm ...

  15. The probability density function of completed length of service (CLS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... functions this paper estimates the functions for some secondary schools in Enugu State. Wastage probabilities are calculated, survivor functions estimated. The accompanying standard errors are also obtained. Key words: Manpower Planning, Length of Service, Modelling, Survivor Functions. [Global Jnl Mathematical Sci ...

  16. Distribution of degrees of polymerization in statistically branched polymers with tetrafunctional branch points: model calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš; Kratochvíl, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2006), s. 196-203 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100500501; GA AV ČR IAA4050403; GA AV ČR IAA4050409; GA ČR GA203/03/0617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : statistical branching * tetrafunctional branch points * molecular-weight distribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.475, year: 2006

  17. Scalp hair length. I. Hair length in Florida theme parks: an approximation of hair length in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Clarence; Robbins, Marjorie Gene

    2003-01-01

    Ten hair length studies were conducted (January through May of 2001) at theme parks in central Florida, by observing and counting people with different lengths of hair with reference to specific anatomical sites. We observed 13.20% of the 24,300 males and females with hair shoulder-length or longer and 2.43% with hair down to the bottom of the shoulder blades or longer. We observed only 77 persons or 0.32% with hair waist-length or longer. Only three of these 77 persons were men. We observed 22 men with hair shoulder-length or longer or about 0.18%, among men only. Only four women, representing 0.0165% of this population, had hair reaching to the bottom of the buttocks. Hairstyles such as buns, topknots, or other styles of wearing hair bound to the head did interfere with our estimate of shorter lengths but not the longer ones (waist-length or longer). Head covers, e.g., caps, hats, scarves, etc., did not interfere with these estimates.

  18. Mechanical analysis of congestive heart failure caused by bundle branch block based on an electromechanical canine heart model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou Jianhong; Xia Ling; Zhang Yu; Shou Guofa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wei Qing; Liu Feng; Crozier, Stuart [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: xialing@zju.edu.cn

    2009-01-21

    Asynchronous electrical activation, induced by bundle branch block (BBB), can cause reduced ventricular function. However, the effects of BBB on the mechanical function of heart are difficult to assess experimentally. Many heart models have been developed to investigate cardiac properties during BBB but have mainly focused on the electrophysiological properties. To date, the mechanical function of BBB has not been well investigated. Based on a three-dimensional electromechanical canine heart model, the mechanical properties of complete left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) were simulated. The anatomical model as well as the fiber orientations of a dog heart was reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). Using the solutions of reaction-diffusion equations and with a strategy of parallel computation, the asynchronous excitation propagation and intraventricular conduction in BBB was simulated. The mechanics of myocardial tissues were computed with time-, sarcomere length-dependent uniaxial active stress initiated at the time of depolarization. The quantification of mechanical intra- and interventricular asynchrony of BBB was then investigated using the finite-element method with an eight-node isoparametric element. The simulation results show that (1) there exists inter- and intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony during BBB; (2) RBBB may have more mechanical synchrony and better systolic function of the left ventricle (LV) than LBBB; (3) the ventricles always move toward the early-activated ventricle; and (4) the septum experiences higher stress than left and right ventricular free walls in BBB. The simulation results validate clinical and experimental recordings of heart deformation and provide regional quantitative estimates of ventricular wall strain and stress. The present work suggests that an electromechanical heart model, incorporating real geometry and fiber orientations, may be helpful for better

  19. A handheld support system to facilitate stereological measurements and mapping of branching structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardi, Jonathan Eyal; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2007-01-01

    arterioles or for collection and optimizing sampling of crops for precision agriculture. Although the system has been designed specifically for sampling branching structures, it is sufficiently flexible to be used for other applications involving nested stereological designs. We describe the system...... specifications, software and Graphical User Interface (GUI) development, functionality and application of the handheld system using four examples: (1) sampling monkey lung bronchioles for estimation of diameter and wall thickness (2) sampling rat kidney for estimating number of arteries and arterioles...

  20. Branched standard spines of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Riccardo

    1997-01-01

    This book provides a unified combinatorial realization of the categroies of (closed, oriented) 3-manifolds, combed 3-manifolds, framed 3-manifolds and spin 3-manifolds. In all four cases the objects of the realization are finite enhanced graphs, and only finitely many local moves have to be taken into account. These realizations are based on the notion of branched standard spine, introduced in the book as a combination of the notion of branched surface with that of standard spine. The book is intended for readers interested in low-dimensional topology, and some familiarity with the basics is assumed. A list of questions, some of which concerning relations with the theory of quantum invariants, is enclosed.

  1. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  3. Multidisciplinary Optimization Branch Experience Using iSIGHT Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S. L.; Korte, J. J.; Dunn, H. J.; Salas, A. O.

    1999-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley is investigating frameworks for supporting multidisciplinary analysis and optimization research. A framework provides software and system services to integrate computational tasks and allows the researcher to concentrate more on the application and less on the programming details. A framework also provides a common working environment and a full range of optimization tools, and so increases the productivity of multidisciplinary research teams. Finally, a framework enables staff members to develop applications for use by disciplinary experts in other organizations. This year, the MDO Branch has gained experience with the iSIGHT framework. This paper describes experiences with four aerospace applications, including: (1) reusable launch vehicle sizing, (2) aerospike nozzle design, (3) low-noise rotorcraft trajectories, and (4) acoustic liner design. Brief overviews of each problem are provided, including the number and type of disciplinary codes and computation time estimates. In addition, the optimization methods, objective functions, design variables, and constraints are described for each problem. For each case, discussions on the advantages and disadvantages of using the iSIGHT framework are provided as well as notes on the ease of use of various advanced features and suggestions for areas of improvement.

  4. Landing on branches in the frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijma, Nienke N; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kleinteich, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) are famous for their saltatory or hopping locomotion, which is related to numerous anatomical specialisations that are characteristic for the group. However, while the biomechanics of take-off in frogs have been studied in detail, much less is known on how frogs land after a jump. Besides terrestrial and aquatic species, several lineages of frogs adopted an arboreal lifestyle and especially the biomechanics of landing on challenging, small, and unpredictable substrates, such as leaves or branches, are virtually unknown. Here we studied the landing kinematics of the arboreal frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Hylidae) on a wooden stick that was used to mimic a small tree branch. We observed two different landing behaviours: (1) landing on the abdomen and (2) attachment with the toes of either the forelimb or the hindlimb. In the latter case, the frogs performed a cartwheel around the stick, while they were only attached by their adhesive toe pads. We estimated the forces that act on the toes during this behaviour to be up to fourteen times the body weight of the animals. This behaviour demonstrates the remarkable adhesive capabilities of the toe pads and the body control of the frogs.

  5. Bent and branched chains of nanoresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikhova, A. S.; Popov, I. Yu

    2014-10-01

    We study the spectral problem for bent and branched chains of weakly coupled conglobate resonators. At the joint points the δ-coupling is assumed. Our approach is based on the theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators and transfer matrix method. The structure of the spectrum is described. For the both cases it is proved that the Hamiltonian has negative eigenvalue for some values of the model parameters.

  6. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  7. Hybridization properties of 4'-branched oligonucleotides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liboska, Radek; Buděšínský, Miloš; Kavenová, Ivana; Páv, Ondřej; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, 5/8 (2003), s. 1057-1060 ISSN 1525-7770. [International Roundtable Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids /15./. Leuven, 10.09.2002-14.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/1166; GA AV ČR IAA4055101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : 4'-branched oligonucleotides * hybridization * triplexes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.813, year: 2003

  8. Systems of branching, annihilating, and coalescing particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Athreya, S. R.; Swart, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 80 (2012), s. 1-32 ISSN 1083-6489 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : reaction-diffusion process * branching * coalescence * annihilation * thinning * Poissonization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.785, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/swart-0381108.pdf

  9. Branching and capping determine the force–velocity relationships of branching actin networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Daniel B; Liu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    A branching actin network is the major engine that drives cell motility. A measure of the effectiveness of an engine is the velocity the engine is able to produce at a given resistance—the force–velocity relationship. Concave force–velocity relationships consist of a force-insensitive region, indicative of an adaptive response. In contrast, convex force–velocity relationships would reflect a passive response. Even in in vitro experiments, branching actin networks can exhibit both concave and convex force–velocity curves. However, the exact mechanism that can explain both force–velocity curves is not yet known. We carried out an agent-based stochastic simulation to explore such a mechanism. We discovered an emergent behavior of a branching actin network: Upon resistance, it remodels itself by increasing the number of filaments growing in contact with the load. The remodeling is favored by branching events and limited by capping. The force–velocity relationship hinges on the relative time-scale between the intrinsic kinetics of the branching actin network and the loading. Shortly after encountering resistance (∼seconds), the force–velocity relationship of the actin network is always convex, as it does not have enough time to remodel itself. A concave force–velocity relationship requires network remodeling at longer time-scales (∼tens of seconds to minutes) and the faster branching event relative to capping. Furthermore, our model explains the observed hysteresis in the force–velocity relationship of actin networks. Our model thus establishes a unified mechanism that can account for both convex and concave force–velocity relationships observed in branching actin networks. (paper)

  10. Phylogenetic signal detection from an ancient rapid radiation: Effects of noise reduction, long-branch attraction, and model selection in crown clade Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Shannon C K; Moore, Michael J; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Liston, Aaron; Livshultz, Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Crown clade Apocynaceae comprise seven primary lineages of lianas, shrubs, and herbs with a diversity of pollen aggregation morphologies including monads, tetrads, and pollinia, making them an ideal group for investigating the evolution and function of pollen packaging. Traditional molecular systematic approaches utilizing small amounts of sequence data have failed to resolve relationships along the spine of the crown clade, a likely ancient rapid radiation. The previous best estimate of the phylogeny was a five-way polytomy, leaving ambiguous the homology of aggregated pollen in two major lineages, the Periplocoideae, which possess pollen tetrads, and the milkweeds (Secamonoideae plus Asclepiadoideae), which possess pollinia. To assess whether greatly increased character sampling would resolve these relationships, a plastome sequence data matrix was assembled for 13 taxa of Apocynaceae, including nine newly generated complete plastomes, one partial new plastome, and three previously reported plastomes, collectively representing all primary crown clade lineages and outgroups. The effects of phylogenetic noise, long-branch attraction, and model selection (linked versus unlinked branch lengths among data partitions) were evaluated in a hypothesis-testing framework based on Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. Discrimination among alternative crown clade resolutions was affected by all three factors. Exclusion of the noisiest alignment positions and topologies influenced by long-branch attraction resulted in a trichotomy along the spine of the crown clade consisting of Rhabdadenia+the Asian clade, Baisseeae+milkweeds, and Periplocoideae+the New World clade. Parsimony reconstruction on all optimal topologies after noise exclusion unambiguously supports parallel evolution of aggregated pollen in Periplocoideae (tetrads) and milkweeds (pollinia). Our phylogenomic approach has greatly advanced the resolution of one of the most perplexing radiations in Apocynaceae, providing the

  11. Auxin transport in the evolution of branching forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C Jill

    2017-07-01

    Contents 545 I. 545 II. 546 III. 546 IV. 548 V. 548 VI. 549 VII. 549 Acknowledgements 549 References 549 SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes. The evidence reviewed here suggests that divergent auxin transport routes contributed to the diversification of branching forms in distinct land plant lineages. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Motor branches of the ulnar nerve to the forearm: an anatomical study and guidelines for selective neurectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Renata; Leclercq, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Precise knowledge of motor nerve branches is critical to plan selective neurectomies for the treatment of spastic limbs. Our objective is to describe the muscular branching pattern of the ulnar nerve in the forearm and suggest an ideal surgical approach for selective neurectomy of the flexor carpi ulnaris. The ulnar nerve was dissected under loop magnification in 20 upper limbs of fresh frozen cadavers and its branches to the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU) and to the flexor digitorum profundus muscle (FDP) were quantified. We measured their diameter, length and distance between their origin and the medial epicondyle. The point where the ulnar artery joined the nerve was observed. The position in which the ulnar nerve gave off each branch was noted (ulnar, posterior or radial) and the Martin-Gruber connection, when present, had its origin observed and its diameter measured. The ulnar nerve gave off two to five muscular branches, among which, one to four to the FCU and one or two to the FDP. In all cases, the first branch was to the FCU. It arose on average 1.4 cm distal to the epicondyle, but in four specimens it arose above or at the level of the medial epicondyle (2.0 cm above in one case, 1.5 cm above in two cases, and at the level of the medial epicondyle in one). The first branch to the FDP arose on average 5.0 cm distal to the medial epicondyle. All the branches to FDP but one arose from the radial aspect of the ulnar nerve. A Martin-Gruber connection was present in nine cases. All motor branches arose in the proximal half of the forearm and the ulnar nerve did not give off branches distal to the point where it was joined by the ulnar artery. The number of motor branches of the ulnar nerve to the FCU varies from 2 to 4. An ideal approach for selective neurectomy of the FCU should start 4 cm above the medial epicondyle, and extend distally to 50% of the length of the forearm or just to the point where the ulnar artery joins the nerve.

  13. Determining multiple length scales in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi-Qiao; Ryu, Seungoh; Sen, Pabitra N.

    2000-07-01

    Carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East are believed to contain about half of the world's oil. The processes of sedimentation and diagenesis produce in carbonate rocks microporous grains and a wide range of pore sizes, resulting in a complex spatial distribution of pores and pore connectivity. This heterogeneity makes it difficult to determine by conventional techniques the characteristic pore-length scales, which control fluid transport properties. Here we present a bulk-measurement technique that is non-destructive and capable of extracting multiple length scales from carbonate rocks. The technique uses nuclear magnetic resonance to exploit the spatially varying magnetic field inside the pore space itself-a `fingerprint' of the pore structure. We found three primary length scales (1-100µm) in the Middle-East carbonate rocks and determined that the pores are well connected and spatially mixed. Such information is critical for reliably estimating the amount of capillary-bound water in the rock, which is important for efficient oil production. This method might also be used to complement other techniques for the study of shaly sand reservoirs and compartmentalization in cells and tissues.

  14. A general continuous-state nonlinear branching process

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pei-Sen; Yang, Xu; Zhou, Xiaowen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider a general continuous-state branching process which can be identified as a nonnegative solution to a nonlinear version of the stochastic differential equation for continuous-state branching process. Intuitively, this process is a branching process with population-size-dependent branching rates and with competition. Using martingale techniques we find rather sharp conditions on extinction and explosion behaviors of the process. Some Foster-Lyapunov type criteria are al...

  15. Genotype-Specific Measles Transmissibility: A Branching Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, Sarah F; Hacker, Jill K; Enanoria, Wayne T A; Worden, Lee; Blumberg, Seth; Porco, Travis C; Zipprich, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    Substantial heterogeneity in measles outbreak sizes may be due to genotype-specific transmissibility. Using a branching process analysis, we characterize differences in measles transmission by estimating the association between genotype and the reproduction number R among postelimination California measles cases during 2000-2015 (400 cases, 165 outbreaks). Assuming a negative binomial secondary case distribution, we fit a branching process model to the distribution of outbreak sizes using maximum likelihood and estimated the reproduction number R for a multigenotype model. Genotype B3 is found to be significantly more transmissible than other genotypes (P = .01) with an R of 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], .48-.71), while the R for all other genotypes combined is 0.43 (95% CI, .28-.54). This result is robust to excluding the 2014-2015 outbreak linked to Disneyland theme parks (referred to as "outbreak A" for conciseness and clarity) (P = .04) and modeling genotype as a random effect (P = .004 including outbreak A and P = .02 excluding outbreak A). This result was not accounted for by season of introduction, age of index case, or vaccination of the index case. The R for outbreaks with a school-aged index case is 0.69 (95% CI, .52-.78), while the R for outbreaks with a non-school-aged index case is 0.28 (95% CI, .19-.35), but this cannot account for differences between genotypes. Variability in measles transmissibility may have important implications for measles control; the vaccination threshold required for elimination may not be the same for all genotypes or age groups.

  16. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  17. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  18. Dependence of paracentric inversion rate on tract length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    York, Thomas L; Durrett, Rick; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We develop a Bayesian method based on MCMC for estimating the relative rates of pericentric and paracentric inversions from marker data from two species. The method also allows estimation of the distribution of inversion tract lengths. RESULTS: We apply the method to data from...... Drosophila melanogaster and D. yakuba. We find that pericentric inversions occur at a much lower rate compared to paracentric inversions. The average paracentric inversion tract length is approx. 4.8 Mb with small inversions being more frequent than large inversions.If the two breakpoints defining...... a paracentric inversion tract are uniformly and independently distributed over chromosome arms there will be more short tract-length inversions than long; we find an even greater preponderance of short tract lengths than this would predict. Thus there appears to be a correlation between the positions...

  19. A subgradient-based branch-and-bound algorithm for the capacitated facility location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. In order to guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions to the L......This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. In order to guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions...... to the Lagrangean subproblem. Branching decisions are then based on this estimated (fractional) primal solution. Extensive numerical results reveal that the method is much more faster and robust than other state-of-the-art methods for solving the CFLP exactly....

  20. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  1. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272; CAS...

  2. Non-destructive biomass estimation of tree seedlings using image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norgren, O.; Elfving, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture; Olsson, Olof [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology

    1995-12-31

    The biomass of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta and Pinus cembra seedlings that were raised in three different growing media, as well as of naturally regenerated P. sylvestris saplings, was estimated using functions based on variables measured non-destructively. These included stem diameter, seedling height, number of needles and branches, length of the longest needle, and projected seedling or sapling crown area. Projected area of a two-dimensional video image of the seedling or sapling was measured using computer-based image analysis. The variables were tested in all possible combinations to achieve the best biomass estimate. Projected area alone explained more than 97% of the variation in seedling or sapling mass. Addition of stem diameter increased the degree of explanation to more than 98%, whereas the other variables did not contribute further. Separate functions for species and growing media resulted in more precise estimates than if general functions were used. 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...... giant branch (AGB) population (21 stars) using AAOmega/2dF spectra with R ~ 3000. We discover that NGC 1851 hosts a quadrimodal distribution of CN band strengths in its RGB and AGB populations. This result supports the merger formation scenario proposed for this cluster, such that the CN quadrimodality...... found that the four CN peaks may be paired—the two CN-weaker populations being associated with low Ba and the two CN-stronger populations with high Ba. If true, then s-process abundances would be a good diagnostic for disentangling the two original clusters in the merger scenario. More observations...

  4. Pasting and thermal properties of waxy corn starch modified by 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junyan; Li, Yang; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan; Li, Zhaofeng

    2017-04-01

    Waxy corn starch was modified with the 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. Incubating waxy corn starch with GBE increased the number of α-1,6 branch points and reduced the average chain length. Enzymatic modification also decreased the breakdown and setback values of Brabender viscosity curves, indicating that the modified starch had higher paste stability. Preheating the starch at 65°C for 30min before incubation with GBE could promote enzymatic modification of starch. Linear regression was used to describe the relationships between starch structure and its pasting and thermal properties. The setback value showed a negative linear correlation with the α-1,6 branch point content (R 2 =0.9824) and a positive linear correlation with the average chain length (R 2 =0.8954). Meanwhile, the gelatinization enthalpy was also linearly correlated to the α-1,6 branch point content (R 2 =0.9326) and the average chain length (R 2 =0.8567). These insights provide a useful reference for food processors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Degree of Branching in Hyperbranched Poly(glycerol-co-diacids Synthesized in Toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Strahan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectrometry (1-dimensional and 2-dimensional have been used to assign chemical resonances and determine the degrees of branching for polyesters synthesized by the Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IVoxide-catalyzed polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length = 2, glutaric acid (n = 3 or azelaic acid (n = 7 in quasi-melt solutions with toluene. When 1:1 and 2:1 (diacid:glycerol molar ratios were used, it was found that the glutaric acid-derived polymers gave the highest degree of polymer branching (31.2%, 85.6%, respectively after the 24 h reaction period followed by the succinic acid-derived polymers (39.4%, 41.9%, respectively and the azelaic acid-derived polymers (9.9%, 13.9%, respectively. Reactions performed at reflux for 24 h resulted in a 70.8% and 56.7% decrease in degree of branching for succinic acid and glutaric acid-derived polyesters, respectively. There is no indication that degree of branching is significantly affected by the presence or absence of solvent according to the results obtained in this research.

  6. An Assessment of the Length and Variability of Mercury's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Slavin, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We employ Mariner 10 measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field in the vicinity of Mercury to estimate the rate of magnetic reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the Hermean magnetosphere. We derive a time-series of the open magnetic flux in Mercury's magnetosphere. from which we can deduce the length of the magnetotail The length of the magnetotail is shown to be highly variable. with open field lines stretching between 15R(sub H) and 8S0R(sub H) downstream of the planet (median 150R(sub H)). Scaling laws allow the tail length at perihelion to be deduced from the aphelion Mariner 10 observations.

  7. Cyclic codes of length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    [X]/〈X2m. − 1〉 are given. Cyclic codes of length 2m over the finite field Fq, of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained. Keywords.

  8. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Femur length and biparietal diameter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... Shipp TD, Bromley B, Mascola M, Benacerraf B. Variation in fetal femur length with respect to maternal race. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:141‑4. 25. Deter RL, Harrist RB, Birnholz JC, Hadlock FP. Quantitative Obstetrical. Ultrasonography. New York: Wiley; 1986. 26. Yeh MN, Bracero L, Reilly KB, Murtha L, ...

  10. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  11. Accelerator Physics Branch annual technical report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, J.A.

    1990-08-01

    The report describes, in a series of separate articles, the achievements of the Accelerator Physics Branch for the calendar year 1989. Work in basic problems of accelerator physics including ion sources, high-duty-factor rf quadrupoles, coupling effects in standing wave linacs and laser acceleration is outlined. A proposal for a synchrotron light source for Canada is described. Other articles cover the principal design features of the IMPELA industrial electron linac prototype, the cavities developed for the HERA complex at DESY, Hamburg, West Germany, and further machine projects that have been completed

  12. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  13. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  14. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  15. Power system transient stability analysis based on branch potential characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huan; Wang, Zengping

    2017-09-01

    Branch potential function is proposed based on the power system network preserving model. The concept of thermodynamics-entropy, is introduced to describe spatial distribution characteristics of the branch potential energy. Branch potential energy was analysed in time and space domain., with transient stability index proposed accordingly. The larger disturbance energy line fault injected to grid is, the larger branch energy entropy will be, and the more energy accumulated on key branches is, the more prone to lose stability the system will be. Simulation results on IEEE system proved its feasibility.

  16. Outcomes of fenestrated and branched endovascular repair of complex abdominal and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzer, Andres; Simons, Jessica P; Flahive, Julie; Durgin, Jonathan; Aiello, Francesco A; Doucet, Danielle; Steppacher, Robert; Messina, Louis M

    2017-09-01

    , 156-862), with three (3%) patients lost to follow-up. On 1-year Kaplan-Meier analysis, survival was 87%, freedom from type I or type III endoleak was 97%, target vessel patency was 92%, and freedom from aortic rupture was 100%. Average lengths of intensive care unit stay and inpatient stay were 1.4 days (standard deviation, 3.3) and 3.6 days (standard deviation, 3.6), respectively. These results show that complex aortic aneurysms can now be treated with minimally invasive fenestrated and branched endovascular repair. Endovascular technologies will likely continue to play an increasingly important role in the management of patients with complex aortic aneurysm disease. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Groundwater availability in the Crouch Branch and McQueen Branch aquifers, Chesterfield County, South Carolina, 1900-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce G.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2014-01-01

    , totaled about 1,117 square miles. Major types of data used as input to the model included groundwater levels, groundwater-use data, and hydrostratigraphic data, along with estimates and measurements of stream base flows made specifically for this study. The groundwater-flow model was calibrated to groundwater-level and stream base-flow conditions from 1900 to 2012 using 39 stress periods. The model was calibrated with an automated parameter-estimation approach using the computer program PEST, and the model used regularized inversion and pilot points. The groundwater-flow model was calibrated using field data that included groundwater levels that had been collected between 1940 and 2012 from 239 wells and base-flow measurements from 44 locations distributed within the study area. To better understand recharge and inter-aquifer interactions, seven wells were equipped with continuous groundwater-level recording equipment during the course of the study, between 2008 and 2012. These water levels were included in the model calibration process. The observed groundwater levels were compared to the simulated ones, and acceptable calibration fits were achieved. Root mean square error for the simulated groundwater levels compared to all observed groundwater levels was 9.3 feet for the Crouch Branch aquifer and 8.6 feet for the McQueen Branch aquifer. The calibrated groundwater-flow model was then used to calculate groundwater budgets for the entire study area and for two sub-areas. The sub-areas are the Alligator Rural Water and Sewer Company well field near McBee, South Carolina, and the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge acquisition boundary area. For the overall model area, recharge rates vary from 56 to 1,679 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) with a mean of 737 Mgal/d over the simulation period (1900–2012). The simulated water budget for the streams and rivers varies from 653 to 1,127 Mgal/d with a mean of 944 Mgal/d. The simulated “storage-in term” ranges from 0

  18. CT study of branching characters of pulmonary small vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lihua; Li Runming; Guo Yuomin; Yang Jian; Niu Gang; Liu Jihan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the branching geometry of the pulmonary small vessels in vivo by using imaging and branching geometrical methods, and to explore the branching configuration of pulmonary vessels. Methods: 2008 sets of dichotomous small pulmonary vessels were measured in chest helical CT of 63 normal cases. The expansion and asymmetrical factors were calculated, and their characteristics and correlation with the mother branches were studied. Results: The two factors in vivo had significant differences and different trends compared with those in the specimens; the average of the expansion factor was 1.0022, there was negative linear correlation between the diameter of mother branches. The asymmetrical factor had the median of 1.4938, there was a positive linear correlation between this factor and the diameter of mother branches, and this trend was most apparent when the diameter of mother branch was blow 4 mm. The asymmetrical factor became not evident when the diameter of mother branch was above 6.0 mm. when the diameter of mother branch was equal to 2.5 mm, the expansion factor quickly increased to 1.622 and the asymmetrical factor decreased to about 1.500. Conclusion: The study of the branching character of the pulmonary small vessels by using branching geometry method not only contributed to realize the configuration and distribution characters of pulmonary vessels but also had potential theoretical and practical value in setting up the mathematic and physical model of blood stream and pressure

  19. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  20. Branching pattern in natural drainage network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, M.; Singh, A.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    The formation and growth of river channels and their network evolution are governed by the erosional and depositional processes operating on the landscape due to movement of water. The branching structure of drainage network is an important feature related to the network topology and contain valuable information about the forming mechanisms of the landscape. We studied the branching patterns in natural drainage networks, extracted from 1 m Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of 120 catchments with minimal human impacts across the United States. We showed that the junction angles have two distinct modes an the observed modes are physically explained as the optimal angles that result in minimum energy dissipation and are linked to the exponent characterizing slope-area curve. Our findings suggest that the flow regimes, debris-flow dominated or fluvial, have distinct characteristic angles which are functions of the scaling exponent of the slope-area curve. These findings enable us to understand the geomorphological signature of hydrological processes on drainage networks and develop more refined landscape evolution models.

  1. Modeling branching pore structures in membrane filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda J.

    2016-11-01

    Membrane filters are in widespread industrial use, and mathematical models to predict their efficacy are potentially very useful, as such models can suggest design modifications to improve filter performance and lifetime. Many models have been proposed to describe particle capture by membrane filters and the associated fluid dynamics, but most such models are based on a very simple structure in which the pores of the membrane are assumed to be simple circularly-cylindrical tubes spanning the depth of the membrane. Real membranes used in applications usually have much more complex geometry, with interconnected pores which may branch and bifurcate. Pores are also typically larger on the upstream side of the membrane than on the downstream side. We present an idealized mathematical model, in which a membrane consists of a series of bifurcating pores, which decrease in size as the membrane is traversed. Feed solution is forced through the membrane by applied pressure, and particles are removed from the feed either by sieving, or by particle adsorption within pores (which shrinks them). Thus the membrane's permeability decreases as the filtration progresses, ultimately falling to zero. We discuss how filtration efficiency depends on the characteristics of the branching structure. Partial support from NSF DMS 1261596 is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  3. Inspection of the Sloka Branch pipeline. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    By agreement between Latvijas gaze and DONG (the Danish State Gas Company) the Sloka branch on the main gas pipeline Riga-Liepaja was selected for inspection. This pipeline is 30.5 km long and was constructed in 1966/67. The objective of the project has been, based on detailed inspection of relative short lengths of pipe, to determine the integrity of the pipeline and to give advice concerning the continued use as a high pressure transmission pipeline. A further objective has been to provide Latvijas gaze with a package of modern cathodic protection measuring instruments and the necessary know-how for using the instruments. The objectives have been met as follows: Based on a document review together with measurements and observations in the field and in the laboratory, the condition of approximately 10 km of pipeline has been evaluated; Recommendations are given in this report with the aim of extending the life of the pipeline; A cathodic protection instrument package was delivered and a two week training course was arranged in Latvia for Latvijas gaze`s staff covering the use of the instruments. (EG)

  4. The influence of branch order on optimal leaf vein geometries: Murray's law and area preserving branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Price

    Full Text Available Models that predict the form of hierarchical branching networks typically invoke optimization based on biomechanical similitude, the minimization of impedance to fluid flow, or construction costs. Unfortunately, due to the small size and high number of vein segments found in real biological networks, complete descriptions of networks needed to evaluate such models are rare. To help address this we report results from the analysis of the branching geometry of 349 leaf vein networks comprising over 1.5 million individual vein segments. In addition to measuring the diameters of individual veins before and after vein bifurcations, we also assign vein orders using the Horton-Strahler ordering algorithm adopted from the study of river networks. Our results demonstrate that across all leaves, both radius tapering and the ratio of daughter to parent branch areas for leaf veins are in strong agreement with the expectation from Murray's law. However, as veins become larger, area ratios shift systematically toward values expected under area-preserving branching. Our work supports the idea that leaf vein networks differentiate roles of leaf support and hydraulic supply between hierarchical orders.

  5. Managing International Branch Campuses: Lessons Learnt from Eight Years on a Branch Campus in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christopher; Thabet, Rawy Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: International branch campuses (IBCs) are complex entities and while much has been written about their expansion and development, the literature is largely from an external perspective. There have been few longitudinal studies examining the development of an IBC over time. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of one IBC…

  6. POISSON REPRESENTATIONS OF BRANCHING MARKOV AND MEASURE-VALUED BRANCHING PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtz, Thomas G.; Rodrigues, Eliane R.

    Representations of branching Markov processes and their measure-valued limits in terms of countable systems of particles are constructed for models with spatially varying birth and death rates. Each particle has a location and a "level," but unlike earlier constructions, the levels change with time.

  7. Size-exclusion-chromatography separation of randomly branched polymers with tetrafunctional branch points and local dispersity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1260, 19 October (2012), s. 97-101 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP205/11/J043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : size exclusion chromatography * local dispersity * random branching Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  8. Discontinuous conduction in mouse bundle branches is caused by bundle-branch architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Toon A. B.; van Rijen, Harold V. M.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Miquerol, Lucile; Opthof, Tobias; Gros, Daniel; Vos, Marc A.; Jongsma, Habo J.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background - Recordings of the electrical activity of mouse bundle branches ( BBs) suggest reduced conduction velocity ( CV) in the midseptal compared with the proximal part of the BB. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this slowing of conduction. Methods and

  9. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  10. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving......Many older people live with a range of chronic diseases. However, these diseases do not necessarily impede an active lifestyle. In this article the author analyses the relation between the active ageing discourse and the way older people at two Danish activity centres handle disease. How does...... active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...

  11. The Efficacy of Consensus Tree Methods for Summarizing Phylogenetic Relationships from a Posterior Sample of Trees Estimated from Morphological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Joseph E; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2018-03-01

    Consensus trees are required to summarize trees obtained through MCMC sampling of a posterior distribution, providing an overview of the distribution of estimated parameters such as topology, branch lengths, and divergence times. Numerous consensus tree construction methods are available, each presenting a different interpretation of the tree sample. The rise of morphological clock and sampled-ancestor methods of divergence time estimation, in which times and topology are coestimated, has increased the popularity of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) consensus tree method. The MCC method assumes that the sampled, fully resolved topology with the highest clade credibility is an adequate summary of the most probable clades, with parameter estimates from compatible sampled trees used to obtain the marginal distributions of parameters such as clade ages and branch lengths. Using both simulated and empirical data, we demonstrate that MCC trees, and trees constructed using the similar maximum a posteriori (MAP) method, often include poorly supported and incorrect clades when summarizing diffuse posterior samples of trees. We demonstrate that the paucity of information in morphological data sets contributes to the inability of MCC and MAP trees to accurately summarise of the posterior distribution. Conversely, majority-rule consensus (MRC) trees represent a lower proportion of incorrect nodes when summarizing the same posterior samples of trees. Thus, we advocate the use of MRC trees, in place of MCC or MAP trees, in attempts to summarize the results of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of morphological data.

  12. Whole-body nitrogen and tyrosine metabolism in surgical patients receiving branched-chain amino acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.P.; Bistrian, B.R.; Moldawer, L.L.; Blackburn, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity received preoperatively a standard crystalline amino acid solution containing 15.6% branched-chain amino acids. During the first five postoperative days, the patients were randomized to receive one of three amino acid solutions of different branched-chain amino acid content. Whole-body amino acid appearance and oxidation were estimated using a continuous intravenous infusion of L-(U- 14 C)-tyrosine preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. This study suggests that an adequate nitrogen intake of a balanced amino acid mixture, as well as a solution enriched with branched-chain amino acids, maintains protein homeostasis and supports protein synthesis similarly in well-nourished patients following major abdominal surgery. A diet containing only branched-chain amino acids in isomolar ratios was as effective at maintaining protein retention and whole-body protein synthesis and albumin renewal postoperatively when compared with a standard amino acid formula

  13. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS). Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth\\'s troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. The results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have implications on atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and the oxidative stability of organic substances. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  14. Validation of hamstrings musculoskeletal modeling by calculating peak hamstrings length at different hip angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Krogt, M.M.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Harlaar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimates of hamstrings lengths are useful, for example, to facilitate planning for surgical lengthening of the hamstrings in patients with cerebral palsy. In this study, three models used to estimate hamstrings length (M1: Delp, M2: Klein Horsman, M3: Hawkins and Hull) were evaluated. This

  15. [Phenolic compounds in branches of Tamarix rasissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Wei-Qi; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Rui; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Yao, Yao

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the branches of Tamarix rasissima, repeated silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and recrystallization were applied for chemical constituents isolation and purification. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction and their structures were elucidated by physical properties and spectra analysis such as UV, ESI-MS and NMR as monodecarboxyellagic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-D-arabinfuranoside (5), ferulic acid (6), isoferulic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), 4-O-acetyl-caffeic acid (9), and 4-methyl-1, 2-benzenediol (10). All compounds except for isoferulic acid were isolated firstly from this plant except for isoferulic acid, and compounds 5, 9 and 10 were obtained from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  16. Abundance Analysis of Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Lagerholm, C.; Mikolaitis, Š.

    2008-12-01

    During the Observational Stellar Astrophysics research course in Lithuania, we analyzed the spectra of four red horizontal branch stars obtained on the Nordic Optical Telescope and FIES spectrograph. For the analysis we used the program SIU running under IDL. Overall, the metallicity for these stars seems to be higher than what is listed in the literature. We have determined the main atmospheric parameters and abundances of C, N, O and Mg chemical elements. We were only able to get the [O/Fe] abundance for one star because of telluric lines. The abundances were compared with stellar evolutionary models, both for finding the stellar mass and to investigate how well these stars follow theoretical predictions of evolutionary abundance alterations.

  17. Simple statistical model for branched aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    We propose a statistical model that can reproduce the size distribution of any branched aggregate, including amylopectin, dendrimers, molecular clusters of monoalcohols, and asphaltene nanoaggregates. It is based on the conditional probability for one molecule to form a new bond with a molecule......, given that it already has bonds with others. The model is applied here to asphaltene nanoaggregates observed in molecular dynamics simulations of Cooee bitumen. The variation with temperature of the probabilities deduced from this model is discussed in terms of statistical mechanics arguments....... The relevance of the statistical model in the case of asphaltene nanoaggregates is checked by comparing the predicted value of the probability for one molecule to have exactly i bonds with the same probability directly measured in the molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement is satisfactory...

  18. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  19. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrıo, Javier

    2016-11-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N f quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N f flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N c color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  20. Branch xylem density variations across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Baker, T. R.; Santos, A. J. B.; Mercado, L. M.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Aguilar, A.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Bonal, D.; Costa, A. C. L.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Schwarz, M.; Sota, A.; Schmerler, J.; Vieira, I.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.

    2008-05-01

    Measurements of branch xylem density, Dx, were made for 1466 trees representing 503 species, sampled from 80 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 240 kg m-3 for a Brosimum parinarioides from Tapajos in West Pará, Brazil to 1130 kg m-3 for an Aiouea sp. from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average Dx across the sample plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that geographic location and plot accounted for 33% of the variation with species identity accounting for an additional 27%; the remaining "residual" 40% of the variance accounted for by tree to tree (within species) variation. Variations in plot means, were, however, hardly accountable at all by differences in species composition. Rather, it would seem that variations of xylem density at plot level must be explained by the effects of soils and/or climate. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the xylem density of the more widely distributed species varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing and in a predictable manner. Exceptions to this general rule may be some pioneers belonging to Pourouma and Miconia and some species within the genera Brosimum, Rinorea and Trichillia which seem to be more constrained in terms of this plasticity than most species sampled as part of this study.

  1. A novel length back-calculation approach accounting for ontogenetic changes in the fish length - otolith size relationship during the early life of sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenther, Claudia C.; Temming, Axel; Baumann, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    An individual-based length back-calculation method was developed for juvenile Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus), accounting for ontogenetic changes in the relationship between fish length and otolith length. In sprat, metamorphosis from larvae to juveniles is characterized by the coincidence of low...... length growth, strong growth in body height, and maximal otolith growth. Consequently, the method identifies a point of metamorphosis for an individual as the otolith radius at maximum increment widths. By incorporating this information in our back-calculation method, estimated length growth...

  2. The Specific Features of design and process engineering in branch of industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosedko, V. V.; Yanishevskaya, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    Production output of industrial enterprise is organized in debugged working mechanisms at each stage of product’s life cycle from initial design documentation to product and finishing it with utilization. The topic of article is mathematical model of the system design and process engineering in branch of the industrial enterprise, statistical processing of estimated implementation results of developed mathematical model in branch, and demonstration of advantages at application at this enterprise. During the creation of model a data flow about driving of information, orders, details and modules in branch of enterprise groups of divisions were classified. Proceeding from the analysis of divisions activity, a data flow, details and documents the state graph of design and process engineering was constructed, transitions were described and coefficients are appropriated. To each condition of system of the constructed state graph the corresponding limiting state probabilities were defined, and also Kolmogorov’s equations are worked out. When integration of sets of equations of Kolmogorov the state probability of system activity the specified divisions and production as function of time in each instant is defined. On the basis of developed mathematical model of uniform system of designing and process engineering and manufacture, and a state graph by authors statistical processing the application of mathematical model results was carried out, and also advantage at application at this enterprise is shown. Researches on studying of loading services probability of branch and third-party contractors (the orders received from branch within a month) were conducted. The developed mathematical model of system design and process engineering and manufacture can be applied to definition of activity state probability of divisions and manufacture as function of time in each instant that will allow to keep account of loading of performance of work in branches of the enterprise.

  3. Structure of branching enzyme- and amylomaltase modified starch produced from well-defined amylose to amylopectin substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorndecha, Waraporn; Sagnelli, Domenico; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Thermostable branching enzyme (BE, EC 2.4.1.18) from Rhodothermus obamensis in combination with amylomaltase (AM, EC 2.4.1.25) from Thermus thermophilus was used to modify starch structure exploring potentials to extensively increase the number of branch points in starch. Amylose is an important...... constituent in starch and the effect of amylose on enzyme catalysis was investigated using amylose-only barley starch (AO) and waxy maize starch (WX) in well-defined ratios. All products were analysed for amylopectin chain length distribution, α-1,6 glucosidic linkages content, molar mass distribution...... by the molar mass rather that the branching density of the glucan per se . Our data demonstrate that a higher amylose content in the substrate starch efficiently produces α-1,6 glucosidic linkages and that the present of amylose generates a higher Μw and more resistant product than amylopectin. The combination...

  4. Protein kinase A is involved in the control of morphology and branching during aerobic growth of Mucor circinelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Polo, V.G.; Rossi, S.

    2004-01-01

    The cAMP signal transduction pathway controls many processes in fungi. The Mucor circinelloides pkaR and pkaC genes, encoding the regulatory (PKAR) and catalytic (PKAC) subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), have been cloned recently. Expression analysis during the dimorphic shift...... and colony morphology suggested a role for PKAR in the control of morphology and branching. Here strain KFA121, which overexpresses the M. circinelloides pkaR gene, was used to quantify growth and branching under different aerobic growth conditions in a flow-through cell by computerized image analysis....... An inverse relationship between the pkaR expression level in KFA121 and the hyphal growth unit length was observed in KFA121, suggesting a central role for PKAR in branching. A biochemical analysis of PKAR using antibodies and enzyme assay demonstrated that the level of PKAR is higher in KFA121 under...

  5. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  6. Association between Snoring and Leukocyte Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Yun, Chang-Ho; Yoon, Dae Wui; Baik, Inkyung

    2016-04-01

    Data on the association between snoring and telomere length, an indicator of biological aging, are very limited. Moreover, no polysomnography (PSG) studies on this association in a general population have been conducted. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between snoring and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using PSG and a questionnaire. A cross-sectional PSG study embedded in a population-based cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study was conducted in 2010-2013. During the same period, questionnaire-based interviews, blood collection, and relative LTL assays were conducted. A total of 887 Korean men and women aged 50-79 y with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) snoring during sleep (% time spent snoring) assessed by PSG was inversely associated with LTL even after adjusting for potential risk factors and AHI. In the linear regression association between tertiles of percentage of time spent snoring and log-transformed LTL, coefficient estimates (P value) were -0.076 (snoring status determined using PSG and questionnaire information, both primary snorers and those with mild sleep apnea (5 ≤ AHI snoring may influence telomere attrition independent of sleep apnea. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... increased with the number of recording days and was minimum 10 % higher for 7 days compared to 4 days. The number of eating occasions per day and the number of reported food items per meal did not differ between 4 and 7 recording days. Conclusion: Reducing the recording period from 7 to 4 consecutive days...... did not change EI/BMR at group level. Still a study effect seemed to occur in the two population samples resulting in lower estimates of EI/BMR day 1-2. The proportion of consumers was higher with a 7-day recording. These results support a reporting period from 4-7 days....

  8. The Distribution of Lightning Channel Lengths in Northern Alabama Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, H. S.; Koshak, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Lightning is well known to be a major source of tropospheric NOx, and in most cases is the dominant natural source (Huntreiser et al 1998, Jourdain and Hauglustaine 2001). Production of NOx by a segment of a lightning channel is a function of channel segment energy density and channel segment altitude. A first estimate of NOx production by a lightning flash can be found by multiplying production per segment [typically 104 J/m; Hill (1979)] by the total length of the flash s channel. The purpose of this study is to determine average channel length for lightning flashes near NALMA in 2008, and to compare average channel length of ground flashes to the average channel length of cloud flashes.

  9. Introducing an Educational Tool for Learning Branch & Bound Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofriesilero Zumaytis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to our informal survey, Branch & Bound strategy is considerably difficult to learn compared to other strategies. This strategy consists of several complex algorithmic steps such as Reduced Cost Matrix (RCM calculation and Breadth First Search. Thus, to help students understanding this strategy, AP-BB, an educational tool for learning Branch & Bound is developed. This tool includes four modules which are Brute Force solving visualization, Branch & Bound solving visualization, RCM calculator, and case-based performance comparison. These modules are expected to enhance student’s understanding about Branch & Bound strategy and its characteristics. Furthermore, our work incorporates TSP as its case study and Brute Force strategy as a baseline to provide a concrete impact of Branch & Bound strategy. According to our qualitative evaluation, AP-BB and all of its features fulfil student necessities for learning Branch & Bound strategy.

  10. Analysis of τ 1-prong exclusive branching ratios using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.M.; Matorras, F.; Ruiz, A.

    1997-01-01

    A FFNN has been used to identify six different 1-prong τ decays among the τ + τ - events collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP. The method operates with better efficiency-purity than the classical methods for the previously studied channels and allows the possibility of analysing a new one. It has been applied to 1993 and 1994 data to obtain the branching fractions of these channels. A first estimation of the systematic errors has been performed. (orig.)

  11. Disappearance of criticality in branched-chain thermal explosion with heat loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoya, Samuel S.

    2003-09-01

    In the framework of the currently developed branched-chain thermal explosion theory, the equation governing leakage through a hole of a reaction vessel is given. The critical ignition, extinction and transition temperature excess, activation energy parameter and modified Semenov's number are estimated employing this equation. We calculated numerically and obtained analytically these non-dimensional parameters with and without initiation respectively. The similar solution for Semenov model appear as a limiting case of our solution. We also obtained the ignition times. (author)

  12. Precise localization of the motor nerve branches to the hamstring muscles: an aid to the conduct of neurolytic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, P M; Seidel, G K; Gans, B M; Dijkers, M

    1996-11-01

    To identify the precise locations of the motor branches and motor points to the hamstring musculature and define these locations in relation to bony landmarks. Descriptive study of adult cadaver limb dissection. The number, location, and course of the motor branches and motor points to each hamstring muscle from the sciatic nerve were defined relative to bony landmarks. Department of anatomy at a university school of medicine. Anatomic dissection of 30 adult cadaver limbs (17 individuals) was completed. Adult cadavers were selected randomly without regard to gender, age, and race. Exclusion criteria included femoral fracture, surgery, inability to obtain neutral position, and posterior thigh trauma. A descriptive anatomic study based on linear measures in centimeters from bony landmarks. Two zones located along a line from the ischial tuberosity to the lateral femoral condyle were observed to exist. Zone one, containing the first motor branch to the biceps long head and semitendinosus, is found at approximately 20% (6.9cm +/- 1.8 and 7.1cm +/- 2.2 from the ischial tuberosity, respectively) of femur length along the stated line. Zone two, containing the primary branch to the semimembranosus and the secondary branches to the biceps and semitendinosus, is found at approximately 33% (13.1cm +/- 3.6, 12.6cm +/- 3.9, and 14.3cm +/- 3.9 from the ischial tuberosity, respectively) of femur length. The drawing of one surface line, when combined with our anthropometric observations, should increase the ease and accuracy with which motor branch blocks to the hamstrings are performed.

  13. [Anatomic study on injury of simple deep branch of ulnar nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Qingwen; Yin, Jiali; Yang, Huanyou; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jianfeng; Jiang, Wenping; Tian, Min; Liu, Dequn

    2010-02-01

    To provide anatomy evidence of the simple injury of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve for clinical diagnosis and treatments. Fifteen fresh samples of voluntary intact amputated forearms with no deformity were observed anatomically, which were mutilated from the distal end of forearm. The midpoint of the forth palm fingerweb was defined as dot A, the midpoint of the hook of the hamate bone as dot B, the ulnar margin of the flexor digitorum superficialis of the little finger as OD, and the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve and the forth common finger digital nerve as OE, dot O was the vertex of the triangle, dot C was intersection point of a vertical line passing dot B toward OE; dot F was the intersection point of CB's extension line and OD. OCF formed a triangle. OCF and the deep branch of the ulnar nerve were observed. From May 2000 to June 2007, 3 cases were treated which were all simple injury of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve by glass, diagnosed through anatomical observations. The wounds were all located in the hypothenar muscles, and passed through the distal end of the hamate bone. Muscle power controlled by the ulnar nerve got lower. The double ends was sewed up in 2 cases directly intra operation, and the superficial branch of radial nerve grafted freely in the other 1 case. The distance between dot B and dot O was (19.20 +/- 1.30) mm. The length of BC was (7.80 +/- 1.35) mm. The morphia of OCF was various, and the route of profundus nervi ulnaris was various in OCF. OCF contains opponens canales mainly. The muscle branch of the hypothenar muscles all send out in front of the opponens canales. The wounds of these 3 cases were all located at the distal end of the hook of the hamate bone, intrinsic muscles controlled by the ulnar nerve except hypothenar muscles were restricted without sensory disorder or any other injuries. Three cases were followed up for 2 months to 4 years. Postoperation, the symptoms disappeared, holding power got well, patients

  14. Kajian Pelepah Kelapa sebagai Serat Komposit (Study Of Coconut Branch AS Composite Fiber)

    OpenAIRE

    Darmanto, Seno; Sediono, Windu; Setyoko, Bambang; Murni, Murni

    2007-01-01

    Research is done to analyze coconut branch fiber as car body composite. Analyzing is based onmaterial, composition, and strength of material. Research was done in laboratory. Coconut branchfiber is obtained by natural drying process and cutting to become fiber with ±0,5 mm of length.Reinforcement and binder is determined polyester resin. Coir (coconut fiber) have 1.15 kg/m3 ofdensity, 1.15 MPa of strength dan modulus elastisitas 4 – 6 GPa. And based on specimen and studyof litera...

  15. Comparison of horse mackerel length frequencies obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The validity of abundance estimates from hydroacoustic surveys relies, inter alia, on the ability of the fishing gear on the research vessel to sample non-selectively. This study compares the length frequencies of Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis taken in Namibian waters by the R.V. Welwitchia and ...

  16. Stature prediction from foot length in a Nigerian population | Iheanyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at establishing the reliability of estimating stature from foot length measurement in a Nigerian population. Two hundred and sixty-two healthy medical students of Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria were used for the study. The study yielded positive correlation coefficients of 0.698 and 0.70 for males and ...

  17. Optimum length of finned pipe for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeylemez, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A thermoeconomic feasibility analysis is presented yielding a simple algebraic optimization formula for estimating the optimum length of a finned pipe that is used for waste heat recovery. A simple economic optimization method is used in the present study by combining it with an integrated overall heat balance method based on fin effectiveness for calculating the maximum savings from a waste heat recovery system

  18. The complexity of finding arc-disjoint branching flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Jensen, J.; Havet, Frédéric; Yeo, Anders

    2016-01-01

    unit of flow from a given source s to all other vertices, generalizes the concept of arc-disjoint out-branchings (spanning out-trees) in a digraph. A pair of out-branchings Bs,1+,Bs,2+ from a root s in a digraph D=(V,A) on n vertices corresponds to arc-disjoint branching flows x1,x2 (the arcs carrying...

  19. Induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis in experimental retinal branch vein occlusion.

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, I L; Yu, D Y; Vijayasekaran, S; Barry, C; Constable, I

    1992-01-01

    Iatrogenic retinal vein to choroidal vein anastomoses were created using laser photocoagulation in six of seven dog eyes in which a partial branch retinal vein occlusion had previously been created photochemically. A similar attempt to create an anastomosis was made in six control eyes in which no branch vein occlusion was present. In the eyes in which a branch retinal vein had been created, a venous chorioretinal anastomosis appeared to be present by 3 to 6 weeks. In three control eyes simil...

  20. Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....

  1. An asymptotic analysis of closed queueing networks with branching populations

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, N.; Coffman, E.G.; Kogan, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    textabstractClosed queueing networks have proven to be valuable tools for system performance analysis. In this paper, we broaden the applications of such networks by incorporating populations of {em branching customers: whenever a customer completes service at some node of the network, it is replaced by N>=0 customers, each routed independently to a next node, where N has a given, possibly node-dependent branching distribution. Applications of these branching and queueing networks focus on {e...

  2. Finite-size scaling of survival probability in branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Branching processes pervade many models in statistical physics. We investigate the survival probability of a Galton-Watson branching process after a finite number of generations. We reveal the finite-size scaling law of the survival probability for a given branching process ruled by a probability distribution of the number of offspring per element whose standard deviation is finite, obtaining the exact scaling function as well as the critical exponents. Our findings prove the universal behavi...

  3. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation.Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections.Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22% was more common than left-sided branching (12% and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2.Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  4. Activities of the Development Branch. 1978-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candame de Gallo, Rita; Marrapodi, M.R.E.; Baez, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    The activities carried out by the Development Branch from 1978 through 1981 are summarized. Subjects covered include: Metallurgy, Nuclear Fuels, Instrumentation and Control, Nuclear Reactors, as well as the various projects developed during this period and the administrative and technical activities of various groups belonging to this Branch. A list of publications by personnel of this Branch during the same period is also included. (C.A.K.) [es

  5. Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aviñó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched RNAs with two and four strands were synthesized. These structures were used to obtain branched siRNA. The branched siRNA duplexes had similar inhibitory capacity as those of unmodified siRNA duplexes, as deduced from gene silencing experiments of the TNF-α protein. Branched RNAs are considered novel structures for siRNA technology, and they provide an innovative tool for specific gene inhibition. As the method described here is compatible with most RNA modifications described to date, these compounds may be further functionalized to obtain more potent siRNA derivatives and can be attached to suitable delivery systems.

  6. Measurements of the branching fractions of [Formula: see text] decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The branching fractions of the decay [Formula: see text] for different intermediate states are measured using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb -1 , collected by the LHCb experiment. The total branching fraction, its charmless component [Formula: see text] and the branching fractions via the resonant [Formula: see text] states η c (1 S ) and ψ (2 S ) relative to the decay via a J / ψ intermediate state are [Formula: see text] Upper limits on the B + branching fractions into the η c (2 S ) meson and into the charmonium-like states X (3872) and X (3915) are also obtained.

  7. A new RNA branching activity: the GIR1 ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Steinar D

    2006-01-01

    The formation of lariat intermediates during the first step of splicing of group II introns and spliceosomal introns is a well-studied fundamental reaction in molecular biology. Apart from this prominent example, there are surprisingly few occurrences of branched nucleotides or even 2......',5'-phosphodiester bonds in biology. We recently described a new ribozyme, the GIR1 branching ribozyme, which catalyzes the formation of a tiny lariat that caps an mRNA. This new example together with work on artificial branching ribozymes and deoxyribozymes shows that branching is facile and points...

  8. Spontaneous Age-Related Neurite Branching in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Elizabeth M. H.; Rodgers, Kasey E.; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of morphological changes that occur in the nervous system during normal aging could provide insight into cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease. Previous studies have suggested that the nervous system of C. elegans maintains its structural integrity with age despite the deterioration of surrounding tissues. Unexpectedly, we observed that neurons in aging animals frequently displayed ectopic branches, and that the prevalence of these branches increased with time. Within age-matched populations, the branching of mechnosensory neurons correlated with decreased response to light touch and decreased mobility. The incidence of branching was influenced by two pathways that can affect the rate of aging, the Jun kinase pathway and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Loss of Jun kinase signaling, which slightly shortens lifespan, dramatically increased and accelerated the frequency of neurite branching. Conversely, inhibition of the daf-2 insulin/IGF-1-like signaling pathway, which extends lifespan, delayed and suppressed branching, and this delay required DAF-16/FOXO activity. Both JNK-1 and DAF-16 appeared to act within neurons in a cell-autonomous manner to influence branching, and, through their tissue-specific expression, it was possible to disconnect the rate at which branching occurred from the overall rate of aging of the animal. Old age has generally been associated with the decline and deterioration of different tissues, except in the case of tumor cell growth. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that aging can potentiate another form of growth, the growth of neurite branches, in normal animals. PMID:21697377

  9. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  10. The Quantification of Consistent Subjective Logic Tree Branch Weights for PSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, A. K.; Scherbaum, F.

    2012-04-01

    The development of quantitative models for the rate of exceedance of seismically generated ground motion parameters is the target of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). In regions of low to moderate seismicity, the selection and evaluation of source- and/or ground-motion models is often a major challenge to hazard analysts and affected by large epistemic uncertainties. In PSHA this type of uncertainties is commonly treated within a logic tree framework in which the branch weights express the degree-of-belief values of an expert in the corresponding set of models. For the calculation of the distribution of hazard curves, these branch weights are subsequently used as subjective probabilities. However the quality of the results depends strongly on the "quality" of the expert knowledge. A major challenge for experts in this context is to provide weight estimates which are logically consistent (in the sense of Kolmogorov's axioms) and to be aware of and to deal with the multitude of heuristics and biases which affect human judgment under uncertainty. For example, people tend to give smaller weights to each branch of a logic tree the more branches it has, starting with equal weights for all branches and then adjusting this uniform distribution based on his/her beliefs about how the branches differ. This effect is known as pruning bias.¹ A similar unwanted effect, which may even wrongly suggest robustness of the corresponding hazard estimates, will appear in cases where all models are first judged according to some numerical quality measure approach and the resulting weights are subsequently normalized to sum up to one.2 To address these problems, we have developed interactive graphical tools for the determination of logic tree branch weights in form of logically consistent subjective probabilities, based on the concepts suggested in Curtis and Wood (2004).3 Instead of determining the set of weights for all the models in a single step, the computer driven

  11. ClRTL1 Encodes a Chinese Fir RNase III–Like Protein Involved in Regulating Shoot Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genes controlling shoot branching is crucial for improving plant architecture and increasing crop yield or biomass. A branching mutant of Chinese fir named “Dugansha” (Cunninghamia lanceolata var. dugan. has been isolated in our laboratory. We chose the cDNA-AFLP technique and an effective strategy to screen genes that potentially regulate shoot branching in Chinese fir using this mutant. An RNase III-like1 cDNA fragment named ClRTL1 was identified as a potential positive regulator. To investigate the function of ClRTL1 in regulating shoot branching, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence from C. lanceolata (Lamb. Hook, deduced its secondary structure and function, and overexpressed the coding sequence in Arabidopsis. The ClRTL1 cDNA is 1045 bp and comprises an open reading frame of 705 bp. It encodes a protein of 235 amino acids. The deduced secondary structure of the ClRTL1 indicates that it is a mini-RNase III-like protein. The expression analysis and phenotypes of 35S: ClRTL1 in A. thaliana implies that ClRTL1 plays a role in promoting shoot branching in Chinese fir.

  12. Modeling and analysis of flux distributions in the two branches of the phosphotransferase system in Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremling Andreas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transduction plays a fundamental role in the understanding of cellular physiology. The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS together with the PEP/pyruvate node in central metabolism represents a signaling unit that acts as a sensory element and measures the activity of the central metabolism. Pseudomonas putida possesses two PTS branches, the C-branch (PTSFru and a second branch (PTSNtr, which communicate with each other by phosphate exchange. Recent experimental results showed a cross talk between the two branches. However, the functional role of the crosstalk remains open. Results A mathematical model was set up to describe the available data of the state of phosphorylation of PtsN, one of the PTS proteins, for different environmental conditions and different strain variants. Additionally, data from flux balance analysis was used to determine some of the kinetic parameters of the involved reactions. Based on the calculated and estimated parameters, the flux distribution during growth of the wild type strain on fructose could be determined. Conclusion Our calculations show that during growth of the wild type strain on the PTS substrate fructose, the major part of the phosphoryl groups is provided by the second branch of the PTS. This theoretical finding indicates a new role of the second branch of the PTS and will serve as a basis for further experimental studies.

  13. Introduction to the police scientific development branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botten, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)

  14. Correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerchkovitz, Efrat [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Ishtiaque, Nafiz [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Karasik, Avner; Komargodski, Zohar [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2017-01-24

    We consider the correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators in four-dimensional N=2 Superconformal Field Theories (SCFTs) involving exactly one anti-chiral operator. These extremal correlators are the “minimal' non-holomorphic local observables in the theory. We show that they can be expressed in terms of certain determinants of derivatives of the four-sphere partition function of an appropriate deformation of the SCFT. This relation between the extremal correlators and the deformed four-sphere partition function is non-trivial due to the presence of conformal anomalies, which lead to operator mixing on the sphere. Evaluating the deformed four-sphere partition function using supersymmetric localization, we compute the extremal correlators explicitly in many interesting examples. Additionally, the representation of the extremal correlators mentioned above leads to a system of integrable differential equations. We compare our exact results with previous perturbative computations and with the four-dimensional tt{sup ∗} equations. We also use our results to study some of the asymptotic properties of the perturbative series expansions we obtain in N=2 SQCD.

  15. Branched Chain Amino Acids: Beyond Nutrition Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Cunxi; He, Ting; Zhang, Wenju; Zhang, Guolong; Ma, Xi

    2018-03-23

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val), play critical roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, nutrition metabolism, gut health, immunity and disease in humans and animals. As the most abundant of essential amino acids (EAAs), BCAAs are not only the substrates for synthesis of nitrogenous compounds, they also serve as signaling molecules regulating metabolism of glucose, lipid, and protein synthesis, intestinal health, and immunity via special signaling network, especially phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signal pathway. Current evidence supports BCAAs and their derivatives as the potential biomarkers of diseases such as insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). These diseases are closely associated with catabolism and balance of BCAAs. Hence, optimizing dietary BCAA levels should have a positive effect on the parameters associated with health and diseases. This review focuses on recent findings of BCAAs in metabolic pathways and regulation, and underlying the relationship of BCAAs to related disease processes.

  16. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  17. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  18. Reducing trial length in force platform posturographic sleep deprivation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, P.; Hæggström, E.; Wallin, A.

    2007-09-01

    Sleepiness correlates with sleep-related accidents, but convenient tests for sleepiness monitoring are scarce. The posturographic test is a method to assess balance, and this paper describes one phase of the development of a posturographic sleepiness monitoring method. We investigated the relationship between trial length and accuracy of the posturographic time-awake (TA) estimate. Twenty-one healthy adults were kept awake for 32 h and their balance was recorded, 16 times with 30 s trials, as a function of TA. The balance was analysed with regards to fractal dimension, most common sway amplitude and time interval for open-loop stance control. While a 30 s trial allows estimating the TA of individual subjects with better than 5 h accuracy, repeating the analysis using shorter trial lengths showed that 18 s sufficed to achieve the targeted 5 h accuracy. Moreover, it was found that with increasing TA, the posturographic parameters estimated the subjects' TA more accurately.

  19. The relationship between dendritic branch dynamics and CPEB-labeled RNP granules captured in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Bestman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding protein (CPEB is an RNA binding protein involved in dendritic delivery of mRNA and activity-dependent, polyadenylation-induced translation of mRNAs in the dendritic arbor. CPEB affects learning and memory and impacts neuronal morphological and synaptic plasticity. In neurons, CPEB is concentrated in ribonucleoprotein (RNP granules that distribute throughout the dendritic arbor and localize near synapses. We tagged full-length CPEB and an inactive mutant CPEB, that is incapable of triggering activity-induced mRNA translation, with fluorescent protein, then imaged rapid dendritic branch dynamics and RNP distribution using 2-photon time-lapse microscopy of neurons in the optic tectum of living Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The density of CPEB-containing RNP granules in dendrites is high and the distribution of granules does not correlate with sites of rapid dendritic branch dynamics. Nevertheless, inactive CPEB accumulates in granules in terminal dendritic branches, supporting the hypothesis that upon activation CPEB and its mRNA cargo are released from granules and are then available for dendritic translation.

  20. Pedicled Descending Branch Latissimus Dorsi Mini-flap for Repairing Partial Mastectomy Defect: A New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhao Cai, M.D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Volume loss is 1 of the major factors influencing cosmetic outcomes of breast after partial mastectomy (PM, especially for smaller breasts, and therefore, volume replacement is critical for optimizing the final aesthetic outcome. We present a novel technique of raising a pedicled descending branch latissimus dorsi (LD mini-flap for reconstruction of PM defects via an axillary incision. After PM, the LD mini-flap is harvested through the existing axillary incision of the axillary dissection or the sentinel lymph node biopsy. The descending branches of thoracodorsal vessels and nerve are carefully identified and isolated. The transverse branches are protected to maintain muscle innervation and function. The LD muscle is then undermined posteriorly and inferiorly to create a submuscular pocket and a subcutaneous pocket between LD muscle and superficial fascia. Once the submuscular plane is created, the muscle is divided along the muscle fibers from the deep surface including a layer of fat above the muscle. Finally, the LD mini-flap is transferred to the breast defect. Given the limited length and mobility of the LD mini-flap, this approach is best utilized for lateral breast defects. However, for medial defects, the lateral breast tissue is rearranged to reconstruct the medial breast defect, and an LD mini-flap is then used to reconstruct the lateral breast donor site. This technique can therefore be employed to reconstruct all quadrants of the breast and can provide aesthetic outcomes without scars on the back, with minimal dysfunction of LD muscle.

  1. Automated Image Analysis of Lung Branching Morphogenesis from Microscopic Images of Fetal Rat Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regulating mechanisms of branching morphogenesis of fetal lung rat explants have been an essential tool for molecular research. This work presents a new methodology to accurately quantify the epithelial, outer contour, and peripheral airway buds of lung explants during cellular development from microscopic images. Methods. The outer contour was defined using an adaptive and multiscale threshold algorithm whose level was automatically calculated based on an entropy maximization criterion. The inner lung epithelium was defined by a clustering procedure that groups small image regions according to the minimum description length principle and local statistical properties. Finally, the number of peripheral buds was counted as the skeleton branched ends from a skeletonized image of the lung inner epithelia. Results. The time for lung branching morphometric analysis was reduced in 98% in contrast to the manual method. Best results were obtained in the first two days of cellular development, with lesser standard deviations. Nonsignificant differences were found between the automatic and manual results in all culture days. Conclusions. The proposed method introduces a series of advantages related to its intuitive use and accuracy, making the technique suitable to images with different lighting characteristics and allowing a reliable comparison between different researchers.

  2. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenbos, G.

    2015-06-01

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead, respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ˜0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes.

  3. Partial Quicksort and weighted branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation we look at dierent two models of sorting algorithms based on divideand-conquer algorithms. Quicksort algorithm, sort an unsorted array of n distinct elements. Partial Quicksort sorts the l smallest elements in a list of length n. Both stochastic divide-and-conquer algorithms are widely studied. Our algorithm Quicksort on the y provides online the rst smallest, then second smallest and so on. If we stop at the l-th smallest, we obtain Partial Quicksort. We analyze the r...

  4. The Allometry of Bee Proboscis Length and Its Uses in Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariveau, Daniel P; Nayak, Geetha K; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Zientek, Joseph; Ascher, John S; Gibbs, Jason; Winfree, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Allometric relationships among morphological traits underlie important patterns in ecology. These relationships are often phylogenetically shared; thus quantifying allometric relationships may allow for estimating difficult-to-measure traits across species. One such trait, proboscis length in bees, is assumed to be important in structuring bee communities and plant-pollinator networks. However, it is difficult to measure and thus rarely included in ecological analyses. We measured intertegular distance (as a measure of body size) and proboscis length (glossa and prementum, both individually and combined) of 786 individual bees of 100 species across 5 of the 7 extant bee families (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Using linear models and model selection, we determined which parameters provided the best estimate of proboscis length. We then used coefficients to estimate the relationship between intertegular distance and proboscis length, while also considering family. Using allometric equations with an estimation for a scaling coefficient between intertegular distance and proboscis length and coefficients for each family, we explain 91% of the variance in species-level means for bee proboscis length among bee species. However, within species, individual-level intertegular distance was a poor predictor of individual proboscis length. To make our findings easy to use, we created an R package that allows estimation of proboscis length for individual bee species by inputting only family and intertegular distance. The R package also calculates foraging distance and body mass based on previously published equations. Thus by considering both taxonomy and intertegular distance we enable accurate estimation of an ecologically and evolutionarily important trait.

  5. Branching patterns of left coronary artery among North Indians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The left coronary artery displays variations in pattern, number and distribution of its branches. These variations influence the manifestation and extent of the coronary artery disease affecting the left main branch. A total of 100 North Indian cadaveric hearts were dissected to observe the main trunk of the left coronary artery.

  6. Branched organs: mechanics of morphogenesis by multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkin, Sharon R

    2008-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is ubiquitous and important in creating bulk transport systems. Branched ducts can be generated by several different mechanisms including growth, cell rearrangements, contractility, adhesion changes, and other mechanisms. We have developed several models of the mechanics of cleft formation, which we review. We discuss the implications of several candidate mechanisms and review what has been found in models and in experiments.

  7. Multicriterial ranking approach for evaluating bank branch performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleskerov, F; Ersel, H; Yolalan, R

    14 ranking methods based on multiple criteria are suggested for evaluating the performance of the bank branches. The methods are explained via an illustrative example, and some of them are applied to a real-life data for 23 retail bank branches in a large-scale private Turkish commercial bank.

  8. Construction Of Bank Branches: Critical Issues For Successful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to highlight some of the more critical lessons learnt through the author's experience as part of the development of over 40 bank branches, and proposes an approach that may lead to successful branch delivery. It does this using the framework of the project management body of knowledge, PMBoK.

  9. 47 CFR 32.6341 - Large private branch exchange expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6341 Large private branch exchange expense. This account shall include expenses associated with large private branch exchanges. Expenses associated with company internal use communication equipment shall be recorded...

  10. Critical age-dependent branching Markov processes and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  11. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salaris, Maurizio; de Boer, Thomas; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch

  12. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  13. Long chain branching on linear polypropylene by solid state reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsig, E.; Gotsis, A. D.; Picchioni, F.

    A method was developed for the long chain branching (LCB) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) via modification in the solid state. PP long chains have been linked as branches to the original linear iPP chains using solid state reactions in the presence of a free radical initiator and a multifunctional

  14. 26 CFR 1.884-1 - Branch profits tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., even if A invests the proceeds from the dividend in additional stock of the REIT. (Stock in a REIT that... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch profits tax. 1.884-1 Section 1.884-1...) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.884-1 Branch profits tax. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation...

  15. An unusual ulnar nerve-median nerve communicating branch.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogbergen, M M; Kauer, J M

    1992-01-01

    Branching of the ulnar nerve distal to the origin of the dorsal cutaneous branch was investigated in 25 hands in one of which an anatomical variation was observed. This finding may be of importance in the evaluation of certain entrapment phenomena of the ulnar nerve or unexplained sensory loss after trauma or surgical intervention in that particular area.

  16. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  17. Towards an abstract parallel branch and bound machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Bruin (Arie); G.A.P. Kindervater (Gerard); H.W.J.M. Trienekens

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMany (parallel) branch and bound algorithms look very different from each other at first glance. They exploit, however, the same underlying computational model. This phenomenon can be used to define branch and bound algorithms in terms of a set of basic rules that are applied in a

  18. Chemical Analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M62

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Origlia, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M62 (NGC 6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light elements (O, Na, Mg, and Al).

  19. Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for miombo woodlands of Malawi. Daud J Kachamba, Tron Eid. Abstract. The objective of this study was to develop general (multispecies) models for prediction of total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume including options with diameter at breast height (dbh) ...

  20. A branch-and-bound methodology within algebraic modelling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, J.J.; Heerink, J.B.J.; Kloosterman, G.

    1998-01-01

    Through the use of application-specific branch-and-bound directives it is possible to find solutions to combinatorial models that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to find by just using generic branch-and-bound techniques within the framework of mathematical programming. {\\sc Minto} is an

  1. On parallel Branch and Bound frameworks for Global Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, Juan F.R.; Salmerón, José M.G.; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Asenjo, Rafael; Casado, Leocadio G.

    2017-01-01

    Branch and Bound (B&B) algorithms are known to exhibit an irregularity of the search tree. Therefore, developing a parallel approach for this kind of algorithms is a challenge. The efficiency of a B&B algorithm depends on the chosen Branching, Bounding, Selection, Rejection, and Termination

  2. Analysis and calibration of CaII triplet spectroscopy of red giant branch stars from VLT/FLAMES observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Irwin, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Hill, V.; Helmi, A.; Letarte, B.; Jablonka, P.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that low-resolution Ca II triplet (CaT) spectroscopic estimates of the overall metallicity ([Fe/H]) of individual red giant branch (RGB) stars in two nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) agree to +/- 0.1-0.2 dex with detailed high-resolution spectroscopic determinations for the

  3. Synthesis of highly branched sulfonated polymers and the effects of degree of branching on properties of branched sulfonated polymers as proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huixiong; Wang, Duan; Tao, Dan; Wang, Lei

    2014-09-01

    Branched sulfonated polymers exhibit excellent properties as proton exchange membranes (PEMs). However, very few highly branched sulfonated polymers are reported as PEMs. The highly branched polymer, including the method to increase degree of branching (DB) and the effects of DB on the properties of PEMs, should be further studied. In this work, novel branched sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s with different DB value are synthesized by direct polycondensation reactions from bisphenol fluorene (A2), sulfonated 4,4‧-difluorobenzphenone, 1,3,5-tris(4-(4-fluorophenylsulfonyl)phenyl)benzene (B3-3) and 4,4‧-difluorodiphenyl sulfone. The highest DB with 10% branching agent is obtained using the B3-3 monomer. The method to increase the DB is discussed. It is found that B3 scaffold with long and hard arms can effectively increase the DB value. The effects of DB on the properties, including oxidative stability, proton conductivity, water uptake, swelling ratio, thermal stability, mechanical property and microstructure, are investigated. With increasing DB value, oxidative stability and proton conductivity of the membranes increase remarkably, but swelling ratio and tensile strength decrease slowly. The membrane with the highest DB value (10%) exhibits high proton conductivity (0.42 S cm-1) and oxidative stability (327 min), as well as relatively low swelling ratio (16.2%) at 80 °C.

  4. Using empirical measurements of tree branching architecture to scale whole-tree metabolism along a 4000 m elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, L. P.; Shenkin, A.; Enquist, B.; Malhi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Plant scaling models use measurements of architecture (i.e., length, width, and order of branch or xylem segments) to ultimately predict whole-plant metabolism via mass and water-use allometries. The application of plant scaling models is broad, and holds potential to simplify forest modelling efforts. However little is known regarding the influence of the environment (e.g., temperature, light, etc) on variation in branching architecture traits and how this variation affects scaling. Furthermore, scaling model assumptions of a self-similar and symmetric branching network have not been extensively tested, especially in tropical forests. As such, it is still unclear to what extent tree communities can be approximated by simple geometrical models, and where important functional divergences from theory exist. Here we analyse novel tree architecture data from diverse species along a 4000m elevational gradient spanning the Andes to the Amazon in Peru. Specifically, we calculate and compare inter- and intra-specific scaling exponents related to branch segment length and width within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Preliminary results indicate that branching architecture significantly varies among and within species especially with respect to light environments. As such, we explore the role of light in driving tree geometry by also analysing differences in light environment and crown shape. Then, we attempt to link branch architecture and crown shape. Using 6 branch-level and whole-tree traits (path length fraction, crown depth, crown width, crown volume, crown depth/width and crown width/depth) we are able to cluster 68 species of trees into 6 unique groups related to architecture and explain ~60% variability in these data. In the future, it will be important to relate these architectural groups to variation in leaf-level traits and physiology. Lastly, we discuss the implications of using these results to understand tropical forest responses to environmental change.

  5. Applicability and midterm results of branch cuff closure with vascular plug in branched endovascular repair for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongku, Kiattisak; Resch, Timothy; Sonesson, Björn; Kristmundsson, Thorarinn; Dias, Nuno V

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the applicability and outcomes of the closure of unused cuffs in branched endovascular aneurysm repair (b-EVAR) of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. We reviewed b-EVAR procedures at a tertiary referral center to identify patients who underwent incomplete branching and needed closure of the unused branch cuffs. An electronic database and intraoperative and follow-up imaging studies were reviewed to assess technical applicability and outcomes. Between January 2007 and December 2015, 17 patients underwent incomplete branching during b-EVAR. The unused branch cuff in one patient occluded spontaneously after b-EVAR and was excluded from this analysis. The remaining 16 patients underwent 11 elective and five emergency repairs. Amplatzer Vascular Plugs (St. Jude Medical, Plymouth, Minn) were used to successfully close 17 branches: 8 targeting preoperatively occluded target vessels, 3 optional branches where fenestrations were used instead, 5 after failures of catheterization or stent bridging to target vessels, and 1 renal branch of an atrophic kidney. Four branch cuffs were extended with a peripheral covered stent before plug deployment. Sixteen branch cuffs were closed intraoperatively, and the remaining cuff was closed percutaneously at a later occasion. Perioperative death occurred in two patients. Median follow-up duration was 19 months (interquartile range, 11-30 months). There was no endoleak or reintervention related to the plugged cuffs. Two late deaths occurred not related to the aneurysm. Two patients required reinterventions for type III endoleaks with interval sac expansions caused by aortic stent graft component separation in tortuous thoracic segments not related to the occluded cuffs. Closure of the branch cuff of multibranched stent graft with Amplatzer Vascular Plug is feasible and effective. It was not associated with adverse aneurysm outcomes, and it is very useful especially when using an off-the-shelf device in the acute setting

  6. Population balance modeling of full two-dimensional molecular weight and branching distributions for ldPE with topological scission in continuous stirred tank reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaghini, N.; Iedema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    A full extensive 2-dimensional (2D) model of low-density Polyethylene chain length/branching distribution is provided in this paper. 2D Population Balance Equations are solved by the Galerkinfinite element method to obtain the distributions, accounting for 2D 'topological scission'; a manner to

  7. Managing carbon sinks by changing rotation length in European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, Terhi; Liski, Jari; Pussinen, Ari; Karjalainen, Timo

    2004-06-01

    Elongation of rotation length is a forest management activity countries may choose to apply under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol to help them meet their commitments for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We used the CO2FIX model to analyze how the carbon stocks of trees, soil and wood products depend on rotation length in different European forests. Results predicted that the carbon stock of trees increased in each forest when rotation length was increased, but the carbon stock of soil decreased slightly in German and Finnish Scots pine forests; the carbon stock of wood products also decreased slightly in cases other than the Sitka spruce forest in UK. To estimate the efficiency of increasing rotation length as an Article 3.4 activity, we looked at changes in the carbon stock of trees resulting from a 20-year increase in current rotation lengths. To achieve the largest eligible carbon sink mentioned in Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol, the rotation lengths need to be increased on areas varying from 0.3 to 5.1 Mha depending on the forest. This would in some forests cause 1-6% declines in harvesting possibilities. The possible decreases in the carbon stock of soil indicate that reporting the changes in the carbon stocks of forests under Article 3.4 may require measuring soil carbon.

  8. Father Loss and Child Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter; McLanahan, Sara; Schneper, Lisa; Garfinkel, Irv; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Notterman, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Father loss during childhood has negative health and behavioral consequences, but the biological consequences are unknown. Our goal was to examine how father loss (because of separation and/or divorce, death, or incarceration) is associated with cellular function as estimated by telomere length. Data come from the 9-year follow-up of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of children in 20 large American cities ( N = 2420). Principal measures are as follows: salivary telomere length (sTL), mother reports of father loss, and polymorphisms in genes related to serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling. At 9 years of age, children with father loss have significantly shorter telomeres (14% reduction). Paternal death has the largest association (16%), followed by incarceration (10%), and separation and/or divorce (6%). Changes in income partially mediate these associations (95% mediation for separation and/or divorce, 30% for incarceration, and 25% for death). Effects are 40% greater for boys and 90% greater for children with the most reactive alleles of the serotonin transporter genes when compared with those with the least reactive alleles. No differences were found by age at father loss or a child's race/ethnicity. Father loss has a significant association with children's sTL, with the death of a father showing the largest effect. Income loss explains most of the association between child sTL and separation and/or divorce but much less of the association with incarceration or death. This underscores the important role of fathers in the care and development of children and supplements evidence of the strong negative effects of parental incarceration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. The anatomy of the perineal branch of the sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Christopher M; Ginsburg, Alexander D; Wilson, Thomas J; Lachman, Nirusha; Hevesi, Mario; Spinner, Robert J; Krych, Aaron J

    2018-04-01

    A "perineal" branch of the sciatic nerve has been visualized during surgery, but there is currently no description of this nerve branch in the literature. Our study investigates the presence and frequency of occurrence of perineal innervation by the sciatic nerve and characterizes its anatomy in the posterior thigh. Fifteen cadavers were obtained for dissection. Descriptive results were recorded and analyzed statistically. Twenty-one sciatic nerves were adequately anatomically preserved. Six sciatic nerves contained a perineal branch. Five sciatic nerves had a branch contributing to the perineal branch of the posterior femoral cutaneous (PFC) nerve. In specimens with adequate anatomical preservation, the perineal branch of the sciatic nerve passed posterior to the ischial tuberosity in three specimens and posterior to the conjoint tendon of the long head of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles (conjoint tendon) in one. In specimens in which the perineal branch of the PFC nerve received a contribution from the sciatic nerve, the branch passed posterior to the sacrotuberous ligament in one case and posterior to the conjoint tendon in three. Unilateral nerve anatomy was found to be a poor predictor of contralateral anatomy (Cohen's kappa = 0.06). Our study demonstrates for the first time the presence and frequency of occurrence of the perineal branch of the sciatic nerve and a sciatic contribution to the perineal branch of the PFC nerve. Clinicians should be cognizant of this nerve and its varying anatomy so their practice is better informed. Clin. Anat. 31:357-363, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. SPL13 regulates shoot branching and flowering time in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Gruber, Margaret Y; Amyot, Lisa; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2018-01-01

    Our results show SPL13 plays a crucial role in regulating vegetative and reproductive development in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), and that MYB112 is targeted and downregulated by SPL13 in alfalfa. We previously showed that transgenic Medicago sativa (alfalfa) plants overexpressing microRNA156 (miR156) show a bushy phenotype, reduced internodal length, delayed flowering time, and enhanced biomass yield. In alfalfa, transcripts of seven SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors, including SPL13, are targeted for cleavage by miR156. Thus, association of each target SPL gene to a trait or set of traits is essential for developing molecular markers for alfalfa breeding. In this study, we investigated SPL13 function using SPL13 overexpression and silenced alfalfa plants. Severe growth retardation, distorted branches and up-curled leaves were observed in miR156-impervious 35S::SPL13m over-expression plants. In contrast, more lateral branches and delayed flowering time were observed in SPL13 silenced plants. SPL13 transcripts were predominantly present in the plant meristems, indicating that SPL13 is involved in regulating shoot branch development. Accordingly, the shoot branching-related CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 8 gene was found to be significantly downregulated in SPL13 RNAi silencing plants. A R2R3-MYB gene MYB112 was also identified as being directly silenced by SPL13 based on Next Generation Sequencing-mediated transcriptome analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, suggesting that MYB112 may be involved in regulating alfalfa vegetative growth.

  11. N-cadherin regulates primary motor axon growth and branching during zebrafish embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusés, Juan L

    2011-06-15

    N-cadherin is a classical type I cadherin that contributes to the formation of neural circuits by regulating growth cone migration and the formation of synaptic contacts. This study analyzed the role of N-cadherin in primary motor axons growth during development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. After exiting the spinal cord, primary motor axons migrate ventrally through a common pathway and form the first neuromuscular junction with the muscle pioneer cells located at the horizontal myoseptum, which serves as a choice point for cell-type-specific pathway selection. Analysis of N-cadherin mutants (cdh2(hi3644Tg) ) and embryos injected with N-cadherin antisense morpholinos showed primary motor axons extending aberrant axonal branches at the choice point in ∼40% of the somitic hemisegments and an ∼150% increase in the number of branches per axon length within the ventral myotome. Analysis of individual axons trajectories showed that the caudal (CaP) and rostral (RoP) motor neurons axons formed aberrant branches at the choice point that abnormally extended in the rostrocaudal axis and ventrally to the horizontal myoseptum. Expression of a dominant-interfering N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain in primary motor neurons caused some axons to stall abnormally at the horizontal myoseptum and to impair their migration into the ventral myotome. However, in N-cadherin-depleted embryos, the majority of primary motor axons innervated their appropriate myotomal territories, indicating that N-cadherin regulates motor axon growth and branching without severely affecting the mechanisms that control axonal target selection. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Using fossils to break long branches in molecular dating: a comparison of relaxed clocks applied to the origin of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallón, Susana

    2010-07-01

    Long branches are potentially problematic in molecular dating because they can encompass a vast number of combinations of substitution rate and time. A long branch is suspected to have biased molecular clock estimates of the age of flowering plants (angiosperms) to be much older than their earliest fossils. This study explores the effect of the long branch subtending angiosperms in molecular dating and how different relaxed clocks react to it. Fossil angiosperm relatives, identified through a combined morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis for living and fossil seed plants, were used to break the long angiosperm stem branch. Nucleotide sequences of angiosperm fossil relatives were simulated using a phylogeny and model parameters from living taxa and incorporated in molecular dating. Three relaxed clocks, which implement among-lineage rate heterogeneity differently, were used: penalized likelihood (using 2 different rate smoothing optimization criteria), a Bayesian rate-autocorrelated method, and a Bayesian uncorrelated method. Different clocks provided highly correlated ages across the tree. Breaking the angiosperm stem branch did not result in major age differences, except for a few sensitive nodes. Breaking the angiosperm stem branch resulted in a substantially younger age for crown angiosperms only with 1 of the 4 methods, but, nevertheless, the obtained age is considerably older than the oldest angiosperm fossils. The origin of crown angiosperms is estimated between the Upper Triassic and the early Permian. The difficulty in estimating crown angiosperm age probably lies in a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic complicating factors, including substantial molecular rate heterogeneity among lineages and through time. A more adequate molecular dating approach might combine moderate background rate heterogeneity with large changes in rate at particular points in the tree.

  13. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  14. Objectives of research activities in Biology Branch, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The primary responsibility assigned to the Biology Branch within the framework of CRNL has been an active engagement in basic research related to the assessment of radiation hazards, particularly those to be expected after exposure to relatively low doses of radiation delivered at low dose-rates. The present group is characterized by a broad interest in the entire chain of events by which the initial radiation-induced changes in the living cell are translated into biological effects, with a special focus of attention on the mechanisms by which the initial damage can be largely repaired and by which the risks to man are modified under different circumstances. The basic concepts in radiation biology and risk estimates are reviewed in the light of recent literature on these topics. The current and proposed research activities of the Biology Branch are described. General and specific recommendations for future activities are given. (author)

  15. NATO Enlargement: Cost Estimates Developed to Date Are Notional

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... Several efforts have been made to estimate these costs. At the request of Congress, the executive branch prepared a study on NATO enlargement issues, including cost, which was released in February 1997...

  16. Wind-Induced Reconfigurations in Flexible Branched Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwafemi; Shoele, Kourosh

    2017-11-01

    Wind induced stresses are the major mechanical cause of failure in trees. We know that the branching mechanism has an important effect on the stress distribution and stability of a tree in the wind. Eloy in PRL 2011, showed that Leonardo da Vinci's original observation which states the total cross section of branches is conserved across branching nodes is the best configuration for resisting wind-induced fracture in rigid trees. However, prediction of the fracture risk and pattern of a tree is also a function of their reconfiguration capabilities and how they mitigate large wind-induced stresses. In this studies through developing an efficient numerical simulation of flexible branched trees, we explore the role of the tree flexibility on the optimal branching. Our results show that the probability of a tree breaking at any point depends on both the cross-section changes in the branching nodes and the level of tree flexibility. It is found that the branching mechanism based on Leonardo da Vinci's original observation leads to a uniform stress distribution over a wide range of flexibilities but the pattern changes for more flexible systems.

  17. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2009-10-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold, the optimal switching threshold is a function of both the average channel SNR and the number of diversity branches, where computing the optimal switching threshold is not a simple task when the number of diversity branches is high. The newly proposed multi-branch switched diversity system is based on a sequence of switching thresholds, instead of a single switching threshold, where a different diversity branch uses a different switching threshold for signal comparison. Thanks to the fact that each switching threshold in the sequence can be optimized only based on the number of the remaining diversity branches, the proposed system makes it easy to find these switching thresholds. Furthermore, some selected numerical and simulation results show that the proposed switched diversity system with the sequence of optimal switching thresholds outperforms the conventional system with the single optimal switching threshold. © 2009 IEEE.

  18. Preparation and Properties of Branched Polystyrene through Radical Suspension Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical solvent-free suspension polymerization of styrene with 3-mercapto hexyl-methacrylate (MHM as the branching monomer has been carried out using 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as the initiator to prepare branched polymer beads of high purity. The molecular weight and branching structure of the polymers have been characterized by triple detection size exclusion chromatography (TD-SEC, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The glass transition temperature and rheological properties have been measured by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and rotational rheometry. At mole ratios of MHM to AIBN less than 1.0, gelation was successfully avoided and branched polystyrene beads were prepared in the absence of any solvent. Branched polystyrene has a relatively higher molecular weight and narrower polydispersity (Mw.MALLS = 1,036,000 g·mol−1, Mw/Mn = 7.76 than those obtained in solution polymerization. Compared with their linear analogues, lower glass transition temperature and decreased chain entanglement were observed in the presently obtained branched polystyrene because of the effects of branching.

  19. Otolith Length-Fish Length Relationships of Eleven US Arctic Fish Species and Their Application to Ice Seal Diet Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.

  20. Ankle syndesmotic fixation using two screws: risk of injury to the perforating branch of the peroneal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penera, Keith; Manji, Karim; Wedel, Mathew; Shofler, David; Labovitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Trans-syndesmotic screws are commonly used to repair syndesmosis ruptures and stabilize the ankle joint. Just as with any surgery, the neurovascular structures can be compromised, causing complications. We evaluated the position of the perforating branch of the peroneal artery to define the risk of arterial compromise during placement of 2 trans-syndesmotic screws. In 37 cadaveric specimens, 2 trans-syndesmotic screws were inserted 2 and 4 cm proximal to the ankle joint. The distances between the perforating branch of the peroneal artery and the screws and the other anatomic landmarks were measured. Significant differences were calculated between the male and female limbs, and regression analysis was used to determine the significant associations between the tibial length and screw location. The perforating branch of the peroneal artery passed through the interosseous membrane 3.42 ± 0.6 cm proximal to the tibial plafond. The artery was located up to 4 mm from the superior and inferior screws 51.4% and 10.8% of the time, respectively. A greater percentage of male specimens displayed close proximity between the artery and the superior screw, and the distance of the artery from the distal fibula was statistically significant compared with the distance in the female specimens. Regression analysis revealed that the greater the tibial length, the closer the superior screw was to the artery, with a negative correlation discovered for the inferior screw. We concluded that superior screw placement increased the risk of injuring the perforating branch of the peroneal artery injury, and the likelihood of injuring the artery with the inferior screw increased as the length of the tibia decreased. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. On Computational Power of Quantum Read-Once Branching Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ablayev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review our current results concerning the computational power of quantum read-once branching programs. First of all, based on the circuit presentation of quantum branching programs and our variant of quantum fingerprinting technique, we show that any Boolean function with linear polynomial presentation can be computed by a quantum read-once branching program using a relatively small (usually logarithmic in the size of input number of qubits. Then we show that the described class of Boolean functions is closed under the polynomial projections.

  2. Business Systems Branch Abilities, Capabilities, and Services Web Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Pena, Aida Yoguely

    2009-01-01

    During the INSPIRE summer internship I acted as the Business Systems Branch Capability Owner for the Kennedy Web-based Initiative for Communicating Capabilities System (KWICC), with the responsibility of creating a portal that describes the services provided by this Branch. This project will help others achieve a clear view ofthe services that the Business System Branch provides to NASA and the Kennedy Space Center. After collecting the data through the interviews with subject matter experts and the literature in Business World and other web sites I identified discrepancies, made the necessary corrections to the sites and placed the information from the report into the KWICC web page.

  3. Structure of FabH and factors affecting the distribution of branched fatty acids in Micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose H.; Goh, Ee-Been [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA 94608 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA 94608 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beller, Harry R. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA 94608 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D., E-mail: pdadams@lbl.gov [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA 94608 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    In an effort to better understand the control of the formation of branched fatty acids in Micrococcus luteus, the structure of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, which catalyzes the initial step of fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been determined. Micrococcus luteus is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces iso- and anteiso-branched alkenes by the head-to-head condensation of fatty-acid thioesters [coenzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP)]; this activity is of interest for the production of advanced biofuels. In an effort to better understand the control of the formation of branched fatty acids in M. luteus, the structure of FabH (MlFabH) was determined. FabH, or β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, catalyzes the initial step of fatty-acid biosynthesis: the condensation of malonyl-ACP with an acyl-CoA. Analysis of the MlFabH structure provides insights into its substrate selectivity with regard to length and branching of the acyl-CoA. The most structurally divergent region of FabH is the L9 loop region located at the dimer interface, which is involved in the formation of the acyl-binding channel and thus limits the substrate-channel size. The residue Phe336, which is positioned near the catalytic triad, appears to play a major role in branched-substrate selectivity. In addition to structural studies of MlFabH, transcriptional studies of M. luteus were also performed, focusing on the increase in the ratio of anteiso:iso-branched alkenes that was observed during the transition from early to late stationary phase. Gene-expression microarray analysis identified two genes involved in leucine and isoleucine metabolism that may explain this transition.

  4. Fruit production and branching density affect shoot and whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-14

    The amount of shoot stem (i.e., woody part of the shoot) dry matter per unit shoot leaf dry matter (i.e., the shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio) has been reported to be lower in short shoots than in long ones, and this is related to the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. This is important in fruit trees, since the greater and earlier carbon export ability of shoots with a lower wood to leaf biomass ratio improves fruit production. This ratio may vary with cultivars, training systems or plant age, but no study has previously investigated the possible effect of fruit production. In this study on two olive cultivars (i.e., Arbequina, with low growth rate, and Frantoio, with high growth rate) subject to different fruit production treatments, we found that at increasing fruit production, shoot length and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio were proportionally reduced in the new shoots growing at the same time as the fruit. Specifically, fruit production proportionally reduced total new-shoot biomass, length, leaf area and average shoot length. With decreasing shoot length, shoot diameter, stem mass, internode length, individual leaf area and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio also decreased. This may be viewed as a plant strategy to better support fruit growth in the current year, given the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. Moreover, at the whole-tree level, the percentage of total tree biomass production invested in leaves was closely correlated with branching density, which differed significantly across cultivars. By branching more, Arbequina concentrates more shoots (thus leaves) per unit of wood (trunk, branches and root) mass, decreasing wood to leaf biomass ratio at the whole-tree level. Therefore, while, at the shoot level, shoot length determines shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio, at the canopy level branching density is also an important determinant of whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio. Whole-tree wood to leaf

  5. Prospects for measuring the branching ratio of the rare B0s→μ+μ- decay with the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipica, Valentin

    2011-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) located at the CERN laboratory in Geneva provides p-p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV. The study of the rare B 0 s →μ + μ - decay is among the research topics of ATLAS, one of the main experiments at the LHC. This decay is highly suppressed in the Standard Model of particle physics and may give an indirect evidence for New Physics models. This PhD thesis investigates prospects for measuring the branching ratio of the B 0 s →μ + μ - decay with the ATLAS experiment. The analysis is based on Monte Carlo data, with p-p collisions generated at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=10 TeV. The strategy employed is to calculate the B 0 s →μ + μ - branching ratio relative to the branching ratio of the B + → J/ψ(μ + μ - )K + decay. The dominant background channel is the b anti b→μ + μ - X combinatorial background. True B 0 s →μ + μ - decay candidates are separated from the much larger amount of combinatorial background events using several discriminating quantities. Upper limits on the B 0 s → μ + μ - branching ratio are computed using a Bayesian and a frequentist method. The expected precision of the branching ratio measurement is estimated for different values of the integrated luminosity. An expected upper limit on the branching ratio is computed to BR(B 0 s →μ + μ - ) -8 at a 95% confidence level for 1 fb -1 . The precision of the ATLAS measurement of the branching ratio will reach a level compatible with the best current measurements with about 2-5 fb -1 of data.

  6. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaish, Lee; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2009-01-01

    The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I) upright position; (II) horizontal position, intact tip; and (III) horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs). We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured). This study revealed that colony astogeny in S

  7. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  8. Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — These quick facts use data from the 2011 Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch to compare Veteran employment in the Federal Government by agency,...

  9. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-2006, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains five data files, in comma-separated format (.csv), derived from the Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) vegetation inventory in eastern Tennessee....

  10. Exploring branched Hamiltonians for a class of nonlinear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bagchi, B.; Modak, S.; Panigrahi, P. K.; Růžička, František; Znojil, Miloslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 39 (2015), s. 1550213 ISSN 0217-7323 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantization * branched classical Hamiltonians * partner quantum Hamiltonians * perturbation solutions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.116, year: 2015

  11. Finite-size scaling of survival probability in branching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-04-01

    Branching processes pervade many models in statistical physics. We investigate the survival probability of a Galton-Watson branching process after a finite number of generations. We derive analytically the existence of finite-size scaling for the survival probability as a function of the control parameter and the maximum number of generations, obtaining the critical exponents as well as the exact scaling function, which is G(y)=2ye(y)/(e(y)-1), with y the rescaled distance to the critical point. Our findings are valid for any branching process of the Galton-Watson type, independently of the distribution of the number of offspring, provided its variance is finite. This proves the universal behavior of the finite-size effects in branching processes, including the universality of the metric factors. The direct relation to mean-field percolation is also discussed.

  12. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Epicormic branching on eight species of Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1966-01-01

    Epicormic branches and associated defects are leading causes of degrade and value loss in lumber sawed from hardwood logs. The degrade may be in the form of small knots, ingrown bark, wood blemishes, and/or rot.

  14. News and Events - Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The latest news from the Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branch and the Alliance, as well as upcoming and past events attended by the Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branchstaff, and relevant upcoming scientific meetings.

  15. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000 system.

  16. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000...

  17. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The original objectives of the long-term vegetation survey of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee (WBW; Curlin and Nelson 1968) was to quantify...

  18. VT West Branch Natural Channel Post Monitoring 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  19. VT West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  20. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, G.; Richer, J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.