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Sample records for branch duct type

  1. Prognosis of cancer with branch duct type IPMN of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhito; Ikeuchi; Takao; Itoi; Atsushi; Sofuni; Fumihide; Itokawa; Takayoshi; Tsuchiya; Toshio; Kurihara; Kentaro; Ishii; Shujiro; Tsuji; Junko; Umeda; Fuminori; Moriyasu; Akihiko; Tsuchida; Kazuhiko; Kasuya

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To examine the coexistence of metachronous and synchronous cancer in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN).METHODS: We reviewed the records of 145 patients with branch duct IPMN between January 1991 and April 2008 and assessed the relationship between IPMN and intraor extra-pancreatic carcinoma and the outcome of IPMN.RESULTS: The mean observation period was 55.9 ± 45.3 mo. Among the 145 patients, the frequency of extra-pancreatic cancer was 29.0%. The frequency of ...

  2. The laparoscopic enucleation for branch duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms located at the body of pancreas: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN are among the most common cystic neoplasms of the pancreas, but they represent only 1-3% of all exocrine pancreas tumors. With the development of diagnostic possibilities the number of patients with IPMN is constantly increasing and represents approximately 20% of all surgically treated pancreatic tumors. The development of laparoscopic surgery has led to advances in the treatment of cystic tumors of the pancreas with the emergence of new surgical dilemma in the choice of surgical techniques in patients with IPMN. Case Outline. A 23-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital with non-specific symptoms of upper abdomen. Performed diagnostics indicated the existence of a tumor formation at the periphery of the pancreas, in the region of the proximal corpus, 8Ч5 cm in diameter. The cystic formation, wall thickness 3 mm, was filled with dense contents and injected into the tissue of the pancreas, but did not lead to an extension of the pancreatic duct. After adequate preoperative preparation the patient was operated on, when a laparoscopic enucleation of cystic tumor with coagulation and cutting off communication between the peripheral pancreatic duct and pancreatic tumors was performed by using ultrasound scissors. Histopathological analysis of the specimen indicated an IPMN of the branch duct type (BD-IPMN with a low grade dysplasia. The line of resection was without cellular atypia. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positivity on tumor mucins (MUC-5 and MUC-2, which is typical for gastric type of BD-IPMN. Six months postoperatively the patient showed no signs of recurrence of the disease. Conclusion. Surgical treatment is the dominant choice for the treatment for IPMN. Although minimally invasive, laparoscopic enucleation of BD-IPMN is able to achieve an adequate level of radicality without the accompanying complications and with short postoperative recovery period.

  3. Experimental investigation of shock wave propagation in a 90 $(°) $ ∘ branched duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamino, L.; Jourdan, G.; Igra, O.; Mariani, C.; Tosello, R.; Leriche, D.; Houas, L.

    2014-05-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted examining the option of using branched duct geometry for shock wave attenuation. Experiments were done in an 80 mm 80 mm square section shock tube to which a 20-mm diameter pipe was added vertically. Pressures were recorded along the shock tube wall (static pressure) and at the branched pipe end wall (stagnation pressure). Experiments were repeated with a constant incident shock wave Mach number () and with different pipe lengths. It was found that the length of the branched pipe has a significant effect on the flow inside the branched pipe and that in the present experimental configuration, the stagnation pressure recorded at the branched pipe end wall surpasses the pressure in the main channel behind the original incident shock wave. Finally, simulations were carried out using a commercial program, Star-CCM+, to complete the description of the flow studied here. The computed pressure profiles and shock wave locations agree quite well with the present experimental data.

  4. Resistance Characteristics of Hydraulic Oil through Isodiametric T-type Duct with Sharp Corners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jinglin; WANG Liwei; LI Xia

    2009-01-01

    Rational determination and reduction of local energy loss of oil flow at pipe junctions are of important significance to improve hydraulic pipeline's work efficiency, especially for complex hydraulic pipeline connected by isodiametric T-type ducts with sharp comers to get combined and divided flow. From this point of view, the formulae of resistance loss for combined flow and divided flow through isodiametric T-type duct with sharp comers as well as the correlations of resistance loss coefficients in the branches of the duct are derived using energy method. On this basis, resistance characteristics of hydraulic oil in the duct are obtained by numerical simulation of different flow modes, which are commonly applied in hydraulic pipelines, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, and the reasons for the resistance loss are analyzed based on the pressure change mechanism in the flow field. A part of simulation results was validated with the reference data. The research shows that for combined flows the resistance loss of symmetrical is lower than that of tmsymmetrical to obtain low speed in common branch, but to gain high speed is quite the contrary, for divided flows, the symmetrical is always a reasonable choice to reduce resistance loss. These conclusions can be applied to optimize the design of hydraulic pipeline.

  5. Assessment of MRCP for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Detection of diffusely and irregularly dilated side branches of the pancreatic ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi [Hamamatsu Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). School of Medicine; Takahashi, Mamoru; Ichijo, Katsutoshi; Tooyama, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Toki, Fumitake; Nishino, Takayoshi

    2001-12-01

    Detection of diffusely and irregularly dilated side branches of pancreatic ducts is a reliable criterion for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (Japan Pancreas Society, revised 1995). This review deals with our experience with the utility of Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in detecting this type of ductal abnormalities. Seventy patients with symptoms indicative of pancreatic or biliary diseases were evaluated using both MRCP and endoscopic retrograde chlangiopancreatography (ERCP) within an interval of three months or shorter. Using a 1.5 T unit, a multi-angle oblique multi-slab MRCP using a single-shot fast-spin-echo sequence was used to capture the pancreatic ducts. In 36 patients, MRCP was performed after administration of Gd-DTPA. The MRCP images were blindly and separately evaluated by two radiologists by counting the number of irregularly dilated side-branches in each segment. Two gastroenterologists in consensus evaluated the ERCP images as a standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and Az values for MRCP in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis were 0.33-0.50, 0.71-0.88 and 0.67-0.79 respectively without Gd-DTPA and 0.50-0.75, 0.78-0.93 and 0.82-0.89 with Gd-DTPA. Multi-angle oblique slab MRCP can be used for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis with acceptable diagnostic accuracy when it is performed with intravenously administered of Gd chelates. (author)

  6. Differentiation of crack branching types in fractured glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Bahat, D.

    2011-07-01

    The influence of different physical factors on the fracture branching phenomenon was investigated on a fractured brittle (glass) bottle. A fully branched fracture tree consisting of 144 initiation sites was induced. Branching sites were concentrated in two zones: close to the fracture origin and further away from it along the bottle axis, which was shown to be related to reflection of transverse acoustic waves from the bottle's shoulder. Two types of branching formed, complete full branches (FB), and attempted branching (AB) when one branch was shorter than 5 mm. Branching in the first zone was shown to be regulated by both the distribution of flaw lengths and the distances from each FB to its nearest fracture neighbor. Fracture spacing was found to be proportional to the stress at the propagating fracture tips.

  7. Size of mural nodule as an indicator of surgery for branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas during follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mural nodule is a strong predictive factor for malignancy in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas, but the nodule size has hardly been considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a mural nodule of 10 mm was appropriate as an indicator of surgery for IPMN during follow-up. The follow-up outcomes of 100 patients who had branch duct IPMN without mural nodules or who had branch duct IPMN with mural nodules of less than 9 mm in a tertiary care setting were investigated retrospectively. The patients underwent abdominal ultrasound (US) every 3 months and additional imaging examinations or cytologic examination of pancreatic juice when necessary. Surgery was recommended to them when a mural nodule developed or when a nodule enlarged and reached 10 mm. During an average follow-up period of 97 months, branch duct IPMNs developed mural nodules that reached 10 mm in 5 patients (0.62% per year). In one patient the IPMN was revealed to be non-invasive carcinoma by resection, 1 IPMN was shown to be malignant by further follow-up, and 3 were not resected because of refusal or the patient's age. In 7 patients, mural nodules stayed within 9 mm. The remaining 88 patients lacked mural nodules in their branch duct IPMNs throughout the follow-up. The occurrence of invasive carcinoma around the IPMN was not indicated by imaging examinations in any patient. Univariate analysis showed that the size of the cyst at baseline significantly predicted the development of a mural nodule that reached 10 mm during follow-up (P=0.05). A mural nodule of 10 mm is appropriate as an indicator of surgery in the follow-up of branch duct IPMN. (author)

  8. The propagation law and analysis of gas explosion in U type duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; LIN Bai-quan; JIA Zhen-zhen; FENG Tao; WANG Hai-qiao

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore the propagation law of gas explosion in U type laneways, the propagation law of flame and shock wave in U type duct were experimentally and theoretically investigated. It is shown that the shock wave takes on the complicated stress state and the flame takes on complicated change rules in the U type duct. The propagation process of gas explosion in bend duct is the mutual action of explosion wave, flame and complicate flow, the destruction in bend surface is especially serious. In the mine exploitation and laneway design, the bend laneway should be avoided, especially continuous bend laneway.

  9. Effect of type of load on stress analysis of thin-walled ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, J. B.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    1992-06-01

    The standard procedure for qualifying the design of duct (pipe) systems in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been fairly well defined. However, since pipe elbows are quite common and important in the SSME duct systems, a clear understanding of the detailed stress profile of the components is necessary for accurate structural and life assessments. This study was initiated to predict the stress profile at/near the tangent point along the cross section of the duct under various types of loads. Also, this study was further extended to understand the stiffening effect on stresses due to pressure at the tangent point. The intention of this study was to identify the importance of selecting proper locations for mounting strain gauges and to utilize the obtained results to anchor dynamic models for accurate structural and life assessments of the SSME ducts under a dynamic environment. The finite element method was utilized in this study.

  10. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis-tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2\\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  11. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis- tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2 \\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  12. High expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 as a prognostic marker in bile duct adenocarcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagisawa, Nobuyuki; Hana, Kiyomi; Nakada, Norihiro; Ichinoe, Masaaki; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Endou, Hitoshi; Okayasu, Isao; Murakumo, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    Oncocytic L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 may be a prognostic indicator and target of new molecular therapeutic agents against malignancies. To investigate whether LAT1 expression influence the outcomes of patients with bile duct cancer, the expression of LAT1, LAT2, CD98, and Ki-67 was investigated immunohistochemically in 134 surgically resected bile duct adenocarcinomas, including 84 distal extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinomas, 21 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 15 intrahepatic cholangi...

  13. Pancreatic duct replication is increased with obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, A. E.; Galasso, R; Matveyenko, A.; R.A. Rizza; Dry, S.; Butler, P. C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis In a high-fat-fed rat model of type 2 diabetes we noted increased exocrine duct replication. This is a predisposing factor for pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, both of which are more common in type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study reported here was to establish if obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are associated with increased pancreatic ductal replication in humans. Methods We obtained pancreas at autopsy from 45 humans, divided into four groups: lean (BMI 27 kg/m2); non-diab...

  14. Infinite-Scale Percolation in a New Type of Branching Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Mezhlumian, A.; Molchanov, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    We give an account of matter and (basically) a solution of a new class of problems synthesizing percolation theory and branching diffusion processes. They led us to realizing a novel type of stochastic processes, namely branching processes with diffusion on the space of parameters distinguishing the branching `particles' each other.

  15. Shear strength in corner region of reinforced concrete duct type structures to be embedded in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinforced concrete ducts for accommodating emergency cooling water pipes are generally embedded in soil. The structures is classified as one of the most important structures in terms of earthquake resistant design. During a strong earthquake it is subjected to shear deformations in concerted movement with surrounding soil. The comer regions of the duct should be designed against shear with moment combined. However, the complicated stress conditions in the region render the design more intricate in comparison with the case of simple determinate RC beam type structures. With the above situation in mind an experimental study was conducted, in which prototype as well as one half scale models representing the stress conditions in the region of interest were loaded and brought to failure in shear. The cross section of the prototype test model without shear reinforcements was 60 (height) x 30cm (width), and the tensile reinforcement ratio was 2.58%. The following results were obtained within the limit of the experimental study. (1) The shear capacity predicted by Japanese Design Code for linear RC members over-estimated the experimental ones with a considerably large safety margin of 4.4-5.0. (2) An improved design procedure to be applied to the specific structure was proposed, which gave a reasonable safety factor against shear failure of 1.7-2.0. (3) Combined smeared and discrete cracking model was utilized to simulate the shear failure mechanism, which could realistically pursue experimental behaviors. (author)

  16. The variation of short-branch type pear induced by 60Co γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation of short-branch type Apple pear and Korean pear(Pyrus communis) induced by γ-ray irradiation was discussed. The results obtained are as follows: In comparing with Apple pear, Korean pear appeared more susceptible to γ-ray treatment; γ-ray irradiation increased the frequency of the short-branch variation; The character of short-branch induced by γ-ray irradiation could be directly introduced to the V(vegetative) generation

  17. High expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 as a prognostic marker in bile duct adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncocytic L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 may be a prognostic indicator and target of new molecular therapeutic agents against malignancies. To investigate whether LAT1 expression influence the outcomes of patients with bile duct cancer, the expression of LAT1, LAT2, CD98, and Ki-67 was investigated immunohistochemically in 134 surgically resected bile duct adenocarcinomas, including 84 distal extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinomas, 21 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 15 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 14 ampullary adenocarcinomas. LAT1 expression was weakly correlated with CD98 expression and Ki-67 labeling index (LI). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed a significant difference in prognosis between patients with bile duct adenocarcinomas having LAT1-high and -low scores, whereas LAT2 and CD98 expression and Ki-67 LI were not predictive of poor prognosis. Prognosis tended to be worse in patients having tumors with LAT1-high/LAT2-low than LAT1-low/LAT2-high scores (P = 0.0686). Multivariable analyses revealed that LAT1 expression, surgical margin, pT stage were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, aberrant overexpression of LAT1 in bile duct adenocarcinoma predicts poor prognosis, suggesting that LAT1 may be a potential target of anticancer therapy

  18. Asymptotic behavior of critical primitive multi-type branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Ispány, Márton

    2012-01-01

    Under natural assumptions a Feller type diffusion approximation is derived for critical multi-type branching processes with immigration when the offspring mean matrix is primitive (in other words, positively regular). Namely, it is proved that a sequence of appropriately scaled random step functions formed from a sequence of critical primitive multi-type branching processes with immigration converges weakly towards a squared Bessel process supported by a ray determined by the Perron vector of the offspring mean matrix.

  19. A case report of an unusual type of choledochal cyst with choledocholithiasis: Saccular dilatation of the confluent portion of both intrahepatic ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A choledochal cyst is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system manifested as the cystic dilatation of bile ducts, usually occurring in the common bile duct. Here, we describe an unusual type of choledochal cyst in a 45-year-old male that did not fit into the most widely accepted Todani classification of these cysts. The lesion mimicked duplication anomalies of the gallbladder and was finally diagnosed as a choledochal cyst involving the confluent portion of both intrahepatic ducts.

  20. Bile duct cyst type V (Caroli's disease): surgical strategy and results

    OpenAIRE

    Lendoire, Javier; Schelotto, Pablo Barros; Rodríguez, Juan Alvarez; Duek, Fernando; Quarin, Carlos; Garay, Verónica; Amante, Marcelo; Cassini, Eduardo; Imventarza, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Background. Caroli's disease (CD) is a benign congenital disorder characterized by segmental cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary ducts. Therapeutic strategy includes medical treatment, percutaneous, endoscopic or surgical drainage of the affected bile ducts, liver resection or transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyse the results and long-term follow-up of a consecutive series of patients who underwent surgical treatment for CD. Patients and methods. Between 1995 and 200...

  1. Triplex Forming Oligonucleotides against Type α 1(I) Collagen attenuates Liver Fibrosis induced by Bile Duct ligation

    OpenAIRE

    Panakanti, Ravikiran; Pratap, Akshay; Yang, Ningning; JACKSON, JOHN S.; Mahato, Ram I.

    2010-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a consequence of chronic liver disorders which lead to the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Particularly, there is an increased accumulation of collagen in the fibrotic liver. We have therefore used a triplex forming oligonucleotide (TFO) against the type α 1 (I) collagen and evaluated, whether it can attenuate liver fibrosis induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in rats. There was a significant decrease in hydroxyproline levels and Masson’s trichrome staini...

  2. Simplified Structure of Ducted Darrieus-Type Hydro Turbine with Narrow Intake for Extra-low Head Hydropower Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Daisuke; Okuma, Kusuo; Watanabe, Satoshi; Furukawa, Akinori

    A ducted Darrieus-type hydro turbine has been proposed for extra-low head hydropower utilization of total head less than 2m, where development is almost not done in the commercial base. Though the efficiency of Darrieus-type turbine, which is cross flow type, is not so high as conventional type, the Darrieus-type has a cost-advantage due to the simple structure. By installing a narrow intake at upstream of the runner, the efficiency becomes higher than normal intake that a width of which is the same as one of runner section. In the case of normal intake, the casing clearance between the runner pitch circle and the side-wall at the runner section becomes the influential factor which deteriorates the efficiency. On the other hand, in the case of narrow intake, it is possible to keep efficiency high, based on the fact that the distorting flow to the clearance is prevented. In the present paper, the effects of narrow intake and draft tube on turbine performance are experimentally examined and the design guideline of simplified structure for ducted Darrieus-type turbine with narrow intake is proposed.

  3. Stochastic Equations for Two-type Continuous-state Branching Processes with Immigration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Gang MA

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional stochastic integral equation system with jumps is studied.We first prove its unique weak solution is a two-type continuous-state branching process with immigration.Then the comparison property of the solution is established.These results imply the existence and uniqueness of the strong solution of the stochastic equation system.

  4. The association of patent sac branch vessels with type 2 endoleak of abdominal aortic aneurysm after endovascular exclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the association of patent sac branch vessels with early type 2 endoleak rate after endovascular exclusion (EVE). Methods: 8 abdominal aortic aneurysm patients in the presence of type 2 endoleak after EVE were retrospectively reviewed. Results: All the patients with type 2 endoleak had multiple sac branch vessels preoperatively. Conclusions: Patent sac branches play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 endoleak. If the excluded sac is increasing in size rapidly, the patent branches must be embolized promptly to avoid aneurysm rupture

  5. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  6. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  7. Secretory Duct Structure and Phytochemistry Compounds of Yellow Latex in Mangosteen Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    DORLY; SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO; ROEDHY POERWANTO; JULIARNI

    2008-01-01

    Yellow latex is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness, because it is one factor lowering the fruit quality. The structure of yellow latex secretory ducts in the flower and fruit as well as in the root, stem and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) seedling and the qualitative phytochemistry of yellow latex were studied. The ducts were branched, canal-like type. They were found in the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, aril of the fruit, flower, stem, and leaf. In the fruit, the biggest...

  8. A Lamperti type representation of Continuous-State Branching Processes with Immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Ma Emilia; Bravo, Gerónimo Uribe

    2010-01-01

    Guided by the relationship between the breadth-first walk of a rooted tree and its sequence of generation sizes, we extend the Lamperti representation of continuous-state branching processes to allow immigration. The representation is obtained by solving a random ordinary differential equation defined by a pair of independent L\\'evy processes. Stability of the solutions is studied and gives, in particular, limit theorems (of a type previously studied by Grimvall, Kawazu and Watanabe, and Li) and a simulation scheme for continuous-state branching processes with immigration. We further apply our stability analysis to extend Pitman's limit theorem concerning Galton-Watson processes conditioned on total population size to more general offspring laws.

  9. PREDICTION OF THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STAR-TYPE BRANCHED POLYMER SOLUTIONS BY MEANS OF THE FIXED SPECTRUM MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiye

    1995-01-01

    The Rouse-Zimm model with slippage was improved and the basic parameters of modelwere modified to explain the rheological properties of star-type branched polymersolutions. The theoretical results show good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Calcium-Driven Folding of RTX Domain β-Rolls Ratchets Translocation of RTX Proteins through Type I Secretion Ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumba, Ladislav; Masin, Jiri; Macek, Pavel; Wald, Tomas; Motlova, Lucia; Bibova, Ilona; Klimova, Nela; Bednarova, Lucie; Veverka, Vaclav; Kachala, Michael; Svergun, Dmitri I; Barinka, Cyril; Sebo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Calcium-binding RTX proteins are equipped with C-terminal secretion signals and translocate from the Ca(2+)-depleted cytosol of Gram-negative bacteria directly into the Ca(2+)-rich external milieu, passing through the "channel-tunnel" ducts of type I secretion systems (T1SSs). Using Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin, we solved the structure of an essential C-terminal assembly that caps the RTX domains of RTX family leukotoxins. This is shown to scaffold directional Ca(2+)-dependent folding of the carboxy-proximal RTX repeat blocks into β-rolls. The resulting intramolecular Brownian ratchets then prevent backsliding of translocating RTX proteins in the T1SS conduits and thereby accelerate excretion of very large RTX leukotoxins from bacterial cells by a vectorial "push-ratchet" mechanism. Successive Ca(2+)-dependent and cosecretional acquisition of a functional RTX toxin structure in the course of T1SS-mediated translocation, through RTX domain folding from the C-terminal cap toward the N terminus, sets a paradigm that opens for design of virulence inhibitors of major pathogens. PMID:27058787

  11. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  12. THYROGLOSSAL DUCT CYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Târcoveanu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC results from a failure in obliterating the embryogenic duct produced during thyroid migration and it represents the most common type of developmental cyst encountered in the neck region. Ectopic thyroid tissue neoplasias are rare, and even rarer when associated with the TDC. Methods: During the period 1998-2008, in the First Surgical Clinic, University Hospital “St. Spiridon” Iasi, 14 patients with thyroglossal duct cyst were diagnosed and treated. All records were reviewed for age and sex, diagnostic methods, sizes, surgical management and recurrences. Results: All patients with thyroglossal duct cysts are described as midline cysts of the neck. The ratio females/males was 6/1 with mean age 37.6 years (13-60 years. One case was with an external fistula. The treatment performed was a variant of Sistrunk’s procedure in which the thyroglossal tract was excised to a variable extent, but in all cases with central hyoidectomy. The size of the cyst ranged from 1.2 to 4 cm (mean 2.6 cm. Postoperative course was unventful in all cases. No recurrence was recorded in this series. We describe a case, a 19 years old female with thyroid papillary carcinoma evolving from a TDC. The literature is reviewed. Conclusion: The standard surgical approach to TDC is Sistrunk's operation with low recurrence rates. Malignancy within a thyroglossal duct cyst is very rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass. In such cases total thyroidectomy with removal of the tumour of thyroglossal duct and the body of the hyoid bone are recommended – because the carcinoma may be multifocal and because a lymphatic invasion of the thyroid may take place – in order to ensure a correct follow-up.

  13. Male form of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome type I (hernia uteri inguinalis presenting as an obstructed inguinal hernia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujar Nishikant N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is a rare form of male pseudo-hermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in an otherwise phenotypically, as well as genotypically, normal man; only a few cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. We report the case of a 30-year-old man with unilateral cryptorchidism on the right side and a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia containing a uterus and fallopian tube (that is, hernia uteri inguinalis; type I male form of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome coincidentally detected during an operation for an obstructed left inguinal hernia. Case presentation A 30-year-old South Indian man was admitted to our facility with a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia of one day's duration. He had a 12-year history of inguinal swelling and an absence of the right testis since birth. Our patient had well developed masculine features. Local physical examination revealed a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia with an absence of the right testis in the scrotum. Exploration of the inguinal canal revealed an indirect inguinal hernia containing omentum, the left corner of the uterus and a left fallopian tube. Extension of the incision revealed a well formed uterus, cervix and upper part of the vagina attached to the prostate by a thick fibrosed band. Total excision of the uterus, bilateral fallopian tubes and right testis was performed. A biopsy was taken from the left testis. The operation was completed by left inguinal herniorraphy. Histopathological examination of the hernial contents was consistent with that of a uterus and fallopian tubes without ovaries. Both testes were atrophied, with complete arrest of spermatogenesis. Post-operative karyotype analyses were negative for 46,XY and Barr bodies on buccal smear. A semen examination revealed azoospermia with a low serum testosterone level. Conclusions In cases of unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism

  14. [Targeting of type IV carbonic anhydrases in Capan-1 human pancreatic duct cells is concomitant of the polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, A; Fanjul, M; Hollande, E

    1996-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases II and IV play an essential role in the synthesis and secretion of HCO3- ions in pancreatic duct cells. Secretion of these ions is regulated by the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) chloride channel. In the present study, the expression of carbonic anhydrases IV and their targeting to plasma membranes were examined during the growth of human pancreatic duct cells in vitro. Human cancerous pancreatic duct cells of Capan-1 cell line which polarize during their growth were used. We show that: a) these cells express carbonic anhydrases IV continuously during growth in culture, and the expression depends on the stage of growth and the conformation of the cells; b) carbonic anhydrases IV are seen in the cytoplasm in non-polarized cells, but become progressively anchored to plasma membranes as the cells polarize, being targeted to the apical membranes of polarized cells; c) the subcellular distribution of carbonic anhydrases IV indicates that these enzymes are synthetized in rough endoplasmic reticulum and then transported towards the plasma membrane using the classical secretory pathway through the Golgi apparatus. The results indicated that targeting of carbonic anhydrases IV in Capan-1 cells is linked to cellular polarization. PMID:8881572

  15. Glypican-3 modulates BMP- and FGF-mediated effects during renal branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaru, S; Cano-Gauci, D; Tee, J; Filmus, J; Rosenblum, N D

    2001-03-01

    The kidney of the Gpc3-/ mouse, a novel model of human renal dysplasia, is characterized by selective degeneration of medullary collecting ducts preceded by enhanced cell proliferation and overgrowth during branching morphogenesis. Here, we identify cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this renal dysplasia. Glypican-3 (GPC3) deficiency was associated with abnormal and contrasting rates of proliferation and apoptosis in cortical (CCD) and medullary collecting duct (MCD) cells. In CCD, cell proliferation was increased threefold. In MCD, apoptosis was increased 16-fold. Expression of Gpc3 mRNA in ureteric bud and collecting duct cells suggested that GPC3 can exert direct effects in these cells. Indeed, GPC3 deficiency abrogated the inhibitory activity of BMP2 on branch formation in embryonic kidney explants, converted BMP7-dependent inhibition to stimulation, and enhanced the stimulatory effects of KGF. Similar comparative differences were found in collecting duct cell lines derived from GPC3-deficient and wild type mice and induced to form tubular progenitors in vitro, suggesting that GPC3 directly controls collecting duct cell responses. We propose that GPC3 modulates the actions of stimulatory and inhibitory growth factors during branching morphogenesis. PMID:11180950

  16. Ducted turbine theory with right angled ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of an inviscid approach to model a ducted turbine – also known as a diffuser augmented turbine – and a comparison of results with a particular one-dimensional theory. The aim of the investigation was to gain a better understanding of the relationship between a real duct and the ideal diffuser, which is a concept that is developed in the theory. A range of right angled ducts, which have a rim for a 90° exit angle, were modelled. As a result, the performance of right angled ducts has been characterised in inviscid flow. It was concluded that right angled ducts cannot match the performance of their associated ideal diffuser and that the optimum rotor loading for these turbines varies with the duct dimensions

  17. Experimental Study on Branch and Diffuse Type of Streamers in Leader Restrike of Long Air Gap Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She; Zeng, Rong; Zhuang, Chijie; Zhou, Xuan; Ding, Yujian

    2016-03-01

    One of the main problems in the Ultra High Voltage (UHV) transmission project is to choose the external insulation distance, which requires a deep understanding of the long air gap discharge mechanism. The leader-streamer propagation is one of most important stages in long air gap discharge. In the conductor-tower lattice configuration, we have measured the voltage, the current on the high voltage side and the electric field in the gap. While the streamer in the leader-streamer system presented a conical or hyperboloid diffuse shape, the clear branch structure streamer in front of the leader was firstly observed by a high speed camera in the experiment. Besides, it is found that the leader velocity, width and injected charge for the branch type streamer are greater than those of a diffuse type. We propose that the phenomenon results from the high humidity, which was 15.5-16.5 g/m3 in our experiment. supported by the Fund of the National Priority Basic Research of China (2011CB209403) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51325703, 51377094, 51577098)

  18. Secretory Duct Structure and Phytochemistry Compounds of Yellow Latex in Mangosteen Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORLY

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellow latex is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness, because it is one factor lowering the fruit quality. The structure of yellow latex secretory ducts in the flower and fruit as well as in the root, stem and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. seedling and the qualitative phytochemistry of yellow latex were studied. The ducts were branched, canal-like type. They were found in the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, aril of the fruit, flower, stem, and leaf. In the fruit, the biggest diameter of the secretory ducts was found in the endocarp. There were continuous secretory ducts from fruit stalk to the fruit. Ultrastructural observation showed that the ducts surrounded by specific epithelial cells, which were living cells containing dense cytoplasm with plastid, mitochondria and golgi apparatus organelles. The qualitative test indicated that the yellow latex collected from stem bark, outer part of fruit, young fruit pericarp, mature aril and young aril contained terpenoid, flavonoid and tannin, but not alkaloid, saponin and steroid, except in the young aril containing the steroid.

  19. Self-assembly of multilevel branched rutile-type TiO2 structures via oriented lateral and twin attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Vanja; Javornik, Uroš; Plavec, Janez; Podgornik, Aleš; Rečnik, Aleksander

    2016-04-01

    Recent breakthrough of novel hierarchic materials, orchestrated through oriented attachment of crystal subunits, opened questions on what is the mechanism of their self-assembly. Using rutile-type TiO2, synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of Ti(IV)-butoxide in highly acidic aqueous medium, we uncovered the key processes controlling this nonclassical crystallization process. Formation of complex branched mesocrystals of rutile is accomplished by oriented assembly of precipitated fibers along the two low-energy planes, i.e. {110} and {101}, resulting in lateral attachment and twinning. Phase analysis of amorphous material enclosed in pockets between imperfectly assembled rutile fibers clearly shows harmonic ordering resembling that of the adjacent rutile structure. To our understanding this may be the first experimental evidence indicating the presence of electromagnetic force-fields that convey critical structural information through which oriented attachment of nanocrystals is made possible.

  20. Early bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Myung Cha; Myung-Hwan Kim; Se Jin Jang

    2007-01-01

    Bile duct cancers are frequently diagnosed as advanced diseases. Over half of patients with advanced bile duct cancer present with unresectable malignancies and their prognosis has been very poor even after curative resections. Although there has been a need to diagnose bile duct cancer at its early stage, it has been a difficult goal to achieve due to our lack of knowledge regarding this disease entity. Early bile duct cancer may be defined as a carcinoma whose invasion is confined within the fibromuscular layer of the extrahepatic bile duct or intrahepatic large bile duct without distant metastasis irrespective of lymph node involvement. Approximately 3%-10% of resected bile duct cancers have been reported to be early cancers in the literature. The clinicopathological features of patients with early bile duct cancer differ from those of patients with advanced bile duct cancer, with more frequent asymptomatic presentation, characteristic histopathological findings,and excellent prognosis. This manuscript is organized to emphasize the need for convening an international consensus to develop the concept of early bile duct cancer.

  1. THE DISTANCE TO M101 HOSTING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2011fe BASED ON THE TIP OF THE RED GIANT BRANCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new determination of the distance to M101, host of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe, based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our determination is based on Hubble Space Telescope archival F555W and F814W images of nine fields within the galaxy. Color-magnitude diagrams of arm-free regions in all fields show a prominent red giant branch. We measure the I-band magnitudes of the TRGB, obtaining a mean value of ITRGB = 25.28 ± 0.01 (where the error is a standard error), using an edge-detection method. We derive a weighted mean value of distance modulus (m – M)0 = 29.30 ± 0.01(random) ± 0.12(systematic), corresponding to a linear distance of 7.24 ± 0.03 ± 0.40 Mpc. While previous estimates for M101 show a large range (TRGB distances of (m – M)0 = 29.05-29.42 and Cepheid distances of (m – M)0 = 29.04-29.71), our measurements of the TRGB distances for nine fields show a small dispersion of only 0.02. We combine our distance estimate and photometry in the literature to derive absolute peak magnitudes in optical and near-infrared bands of SN 2011fe. Absolute maximum magnitudes of SN 2011fe are ∼0.2 mag brighter in the optical band and much more in the NIR than the current calibrations of SNe Ia in the literature. From the optical maximum magnitudes of SN 2011fe we obtain a value of the Hubble constant, H0 = 65.0 ± 0.5(random) ± 5.7(systematic) km s–1 Mpc–1, slightly smaller than other recent determinations of H0.

  2. Bank branches in supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow

    1996-01-01

    The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.

  3. Design of power-plant installations pressure-loss characteristics of duct components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, John R

    1944-01-01

    A correlation of what are believed to be the most reliable data available on duct components of aircraft power-plant installations is presented. The information is given in a convenient form and is offered as an aid in designing duct systems and, subject to certain qualifications, as a guide in estimating their performance. The design and performance data include those for straight ducts; simple bends of square, circular, and elliptical cross sections; compound bends; diverging and converging bends; vaned bends; diffusers; branch ducts; internal inlets; and an angular placement of heat exchangers. Examples are included to illustrate methods of applying these data in analyzing duct systems. (author)

  4. Metachronous bile duct cancer nine years after resection of gallbladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye Jin Joo; Gi Hyun Kim; Won Joong Jeon; Hee Bok Chae; Seon Mee Park; Sei Jin Youn; Jae Woon Choi; Rohyun Sung

    2009-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 74-year-old man with metachronous gallbladder cancer and bile duct cancer who underwent curative resection twice, with the operations nine years apart. At the age of 65 years,the patient underwent a cholecystectomy and resection of the liver bed for gallbladder cancer. This was a welldifferentiated adenocarcinoma, with negative resection margins (T2N0M0, stage ⅠB). Nine years later,during a follow-up examination, abdominal computed tomography and MRCP showed an enhanced 1.7 cm mass in the hilum that extended to the second branch of the right intrahepatic bile duct. We diagnosed this lesion as a perihilar bile duct cancer, Bismuth type Ⅲ a, and performed bile duct excision, right hepatic lobectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.The histological diagnosis was a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with one regional lymph node metastasis (T1N1M0, stage ⅡB). Twelve months after the second operation, the patient is well, with no signs of recurrence. This case is compared with 11 other cases of metachronous biliary tract cancer published in the world medical literature.

  5. Dispersion properties of ducted whistlers, generated by lightning discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Whistler-mode wave propagation in magnetospheric ducts of enhanced cold plasma density is studied. The case of the arbitrary ratio of the duct radius to the whistler wavelength is considered, where the ray-tracing method is not applicable. The set of duct eigenmodes and their spatial structure are analysed and dependencies of eigenmode propagation properties on the duct characteristics are studied. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the group delay time of one-hop propagation of the whistler wave packet along the duct. We found that, in contrast to the case of a wide duct, the group delay time in a rather narrow duct decreases as the eigenmode number increases. The results obtained are suggested for an explanation of some types of multi-component whistler signals.

  6. Site-specific glycoproteomics confirms that protein structure dictates formation of N-glycan type, core fucosylation and branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Packer, Nicolle H

    2012-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the individualized and highly reproducible N-glycan repertoires on each protein glycosylation site modulate function. Relationships between protein structures and the resulting N-glycoforms have previously been observed, but remain to be quantitatively confirmed and examined in detail to define the responsible mechanisms in the conserved mammalian glycosylation machinery. Here, we investigate this relationship by manually extracting and analyzing quantitative and qualitative site-specific glycoprofiling data from 117 research papers. Specifically, N-glycan structural motifs were correlated with the structure of the protein carriers, focusing on the solvent accessibility of the individual glycosylation sites and the physicochemical properties of the surrounding polypeptide chains. In total, 474 glycosylation sites from 169 mammalian N-glycoproteins originating from different tissues/body fluids were investigated. It was confirmed statistically that the N-glycan type, degree of core fucosylation and branching are strongly influenced by the glycosylation site accessibility. For these three N-glycan features, glycosylation sites carrying highly processed glycans were significantly more solvent-accessible than those carrying less processed counterparts. The glycosylation site accessibilities could be linked to molecular signatures at the primary and secondary protein levels, most notably to the glycoprotein size and the proportion of glycosylation sites located in accessible β-turns. In addition, the subcellular location of the glycoproteins influenced the formation of the N-glycan structures. These data confirm that protein structures dictate site-specific formation of several features of N-glycan structures by affecting the biosynthetic pathway. Mammals have, as such, evolved mechanisms enabling proteins to influence the N-glycans they present to the extracellular environment. PMID:22798492

  7. Patent arterial duct

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Robin P; Elmasry Ola A; Forsey Jonathan T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavi...

  8. Computed tomography virtual endoscopy with angiographic imaging for the treatment of type Ⅳ-A choledochal cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akihiko Tsuchida; Yuichi Nagakawa; Kazuhiko Kasuya; Bunso Kyo; Takahisa Ikeda; Yoshiaki Suzuki; Tatsuya Aoki

    2012-01-01

    Type Ⅳ-A choledochal cysts (CCs) are a congenital biliary anomaly which involve dilatation of the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts.We present the case of a 30-year-old woman with type Ⅳ-A CC,on whom threedimensional computed tomography (3D CT) and virtual endoscopy were performed.3D CT revealed partial dilatation in the posterior branch of the intrahepatic bile duct and a relative stricture between it and the extrahepatic bile duct.Virtual endoscopy showed that this stricture was membrane-like and separated from the surrounding blood vessels.Based on these image findings,complete cyst resection,bile duct plasty for the stricture,and hepaticojejunostomy were safely performed.To the best of our knowledge,there are no reports of imaging by virtual endoscopy of the biliarytract which show the surrounding blood vessels running along the bile duct.

  9. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  10. A radiographic study of nasopalatine duct cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Chan Duck; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of 35 cases of nasopalatine duct cyst by means of the analysis of periapical and/or occlusal radiograms in 35 persons visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University and Chonbuk National University. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The incidence of nasopalatine duct cysts was higher in males (74.3%) than in females (25.7%). 2. The nasopalatine duct cysts were the most frequently occurred in the 4th decades (34.3%). The 6th and 7th decades (17.1%, 17.1%) were next in order to frequency followed by the 5th decades (14.3%), the 3rd decades (8.6%), the 2nd decades (5.7%), and 8th decades (2.9%). 3. In the signs and symptoms of nasopalatine duct cysts, 25.7% were swelling, 17.1% were swelling and tenderness, 20.0% were swelling and pain, and 37.2% were a symptom. 4. In the shape of nasopalatine duct cysts, 40.0% were round type, 48.6% 11.8% were heart type. 5. In symmetry of the nasopalatine duct cysts, 11.4% were 6-10 mm, 48.6% were 11-20 mm, 25.7% were 21-30 mm, and 14.3% were 31-40 mm. 6. In the periphery of nasopalatine duct cysts, 82.9% were distinct, 17.1% were relatively distinct. 7. In the change of root, 51.5% were intact, 17.1% were root divergence, 20.0% were root resorption, and 11.4% were root divergence and resorption.

  11. A radiographic study of nasopalatine duct cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of 35 cases of nasopalatine duct cyst by means of the analysis of periapical and/or occlusal radiograms in 35 persons visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University and Chonbuk National University. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The incidence of nasopalatine duct cysts was higher in males (74.3%) than in females (25.7%). 2. The nasopalatine duct cysts were the most frequently occurred in the 4th decades (34.3%). The 6th and 7th decades (17.1%, 17.1%) were next in order to frequency followed by the 5th decades (14.3%), the 3rd decades (8.6%), the 2nd decades (5.7%), and 8th decades (2.9%). 3. In the signs and symptoms of nasopalatine duct cysts, 25.7% were swelling, 17.1% were swelling and tenderness, 20.0% were swelling and pain, and 37.2% were a symptom. 4. In the shape of nasopalatine duct cysts, 40.0% were round type, 48.6% 11.8% were heart type. 5. In symmetry of the nasopalatine duct cysts, 11.4% were 6-10 mm, 48.6% were 11-20 mm, 25.7% were 21-30 mm, and 14.3% were 31-40 mm. 6. In the periphery of nasopalatine duct cysts, 82.9% were distinct, 17.1% were relatively distinct. 7. In the change of root, 51.5% were intact, 17.1% were root divergence, 20.0% were root resorption, and 11.4% were root divergence and resorption.

  12. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  13. The branching pattern of villous capillaries and structural changes of placental terminal villi in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirkovská, M.; Kučera, T.; Kaláb, J.; Jadrníček, M.; Niedobová, V.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Moravcová, M.; Žižka, Z.; Krejčí, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2012), s. 343-351. ISSN 0143-4004 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/09/0733 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : angiogenesis * branching * capillaries * collagen * confocal microscopy * desmin * diabetes * placenta * structure * three-dimensional reconstruction * vascular topology * villi * vimentin Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.117, year: 2012

  14. Effects of Anticoagulant, Processing Delay, and Assay Method (Branched DNA versus Reverse Transcriptase PCR) on Measurement of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA Levels in Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstein, Lynn M.; Mellors, John W.; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Giorgi, Janis V.; Phair, John P.; Dietz, Edith; Gupta, Phalguni; Sherlock, Christopher H.; Hogg, Robert; J. S. G. Montaner; Muñoz, Alvaro

    1999-01-01

    We conducted two studies to determine the potential influence of delays in blood processing, type of anticoagulant, and assay method on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels in plasma. The first was an experimental study in which heparin- and EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples were collected from 101 HIV-positive individuals and processed to plasma after delays of 2, 6, and 18 h. HIV-1 RNA levels in each sample were then measured by both branched-DNA (bDNA) and reverse transcr...

  15. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  16. Congenital double bile duct presenting as recurrent cholangitis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Chakravarty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Double common bile duct (DCBD is a rare congenital anomaly. Most of these bile duct anomalies are associated with bile duct stones, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ, pancreatitis and bile duct or gastric cancers. Early detection and treatment is important to avoid long term complications. Surgical resection of the anomalous bile duct and reconstruction of the biliary enteric anastomosis is the treatment of choice. We report a rare case of DCBD anomaly in a girl, who presented with recurrent cholangitis. She had type Va DCBD anomaly. She underwent successful resection of the bile duct and reconstruction of the biliary enteric anastomosis. Preoperative imaging and diagnosis of the congenital biliary anomaly is very important to avoid intraoperative bile duct injury. Review of the literature shows very few cases of type Va DCBD, presenting with either bile duct stones or APBJ.

  17. Branch Quality Control of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Using a Novel T-Junction Type Distributor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FaChun Liang; Jing Chen; JinLong Wang; Hao Yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to eliminate mal-distribution and ensure the side arm to produce desirable gas quality a special distributor is proposed. The experimental distributor mainly consists of a straight through section, a gas extraction line, a liquid extraction line and a side arm branch. A gas orifice and a liquid orifice are mounted at the gas and liquid extraction line respectively to control the outlet gas quality. The diameter of the liquid orifice was set to 2�50 mm and three gas orifices with different size ( dG = 2�65, 5�00, 10�00 mm) were tested. The experiments were carried out at an air-water two-phase flow loop. The gas superficial velocity ranged from 6�0 to 20�0 m/s and the liquid superficial velocity was in the range of 0�02-0�18 m/s. Flow patterns such as wave flow, slug flow and annular flow were observed. The gas quality of the side arm branch was found mainly determined by the flow area ratio of the gas orifice to the liquid orifice and independent of gas and liquid superficial velocity, flow patterns and extraction flux.

  18. Gallblader and bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009215 Construction of the specific MUC5AC-siRNA expression plasmid and effect of siRNA on proliferation and apoptosis in human bile duct cancer line HCCC-9810.HUANG Qing(黄强),et al.Dept General Surg,Affili Prov Hosp,Anhui Med Univ,Hefei 230001.World Chin J Digestol.2009;17(6):566-572.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamics in rectangular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetohydrodynamic flow in straight ducts or bends is a key issue, which has to be investigated for developing self-cooled liquid metal blankets of fusion reactors. The code presented solves the full set of governing equations and simulates all phenomena of such flows, including inertial effects. The range of application is limited by computer storage only. (orig./WL)

  20. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  1. Design Optimization of Propeller Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Aasebø, Steinar Martin

    2009-01-01

    This Master Thesis ends up in a design optimization of a propeller duct profile as an example of multi-objective optimization with computationally expensive objective function evaluation. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the ducted propeller is then done as objective evaluation. Response surface methods are employed in the propeller duct profile optimization.

  2. Kidney branching morphogenesis under the control of a ligand–receptor-based Turing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main signalling proteins that control early kidney branching have been defined. Yet the underlying mechanism is still elusive. We have previously shown that a Schnakenberg-type Turing mechanism can recapitulate the branching and protein expression patterns in wild-type and mutant lungs, but it is unclear whether this mechanism would extend to other branched organs that are regulated by other proteins. Here, we show that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor–RET regulatory interaction gives rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing model that reproduces the observed budding of the ureteric bud from the Wolffian duct, its invasion into the mesenchyme and the observed branching pattern. The model also recapitulates all relevant protein expression patterns in wild-type and mutant mice. The lung and kidney models are both based on a particular receptor–ligand interaction and require (1) cooperative binding of ligand and receptor, (2) a lower diffusion coefficient for the receptor than for the ligand and (3) an increase in the receptor concentration in response to receptor–ligand binding (by enhanced transcription, more recycling or similar). These conditions are met also by other receptor–ligand systems. We propose that ligand–receptor-based Turing patterns represent a general mechanism to control branching morphogenesis and other developmental processes. (paper)

  3. Countercurrent flow limitation in narrow rectangular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countercurrent air-water two phase flow limitation in vertical narrow rectangular ducts was investigated. The scale effect was investigated using three narrow rectangular ducts with different gaps (2 x 100, 5 x 100, 10 x 100 mm). The experimental data showed similar tendency in spite of gap or upper plenum liquid level. The Wallis type correlation with constant C = 0.65 gave a good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison with the prediction by the envelope theory using the Bharathan friction factor correlation was also discussed. (author)

  4. Interference effect of oral administration of mulberry branch bark powder on the incidence of type II diabetes in mice induced by streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Yu Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases that has become a global health problem worldwide. Many researchers have found that mulberry branches have a hypoglycemic effect, but there have been few studies or investigations regarding the use of mulberry branches to prevent the incidence of diabetes. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the potential preventive effect of mulberry branch bark powder (MBBP from Morus multicaulis L against type II diabetes in mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ. Design: The normal mice were fed a diet containing 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0%, MBBP, respectively, for 2 weeks. After that, STZ (100 mg/kg was injected into the caudal vein of these mice. These mice continued to be fed the same diet, and the fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were monitored on the 17th and 21st days. Results: Oral administration of MBBP could effectively inhibit weight loss and maintain the FBG level. The incidence of diabetes in mice was almost inhibited by treatment with 10% MBBP. MBBP could also maintain the original antioxidant capacity and regulate the lipid metabolism in mice. An immunohistochemical assay showed that MBBP could prevent the injury of the insulin-secreting islet beta cells induced by STZ. RT-PCR also confirmed that the mRNA expression of the genes PI3K, Pdk1, Akt, and FoxO1, which were involved in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, hardly suffered from STZ in the 10% MBBP-dose group. Conclusions: Our results indicate that powdered mulberry branch bark has a powerful anti-diabetic effect. These results clearly illustrated that MBBP has a potential use as a health food additive in the prevention of diabetes.

  5. Interference effect of oral administration of mulberry branch bark powder on the incidence of type II diabetes in mice induced by streptozotocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Yu; Wang, Jiang; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases that has become a global health problem worldwide. Many researchers have found that mulberry branches have a hypoglycemic effect, but there have been few studies or investigations regarding the use of mulberry branches to prevent the incidence of diabetes. Objective This study aimed to investigate the potential preventive effect of mulberry branch bark powder (MBBP) from Morus multicaulis L against type II diabetes in mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Design The normal mice were fed a diet containing 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0%, MBBP, respectively, for 2 weeks. After that, STZ (100 mg/kg) was injected into the caudal vein of these mice. These mice continued to be fed the same diet, and the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were monitored on the 17th and 21st days. Results Oral administration of MBBP could effectively inhibit weight loss and maintain the FBG level. The incidence of diabetes in mice was almost inhibited by treatment with 10% MBBP. MBBP could also maintain the original antioxidant capacity and regulate the lipid metabolism in mice. An immunohistochemical assay showed that MBBP could prevent the injury of the insulin-secreting islet beta cells induced by STZ. RT-PCR also confirmed that the mRNA expression of the genes PI3K, Pdk1, Akt, and FoxO1, which were involved in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, hardly suffered from STZ in the 10% MBBP-dose group. Conclusions Our results indicate that powdered mulberry branch bark has a powerful anti-diabetic effect. These results clearly illustrated that MBBP has a potential use as a health food additive in the prevention of diabetes. PMID:27257845

  6. Reverse bent wiring with Crusade catheter can be a useful technique for penetrating an abrupt-type entry of coronary occlusion at branching ostium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Kato, Taku; Higuchi, Yusuke; Keira, Natsuya; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    We encountered a case of chronic total in-stent occlusion which involving an abrupt-type entry at an obtuse marginal branching ostium. It is usually difficult to antegradely penetrate this kind of proximal fibrous cap. Therefore, we adopted a reverse bent wiring technique with a Crusade catheter and successfully completed all procedures. This technique is very simple but can be very effective in specific situations in daily percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Many PCI operators may empirically adopt this kind of wire manipulation technique. However, this kind of technique has never been officially reported to our knowledge. PMID:26113197

  7. Left hepatic trisectionectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma presenting with an aberrant biliary duct of segment 5: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozawa Fumiaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Management of the biliary ducts during liver resection is one of the most important challenges for hepatobiliary surgeons. Here, we report the case of a left hepatic trisectionectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma with a rare aberrant biliary duct of segment 5, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in previous literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old Asian female initially presented with intrahepatic bile duct dilatation in the left lateral sector, left paramedian sector, and right paramedian sector. Simultaneous cholangiography from a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube in biliary duct of segment 8 and endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube in biliary duct of segment 3 revealed drainage of the right lateral sectoral branch into the common hepatic duct and the aberrant drainage of segment 5 into the right lateral sectoral branch. The left hepatic duct, right paramedian sectoral duct, and the confluence of the right lateral sectoral duct were narrowed. Left hepatic trisectionectomy was successfully performed with careful dissection and division of the aberrant biliary duct of segment 5. Conclusion For safe liver resection, it is important to perform a detailed anatomic evaluation of the intrahepatic ducts, both preoperatively and intraoperatively.

  8. Branching out

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, J D

    2010-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of the rightmost particle in the $n$th generation in the branching random walk are reviewed and the phenomenon of anomalous spreading speeds, noticed recently in related deterministic models, is considered. The relationship between such results and certain coupled reaction-diffusion equations is indicated.

  9. Insulinotropic and Muscle Protein Synthetic Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids: Potential Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes and Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren G. Candow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The loss of muscle mass and strength with aging (i.e., sarcopenia has a negative effect on functional independence and overall quality of life. One main contributing factor to sarcopenia is the reduced ability to increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis in response to habitual feeding, possibly due to a reduction in postprandial insulin release and an increase in insulin resistance. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, primarily leucine, increases the activation of pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis through insulin-dependent and independent mechanisms, which may help counteract the “anabolic resistance” to feeding in older adults. Leucine exhibits strong insulinotropic characteristics, which may increase amino acid availability for muscle protein synthesis, reduce muscle protein breakdown, and enhance glucose disposal to help maintain blood glucose homeostasis.

  10. Female form of persistent mullerian duct syndrome: Rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS is a rare form of Disorder of sex development in which Mullerian duct derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus and the proximal vagina are present in an otherwise normally differentiated 46 XY male. In the majority of cases, PMDS is a surprise finding either during orchidopexy or during inguinal hernia repair. We report a case of 4 year child with female type (Type III PMDS. We are discussing the presentation, management and review of the literature.

  11. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  12. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach

  13. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems, task 1: Ducted propfan analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Bettner, James L.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent three-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics were solved numerically to study the steady compressible transonic flow about ducted propfan propulsion systems. Aerodynamic calculations were based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. An implicit residual smoothing operator was used to aid convergence. Two calculation grids were employed in this study. The first grid utilized an H-type mesh network with a branch cut opening to represent the axisymmetric cowl. The second grid utilized a multiple-block mesh system with a C-type grid about the cowl. The individual blocks were numerically coupled in the Euler solver. Grid systems were generated by a combined algebraic/elliptic algortihm developed specifically for ducted propfans. Numerical calculations were initially performed for unducted propfans to verify the accuracy of the three-dimensional Euler formulation. The Euler analyses were then applied for the calculation of ducted propfan flows, and predicted results were compared with experimental data for two cases. The three-dimensional Euler analyses displayed exceptional accuracy, although certain parameters were observed to be very sensitive to geometric deflections. Both solution schemes were found to be very robust and demonstrated nearly equal efficiency and accuracy, although it was observed that the multi-block C-grid formulation provided somewhat better resolution of the cowl leading edge region.

  14. Modeling low elevation GPS signal propagation in maritime atmospheric ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Wu, Zhensen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Hongguang; Zhu, Qinglin

    2012-05-01

    Using the parabolic wave equation (PWE) method, we model low elevation GPS L1 signal propagation in maritime atmospheric ducts. To consider sea surface impedance, roughness, and the effects of earth's curvature, we propose a new initial field model for the GPS PWE split-step solution. On the basis of the comparison between the proposed model and the conventional initial field model for a smooth, perfectly conducting sea surface on a planar earth, we conclude that both the amplitude and phase of the initial field are influenced by surface impedance and roughness, and that the interference behavior between direct and reflected GPS rays is affected by earth's curvature. The performance of the proposed model is illustrated with examples of low elevation GPS L1 signal propagation in three types of ducts: an evaporation duct, a surface-based duct, and an elevated duct. The GPS PWE is numerically implemented using the split-step discrete mixed Fourier transform algorithm to enforce impedance-type boundary conditions at the rough sea surface. Because the GPS signal is right hand circularly polarized, we calculate its power strength by combining the propagation predictions of the horizontally and the vertically polarized components. The effects of the maritime atmospheric ducts on low elevation GPS signal propagation are demonstrated according to the presented examples, and the potential applications of the GPS signals affected by ducts are discussed.

  15. Bile duct malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucek, S; Tomasek, J; Halámkova, J; Kiss, I; Andrasina, T; Hemmelová, B; Adámková-Krákorová, D; Vyzula, R

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct malignancies include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), gall bladder carcinoma (GC) and carcinoma of Vater's ampulla (ampulloma). Bile duct neoplasms are rare tumours with overall poor prognosis. The overall incidence affects up to 12.5 per 100,000 persons in the Czech Republic. The mortality rate has risen recently to 9.5 per 100,000 persons. The incidence and mortality have been remarkably stable over the past 3 decades. The survival rate of patients with these tumours is poor, usually not exceeding 12 months. The diagnostic process is complex, uneasy and usually late. Most cases are diagnosed when unresectable, and palliative treatment is the main approach of medical care for these tumours. The treatment remains very challenging. New approaches have not brought much improvement in this field. Standards of palliative care are lacking and quality of life assessments are surprisingly not common. From the scarce data it seems, however, that multimodal individually tailored treatment can prolong patients'survival and improve the health-related quality of life. The care in specialized centres offers methods of surgery, interventional radiology, clinical oncology and high quality supportive care. These methods are discussed in the article in greater detail. Improvements in this field can be sought in new diagnostic methods and new procedures in surgery and interventional radiology. Understanding the tumour biology on the molecular level could shift the strategy to a more successful one, resulting in more cured patients. Further improvements in palliative care can be sought by defining new targets and new drug development. The lack of patients with bile duct neoplasms has been the limiting factor for any improvements. A new design of larger randomized international multicentric clinical trials with prompt data sharing could help to overcome this major problem. Defining standards of palliative care is a necessity

  16. Gallbladder and bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930559 An experimental study on effective hep-atic blood flow and hepatic energy metabolismfollowing acute obstructive cholangitis and bil-iary obstruction.SUN Wenbing (孙文兵),et al.Hepatobili Surg,Center,Southwest Hosp,Chongqing 630000.Chin J Digest 1992;12(5):261—263.The changes of effective hepatic blood flow(E-HBF)and hepatic energy metabolism were stud-ied following acutc obstructive cholangitis(AOC)and bile duct ligation(BDL)in rats.The resultsshowed that EHBF was significantly decreased at24hs after and further decreased at 48hs afterBDL.And EHBF was significantly decreased at

  17. 风道式风力发电机迎风及调速方法%The method of wind facing and speed control for duct-type wind generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐保良; 杨宝昆; 高鹤

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the cost of duct-type wind generator, a method of wind facing and speed control was proposed. Under the condition that the duct device always faces the wind direction, through the joint function of eccentric device and cam gear, the wind turbine will face the wind direction in case the wind speed is lower, and the wind turbine should be deflected correspondingly in order to limit the rotary speed of the turbine in case the wind speed is over the limit. Based on aerodynamic principle, the expression of structure parameters was deduced, the rules for various parameters determination was also proposed. This method could effectively limit the speed in strong wind condition, and could improve the stability of wind generator. The speed regulating device has the advantages of simple structure, low cost and easily installation and maintenance.%为降低风道式风力发电机的成本,提出了一种风力发电机迎风及调速方法.在风道装置始终正对风向的条件下,由于偏心机构和凸轮机构的共同作用,在风速低时,风轮正对着风向,在风速超限时,风轮相应侧偏,以限制风轮转速.基于空气动力学基本理论,推导出其结构参数的表达式,并叙述了各结构参数的选取原则.该方法可有效地起到大风限速的作用,提高风力发电机工作的稳定性.该调速机构结构简单、成本低,安装维护方便.

  18. Duct Remediation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Duct Remediation Program was established in March of 1990 to identify and remediate sections of plutonium contaminated ductwork in existing Plutonium Fabrication and Recovery Facilities at Rocky Flats near Golden, Colorado. The program was implemented as a result of non-destructive assay measurements which identified areas of significant holdup accumulations. These facilities housed plutonium operations for over 30 years and included processes such as foundries, machining, and plutonium transfer/storage. The Secretary of Energy defined the criteria for remediation success as ''...as low as practicable, but in no case greater than 400 grams of plutonium in any single upward flow path in a glovebox exhaust system...'' This criteria was additionally restricted to include a non-destructive measurement uncertainty of 100 percent. The remediation project also had to comply with the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 90-6. The ''As Low As Practicable'' criteria became the programmatic goal and the basis of the research and operation that occurred over a two year period. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders provided design and safety criteria bounding the engineering methods used in program development. A Mockup and Test Facility was established for the conception and refinement of holdup material characterization, tool manipulation, remediation equipment, duct access, and operational procedures. With these items in place the remediation operation was implemented and carried through to completion

  19. Sub-branch and mixed-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: 2 case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ozmen, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN is one of the cystic neoplasias of the pancreas. The imaging findings provide that these tumors are differentiated from the other cystic lesions of the pancreas, especially from the chronic pancreatitis, where the treatment protocol is completely different. Therefore, the correct diagnosis and classification of the IPMN ensures that the patient receives the correct approach and the appropriate surgery, if necessary. The purpose of this study is to emphasize the imaging findings of the different types of the IPMN and the changes in the management protocol of the patients according to these radiological findings.

  20. Propagation of sound waves in ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described.......Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described....

  1. Bile duct cyst in adults: Interventional treatment, resection, or transplantation?

    OpenAIRE

    Herwig Cerwenka

    2013-01-01

    Cystic dilatations of the bile ducts may be found along the extrahepatic biliary tree, within the liver, or in both of these locations simultaneously. Presentation in adults is often associated with complications. The therapeutic possibilities have changed considerably over the last few decades. If possible, complete resection of the cyst(s) can cure the symptoms and avoid the risk of malignancy. According to the type of bile duct cyst, surgical procedures include the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejuno...

  2. Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Extrahepatic Bile Duct: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sin Hyung; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Kim, Anna; Cha, Sang Woo; Jung, Sung Hee; Go, Hoon; Lee, Woong Chul

    2007-01-01

    Most malignant tumors originating from the biliary tract are adenocarcinomas, and adenosqamous carcinoma of Klatskin's tumor is a very rare finding. An 83-yr-old man was admitted to our hospital because of jaundice. The abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed wall thickening and luminal stenosis of both the intrahepatic duct confluent portion and the common hepatic duct. These findings were compatible with Klatskin's tumor, Bismuth type III. Cons...

  3. Ret and Etv4 Promote Directed Movements of Progenitor Cells during Renal Branching Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Riccio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfrα1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive knowledge of the genetic control of these events, it is not understood, at the cellular level, how renal branching morphogenesis is achieved or how Ret signaling influences epithelial cell behaviors to promote this process. Analysis of chimeric embryos previously suggested a role for Ret signaling in promoting cell rearrangements in the nephric duct, but this method was unsuited to study individual cell behaviors during ureteric bud branching. Here, we use Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM, combined with organ culture and time-lapse imaging, to trace the movements and divisions of individual ureteric bud tip cells. We first examine wild-type clones and then Ret or Etv4 mutant/wild-type clones in which the mutant and wild-type sister cells are differentially and heritably marked by green and red fluorescent proteins. We find that, in normal kidneys, most individual tip cells behave as self-renewing progenitors, some of whose progeny remain at the tips while others populate the growing UB trunks. In Ret or Etv4 MADM clones, the wild-type cells generated at a UB tip are much more likely to remain at, or move to, the new tips during branching and elongation, while their Ret-/- or Etv4-/- sister cells tend to lag behind and contribute only to the trunks. By tracking successive mitoses in a cell lineage, we find that Ret signaling has little effect on proliferation, in contrast to its effects on cell movement. Our results show that Ret

  4. Ascariasis of the pancreatic duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimovskij, Michail; Dulskas, Audrius; Kraulyte, Zita; Mikalauskas, Saulius

    2015-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common helminthic disease worldwide, although Lithuania and other European countries are not considered endemic areas. The presence of the Ascaris worm in the biliary tree causes choledocholithiasis-like symptoms. We report a case of pancreatic duct ascariasis causing such symptoms. A 73-year-old Lithuanian woman underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suspecting choledocholithiasis. Contrast injection into the common bile duct demonstrated a slightly dilated biliary tree without any filling defects, and the tail of an Ascaris worm protruding from the opening of the papilla Vater. The worm was captured by a snare but escaped deep into the duct. After a small wirsungotomy the worm was retrieved from the pancreatic duct. The patient received a 150 mg dose of levamisole orally repeated 7 days later and was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms. This first reported sporadic case of pancreatic duct ascariasis in Lithuania was successfully treated with ERCP and Levamisole. PMID:26374772

  5. Evaluation of Real-time Ultrasound Imaging US Prompt Bile Pancreatic Duct Confluence Type the Value of the Relationship between Bile Pancreatic System Disease Onset%评价超声显像US诊断胆胰管汇合分型与胆胰系统疾病发病关系的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨付云

    2015-01-01

    目的总结胆胰管汇合不同分型的胆胰系统疾病的超声表现,探讨超声(US)对胆胰管汇合分型与临床胆胰系疾病发病关系的诊断价值和临床指导作用。方法收集2010年5月~2013年5月200例胆胰系疾病患者的超声资料,分为病例组与对照组,回顾性分析探讨超声对胆胰管合流不同分型与胆胰系疾病发病关系诊断价值的意义。结果胆胰管汇合不同分型与胆道胰腺疾病的发病关系密切相关,其中I型胆道系统疾病发病率高于I 型;I 型胰腺疾病发病率高于I型。结论胆胰管合流异常与胆胰系疾病关系密切,超声对于提示胆胰管合流异常不同分型与胆胰系疾病的关系有很高的诊断价值及临床指导作用。%Objective To summarize the biliary pancreatic duct confluence the sonographic appearances of the dif erent types of bile pancreatic system diseases, explore ultrasonography (US) in bile pancreatic duct confluence types and clinical department of bile pancreatic disease diagnostic value and clinical guidance. Methods Col ect data in May 2010 to May 2010, 200 cases of biliary pancreatic disease in patients with ultrasound data, divided into the case group and control group, were retrospectively analyzed to explore the bile pancreatic duct confluence type and bile pancreatic disease relations significance of diagnostic value. Results The gal bladder pancreatic duct confluence type is closely related to the relationship between the onset of biliary pancreatic diseases, including type B-p biliary disease incidence rate is higher than P-type B;P-type B pancreatic disease incidence rate is higher than B-P type. Conclusion Abnormal bile pancreatic duct confluence and bile pancreatic is closely related to disease, ultrasound for prompt bile pancreatic duct confluence exception type relationship with the department of bile pancreatic disease has a high diagnostic value and clinical guidance.

  6. A rare case of bilateral high division of sciatic nerve (of different types with unilateral divided piriformis and unusual high origin of genicular branch of common fibular nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan YSK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a very rare case of two different types of high divisions of sciatic nerve (SN on either side of a 33-year-old female cadaver with unilateral divided piriformis muscle. Here SN of either side divided into tibial and common fibular nerves within pelvis and entered into gluteal region. On the right side both divisions passed below piriformis, but on the left side the common fibular nerve passed between two divisions of divided piriformis, while tibial nerve passed below the inferior piriformis. What is rare is not high division of SN, but to find two different types of high divisions of SN on either side of same cadaver with unilateral bifid piriformis as found here. To our knowledge, there is no literature describing this kind of variation. Also seen was an unusual finding of unilateral high origin of genicular branch of left common fibular nerve. This combination of variations makes this case the most interesting and unique of its kind.

  7. P-type ATPase TAT-2 negatively regulates monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid mediated function in post-embryonic growth and development in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emylie Seamen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs are essential for Caenorhabditis elegans growth and development. To identify factors acting downstream of mmBCFAs for their function in growth regulation, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 arrest that occurs in animals depleted of the 17-carbon mmBCFA C17ISO. Three of the suppressor mutations defined an unexpected player, the P-type ATPase TAT-2, which belongs to the flippase family of proteins that are implicated in mediating phospholipid bilayer asymmetry. We provide evidence that TAT-2, but not other TAT genes, has a specific role in antagonizing the regulatory activity of mmBCFAs in intestinal cells. Interestingly, we found that mutations in tat-2 also suppress the lethality caused by inhibition of the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. We further showed that the fatty acid side-chains of glycosylceramides contain 20%-30% mmBCFAs and that this fraction is greatly diminished in the absence of mmBCFA biosynthesis. These results suggest a model in which a C17ISO-containing sphingolipid may mediate the regulatory functions of mmBCFAs and is negatively regulated by TAT-2 in intestinal cells. This work indicates a novel connection between a P-type ATPase and the critical regulatory function of a specific fatty acid.

  8. Management of excluded segmental bile duct leakage following liver resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Charles; Vibert, Eric; Hoti, Emir; Azoulay, Daniel; Adam, René; Castaing, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postoperative bile leak secondary to a fistula is a known complication of hepatic surgery. Four different biliary fistula sub-types have been described: type A refers to minor leakage from the bile duct stump; type B to major leakage caused by insufficient closure of the bile duct stump; type C to major leakage caused by injury to the bile duct, and type D (the rarest) to the division and exclusion of a bile duct. This complication results from functional liver parenchyma in which bile drainage is excluded from the main duct. Methods: A retrospective review of the database for 163 patients diagnosed with post-hepatic surgery bile leak from April 1992 to June 2007 was performed. Results: Three patients were found to have type D biliary fistula, with durations of 3–21 months. The bile leak developed after a right hepatectomy in two patients and a right hepatectomy extending to segment IV in one patient. All three patients were rescheduled for surgical exploration, following failure of medical treatment. The procedure consisted of repeat resection of the independent liver parenchyma containing the fistula. One patient developed a postoperative leak from a hepaticojejunal anastomosis (treated conservatively) and the other two patients had an uneventful recovery. No recurrence of bile leak was encountered during their follow-up. Conclusions: Our experience indicates that conservative treatment is deceptive and not efficacious. For this condition, surgical intervention is the treatment of choice because it is very effective and is associated with a low morbidity. PMID:19718366

  9. Effects of Duct Cross Section Camber and Thickness on the Performance of Ducted Propulsion Systems for Aeronautical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Bontempo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The axisymmetric flow field around a ducted rotor is thoroughly analysed by means of a nonlinear and semi-analytical model which is able to deal with some crucial aspects of shrouded systems like the interaction between the rotor and the duct, and the slipstream contraction and rotation. Not disregarding the more advanced CFD based methods, the proposed procedure is characterised by a very low computational cost that makes it very appealing as analysis tool in the preliminary steps of a design procedure of hierarchical type. The work focuses on the analysis of the effects of the camber and thickness of the duct cross section onto the performance of the device. It has been found that an augmentation of both camber and thickness of the duct leads to an increase of the propulsive ideal efficiency.

  10. A novel gene delivery method transduces porcine pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M A; Restrepo, M S; Abu-El-Haija, M; Wallen, T; Buchanan, E; Rokhlina, T; Chen, Y H; McCray, P B; Davidson, B L; Divekar, A; Uc, A

    2014-02-01

    Gene therapy offers the possibility to treat pancreatic disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene; however, gene transfer to the pancreas is untested in humans. The pancreatic disease phenotype is very similar between humans and pigs with CF; thus, CF pigs create an excellent opportunity to study gene transfer to the pancreas. There are no studies showing efficient transduction of pig pancreas with gene-transfer vectors. Our objective is to develop a safe and efficient method to transduce wild-type (WT) porcine pancreatic ducts that express CFTR. We catheterized the umbilical artery of WT newborn pigs and delivered an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 vector expressing green-fluorescent protein (AAV9CMV.sceGFP) or vehicle to the celiac artery, the vessel that supplies major branches to the pancreas. This technique resulted in stable and dose-dependent transduction of pancreatic duct epithelial cells that expressed CFTR. Intravenous (IV) injection of AAV9CMV.sceGFP did not transduce the pancreas. Our technique offers an opportunity to deliver the CFTR gene to the pancreas of CF pigs. The celiac artery can be accessed via the umbilical artery in newborns and via the femoral artery at older ages--delivery approaches that can be translated to humans. PMID:24257348

  11. Isolation and characterization of portal branch ligation-stimulated Hmga2-positive bipotent hepatic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroshi [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B51, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Tagawa, Yoh-ichi, E-mail: ytagawa@bio.titech.ac.jp [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B51, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tamai, Miho [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B51, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Motoyama, Hiroaki [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Ogawa, Shinichiro [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); McEwen Center for Regenerative Medicine, University Health Network, 190 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 2C4 (Canada); Soeda, Junpei; Nakata, Takenari; Miyagawa, Shinichi [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Hepatic progenitor cells were isolated from the portal branch-ligated liver of mice. {yields} Portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic progenitor cells (PBLHCs) express Hmga2. {yields} PBLHCs have bidirectional differentiation capability in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic stem/progenitor cells are one of several cell sources that show promise for restoration of liver mass and function. Although hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), including oval cells, are induced by administration of certain hepatotoxins in experimental animals, such a strategy would be inappropriate in a clinical setting. Here, we investigated the possibility of isolating HPCs in a portal branch-ligated liver model without administration of any chemical agents. A non-parenchymal cell fraction was prepared from the portal branch-ligated or non-ligated lobe, and seeded onto plates coated with laminin. Most of the cells died, but a small number were able to proliferate. These proliferating cells were cloned as portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic cells (PBLHCs) by the limiting dilution method. The PBLHCs expressed cytokeratin19, albumin, and Hmga2. The PBLHCs exhibited metabolic functions such as detoxification of ammonium ions and synthesis of urea on Matrigel-coated plates in the presence of oncostatin M. In Matrigel mixed with type I collagen, the PBLHCs became rearranged into cystic and tubular structures. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Hmga2-positive cells around the interlobular bile ducts in the portal branch-ligated liver lobes. In conclusion, successful isolation of bipotent hepatic progenitor cell clones, PBLHCs, from the portal branch-ligated liver lobes of mice provides the possibility of future clinical application of portal vein ligation to induce hepatic progenitor cells.

  12. Ground duct ventilation in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Riera Sayol, Guiu

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse climate control system is simulated in MATLAB and Simulink. The model calculates for every 20 minutes the temperatures and energy consumption over a whole year. Ground ducts are used in order to save energy which is stored in the ground when there is an excess of heat during the day. This energy is used when the temperature is not high enough, generally in the early morning. Additionally, the ground ducts reduce the usage of windows, due to better dehumidification and...

  13. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  14. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct with gastric and duodenal fistulas

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Man Yong; Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Seung Goun

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the bile duct is still rare and not yet understood despite of its increased incidence and similar clinicopathologic characteristics compared with IPMN of the pancreas. The fistula formation into other organs can occur in IPMN, especially the pancreatic type. To our knowledge, only two cases of IPMN of the bile duct with a choledochoduodenal fistula were reported and we have recently experienced a case of IPMN of the bile duct penetrating into ...

  15. The detectable double atmospheric ducts for RFC

    OpenAIRE

    Douvenot, Rémi; Fabbro, Vincent; Hurtaud, Yvonick

    2014-01-01

    International audience Refractivity from clutter (RFC) systems are defined for retrieving the atmospheric ducts from the sea clutter echo of a radar in open sea or coastal environment. However, some ducts hardly have an effect on the clutter echo. Consequently, the RFC technique suffers inherent limitations and is unable to provide information about these ducts. To identify these ducts, one important parameter is the range at which a duct modifies the received power. This paper introduces ...

  16. Cervical thoracic duct cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Chi Kyu; Jo, Sung Sik; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Yung [Chunan Hospital Soonchunhyang University, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Thoracic duct cysts are uncommon lesions that most commonly occur in the abdominal and thoracic portion of the thoracic duct: the cervical portion is the rarest location. The main causes of thoracic duct cyst are surgical injuries such as neck dissection and blunt trauma. We report here on a rare case of spontaneous cervical thoracic duct cyst that was noted on ultrasonography and CT. The thoracic duct cyst was confirmed by fine needle aspiration and it was treated by sclerotherapy.

  17. Clinical implications of bile duct injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of distal arterial branches (P<0.01). Conclusions: Knowledge of imaging findings of TACE-induced bile duct injuries can help interventional radiologists to have prompt correct diagnosis. Adjustment in the amounts of iodized oil and chemotherapeutic agents (ie, cisplatin) in patients with high risk factors may reduce ischemic biliary injuries after TACE. (authors)

  18. Mechanism of primitive duct formation in the pancreas and submandibular glands: a role for SDF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtoy Pierre J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exocrine pancreas is composed of a branched network of ducts connected to acini. They are lined by a monolayered epithelium that derives from the endoderm and is surrounded by mesoderm-derived mesenchyme. The morphogenic mechanisms by which the ductal network is established as well as the signaling pathways involved in this process are poorly understood. Results By morphological analyzis of wild-type and mutant mouse embryos and using cultured embryonic explants we investigated how epithelial morphogenesis takes place and is regulated by chemokine signaling. Pancreas ontogenesis displayed a sequence of two opposite epithelial transitions. During the first transition, the monolayered and polarized endodermal cells give rise to tissue buds composed of a mass of non polarized epithelial cells. During the second transition the buds reorganize into branched and polarized epithelial monolayers that further differentiate into tubulo-acinar glands. We found that the second epithelial transition is controlled by the chemokine Stromal cell-Derived Factor (SDF-1. The latter is expressed by the mesenchyme, whereas its receptor CXCR4 is expressed by the epithelium. Reorganization of cultured pancreatic buds into monolayered epithelia was blocked in the presence of AMD3100, a SDF-1 antagonist. Analyzis of sdf1 and cxcr4 knockout embryos at the stage of the second epithelial transition revealed transient defective morphogenesis of the ventral and dorsal pancreas. Reorganization of a globular mass of epithelial cells in polarized monolayers is also observed during submandibular glands development. We found that SDF-1 and CXCR4 are expressed in this organ and that AMD3100 treatment of submandibular gland explants blocks its branching morphogenesis. Conclusion In conclusion, our data show that the primitive pancreatic ductal network, which is lined by a monolayered and polarized epithelium, forms by remodeling of a globular mass of non

  19. Design of a Four-Branch LCL-Type Grid-Connecting Interface for a Three-Phase, Four-Leg Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the three-phase, two-split-capacitor active power filter (3P2C-APF, the three-phase, four-leg active power filter (3P4L-APF has been widely used in three-phase, four-wire grid utility for power quality control due to its numerous advantages, such as higher current output capability, particularly in phase N, lower current and easier voltage control on the DC-side. However, designing the grid-connecting interface, which is between the voltage source converter (VSC and grid utility, is rather difficult due to the higher requirement for current ripple filtering in phase N, cross-coupling in four phases and lack of relevant design methodology and specification. In this paper, a four-branch LCL-type (4B-LCL grid-connecting interface is proposed for 3P4L-APF, which features better current ripple filtering performance without decreasing the current output capability in all phases. First, this paper describes the mathematical models of 4B-LCL in the fully-complex-vector form from the zero and non-zero sequence perspective, resulting in two independent and uniform equivalent circuits without cross coupling terms. Then, the 4B-LCL parameter design method based on the most comprehensive performance index is proposed, including three main stages as the specification: performance index requirement determination, fulfillment of that requirement, and verification. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed design are proven by the simulated and experimental results of a 3P4L-APF with 4B-LCL.

  20. Evaporation duct communication: Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. D.

    1991-02-01

    The Evaporation Duct Communication (EDCOM) project is an effort to provide an alternative ship-to-ship communications channel using the natural environment. A microwave communication link can be used on an over-the-water, over-the-horizon path through the evaporation duct. This report shows how a microwave communication link, operating at a range separation of more than twice the line-of-sight range, can be constructed. This link can achieve about 80-percent availability at a transmission frequency of 14.5 GHz and can be constructed using off-the-shelf RF equipment. Operation of this link will provide the first set of measurements of channel capacity that can be critically dependent on the existence of an oceanic evaporation duct. Construction of this link presents a unique opportunity to study and evaluate an alternative communications channel that can be used to alleviate naval battlegroup communications load.

  1. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  2. Demonstration of caudate lobe bile ducts using 3D-CT cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Yasushi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    The aim of this study is to make precise analysis of bile ducts of the caudate, lobe using 3D-CT cholangiography. Seventy obstructive jaundiced patients without lesions at the hilar duct level were included in this study. According to Kumon`s study, I divided the caudate lobe into three areas: spiegel lobe (sp), caudate process portion (cp) and paracaval portion (pc), and set the range for these three areas in cholangio CT. In 70 cases, 191 caudate branches were detected and those draining areas and confluence patterns were analysed. 3D-CT cholangiography could be obtained from randomized angles. In set up the 8 angles from 0deg to 330deg in sagittal plane to demonstrate intrahepatic bile ducts and investigate the suitable angles for detecting caudate lobe branches in each drainaing area. Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Sp group (104 branches) were 180deg, 210deg, 150deg and 330deg (detectabilities were 89.4%, 61.5%, 51.0% and 47.1% respectively). Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Pc group (80 branches) were 180deg, 210deg, 150deg, 330deg and 0deg (detectabilities were 91.3%, 65.0%, 57.5%, 48.8% and 41.3% respectively). Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Cp group (67 branches) were 210deg, 180deg, 330deg, 150deg and 0deg (detectabilities were 80.1%, 73.1%, 50.7%, 49.3% and 47.8% respectively). The images from 150deg, 180deg, 210deg were necessary to demonstrate the caudate lobe branches in 3D-CT cholangiography. (author).

  3. What's New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bile duct cancer What’s new in bile duct cancer research and treatment? Bile duct cancer is an uncommon ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Bile Duct Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  4. THE TIP OF THE RED GIANT BRANCH DISTANCES TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA HOST GALAXIES. II. M66 AND M96 IN THE LEO I GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M66 and M96 in the Leo I Group are nearby spiral galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We estimate the distances to these galaxies from the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We obtain VI photometry of resolved stars in these galaxies from F555W and F814W images in the Hubble Space Telescope archive. From the luminosity function of these red giants, we find the TRGB I-band magnitude to be ITRGB = 26.20 ± 0.03 for M66 and 26.21 ± 0.03 for M96. These values yield distance modulus (m – M)0 = 30.12 ± 0.03(random) ± 0.12(systematic) for M66 and (m – M)0 = 30.15 ± 0.03(random) ± 0.12(systematic) for M96. These results show that they are indeed the members of the same group. With these results we derive absolute maximum magnitudes of two SNe (SN 1989B in M66 and SN 1998bu in M96). V-band magnitudes of these SNe Ia are ∼0.2 mag fainter than SN 2011fe in M101, one of the nearest recent SNe Ia. We also derive near-infrared magnitudes for SN 1998bu. Optical magnitudes of three SNe Ia (SN 1989B, SN 1998bu, and SN 2011fe) based on TRGB analysis yield a Hubble constant, H0 = 68.4 ± 2.6(random) ± 3.7(systematic) km s–1 Mpc–1. This value is similar to the values derived from recent WMAP9 results, H0 = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s–1 Mpc–1, and from Planck results, H0 = 67.3 ± 1.2 km s–1 Mpc–1, but smaller than other recent determinations based on Cepheid calibration for SNe Ia luminosity, H0 = 74 ± 3 km s–1 Mpc–1

  5. Spontaneous Bile Duct Rupture in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Piotrowski, Joseph J.; Greg Van Stiegmann; R. Dale Liechty

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous bile duct rupture occurred in a 23-year-old who required emergency Cesarean section for fetal distress. This condition has not been reported in association with pregnancy. Only forty cases of spontaneous bile duct perforation in adults have been previously reported. Seventy percent of these perforations were related to biliary calculi. Sites of perforation were evenly distributed between common hepatic duct and common bile duct. Recommended treatment includes cholecystectomy, comm...

  6. Roentgendiagnostic of the operated bile duct system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roentgendiagnostic after bile duct surgery shall demonstrate postoperative complications, recurrencys of the primary disease and other complications. Planning the diagnostic procedures one has to consider the preceeding operation: surgery of the gall-bladder, the common bile duct, the papilla Vateri, biliodigestive anastomosis, bile duct drainage by plastic tube, and duodenopancreatectomy. (orig.)

  7. Bile duct cyst in adults: Interventional treatment, resection, or transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Cerwenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic dilatations of the bile ducts may be found along the extrahepatic biliary tree, within the liver, or in both of these locations simultaneously. Presentation in adults is often associated with complications. The therapeutic possibilities have changed considerably over the last few decades. If possible, complete resection of the cyst(s can cure the symptoms and avoid the risk of malignancy. According to the type of bile duct cyst, surgical procedures include the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and variable types of hepatic resection. However, the diffuse forms of Todani type V cysts (Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome in particular remain a therapeutic problem, and liver transplantation has become an important option. The mainstay of interventional treatment for Todani type III bile duct cysts is via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnostic term “bile duct cyst” comprises quite different pathological and clinical entities. Interventional therapy, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation all have their place in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease group. They should not be seen as competitive treatment modalities, but as complementary options. Each patient should receive individualized treatment after all of the clinical findings have been considered by an interdisciplinary team.

  8. Bile duct cyst in adults: interventional treatment, resection, or transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2013-08-28

    Cystic dilatations of the bile ducts may be found along the extrahepatic biliary tree, within the liver, or in both of these locations simultaneously. Presentation in adults is often associated with complications. The therapeutic possibilities have changed considerably over the last few decades. If possible, complete resection of the cyst(s) can cure the symptoms and avoid the risk of malignancy. According to the type of bile duct cyst, surgical procedures include the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and variable types of hepatic resection. However, the diffuse forms of Todani type V cysts (Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome) in particular remain a therapeutic problem, and liver transplantation has become an important option. The mainstay of interventional treatment for Todani type III bile duct cysts is via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnostic term "bile duct cyst" comprises quite different pathological and clinical entities. Interventional therapy, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation all have their place in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease group. They should not be seen as competitive treatment modalities, but as complementary options. Each patient should receive individualized treatment after all of the clinical findings have been considered by an interdisciplinary team. PMID:23983423

  9. Intracellular pH in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Hug, M; Greger, R

    1997-01-01

    buffers (20 mmol/l) led to pHi changes in accordance with entry of lipid-soluble forms of the buffers, followed by back-regulation of pHi by duct cells. In another type of experiment, changes in extracellular pH of solutions containing HEPES or HCO3-/CO2 buffers led to significant changes in pHi that did......- exchanger. Under some conditions, these exchangers can be invoked to regulate cell pH.......In order to study the mechanism of H+ and HCO3- transport in a HCO3- secreting epithelium, pancreatic ducts, we have measured the intracellular pH (pHi) in this tissue using the pH sensitive probe BCECF. We found that exposures of ducts to solutions containing acetate/acetic acid or NH4+/NH3...

  10. Minimum-Volume Conversion Duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider, in connection with an MHD conversion duct with known upstream and downstream stagnation conditions, what conditions will give the minimum volume, which is thought to correspond largely to the most economic conditions. On this basis, the problem of the optimum for the duct and the optima for the other components of the power plant are separated. The authors therefore discuss the most general problem of the optimum specific power σU2B2K(1 - K) for a segmented-electrode Faraday duct in the absence of thermal losses and friction, without the usual arbitrary separation of the optimization of the factor K(1 - K) and that of the product σU2; the magnetic field is assumed to be constant. The conversion equations are written in a simple form which makes it possible to utilize the calculus of variations. A system of two differential equations is obtained characterizing the evolution of the fluid. It is shown that the Mach number and the load factor are no longer independent. The integration of the differential system is performed numerically for a perfect gas in the case of thermodynamic equilibrium, the load factor at the inlet being varied for given initial conditions. It is ascertained that the evolution is different depending on whether the inlet load factor is more or less than 0.5. If a diagram is drawn showing the mean specific power-efficiency, the scatter of points representing all the optimum ducts possible, it is found that this scatter has an envelope. Similarly, all the figurate points of the ducts with constant velocities and load factors are found in an envelope inside the first. The differential equations for the optimization of a real gas are set forth in an annex, but no numerical treatment is given. (author)

  11. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  12. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Bile duct endoprostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmann, P.; Hoppe-Seyler, P.; Brambs, H.J.

    1985-05-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a proven method for treating obstructive jaundice due to malignancy. However, the rate of complications for primary internal drainage is relatively high. Consequently, various types of biliary endoprostheses which can be introduced transhepatically or endoscopically have been developed. These prostheses also have serious disadvantages: there is a high risk of dislocation or obstruction. The present paper describes the technique of combined endoscopic-radiological introduction of large biliary prostheses and discusses the advantages of this method.

  14. TX型方钢管相贯节点X支管平面内抗弯刚度分析%Analysis on In-plane Bending Stiffness of X Branch Pipe of TX-type Square Steel Tubular Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 夏军武; 陈婷; 王秋芬

    2012-01-01

    为了分析TX型方钢管相贯节点在复杂边界条件下X支管平面内抗弯刚度的影响,以相贯节点足尺试验为基础,采用量纲分析得到影响相贯节点抗弯刚度的主要无量纲参数,利用有限元软件分析X支管平面内抗弯刚度受主要无量纲参数的影响,并展开研究.试验表明:主管的轴向拉力可以略微提高X支管平面内抗弯刚度.通过分析几何因素对抗弯刚度的影响,结果表明:X支管平面内抗弯刚度主要取决于X支管与主管的宽度比和宽厚比.%In order to analyze the influence of in-plane bending stiffness of X branch pipe under complex boundary of spatial TX-type square steel tubular joint,we got dimensionless parameters which influence bending stiffness of tubular joint through dimensional analysis based on full-scale test of tubular joint.Meanwhile,we analyzed and studied main dimensionless parameters' influence on in-plane bending stiffness of X branch pipe using finite element software.The test shows that axial tension of the main tubular can slightly improve in-plane bending stiffness of X branch pipe.Through the analysis of geometrical factors' influence on bending stiffness,the result shows that in-plane bending stiffness of X branch pipe mainly depends on the width ratio of X branch to main tubular and width-thickness ratio of the main tubular.

  15. 高校构建学习型学生党支部长效机制的着力点%The Exerting Point of Long - term Mechanism to Construct College Students' Learning Type Party Branch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽琳

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the learning type students party branches is the important part of strengthening the party building in colleges under the new situation, which has important practical significance for strengthening the building of the student party branch, and promoting the healthy growth of the young student Party members. Strengthening awareness of learning,paying attention to he level of learning, innovating the forms of learning, improving the learning mechanism is the key to building the learning type students party branches in colleges.%建设学习型学生党支部是新形势下加强高校党建工作的重要内容,对于加强学生党支部自身建设、促进青年学生党员的健康成长具有重要的现实意义。强化学习意识、注重学习层次,创新学习方式,健全保障制度,是高校建设学习型学生党支部的关键所在。

  16. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  17. HAARP-Induced Ionospheric Ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents observations of the plasma density perturbations caused by the HF-heating of the ionosphere by the HAARP facility. The low orbit satellite DEMETER was used as a diagnostic tool to measure the electron and ion temperature and density along the satellite orbit overflying close to the magnetic zenith of the HF-heater. Those observations will be then checked against the theoretical model of duct formation due to HF-heating of the ionosphere. The model is based on the modified SAMI2 code, and is validated by comparison with well documented experiments.

  18. Preventive maintenance plan of the air-conditioning duct using the ACM-sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-conditioning duct is difficult to predict the date to occur of corrosion such as affect the function. Therefore, the current conservation method is mostly corrective maintenance. Therefore, we used the test pieces of six types and ACM-sensor in order to solve the corrosion speed from corrosion environment and relationship of corrosion quantity of test pieces. In addition, was used the duct molded articles various in order to check the corrosion degree of when processed the duct. As a result, we were selected crust body constituting a duct and optimal combination of the flange by solve the corrosion speed of the test pieces various. Thus, it performs preventive disposal before to occur of corrosion such as affect the function by predicting the duct life from corrosion speed, and lead to stability and safe operating by appropriate maintenance of equipment. (author)

  19. Formation of artificial ionospheric ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Milikh, G. M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shroff, H; Chang, C. L.; Wallace, T; E. V. Mishin; Parrot, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    International audience It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents the first experimental evidence of plasma modifications associated with ion outflows due to HF heating. The experiments were conducted using the HAARP heater during t...

  20. Small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis without inflammatory bowel disease is genetically different from large duct disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Sigrid; Björnsson, Einar; Anmarkrud, Jarl A.; Al Mamari, Said; Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Chapman, Roger; Bergquist, Annika; Melum, Espen; Marsh, Steven G. E.; Schrumpf, Erik; Lie, Benedicte A.; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Karlsen, Tom H.; Hov, Johannes R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is phenotypically a mild version of large duct PSC, but it is unknown whether these phenotypes share aetiology. We aimed to characterize their relationship by investigating genetic associations in the HLA complex, which represent the strongest genetic risk factors in large duct PSC. Methods Four classical HLA loci (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1) were genotyped in 87 small duct PSC patients, 485 large duct PSC patients and 1117 controls across three geographical regions. Results HLA-DRB1*13:01 (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.4, P=0.01) and HLA-B*08 (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.4, P=0.02) were significantly associated with small duct PSC compared with healthy controls. Based on the observed frequency of HLA-B*08 in small duct PSC, the strongest risk factor in large duct PSC, an estimated 32% (95% CI 4%–65%) of this population can be hypothesized to represent early stages or mild variants of large duct PSC. This subgroup may be constituted by small duct PSC patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which greatly resembled large duct PSC in its HLA association. In contrast, small duct PSC without IBD was only associated with HLA-DRB1*13:01(P=0.03) and was otherwise distinctly dissimilar from large duct PSC. Conclusions Small duct PSC with IBD resembles large duct PSC in its HLA association and may represent early stages or mild variants of large duct disease. Different HLA associations in small duct PSC without IBD could indicate that this subgroup is a different entity. HLA-DRB1*13:01 may represent a specific risk factor for inflammatory bile duct disease. PMID:24517468

  1. Alumina Ceramics Vacuum Duct for the 3GeV-RCS of the J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsho, Michikazu; Ogiwara, Norio; Saito, Yoshio

    2005-01-01

    It was success to develop alumina ceramics vacuum ducts for the 3GeV-RCS of J-PARC at JAERI. There are two types of alumina ceramics vacuum ducts needed, one being 1.5m-long duct with a circular cross section for use in the quadrupole magnet, the other being 3.5m-long and bending 15 degrees, with a race-track cross section for use in the dipole magnet. These ducts could be manufactured by joining several duct segments of 0.5-0.8 m in length by brazing. The alumina ceramics ducts have copper stripes on the outside surface of the ducts to reduce the duct impedance. One of the ends of each stripe is connected to a titanium flange by way of a capacitor so to interrupt an eddy current circuit. The copper stripes are produced by an electroforming method in which a stripe pattern formed by Mo-Mn metallization is first sintered on the exterior surface and then overlaid by PR-electroformed copper (Periodic current Reversal electroforming method). In order to reduce emission of secondary electrons when protons or elect...

  2. The evaluation of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction by dacryoscintigraphy: comparison with operative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Dacryoscintigraphy is a valuable diagnostic method used in anatomic obstructions and functional disorders of the lacrimal system that cause epiphora. We assessed quantitative analysis and operative results in accordance with patterns of dacryoscintigraphy in functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction (FNDO). Methods: We studied 25 cases of 19 patients (age: 44-80 years, mean age: 54.6 years) with epiphora, increasing tear meniscus and didn't obstructed of nasolacrimal duct by syringing. These have not history of nasolacrimal duct disease, conjunctivitis and keratitis. The patient was seated in front of a gamma camera and on drop (50 μl) of Tc-99m-pertechnetate containing 50 to 100 μCi, radioactivity was instilled in the outer canthus of the eye. The dynamic images were obtained for 15 second/1 frame, total 20 frames (5 minute). Image findings were classified three types; 1, distal portion of nasolacrimal duct; 2, proximal portion of nasolacrimal duct; 3, pre-lacrimal sac. We performed silicone tube intubation and punctoplasty. Results: All 8 cases of Type l were good prognosis. 6 cases of Type 2 were good prognosis. But, 2 cases of Type 2 were poor prognosis. 6 cases of Type 3 were poor prognosis, finally dacryocystorhinostomy was performed. 3 cases of Type 3 were good prognosis. Conclusion: Dacryoscintigraphy is especially useful for displaying lacrimal system blockade caused by functional disturbances. Moreover, dacryoscintigraphy has been used to evaluate of operative results in accordance with.scintigraphic patterns of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction. (authors)

  3. Successful laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection preserving the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery for advanced gastric cancer with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hironobu; Yasuda, Takashi; Oshikiri, Taro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Hironori; Oyama, Masato; Kakinoki, Keitaro; Ohara, Tadayuki; Sendo, Hiroyoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tominaga, Masahiro; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of successful laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection preserving the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery for advanced gastric cancer with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly. A 76-year-old female patient was admitted with a diagnosis of advanced gastric cancer at the anterior wall to the lesser curvature of the antrum (cT3N0M0 cStage IIA). Dynamic computed tomography showed the ectopia of the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery. We made a diagnosis of an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly and performed the abovementioned operation. In this anomaly pattern, scrupulous attention is required to remove the suprapancreatic lymph nodes because the portal vein is located immediately dorsal to those lymph nodes and is at increased risk for the injury in this situation. The common hepatic artery is branched from the left gastric artery, and the hepatic perfusion from the superior mesenteric artery is not present in group 26. Planning to preserve the artery will improve safety when it is possible oncologically. There were no postoperative complications, and the patient was discharged 9 days after the operation. To our knowledge, the present case is the first reported case of a laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly. Preoperative diagnostic imaging is very important to prevent surgical complications because the reliable identification of vascular anomaly during an operation is very difficult. PMID:27259578

  4. Pancreatoduodenectomy for bile duct and ampullary cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy has become a standard operation for distal and middle bile duct cancers. Bile duct cancer typically extends longitudinally and invades vertically. It frequently metastasizes to the lymph nodes and infiltrates the perineural spaces. The presence of residual cancer in the bile duct stump and lymph node metastases are significant prognostic factors. Negative surgical margins and D2 lymph node dissection are necessary for curative resection. The clinical c...

  5. Methods of evaluating cleanliness of ventilation ducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 罗运有; 于丹; 甘丽斯

    2009-01-01

    A testing system for evaluating cleanliness of ventilation ducts was constructed. Comparisons of four evaluation methods for quantifying the amount of dust on the inner surface of ventilation ducts are presented. The experimental results show that the wiping by solvent method is more efficient than that by the wiping method,especially used on low cleanliness duct surface. The gravimetric tape method is an efficient method of collecting dust samples on the duct surface with low amounts of dust,particularly used to check the cleanliness level after the cleaning work. The optical method can be set up rapidly and is useful for fieldwork measurements.

  6. Traumatic injury of the thoracic duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, A E; Rossi, L; Witte, C L; Smyth, S

    2002-03-01

    Injuries to the thoracic duct are infrequent but may become life-threatening when chylous leakage persists. This report describes 6 patients with such injuries in whom the leakage resolved spontaneously in one, was corrected using microsurgical lymphatic repair or lymphatic-venous anastomosis in two, successfully treated either by ligation of the thoracic duct or insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt in two, and was eventually controlled after bilateral pleurodesis and thoracic duct ligation by insertion of a peritoneo-venous shunt in one. Conventional lymphography is superior to lymphoscintigraphy and is usually required to document disruption of the thoracic duct. PMID:11939572

  7. Type I bHLH Proteins Daughterless and Tcf4 Restrict Neurite Branching and Synapse Formation by Repressing Neurexin in Postmitotic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell D’Rozario

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Proneural proteins of the class I/II basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH family are highly conserved transcription factors. Class I bHLH proteins are expressed in a broad number of tissues during development, whereas class II bHLH protein expression is more tissue restricted. Our understanding of the function of class I/II bHLH transcription factors in both invertebrate and vertebrate neurobiology is largely focused on their function as regulators of neurogenesis. Here, we show that the class I bHLH proteins Daughterless and Tcf4 are expressed in postmitotic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and mice, respectively, where they function to restrict neurite branching and synapse formation. Our data indicate that Daughterless performs this function in part by restricting the expression of the cell adhesion molecule Neurexin. This suggests a role for these proteins outside of their established roles in neurogenesis.

  8. Magnetic fields in single late-type giants in the Solar vicinity: How common is magnetic activity on the giant branches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova-Antova, Renada; Aurière, Michel; Charbonnel, Corinne; Drake, Natalia; Wade, Gregg; Tsvetkova, Svetla; Petit, Pascal; Schröder, Klaus-Peter; Lèbre, Agnes

    2014-08-01

    We present our first results on a new sample containing all single G, K and M giants down to V = 4 mag in the Solar vicinity, suitable for spectropolarimetric (Stokes V) observations with Narval at TBL, France. For detection and measurement of the magnetic field (MF), the Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD) method was applied (Donati et al. 1997) that in the present case enables detection of large-scale MFs even weaker than the solar one (the typical precision of our longitudinal MF measurements is 0.1-0.2 G). The evolutionary status of the stars is determined on the basis of the evolutionary models with rotation (Lagarde et al. 2012; Charbonnel et al., in prep.) and fundamental parameters given by Massarotti et al. (1998). The stars appear to be in the mass range 1-4 M ⊙, situated at different evolutionary stages after the Main Sequence (MS), up to the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). The sample contains 45 stars. Up to now, 29 stars are observed (that is about 64% of the sample), each observed at least twice. For 2 stars in the Hertzsprung gap, one is definitely Zeeman detected. Only 5 G and K giants, situated mainly at the base of the Red Giant Branch (RGB) and in the He-burning phase are detected. Surprisingly, a lot of stars ascending towards the RGB tip and in early AGB phase are detected (8 of 13 observed stars). For all Zeeman detected stars v sin i is redetermined and appears in the interval 2-3 km/s, but few giants with MF possess larger v sin i.

  9. A Method for the Observation of the Primo Vascular System in the Thoracic Duct of a Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungha Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the primo vascular system (PVS has been observed in large caliber lymph vessels by several independent teams, the presence of the PVS in the thoracic duct has been reported by only one team, probably because reproducing the experiment is technically difficult. This brief report presents a new, relatively straightforward method, which is a simple modification of the previous method of dye injection into the lumbar node, to observe the PVS in a thoracic duct of a rat by injecting Alcian blue into the renal node. When this new method was applied to a rat, the branching of the primo vessel in the thoracic duct was clearly displayed. Thus, this new method is expected to extend the network of the PVS from abdominal lymph ducts to thoracic ones.

  10. Ventilation and exhaust ducts for dry storage facilities with self-heating radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage facilities are cooled by natural convection. In order to achieve this, the air inlet and outlet openings or ducts for the PWR and BWR fuel store are arranged at the level of the roof structure. There are two types of air inlet openings arranged on top and on the sides respectively but having got common inlet ducts. Air supply is improved by means of baffle noses, baffle edges, and baffle plates. The exhaust air ducts terminate near the roof structure, the openings having got dropping edges, protective sills and separating plates. (orig./PW)

  11. Creep of welded branched pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Creep failure of welds in high-temperature power plant steam piping systems is known to be a potential cause of plant failure. Creep behaviour of plain pipes with circumferential welds and cross-weld specimens have received fairly extensive attention. However, research into the creep behaviour of welded thick-walled branched steam pipes has received less attention. Consequently, this thesis addresses improving the understanding of the creep behaviour for this type of geometry. Numerical and a...

  12. Numerical Simulation of Multiplicity and Stability of Mixed Convection in Rotating Curved Ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liqiu; YANG Tianliang

    2005-01-01

    A numerical study is made on the fully developed bifurcation structure and stability of the mixed convection in rotating curved ducts of square cross-section with the emphasis on the effect of buoyancy force. The rotation can be positive or negative. The fluid can be heated or cooled. The study reveals the rich solution and flow structures and complicated stability features. One symmetric and two symmetric/asymmetric solution branches are found with seventy five limit points and fourteen bifu...

  13. Numerical simulation of multiplicity and stability of mixed convection in rotating curved ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Liqiu; Yang Tianliang

    2005-01-01

    A numerical study is made on the fully developed bifurcation structure and stability of the mixed convection in rotating curved ducts of square cross-section with the emphasis on the effect of buoyancy force. The rotation can be positive or negative. The fluid can be heated or cooled. The study reveals the rich solution and flow structures and complicated stability features. One symmetric and two symmetric/asymmetric solution branches are found with seventy five limit points and fourteen bifu...

  14. Measure Guideline: Sealing and Insulating of Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Puttagunta, S.

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  15. Measure Guideline. Sealing and Insulating Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  16. Acoustic image typing of thyroglossal duct cyst by high frequency ultrasonography and its diagnosis value%高频超声对甲状舌管囊肿的分型及诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶琴; 林礼务; 薛恩生; 林学英; 何以敉; 吴丽足; 梁荣喜

    2009-01-01

    Objective To probe the clinical diagnosis value of high frequency ultrasonography (HFUS) in thyroglossal duct cyst(TDC). Methods Forty-one TDC were taken HFUS and the location, boundary,shape,interal echo of lesions and the relation to hyoid bone were observed. The periphery and internal blood flow signal were detected by color Doppler flow imaging. The results of HFUS were compared with those of pathology after operation. The cases were divided into groups according to pathological types and were compared with acoustic image shows. Results All cases were diagnosed TDC by pathology after operation. Internal walls of 9 TDC consist of cilium columnar epithelium, 19 consist of stratified pavement epithelium and 13 consist of this two epitheliums. HFUS showed different pathological types had different ultrasonic appearances. In this study, 77.8%(7/9) TDC with columnar epithelium showed echoless,84.2 (16/19) TDC with pavement epithelium showed similar solid echopattern and TDC with two epitheliums mainly showed similar solid echopattern and multi-room cyst. Hyperechogenicity of hyoid bone displayed around the lesion in 80.5%(33/41)TDC. No blood flow signal showed in 41 TDC and a little punctiform blood flow signal showed in the periphery of 5 TDC. The diagnose accordance rate of HFUS in TDC was 95.1%(39/41). Conclusions HFUS can clearly show the location, boundary, shape,interal echo of TDC and its relation to hyoid bone. HFUS is important for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of TDC.%目的 探讨高频超声检查对甲状舌管囊肿(TDC)的临床诊断价值.方法 应用高频超声检查41例TDC,观察病变的位置、边界、形态、内部回声及其与舌骨的关系,并应用彩色多普勒血流显像观察肿物边缘与内部的血流信号.超声检查结果 与手术病理诊断对照,将所有资料按照病理类型分组并分别与声像图表现对比.结果 全部病例均经手术病理证实为TDC,其中9例TDC内衬纤毛柱状上皮,19

  17. Current perspective in the treatment of bile duct injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jos and eacute; Granados-Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered the gold standard for the treatment of benign gallbladder disease, which is associated with an increased incidence of biliary injuries. These types of injuries are multicausal, and anatomical variations or anatomical perception errors are the most common risk factors. The objective of this study is to describe the evolution in the management of bile duct injuries and actual, diagnostic tools, incidence, prognosis and treatment. A literature research about diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic bile duct injuries as well as their impact on the incidence of morbidity and mortality, based on a 30-year period, was performed on Medline, Cochrane, Embase, MedScape and PubMed database, for all studies that met the eligibility criteria. A thorough quality assessment of all included studies was performed. Synthesis of the results was achieved by narrative review. The bile duct injury is a complication that requires a complex therapy and multidisciplinary management. Reconstruction and treatment techniques have been evolving. The selection of adequate treatment will impact on the patient and acute;s quality of life. The results of the existing studies reporting on iatrogenic bile duct injuries are useful; because the iatrogenic bile duct injuries are complex alterations and constitute one of the most serious complications of a cholecystectomy and require a comprehensive approach, immediate repair, proper drainage and timely referral to adequate treatment to improve long-term prognosis. According to the literature review, currently there better treatments such as absorbable prosthesis, which improve the prognosis and patient and acute;s quality of life, and represent less risk of complications in short/long term. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 677-684

  18. Magnetic fields in single late-type giants in the Solar vicinity: How common is magnetic activity on the giant branches?

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantinova-Antova, R; Charbonnel, C; Drake, N A; Wade, G; Tsvetkova, S; Petit, P; Schröder, K -P; Lèbre, A

    2013-01-01

    We present our first results on a new sample containing all single G,K and M giants down to V = 4 mag in the Solar vicinity, suitable for spectropolarimetric (Stokes V) observations with Narval at TBL, France. For detection and measurement of the magnetic field (MF), the Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD) method was applied (Donati et al. 1997) that in the present case enables detection of large-scale MFs even weaker than the solar one (the typical precision of our longitudinal MF measurements is 0.1-0.2 G). The evolutionary status of the stars is determined on the basis of the evolutionary models with rotation (Lagarde et al. 2012; Charbonnel et al., in prep.) and fundamental parameters given by Massarotti et al. (1998). The stars appear to be in the mass range 1-4 M_sun, situated at different evolutionary stages after the Main Sequence (MS), up to the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). The sample contains 45 stars. Up to now, 29 stars are observed (that is about 64 % of the sample), each observed at least twice....

  19. Iatrogenic bile duct injuries – clinical problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Głuszek Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in surgical wards. Iatrogenic bile duct injuries (IBDI incurred during the procedures are among postoperative complications that are most difficult to treat. The risk of bile duct injury is 0.2-0.4%, and their consequences are unpleasant both for the surgeon and for the patient.

  20. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Menshykau

    Full Text Available Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation. While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10 and sonic hedgehog (SHH as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc. We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes.

  1. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  2. Duct leakage impacts on VAV system performance in California large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variability of duct leakage impacts on air distribution system performance for typical large commercial buildings in California. Specifically, a hybrid DOE-2/TRNSYS sequential simulation approach was used to model the energy use of a low-pressure terminal-reheat variable-air-volume (VAV) HVAC system with six duct leakage configurations (tight to leaky) in nine prototypical large office buildings (representing three construction eras in three California climates where these types of buildings are common). Combined fan power for the variable-speed-controlled supply and return fans at design conditions was assumed to be 0.8 W/cfm. Based on our analyses of the 54 simulation cases, the increase in annual fan energy is estimated to be 40 to 50% for a system with a total leakage of 19% at design conditions compared to a tight system with 5% leakage. Annual cooling plant energy also increases by about 7 to 10%, but reheat energy decreases (about 3 to 10%). In combination, the increase in total annual HVAC site energy is 2 to 14%. The total HVAC site energy use includes supply and return fan electricity consumption, chiller and cooling tower electricity consumption, boiler electricity consumption, and boiler natural gas consumption. Using year 2000 average commercial sector energy prices for California ($0.0986/kWh and $7.71/Million Btu), the energy increases result in 9 to 18% ($7,400 to $9,500) increases in HVAC system annual operating costs. Normalized by duct surface area, the increases in annual operating costs are 0.14 to 0.18 $/ft{sup 2}. Using a suggested one-time duct sealing cost of $0.20 per square foot of duct surface area, these results indicate that sealing leaky ducts in VAV systems has a simple payback period of about 1.3 years. Even with total leakage rates as low as 10%, duct sealing is still cost effective. This suggests that duct sealing should be considered at least for VAV systems with 10% or more total duct

  3. Attenuation of neutrons through ducts and labyrinths

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Egidio

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for the attenuation of neutron radiation produced at proton accelerators through ducts and labyrinths of various design, and the results are compared with the predictions made by analytical expressions available in the literature. The results show that the so-called universal transmission curves are an appropriate and simple tool applicable in many situations, when the radiation source is not in direct view of the duct mouth. This is not the case for point sources located in front of the duct. The simulations showed that it is not possible to apply the same models because the transmission factor is strongly dependent on the cross-sectional area of the duct. A universal expression has been derived to estimate the neutron transmission through a straight duct of length d and cross-sectional area A in direct view of the source, which only depends on A and on a small set of numerical coefficients.

  4. [Geometry and algebra of branches of the middle cerebral artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkov, S M

    1986-01-01

    A classification of the cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is suggested by means of which each branch in any hemisphere can be qualified and identified in any variant of MCA branching. The principle of the classification consists in grouping the branches into arteries and trunks of the second, third, etc. order. Branches supplying blood to a certain sector of the lateral surface of the hemisphere are designated arteries. Their number and zone of branching are constant. Branches giving rise to 2 and more arteries are named trunks. Branching of the trunks, the number of trunks of the second, third, etc. order, and the site and type of origin of the arteries are extremely variable. Each trunk can be designated by a formula stating its order and the name of the artery supplied by this trunk. The arrangement of the MCA branches on the surface of the gyri and deep in the sulci, represented on the map of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, is designated conditionally as geometry of MCA branches. The order of branching of the trunks and the type of origin of the arteries, represented on abstract maps of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, are designated conditionally as algebra of the MCA branches. The variability of the geometry and algebra of the MCA branches must be taken into consideration in operations for extra-intracranial microanastomosis and in endovasal intervention on the MCA. PMID:3811741

  5. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of thyroglossal duct carcinoma: Report of three cases with review of literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhipeng SUN; Chuanbin GUO; Guangyan YU; Yi ZHAN; Yan CHEN; Yan GAO

    2008-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct carcinoma, which is usually diagnosed postoperatively, is a rare malignant tumor arising in the thyroglossal duct cyst. The definitive diag-nosis can be made only after microscopic examination. We retrospectively reviewed three cases of thyroglossal duct carcinoma diagnosed in Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from January 1986 to August 2006. Clinical and pathological features were investigated and the optimal treatment protocol was proposed. The constituent ratio of thyroglossal duct car-cinoma among surgically excised thyroglossal duct lesions was 2.9%. The clinical presentation of thyroglos-sal duct carcinoma was very similar to that of its benign counterpart. Two cases were diagnosed as thyroglossal duct cyst prior to the operation, the remaining one as dermoid cyst. All three cases were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of thyroid origin after microscopic examina-tion. Primary thyroglossal duct carcinoma should con-form to the following criteria: localization of the carcinoma to a clearly demonstrable thyroglossal duct cyst or tract; clinically or histologically confirmed absence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Papillary carcinoma is the most common histological type, which usually develops slowly with an excellent Prognosis. The histological characteristics including: formation of pap-illary structure; nuclear morphological variations such as ground glass nuclei, pseudoinclusions, intranuclear grooves and filaments; concentrically calcified struc-tures termed psammoma bodies which is regarded as a strong indication of papillary carcinoma; and positiv-ity in immunohistological staining for thyroglobin. Sistrunk procedure of excision is the choice for treat-ment. A close follow-up is needed. In the presence of thyroid gland masses or cervical lymphadenopathy, thyroidectomy or neck dissection should be recom-mended. The effect of thyroid suppression therapy and radioactive iodine therapy is not conclusive.

  7. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  8. The Olive Branch Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  9. Koenigs function and branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tchikilev, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  10. Clinical significance of main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography: Single and double duct dilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark D Edge; Maarouf Hoteit; Amil P Patel; Xiaoping Wang; Deborah A Baumgarten; Qiang Cai

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography (CT) and thereby to provide the predictive criteria to identify patients at high risk of significant diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, and to avoid unnecessary work up for patients at low risk of such diseases.METHODS: Patients with dilation of the main pancreatic duct on CT at Emory University Hospital in 2002 were identified by computer search. Clinical course and ultimate diagnosis were obtained in all the identified patients by abstraction of their computer database records.RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were identified in this study. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer were the most common causes of the main pancreatic duct dilation on CT. Although the majority of patients with isolated dilation of the main pancreatic duct (single duct dilation) had chronic pancreatitis, one-third of patients with single duct dilation but without chronic pancreatitis had pancreatic malignancies, whereas most of patients with concomitant biliary duct dilation (double duct dilation) had pancreatic cancer.CONCLUSION: Patients with pancreatic double duct dilation need extensive work up and careful follow up since a majority of these patients are ultimately diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Patients with single duct dilation, especially such patients without any evidence of chronic pancreatitis, also need careful follow-up since the possibility of pancreatic malignancy, including adenocarcinoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumors, is still high.

  11. Fiber-Optic Communication Technology Branching Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. C.

    1985-02-01

    This tutorial review of fiber-optic branching devices covers example uses of branching devices, device types, device-performance characteristics, examples of current technology, and system-design methodology. The discussion is limited to passive single- and multimode devices fabricated from optical fibers or graded-index components. Integrated-optic, wavelength-division-multiplexing, and polarization-selective devices are not specifically addressed.

  12. Bile Duct Adenoma with Oncocytic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Johannesen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile duct adenomas are benign bile duct proliferations usually encountered as an incidental finding. Oncocytic bile duct neoplasms are rare and the majority are malignant. A 61-year-old male with a diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma was undergoing surgery when a small white nodule was discovered on the surface of the right lobe of his liver. This lesion was composed of cytologically bland cells arranged in tightly packed glands. These cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin 7, negative for Hep Par 1, contained mucin, and had a Ki67 proliferation index of 8%. The morphology, immunophenotype, presence of mucin, and normal appearing bile ducts, as well as the increased Ki67 proliferation rate, were consistent with a bile duct adenoma with oxyphilic (oncocytic change. Oncocytic tumors in the liver are rare; the first described in 1992. Only two bile duct adenomas with oncocytic change have been reported and neither of them had reported mucin production or the presence of normal appearing bile ducts within the lesion.

  13. THE ACTUALLY PRINCIPLES IN THE TREATMENT OF BILIARY OBSTRUCTION FROM EXTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTS CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vasilescu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The most common type of extrahepatic bile ducts cancer is the proximal segment which include the bifurcation of common hepatic duct (Klatskin’s tumors. The diagnosis of these kinds of tumors is always challenging. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP is the best imagistic procedure also for diagnosis and for staging. Surgical resection provides the best chance for cure in patients with biliary malignancy; unfortunately only 30% from patients with Klatskin’s tumors are diagnosed in resectable stages. The type and extension of the resection depends of the tumor stage and site. Resection of the biliary duct associated with hepatectomy and/or pancreaticoduodenectomy (performed especially for limphadenectomy has good results, from point of view of disease-free survival. In selected cases, the extrahepatic bile duct resection alone and hepatico-jejunal anastomosis is also considered as curative resection. Portal vein resection may be performed and can improve the prognosis. Palliative procedures of nonresectable bile ducts cancer consist in surgical by-pass, percutaneous biliary drainage and endoscopic endoprosthesis. Because long-term relief of jaundice is difficult without using biliary stenting, a combination of radiation therapy and stent placement is commonly used. As radiation therapy, external-beam radiotherapy is usually performed, but combined use of intraluminal brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy is more useful for making the treatment more effective. Radiation therapy can be associated with chemotherapy (gemcitabine in unresectable bile duct cancer to extend survival and improve quality of life.

  14. CuO/ Water Nano fluid Heat Transfer Through Triangular Ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper laminar flow forced convective heat transfer of CuO/water nano fluid in a triangular duct under constant wall temperature condition is investigated numerically. Sometimes, because of pressure drop limitations the need for noncircular ducts arises in many heat transfer applications. We used nano fluid instead of pure fluid because of its potential to increase heat transfer of system. In this paper, the effect of parameters such as nanoparticles diameter, nanoparticles concentration, type of nanoparticles and heat transfer comparison between nano fluid and pure fluid is studied. Comparison of convective heat transfer of nano fluid in isosceles triangular ducts with various apex angles is also presented. In this study, for the presence of nanoparticles, the dispersion model and for solving differential equations, the finite difference method is used. Numerical results indicate an enhancement of heat transfer of fluid with changing to the suspension of nanometer-sized particles in the triangular duct. Results also defined that equilateral triangular duct has a maximum heat transfer in comparison with other types of isosceles triangular duct.

  15. Evaluation of allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections is estimated by evaluation procedure for straight pipe, the applicability of this procedure has not been clear. That was discussed in this study. The buckling pressure of branch pipe connections was estimated by linear eigenvalue analysis with FEA (Finite Element Analysis). The types of branch pipe connections were T-joints and T-pipes. The ranges of configurations in branch pipe connections for FEA were determined by survey of branch pipe connections in the Japanese nuclear power plants. The results of the FEA showed that the buckling strength of branch pipe was found sufficiently to be superior to that of straight piping from comparisons of estimations by FEA for branch pipe connections and those by formula for straight pipe in the design code. It was concluded that the formula for straight pipe is applicable for the evaluation of allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections. (author)

  16. Duct Remediation Program: Remediation operations and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, T.d.; Davis, M.M.; Karas, T.M.

    1992-11-01

    Plutonium holdup material has accumulated in the process ventilation duct systems at Rocky Flats. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements identified ducts containing this material. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board and the Department of Energy established the criteria for remediation of these ducts. A remediation team was assembled and a program plan created. This program plan included activities such as fissile material accumulation identification, criticality safety assessments, radiation dose determinations, facility safety evaluations, prevention of future accumulation, and removal of holdup material. Several operational considerations had to be evaluated in determining completion of remediation.

  17. Duct Remediation Program: Remediation operations and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium holdup material has accumulated in the process ventilation duct systems at Rocky Flats. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements identified ducts containing this material. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board and the Department of Energy established the criteria for remediation of these ducts. A remediation team was assembled and a program plan created. This program plan included activities such as fissile material accumulation identification, criticality safety assessments, radiation dose determinations, facility safety evaluations, prevention of future accumulation, and removal of holdup material. Several operational considerations had to be evaluated in determining completion of remediation

  18. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtai

  19. The first case of pediatric bile duct adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Li; Xiaoyi Sun; Jiexiong Feng

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic bile duct adenoma (BDA) is a rare benign epithelial liver tumor derived from bile duct cells. We report the first case of pediatric bile duct adenoma in the world. Furthermore, we review the diagnosis, pathology, treatment and prognosis of bile duct adenoma.

  20. [Isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbia, S; Pagola, J; Flaster, N; Guida, A; Jufe, L; González, B; Caniparoli, A

    1995-01-01

    The neurogenic tumors in the biliary tract are rare and usually are amputation neuroma that occur after cholecystectomy. We describe a case of isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct in a young man not cholecystectomized. The patient suffered recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss without clinical signs of Von Recklinghausen's disease or jaundice. The hepatogram was normal. The echography indicated a solid formation with obstruction of the proximal common bile duct. In the ERCP the stenosis was found. Surgical excision of the tumor and anastomosis of bilateral hepatic ducts and jejunum were carried out. At microscopic examination intraparietal neurofibroma of the common bile duct was found. As isolated entity, we know of only one reported case. PMID:8731581

  1. Pipe crawler development for duct elbow removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of equipment for removing an elbow in a 36 inch diameter ventilation line by cutting from the inside. Radiation levels, high air flow and physical constraints preclude any manual rework of the ventilation system. A remotely operated pipe crawler was developed. Testing has been performed in a full-scale mockup which models the ventilation duct configuration with the exception of radiation levels. The results gathered from the testing are discussed, and illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the crawler and plasma arc torch system. To date, the equipment has successfully completed the tasks of maneuvering through the duct geometry, performing the two required cuts, and backing out of the duct mockup. The elbow successfully fell away from the main duct, showing that the line would be clear of obstructions

  2. Investigation of heat transfer in porous duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athani, Abdulgaphur; Khan, T. M. Yunus

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of heat transfer in a square porous duct is carried out. The porous medium is sandwiched between inner and outer surface of a square duct. The flow is assumed to follow the Darcy law. The governing momentum and energy equations are non-dimensionalised and then converted to algebraic form of equations using finite element method. Galerkin method is used to transform the partial differential equations into simpler algebraic equations then solved in a iterative manner to arrive at the solution. The results are presented with respect to various geometric and physical parameters such as depth of porous medium, Rayleigh number etc. It is found that the isotherms and the streamlines take symmetrical position along the vertical central line of square duct. The isotherms are penetrated into deeper area at upper half of duct as compared to lower half.

  3. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  4. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in extrahepatic bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seok Tae; Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Woon Hyuck; Lee, Chang Hong [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Obstructive jaundice due to hepatocellular carcinoma in an extrahepatic bile duct, without a mass lesion in the liver parenchyma, is extremely rare. We experienced two cases of primary hepatocellular carcinoma arising from an extrahepatic bile duct: one in a 53-year-old man whose {alpha} -fetoprotein value was 800 ng/ml, and another in a 39-year-old woman, in whom the mass lesion was found to be attached to an extrahepatic bile duct. These tumors had a well-marginated sausage-like shape on CT and US, and the contrast media passed freely along their margins on both PTC and ERCP. Recurrences of these tumors were observed in the extrahepatic bile duct 6 and 2 months after surgery, respectively.

  5. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A.; Patel, Neal; Darge, Kassa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rambhatla, Siri J. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States); Sreedharan, Ram R. [University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  6. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  7. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...

  8. Evaporation duct communication: Test plan, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. D.; Rogers, L. T.

    1991-11-01

    This document is a continuation and expansion of an earlier study that examines the feasibility of using the evaporation duct to support an alternative high-speed communication system for Navy applications. This Evaporation Duct Communication (EDCOM) experiment is a unique opportunity to evaluate another communication channel that can alleviate Navy ship-to-ship communication problems. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to proceed with this measurement program.

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of intrahepatic bile duct stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Suk; Na, Hae Kyung; Yoon, Chong Hyun [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    The intrahepatic duct stones are prevalent in East Asia and pose serious health problem because of the frequent recurrence and often associated suppurative cholangitis. Accurate diagnosis and localization of intrahepatic duct stones are essential to good prognosis and selection of adequate therapeutic method. We studied 112 cases of intrahepatic duct stones diagnosed with ultrasound and confirmed by operation or other radiologic studies for recent 3 years from May 1986 to May 1989 at Department Of Radiology, National Medical Center, and analysed ultrasonographic findings. The results were as follows: 1. Among 112 cases, 73 (65%) were female, 39 (35%) were male with predominancy in 5th decade. 2. The most common location of intrahepatic duct stones was left intrahepatic duct in 48 cases (43%), followed by right intrahepatic duct in 42 cases (37.5%) and both intrahepatic ducts in 22 cases (19.5%). In respect of segmental distribution, left lateral segment is the most common location (53 cases, 34%), followed by right posterior segment (43 cases, 27%). 3. Ultrasonographic findings were as follows: Nodular pattern is the most common (59 cases, 53%), followed by tubular or linear impacted pattern (23 cases, 20%), irregular heterogenous conglomerated mass (13 cases, 12%), smooth homogenous single mass (10 cases, 9%) and mixed (7 cases, 6%) in orders. Ductal dilatations were classified by diffuse dilatation (16 cases, 14%), localized dilatation (50 case, 45%) and no dilatation (46 cases, 41%). Many of the tubular impacted stones showed no ductal dilatation and single mass showed ductal dilatations in all cases. 4. In 53 cases (47%), combined extrahepatic duct stones were present. 5. As associated findings, liver cirrhosis in 11 cases (10%), cholangitis in 9 cases (8%), cholecystitis in 7 cases (6%), hepatic and pericholangitic abscess in 3 cases(3%) and CBD cancer, GB cancer, acute pancreatitis in 2 cases (2%) respectively.

  10. Palliative irradiation of the bile ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutzner, J.; Klose, K.; Keller, E.

    1985-11-01

    Carcinoma of the common hepatic bile duct or common bile duct were treated by interstitial irradiation with gold seeds using the percutaneous transhepatic drainage partly boosted by external irradiation. The interstitial dose of 50 Gy was given in two applications and 40 Gy by linac. Twice histological examination showed wide tumor destruction of local irradiation, but also much more tumor extension than seen before by diagnostic investigation. Mostly the therapy is only palliative because of the infiltration of liver and lymphnodes. (orig.).

  11. Radiotherapy of bile duct carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six patients with cholangiocarcinoma and nineteen patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder treated with external radiotherapy were analyzed. Of the twenty-six patients, eighteen had cancer of the hepatic hilus (Klatskin), four intrahepatic and the remaining four extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. All but two of the patients had advanced disease. Thirty-three patients received primary irradiation for unresectable tumors, ten patients adjuvant irradiation after non-curative gross tumor resection, and two patients preoperative radiotherapy. Patients with cholangiocarcinoma who underwent radiotherapy with relatively small radiation field tolerated the treatment well, but there was no significant difference in survival according to field size or radiation doses (TDF). On the other hand, patients with carcinoma of gallbladder were treated with larger field size and lower dose. In the patients without gross tumor resection, those receiving radiation doses≥90 TDF had significantly longer survival than 2) had longer survival (p=0.07). The patients with gross tumor resection had significantly longer survival than that without resection in both cholangiocarcinoma and carcinoma of gallbladder. Postmortem examination revealed tumor recurrence even in the patients with gross tumor resection, but widespread distant metastases were present simultaneously. Cholangitis and liver abscess were special and lethal conditions related to these carcinomas, and intensive therapy must be developed for these conditions. External radiotherapy may be effective in the treatment of bile duct carcinoma in terms of palliation and survival. (author)

  12. Effect of pipe shapes on penetration length in a closed straight branch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch pipes which are closed during normal reactor operation are connected to main flow pipes in a nuclear power plant for coolant drain or for safety injection systems. The main flow initiates cavity flow in a branch pipe, and hot water penetrates into the branch pipe forming swirl flow and makes a thermal stratified layer between this spiral flow and stagnant cold water. It has been reported that large temperature fluctuation causes thermal fatigue when the penetration fluctuates. To enhance the estimation of the penetration length, the penetration length in the uniform temperature condition was measured in this study. The three cases of experiment are compared to the base case which uses a simple duct main pipe and a branch pipe: a chamfered edge branch pipe, a branch pipe witha joint gap and a rounded main pipe at the corner which imitates a circular main pipe. The penetration length results of the chamfered edge case were smaller about 1 branch pipe diameter than the simple duct results (i.e. base case). The results of joint gap case and the rounded main pipe case did not show any effect on the penetration length. (author)

  13. Fully developed magnetohydrodynamic flows in rectangular ducts with insulating walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part the effect of magnetic field inclination on the flow structure and the pressure drop is considered. The duct walls are insulating. An asymptotic solution to the problem at high Hartmann numbers is obtained. The results show that for a square duct the increase of the pressure gradient due to the field inclination is negligible (less than 10% for any angle). For blanket relevant values of inclination of up to 10 the deviation of the velocity profile from the slug profile is insignificant. The second part studies the flow in a duct with insulating walls parallel to the magnetic field, while the Hartmann walls are covered by an insulating coating. A new type of the boundary condition is derived, which takes into account finite coating resistance. The effect of the latter on the flow characteristics is studied. An exact solution to the problem is obtained and several approximate formulas for the pressure drop at high Hartmann numbers are presented. (orig./HP)

  14. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Gu, Lixing [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  15. Double common bile duct: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srdjan P Djuranovic; Milenko B Ugljesic; Nenad S Mijalkovic; Viktorija A Korneti; Nada V Kovacevic; Tamara M Alempijevic; Slaven V Radulovic; Dragan V Tomic; Milan M Spuran

    2007-01-01

    Double common bile duct (DCBD) is a rare congenital anomaly in which two common bile ducts exist. One usually has normal drainage into the papilla duodeni major and the other usually named accessory common bile duct (ACBD) opens in different parts of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach, duodenum, ductus pancreaticus or septum). This anomaly is of great importance since it is often associated with biliary lithiasis, choledochal cyst, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ) and upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. We recently recognized a rare case of DCBD associated with APBJ with lithiasis in better developed common bile duct. The opening site of ACBD was in the pancreatic duct. The anomaly was suspected by transabdominal ultrasonography and finally confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction. According to the literature, the existence of DCBD with the opening of ACBD in the pancreatic duct is most frequently associated with APBJ and gallbladder carcinoma. In case of DCBD, the opening site of ACBD is of greatest clinical importance because of its close implications with concomitant pathology. The adequate diagnosis of this rare anomaly is significant since the operative complications may occur in cases with DCBD which is not recognized prior to surgical treatment.

  16. Computed tomography and the dilated pancreatic duct: An ominous sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer Gold, R.; Seaman, W.B.

    1981-01-15

    The main pancreatic duct has been visualized with both ultrasound and computed tomography. A normal pancreatic duct has been reported using CT, and controversy persists over whether a normal duct can be routinely imaged with ultrasound. The dilated pancreatic duct has always been associated with disease - usually pancreatitis or a proximal obstructing pancreatic carcinoma. In the patient with no clinical history or laboratory data suggesting pancreatitis, a dilated pancreatic duct implies a proximal tumor.

  17. Mirizzi syndrome with an unusual aberrant hepatic duct fistula: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Xing, Yufei; Gao, Quangen; Lv, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Jianmao

    2016-01-01

    Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is a rare complication of chronic cholelithiasis, which is always caused by a calculus in the cystic duct or neck of the gallbladder, resulting in mechanical compression of common bile duct and the gallbladder. It is clinically characterized by abdominal pain, fever, as well as obstructive jaundice. During cholecystectomy, MS is seen as a dangerous adherent and inflammatory tissue in the area of Calot's triangle. In the general population, aberrant right posterior hepatic duct, one of the causes of bile duct injury during duct surgery, is present in 4.8%-8.4% of people. Herein we report a rare case of a 76-year-old female patient, with hepatolithiasis of right posterior lobe and cholecysto-aberrant right posterior hepatic duct fistula. This is a special type of MS; however, interestingly, she did not have any symptoms, and the disease was found by physical examination incidentally. This case highlights another situation, namely, there may be difficulty in diagnosing MS and dissecting for operation. Therefore, to avoid the complication associated with this special situation, the surgeons need to diagnose carefully and adopt an optimal treatment strategy. PMID:27445508

  18. Allograft Pancreatic Duct Dilatation Following Bladder Drained Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation: Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciancio G

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Radiologic imaging of the allograft pancreatic duct dilatation is an uncommon multifactorial finding that is not well described. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the clinical correlation of this finding. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University Hospital, USA. SUBJECTS: One hundred forty five simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants have been performed for treatment of type I diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease between February 1993 and December 1999 at the University of Miami. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In 5 recipients, the pancreatic duct was noted to be dilated by ultrasound 1-18 months post-transplant. RESULTS: In all 5 recipients a Foley catheter was placed as the first line of treatment. This reduced the size of the pancreatic duct in one patient, who presented with normal serum amylase and lipase and hyperglycemia. A pancreas biopsy done with Foley catheter in place showed fibrosis with no evidence of rejection. Four patients with dilated pancreatic duct presented with increased serum amylase and lipase; however improvement of the pancreatic duct dilatation was seen only after anti-rejection therapy. One of the patients developed recurrence of pancreatic duct dilatation and a video-urodynamic study subsequently demonstrated voiding with abdominal straining and no detrusor activity. He ultimately underwent enteric conversion with resolution of pancreatic duct dilatation. CONCLUSIONS: This infrequent complication of dilated transplant pancreatic duct could be multifactorial. It could suggest the diagnosis of reflux pancreatitis, which should resolve with bladder decompression. In fact, 1 patient presented with reflux pancreatitis caused by external sphincter detrusor pseudodyssynergia. However, this ultrasound finding may also be associated with pancreas rejection (4/5 patients.

  19. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  20. Main Bile Duct Stricture Occurring After Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical course of main bile duct stricture at the hepatic hilum after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among 446 consecutive patients with HCC treated by TACE, main bile duct stricture developed in 18 (4.0%). All imaging and laboratory data, treatment course, and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had 1 to 2 tumors measuring 10 to 100 mm in diameter (mean ± SD 24.5 ± 5.4 mm) near the hepatic hilum fed by the caudate arterial branch (A1) and/or medial segmental artery (A4) of the liver. During the TACE procedure that caused bile duct injury, A1 was embolized in 8, A4 was embolized in 5, and both were embolized in 5 patients. Nine patients (50.0%) had a history of TACE in either A1 or A4. Iodized oil accumulation in the bile duct wall was seen in all patients on computed tomography obtained 1 week later. Bile duct dilatation caused by main bile duct stricture developed in both lobes (n = 9), in the right lobe (n = 3), in the left lobe (n = 4), in segment (S) 2 (n = 1), and in S3 (n = 1). Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase increased in 13 patients. Biloma requiring drainage developed in 2 patients; jaundice developed in 4 patients; and metallic stents were placed in 3 patients. Complications after additional TACE sessions, including biloma (n = 3) and/or jaundice (n = 5), occurred in 7 patients and were treated by additional intervention, including metallic stent placement in 2 patients. After initial TACE of A1 and/or A4, 8 patients (44.4%), including 5 with uncontrollable jaundice or cholangitis, died at 37.9 ± 34.9 months after TACE, and 10 (55.6%) have survived for 38.4 ± 37.9 months. Selective TACE of A1 and/or A4 carries a risk of main bile duct stricture at the hepatic hilum. Biloma and jaundice are serious complications associated with bile duct strictures.

  1. The "flying" bile duct: avulsion of the common bile duct in a plane crash survivor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Blunt trauma is an unusual cause of extrahepatic bile duct injury. This is a case of a 51-year-old gentleman who sustained a significant seatbelt injury in a plane crash. Laparotomy, performed due to persistent abdominal pain, revealed that the common bile duct (CBD) was completely avulsed from the duodenum. Following insertion of drains and transfer to a hepatobiliary centre, the devascularised CBD was excised and replaced with a roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy. Necrotic tissue was debrided from the pancreatic head. A persistent bile leak developed from the sub-hepatic drain. Repeat laparotomy revealed a bile leak from small ducts on the liver surface. Ligation of the ducts and bioglue sealing of the area were successfully performed. Subsequent to this a pancreatic fistula developed from the main pancreatic duct, which has since resolved. This unusual case illustrates the need for prompt recognition and early repair to optimise outcomes in traumatic CBD injury.

  2. ITER L 6 equatorial maintenance duct remote handling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status and conclusions of a preliminary study of equatorial maintenance duct remote handling is reported. Due to issues with the original duct design a significant portion of the study had to be refocused on equatorial duct layout studies. The study gives an overview of some of the options for design of these ducts and the impact of the design on the equipment to work in the duct. To develop a remote handling concept for creating access through the ducts the following design tasks should be performed: define the operations sequences for equatorial maintenance duct opening and closing; review the remote handling requirements for equatorial maintenance duct opening and closing; design concept for door and pipe handling equipment and to propose preliminary procedures for material handling outsides the duct. 35 figs

  3. Size limitations in semicircular duct systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller

    1999-06-01

    The present article discusses mechanical requirements and limitations which are applicable to the construction of the system of semicircular ducts, especially to its size. The simplified case of a single, uniform duct system has been considered which can be described by a second order equation of motion. The principal functional quantities for this rotation-sensor are: (1) response speed; (2) sensitivity; and (3) regular flow. The response speed of a single, uniform semicircular duct is characterized by the short time constant (T2) which is dependent on the duct radius (r). Its estimated range is from 0.04 ms in the smallest to 140 ms in the largest known labyrinth. The sensitivity is characterized by the maximal endolymph displacement after a step stimulus (xmax). Its estimated range is from 0.0016 &mgr;m to 5.97 mm (6.56 decades!), assuming an input angular velocity of omega=1 rad s-1. The Reynolds number is a measure for an undisturbed laminar flow. Its estimated range varies from 7.38.10(-4)to 45.1 for omega=1 rad s-1. The above data follow from graphs in which, for a single uniform duct, circuit radius (R) is plotted against duct radius (r) for labyrinths of 233 species belonging to different vertebrate-groups. A relation R =38.9. r1.60was determined. The smallest labyrinth was found in a carp larva (Cyprinus), the largest in a whale shark (Rhincodon). Large whales possess labyrinths of average mammalian size. It is revealed that semicircular duct size is bound by requirements concerning regular flow and by a too low response speed for large labyrinths, and by a too low sensitivity for small labyrinths. Other important quantities are mechanical amplification factors which are a consequence of more complex vestibular constructions than a single uniform duct circuit. Allometric relationships are interpreted as compromises between the quantities mentioned. A hypothesis for the relatively large semicircular duct sizes of fishes, especially Elasmobranchii, compared

  4. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-gao YIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Fluent software, Renormalization Group (RNGk-ε turbulent model and Volume of Fluid (VOF method are employed to simulate the flow past circular duct to obtain and analyze the hydraulic parameters. According to various upper and bottom gap-ratios, the force on duct is calculated. Firstly, when bottom gap-ratio is 0, drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient and composite force reach the maximum respectively and azimuth reaches the minimum. Secondly, with the increase of bottom gap-ratio from 0 to 1, drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply, lift force coefficient decreases a little, but azimuth increases dramatically. Thirdly, with the continuous increase of bottom gap-ratio from 1, drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, composite force and azimuth vary little. So, bottom gap-ratio is the key factor influencing the force on circular duct. When bottom gap-ratio is less than 1, upper gap-ratio has the remarkable influence on the circular duct force. When bottom gap-ratio is greater than 1, the varation of upper gap-ratio has a little influence on the circular duct force.

  5. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-gao YIN; Xian-wei Cao; Hong-da SHI; Jian MA

    2010-01-01

    The Renormalization Group(RNG)k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid(VOF)method were employed to simulate the flow past a circular duct in order to obtain and analyze hydraulic parameters.According to various upper and bottom gap ratios,the force on the duct was calculated.When the bottom gap ratio is 0,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,and composite force reach their maximum values,and the azimuth reaches its minimum.With an increase of the bottom gap ratio from 0 to 1,the drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply,and the lift force coefficient does not decreases so much,but the azimuth increases dramatically.With a continuous increase of the bottom gap ratio from 1 upward,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,composite force,and azimuth vary little.Thus,the bottom gap ratio is the key factor influencing the force on the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is less than 1,the upper gap ratio has a remarkable influence on the force of the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is greater than 1,the variation of the upper gap ratio has little influence on the force of the circular duct.

  6. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mlika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as "salivary duct carcinoma." The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis.

  7. Contrast Research between Syllogistic and 'Five-Branches-Type Argument' on the Viewpoint of Generalized Argumentation%基于广义论证的三段论与“五支论式”比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳

    2012-01-01

    广义论证的提出大大扩展了逻辑学的研究范围,广义论证具有主体性、社会文化性、规则性、目的性和语境依赖性。在进行不同逻辑的对比研究时,不能用一种逻辑否定其他逻辑的合理性,而是在把一种逻辑的语言翻译成另一种逻辑的语言时进行必要的修正,以体现逻辑的特殊性。这种修正不仅能够降低由于逻辑语言不同而导致的对比研究困难,而且能体现逻辑的文化相对性,并按照这样的方法具体分析了形式逻辑和佛教逻辑五支论式的对比。然后用图尔敏模式分析三段论、五支论式和其他逻辑的论证结构。%Generalized argumentation has greatly enriched the scope of logic, it has the properties of subjectivity, culture related, regularity, purpose related and context related. No one can claim that one kind of logic is false just because it contradicts the other one. In this paper, I will point out that it is important to do some change when we translate one kind of logical language to the other one. This not only makes the contrast studies easier, but also reflects that logic is culture related. According to this thought, I contrast formal logic and five-branches-type argument. Finally, I try combine syllogism, Five-Branches-Type argu- ment and any other argument structure to the Toulmin' s model.

  8. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, J.; Jícha, M.

    2013-04-01

    The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  9. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  10. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  11. Holographic Coulomb branch vevs

    CERN Document Server

    Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika

    2006-01-01

    We compute holographically the vevs of all chiral primary operators for supergravity solutions corresponding to the Coulomb branch of N=4 SYM and find exact agreement with the corresponding field theory computation. Using the dictionary between 10d geometries and field theory developed to extract these vevs, we propose a gravity dual of a half supersymmetric deformation of N=4 SYM by certain irrelevant operators.

  12. Modeling branching in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jochem B. Evers; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level....

  13. Cavitation erosion in blocked flow with a ducted ice-class propeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucet, J.M.; Bose, N.; Walker, D. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Engineering Research Centre; Jones, S.J. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Inst. for Marine Dynamics

    1996-12-31

    Ships that operate in ice often encounter momentary increased propeller cavitation because ice pieces block the flow into the propeller. For ducted propellers, this additional cavitation is more significant than it is for open propellers; ice pieces may become lodged against and within the duct and subject the propeller to longer periods of increased cavitation due to the blocked flow. Associated with this blocked flow is the possibility of cavitation erosion on the propeller. An erosion study, using paint films, was conducted in a cavitation tunnel with a model propeller of the type fitted to the Canadian Marine Drilling Ltd. vessel MV Robert LeMeur. A simulated ice blockage was installed ahead of the propeller model and within the duct. Tests were carried out over a range of advance coefficients for various test conditions. The resulting types of cavitation were documented, the erosion patterns were photographed and comparisons between each test were made.

  14. Predictive Factors of Biliary Tract Cancer in Anomalous Union of the Pancreaticobiliary Duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Seok; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Tae Young; Oh, Dongwook; Lee, Hyun Kyo; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong Wan; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of malignancies associated with anomalous union of the pancreaticobiliary duct (AUPBD) is essential for the design of appropriate treatment strategies. The aim of the present study is to measure the incidence of AUPBD-related pancreaticobiliary malignancy and to identify predictive factors. This retrospective cohort study included cases of 229 patients with AUPBD between January 1999 and December 2013. The impact of bile duct dilatation on the incidence of AUPBD-related pancreaticobiliary disease was measured, and predictive factors were evaluated.Among 229 patients with AUPBD, 152 had common bile duct dilatation (≥10 mm) (dilated group) and 77 did not (pancreatic enzymes refluxed in the bile duct were associated with occurrence of biliary tract cancers. In multivariate analysis, age ≥45 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.042, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.011-1.073, P < 0.05), P-C type (OR 3.327, 95% CI 1.031-10.740, P < 0.05), and a high level of biliary lipase (OR 4.132, 95% CI 1.420-12.021, P < 0.05) showed a significant association with AUPBD-related biliary tract cancer.Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma may occur more frequently in AUPBD patients without bile duct dilatation. Age ≥45 years, P-C type, and biliary lipase level ≥45,000 IU/L are significantly associated with AUPBD-related biliary tract cancer. PMID:27196455

  15. FLUID FLOW IN ROTATING HELICAL SQUARE DUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hua-jun; Zhang Ben-zhao; Zhang Jin-suo

    2003-01-01

    A numerical study is made for a fully developed laminar flow in rotating helical pipes.Due to the rotation, the Coriolis force can also contribute to the secondary flow.The interaction between rotation, torsion, and curvature complicates the flow characteristics.The effects of rotation and torsion on the flow transitions are studied in details.The results show that there are obvious differences between the flow in rotating ducts and in helical ducts without rotation.Certain hitherto unknown flow patterns are found.The effects of rotation and torsion on the friction factor are also examined.Present results show the characteristics of the fluid flow in rotating helical square ducts.

  16. Percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Cerna, Marie [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Havlik, Roman [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kral, Vladimir [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Gryga, Adolf [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Duda, Miloslav [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of treatment of benign bile duct strictures. Materials and methods: From February 1994 to November 2005, 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) with median age of 50.6 years (range 27-77 years) were indicated to percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct stricture. Stricture of hepatic ducts junction resulting from thermic injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was indication for treatment in one patient, stricture of hepaticojejunostomy was indication for treatment in all other patients. Clinical symptoms (obstructive jaundice, anicteric cholestasis, cholangitis or biliary cirrhosis) have appeared from 3 months to 12 years after surgery. Results: Initial internal/external biliary drainage was successful in 20 patients out of 21. These 20 patients after successful initial drainage were treated by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage. Sixteen patients were symptoms free during the follow-up. The relapse of clinical symptoms has appeared in four patients 9, 12, 14 and 24 months after treatment. One year primary clinical success rate of treatment for benign bile duct stricture was 94%. Additional two patients are symptoms free after redilatation (15 and 45 months). One patient is still in treatment, one patient died during secondary treatment period without interrelation with biliary intervention. The secondary clinical success rate is 100%. Conclusion: Benign bile duct strictures of hepatic ducts junction or biliary-enteric anastomosis are difficult to treat surgically and endoscopically inaccessible. Percutaneous treatment by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage is feasible in the majority of these patients. It is minimally invasive, safe and effective.

  17. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... qualified trusts provisions for the executive branch in subparts D and E of 5 CFR part 2634 (see 57 FR 11800.... 12674, 54 FR 15159, 3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 215, as modified by E.O. 12731, 55 FR 42547, 3 CFR, 1990 Comp... been in business, its policies and philosophy in managing assets, the types of clients it serves,...

  18. Telmisartan attenuates hepatic fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-tong YI; Rui-xia LIU; Yan WEN; Cheng-hong YIN

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifibrotic effect of telmisartan,an angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blocker,in bile duct-ligated rats.Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 3 groups: sham-operated rats,model rats underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL),and BDL rats treated with telmisartan (8 mg/kg,po,for 4 weeks).The animals were sacrificed on d 29,and liver histology was examined,the Knodell and Ishak scores were assigned,and the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 was evaluated with immunohistochemical staining.The mRNAs and proteins associated with liver fibrosis were evaluated using RTQ-PCR and Western blot,respectively.Results: The mean fibrosis score of BDL rats treated with telmisartan was significantly lower than that of the model rats (1.66±0.87 vs 2.13±0.35,P=0.015).However,there was no significant difference in inflammation between the two groups,both of which showed moderate inflammation.Histologically,treatment with telmisartan significantly ameliorated BDL-caused the hepatic fibrosis.Treatment with telmisartan significantly upregulated the mRNA levels of ACE2 and MAS,and decreased the mRNA levels of ACE,angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1-R),collagen type Ⅲ,and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1).Moreover,treatment with telmisartan significantly increased the expression levels of ACE2 and MAS proteins,and inhibited the expression levels of ACE and AT1-R protein.Conclusion: Telmisartan attenuates liver fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats via increasing ACE2 expression level.

  19. Preconditioning the Helmholtz Equation for Rigid Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1998-01-01

    An innovative hyperbolic preconditioning technique is developed for the numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation which governs acoustic propagation in ducts. Two pseudo-time parameters are used to produce an explicit iterative finite difference scheme. This scheme eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with numerical solutions to the Helmholtz equation. The solution procedure is very fast when compared to other transient and steady methods. Optimization and an error analysis of the preconditioning factors are present. For validation, the method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D semi-infinite hard wall duct.

  20. Giant muellerian duct cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yoo Mie; Lee, Sun Wha; Park, Young Yo [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    We report a case of giant Muellerian duct cyst in a 6 month-old-boy with urinary tract infection. A mass displacing the bladder and prostatic urethra anteriorly was found on the voiding cystourethrogram, and it was a oval shaped retrovesical anechoic cyst on the abdominal ultrasonogram. On MRI, it was a tear-drop shaped cyst of isosignal intensity with a projection toward the prostatic urethra and located in the midline of vesicorectal space. Grossly, the cyst had communication with prostatic urethra and both vas deferenses were drained to the cyst. Pathologically it was confirmed as a Muellerrian duct cyst lined with squamous spithelium.

  1. Bundle duct interaction studies for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the wire-wrapped rods and duct in an LMFBR are undergoing a gradual structural distortion from the initially uniform geometry under the combined effects of thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling and creep. These deformations have a significant effect on flow characteristics, thus causing changes in thermal behavior such as cladding temperature and temperature distribution within a bundle. The temperature distribution may further enhance or retard irradiation induced deformation of the bundle. This report summarizes the results of the continuing effort in investigating the bundle-duct interaction, focusing on the need for the large development plant

  2. MUC1 and the simple mucin-type antigens: Tn and Sialyl-Tn are differently expressed in salivary gland acini and ducts from the submandibular gland, the vestibular folds, and the soft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Moe, Dennis; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2010-01-01

    Autopsies of the submandibular gland, the vestibular folds and the soft palate from 65-87 old humans were examined to record the immunohistochemical expression of MUC1 and the simple mucin-type antigens Tn and Sialyl-Tn.......Autopsies of the submandibular gland, the vestibular folds and the soft palate from 65-87 old humans were examined to record the immunohistochemical expression of MUC1 and the simple mucin-type antigens Tn and Sialyl-Tn....

  3. Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    John Wysocki; Rishi Agarwal; Laura Bratton; Jeremy Nguyen; Mandy Crause Weidenhaft; Nathan Shores; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the c...

  4. The clinical value of dacryoscintigraphy in the selection of surgical approach for patients with functional lacrimal duct obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacryoscintigraphy is widely known to be an effective modality in diagnosing abnormalities of the lacrimal system that cause epiphora (pathological overflow of tear). However, dacryoscintigraphy rarely serves beyond the simple diagnostic use for lacrimal duct obstruction. In our study, dacryoscintigraphy results of patients with functional lacrimal duct obstruction are newly classified into three types, the effects and prognoses of silicone tube intubation are noted according to each type, and the role of dacryoscintigraphy in determining appropriate surgical approaches is evaluated. Subjects were 36 eyes of 29 patients complaining of epiphora who had increased tear meniscus, but showed no sign of obstruction on duct syringing. Impression of functional lacrimal duct obstruction was made through dacryoscintigraphy, and silicone tubes were inserted. Patients were classified according to the results of dacryoscintigraphy; those with delayed secretion in the distal nasolacrimal duct were typed as class I; those with delays in the proximal nasolacrimal duct class II; and delayed secretion from the pre-lacrimal sac to the lacrimal sac as class III. All patients had silicone tube intubations together with selective punctoplasty. Symptomatic improvement was observed in all 6 cases of distal nasolacrimal duct obstruction (100%), 14 of 18 proximal obstruction cases (77.8%), and 8 of 12 pre-lacrimal obstructions (66.7%). Functional lacrimal duct obstruction is easily diagnosed with dacryoscintigraphy. Furthermore, its may be classified by types of obstruction to predict postoperative results of silicone tube insertion. Cases suspicious of pre-lacrimal sac obstructions in particular may achieve better operative results with adjuvant treatments in addition to silicone tube insertion. (author)

  5. Low-cost orbiting grinder for cutting ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Low-cost, portable machine cuts ducts made from heat-treated alloys. An abrasive wheel, powered by a high-speed air motor mounted on an expandible plug against the inner wall of the duct, gives precise cutting.

  6. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment for bile duct cancer? What should you ask your doctor about bile duct cancer? It is ... your own. For instance, you might want to ask about clinical trials for which you may qualify. ...

  7. Low frequency sound attenuation in a flow duct using a thin slow sound material

    CERN Document Server

    Auregan, Yves; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We present a thin subwavelength material that can be flush mounted to a duct and which gives a large wide band attenuation at remarkably low frequencies in air flow channels. To decrease the material thickness, the sound is slowed in the material using folded side branch tubes. The impedance of the material is compared to the optimal value, which differs greatly from the characteristic impedance. In particular, the viscous and thermal effects have to be very small to have high transmission losses. Grazing flow on this material increases the losses at the interface between the flow and the material.

  8. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  9. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  10. Discrete self-oscillation period branches observed in semiconductor superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Bambi; Zheng, Zhigang; Li, Zhigang

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the self-sustained current oscillation of a weakly coupled semiconductor superlattice in the dynamical voltage band using a microscopic sequential tunneling model. With the voltage as a control parameter, two types of branches of current oscillation period versus voltage have been observed, which correspond to various oscillation scenarios. The first branch type consists of a series of period branches in accordance with how many charge dipoles need to be created at the emitter side to trigger a dipole-tripole oscillation scenario. For the second branch type, charge dipoles are generated periodically at the emitter, but all of them fail to develop completely and die out, thereby leading to a low-period oscillation scenario without the dipole-tripole process. The bistability between different branches is also observed by voltage up-sweeping and down-sweeping.

  11. Dust in ventilation ducts : accumulation, measurement and removal

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Rauno

    2004-01-01

    This thesis focuses on dust accumulation in, and removal from, recently installed supply air ducts and on the bristle behaviour of rotating duct cleaning brushes. The results of dust accumulation, measured using three different methods, were compared and the amount of dust in newly installed air ducts was evaluated. The vacuum test was found to be an efficient method of collecting dust samples on the duct surface. The vacuum test and the gravimetric tape method gave approximately the same res...

  12. Solitary intrahepatic bile-duct cyst presenting with Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroli's disease is an uncommon condition, and characterized by congenital segmental saccular dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts. A case of Caroli's disease, manifested by only a large communicating cystic dilatation of left intrahepatic bile duct and causing extrinsic pressure over the extrahepatic bile duct, is presented. The patient was 43-year-old housewife, hospitalized because of abdominal distension and severe jaundice. To relieve jaundice and alleviate surgical intervention, percutaneous drainage of the bile-duct cyst preceded surgery

  13. Ring-shaped variation of the coeliac trunk branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, A; Pynadath, N; Anguswamy, N; Vallath, S; Kordali, P; Stirling, A

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant arterial variations in the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk are of great interest to surgeons and radiologists. We report on a rare arterial variation found in a 79-year-old cadaver during educational dissection. Specifically, the coeliac axis formed a unique incomplete trunk termed the hepato-hepatic trunk. The splenic artery arose separately from the anterior aspect of the abdominal aorta. On the right side, there was a right hepatic artery giving rise to a gastroduodenal but an absence of the left hepatic. On the left side, there was a branch coursing towards the porta hepatis; the left hepatic artery, dividing into the left gastric, an accessory left gastric, and a branch to the distal oesophagus. The hepato-hepatic trunk formed a ring-shaped vascular structure around the caudate lobe of the liver. Precise mapping and observation of the extrahepatic arteries and bile duct branches is essential in a variety of hepato-biliary laparoscopic procedures of the liver and gallbladder. Other operative procedures requiring, a comprehensive kno-wledge of the varied coeliac trunk patterns are liver transplantation and arterial embolism for hepatic tumour therapy. PMID:26620519

  14. Surgical treatment of congenital biliary duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang De-chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is acknowledged that total cyst excision is a safe and ideal surgical treatment for congenital biliary duct cyst, compared to simple internal drainage. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal operation occasion and the effect of laparoscopy on congenital biliary duct cyst based upon total cyst excision. Methods From January 2002 to January 2011, 217 patients were admitted to Southwest Hospital for congenital biliary duct cyst. To determine the optimal surgery occasion, we divided these subjects into three groups, the infant group (age ≤ 3 years, the immaturity group (3 18 years, and then evaluated the feasibility, risk and long-term outcome after surgery in the three groups. To analyze the effect of laparoscopic technique on congenital biliary duct cyst, we divided the patients into the laparoscopy and the open surgery groups. Results Among the three groups, the morbidity from cholangiolithiasis before surgical treatment had obvious discrepancy (p 0.05. Similarly, no significant discrepancy was observed in the morbidity from postoperative complications or long-term postoperative complications (p > 0.05 between the laparoscopic and the open surgery groups. Conclusions We conclude that total cyst excision should be performed as early as possible. The optimal treatment occasion is the infant period, and laparoscopic resection may be a new safe and feasible minimally invasive surgery for this disease.

  15. IDUS for Biliary and Pancreatic Duct Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao ltoi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the recent decade, wire-guided intraductal US(IDUS), which can be passed through the working channel of standard duodenoscopes to provide high-frequency ultrasound images, has been developed as a newly diagnostic tool for biliary and pancreatic duct lesions.

  16. Idea Bank: Duct Tape Note Twister

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Molly

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she observed a middle school math teacher deliver a miserable class. She realized that she did the same thing to her music students. To engage her students, she developed "Note Twister," a music reading game using duct tape to form musical notes and the basic premise behind the game, "Twister." She finds…

  17. Calcium influx pathways in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hug, M J; Pahl, C; Novak, I

    1996-01-01

    A number of agonists increase intracellular Ca2+ activity, [Ca2+]i, in pancreatic ducts, but the influx/efflux pathways and intracellular Ca2+ stores in this epithelium are unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterise the Ca2+ influx pathways, especially their pH sensitivity, in nati...

  18. Detonation duct gas generator demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Andrew; Brinlee, Gayl A.; Othmer, Peter; Whelan, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of the generation of detonation waves moving periodically across high speed channel flow is experimentally demonstrated. Such waves are essential to the concept of compressing requirements and increasing the engine pressure compressor with the objective of reducing conventional compressor requirements and increasing the engine thermodynamic efficiency through isochoric energy addition. By generating transient transverse waves, rather than standing waves, shock wave losses are reduced by an order of magnitude. The ultimate objective is to use such detonation ducts downstream of a low pressure gas turbine compressor to produce a high overall pressure ratio thermodynamic cycle. A 4 foot long, 1 inch x 12 inch cross-section, detonation duct was operated in a blow-down mode using compressed air reservoirs. Liquid or vapor propane was injected through injectors or solenoid valves located in the plenum or the duct itself. Detonation waves were generated when the mixture was ignited by a row of spark plugs in the duct wall. Problems with fuel injection and mixing limited the air speeds to about Mach 0.5, frequencies to below 10 Hz, and measured pressure ratios of about 5 to 6. The feasibility of the gas dynamic compression was demonstrated and the critical problem areas were identified.

  19. DIFFERENT MULLERIAN DUCT ANOMALIES - DIAGNOSED INCIDENTALLY OR DURING EMERGENCY INTERVENTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runa; Kana; Mangal Prasad

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Mullerian duct fusion abnormalities result in different reproductive outcomes ranging from multiple uneventful childbirths to ruptures of rudimentary horn during pregnancy. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : We intended to show the range of reproductive outcomes in different Mullerian duct anomalies . MATERIAL AND METHODS : We included 15 cases with fusion abnormalities of Mullerian ducts diagnosed for the first time while they presented to us, eith...

  20. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct.

  1. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct

  2. A sensitivity study of weather data inaccuracies on evaporation duct height algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John

    1991-05-01

    The sensitivity of five evaporation duct height algorithms to errors in shipboard meteorological data is examined, and the algorithms are intercompared. The data set used was generated parametrically so a large variation of environmental conditions could be considered. The errors in the meteorological data consisted of two types: uncorrelated random errors associated with sensor inaccuracies and both random and systematic errors due to the influence of ship-induced distortions. Before considering any errors, however, algorithm-to-algorithm differences of 10%-70% in the computed duct height are demonstrated and related to the assumptions and simplifications used during algorithm development. The sensitivity study shows that although the evaporation duct height algorithms have different genealogies, they have similar sensitivities. The sensitivities to errors caused by sensor inaccuracies range from 10% to 50% relative uncertainty in the calculated duct height, except for extremely low duct heights where the uncertainties are greater. During the daytime the relative uncertainties due to errors caused by ship-induced distortions are approximately 10%-20% higher than those due to the sensor errors, and they are about 50%-75% smaller at night because of a lack of solar heating of the ship. These conclusions represent a best-case scenario for Navy operational applications because of the omission of some sources of error, the optimistic ship error characteristics used, and the assumption of horizontal homogeneity in the near-surface refractivity field.

  3. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prehn Lea R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three kidney systems appear during vertebrate development: the pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. The pronephric duct is the first or primary ureter of these kidney systems. Its role as a key player in the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme is well established. Here we investigate whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light and transmission electron microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy on fixed tissue and applying the microperfusion technique on isolated pronephric ducts in combination with single cell microelectrode impalements. Our data show that the fully differentiated pronephric duct is composed of a single layered epithelium consisting of one cell type comparable to the principal cell of the renal collecting duct system. The cells are characterized by a prominent basolateral labyrinth and a relatively smooth apical surface with one central cilium. Cellular impalements demonstrate the presence of apical Na+ and K+ conductances, as well as a large K+ conductance in the basolateral cell membrane. Immunolabeling experiments indicate heavy expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the basolateral labyrinth. Conclusions We propose that the pronephric duct is important for the subsequent modification of urine produced by the pronephros. Our results indicate that it reabsorbs sodium and secretes potassium via channels present in the apical cell membrane with the driving force for ion movement provided by the Na+/K+ pump. This is to our knowledge the first characterization of the pronephric duct, the precursor of the collecting duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding

  4. Online dynamic flight optimisation applied to guidance of a variable-flow ducted rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halswijk, W.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Variable-Flow Ducted Rocket (VFDR) is a type of ramjet that can control the fuel mass flow to the combustion chamber. It combines the high efficiency at high-speed of ramjets with the throttlability of turbofans, and this makes VFDR propulsion an excellent choice for high speed, long range missi

  5. Serum markers of the extracellular matrix remodeling reflect antifibrotic therapy in bile-duct ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierwagen, Robert; Leeming, Diana Julie; Klein, Sabine; Granzow, Michaela; Nielsen, Mette J; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Krag, Aleksander; Karsdal, Morten A; Trebicka, Jonel

    reflect the stage of liver fibrosis and may allow monitoring of anti-fibrotic therapies. Here we analyzed these neo-epitopes as read-out for a liver directed therapy with statins. Methods: Bile duct ligation (BDL) was performed on wild type rats, which received atorvastatin (15 mg/kg(*)d) for 1 week...

  6. Pipe/duct system design for tornado missile impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power plant life extension projects, it may be convenient and in some instances necessary to locate safety-related steel ducts and pipes outside of the main structures, exposing them to extreme environmental loads such as tornado missile impact. Examples of this application include emergency firewater lines and Control Room vent ducts. A typical exposed commodity run could be comprised of a rectangular or circular cross-section with horizontal and vertical segments supported at variable spans off of roof and wall panels, respectively. Efficient and economical design of such a tornado-impacted duct or pipe system, consisting of the commodity and its supports, must exploit all of the system's capability to absorb the impact energy by deforming plastically to the fullest extent allowable. Energy can be absorbed locally in the vicinity of impact on the commodity, globally through rotation at flexural plastic hinges, and through yielding of the supports. In this paper a simplified NDOF lumped parameter nonlinear analysis methodology is presented and applied to the coupled commodity/support system subjected to tornado impulse loading. The analysis methodology is confirmed using a detailed ANSYS nonlinear finite element model. Optimization of the initial trial design is achieved by progressively decreasing the support resistances, while monitoring the response ductilities throughout the system. Evaluation methodologies are provided for the four types of plastic deformation responses which occur in the system: local response in the immediate vicinity of impact, flexural and membrane response of the sidewall out to one or two times the commodity depth beyond the point of impact, global response of the commodity as a beam spanning between supports, and the shear and flexural response of support. The inelastic responses are evaluated against AISC N690 acceptance criteria (ANSI, 2006), supplemented as appropriate by triaxiality considerations for inelastic strain

  7. Pipe/duct system design for tornado missile impact loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Wang, S.; Johnson, W., E-mail: whjohnso@bechtel.com

    2014-04-01

    For nuclear power plant life extension projects, it may be convenient and in some instances necessary to locate safety-related steel ducts and pipes outside of the main structures, exposing them to extreme environmental loads such as tornado missile impact. Examples of this application include emergency firewater lines and Control Room vent ducts. A typical exposed commodity run could be comprised of a rectangular or circular cross-section with horizontal and vertical segments supported at variable spans off of roof and wall panels, respectively. Efficient and economical design of such a tornado-impacted duct or pipe system, consisting of the commodity and its supports, must exploit all of the system's capability to absorb the impact energy by deforming plastically to the fullest extent allowable. Energy can be absorbed locally in the vicinity of impact on the commodity, globally through rotation at flexural plastic hinges, and through yielding of the supports. In this paper a simplified NDOF lumped parameter nonlinear analysis methodology is presented and applied to the coupled commodity/support system subjected to tornado impulse loading. The analysis methodology is confirmed using a detailed ANSYS nonlinear finite element model. Optimization of the initial trial design is achieved by progressively decreasing the support resistances, while monitoring the response ductilities throughout the system. Evaluation methodologies are provided for the four types of plastic deformation responses which occur in the system: local response in the immediate vicinity of impact, flexural and membrane response of the sidewall out to one or two times the commodity depth beyond the point of impact, global response of the commodity as a beam spanning between supports, and the shear and flexural response of support. The inelastic responses are evaluated against AISC N690 acceptance criteria (ANSI, 2006), supplemented as appropriate by triaxiality considerations for inelastic

  8. Heat Transfer in a Superelliptic Transition Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Hippensteele, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Local heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat transfer technique on the surface of a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. The transition duct had a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 and an exit-plane aspect ratio of 3. The crosssectional geometry was defined by the equation of a superellipse. The cross-sectional area was the same at the inlet and exit but varied up to 15 percent higher through the transition. The duct was preheated to a uniform temperature (nominally 64 C) before allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. As the surface cooled, the resulting isothermal contours on the duct surface were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the surface temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. Using this surface temperature-time data together with the temperature of the air flowing through the model and the initial temperature of the model wall, the heat transfer coefficient was calculated by employing the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction model. Test results are reported for inlet diameter-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.4x106 to 2.4x106 and two grid-generated freestream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 16 percent, which may be more typical of real engine conditions.

  9. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Birgitte M; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jespersen, Åse;

    2010-01-01

    Background Three kidney systems appear during vertebrate development: the pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. The pronephric duct is the first or primary ureter of these kidney systems. Its role as a key player in the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme is well established. Here we investigate...... transmission electron microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy on fixed tissue and applying the microperfusion technique on isolated pronephric ducts in combination with single cell microelectrode impalements. Our data show that the fully differentiated pronephric duct is composed of a single...... layered epithelium consisting of one cell type comparable to the principal cell of the renal collecting duct system. The cells are characterized by a prominent basolateral labyrinth and a relatively smooth apical surface with one central cilium. Cellular impalements demonstrate the presence of apical Na...

  10. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  11. Transition duct with divided upstream and downstream portions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Maldonado, Jaime Javier; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Flanagan, James Scott

    2015-07-14

    Turbine systems are provided. In one embodiment, a turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion extending from the inlet and a downstream portion extending from the outlet. The turbine system further includes a rib extending from an outer surface of the duct passage, the rib dividing the upstream portion and the downstream portion.

  12. The effect of duct surface character on methane explosion propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Bai-quan; YE Qing; JIAN Cong-guang; WU Hai-jin

    2007-01-01

    The effect of duct surface character on methane explosion propagation was experimentally studied and theoretically analyzed. The roughness has effect on methane explosion propagation. The flame propagation velocity and the peak value pressure of methane explosion in rough duct are larger than the parameters in smooth duct. The heat exchange of the surface has effect on methane explosion propagation. The propagation velocity of flame and strength of explosion wave in the duct covered by heat insulation material are larger than those in duct with good heat transmittability.

  13. Maritime Branch Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià;

    after-sales service and have therefore embarked on business development activities that tightly combine product and service offerings in their portfolios. Closer customer contact, commoditisation of goods, total cost of ownership, and product liability are just some of the reasons for this transition......The vast majority of countries in the developed world are now dependent on their service sectors for between 70-80% of their gross domestic product. Even companies with decades of expertise in producing manufactured products are experiencing an increased need to understand before-, during- and...... and influencing a move towards intensified service integration into business- and product development activities. The workbook has been created by condensing the transcripts and the insights we have gained from a wealth of studies across the maritime branch, and it serves to provide a unique insight...

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lange, Rich [Applied Science Consultants, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  15. Branching innovation, recombinant innovation, and endogenous technological transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; Izquierdo, L.; Zeppini, P.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of technological transitions based on two different types of innovations. Branching innovations refer to technological improvements along a particular path, while recombinant innovations represent fusions of multiple paths. Recombinant innovations create "short-cuts" which reduce

  16. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  17. Can the branching exponent reliably relate the branching indexes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2015), s. 80-84. ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching exponent * branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2014

  18. Evaporation duct assessment from meteorological buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitney, Herbert V.

    2002-07-01

    The evaporation duct over the sea is usually assessed using bulk meteorological measurements. This paper investigates the utility of meteorological buoys as a source for these bulk measurements and compares evaporation duct assessments using two buoys in southern California waters separated by 128 km. A simple radio propagation experiment at 2.4 GHz between one of the buoys and the coast on an 18.2 km path is described. Observed propagation loss from this experiment is compared to modeled loss based on the meteorological measurements at each buoy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate radio propagation effects using established and accepted methods already described in the literature. Accordingly, no discussion of atmospheric surface layer meteorology affecting radio propagation is given.

  19. Whistler wave ducting caused by antenna actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whistler waves launched from an antenna damp away for small incident power. With increasing power, undamped nondiverging waves (the ducted waves) are observed, together with a field-aligned density trough and electron heating. However, the density trough is found not only in the wave propagation regime (ω/ω/sub c/1). This implies that the density depression is mainly created by the effect of the antenna near-zone field rather than by the wave radiation pressure. The intense localized field near the antenna gives rise to electron heating which leads to the density trough. The ducting of antenna-launched whistler waves has been explained as a filamentation instability in terms of nonlinear wave-plasma interactions

  20. Management of Thyroglossal Duct Remnants: Our Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar J. S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroglossal duct remnants are more common in paediatric population. Complete excision of the tract is necessary to prevent recurrence. Sistrunk's surgery is done for thyroglossal duct remnants. This surgery has considerable failure rate. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to present our clinical experience regarding the successful management of thyroglossal cyst and fistula to know the role of imaging in prevention of recurrence after Sisktrunk's surgery. Material and Methods: This is an observational study of 15 cases of thyroglossal cyst and fistula. The data was collected retrospectively from the medical records of SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital. Results: No recurrence was seen in this series with a follow up period of 1 year. Conclusion: CT fistulography for thyroglossal fistula and USG neck for thyroglossal cyst is the imaging modality of choice. Nevertheless, it is pivotal to excise a wider core of tissue in revision cases to ensure complete cure to prevent possible recurrence.

  1. An Immunocytochemical Profile of the Endocrine Pancreas Using an Occlusive Duct Ligation Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page BJ

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Ligation of the pancreatic duct, distally to its confluence into the bile duct has been shown to induce endocrine tissue regeneration. The surplus endocrine tissue formed is presumed to be able to replace pathologically and/or experimentally compromised tissue. OBJECTIVE: This is a quantitative study on the histology of duct ligated pancreas employing immunocytochemistry and computerised morphometry. INTERVENTIONS: Pancreatic duct ligation was performed on 25 groups of six normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental animals were sacrificed at 12-hour intervals from day one to ten post-duct ligation and every 24 hours thereafter to day 14, the pancreas removed, fixed and processed. Six consecutive 3-6 micron serial sections were cut on a rotary hand microtome, floated onto 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilan coated slides and alternatively immunocytochemically stained for insulin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin. RESULTS: Pancreas transformation between days 1/2 and 3 1/2 was characterised by acinar deletion and the appearance of immunoreactive cells for the primary endocrine hormones. Transdifferentiation of existing endocrine tissue saw islet insulin core cells replaced by pancreatic polypeptide- and somatostatin positive cells, glucagon deletion and random appearance of all endocrine cell types within the inter-islet interstitium by day 3 1/2. Days 4 to 14 were characterised by cellular migration and islet reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: To date our laboratory has investigated transplantation of foetal tissue beneath the renal capsule in syngeneic, isogeneic and allogeneic normal and diabetic rats. As pancreatic duct ligation induces the development of surplus endocrine tissue our next step would be to investigate the use of ligated pancreas as a replacement for foetal tissue.

  2. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunao Ishiguro, Masanobu Hyodo, Takehito Fujiwara, Yasunaru Sakuma, Nobuyuki Hojo, Koichi Mizuta, Hideo Kawarasaki, Alan T Lefor, Yoshikazu Yasuda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother’s liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor’s biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor.

  3. The transient response above an evaporation duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Seliem, Adel A. S.

    1998-11-01

    The transient electromagnetic field generated by a vertical electric dipole above an evaporation duct is investigated theoretically. The evaporation duct model used is that previously described by Kahan and Eckart. A vertical electric dipole, above the surface layer, is taken as the source of the electromagnetic field. We determine the electrical field strength exactly at some fixed point above the duct layer, having chosen a certain polarization of the primary source whose moment is allowed to vary arbitrarily with time. A series expansion with respect to the images of the primary source permits us to apply the method first reported by Cagniard and later extended by de Hoop and Frankena to the case where the source is positioned in a medium of lesser permittivity. Hence, we can give a physically intuitive description of the polarization dependence of the time history of the electrical field strength. The distinction of different cases where the distances between the receiving and transmitting ends are greater or lesser than the total reflection distance is studied. The electrical field strength is evaluated for different excitation functions at some fixed but arbitrary positions of the point of observation in the half-space.

  4. MR features of common hepatic duct cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of MRI in the detection of cholangiocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct has rarely been described. This study was attempted to ascertain characteristic MR features of cholangiocarcinoma. The T1(500/30, TRs/TEs) and T2 weighted(200/80, TRs/TEs) MR images were obtained from nine patients with cholangiocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct. The common hepatic lesions were detected in seven cases. MR features of cholangiocarcinoma were analysed according to the signal intensity and associated findings. The seven cases showed lower signal intensity than the surrounding normal liver parenchyma on T1 weighted image. On T2 weighted image, the tumor showed isosignal intensity and hyperintensity in four and three patients, respectively. T2 image also revealed diffusely increased signal intensity in some hepatic lobe or segment in four cases, and intrahepatic periductal high signal intensity in one case. Other associated MR findings were intrahepatic metastasis, and intratumoral hemorrhage, each noted in a different case. T2 weighted image appears to be effective in the detection of cholangiocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct and evaluation of its associated intrahepatic lesions

  5. MRI of the biliary and pancreatic ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavone, P.; Laghi, A.; Catalano, C.; Panebianco, V.; Fabiano, S.; Passariello, R. [Dept. of Radiology II, Univ. of Rome ``La Sapienza`` (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging technique able to provide projectional images of the bile ducts. Different sequences, using both breath-hold and non-breath-hold acquisition techniques, have been employed in order to obtain MRCP images. The authors discuss technical aspects, considering both three-dimensional non-breath-hold techniques and two-dimensional breath-hold, multi-slice and thick slab sequences. Clinical applications of MRCP are evaluated, presenting data from both the literature and personal experience. The main indication for MRCP study is represented by the evaluation of common bile duct obstruction, with the aim of assessing the presence of the obstruction (accuracy 85-100 %) and, subsequently, its level (accuracy 91-100 %) and its cause. The utility of associating conventional MR images to MRCP in malignant strictures, in order to characterize and stage the malignant lesion, is also discussed. Finally, data are presented regarding the indications and the utility of MR-pancreatography in the evaluation of patients with pancreatic duct anomalies and chronic pancreatitis. (orig.) With 9 figs., 39 refs.

  6. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  7. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  8. Pronephric duct extension in amphibian embryos: migration and other mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawbridge, Julie; Meighan, Christopher M; Lumpkins, Rebecca; Kite, Mary E

    2003-01-01

    Initiation of excretory system development in all vertebrates requires (1) delamination of the pronephric and pronephric duct rudiments from intermediate mesoderm at the ventral border of anterior somites, and (2) extension of the pronephric duct to the cloaca. Pronephric duct extension is the central event in nephric system development; the pronephric duct differentiates into the tubule that carries nephric filtrate out of the body and induces terminal differentiation of adult kidneys. Early studies concluded that pronephric ducts formed by means of in situ segregation of pronephric duct tissue from lateral mesoderm ventral to the forming somites; more recent studies highlight caudal migration of the pronephric duct as the major morphogenetic mechanism. The purpose of this review is to provide the historical background on studies of the mechanisms of amphibian pronephric duct extension, to review evidence showing that different amphibians perform pronephric duct morphogenesis in different ways, and to suggest future studies that may help illuminate the molecular basis of the mechanisms that have evolved in amphibians to extend the pronephric duct to the cloaca. PMID:12508219

  9. Optimization of air ducts for nuclear reactor power generation station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the optimization study on the heating, ventilating and air conditions system in Nuclear Reactor Power Generation Station, proper arrangement of air ducts has been studied using the experimental and analytical investigation from a viewpoint of duct arrangement optimization. This study consists of two parts. Part I is optimization of air ducts in the corridors and Part II is optimization of air duct in each room. In part I, from viewpoints of confinement of radioactive materials in facilities having possible radioactive contamination and improvement of thermal environment for workers, the authors have studied air ducts system in which fresh air is supplied to corridors and heat removal and ventilation for each room are performed by transferring air from the corridors, instead of current ducts system with supply duct to each room. In part II, the condenser room with complex configuration and large space, and the electrical equipment room with simple space are selected for model areas. Based on these studies, experimental and analytical investigation (using a three-dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis) technique has been established, and the effective design method for duct arrangement of HVAC design has been verified for Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. The air-duct arrangements optimized in this study are applied to an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Power Station in trial and reduction of the air-duct quantity is confirmed

  10. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  11. Idiopathic chylopericardium treated by percutaneous thoracic duct embolization after failed surgical thoracic duct ligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)

  12. Idiopathic chylopericardium treated by percutaneous thoracic duct embolization after failed surgical thoracic duct ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Malachi; Ayyagari, Raj R. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, 789 Howard Avenue, P.O. Box 208042, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)

  13. Malignant carcinoid tumor of the cystic duct:a rare cause of bile duct obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelos Felekouras; Athanasios Petrou; Konstantinos Bramis; Evangelos Prassas; Ioannis Papaconstantinou; Nikoleta Dimitriou; Anastasia Pazaiti; Christos Tsigris; Athanasios Giannopoulos

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for 0.2%-2%of all gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, while carcinoids of the cystic duct are an uncommon entity and an extremely unusual cause of bile duct obstruction. METHODS: After an extensive literature review, we retrospectively analysed 61 cases of carcinoid tumor of the biliary tree as well as one additional case of a 60-year-old female with symptoms and laboratory/imaging examination ifndings compatible with those of a malignant biliary tract obstruction. At laparotomy, resection of the gallbladder and common bile duct was performed. Histological study revealed a well-differentiated neuro-endocrine carcinoma of the cystic duct. The patient remained disease-free at 16 months. RESULTS: Our presentation is the seventh case reported in the world literature. Compared to cholangiocarcinoma, analysis of the reviewed group indicates an increased incidence of extrahepatic carcinoid tumors in younger persons along with a slight female predominance. Statistically, the most common anatomic location is the common bile duct, followed by the perihilar region and the cystic duct. Jaundice is the most common ifnding. Curative surgery was realized in the majority of cases and long-term disease-free survival was achieved when surgery was curative. CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors obstructing the biliary tree are extremely dififcult to diagnose preoperatively, and nearly impossible to differentiate from non-neuroendocrine tumors. As surgery offers the only potential cure for both biliary carcinoids and cholangiocarcinoma, we recommend aggressive surgical therapy as the treatment of choice in every case of potentially resectable biliary tumor.

  14. Interposition of the gallbladder - or the absent common hepatic duct and cystic duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interposition of the gallbladder is a rare anomaly, but its diagnosis is important since it represents a surgically correctable cause of jaundice. The patients present with jaundice, abdominal pain and sometimes an enlarged gallbladder. Radiological diagnosis may be difficult since the condition may be mistaken for a choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder or Caroli's disease. The ultrasound, cholangiogram and surgical findings of dilated intrahepatic ducts adjacent to a normal or enlarged gallbaldder with no dilatation of the common bile duct are presented in two children with this condition. (orig.)

  15. Interposition of the gallbladder - or the absent common hepatic duct and cystic duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringer, D.A.; Daneman, A.; Dobranowski, J.; Ein, S.H.; Filler, R.M.; Roberts, E.A.

    1987-02-01

    Interposition of the gallbladder is a rare anomaly, but its diagnosis is important since it represents a surgically correctable cause of jaundice. The patients present with jaundice, abdominal pain and sometimes an enlarged gallbladder. Radiological diagnosis may be difficult since the condition may be mistaken for a choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder or Caroli's disease. The ultrasound, cholangiogram and surgical findings of dilated intrahepatic ducts adjacent to a normal or enlarged gallbaldder with no dilatation of the common bile duct are presented in two children with this condition.

  16. Sublingual thyroglossal duct cyst (SLTGDC: An unusual location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Mukul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cyst is the most common cause of midline congenital swelling in the neck. Classically, it presents as an asymptomatic midline swelling below the hyoid bone that moves with deglutination and protrusion of the tongue. Sometimes thyroglossal duct cyst presents atypical posing a diagnostic challenge. A sublingual location of thyroglossal duct cyst is rare, and differs quite remarkably in presentation from the classical thyroglossal duct cyst. We describe here the case of a young boy who presented with episodes of postural dyspnea due to elevation of the tongue which was secondary to huge sublingual swelling. Surgical decompression of the lesion was planned on an emergency basis with feasible preoperative workup. The aim of this case report is to highlight the unique presentation and a varied approach in the management of an unusually located sublingual thyroglossal duct cyst. Sublingual/intralingual thyroglossal duct cyst needs to be analyzed in a larger study population for establishing definitive management protocols.

  17. Experimental and analytical studies on aseismic design of ventilation ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For seismic resistant design of the ventilation ducts, it is the most popular and convenient way to idealize duct as a simple beam model and to compute maximum support spacing which makes duct rigid enough. However, few practical data are available to assume the precise stiffness of thinwalled duct on which accurate prediction of dynamic properties depends essentially. In this paper, the experimental study including the vibration tests and the static load tests with regard to two full scale duct models is described and a comparison between experimental and analytical results on the dynamic properties, the deflections and the stress distributions is discussed. Also, the mode of failure of the ducts due to vertically applied static load with negative internal pressure is observed. (orig.)

  18. Deterministic and stochastic algorithms for resolving the flow fields in ducts and networks using energy minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochi, Taha

    2016-09-01

    Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton and global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of computational fluid dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

  19. Deterministic and stochastic algorithms for resolving the flow fields in ducts and networks using energy minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2014-01-01

    Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton, and Global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtoni...

  20. Climate analysis of evaporation ducts in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Evaporation ducts have important implications for U.S. Naval activities involving electromagnetic propagation. The presence of an evaporation duct can affect naval operations involving communications, surveillance, electronic warfare, and detection of low-flying missiles, surface ships, or submarine periscopes. We conducted a climate scale analysis of evaporation duct heights (EDH) in the northern South China Sea (SCS), including how ...

  1. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  2. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  3. Occlusion of the cystic duct by electrocoagulation: A radiologic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical dissolution and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are promising new methods for the treatment of cholelithiasis without cholecystectomy. Nonsurgical defunctionalization of the gallbladder is now required to prevent recurrent stone formation. The authors consider cystic duct occlusion to be the first step. Ten domestic pigs underwent transcatheter electrocoagulation of the cystic duct via a cholecystostomy under fluoroscopic control. Stricture formation was followed by complete cystic duct occlusion in all ten cases. After a follow-up period ranging from 2 to 17 weeks (mean, 13 weeks), the animals were killed. Histologic studies demonstrated that complete obliteration of the cystic duct lumen was due to fibrous scar formation

  4. Method for Observing Intravascular BongHan Duct

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, X; Shin, H; Lee, B; Choi, C; Soh, K; Cheun, B; Baik, K; Soh, K; Jiang, Xiaowen; Kim, Hee-kyeong; Shin, Hak-soo; Lee, Byong-chon; Choi, Chunho; Soh, Kyung-soon; Cheun, Byeung-soo; Baik, Ku-youn; Soh, Kwang-sup

    2002-01-01

    A method for observing intra blood vessel ducts which are threadlike bundle of tubules which form a part of the BongHan duct system. By injecting 10% dextrose solution at a vena femoralis one makes the intravascular BongHan duct thicker and stronger to be easily detectable after incision of vessels. The duct is semi-transparent, soft and elastic, and composed of smaller tubules whose diameters are of 10$\\mu$m order, which is in agreement with BongHan theory.

  5. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  6. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  7. Advances of MRCP in diagnosis of pancreatic duct dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic duct dilatation is a common sign of pancreaticobiliary diseases and may be seen in pancreatic carcinoma, carcinoma of duodenal papilla, distal common bile duct carcinoma, ampullary carcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous tumor, pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst, sphincter of oddi dysfunction, pancreatic trauma, pancreas divisum, annular pancreas, pancreatic tuberculosis, abdominal aorta aneurysm, etc. It is possible to make a correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis by analyzing features of shape, extent, and location of dilated pancreatic duct. This article reviews the advances of MRCP in etiological diagnosis of dilatation of the pancreatic duct. (authors)

  8. Digital subtraction angiography in the open arterial duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 31 patients with the open arterial duct (OAD), of them 15 were outpatients. Diagnosis was made in all primary patients using DSA, indications and contraindications for endovascular occlusion of the OAD were defined. Of 17 patients examined at varying time after endovascular occlusion of the duct, valid signs of reliable occlusion of the duct were obtained in 16. In one patient a contrast medium got from the aorta to the pulmonary artery via the arterial duct indicating OAD incomplete closure. DSA can be used under uotpatient conditions to define indications and contraindications for endovascular occlusion of the OAD and to assess its long-term effectiveness

  9. Solitary intrahepatic bile-duct cyst presenting with Jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Chun, Ki Sung; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Jun Gi [St. Vincent Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    Caroli's disease is an uncommon condition, and characterized by congenital segmental saccular dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts. A case of Caroli's disease, manifested by only a large communicating cystic dilatation of left intrahepatic bile duct and causing extrinsic pressure over the extrahepatic bile duct, is presented. The patient was 43-year-old housewife, hospitalized because of abdominal distension and severe jaundice. To relieve jaundice and alleviate surgical intervention, percutaneous drainage of the bile-duct cyst preceded surgery.

  10. Pyloric gland adenoma of the cystic duct with malignant transformation: report of a case with a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyloric gland adenoma consists of closely packed pyloric-type glands lined by mucus-secreting cells. To date, approximately 230 cases have been reported, mostly of gastric localization with a tumour size up to 3.5 cm and a mean age of occurrence around 70 years. Adenocarcinoma develops in about 40% of cases and may be difficult to detect due to relatively mild nuclear atypia. We present the first case of a pyloric gland adenoma of the cystic duct in a 62-year-old male patient and demonstrate the clinicopathologic characteristics, including radiographic, molecular, and cytogenetic findings. The 2 cm-tumour developed in the cystic duct and protruded into the hepatic and common bile duct. On microscopic examination, it displayed closely packed pyloric-type glands, and focal architectural distortion with mild nuclear atypia. Immunohistochemically, it expressed MUC1, MUC5AC, MUC6 and p53, but not MUC2 and CD10. The Ki67-proliferation index was 25%. Furthermore, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia was observed in the surrounding bile duct. We detected chromosomal gains at 7p, 7q11q21, 15q, 16p, 20, losses at 6p23pter, 6q, 18, and amplifications at 1q and 6p21p22 in the pyloric gland adenoma by comparative genomic hybridization. A KRAS codon 12 mutation (c.35G>T; p.G12V) was detected in the pyloric gland adenoma and in the adjacent dysplasia by sequencing analysis. The diagnosis of pyloric gland adenoma was established with transition into well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and high-grade biliary intraepithelial neoplasia. Pyloric gland adenoma evolving in the cystic duct is a rare differential diagnosis of obstructive bile duct tumours. Other premalignant bile duct lesions may be associated. Due to the risk of developing adenocarcinoma, surgical resection should be performed

  11. The Effect of Lacrimal Sac Massage, Probing with Irrigation or Air Insufflations in Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nasiri

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common cause of lacrimation in children is congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Although there is a belief that the most of them resolve spontaneously, there is no agreement in the time and type of treatment. This study was done to determine the success rate of three approaches to treatment of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in children aged 12-24 months. Material & Methods: From February 2006 to December 2006, 60 12-24 month-old children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction were enrolled in this study. The parents that agreed to probing were divided accidentally into two groups of probing and irrigation, and probing and air insufflation. The parents that agreed to wait for a month went to conservative management with office massage of the nasolacrimal duct and treatment with antibiotics by ophthalmologist.Findings: Of 60 children included in this study 27(45% were females and 33(55% males. The mean age of children in the group of probing with irrigation was 18.09 months, probing and air insufflation 19.44 months, and in group of conservative management 19.41 months. The success rate was 91.30% in the group of probing and irrigation, 96% in the group of probing and air insufflation, and 100% in the group for conservative treatment.Conclusion: Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in almost all of children resolved spontaneously or by simple surgical intervention (probing. The persistent cases may have structural abnormality in nasolacrimal duct or nasal anatomy. Our study showed that conservative and surgical approach in children aged 12-24 months have a favorable outcome, therefore the age can not be a relevant factor in selection of the type of treatment in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  12. Techniques developed to evaluate the fracture toughness offast breeder reactor duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large changes in strength and ductility of metals after irradiation are known to occur. The fracture toughness of irradiated metals, which is related to the combined strength and ductility of a material, may be significantly reduced and the potential for unstable crack extension increased. Therefore, the resistance of cladding and duct materials to fracture after exposure to fast neutron environments is of concern. Existing Type 316 stainless steel irradiated ducts are relatively thin and since this material retains substantial ductility, even after irradiation, the fracture behavior of the duct material cannot be analyzed by linear elastic fracture mechanics techniques. Instead, the multispecimen R-curve method and J-integral analysis were used to develop an experimental approach to evaluate the fracture toughness of thin breeder reactor duct materials irradiated at elevated temperatures. Alloy A-286 was chosen for these experiments because the alloy exhibits elastic/plastic behavior and the fracture toughness data of thicker (12 mm) specimens were available for comparison. Technical problems associated with specimen buckling and remote handling were treated in this work. The results are discussed in terms of thickness criterion for plane strain

  13. Thyroglossal duct cysts: sonographic findings revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Kyu Ho; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Shu, Dae Chul; Kim, Sang Yoon [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review and re-evaluate the well-known ultrasonographic characteristics of cysts of the thyroglossal duct. We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings in 31 patients with pathologically proven cysts of the thyloglossal duct. Assessment involve the following variables: relationship to the hyoid bone,location,shape,size,margin,internal echogenicity,the presence of septa,solid component,and thickness of the cystic wall. The echogenicity of cystic contents was evaluated in 23 cysts for which surgical or aspiration biopsy reports were available.Cysts were closely attached to the hyoid bone in 30 cases (97%). Their location was infrahyoid in 14 cases, hyoid in 11, and surprahyoid in six; and midline in 18, both midline and of-midline in nine, and off-midline in four. A triangular shape was seen in 15 cases ,a round or oval shape in 12, and a lobulated shape in three. Their diameter varied from 1 to 3.8 (mean,2) cm, while internal echogenicity was hypoechoic in 12 cases, anechoic in ten, and isoechoic in nine. Septations were noted in six cases, and a solid component in two.The cystic wall was less than 1mm in six. Among 23 cases, the cystic contents were mucous in 18, serous in three , and purulent in two. The echogenicity of cysts with mucous content varied,while serous or purolent cysts were isoechoic. The characteristic sonographic finding of cyst of the thyroglossal duct is a centrally located triangular neck cyst, closely related to the hyoid bone.

  14. Thyroglossal duct cysts: sonographic findings revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to review and re-evaluate the well-known ultrasonographic characteristics of cysts of the thyroglossal duct. We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings in 31 patients with pathologically proven cysts of the thyloglossal duct. Assessment involve the following variables: relationship to the hyoid bone,location,shape,size,margin,internal echogenicity,the presence of septa,solid component,and thickness of the cystic wall. The echogenicity of cystic contents was evaluated in 23 cysts for which surgical or aspiration biopsy reports were available.Cysts were closely attached to the hyoid bone in 30 cases (97%). Their location was infrahyoid in 14 cases, hyoid in 11, and surprahyoid in six; and midline in 18, both midline and of-midline in nine, and off-midline in four. A triangular shape was seen in 15 cases ,a round or oval shape in 12, and a lobulated shape in three. Their diameter varied from 1 to 3.8 (mean,2) cm, while internal echogenicity was hypoechoic in 12 cases, anechoic in ten, and isoechoic in nine. Septations were noted in six cases, and a solid component in two.The cystic wall was less than 1mm in six. Among 23 cases, the cystic contents were mucous in 18, serous in three , and purulent in two. The echogenicity of cysts with mucous content varied,while serous or purolent cysts were isoechoic. The characteristic sonographic finding of cyst of the thyroglossal duct is a centrally located triangular neck cyst, closely related to the hyoid bone

  15. [Liver, bile ducts and pancreatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, T

    1995-06-01

    A fundamental guideline for the use of test results concerning liver, bile duct and pancreatic diseases was proposed in 1991 from the Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JSCP). This guideline was principally based on the document of 1988 from the Committee on liver function tests of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSG). The document from the JSG was revised in May, 1994. Also a guideline for selection of markers of hepatitis virus in hepatic disorders, was proposed in January, 1994 from the same Committee of JSG. Here, we reevaluated and discussed the JSCP guideline as taking into consideration the two 1994 JSG documents. PMID:7602802

  16. Anatomy of the nipple and breast ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca-Matthes, Gustavo; Urban, Cícero; Vallejo, André

    2016-02-01

    Over time, variations of mastectomy came up and started allowing the oncological safety and the possibility of an immediate breast reconstruction. Nipple sparing mastectomy (NSM) procedures have strongly increased in frequency and have become one of the best alternatives to treat breast cancer, also improving overall aesthetic outcomes and the achievement of contralateral breast symmetry. The nipple areola-complex (NAC) must be considered the identity of the breast concerning self-esteem of patients. This paper will remind the main anatomical topics around the nipple and breast ducts. PMID:26855906

  17. MULLERIAN DUCT ANOMALY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of mullerian duct anomalies vary widely owing to different patient populations, non-standardized classification systems, and differences in diagnostic data acquisition, these anomalies are clinically important, particularly in women who present with infertility. Many of the anomalies are initially diagnosed at hysterosalpingography and ultrasonography; however, further imaging is often required for definitive diagnosis and elaboration of secondary findings. At this time, magnetic resonance imaging is the study of choice because of its high accuracy and detailed elaboration of uterovaginal anatomy. Here, we report a case of 30 years old female who presented to emergency department with bad obstetric history.

  18. Clinical significance of main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography: Single and double duct dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Edge, Mark D; Hoteit, Maarouf; Patel, Amil P; Wang, Xiaoping; Baumgarten, Deborah A.; Cai, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography (CT) and thereby to provide the predictive criteria to identify patients at high risk of significant diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, and to avoid unnecessary work up for patients at low risk of such diseases.

  19. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tyanev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009 concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump structures and this is the reason for the actuality of its problem. Analysis of this new task is presented and request arbitration functioning principles are formulated for the incoming to joint dot requests. The arbiter is responsible for the fair choice on which depends steady peformance of separate pipeline brances. Paper also describes pipeline controller synthesis and analysis of its operation in two variants: about 2-phase and 4-phase data transfer protocol. The synthesized asynchronous arbiter scheme is invariant to the type of pipeline protocol.

  20. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  1. Seasonal variations of surface duct conditions in Ngaoundere, North Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Nzeukou, Armand; Tchawoua, Clément; Vondou, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variations of refractivity gradients from 104 to 3000 m above ground level in the troposphere layer are presented based on observations from the radiosonde station located in Ngaoundere (13.5°E, 7.3°N), a middle belt savannah region of Cameroon. Six years (2006-2011) of data from in situ measurements made by Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) of the temperature, moisture, and pressure are used to determine the surface duct conditions over Ngaoundere region. Each time that a negative gradient from the Abel-retrieved refractivity profiles is seen, it implies the presence of a duct in this study. The occurrence of ducts strongly depends on the local climate and synoptic weather conditions which have an appreciable influence on the refractivity vertical profile, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which provides wet and dry seasons to the region. Monthly and seasonal variations of ducts were also determined from the measured data. The highest and the lowest occurrence rate of surface ducts were observed during the wet and the dry seasons, respectively. September appears as the month when most of the ducts occur at the rate of at least one duct per day. The median duct thickness and duct strength are high and strong during the wet season, whereas they are low and weak during the dry season. When the data are separated into stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, we noticed that surface duct characteristics show some seasonal differences. Surface ducts are found to be more frequent in a stable atmosphere than in an unstable atmosphere. Statistical results are discussed alongside with local meteorological conditions and weather systems affecting the town of Ngaoundere. Besides, comments are made on their prospective significance in the region.

  2. Immediate Small Side Branch Occlusion after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ostovan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small side branches, albeit less important than their larger counterparts, have not yet received due attention in the literature. Nor has there ever been a comparison between drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents apropos side branch occlusion. The aim of this study was to compare the patency of small (≥0.5 and ≤1.5 mm in diameter side branches with respect to bare metal vs. drug-eluting stents immediately after their deployment.Methods: This prospective bi-center study, conducted between June 2005 and January 2007, enrolled 82 patients treated with ≥1 of two stents (TAXUSTM LiberteTM or LiberteTM. Side branches ≥0.5 and <1.5 mm in diameter arising from the main vessel at the lesion site were evaluated. Results: Thirty-eight patients were treated with 42 LiberteTM stents (58 side branches and forty-four patients with 50 TAXUSTM LiberteTM (102 side branches. The rate of small side branch occlusion was 35.3% (36 in the TAXUSTM LiberteTM group compared to 29.31% (15 in the LiberteTM group (P-value= 0.7. The presence of type 1 side branch morphology (Lefevre classification was the most powerful predictor of small side branch occlusion (P-value=0.03. Conclusion: This study shows that drug-eluting stents are not inferior to bare metal stents as regards small side branch occlusion during coronary stenting

  3. Evaporation duct effects at millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. D.

    1992-03-01

    The evaporation duct strongly influences low-altitude over-the-horizon propagation at millimeter wavelengths. Results from more than 2000 hours of propagation and meteorological measurements made at 94 GHz on a 40.6 km over-horizon, over-water path along the southern California coast show that the average received power was 63 dB greater than d for propagation in a nonducting, or standard, atmosphere; 90 percent of the measurements were at least 55 dB greater than diffraction. A numerical model of transmission loss based on the observed surface meteorology is discussed and results are compared to measured transmission loss. On average, modeling results underestimate observations by only 10 dB. In addition, results from modeling based on an independent climatology of evaporation duct heights for the area are shown to be adequate for most propagation assessment purposes. The reliability and reasonable accuracy of the numerical model provides a strong justification for utilizing the technique to assess millimeter wave communication and radar systems operating in many, if not all, ocean regions.

  4. Slow sound in lined flow ducts

    CERN Document Server

    Auregan, Yves

    2015-01-01

    We consider the acoustic propagation in lined flow duct with a purely reactive impedance at the wall. This reacting liner has the capability to reduce the speed of sound, and thus to enhance the interaction between the acoustic propagation and the low Mach number flow ($M\\simeq0.3$). At the lower frequencies, there are typically 4 acoustic or hydrodynamic propagating modes, with 3 of them propagating in the direction of the flow. Above a critical frequency, there are only 2 propagating modes that all propagate in the direction of the flow. From the exact 2D formulation an approximate 1D model is developed to study the scattering of acoustic waves in a straight duct with varying wall impedance. This simple system, with a uniform flow and with a non-uniform liner impedance at the wall, permits to study the scattering between regions with different waves characteristics. Several situations are characterized to show the importance of negative energy waves, strong interactions between acoustic and hydrodynamic mod...

  5. Virgin and irradiated hexagonal subassembly duct crushing test and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of hexagonal subassembly ducts in reactor operating conditions submitted to various static and dynamic loadings is of major interest for safety studies. The material properties of the cold-worked type 316 stainless steel hexcans are particularly heterogeneous because of the remaining cold working gradient between flat and corner and of the irradiation inducing embrittlement, depending on the irradiation temperature, as suggested by the substantial reductions of ductility observed in the tensile tests. Therefore, simple tests were performed on irradiated structure to look for brittle failure and for failure mode identification. Quasi-static crushing tests were undertaken on sections cut from virgin and irradiated 316 SS PHENIX hexcans. A constant vertical deflection rate across the opposite faces of the sections was applied with an INSTRON machine set up in a hot cell; the compressive loads and the loaded corner displacements were recorded at 400 and 560 deg C. On the virgin samples, at 400 and 560 deg C, crack initiations and propagations at the location of maximum stresses were observed. As far as the irradiated ducts are concerned, clean failures occurred in lateral corners. The influence of the irradiation temperature is large: the load-deflection diagrams are quite different at 400 and 560 deg C. Evidence for Young's modulus alteration by irradiation is also presented; elastic-plastic analyses have been made with the bi-dimensional finite element code INCA. Good agreement is observed between the data and the calculations, even at large deflections: this allows to predict the different collapse loads and to obtain the strain values at the collapse points and at the failure locations of the irradiated specimens

  6. Modification of the drift ducts reionization loss estimation for JT-60U NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral beam injection system for JT-60U consists of positive-ion based type(P-NBI) and negative-ion based type(N-NBI). The reionization losses of neutral beams in the drift ducts of both P-NBI and N-NBI are estimated using the data of ambient pressure and gas flow rate into the beamlines. This system was not enough to obtain detail injection power for a long pulse operation. Modifications of the system to obtain reionization loss for a long pulse operation have been conducted. The new system has a capability to measure the pressures of drift duct during operation. The system can calculate the reionization loss automatically during the pulse from the measured pressure. More accurate injection power can be obtained by this new system. (author)

  7. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography utilizing half-Fourier acquisition single-shot fast spin-echo in diagnosing bile duct diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪林; 颜志平; 邱士军

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) utilizing half-Fourier acquisition single-shot fast spin-echo (HASTE) in the diagnosis of bile duct diseases. Methods: Forty-three patients with obstructive jaundice and 4 without were enrolled in this study. The underlying diseases included bile duct calculi (13 cases), chronic cholangitis (14 cases) malignant tumors (18 cases) and congenital biliary cysts (2 cases). All patients underwent examinations with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRCP, and 39 were also examined with B-type ultrasonography, 33 with CT and 25 with ERCP and PTC. Three-dimensional image reconstruction was performed using volume-rendered technique (VRE) on the basis of the data obtained by MRCP. Results: The biliary calculi were displayed as circular filling defects in MRCP images, with the proximal end of dilated bile duct taking the form of the mouth of a cup. The bile duct of patients with chronic cholangitis showed distal end dilation and thinner proximal end without discontinuity. Interception of the bile ducts was most frequent (72.2%) in cases of malignant bile duct obstruction, in which the ducts may also be mastoid or resembling rat tails. 72.2% of the cases had severe dilation of the bile ducts, which occur in only 16.0% of the benign cases, with significant difference between them (P<0.01). In images of intrahepatic biliary cyst, intrahepatic duct dilated in the shape of a bursa in connection with the duct. By MRCP, 20 malignant obstructions of the bile ducts were identified with 2 misdiagnoses, and in 25 cases of benign obstructions identified by MRCP, only 1 misdiagnoses occurred. Thus MRCP had the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 90.0%, 96.3% and 93.6% respectively in discriminating benign and malignant diseases of the bile ducts, showing a total diagnostic accuracy of 94.0% that was similar to that of ERCP (92.0%) but significantly higher than those of both CT

  8. Model predictions for the WAXS signals of healthy and malignant breast duct biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, R. J.

    2014-03-01

    A wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) measurement could potentially be used to determine whether a biopsy of a breast duct is healthy or malignant. A ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) occurs when the epithelial cells lining the wall start to replicate and invade the duct interior. Since cells are composed mainly of water a WAXS signal of DCIS could contain a larger component due to water. A model approximates that a breast duct biopsy consists of connective tissue (c.t.) and cells. For a 2 mm diameter 3.81 mm thick healthy duct biopsy, the volumes in cubic mm are 11.56 c.t. and 0.41 cells whereas 6.64 c.t. and 5.33 cells for DCIS. The differential linear scattering coefficients (μs) for both types of biopsies were calculated using the sum vc.t.μsc.t. + vcellμscell where v denotes fractional volume. The cell was assumed to be composed of water, lipids (fat), and other atoms associated with RNA, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. The μscell was calculated using the sum 0.771μswater + 0.023μsfat + 0.206μsother. The μs of c.t., water, and fat were available from literature whereas the independent atomic model approximation was used to calculate values for μsother. A WAXS model provided predictions of the number of 6 degree scattered photons Ns for incident 50 kV beams on healthy and malignant ducts. The sum of Ns between 31.5 DCIS could potentially be diagnosed via energy dispersive WAXS measurements.

  9. Renal collecting duct carcinoma: Report of a case with unusual imaging findings regarding renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal collecting duct carcinoma (CDC is a rare and aggressive type of renal cell cancer (RCC, which is difficult to confirm before surgery. We present a case of CDC presenting a hypovascular mass on renal CTA and deteriorated renal function of the affected kidney on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, which are different from the most common RCC, clear cell RCC. Considering these findings, it would be worthwhile investigating the role of CTA and SPECT in CDC diagnosis.

  10. Performance estimation of artificially roughened solar air heater duct provided with continuous ribs

    OpenAIRE

    Mridul Sharma, Varun

    2010-01-01

    The use of an artificial roughness on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the duct of a solar air heater. This paper presents a comparison of exergetic performance of solar air heaters having different types of geometry of roughness elements (continuous ribs) on the absorber plate. The exergy efficiency has been computed by using the correlations for heat transfer and friction factor developed by various investigators within the investigat...

  11. Renal collecting duct carcinoma: Report of a case with unusual imaging findings regarding renal function

    OpenAIRE

    Longwang Wang; Li Peng; Teng Hou; Ying Shi

    2013-01-01

    Renal collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare and aggressive type of renal cell cancer (RCC), which is difficult to confirm before surgery. We present a case of CDC presenting a hypovascular mass on renal CTA and deteriorated renal function of the affected kidney on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), which are different from the most common RCC, clear cell RCC. Considering these findings, it would be worthwhile investigating the role of CTA and SPECT in CDC diagnosis.

  12. Do We Know What Causes Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can bile duct cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes bile duct cancer? We don’t know the exact cause of most ... genes – the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  13. Seismic assessment of the Pickering pressure relief duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the study are to examine the structural response of the Pickering pressure relief duct when subjected to earthquake ground motion and to estimate the seismic withstand capacity of various components of the structural system on the basis of performance criteria consistent with the safety function of the duct. (author). 24 refs., 16 tabs., 31 figs

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... to top » Guide Topics What Is Bile Duct Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  15. Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J.D.; Waxler, R.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the state of the polar vortex in the midlatitudes changed significantly due to a minor sudden stratospheric warming event. As a result, a bidirectional duct for infrasound propagation developed in the middle atmosphere that persisted for 2 weeks. The ducts were due to two zonal wind

  16. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber and...

  17. Cystic duct closure by sealing with bipolar electrocoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, S; Damgaard, B; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Larsen, S S; Kristiansen, V B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic duct leakage after cholecystectomy is not uncommon and is a potentially serious complication. The aim of this study was to assess a bipolar sealing system (LigaSure) for closure of the cystic duct. METHODS: The records from consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in...

  18. Congenital bile duct dilatation (Caroli's disease - Grumbach's disease)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital bile duct dilatation is an autosomal recessive inherited disease. Pathologically tortuous dilated, dyplastic intrahepatic bile ducts were found. It may be associated with hepatic fibrosis (Grumbach's disease), or without (Caroli's disease). A common additional finding is an infantile polycystic kidney. Three cases are reported and the radiological and sonographic findings are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Research on Power Line as Communication Channel with Multi-Tap and Multi-Branch Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of different branch configuration on transmission characteristic in-home low-voltage (LV communication power line communication (PLC channel, the influences of branch length, number of branch and tap, and branch terminal impedance on the performance of PLC are investigated. The two type power line network structures of the one-tap with multi-branch (OTMB and the multi-tap with multi-branch (MTMB are studied. The transmission characteristics of the PLC channel are simulated by varying the length and terminal impedance of the branch for two configurations. Simulation results show that the length and terminal impedance of the branch have significant influence on the amplitude and phase response of the transfer function. The position and number of notches and crests in the amplitude responses are affected by different branch types and the configurations of branch length and branch terminal impedance. The models developed in this paper can easily handle an arbitrary topology of power line channel and provide accurate calculation for the channel responses of the all kinds of channel branch structures in indoor LV power line network

  20. Dust explosion accident in IC cleanroom and its prevention by automation; IC seizo clean room deno haiki duct funjin bakuhatsu jiko to jidoka ni yoru saihatsu boshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-30

    This paper describes dust explosion accident in IC cleanroom and its prevention measures. A dust explosion occurred during periodical cleaning works of dust deposits in an exhaust duct of plasma CVD system in an IC factory in Toyama Prefecture in August, 1996, which killed one worker. Dust was removed by flowing a large amount of air in the duct from the end of duct. This dust is combustible, and it was well known that a dust explosion occurs when mixed with air. Nitrogen gas is used for the transport of powders with high risk of explosion, such as wheat flour and toner, and the full automatic operation is adopted. The prevention of this accident is to adopt automation based on the principle of powder transportation. A safety detection-type safety system has been proposed so as to remove the dust deposits in the duct automatically as well as to detect the deposition conditions in the duct. Based on the comparison between monitoring data of operation in an exhaust duct and past data, operation conditions of duct can be confirmed to ensure the safety by stopping the CVD system urgently when safety can not be confirmed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Angiographic Findings of Extrahepatic Branches Originating from Hepatic Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong Wang; Ren-jie Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the presentation and variation of extrahepatic branches originating from hepatic artery by hepatic arteriography.Methods: Hepatic arteriogram of 200 cases with unresectable hepatic primary or metastatic tumors before interventional therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Two interventional radiologists independently reviewed the type, originating artery, distribution and variation of extrahepatic artery.Results: Five types of extrahepatic artery were found, with the most common type of the right gastric artery (n=156, 78%), followed by the cystic artery (n=126, 63%), accessory left gastric artery (n=19, 9.5%), hepatic falciform artery (n=5, 2.5%), and accessory left inferior phrenic artery (n=4, 2%). In 188 cases, there were extrahepatic arteries derived from hepatic proper artery or its branches, and the most frequent originating site was the right hepatic artery (130 extrahepatic branches), followed by the proper hepatic artery (103 branches), left hepatic artery (56 branches) and middle hepatic artery (3 branches). The left hepatic artery was the arising site with the multiple types of extrahepatic branches including all above branches except the cystic artery.Conclusion: Many types of extrahepatic branches usually derive from the hepatic artery or its distal branches, and its originating sites are not constant. It is important to avoid damage of extrahepatic tissue during interventional therapy for liver tumors.

  2. A new evaporation duct climatology over the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Yang, Kunde; Yang, Yixin; Ma, Yuanliang

    2015-10-01

    The climatology of evaporation ducts is important for shipborne electromagnetic system design and application. The evaporation duct climatology that is currently used for such applications was developed in the mid 1980s; this study presents efforts to improve it over the South China Sea (SCS) by using a state-of-the-art evaporation duct model and an improved meteorology dataset. This new climatology provides better evaporation duct height (EDH) data over the SCS, at a higher resolution of 0.312°×0.313°. A comparison between the new climatology and the old one is performed. The monthly average EDH in the new climatology is between 10 and 12 m over the SCS, higher than that in the old climatology. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the evaporation duct over the SCS in different months are analyzed in detail, based on the new climatology.

  3. Consistent approach to air-cleaning system duct design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant air-cleaning system effectiveness is dependent on the capability of a duct system to safely convey contaminated gas to a filtration unit and subsequently to a point of discharge. This paper presents a logical and consistent design approach for selecting sheet metal ductwork construction to meet applicable criteria. The differences in design engineers' duct construction specifications are acknowledged. Typical duct construction details and suggestions for their effective use are presented. Improvements in duct design sections of ANSI/ASME N509-80 are highlighted. A detailed leakage analysis of a control room HVAC system is undertaken to illustrate the effects of conceptual design variations on duct construction requirements. Shortcomings of previously published analyses and interpretations of a current standard are included

  4. Extravasation Mucocele Arising from a Lingual Thyroglossal Duct Remnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiko Nakahira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital anomaly, it can also appear in adults. Despite the presence of embryological remnants, it is still unclear why the cyst should suddenly develop later in life. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with an extravasation mucocele arising from a long-standing lingual thyroglossal duct remnant. MRI demonstrated a lingual cystic lesion near the hyoid bone associated with a suprahyoid tract-like structure masquerading as a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, histopathological examination demonstrated a mucocele secondary to a rupture of a thyroglossal duct remnant with numerous intramural heterotopic salivary glands. We propose a new mechanism of an acquired cystic formation of this congenital disease that excessive production of mucus from heterotopic salivary glands and a physical trauma such as swallowing may lead to extravasation of mucus from the thyroglossal duct.

  5. Cystic duct remnant mucocele in a liver transplant recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Sushil K. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington, DC (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Fishbien, Thomas M. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington, DC (United States); Haddad, Nadim G. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Cystic duct remnant mucocele is an extremely rare complication of liver transplantation in children. Surgical correction is usually required for cystic duct remnant mucocele when it causes biliary obstruction. We describe a 14-month-old liver transplant recipient who presented with biliary obstruction 1 month after orthotopic liver transplantation with an end-to-end choledochocholedocal biliary anastomosis for hepatoblastoma. US, CT and cholangiography findings were consistent with mucocele of the allograft cystic duct remnant. Surgery was not needed in our patient because the mucocele and biliary obstruction had resolved on repeat imaging most likely due to guidewire manipulation during cholangiography, resulting in opening of the cystic duct remnant orifice and drainage into the common duct. (orig.)

  6. Cystic duct remnant mucocele in a liver transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cystic duct remnant mucocele is an extremely rare complication of liver transplantation in children. Surgical correction is usually required for cystic duct remnant mucocele when it causes biliary obstruction. We describe a 14-month-old liver transplant recipient who presented with biliary obstruction 1 month after orthotopic liver transplantation with an end-to-end choledochocholedocal biliary anastomosis for hepatoblastoma. US, CT and cholangiography findings were consistent with mucocele of the allograft cystic duct remnant. Surgery was not needed in our patient because the mucocele and biliary obstruction had resolved on repeat imaging most likely due to guidewire manipulation during cholangiography, resulting in opening of the cystic duct remnant orifice and drainage into the common duct. (orig.)

  7. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in common bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljebreen Abdulrahman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When the clinical features strongly suggest the presence of bile duct stones, management is fairly straightforward; diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC may in some cases constitute the entire strategy. Unfortunately, the clinical picture is often equivocal or uncertain. Although stones are unlikely to be present in the bile duct when the clinical index of suspicion is low, their presence can never be completely ruled out based on clinical and biochemical parameters. Thus, an accurate, noninvasive, reliable, and safe method for bile duct imaging would be highly advantageous. Low-risk tests, such as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS, are emerging as reliable substitutes for diagnostic ERC. This review highlights the technical aspects of examining the extra-hepatic biliary duct system and the performance and results of EUS in diagnosing patients who present with possible common bile duct stones.

  8. Primary salivary duct carcinoma of the lung, mucin-rich variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Grimes, Brandon S; Xian, Rena R; Lee, Jay M; Barjaktarevic, Igor; Xu, Haodong

    2016-01-01

    Primary salivary gland-type lung cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the seromucinous glands of the respiratory tract. Histopathologically, they are identical to salivary gland neoplasms of the head and neck. While mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are overwhelmingly the most common subtypes found in the lung, reports of uncommon subtypes can be found in the literature. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman with primary lung salivary duct carcinoma, mucin-rich variant--an exceedingly rare subtype of an already rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm. One case of primary lung salivary duct carcinoma has been reported in the literature; however, the mucin-rich variant has never been described in the lung. Furthermore, the tumor in our case bears a rare BRAF G464V mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a BRAF G464V mutation detected in a salivary duct carcinoma or any other salivary-type neoplasm. PMID:26527521

  9. New branching rules induced by plethysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive group branching laws for formal characters of subgroups Hπ of GL(n) leaving invariant an arbitrary tensor Tπ of Young symmetry type π where π is an integer partition. The branchings GL(n) ↓ GL(n-1), GL(n) ↓ O(n) and GL(2n) ↓ Sp(2n) fixing a vector vi, a symmetric tensor gij = gji and an antisymmetric tensor fij = -fji, respectively, are obtained as special cases. All new branchings are governed by Schur function series obtained from plethysms of the Schur function sπ ≡ {π} by the basic M series of complete symmetric functions and the L = M-1 series of elementary symmetric functions. Our main technical tool is that of Hopf algebras and our main result is the derivation of a coproduct for any Schur function series obtained by plethysm from another such series. Therefrom one easily obtains π-generalized Newell-Littlewood formulae and the algebra of the formal group characters of these subgroups is established. Concrete examples and extensive tabulations are displayed for H13, H21 and H3, showing their involved and nontrivial representation theory. The nature of the subgroups is shown to be in general affine and in some instances non-reductive. We discuss the complexity of the coproduct formula and give a graphical notation to cope with it. We also discuss the way in which the group branching laws can be reinterpreted as twisted structures deformed by highly nontrivial 2-cocycles. The algebra of subgroup characters is identified as a cliffordization of the algebra of symmetric functions for GL(n) formal characters. Modification rules are beyond the scope of the present paper, but are briefly discussed

  10. Investigation of Advanced Counterrotation Blade Configuration Concepts for High Speed Turboprop Systems. Task 2: Unsteady Ducted Propfan Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Bettner, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective was the development of a time dependent 3-D Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems at angle of attack. The resulting computer codes are referred to as Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes (ADPAC). A computer program user's manual is presented for the ADPAC. Aerodynamic calculations were based on a four stage Runge-Kutta time marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. A time accurate implicit residual smoothing operator was used for unsteady flow predictions. For unducted propfans, a single H-type grid was used to discretize each blade passage of the complete propeller. For ducted propfans, a coupled system of five grid blocks utilizing an embedded C grid about the cowl leading edge was used to discretize each blade passage. Grid systems were generated by a combined algebraic/elliptic algorithm developed specifically for ducted propfans. Numerical calculations were compared with experimental data for both ducted and unducted flows.

  11. Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wysocki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6 cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC. Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient’s poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas.

  12. Novel Branches of (0,2) Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Quigley, Callum; Stern, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We show that recently proposed linear sigma models with torsion can be obtained from unconventional branches of conventional gauge theories. This observation puts models with log interactions on firm footing. If non-anomalous multiplets are integrated out, the resulting low-energy theory involves log interactions of neutral fields. For these cases, we find a sigma model geometry which is both non-toric and includes brane sources. These are heterotic sigma models with branes. Surprisingly, there are massive models with compact complex non-Kahler target spaces, which include brane/anti-brane sources. The simplest conformal models describe wrapped heterotic NS5-branes. We present examples of both types.

  13. PERSISTENT MULLERIAN DUCT SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddalingeshwar V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : A 3-year-old boy presenting with right inguinal hernia was found to have uterus, fallopian tube and testes in a position analogous to ovaries in hernial sac, warranting a diagnosis of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS. PMDS is an extremely rare form of internal male pseudo-hermaphroditism in which female internal sex organs, including the uterus, cervix and proximal vagina, persist in a 46XY male with normal external genitalia. The condition results from a congenital insensitivity to anti-Mullerian hormone, or lack of anti-Mullerian hormone, leading to persistence of the female internal sex organs in a male. Clinically, this condition is associated with cryptochoridism. Controversy persists regarding the appropriate treatment of PMDS, since resection of the remnant structures is associated with potential morbidity, but retention risks development of occasional malignancies. We review the literature and discuss various aspects of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of PMDS.

  14. Hollow-duct radiation delivery system investigation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fibrich, Martin; Rus, Bedřich; Kramer, Daniel

    Praha : IPP AS CR - TOPTEC, 2012 - (Vít, T.; Kovačičinová, J.; Lédl, V.), 13-16 ISBN 978-80-87026-02-1. [OaM 2012 International Conference on Optics and Measurement. Liberec (CZ), 16.10.2012-18.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0091 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OP VK 1 LaserSys(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0091 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser * diode-array-radiation * hollow -duct radiation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  15. Common bile duct pathologies at nawabshah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the causes, presentation, management and outcome of Common Bile Duct (CBD) pathologies. All patients who presented with CBD pathologies. Data of all the patients with CBD pathologies was collected and entered on a proforma, including their complaints, positive examination findings, investigations, diagnosis, procedure performed and its outcome. During the study period 45 patients presented with CBD pathology. Amongst them 14 were males and the rest females (31), with a mean age of 36.7 years. Around 67% patients had choledocholithiasis as the commonest cause. Exploration of the CBD with T-tube insertion was the commonest procedure, performed in 69% patients. About 4% patients had retained stones and 20% developed wound infection. Mean hospital stay was 13 days. Most common pathology involving the CBD was secondary stones; 95% patients had associated gall stones also. (author)

  16. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  17. A computable branching process for the Wigner quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Sihong

    2016-01-01

    A branching process treatment for the nonlocal Wigner pseudo-differential operator and its numerical applications in quantum dynamics is proposed and analyzed. We start from the discussion on two typical truncations of the nonlocal term, i.e., the $k$-truncated and $y$-truncated models. After introducing an auxiliary function $\\gamma(\\bm{x})$, the (truncated) Wigner equation is reformulated into the integral formulation as well as its adjoint correspondence, both of which can be regarded as the renewal-type equations and have transparent stochastic interpretation. We prove that the moment of a branching process happens to be the solution for the adjoint equation, which connects rigorously the Wigner quantum dynamics to the stochastic branching process, and thus a sound mathematical framework for the Wigner Monte Carlo methods is established. Within the framework, the branching process for the $y$-truncated model recovers the popular signed particle Monte Carlo method which needs a discretization of the moment...

  18. Kodiak: An Implementation Framework for Branch and Bound Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Markevicius, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    Recursive branch and bound algorithms are often used to refine and isolate solutions to several classes of global optimization problems. A rigorous computation framework for the solution of systems of equations and inequalities involving nonlinear real arithmetic over hyper-rectangular variable and parameter domains is presented. It is derived from a generic branch and bound algorithm that has been formally verified, and utilizes self-validating enclosure methods, namely interval arithmetic and, for polynomials and rational functions, Bernstein expansion. Since bounds computed by these enclosure methods are sound, this approach may be used reliably in software verification tools. Advantage is taken of the partial derivatives of the constraint functions involved in the system, firstly to reduce the branching factor by the use of bisection heuristics and secondly to permit the computation of bifurcation sets for systems of ordinary differential equations. The associated software development, Kodiak, is presented, along with examples of three different branch and bound problem types it implements.

  19. Finite-size scaling of survival probability in branching processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-04-01

    Branching processes pervade many models in statistical physics. We investigate the survival probability of a Galton-Watson branching process after a finite number of generations. We derive analytically the existence of finite-size scaling for the survival probability as a function of the control parameter and the maximum number of generations, obtaining the critical exponents as well as the exact scaling function, which is G (y ) =2 y ey /(ey-1 ) , with y the rescaled distance to the critical point. Our findings are valid for any branching process of the Galton-Watson type, independently of the distribution of the number of offspring, provided its variance is finite. This proves the universal behavior of the finite-size effects in branching processes, including the universality of the metric factors. The direct relation to mean-field percolation is also discussed.

  20. Computer simulation of long-chain branching and branching indexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    Vienna : University of Vienna, 2014. s. 22. [International Conference on Polymer Behaviour /6./. 22.09.2014-26.09.2014, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  1. STUDY ON VARIATIONS OF INFERIOR SEGMENTAL BRANCH OF RENAL ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandragirish S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The segmental arteries of the kidney supply the organ in such a way that, each renal pole receives its own artery while, the anterior portion between the poles is supplied by an upper and lower segmental vessel. These two arteries also include in their territory the lateral edge of the kidney and adjacent to the strip of parenchyma on the dorsal or posterior aspect of the organ. The knowledge of inferior segmental branch of renal artery is very important for surgeries in its distribution area in kidney. Materials and Methods: 100 kidneys (Fifty pairs intact with abdominal aorta were collected from department of Forensic medicine, JSS Medical College and Mysore Medical College. For study of segmental variation Corrosion cast technique method was used. The variations of inferior segmental branch of renal artery were observed and recorded. Results: In present study type I inferior segmental branch of renal artery were found in - 59% cases, type II in - 6% cases, type III in - 28% cases, type IV in - 2% cases. Conclusion: The inferior segmental artery from the anterior division of the renal artery is the commonest event –arising in 59%. This is Type I, the normal type. It arises from the renal artery (28% or from the posterior division (6% or from the aorta (2%. The knowledge of inferior segmental branch of renal artery helpful in kidney transplantation and renal surgery because these type of surgeries success mainly depends on arterial ligations.

  2. Mechanical properties of the porcine bile duct wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Helle

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim The function of the common bile duct is to transport bile from the liver and the gall bladder to the duodenum. Since the bile duct is a distensible tube consisting mainly of connective tissue, it is important to obtain data on the passive mechanical wall properties. The aims of this study were to study morphometric and biomechanical wall properties during distension of the bile duct. Methods Ten normal porcine common bile ducts were examined in vitro. A computer-controlled volume ramp infusion system with concomitant pressure recordings was constructed. A video camera provided simultaneous measurement of outer dimensions of the common bile duct. Wall stresses and strains were computed. Results The common bile duct length increased by 25% from 24.4 ± 1.8 mm at zero pressure to 30.5 ± 2.0 mm at 5 kPa (p (βε - 1. The circumferential stress-strain curve was shifted to the left when compared to the longitudinal stress-strain curve, i.e. the linear constants (α values were different (p 0.5. Conclusion The porcine bile duct exhibited nonlinear anisotropic mechanical properties.

  3. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the bile duct: A case report and review of the published work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fujikura, Kohei; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Takenaka, Mamoru; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson; Azuma, Takeshi; Zen, Yoh

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a peculiar tumor mimicking intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms (ITPN) of the pancreas can develop in the bile duct. Here, we present a similar case and review the published work on the newly proposed biliary neoplasm. A 68-year-old woman was referred to us for further evaluation of a liver mass. On imaging, the tumor was 40 mm in size and intraductal in location, and was enhanced slightly on the contrast-enhanced computed tomography. No mucin overproduction was found. She underwent right hepatectomy for suspected intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. The tumor histologically consisted of the biliary-type epithelium arranged in a tubular architecture within the dilated bile duct. Tumor cells had features of high-grade dysplasia but no stroma invasion. No expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC were noted. On molecular studies, KRAS and GNAS appeared to be wild-type genotypes. These features were in keeping with ITPN. In the published work review, "biliary ITPN" described in four manuscripts were characterized by predominantly intrahepatic/hilar in location, histological tubular architecture, negative expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC, and uncommon alterations of KRAS, GNAS and BRAF. Although invasive malignancy was present in 71%, the outcome was favorable with the 5-year survival expected to be approximately 90%. Biliary ITPN are supposedly uncommon, but a greater awareness of this condition may give more chance to diagnose the underrecognized neoplasm. PMID:26459784

  4. Improvement of economy of wave power generation by Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floating type wave power generator KAIMEI test by JAMSTEC certified mooring safety, long life of turbine and generator and cable line, but conversion efficiency from wave power to air-output was poor. This paper describes Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) which has high conversion efficiency, and it has frontward movement in wave by function of bent duct. In addition, improvement of turbine and generator solved technical problems, double rotor Wells turbine and Heller's Generator are introduced. High wave power locals on high latitude area, and east coast of ocean, for example, North-West of USA has very high wave power. BBDB is designed and power cost is calculated by water tank data, and sea test data and cost estimations by several sources and sea wave data. Power cost by BBDB on high wave area is estimated to be cheap enough for commercial use

  5. Performance estimation of artificially roughened solar air heater duct provided with continuous ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Sharma, Varun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of an artificial roughness on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the duct of a solar air heater. This paper presents a comparison of exergetic performance of solar air heaters having different types of geometry of roughness elements (continuous ribs on the absorber plate. The exergy efficiency has been computed by using the correlations for heat transfer and friction factor developed by various investigators within the investigated range of operating and system parameters. The exergy efficiency based criterion shows the better results at lower value of Re. There is not a single roughness geometry which gives best exergetic performance for whole range of Reynolds number. Solar air heater having rib-grooved and arc shaped wire as artificial roughness is found to have better exergy efficiency in the lower range of Reynolds number. However, smooth duct is found suitable in the higher range of Reynolds number.

  6. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  7. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  8. Multi-Level Flow Branching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    Praha: UTAM AV ČR, 2006 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 380-381 ISBN 80-86246-27-2. [Engineering mechanics 2006 : national conference with international participation. Svratka (CZ), 15.05.2006-18.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : branching * respiratory system * aortic system * microfluidics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  9. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50. PMID:24010026

  10. Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.

  11. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  12. Scintigraphic and echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary flow after percutaneous closure of patent arterial duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: During the evolution of patients submitted to percutaneous closure of a patent arterial duct (PAD), some degree of protrusion of the occlusive device into the left pulmonary arterial branch has been described. Aim: We tested the hypothesis that patients (pts) with device protrusion have also decreased pulmonary blood perfusion. Material and Methods: We studied 70 pts submitted to percutaneous closure of the PAD with Gianturco coils (mean age: 8.6, median: 7.5 years), with a mean time follow-up of 55 months. Comprehensive Doppler echocardiographic studies were performed. We calculated the percentage of difference of blood flow velocities between the left and right pulmonary arterial branches. Pulmonary scintigraphy was performed using an intravenous injection of 99mTc labeled human albumin macroaggregates to evaluate bilateral lung perfusion ( relative quantification ). The same determinations were performed in 22 controls. Results: 66 pts (94,3%) showed some degree of protrusion of the device into the left pulmonary artery. Patients were grouped according to the difference in the percentage of flow velocity between arterial branches as detected by Doppler: ≥ 30% (16 pts, group A); < 30% (54 pts, group B) and controls (22 pts, group C). The mean value of left lung perfusion was significantly lower in group A (41.9% ± 3,2%), compared to group B (46.8% ± 1,93 %) and to group C (46,8% ± 2,4%) (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.001). There was a significant negative linear correlation between the values of left lung perfusion and the percentage difference of blood flow velocities. Conclusion: Protrusion of the occlusive device in pts with PAD is not always associated to pulmonary artery obstruction. However, pts showing blood flow acceleration ≥30% at the left pulmonary arterial branch by Doppler have significantly lower values of lung perfusion

  13. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 6; Theoretical Analysis for Coupling of Active Noise Control Actuator Ring Sources to an Annular Duct with Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an analytical model for the coupling of active noise control (ANC) piston-type actuators that are mounted flush to the inner and outer walls of an annular duct to the modes in the duct generated by the actuator motion. The analysis will be used to couple the ANC actuators to the modal analysis propagation computer program for the annular duct, to predict the effects of active suppression of fan-generated engine noise sources. This combined program will then be available to assist in the design or evaluation of ANC systems in fan engine annular exhaust ducts. An analysis has been developed to predict the modes generated in an annular duct due to the coupling of flush-mounted ring actuators on the inner and outer walls of the duct. The analysis has been combined with a previous analysis for the coupling of modes to a cylindrical duct in a FORTRAN computer program to perform the computations. The method includes the effects of uniform mean flow in the duct. The program can be used for design or evaluation purposes for active noise control hardware for turbofan engines. Predictions for some sample cases modeled after the geometry of the NASA Lewis ANC Fan indicate very efficient coupling in both the inlet and exhaust ducts for the m = 6 spinning mode at frequencies where only a single radial mode is cut-on. Radial mode content in higher order cut-off modes at the source plane and the required actuator displacement amplitude to achieve 110 dB SPL levels in the desired mode were predicted. Equivalent cases with and without flow were examined for the cylindrical and annular geometry, and little difference was found for a duct flow Mach number of 0.1. The actuator ring coupling program will be adapted as a subroutine to the cylindrical duct modal analysis and the exhaust duct modal analysis. This will allow the fan source to be defined in terms of characteristic modes at the fan source plane and predict the propagation to the

  14. Determination of the evaporation duct height from standard meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. K.; Shalyapin, V. N.; Levadnyi, Yu. V.

    2007-02-01

    Four models used for evaluating the height of the evaporation duct from measured atmospheric pressure, water and air temperatures, and air humidity are considered.The calculated results are compared with the duct heights measured during two oceanographic expeditions in the tropical zone of the Atlantic Ocean and the equatorial zone of the Indian Ocean. The sensitivity of models to the errors in the meteorological parameters is investigated. It is shown that, in the case of unstable stratification, the heights of ducts in the 5 20-m range can be evaluated with an error of about 2.5 m. Recommendations for selection of optimal models are given.

  15. Millimetre-wave propagation in the evaporation duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. F.; Craig, K. H.

    1990-03-01

    Recent developments in propagation modeling based on the Parabolic Equation Method allow the forecasting of two-dimensional antenna coverage diagrams at millimeter wavelengths, in a dispersive atmosphere with arbitrary two-dimensional variation of the refractive index. The model was applied successfully to mm-wave propagation in the evaporation duct. The evaporation duct height is not sufficient to characterize mm-wave propagation, and information on the water vapor content is essential for the correct modeling of atmospheric absorption. Turbulence simulations were carried out, showing marked scintillation, effects in the evaporation duct. The method can be applied to arbitrary refractivity spectra, and gives a complete numerical description of the field statistics.

  16. EFFECT OF AIRFLOW AND HEAT INPUT RATES ON DUCT EFFICIENCY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-05-28

    Reducing the airflow and heat input rates of a furnace that is connected to a duct system in thermal contact with unconditioned spaces can significantly reduce thermal distribution efficiency. This is a straightforward theoretical calculation based on the increased residence time of the air in the duct at the lower flow rate, which results in greater conduction losses. Experimental tests in an instrumented residential-size duct system have confirmed this prediction. Results are compared with the heat-loss algorithm in ASHRAE Standid 152P. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible remedies for this loss of efficiency in existing systems and optional design strategies in new construction.

  17. Effects of explosion-generated shock waves in ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explosion in a space causes an increase in temperature and pressure. To quantify the challenge that will be presented to essential components in a ventilation system, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of a shock wave generated by an explosion, with attention directed to the propagation of such a wave in a duct. Using the equations of unsteady flow and shock tube theory, a theoretical model has been formulated to provide flow properties behind moving shock waves that have interacted with various changes in duct geometry. Empirical equations have been derived to calculate air pressure, temperature, Mach number, and velocity in a duct following an explosion

  18. BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON Fasciola hepatica AND CATTLE BILIARY DUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panebianco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of bacteria in Fasciola hepatica and into cattle biliary ducts containing the parasite. A total of 24 liver and 58 F. hepatica samples were analysed. In all biliary ducts and in 62,06% of parasite Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. The bacterial specie more frequently isolated from parasite were Citrobacter freundii (34%, Proteus mirabilis (18%, Providencia rettgeri (12%, Staphylococcus spp. (18%, Enterobacter spp. (12%. There doesn’t appear to be a correlation between bacterial specie from parasite and ducts. The Authors conclude with some related inspective consideration.

  19. Subsonic Flows through S-Ducts with Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi

    An inlet duct of an aircraft connects the air intake mounted on the fuselage to the engine within the aircraft body. The ideal outflow quality of the duct is steady, uniform and of high total pressure. Recently compact S-shaped inlet ducts are drawing more attention in the design of UAVs with short propulsion system. Compact ducts usually involve strong streamwise adverse pressure gradient and transverse secondary flow, leading to large-scale harmful vortical structures in the outflow. To improve the outflow quality modern flow control techniques have to be applied. Before designing successful flow control methods a solid understanding of the baseline flow field with the duct is crucial. In this work the fundamental mechanism of how the three dimensional flow topology evolves when the relevant parameters such as the duct geometry and boundary layer thickness are varied, is studied carefully. Two distinct secondary-flow patterns are identified. For the first time the sensitivity of the flow topology to the inflow boundary layer thickness in long ducts is clearly addressed. The interaction between the transverse motion induced by the transverse pressure gradient and the streamwise separation is revealed as the crucial reason for the various flow patterns existing in short ducts. A non-symmetric flow pattern is identified for the first time in both experiments and simulations in short ducts in which the intensity of the streamwise separation and the transverse invasion are in the same order of magnitude. A theory of energy accumulation and solution bifurcation is used to give a reasonable explanation for this non-symmetry. After gaining the knowledge of where and how the harmful vortical structures are generated several flow control techniques are tested to achieve a better outflow quality. The analysis of the flow control cases also provides a deeper insight into the behavior of the three-dimensional flow within the ducts. The conventional separation control method

  20. Investigation of Control Effectors for Ducted Fan VTOL UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jr., W. A.

    2007-01-01

    Ducted fan VTOL UAVs are currently being designed for use by the Army for surveillance and reconnaissance in the battlefield. The vehicle tested in this research is part of the Honeywell MAV program. Able to be carried in a backpack by a single soldier, it has a duct diameter of 11.5-in. and weighs approximately 20-lbs at takeoff. It is designed for flight up to 50-knots with fan speeds varying between 5000 and 8500 RPM. Reynolds numbers, based on the duct diameter, were on the order of R...

  1. Long-term outcome of ischemic type biliary stricture after interventional treatment in liver living donors: a report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Shin; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Park, Gil-Chun; Jung, Bo-Hyun; Kwang, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The wall of normal proximal bile duct is occasionally thin with close approximation to the right hepatic artery. Thus, isolation of this hepatic artery can result in excessive weakening of the remnant proximal bile duct wall during hemiliver graft harvest. This type of injury can induce ischemic stricture of the donor common bile duct. This study aimed to review the clinical sequences of such ischemic type donor bile duct injuries primarily managed with endoscopic and radiological interventio...

  2. Observations of Strong Surface Radar Ducts over the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ian M.; Goroch, Andreas K.; Rogers, David P.

    1999-09-01

    Ducting of microwave radiation is a common phenomenon over the oceans. The height and strength of the duct are controlling factors for radar propagation and must be determined accurately to assess propagation ranges. A surface evaporation duct commonly forms due to the large gradient in specific humidity just above the sea surface; a deeper surface-based or elevated duct frequently is associated with the sudden change in temperature and humidity across the boundary layer inversion.In April 1996 the U.K. Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules research aircraft took part in the U.S. Navy Ship Antisubmarine Warfare Readiness/Effectiveness Measuring exercise (SHAREM-115) in the Persian Gulf by providing meteorological support and making measurements for the study of electromagnetic and electro-optical propagation. The boundary layer structure over the Gulf is influenced strongly by the surrounding desert landmass. Warm dry air flows from the desert over the cooler waters of the Gulf. Heat loss to the surface results in the formation of a stable internal boundary layer. The layer evolves continuously along wind, eventually forming a new marine atmospheric boundary layer. The stable stratification suppresses vertical mixing, trapping moisture within the layer and leading to an increase in refractive index and the formation of a strong boundary layer duct. A surface evaporation duct coexists with the boundary layer duct.In this paper the authors present aircraft- and ship-based observations of both the surface evaporation and boundary layer ducts. A series of sawtooth aircraft profiles map the boundary layer structure and provide spatially distributed estimates of the duct depth. The boundary layer duct is found to have considerable spatial variability in both depth and strength, and to evolve along wind over distances significant to naval operations (100 km). The depth of the evaporation duct is derived from a bulk parameterization based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory

  3. 基于雷达海杂波的区域性非均匀蒸发波导反演方法∗%Inversion of regional range-dep endent evap oration duct from radar sea clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金鹏; 张玉石; 吴振森; 张玉生; 胡荣旭

    2015-01-01

    Because the weather conditions in different sea areas are different, the evaporation duct occurring over a large sea surface is normally regional and range-dependent. This property results in the fact that the radio wave propagation within the environment of this type is distinct from that within the range-independent evaporation duct environment. Therefore, it is meaningful to perform the regional range-dependent evaporation duct inversion for accurately predicting radio wave propagation and improving radar performance. From among the variety of ways of detecting evaporation duct in practical application, we adopt the regional modified refractivity profile of evaporation duct predicted by the mesoscale numerical weather model MM5 as the prior information, and propose a posterior probability estimation model of the regional range-dependent evaporation duct on the basis of the radar sea clutter power. First, in this model we use the principal component analysis method to model the range-dependent property of evaporation duct, and on this basis, establish the inversion procedure of the range-dependent evaporation duct by using the radar sea clutter. Then, we obtain the relationship among prior probability distribution, posterior probability distribution, and likelihood function of the parameters of the modified refractivity profile by using the Bayesian theory, and finally realize the maximum posterior probability estimation of the evaporation duct parameters. By estimating the real regional range-dependent evaporation duct over East China Sea, it is indicated that the proposed model can perform the inversion of regional range-dependent evaporation duct with a higher precision.

  4. Meandering Main Pancreatic Duct in a Case of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Prakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meandering main pancreatic duct is an anatomical variant of main pancreatic duct, characterized by abnormal configuration of the duct in pancreatic head region. Meandering pancreatic duct can be underlying cause for recurrent pancreatitis. This less common variant can be easily diagnosed on imaging, particularly magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

  5. ß-adrenergic regulation of ion transport in pancreatic ducts: Patch-clamp study of isolated rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I

    1998-01-01

    . METHODS: Small intralobular ducts were isolated from rat pancreas and studied in vitro by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cell membrane voltages and currents were indicators of cellular ion transport. In some ducts, intracellular Ca2+ activity was measured by fluorescence optical methods. RESULTS......: Unstimulated duct cells had a membrane voltage (Vm) of about -50 mV. Isoproterenol had a concentration-dependent effect on Vm; at 10(-7) mol/L, it depolarized Vm by 20-25 mV and the cell conductance increased by 100 nanosiemens. These effects were a result of opening of luminal Cl- channels. Phenylephrine had...

  6. Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de; Rosier, Vitor Veloso; Luz, Tovar Vicente; Verde, Raquel Crisóstomo Lima; Lima, Clara Mônica Figueiredo de; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access. PMID:25992160

  7. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, P. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  8. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels in...

  9. Persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction in an adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haridimos Markogiannakis; Dimitrios Theodorou; Konstantinos G Toutouzas; Panagiotis Drimousis; Sotirios Georgios Panoussopoulos; Stilianos Katsaragakis

    2007-01-01

    An extremely rare case of persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction is presented. A 20-year-old female patient without medical history presented with colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, absence of passage of gas and feces, and abdominal distension of 24 h duration. Physical examination and blood tests were normal. Abdominal X-ray showed small bowel obstruction.Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated dilated small bowel and a band originating from the umbilicus and continuing between the small bowel loops;an omphalomesenteric duct remnant was suspected. In exploratory laparotomy, persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction was identified and resected. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the 5th postoperative day. Although persistent omphalomesenteric duct is an extremely infrequent cause of small bowel obstruction in adult patients, it should be taken into consideration in patients without any previous surgical history.

  10. Nasolacrimal duct mucocele: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de; Rosier, Vitor Veloso; Luz, Tovar Vicente; Verde, Raquel Crisóstomo Lima; Lima, Clara Mônica Figueiredo de; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access. PMID:25992160

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation; specifically for use in humid climates.

  12. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of...

  13. Design requirement on KALIMER control rod assembly duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the design guidelines which are needs for designing the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER as design requirements. it describes control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER and its requirements that includes functional requirements, performance requirements, interfacing systems, design limits and strength requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The control rod system consists of three parts, which are drive mechanism, drive-line, and absorber bundle. This report deals with the absorber bundle and its outer duct only because the others are beyond the scope of fuel system design. The guidelines for design requirements intend to be used for an improved design of the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 19 refs

  14. Bile Duct Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bile Duct Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bileductdiseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  15. Air in the Wirsung Duct. An Unusual Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Brindisi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Air in the pancreas is frequently reported to be associated with an abscess or a pancreatic fistula but has also been demonstrated in normal pancreatic glands. Air in the Wirsung duct has been reported in three pediatric patients with duodenal obstruction [1], in a child with biliary and pancreatic ascariasis with liver abscesses and a pancreatic pseudocyst [2], in an adult patient with cystic dilatation of the main pancreatic duct limited to the head [3], and in 11 patients with various acute or chronic pancreatic and/or biliary diseases [4]. We report an additional case of air in the Wirsung duct; in the present case, we also observed the presence of air in the duct of Santorini .

  16. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  17. DUCT RETROFIT STRATEGY TO COMPLEMENT A MODULATING FURNACE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2002-10-02

    Some recent work (Walker 2001, Andrews 2002) has indicated that installing a modulating furnace in a conventional duct system may, in many cases, result in a significant degradation in thermal distribution efficiency. The fundamental mechanism was pointed out nearly two decades ago (Andrews and Krajewski 1985). The problem occurs in duct systems that are less-than-perfectly insulated (e.g., R-4 duct wrap) and are located outside the conditioned space. It stems from the fact that when the airflow rate is reduced, as it will be when the modulating furnace reduces its heat output rate, the supply air will have a longer residence time in the ducts and will therefore lose a greater percentage of its heat by conduction than it did at the higher airflow rate. The impact of duct leakage, on the other hand, is not expected to change very much under furnace modulation. The pressures in the duct system will be reduced when the airflow rate is reduced, thus reducing the leakage per unit time. This is balanced by the fact that the operating time will increase in order to meet the same heating load as with the conventional furnace operating at higher output and airflow rates. The balance would be exact if the exponent in the pressure vs. airflow equation were the same as that in the pressure vs. duct leakage equation. Since the pressure-airflow exponent is usually {approx}0.5 and the pressure-leakage exponent is usually {approx}0.6, the leakage loss as a fraction of the load should be slightly lower for the modulating furnace. The difference, however, is expected to be small, determined as it is by a function with an exponent equal to the difference between the above two exponents, or {approx}0.1. The negative impact of increased thermal conduction losses from the duct system may be partially offset by improved efficiency of the modulating furnace itself. Also, the modulating furnace will cycle on and off less often than a single-capacity model, and this may add a small amount

  18. [Persistent Müllerian ducts syndrome: one case of late hypofertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viart, L; Peltier, J; Forzini, T; Page, C; Foulon, P; Saint, F; Havet, E

    2015-03-01

    We report the case of a 35-year-old patient with a syndrome of persistent Müllerian ducts (PMDS) of the female type (group A). The diagnosis was made in adulthood during an infertility workup. Clinical examination revealed an empty scrotum, a normal penis and bilateral inguinal cystic masses. The spermogram found azoospermia. Imaging using MRI and tomotensidometry found the presence of an uterus, two fallopian tubes and two inguinal positions of polycystic testes. A surgical management was performed for surgical testicular biopsy. Histological examination then found a cystic formation of multi-celled mesothelial origin, with atrophic testis Sertoli cell involution and without sperm. PMDS is a rare form of pseudo-internal hermaphroditism characterized by the presence in a man of the uterus, fallopian tubes and upper vagina with external male genitalia and virilized characters. About 200 cases are reported in the literature. The diagnosis is often made in children intraoperatively during a cure of testicular ectopia. The karyotype is 46 XY type. The pathogenesis is related to a deficiency of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) or tissue resistance to its action by receptor abnormalities. The regression of the Müllerian duct derivatives can give three types of PMDS : masculine type, feminine type and a transverse type. Surgical treatment is difficult but necessary because of the risk of infertility and ectopic testicular degeneration. PMID:25708641

  19. Evaporation duct occurrences in the northeast Atlantic during late summer

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Thomas Edwin

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Analyses and interpretation of surface layer and synoptic-scale data obtained in the Northwest Atlantic were performed to obtain descriptions of the evaporation duct and associated atmospheric and oceanic synoptic features. The surface layer data were quite unique because they were obtained from high quality measurements from ships spatially separated in a fixed array. Magnitudes and horizontal homogeneity of duct heights were compar...

  20. Lidar description of the evaporative duct in ocean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willitsford, Adam; Philbrick, C. R.

    2005-08-01

    The description of radar propagation in the presence of the evaporation duct has proven to be a difficult problem in both littoral and open ocean environments. To properly characterize the propagation of a radar beam at low elevation angles, the evaporation duct must be located and scattering properties quantified. The two key elements defining an evaporation duct are the gradients in density and specific humidity. The gradients of the neutral density are determined from the rotational Raman temperature profile. The profile of water vapor is measured directly from the vibrational Raman scattered returns. High spatial resolution and high temporal resolution measurements of water vapor and temperature are required to accurately describe the evaporation duct. Raman lidar techniques can provide these measurements continuously with high accuracy and high resolution so the development of the evaporation duct can be studied. A detailed simulation of a Raman lidar has been developed and applied to a near horizontal path, to examine the expected accuracy for high vertical resolution profiles. The simulation also allows various atmospheric scenarios to be investigated and analyzed. The evaporation duct is an atmospheric phenomenon that causes radar propagation to remain trapped in the surface layer. The duct can be thought of as a waveguide that bends and reflects the radar beam along a path effectively trapping it and guiding it over long distances. This is a major problem for radar propagation paths in both littoral and open ocean environments. Moreover, ducting skews details of radar returns such that radar objects are hidden, or are detected at unexpected distances, or may appear with apparent cross-sections and speeds much different than their actual values.

  1. Bilateral Endoscopic Endonasal Marsupialization of Nasopalatine Duct Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Yohei Honkura; Kazuhiro Nomura; Hidetoshi Oshima; Yusuke Takata; Hiroshi Hidaka; Yukio Katori

    2015-01-01

    Nasopalatine duct cysts are the most common non-odontogenic cysts in the maxilla, and are conventionally treated through a sublabial or palatine approach. Recently, the endoscopic approach has been used, but experience is extremely limited. We treated a 29-year-old male with nasopalatine duct cyst by endoscopic marsupialization, but paresthesia of the incisor region occurred after surgery. This paresthesia gradually remitted within 6 months. The nasopalatine nerve, which innervates the upper ...

  2. Rare Bilateral Nasopalatine Duct Cysts: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Cicciù, Marco; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Borgonovo, Andrea; Santoro, Giacomo; Pallotti, Francesco; Maiorana, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC) is the most common of the non-odontogenic cyst of the jaws. This cysts are usually central or unilateral with no prevalence of side occurrence. The NPDC is the most frequent developmental, nonodontogenic cyst of the jaws. This cyst originates from epithelial remnants from the nasopalatine duct. The cells could be activated spontaneously during life, or are eventually stimulated by the irritating action of various agents (infection, etc.). Generally, patients ...

  3. Biliary Metal Stent as a Nidus for Bile Duct Stone

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Young Koog; Moon, Jong Ho; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Yun Soo; Lee, Moon Sung; Shim, Chan Sup

    2002-01-01

    Several cases of recurrent stone formation caused by a surgical material as a nidus have been reported. Recently, we experienced one case in which a migrated metal stent might have been served as a nidus for common duct stone formation. The diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP, the stone was successfully removed with endoscopic therapy. Six years ago, she had undergone a lithotripsy using a percutaneous cholangioscopy (PTCS) because of intrahepatic cile duct stoes. Six years later, she developed a...

  4. Pancreatitis complicating mucin-hypersecreting common bile duct adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panagiotis Katsinelos; George Basdanis; Grigorios Chatzimavroudis; Giorgia Karagiannoulou; Taxiarchis Katsinelos; George Paroutoglou; Basilios Papaziogas; George Paraskevas

    2006-01-01

    Villous adenomas of the bile ducts are extremely uncommon. We describe a 58-year-old man presenting with clinical signs and laboratory findings of acute pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice. Preoperative investigation demonstrated a dilated papillary orifice with mucus exiting (fish-mouth sign) and a filling defect in the distal common bile duct. He underwent a modified Whipple operation and histological examination of the surgical specimen showed villous adenoma with rich secretion of mucus.

  5. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  6. Numerical techniques in linear duct acoustics - A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented covering both finite difference and finite element analysis of small amplitude (linear) sound propagation in straight and variable area ducts with flow, as might be found in a typical turbojet engine duct, muffer, or industrial ventilation system. Both 'steady' state and transient theories are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advantages and limitations associated with the various numerical techniques. Examples of practical problems are given for which the numerical techniques have been applied.

  7. Numerical Modeling of a Ducted Rocket Combustor With Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The present work was conducted with the intent of developing a high-fidelity numerical model of a unique combustion flow problem combining multi-phase fuel injection with substantial momentum and temperature into a highly complex turbulent flow. This important problem is very different from typical and more widely known liquid fuel combustion problems and is found in practice in pulverized coal combustors and ducted rocket ramjets. As the ducted rocket engine cycle is only now finding wides...

  8. Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de; Rosier, Vitor Veloso; Luz, Tovar Vicente; Verde, Raquel Crisóstomo Lima; Lima, Clara Mônica Figueiredo de; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and t...

  9. Endoscopic Ultrasonography Assessment for Ampullary and Bile Duct Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Q. L. Zhang; Nian, W. D.; Zhang, L. P.; Liang, J. Y.

    1996-01-01

    From 1989 through 1992, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was undertaken preoperatively to evaluate the extent of primary tumor, involvement of regional lymph nodes, and distant metastases in 22 patients with ampullary carcinoma and 18 patients with bile duct carcinoma. The results were compared with histopathological findings according to the TNM staging system. The accurate rate in assessing the extent of cancer invasion was 82% for ampullary carcinoma, 66% for common hepatic duct carcinoma,...

  10. Air in the Wirsung Duct. An Unusual Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Brindisi; Lucia Calculli; Riccardo Casadei; Raffaele Pezzilli

    2008-01-01

    Air in the pancreas is frequently reported to be associated with an abscess or a pancreatic fistula but has also been demonstrated in normal pancreatic glands. Air in the Wirsung duct has been reported in three pediatric patients with duodenal obstruction [1], in a child with biliary and pancreatic ascariasis with liver abscesses and a pancreatic pseudocyst [2], in an adult patient with cystic dilatation of the main pancreatic duct limited to the head [3], and in 11 patients with various acut...

  11. Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Bing Ou; Jian-Ping Gong; Sheng-Wei Li; Chang-An Liu; Bing Tu; Chuan-Xin Wu; Xiong Ding; Zuo-Jin Liu; Ke Sun; Hu-Yi Feng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the widespread adoption of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in the late 1980s, a rise in common bile duct (CBD) injury has been reported. We analyzed the factors contributing to a record of zero CBD injuries in 10 000 consecutive LCs. METHODS: The retrospective investigation included 10 000 patients who underwent LC from July 1992 to June 2007. LC was performed by 4 teams of surgeons. The chief main surgeon of each team has had over 10 years of experience in hepatobiliary surgery. Calot's triangle was carefully dissected, and the relationship of the cystic duct to the CBD and common hepatic duct was clearly identiifed. A clip was applied to the cystic duct at the neck of the gallbladder and the duct was incised with scissors proximal to the clip. The cystic artery was dissected by the same method. Then, the gallbladder was dissected from its liver bed. A drain was routinely left at the gallbladder bed for 1-2 days postoperatively. RESULTS: No CBD injuries occurred in 10 000 consecutive LCs, and there were 16 duct leaks (0.16%). Among these, there were 10 Luschka duct leaks (0.1%) and 6 cystic duct leaks (0.06%). Four hundred thirty cases were converted to open cholecystectomy (OC), giving a conversion rate of 4.3%. After a mean follow-up of 17.5 months (range 6-24 months), no postoperative death due to LC occurred, and good results were observed in 95% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our 10 000 LCs with zero CBD injuries, the techniques used and practices at our department have been successful. Surgeon's expertise in biliary surgery,preoperative imaging, precise operative procedures, and conversion from LC to OC when needed are important measures to prevent CBD injuries.

  12. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  13. Renal Collecting Duct Cancer: a Report of 2 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiying Zhou

    2005-01-01

    @@ Renal collecting duct cancer is a rare malignant tumor, which accounts for 1% to 2% of epithelial kidney tumors,[1] Its pathological appearance has been easily misdiagnosed as a mammilliform renal cell carcinoma or as other tumors. The malignancy of renal collecting duct cancer is high, with early metastasis and poor prognosis. The clinical data for 2 cases of the tumor are discussed in this report, including reports on the histopathology and the changes in immunohistochemistry.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF A VARIABLE GEOMETRY DUCTED PROPELLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Muszyński

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents preliminary results of experimental research on the variable geometry of a ducted propeller. The purpose of this work is explore the area of ​​application of the ducted propellers of variable geometry. The paper contains the description of a test station and a model, initial tests’ results of some selected geometries intakes and exit vents in comparison with an open propeller.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF A VARIABLE GEOMETRY DUCTED PROPELLER

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Muszyński; Piotr Strzelczyk

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary results of experimental research on the variable geometry of a ducted propeller. The purpose of this work is explore the area of ​​application of the ducted propellers of variable geometry. The paper contains the description of a test station and a model, initial tests’ results of some selected geometries intakes and exit vents in comparison with an open propeller.

  16. Ducted propeller performance analysis using a boundary element model

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore, Francesco; Calcagni, Danilo; Greco, Luca

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the computational analysis of the unviscid flow around a ducted propeller using a BEM model. The activity is performed in the framework of a research program co-funded by the European Union under the "SUPERPROP" Project TST4-CT-2005-516219. The theoretical and computational methodology is described and results of a validation excercise on several test cases is presented and discussed. In particular, the proposed formulation is applied to the analysis of ducted propellers...

  17. A case report of hepatocellular carcinoma in common hepatic duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chi Sung; Park, In Ae; Choi, Sang Woon; Chung, Jung Kee [YongDeungPo City Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    We experienced a rare case of intraductal (common hepatic duct) hepatocellular carcinoma. Review of the literature disclosed 30 cases or less in which common duct involvement was a predominant clinical feature. Well demarcated, ovoid filling defect mass in CHD without parenchymal tumor mass was noted in ultrasound, PTC and CT study. The liver was cirrhotic, but {alpha}-fetoprotein level was normal. Differential diagnosis especially with Klatskin tumor is important and thought to be possible.

  18. BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON Fasciola hepatica AND CATTLE BILIARY DUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of bacteria in Fasciola hepatica and into cattle biliary ducts containing the parasite. A total of 24 liver and 58 F. hepatica samples were analysed. In all biliary ducts and in 62,06% of parasite Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. The bacterial specie more frequently isolated from parasite were Citrobacter freundii (34%), Proteus mirabilis (18%), Providencia rettgeri (12%), Staphylococcus spp. (18%), Enterobacter spp. (12%). There doesn&r...

  19. Benign disease of the common bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R; Pradeep, R; Chander, J; Kumar, P; Wig, J D; Yadav, R V; Kaushik, S P

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of common bile duct (CBD) pathology in a group of patients with benign biliary disease (n = 505) was found to be 23.2 per cent. The spectrum included 111 patients (90.2 per cent) with CBD stones, 37 of whom (33.3 per cent) had no symptoms or findings pre-operatively indicating CBD involvement. Five patients had papillary stenosis, three had postoperative CBD strictures, one had a choledochal cyst and one had an external biliary fistula. Of the 100 CBDs measuring more than 10 mm in diameter, 90 harboured calculi. In the remaining 23 CBDs measuring less than 10 mm, calculi were present in 21. The presence of CBD calculi was demonstrated by intra-operative cholangiography in 49 patients. In the remaining patients (n = 74), the diagnosis of CBD pathology was made either by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography, T-tube cholangiography or peroperative palpation. The surgical procedures performed included choledochotomy and T-tube drainage (n = 74), transduodenal sphincteroplasty (n = 27) and choledochoduodenostomy (n = 18). The overall mortality and morbidity of CBD exploration was 3.3 per cent and 24.4 per cent respectively, which was significantly greater than that for cholecystectomy alone (0.3 per cent and 8.6 per cent respectively). Transduodenal sphincteroplasty carried a much higher mortality (11 per cent) and morbidity (52 per cent) when compared with other procedures. PMID:3167536

  20. Biliary reconstruction with right hepatic lobectomy due to delayed management of laparoscopic bile duct injuries: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ota T

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case requiring biliary reconstruction with right hepatic lobectomy due to biliary strictures caused by continuous cholangitis after laparoscopic bile duct injury. The patient, a 55-year-old woman, underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis at another hospital. Although a bile leakage from the intraabdominal drain was observed several days after the operation, the patient was not given adequate treatment to stop the leakage. Two months after the initial laparoscopic cholecystectomy, she was referred to our hospital. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP showed complete obstruction of the common hepatic duct, which was caused by clipping during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cholangiography from percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD catheters revealed that sections of the secondary branches of the right intrahepatic bile duct had become constricted due to persistent cholangitis. Fortunately, the left hepatic duct was judged to be normal by imaging. Therefore, we elected to perform a right hepatic lobectomy and left hepaticojejunostomy, because we felt that performing a hepaticojejunostomy without hepatic resection would put the patient at risk of continuing to suffer from cholangitis. The patient was discharged on the 55 th postoperative day, and, 5 years after reconstructive surgery, is healthy and has remained free from biliary strictures in the remnant liver. Appropriate decision-making is essential in the treatment of biliary injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgeons should not hesitate to perform biliary reconstruction with hepatic resection to reduce the risk of cholangitis or biliary strictures of the remnant liver. More importantly, preoperative clear imaging of the biliary tree and suitable management of any biliary injury which might occur are necessary to avoid having to perform reconstructive surgery.

  1. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis associated with persistent Müllerian duct syndrome – a rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baig MA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mirza Asif Baig Shri BM Patil Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Bijapur Liberal District Education (BLDE University, Bijapur, Karnataka, India Background: Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder. It is a type of internal male pseudo-hermaphroditism in which Müllerian duct derivatives persist in the phenotypically and karyotypically normal male. The exact incidence is unknown, but to date, approximately 400 cases have been reported. PMDS is caused either by insufficient amount of Müllerian inhibiting factor or insensitivity of the target organs to Müllerian inhibiting factor. The case presented in this report discusses mixed gonadal dysgenesis, a condition that refers to individuals who usually have a differentiated gonad on one side and a streak gonad or testis on the other side. Case summary: A 27-year-old male patient presented with cryptorchidism and a left inguinal hernia. On exploratory laparotomy, a uterus with bilateral adnexa was noted, and histopathology revealed the features of mixed gonadal dysgenesis associated with PMDS. The closest differential diagnosis for this condition is true hermaphroditism. Conclusion: PMDS is a rare disorder, and is important to diagnose this condition early because 30% of the cases progress to gonadoblastomas like dysgerminoma, yolk sac tumor, and embryonal carcinoma, and hence gonadectomy is necessary. The very rare nature of this condition and grave prognosis merits its reporting. Keywords: persistent Müllerian ducts, pseudohermaphroditism, true hermaphroditism, gonadoblastomas, MIF, cryptorchidism

  2. Remote sensing of evaporation ducts for Naval warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geernaert, G. L.

    1989-11-01

    Areas critical to naval operations are the prediction and application of atmospheric refractivity gradients. This report describes the use of the evaporation duct over the ocean and a plan for obtaining information about the evaporation duct by space-borne sensors. There has been little research on the theory and modeling of lower atmospheric refractivity, particularly evaporation ducts over a nonhomogeneous ocean over the past five decades. Much is known about surface layer similarity theory and propagation model techniques, but little attention has been placed on the spatial variabilities in the turbulent propagation medium (such as the atmospheric surface layer) in regions of strategic Navy interest. These regions include the coastal shelf, Gulf Stream, marginal ice zone, and those places where sharp sea surface temperature fronts exist. For tomorrow's Navy, using remote sensing techniques to infer evaporative and tropospheric ducts are a requirement. Although research efforts on ducts must couple the tropospheric and surface layer components, this report summarizes the state of the art for the evaporative duct and assess the potential of new and future results on improving next generation naval warfare capabilities.

  3. A New Model of the Oceanic Evaporation Duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Steven M.; Young, George S.; Carton, James A.

    1997-03-01

    Failure to consider anomalous propagation of microwave radiation in the troposphere may result in erroneous meteorological radar measurements. The most commonly occurring anomalous propagation phenomenon over the ocean is the evaporation duct. The height of this duct is dependent on atmospheric variables and is a major input to microwave propagation prediction models. This evaporation duct height is determined from an evaporation duct model using bulk measurements. Two current evaporation duct models in widespread operational use are examined. We propose and test a new model that addresses deficiencies in these two models. The new model uses recently refined bulk similarity expressions developed for the determination of the ocean surface energy budget in the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. Comparison of these models is made using data collected from a boat off Wallops Island, Virginia, during a range of seasons and weather conditions and from the tidal Potomac River during June and August. Independent evaporation duct height determinations are made using profile measurements from the same boat and are corroborated with fade measurements made with a nearby microwave link whenever possible. The proposed model performs better than the other (operational) models for the cases examined and has advantages of internal consistency.

  4. [Thoracic duct valves in man and albino rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, V M; Kruglov, S V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the number, structure and position of valves along the whole length of thoracic duct in man and albino rat. The study was performed using the material obtained from 30 human corpses of men and women aged 17 to 60 years with no history of cardiovascular pathology and from 60 outbred albino rats of both sexes aged 5 to 12 months. Material was fixed in 10% neutral formalin. Anterior wall of thoracic duct was longitudinally dissected. Thoracic duct of 30 rats was stained with gallocyanin-chrome alum, in the remaining animals it was studied after its injection with blue Gerota's mass. In most cases, the valves consisted of two semilunar cusps. Thoracic duct was found to contain on the average 14.7+/-0.2 valves in man and 11.9+/-0.2 valves in rat. Most of all valves were found in the upper (anterior) 1/3 of the thoracic duct, least--in its middle part. This seems to be determined by anatomo-topographic features of the different parts of thoracic duct. PMID:15839250

  5. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  6. Collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney: CT and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seong Kuk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 1, 3-Ga, Dongdaesin-Dong, Seo-Ku, Busan (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cerub@chollian.net; Nam, Kyung Jin [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 1, 3-Ga, Dongdaesin-Dong, Seo-Ku, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Seo-Hee [Department of Pathology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Kon [Department of Radiology, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoung-Sik [Department of Radiology, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bohyun [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kie Hwan [Department of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung-Ah [Department of Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: We characterized CT findings of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney and correlated these with the histopathologic findings. Materials and methods: CT scans of 18 patients with pathologically proven collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed CT findings of collecting duct carcinoma and also correlated CT findings with the histopathologic findings. Results: The mean size of the tumors was 6.9 cm and all cases were solid. Seventeen (94%) tumors had a medullary location. Nine (69%) and 11 (85%) cases showed weak and heterogeneous enhancement, respectively. A cystic component (50%) was frequently seen within the tumors. Lymphadenopathy and metastasis were noted in 10 (56%) and 6 (33%) cases, respectively. Perinephric stranding and vascular invasion were present in 10 (56%) and 5 (28%) cases, respectively. In 17 (94%) of the 18 cases, involvement of the renal sinus was present. Infiltrative growth (67%) and preservation of the renal contour (61%) were more common than expansile growth (33%) and exophytic configuration (39%), respectively. These CT features were well correlated with the histopathologic findings. Conclusion: Medullary location, weak and heterogeneous enhancement, involvement of the renal sinus, infiltrative growth, preserved renal contour, and a cystic component are CT findings frequently seen in patients with collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney. CT findings are nevertheless nonspecific and do not allow collecting duct carcinoma to be easily differentiated from the other subtypes of renal cell carcinoma. However, when CT demonstrates a renal tumor with these findings, collecting duct carcinoma can be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Application of post-buckling theory to HVAC duct design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventionally, HVAC duct spans range from 8 feet 0 inches to 10 feet 0 inches. However, a utilization of duct panel post-buckling strength allows the use of significantly larger spans for Seismic Class I rectangular ducts. Duct behavior is better described when sheet panel post-buckling behavior is taken into consideration. The thin panel due to its large h/t of w/t ratio is unable to remain fully effective during the entire loading history. As the loading is applied, it may undergo local instability due to either excessive compressive stress, shear stress, or a combination thereof. However, such local instability does not constitute overall failure as duct panel post-buckling behavior is stable. Duct corner chords in conjunction with the transverse reinforcing stiffeners and the web panels develop a pratt truss-like behavior, capable of maintaining post-buckling stability. Once bifurcation of the web due to shear has occurred, the tension-field action in the web develops a band of tensile forces. Equilibrium is maintained by the transfer of stress to the transverse stiffeners and the adjacent panel chords. As a result of the application of the post-buckling method, HVAC hangers required by a conventional analysis can be reduced by up to 50 percent

  8. An evaporation duct prediction model coupled with the MM5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lin; ZHANG Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation duct is an abnormal refractive phenomenon in the marine atmosphere boundary layer. It has been generally accepted that the evaporation duct prominently affects the performance of the electronic equipment over the sea because of its wide distribution and frequent occurrence. It has become a research focus of the navies all over the world. At present, the diagnostic models of the evaporation duct are all based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, with only differences in the flux and character scale calculations in the surface layer. These models are applicable to the stationary and uniform open sea areas without considering the alongshore effect. This paper introduces the nonlinear factorav and the gust wind itemwg into the Babin model, and thus extends the evaporation duct diagnostic model to the offshore area under extremely low wind speed. In addition, an evaporation duct prediction model is designed and coupled with the fifth generation mesoscale model (MM5). The tower observational data and radar data at the Pingtan island of Fujian Province on May 25–26, 2002 were used to validate the forecast results. The outputs of the prediction model agree with the observations from 0 to 48 h. The relative error of the predicted evaporation duct height is 19.3% and the prediction results are consistent with the radar detection.

  9. WAVE PROPAGATION in the HOT DUCT of VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz; Jim C. P. Liou

    2013-07-01

    In VHTR, helium from the reactor vessel is conveyed to a power conversion unit through a hot duct. In a hypothesized Depressurized Conduction Cooldown event where a rupture of the hot duct occurs, pressure waves will be initiated and reverberate in the hot duct. A numerical model is developed to quantify the transients and the helium mass flux through the rupture for such events. The flow path of the helium forms a closed loop but only the hot duct is modeled in this study. The lower plum of the reactor vessel and the steam generator are treated as specified pressure and/or temperature boundary to the hot duct. The model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and on the equations of state for helium. The numerical solution is based on the method of characteristics with specified time intervals with a predictor and corrector algorithm. The rupture sub-model gives reasonable results. Transients induced by ruptures with break area equaling 20%, 10%, and 5% of the duct cross-sectional area are described.

  10. Mullerian duct cyst misdiagnosed as ovarian cyst: a rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alpana Singh; Sneha Shree; Vandana Mishra; Gita Radhakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    The Mullerian duct cyst is a remnant of the caudal ends of the fused embryologic paramesonephric ducts (or Mullerian ducts). Preoperative distinction of ovarian cyst from a Mullerian duct cyst is important and is based on visualization of the ipsilateral ovary separate from the mass. Mullerian duct cysts may also be mistaken as paratubal, paraovarian or peritoneal inclusion cysts and hydrosalpinx. Thus, preoperative diagnosis of Mullerian cyst of the uterus can be very challenging. However, w...

  11. Branching problems of unitary representations

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The irreducible decomposition of a unitary representation often contains continuous spectrum when restricted to a non-compact subgroup. The author singles out a nice class of branching problems where each irreducible summand occurs discretely with finite multiplicity (admissible restrictions). Basic theory and new perspectives of admissible restrictions are presented from both analytic and algebraic view points. We also discuss some applications of admissible restrictions to modular varieties...

  12. Cash efficiency for bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks’ branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...

  13. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Interactions between Axillary Branches of Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veronica Ongaro; Katherine Bainbridge; Lisa Williamson; Ottoline Leyser

    2008-01-01

    Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean,in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches.In these two-branch shoots,a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other,prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals,which are still poorly understood.Here,we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis,using consecutive branches on the bolting stem.As with the classical studies in pea and bean,these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth.Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch,but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch,illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals.Using mutants,we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch,the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak,and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem.

  15. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  16. Anomalies of the bile ducts: a case report of direct drain of the cystic duct into the papilla of Vater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct drain of the cystic duct and drain of the biliary tract through an internal fistula into the duodenum in a 81-year-old man were endoscopically diagnosed without an operation.

  17. Path integral formulation and Feynman rules for phylogenetic branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamical picture of phylogenetic evolution is given in terms of Markov models on a state space, comprising joint probability distributions for character types of taxonomic classes. Phylogenetic branching is a process which augments the number of taxa under consideration, and hence the rank of the underlying joint probability state tensor. We point out the combinatorial necessity for a second-quantized, or Fock space setting, incorporating discrete counting labels for taxa and character types, to allow for a description in the number basis. Rate operators describing both time evolution without branching, and also phylogenetic branching events, are identified. A detailed development of these ideas is given, using standard transcriptions from the microscopic formulation of non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion or birth-death processes. These give the relations between stochastic rate matrices, the matrix elements of the corresponding evolution operators representing them, and the integral kernels needed to implement these as path integrals. The 'free' theory (without branching) is solved, and the correct trilinear 'interaction' terms (representing branching events) are presented. The full model is developed in perturbation theory via the derivation of explicit Feynman rules which establish that the probabilities (pattern frequencies of leaf colourations) arising as matrix elements of the time evolution operator are identical with those computed via the standard analysis. Simple examples (phylogenetic trees with two or three leaves), are discussed in detail. Further implications for the work are briefly considered including the role of time reparametrization covariance

  18. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  19. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 2: Unsteady ducted propfan analysis computer program users manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Bettner, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-dependent three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems at angle of attack. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes (ADPAC). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC developed under Task 2 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Ducted Propfan Analysis. Aerodynamic calculations were based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. A time-accurate implicit residual smoothing operator was utilized for unsteady flow predictions. For unducted propfans, a single H-type grid was used to discretize each blade passage of the complete propeller. For ducted propfans, a coupled system of five grid blocks utilizing an embedded C-grid about the cowl leading edge was used to discretize each blade passage. Grid systems were generated by a combined algebraic/elliptic algorithm developed specifically for ducted propfans. Numerical calculations were compared with experimental data for both ducted and unducted propfan flows. The solution scheme demonstrated efficiency and accuracy comparable with other schemes of this class.

  20. Bile duct carcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation in a 16-year-old female: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hideki; Yazawa, Naoki; Furukawa, Daisuke; Masuoka, Yoshihito; Yamada, Misuzu; Mashiko, Taro; Kawashima, Yohei; Ogawa, Masami; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Mine, Tetsuya; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Nakagohri, Toshio

    2016-12-01

    We encountered a very rare case of bile duct carcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation (CBD) in a 16-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of right upper abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a cystic dilatation of the common bile duct measuring 7 cm in diameter and two enhanced tumors 4 cm in diameter located in the inferior bile duct and middle bile duct. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography clearly demonstrated a cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct (Todani's CBD classification: type 4-A). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography also revealed two tumors. Biopsy results of one of the tumors confirmed adenocarcinoma. Excision of the perihilar bile duct and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy with dissection of the major lymph nodes were performed. A postoperative histopathologic examination revealed a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, which remained within the mucosal layer, and no lymph node metastasis was found. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 10 days after surgery and has remained disease-free for 21 months. PMID:26943681

  1. Numerical Simulation of Multiplicity and Stability of Mixed Convection in Rotating Curved Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liqiu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is made on the fully developed bifurcation structure and stability of the mixed convection in rotating curved ducts of square cross-section with the emphasis on the effect of buoyancy force. The rotation can be positive or negative. The fluid can be heated or cooled. The study reveals the rich solution and flow structures and complicated stability features. One symmetric and two symmetric/asymmetric solution branches are found with seventy five limit points and fourteen bifurcation points. The flows on these branches can be symmetric, asymmetric, 2-cell, and up to 14-cell structures. Dynamic responses of the multiple solutions to finite random disturbances are examined by the direct transient computation. It is found that possible physically realizable fully developed flows evolve, as the variation of buoyancy force, from a stable steady multicell state at a large buoyancy force of cooling to the coexistence of three stable steady multicell states, a temporal periodic oscillation state, the coexistence of periodic oscillation and chaotic oscillation, a chaotic temporal oscillation, a subharmonic-bifurcation-driven asymmetric oscillating state, and a stable steady 2-cell state at large buoyancy force of heating.

  2. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: interest of IV secretin administration in the evaluation of pancreatic ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicaise, N.; Pellet, O.; Metens, T.; Braude, P.; Struyven, J.; Matos, C. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Deviere, J. [Department of Gastroenterology, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether IV secretin administration is useful to enhance the delineation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and its side branches, and if it provides additional information concerning signal voids and strictures. Twenty-seven patients referred for abdominal pain or laboratory abnormalities (group 1, n = 13) or for the follow-up of chronic pancreatitis (CP; group 2, n = 14) were studied. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was acquired at 1.5 T before and after IV secretin by a coronal 3D TSE T2-weighted sequence with maximum intensity projection postprocessing. In group 1 secretin provided a better visualization of MPD in 9 patients. In a patient with pancreas divisum, it allowed suggestion of stenosis of the accessory papilla, confirmed at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In group 2 secretin provided a better visualization of MPD only in the 3 patients with mild disease. A mild dilation upstream a stricture occurred in 2 cases and a marked dilation appeared upstream a wallstent which was non-patent at ERCP. Few changes were noticed concerning side branches. These preliminary results indicate that in patients without CP, secretin improves MPD delineation avoiding invasive diagnostic ERCP. In patients with mild CP secretin does not improve the characterization of signal voids, but it may be useful to appreciate their significance and to follow-up stenosis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 24 refs.

  3. Quantized Coulomb branches of Jordan quiver gauge theories and cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kodera, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    We study quantized Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of Jordan type. We prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is isomorphic to the spherical graded Cherednik algebra in the unframed case, and is isomorphic to the spherical cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebra in the framed case. We also prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is a deformation of a subquotient of the Yangian of the affine $\\mathfrak{gl}(1)$.

  4. Effects of Duct Cross Section Camber and Thickness on the Performance of Ducted Propulsion Systems for Aeronautical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Bontempo; Marcello Manna

    2016-01-01

    The axisymmetric flow field around a ducted rotor is thoroughly analysed by means of a nonlinear and semi-analytical model which is able to deal with some crucial aspects of shrouded systems like the interaction between the rotor and the duct, and the slipstream contraction and rotation. Not disregarding the more advanced CFD based methods, the proposed procedure is characterised by a very low computational cost that makes it very appealing as analysis tool in the preliminary steps of a desig...

  5. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  6. Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Velasco, Miguel; Martinez, Rodrigo; Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Contains papers presented at the Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications (WBPA09), held in Badajoz, Spain, April 20-23, 2009, which deal with theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory

  7. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  8. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  9. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  10. Estimating evaporation duct heights from radar sea echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. Ted; Hattan, Claude P.; Stapleton, Janet K.

    2000-07-01

    The evaporation duct is a downward refracting layer that results from the rapid decrease in humidity with respect to altitude occurring in the atmospheric surface layer above bodies of water. The evaporation duct affects radar detection ranges at frequencies of approximately 1 GHz and above. Models based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory are usually used to calculate evaporation duct refractivity profiles from bulk measurements of air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and the sea surface temperature. Modeling results by Pappert et al. [1992] indicated that the falloff of radar sea echo as a function of range was an increasing function of the evaporation duct height. On the basis of those results, the authors proposed inferring the evaporation duct height by a slope fit to modeled clutter power, a nonlinear least squares inversion procedure. Data for testing the inversion procedure were obtained using the S band Space Range Radar at Wallops Island, Virginia. Evaporation duct heights were inferred from the radar data on the basis of the assumption of a range-independent evaporation duct height and sea clutter radar cross section (σ°). Validation data consist of buoy and boat in situ bulk measurements. The result of comparing the radar-inferred evaporation duct heights and those calculated from bulk measurements indicates that the radar-inferred duct heights are strongly correlated with those from the in situ measurements, but there is some uncertainty as to whether they are biased or unbiased. That uncertainty arises from the assumed dependence of σ° on the grazing angle ψ. That dependence is currently a matter of debate in the open literature, with the lower and upper ends of modeling results being σ° ∝ ψ0; and σ° ∝ ψ4, respectively. We show results for both dependencies and note that the σ° ∝ ψ0; provides the best agreement with our measurements. It should be noted that inferring the evaporation duct height from radar sea echo is a problem

  11. An incidence study on thyroglossal duct cysts in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the incidence of the asymptomatic thyroglossal duct anomalies and to review the literature and make comments on the significance of this condition. A total of 80 cadavers were dissected in the present study. This study was carried out during 2005, where the cadavers were randomly included from the criminal laboratories of the Ministry of Justice, Republic of Turkey in Istanbul. None of the cadavers had laryngeal and cervical injuries resulting from a trauma or the cause of their death. The examined cadavers included 59 men and 21 females, and their ages were ranged from 35-80 years old. The larynges were removed and fixed in 10% formalin and then dissected. The sections were examined using surgical SMZ 10 Nikon stereomicroscope. We evaluated the presence, localization and diameter of the cysts with regard to age and sex of the cadavers. We observed a total of 12 different localization of thyroglossal ducts and cysts among the 80 dissected cadavers. Ten of these ducts cysts were found in males with an age range of 35-68 years and 2 female cadavers aged 45-65 years. In 6 cases, the thyroglossal ducts and cysts were located in the left of the midline of the neck, while 3 cases were from the right of the midline, and the remaining was located on the midline of the neck. In all cases, thryoglossal ducts and cysts were complete and restricted to the infrahyoid region: all of them had connection with the hyoid bone, but not with the perichondrium of the cartilage. In addition, the thyroglossal ducts have connection with the left lobe of the thyroid glands in 3 cases, one case in the right lobe, and 2 cases with the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Finally in 5 cases thyroglossal ducts were complete and had well developed cysts. Thyroglossal duct remnants are one of the most often seen congenital asymptomatic masses of the neck region (7%). The presence of these duct remnants may lead to abnormal phonation and epithelial carcinomas. Therefore, correlation of

  12. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  13. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, J M; Yegutkin, G G; Novak, I

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) channels, and corresponding transcripts were expressed in duct cells. Direct stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling and ethanol application had negligible effects on ATP release. The released ATP was sequentially dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting adenylate kinase (AK1) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) enzymes (NME1, 2), which contribute to metabolism and regeneration of extracellular ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, uridine diphosphate (UDP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)). In conclusion, we illustrate a complex regulation of extracellular purine homeostasis in a pancreatic duct cell model involving: ATP release by several mechanisms and subsequent nucleotide breakdown and ATP regeneration via counteracting nucleotide

  14. The making of a fusion branch in the Drosophila trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Louis; Lebreton, Gaelle; Casanova, Jordi

    2012-02-15

    Connection of epithelial tubes to generate a common network is a key step in the formation of tubular organs such as the tracheal respiratory and the vascular systems. However, it is not clear how these connecting tubes arise. Here we address this issue by studying the dorsal fusion branches in the Drosophila trachea, taking into account the morphology and contribution of each cell type on the basis of their individual labeling. Our results explain how a fusion branch forms and also illustrate the different nature of the two seamless tubes in the Drosophila trachea, generated by fusion and terminal cells respectively. PMID:22178247

  15. Recursion relations and branching rules for simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Lyakhovsky, V D

    1995-01-01

    The branching rules between simple Lie algebras and its regular (maximal) simple subalgebras are studied. Two types of recursion relations for anomalous relative multiplicities are obtained. One of them is proved to be the factorized version of the other. The factorization property is based on the existence of the set of weights \\Gamma specific for each injection. The structure of \\Gamma is easily deduced from the correspondence between the root systems of algebra and subalgebra. The recursion relations thus obtained give rise to simple and effective algorithm for branching rules. The details are exposed by performing the explicit decomposition procedure for A_{3} \\oplus u(1) \\rightarrow B_{4} injection.

  16. Design of planar articulated mechanisms using branch and bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    that buckling is prevented. The feasible set of the design problem is described by nonlinear differentiable and non-differentiable constraints as well as nonlinear matrix inequalities. To solve the mechanism design problem a branch and bound method based on convex relaxations is developed. To guarantee...... convergence of the method, two different types of convex relaxations are derived. The relaxations are strengthened by adding valid inequalities to the feasible set and by solving bound contraction sub-problems. Encouraging computational results indicate that the branch and bound method can reliably solve...

  17. Design of planar articulated mechanisms using branch and bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    that buckling is prevented. The feasible set of the design problem is described by nonlinear differentiable and non-differentiable constraints as well as nonlinear matrix inequalities. To solve the mechanism design problem a branch and bound method based on convex relaxations is developed. To guarantee...... convergence of the method, two different types of convex relaxations are derived. The relaxations are strengthened by adding valid inequalities to the feasible set and by solving bound contraction sub-problems. Encouraging computational results indicate that the branch and bound method can reliably solve...

  18. Management of Bile Duct Injury at Various Stages of Presentation: Experience from a Tertiary Care Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrarullah, Md; Sankar, S; Sreenivasan, K; Gavini, S R K

    2015-04-01

    The clinical presentation, management and outcome of all patients with bile duct injury who presented to our tertiary care centre at various stages after cholecystectomy were analyzed. The patients were categorized into three groups: group A-patients in whom the injury was detected during cholecystectomy, group B-patients who presented within 2 weeks of cholecystectomy and group C-patients who presented after 2 weeks of cholecystectomy. Our team acted as rescue surgeons and performed 'on-table' repair for injuries occurring in another unit or in another hospital. Strasberg classification of bile duct injury was followed. In group A, partial and complete transections were managed by repair over T-tube and high hepaticojejunostomy, respectively. Patients in group B underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram and/or magnetic resonance cholangiogram to evaluate the biliary tree. Those with intact common bile duct underwent endoscopic papillotomy and stenting in addition to drainage of intra-abdominal collection when present. For those with complete transection, early repair was considered if there was no sepsis. In presence of intra-abdominal sepsis an attempt was made to create controlled external biliary fistula. This was followed by hepatico jejunostomy at least after 3 months. Group C patients underwent hepaticojejunostomy at least 6 weeks after the injury. The outcome was graded into three categories: grade A-no clinical symptoms, normal LFT; grade B-no clinical symptoms, mild derangement of LFT or occasional episodes of pain or fever; grade C-pain, cholangitis and abnormal LFT; grade D-surgical revision or dilatation required. Fifty nine patients were included in the study and the distribution was group A-six patients, group B-33 patients and group C-20 patients. In group A, one patient with complete transection of the right hepatic duct (type C) and partial injury to left hepatic duct (LHD) underwent right hepaticojejunostomy and repair of the LHD over

  19. Stochastic Transition between Turbulent Branch and Thermodynamic Branch of an Inhomogeneous Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2002-01-01

    Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point an...

  20. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  1. Technical Note: Thoracic duct embolization for treatment of chylothorax: A novel guidance technique for puncture using combined MRI and fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alampath Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic duct embolization (TDE is an established radiological interventional procedure for thoracic duct injuries. Traditionally, it is done under fluoroscopic guidance after opacifying the thoracic duct with bipedal lymphangiography. We describe our experience in usinga heavily T2W sequence for guiding thoracic duct puncture and direct injection of glue through the puncture needle without cannulating the duct.

  2. Enhancement of computer system for applications software branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykat, Alex

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a compilation of the history of a two-month project concerned with a survey, evaluation, and specification of a new computer system for the Applications Software Branch of the Software and Data Management Division of Information and Electronic Systems Laboratory of Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA. Information gathering consisted of discussions and surveys of branch activities, evaluation of computer manufacturer literature, and presentations by vendors. Information gathering was followed by evaluation of their systems. The criteria of the latter were: the (tentative) architecture selected for the new system, type of network architecture supported, software tools, and to some extent the price. The information received from the vendors, as well as additional research, lead to detailed design of a suitable system. This design included considerations of hardware and software environments as well as personnel issues such as training. Design of the system culminated in a recommendation for a new computing system for the Branch.

  3. Treatment of bile duct carcinoma using photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Biliary papillomatosis, is a rare, benign tumour characterised by extensive mucosal involvement of the bile duct with carcinoma in 30% of cases. Treatment has been largely limited to surgical resection and is often accompanied by tumour recurrence. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat a 64 year old man with mucous-secreting papillomatosis of the common bile hepatic duct which presented with obstructive jaundice and recurrent cholangitis. The successful use of PDT in treating a case of cholangiocarcinoma and the treatment of similar colonic villous tumours encourage the use of PDT in this patient. Porfimer Sodium (Photofrin), 2 mg/kg was given intravenously 64 hours prior to light exposure. A Spectra Physics argon-ion pumped dye laser was used to provide 50 mW of 630 nm wavelength light at a 3 cm long diffusing tip attached to a 3 m optical fibre. A power density of approximately 15 mW.cm-2 was provided at the tissue surface under illumination at a radial distance of approximately 1.8 mm from the diffusing tip. The dose was designed to give a necrosis depth of 3 mm. A transparent 3.6 mm outer diameter catheter was placed in the duct using fluoroscopy and the fibre and diffusing tip then manoeuvred into position. The transparent catheter was left in place during the treatment and forced a minimum inner diameter on the duct of 3.6 mm and also helped to centre the diffuser within the duct. Repeat endoscopy, 48 hours after treatment revealed little duct mucous; necrosed tissue was removed with a balloon catheter with significant increase in size of the duct lumen. Since then, the patient's bilirubin has remained normal. Repeat endoscopic cholangiography one month later has shown no diminution in the diameter of the bile duct. The use of Photodynamic Therapy in the biliary tree using endoscopic retrograde placement of light source is feasible and the results in this patient encourage a trial of its use in operable bile duct carcinoma

  4. Cross-Cultural Training of Expatriate Faculty Teaching in International Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the intersection between academics and culture in international branch campus using Stier's (2006) "cross-cultural characteristics and competencies." The purpose of this study was to examine the type of cross-cultural training being used by the international branch campuses in Qatar's Education City, in particular…

  5. Evaluation of simplified evaporation duct refractivity models for inversion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeger, J. T.; Grimes, N. G.; Rickard, H. E.; Hackett, E. E.

    2015-10-01

    To assess a radar system's instantaneous performance on any given day, detailed knowledge of the meteorological conditions is required due to the dependency of atmospheric refractivity on thermodynamic properties such as temperature, water vapor, and pressure. Because of the significant challenges involved in obtaining these data, recent efforts have focused on development of methods to obtain the refractivity structure inversely using radar measurements and radar wave propagation models. Such inversion techniques generally use simplified refractivity models in order to reduce the parameter space of the solution. Here the accuracy of three simple refractivity models is examined for the case of an evaporation duct. The models utilize the basic log linear shape classically associated with evaporation ducts, but each model depends on various parameters that affect different aspects of the profile, such as its shape and duct height. The model parameters are optimized using radiosonde data, and their performance is compared to these atmospheric measurements. The optimized models and data are also used to predict propagation using a parabolic equation code with the refractivity prescribed by the models and measured data, and the resulting propagation patterns are compared. The results of this study suggest that the best log linear model formulation for an inversion problem would be a two-layer model that contains at least three parameters: duct height, duct curvature, and mixed layer slope. This functional form permits a reasonably accurate fit to atmospheric measurements as well as embodies key features of the profile required for correct propagation prediction with as few parameters as possible.

  6. Guideline for design requirement on KALIMER driver fuel assembly duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes design requirements which are needs for designing the driver fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER as design guidance. The driver fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER consists of fuel rods, mounting rail, nosepiece, duct with pad, handling socket with pad. Fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with solid ferritic-martensitic steel rod and key way, fuel slug, cladding, and wire wrap. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array, and the rod bundle attaches to the nosepiece with mounting rails. The bottom end of the assembly duct is formed by a long nosepiece which provides the lower restraint function and the coolant inlet. It contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The design requirements are intended to be used for the design of the driver fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs

  7. The value of sonography in determining cystic duct patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, F P; Gibney, R G; Burhenne, H J

    1992-07-01

    A prospective blinded comparison of ultrasonography (US) and oral cholecystography (OCG) was performed in 100 patients with symptomatic gall-stones to determine whether US would enable an accurate assessment of cystic duct patency to be made. Patency of the cystic duct was defined as gall-bladder opacification on OCG or a greater than 20% decrease in gall-bladder volume by US post-fatty meal. The ellipsoid method of volume measurement was used. Any patient who had a non-opacified gall-bladder on OCG but a greater than 20% volume decrease on US had cholescintigraphy performed (DISIDA). Oral cholecystography demonstrated cystic duct patency in 88 patients (88%), and fatty-meal gall-bladder US met the specified study criteria for patency in 86 patients (86%). False negative results were identified in four of the OCG and in six of the US examinations. The results of this study indicate that gall-bladder sonography with a post-fatty meal contraction of greater than 20% is a very accurate predictor of cystic duct patency. A contraction of less than 20%, however, cannot be considered a reliable predictor of cystic duct occlusion. PMID:1643780

  8. Percutaneous lithotripsy for removing difficult bile duct stones using endoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Hyung; Sohn, Chul Ho; Kim, Young Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    To describe efficacy of percutaneous lithotripsy for removing difficult bile duct stones using endoscopy. A total of 88 patients with difficulties for the removal of bile duct stones using endoscopy (an impacted stone, stone size > 15 mm, intrahepatic duct (IHD) stone, stone size to bile duct diameter ratio > 1.0), were enrolled in this study. A 12 Fr sheath was inserted through the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tract, and then nitrol stone baskets and a 0.035' snare wire were used to capture, fragment and remove the stones. The technical and clinical success rates were analyzed, together with an analysis of any complications. The overall technical success rate of stone removal was achieved in 79 of 88 patients (89.8%). In five of nine patients with failed stone removal, small residual IHD stones were noted on a cholangiogram. Even if stone removal failed in these cases, cholangitic symptoms were improved and the drainage catheter was successfully removed. Therefore, clinical success was achieved in 84 of 88 patients (95.5%). There were no significant procedure-related complications, except for sepsis in one case. Billiary stone removal using the stone basket and guide-wire snare technique through the PTBD tract is a safe and effective procedure that can be used as a primary method in patients with difficulties for the removal of bile duct stones using endoscopy.

  9. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home program and California’s proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be installed within conditioned space or that other measures be taken to provide similar improvements in delivery effectiveness (DE). Pacific Gas & Electric Company commissioned a study to evaluate ducts in conditioned space and high-performance attics (HPAs) in support of the proposed codes and standards enhancements included in California’s 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards. The goal was to work with a select group of builders to design and install high-performance duct (HPD) systems, such as ducts in conditioned space (DCS), in one or more of their homes and to obtain test data to verify the improvement in DE compared to standard practice. Davis Energy Group (DEG) helped select the builders and led a team that provided information about HPD strategies to them. DEG also observed the construction process, completed testing, and collected cost data.

  10. MCNP - transport calculations in ducts using multigroup albedo coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the use of multigroup albedo coefficients in Monte Carlo calculations of particle reflection and transmission by ducts is investigated. The procedure consists in modifying the MCNP code so that an albedo matrix computed previously by deterministic methods or Monte Carlo is introduced into the program to describe particle reflection by a surface. This way it becomes possible to avoid the need of considering particle transport in the duct wall explicitly, changing the problem to a problem of transport in the duct interior only and reducing significantly the difficulty of the real problem. The probability of particle reflection at the duct wall is given, for each group, as the sum of the albedo coefficients over the final groups. The calculation is started by sampling a source particle and simulating its reflection on the duct wall by sampling a group for the emerging particle. The particle weight is then reduced by the reflection probability. Next, a new direction and trajectory for the particle is selected. Numerical results obtained for the model are compared with results from a discrete ordinates code and results from Monte Carlo simulations that take particle transport in the wall into account. (author)

  11. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  12. Modal analysis of an ECC duct for APR+ reactor barrel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) provides four Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) ducts on the reactor barrel to enhance the performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). Several studies on safety analysis have verified the excellent performance of the DVI duct. In this study, from the viewpoint of mechanical integrity, modal analyses of two full-scaled DVI ducts have been presented; both numerical analysis and modal tests have been performed in air and water. It was found that the numerical simulation and modal test coincide with each other. The DVI duct is a thin shell of 5 mm thickness, so that harmonic responses to RCP blade passing frequencies should be checked. The dominant passing frequencies are known to be 20, 40, 60, 120 and 240 Hz. In addition, an interesting thing in this study is that added mass effect by coolant seems to be so significant that the natural frequency of the ducts under water could be considerably low as compared with those in air; the natural frequency under water is 60 % lower than that in air. (author)

  13. [A case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bile duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Michiko; Nakahira, Shin; Takeda, Yutaka; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Yosuke; Kanemura, Takeshi; Uchiyama, Chieko; Okishiro, Masatsugu; Takeno, Atsushi; Suzuki, Rei; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Egawa, Chiyomi; Nakata, Ken; Miki, Hirofumi; Kato, Takeshi; Nagano, Teruaki; Nakatsuka, Shinichi; Tamura, Shigeyuki

    2012-11-01

    A 74-year-old man presented to a physician with a chief complaint of jaundice. He was diagnosed with bile duct carcinoma and admitted to our hospital. Laboratory data revealed abnormally elevated levels of total bilirubin, serum hepatic transaminase, and CA19-9. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed neoplastic stenosis from the hilus hepatis to the common bile duct. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed an enhancing tumor in the hilus hepatis bile duct, and positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) revealed abnormal fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the tumor. Under a diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma, the patient underwent an extended right hepatectomy and left hepatico -jejunostomy. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for neuroendocrine markers such as chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56. The tumor was diagnosed as primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bile duct. The patient exhibited multiple liver metastasis 6 months after the operation. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was performed for the liver metastasis. Although TACE exerted a cytoreductive effect temporarily, multiple liver abscesses developed. The patient died of liver failure 16 months after the operation. We report this rare case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bile duct. PMID:23267998

  14. PERSONALISED DENTURES WITH BRANCHING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: While the basic process of making dentures has chang ed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help labor atories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value t o patients. Unlike the conventional “linear” methods which foll ow specific steps in a cookbook fashion, the Branching Technique is a dynamic conce pt which can be adjusted to meet the clinical needs of each patient. This customized tec hnique allows for a “trial” denture to be worn by each patient that is used to pinpoint and solve th e patient’s denture problems before the final denture is made. This individualized approach helps t o eliminate disappointments or surprises. From the preliminary impressions and the “training” d enture (it’s actually a provisional denture to the functional impressions and porcelain teeth to hold the patient’s vertical dimension, the Branching Technique produces the most esthetically pleasing and functionally stable dentures possible.

  15. Collecting Duct Carcinoma With Cardiac Metastases: A Case Report & Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Voss

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC, is a rare and aggressive form of renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounting for around 1% of all renal malignancy. It affects younger patients and is associated with rapid progression, distant spread and poor prognosis. Cardiac metastases from all types of RCC, without involvement of the inferior vena cava are very rare. We present the case of a 54 year old man with a history of CDC, who presents with collapse and ventricular tachycardia secondary to multifocal cardiac metastases. We are not aware of any other reports in the literature of CDC and cardiac metastases.

  16. Propagation of the initial value perturbation in a cylindrical lined duct carrying a gas flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta M. BALINT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the homogeneous Euler equation linearized around a non-slipping mean flow andboundary conditions corresponding to the mass-spring-damper impedance, smooth initial dataperturbations with compact support are considered. The propagation of this type of initial dataperturbations in a straight cylindrical lined duct is investigated. Such kind of investigations is missingin the existing literature. The mathematical tools are the Fourier transform with respect to the axialspatial variable and the Laplace transform with respect to the time variable. The functionalframework and sufficient conditions are researched that the so problem be well-posed in the sense ofHadamard and the Briggs-Bers stability criteria can be applied.

  17. Optimal Weights of Certain Branches of an Arbitrary Connected Network for Fastest Distributed Consensus Averaging Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarizadeh, Saber

    2010-01-01

    Solving fastest distributed consensus averaging problem over networks with different topologies has been an active area of research for a number of years. The main purpose of distributed consensus averaging is to compute the average of the initial values, via a distributed algorithm, in which the nodes only communicate with their neighbors. In the previous works full knowledge about the network's topology was required for finding optimal weights and convergence rate of network, but here in this work for the first time the optimal weights are determined analytically for the edges of certain types of branches, namely path branch, lollipop branch, semi-complete Branch and Ladder branch independent of the rest of network. The solution procedure consists of stratification of associated connectivity graph of branch and Semidefinite Programming (SDP), particularly solving the slackness conditions, where the optimal weights are obtained by inductive comparing of the characteristic polynomials initiated by slackness c...

  18. Progenitor cell niches in the human pancreatic duct system and associated pancreatic duct glands: an anatomical and immunophenotyping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, Guido; Renzi, Anastasia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Franchitto, Antonio; Onori, Paolo; Overi, Diletta; Rossi, Massimo; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Alvaro, Domenico; Reid, Lola M; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) are tubule-alveolar glands associated with the pancreatic duct system and can be considered the anatomical counterpart of peribiliary glands (PBGs) found within the biliary tree. Recently, we demonstrated that endodermal precursor niches exist fetally and postnatally and are composed functionally of stem cells and progenitors within PBGs and of committed progenitors within PDGs. Here we have characterized more extensively the anatomy of human PDGs as novel niches containing cells with multiple phenotypes of committed progenitors. Human pancreata (n = 15) were obtained from cadaveric adult donors. Specimens were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. PDGs were found in the walls of larger pancreatic ducts (diameters > 300 μm) and constituted nearly 4% of the duct wall area. All of the cells identified were negative for nuclear expression of Oct4, a pluripotency gene, and so are presumably committed progenitors and not stem cells. In the main pancreatic duct and in large interlobular ducts, Sox9(+) cells represented 5-30% of the cells within PDGs and were located primarily at the bottom of PDGs, whereas rare and scattered Sox9(+) cells were present within the surface epithelium. The expression of PCNA, a marker of cell proliferation, paralleled the distribution of Sox9 expression. Sox9(+) PDG cells proved to be Pdx1(+) /Ngn3(+/-) /Oct4A(-) . Nearly 10% of PDG cells were positive for insulin or glucagon. Intercalated ducts contained Sox9(+) /Pdx1(+) /Ngn3(+) cells, a phenotype that is presumptive of committed endocrine progenitors. Some intercalated ducts appeared in continuity with clusters of insulin-positive cells organized in small pancreatic islet-like structures. In summary, PDGs represent niches of a population of Sox9(+) cells exhibiting a pattern of phenotypic traits implicating a radial axis of maturation from the bottoms of the PDGs to the surface of pancreatic ducts. Our results complete the

  19. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  20. Evaluation of the anatomical correlation between biliary branches of the left lobe of the liver and the umbilical portion of the portal vein (UP) by CT with injection of contrast material into biliary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kazuo [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Shinohara, Yasushi; Amano, Hodaka; Okazumi, Shinichi; Asano, Takehide; Isono, Kaichi; Ryu, Munemasa

    1995-12-01

    We analyzed anatomical correlation between biliary trees of the left lobe of the liver and the umbilical portion of the portal vein (UP) by CT with injection of contrast material into biliary tract through the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube (Cholangio-CT). Cholangio-CT was performed in 27 patients with obstructive jaundice. In 15 cases out of these 27 cases, left lateral superior subsegment branch (B2) and left lateral inferior subsegment branch (B3) originated in the right side of UP and ran in the cranial side of UP. In 6 cases, B2 and B3 arose in the cranial side of UP from the common duct of B2 and B3. In 5 cases, B2 and B3 arose in the left side of UP from the common duct which ran in the cranial side of UP. In one patient, B3 ran in the caudate side of UP. In 10 out of 27 cases, a bile duct branch which originated and ran in the cranial side of UP was depicted. It was not clear whether this branch belonged to medial segment branch or B3. (author).

  1. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct cyst: case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Maleki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common form of congenital cysts on the neck. The incidence of thyroid papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst is less than 1%. In most cases the diagnosis is made postoperatively. We present a 22-year-old female with thyroid papillary carcinoma arising from thyroglossal duct cyst,identified in pathologic study after sistrunk operation.In our case there was neither invasion to adjacent tissue nor lymph node involvement.The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. The patient was treated with radioactive iodide and thyroid suppression therapy was given as adjuvant treatment.The patient has been following for two years without any metastasis.

  2. Nose and inlet duct radomes for the firebolt aerial target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoots, L. C.

    Radomes of the Firebolt Aerial Target (AQM-81A) facilitate an uncommon set of operational conditions. The target vehicle is first carried captively. Stones may be dislodged from the runway and impact the Nose or Inlet Duct Radomes with considerable force. The drone has various flight profiles after launch, encompassing levels of MACH 1.2 at 35,000 feet to MACH 4 at 100,000 feet. For flights of 10 minutes, attendant aerothermal loads produce temperature peaks of 680 deg F and 980 deg F for the Nose and Inlet Duct units, respectively. Firebolt is normally retrieved, by helicopter after its parachute deploys, for refurbishment and re-use. Occasionally, sea recovery is effected using flotation gear. Electrically, the Nose Radome accommodates an L-band antenna for the electronic scoring system, and a small circulary polarized X-band horn. The Inlet Duct Radome houses an identical broad-beamed horn.

  3. Diagnosis of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction using dacryoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the value of dacryoscintigraphy in the assessment of patients with a clinical diagnosis of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Dacryoscintigraphy was performed in symptomatic 35 lacrimal drainage systems in 18 patients (age range: 37 ∼76,8 males, 10 females) that were patent on syringing. Abnormalities were detected with dacryoscintigraphy in 75.8% of systems. The positive scintigrams were subdivided into those demonstrating prelacrimal sac delay (31.8%), delay at the lacrimal sac/junction (40.9%), or delay within the duct (27%). Dacryoscintigraphy is noninvasive useful technique in the assessment of the functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction and very sensitive at detecting abnormalities in patients with lid laxity caused by senile change and facial nerve palsy

  4. Diagnosis of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction using dacryoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Wook; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Euy Neyng; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the value of dacryoscintigraphy in the assessment of patients with a clinical diagnosis of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Dacryoscintigraphy was performed in symptomatic 35 lacrimal drainage systems in 18 patients (age range: 37 {approx}76,8 males, 10 females) that were patent on syringing. Abnormalities were detected with dacryoscintigraphy in 75.8% of systems. The positive scintigrams were subdivided into those demonstrating prelacrimal sac delay (31.8%), delay at the lacrimal sac/junction (40.9%), or delay within the duct (27%). Dacryoscintigraphy is noninvasive useful technique in the assessment of the functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction and very sensitive at detecting abnormalities in patients with lid laxity caused by senile change and facial nerve palsy.

  5. Endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement for inflammatory pancreatic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The role of endoscopic therapy in the management of pancreatic diseases is continuously evolving; at present most pathological conditions of the pancreas are successfully treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS),or both. Endoscopic placement of stents has played and still plays a major role in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, pseudocysts, pancreas divisum, main pancreatic duct injuries, pancreatic fistulae, complications of acute pancreatitis, recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis,and in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis. These stents are currently routinely placed to reduce intraductal hypertension, bypass obstructing stones, restore lumen patency in cases with dominant, symptomatic strictures,seal main pancreatic duct disruption, drain pseudocysts or fluid collections, treat symptomatic major or minor papilla sphincter stenosis, and prevent procedure-induced acute pancreatitis. The present review aims at updating and discussing techniques, indications, and results of endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the pancreas.

  6. Thermal behavior of the duct applied functionally graded material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), the high temperature results from friction among the air, combustion of fuel in engine and combustion gas of a nozzle. The high temperature may cause serious damages in UAV structure. The Functionally Graded Material(FGM) is chosen as a material of the engine duct structure. Thermal stress analysis of FGM is performed in this paper. FGM is composed of two constituent materials that are mixed up according to the specific volume fraction distribution in order to withstand high temperature. Therefore, hoop stress, axial stress and shear stress of duct with 2 layers, 4 layers and 8 layers FGM are compared and analyzed respectively. In addition, the creep behavior of FGM used in duct structure of an engine is analyzed for better understanding of FGM characteristics

  7. Shielding analysis of the ITER/EDA NBI duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the shielding properties of the ITER/EDA NBI ducts based on the current JCT design of the 24 superconductive toroidal field coils (the 24 TFC). The two-dimensional transport calculations have been performed by DOT 3.5. First, the neutron fluxes, dose to insulator and peak nuclear heating rate were calculated in the TFC and the NBI duct. The X-Y calculational model with detail description of the neutron source shape and the TFC geometry is used for that calculation. Second, the R-Z calculational model with detail description of the NBI components was set up. The nuclear heating in the NBI cryo panels and displacement damage in NBI copper grids were obtained in that calculation. In summary, it it concluded that the shielding performance of the current NBI duct design is enough to decrease all considered neutronics responses below the limits. (author)

  8. Shielding analysis of the ITER/EDA NBI duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimin, S.; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Sato, Satoshi; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Inoue, Takashi; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Maki, Koichi

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the shielding properties of the ITER/EDA NBI ducts based on the current JCT design of the 24 superconductive toroidal field coils (the 24 TFC). The two-dimensional transport calculations have been performed by DOT 3.5. First, the neutron fluxes, dose to insulator and peak nuclear heating rate were calculated in the TFC and the NBI duct. The X-Y calculational model with detail description of the neutron source shape and the TFC geometry is used for that calculation. Second, the R-Z calculational model with detail description of the NBI components was set up. The nuclear heating in the NBI cryo panels and displacement damage in NBI copper grids were obtained in that calculation. In summary, it it concluded that the shielding performance of the current NBI duct design is enough to decrease all considered neutronics responses below the limits. (author).

  9. Thermoluminescence measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obryk, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.obryk@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Batistoni, Paola [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Conroy, Sean [EURATOM-VR Association, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Syme, Brian D.; Popovichev, Sergey [EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences, Energy, Technology and Safety, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens (Greece); Bilski, Paweł [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) were used for dose measurements at JET. •Pairs of {sup 6}LiF/{sup 7}LiF TLDs allow to measure thermal neutron component of a radiation field. •For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. •TLDs were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth. •The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. -- Abstract: Thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) were used for dose measurements at JET. Several hundreds of LiF detectors of various types, standard LiF:Mg,Ti and highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P were produced. LiF detectors consisting of natural lithium are sensitive to slow neutrons, their response to neutrons being enhanced by {sup 6}Li-enriched lithium or suppressed by using lithium consisting entirely of {sup 7}Li. Pairs of {sup 6}LiF/{sup 7}LiF detectors allow distinguishing between neutron/non-neutron components of a radiation field. For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. TLDs, located in the centre of cylindrical moderators, were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth in July 2012, and exposure took place during the last two weeks of the experimental campaign. Measurements of the gamma dose were obtained for all positions over a range of about five orders of magnitude variation. As the TLDs were also calibrated in a thermal neutron field, the neutron fluence at the experimental position could be derived. The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. The results confirm that the TLD technology can be usefully applied to measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts.

  10. Thermoluminescence measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) were used for dose measurements at JET. •Pairs of 6LiF/7LiF TLDs allow to measure thermal neutron component of a radiation field. •For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. •TLDs were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth. •The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. -- Abstract: Thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) were used for dose measurements at JET. Several hundreds of LiF detectors of various types, standard LiF:Mg,Ti and highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P were produced. LiF detectors consisting of natural lithium are sensitive to slow neutrons, their response to neutrons being enhanced by 6Li-enriched lithium or suppressed by using lithium consisting entirely of 7Li. Pairs of 6LiF/7LiF detectors allow distinguishing between neutron/non-neutron components of a radiation field. For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. TLDs, located in the centre of cylindrical moderators, were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth in July 2012, and exposure took place during the last two weeks of the experimental campaign. Measurements of the gamma dose were obtained for all positions over a range of about five orders of magnitude variation. As the TLDs were also calibrated in a thermal neutron field, the neutron fluence at the experimental position could be derived. The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. The results confirm that the TLD technology can be usefully applied to measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts

  11. The Effect of Pathological Types of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas on Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs of the pancreas consist of papillary growths within the pancreatic ductal system and they are at risk of malignant transformation. They were first described by Ohhashi et al. in 1982 [1] and represent more than one third of all cystic neoplasms of the pancreas but less than 1% of all pancreatic tumors [2, 3]. The World Health Organization has classified IPMNs into four categories based upon the degree of epithelial dysplasia: adenoma, borderline carcinoma, carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma [4] From a morphologic point of view, IPMNs may involve the main pancreatic duct, a side branch or both. The latter is termed “mixed” type.

  12. Retrospective analysis of 88 patients with pancreatic duct stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Shui Li; Zhao-Da Zhang; Yong Tang; Rong Jiang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Pancreatic duct stone is a rare disease, but there appears to be a rising trend in its incidence in recent years. Its pathogenesis remains unknown. The causes, diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic duct stone are reviewed through a retrospective analysis of the cases treated in our hospital. METHODS:The medical records of 88 patients with pancreatic duct stone treated in West China Hospital, Sichuan University from January 1, 1998 to November 30, 2004 were analyzed retrospectively in terms of clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS:Epigastric pain was the most common symptom in the 88 patients with an average age of 45.44±6.72 years. Various other symptoms were also observed. Eighty-one patients were subjected to B-ultrasonography, 51 to CT, and 47 to magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Fifty-six patients (63.64%) were operated on, 25 (28.41%) were treated with Chinese and Western medicine, and 7 (7.95%) abandoned treatment. Chronic pancreatitis was pathologically conifrmed in all patients undergoing operation. CONCLUSIONS: B-ultrasonography is the ifrst choice to check for pancreatic duct stone, while MRCP proves instructively useful for the diagnosis and treatment. Chronic pancreatitis is the most important cause of pancreatic duct stone, but whether there is not a direct correlation between stone formation and alcohol abuse needs further study in China. Surgery is the most curative method for pancreatic duct stone patients with severe symptoms or suspected pancreatic carcinoma, while individual treatment is emphasized, and microtraumatic surgery may be a developing option for treating pancreatic stone.

  13. Contryphans from Conus textile venom ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, E C; Watkins, M; Juszczak, L J; Cruz, L J; Olivera, B M

    2001-06-01

    Contryphans are unusual Conus peptides which contain a distinctive post-translational modification, D-tryptophan or D-leucine. cDNA clones encoding new contryphans from the mollusc-hunting cone snail Conus textile were identified and the inferred mature peptides were synthesized: contryphan-Tx (Gly-Cys-Hyp-D-Trp-Gln-Pro-Tyr-Cys-NH(2)), Leu-contryphan-Tx (Cys-Val-D-Leu-Tyr-Pro-Trp-Cys-NH(2)) and contryphan R/Tx which is identical to contryphan-R [Jimenez et al., 1996. Contryphan is a D-tryptophan containing Conus peptide. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 28002-28005]. Leu-contryphan-Tx exhibits a single peak, but contryphan-Tx shows two peaks under reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions. Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy demonstrates a difference in the D-tryptophan dihedral angle for the two contryphan-Tx equilibrium conformers. Both the sequences and in vivo effects of all contryphans isolated suggest that there are two major branches of the contryphan family. PMID:11137539

  14. IDENTIFYING PATTERNS OF FACIAL NERVE BRANCHES WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakuntala Rao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The facial nerve is highly variable and complex in its extra cranial course. Past studies have described patterns of branching in the face and anastomoses between branches. The studies have also thrown light on the significance of the patterns for the surgeon. With more and more development of surgical and aesthetic procedures evolving, an attempt has been made to identify all previously described named patterns with review of past literature and recognize any newer patterns to be noted and recorded. Adult human cadavers (24 which were allotted to first year medical students in the department of Anatomy, P.E.S Medical College, for routine dissection as per schedule were used for the study. One full term fetus was also included in the study. Dissection was done on either side of the faces and therefore the total sample size was considered to be 50 cervicofacial halves. The age of the cadavers was unknown at the time of dissection. The conventional method of dissection was used to identify and trace the facial nerve and its branches. The variability of branching pattern of facial nerve was observed. The patterns observed in this study were compared to patterns described by Davis et al in 1956.Twelve specimens(24/48 cervicofacial halves, showed straight branching pattern(type-1.Three specimens(6/48, cervico-facial halves showed anastomosis in temporo-facial division(type-II, Three (6/48, specimens showed loop formation between divisions(type-III. The type-VI which is a complex pattern of intricate anastomosis of all the branches was seen in four specimens (8/48.In two (4/48 specimens there was loop formation in the cervicofacial division. A larger cervicofacial division was seen in one of the specimens (2/48.The fetal halves did not show any anastomosis between the branches. An attempt has been made to identify the different patterns described with review of literature, to find out any new patterns and to correlate surgical significance of the

  15. The ETS domain transcriptional repressor Anterior open inhibits MAP kinase and Wingless signaling to couple tracheal cell fate with branch identity

    OpenAIRE

    Caviglia, S; Luschnig, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cells at the tips of budding branches in the Drosophila tracheal system generate two morphologically different types of seamless tubes. Terminal cells (TCs) form branched lumenized extensions that mediate gas exchange at target tissues, whereas fusion cells (FCs) form ring-like connections between adjacent tracheal metameres. Each tracheal branch contains a specific set of TCs, FCs, or both, but the mechanisms that select between the two tip cell types in a branch-specific fashion are not cle...

  16. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  17. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Yegutkin, G.G.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our...... dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting...

  18. Whistler propagation in ionospheric density ducts: Simulations and DEMETER observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, J. R.; Streltsov, A. V.; Vartanyan, A.; Milikh, G. M.

    2013-11-01

    On 16 October 2009, the Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) satellite observed VLF whistler wave activity coincident with an ionospheric heating experiment conducted at HAARP. At the same time, density measurements by DEMETER indicate the presence of multiple field-aligned enhancements. Using an electron MHD model, we show that the distribution of VLF power observed by DEMETER is consistent with the propagation of whistlers from the heating region inside the observed density enhancements. We also discuss other interesting features of this event, including coupling of the lower hybrid and whistler modes, whistler trapping in artificial density ducts, and the interference of whistlers waves from two adjacent ducts.

  19. Ionospheric duct propagation and Pc 1 pulsation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed study of two Pc 1 hydromagnetic emission events observed at Great Whale River, Quebec: Boulder, Colorado; and College, Alaska, indicates that emission energy propagated westward in an ionospheric duct from an extended source region east of Great Whale River with duct velocities ranging from 500 to 2500 km s-1. Sources located using both triangulation direction of arrival and polarization techniques were found to be generally consistent. Autocorrelation measurements of fine structure element spacing within the events show that dispersion increased with longitudinal distance from the source

  20. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  1. Endoscopic-assisted reconstructive surgery of the lacrimal duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poublon, René M L; Hertoge, K de Roon

    2009-07-01

    Reconstructive surgery of the nasolacrimal duct, or dacryocystorhinostomy, can be performed via an external or endonasal approach. For almost a century external dacryocystorhinostomy was the gold standard for correction of lacrimal duct obstruction. The endonasal approach became a safe surgical procedure using endoscopes and has the same anatomic and functional success rate as the external approach. It can be performed in adults and in children with close collaboration between a rhinologist and an ophthalmologist. An overview is given of the literature and of the authors' experience in this field. PMID:19505610

  2. Adenoma of the distal common bile duct -a case report-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Young Soo; Lee, Hyun Gon; Han, Ho Seong; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Sung Hoon [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    On rare occasions, Obstructive Jaundice may be caused by a benign tumor of the biliary tract. We describe a patient in whom the diagnosis of an adenoma of the distal common bile duct (CBD) was established. The CT showed a soft tissue density mass in the distal CBD and diffuse dilatation of the intrahepatic duct, gall the bladder, and CBD. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopnacreatography showed an irregularly marginated polypoid mass in the distal CBD. The clinical, radiological, and histological features of this neoplasm are reviewed. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this neoplasm are reviewed.

  3. Collecting duct carcinoma of kidney in a teenage boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini are rare aggressive neoplasms of distal nephron origin; it accounts for 2% of all renal cell carcinomas. Clinically, collecting duct carcinoma (CDC is characterized by an extremely aggressive phenotype, accompanying metastatic diseases at presentation in most reported cases. Most cases of CDC have been reported with median age above 50 years. To our knowledge, this is the only second case report of CDC in a young teenager patient below 19 years with metastasis to lungs and bones at presentation.

  4. DCTDOS, Neutron and Gamma Penetration in Composite Duct System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A - Description of program or function: Estimates are made of neutron and gamma-ray fluence rate (flux density), dose, and spectral features due to penetration through a series of duct segments - straight sections and bends - in arbitrary combinations; and the resulting composite can include computations for a room at the end, if there is one. This method was developed for the rapid estimates that are needed for analysis of protection problems against nuclear weapons, but the concepts are more generally applicable. B - Method of solution: The method, called 'orders of reflection', involves the following steps: (1) The penetration of the radiation (neutrons or gamma rays) through single straight ducts of various dimensions is first calculated in a one-velocity treatment, assuming an albedo with an angular dependence given by Chandrasekhar's theory, and assuming isotropic scattering. This penetration probability is calculated for the case of 0, 1, 2,...n reflections from walls; (2) An estimate of the energy and angular characteristics of the radiation transmitted after 0, 1, 2,..., n reflections is then made by using the results of a Monte Carlo calculation in which the energy and angular characteristics of the multiply-reflected radiation is computed in a space-independent treatment; (3) The results of calculations (1) and (2) are combined to obtain a transfer function which relates the intensities, direction, and energy characteristics of the radiations entering and leaving a single straight duct or duct segment. Using the output of one such calculation as the input for the next, the transmissions of the radiation through a sequence of ducts can readily be calculated for any spatial configuration of successive duct legs. The approximations made in the orders-of- reflection method are particularly applicable to neutrons. However, the method, with some adaptation, has also been found to be applicable to gamma rays. An extensive data base of neutron and gamma albedo

  5. Branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Böinghoff, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffusion approximation of branching processes in random environment (BPREs). This diffusion approximation is similar to and mathematically more tractable than BPREs. We obtain the exact asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. As in the case of BPREs, there is a phase transition in the subcritical regime due to different survival opportunities. In addition, we characterize the process conditioned to never go extinct and establish a backbone construction. In the strongly subcritical regime, mean offspring numbers are increased but still subcritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Here survival is solely due to an immortal individual, whose offspring are the ancestors of additional families. In the weakly subcritical regime, the mean offspring number is supercritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Thus this process survives with positive probability even if there was no immortal individual.

  6. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  7. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  8. Cystic dilatation of the common bile duct in adults: report of five cases and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda Pedro Carlos Loureiro de; Coelho Antonio Roberto Barros; Lima Filho José Falcão Corrêa; Machado Ricardo José Caldas; Souza Ayrton Ponce de; Mathias Carlos Augusto de Carvalho; Ferraz Álvaro Antônio Bandeira; Ferraz Edmundo Machado

    2000-01-01

    The authors report five cases of cystic dilatation of the common bile duct Type I (Todani?s classification) in adults patients, in Division of General Surgery of a University Hospital, treated over a- 25-year- period from 1974 to 1999, among 16.057 operations, and not previously published. Diagnosis was obtained by operative cholangiogram (OC) in the first case, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram on the second one (PTHC) and by ultrasonography (US), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancrea...

  9. 103Pd radioactive stent inhibits biliary duct restenosis and reduces smooth muscle actin expression during duct healing in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Jin He; Qin-Yi Gao; Shu-He Xu; Hong Gao; Tao Jiang; Xian-Wei Dai; Kai Ma

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the expression of smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the healing process after implanting a 103Pd radioactive stent in the biliary duct, and to discuss the function and signiifcance of this stent in preventing biliary stricture formation. METHODS:A model of biliary injury in dogs was made and then a 103Pd radioactive stent was positioned in the biliary duct. The expression and distribution of SMA were assessed in the anastomotic tissue 30 days after implantation of the stent. RESULTS:SMA expression was less in the 103Pd stent group than in the ordinary stent group. The 103Pd stent inhibited scar contracture and anastomotic stenosis. CONCLUSION:The 103Pd stent can reduce the expression of SMA in the healing process and inhibit scar contracture and anastomotic stenosis in the dog biliary duct.

  10. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  11. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants. Branching is regulated by multiple internal factors which are modulated by different environmental signals. A key environmental signal in the context of a plant population is a low red / far-red intensi...

  12. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  13. A QUANTITATIVE METHOD FOR ANALYSING 3-D BRANCHING IN EMBRYONIC KIDNEYS: DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNIQUE AND PRELIMINARY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fricout

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The normal human adult kidney contains between 300,000 and 1 million nephrons (the functional units of the kidney. Nephrons develop at the tips of the branching ureteric duct, and therefore ureteric duct branching morphogenesis is critical for normal kidney development. Current methods for analysing ureteric branching are mostly qualitative and those quantitative methods that do exist do not account for the 3- dimensional (3D shape of the ureteric "tree". We have developed a method for measuring the total length of the ureteric tree in 3D. This method is described and preliminary data are presented. The algorithm allows for performing a semi-automatic segmentation of a set of grey level confocal images and an automatic skeletonisation of the resulting binary object. Measurements of length are automatically obtained, and numbers of branch points are manually counted. The final representation can be reconstructed by means of 3D volume rendering software, providing a fully rotating 3D perspective of the skeletonised tree, making it possible to identify and accurately measure branch lengths. Preliminary data shows the total length estimates obtained with the technique to be highly reproducible. Repeat estimates of total tree length vary by just 1-2%. We will now use this technique to further define the growth of the ureteric tree in vitro, under both normal culture conditions, and in the presence of various levels of specific molecules suspected of regulating ureteric growth. The data obtained will provide fundamental information on the development of renal architecture, as well as the regulation of nephron number.

  14. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:20420411

  15. A simple method to calculate the neutron flow through full ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary of a study of assessment of the probability for neutrons to be guided in a full duct with a square cross section and doubly bent. Two software have been developed, based on the Monte Carlo simulation, to compute the neutron transmission probability at the end of the duct. Results are in good agreement with that obtained with the MCNP-5 code. The neutron flow and probability at the duct end have been determined for different materials and different duct dimensions

  16. An Immunocytochemical Profile of the Endocrine Pancreas Using an Occlusive Duct Ligation Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Page BJ; du Toit DF; Muller CJF; Mattysen J; Lyners R

    2000-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ligation of the pancreatic duct, distally to its confluence into the bile duct has been shown to induce endocrine tissue regeneration. The surplus endocrine tissue formed is presumed to be able to replace pathologically and/or experimentally compromised tissue. OBJECTIVE: This is a quantitative study on the histology of duct ligated pancreas employing immunocytochemistry and computerised morphometry. INTERVENTIONS: Pancreatic duct ligation was performed on 25 groups of six normal Spr...

  17. New precut sphincterotomy for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in difficult biliary duct cannulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively investigate the effect and safety of various new type precut sphincterotomy techniques (VNTPST) in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) due to difficult biliary duct cannulation (DBC).METHODS: A plough-like pull-type sphincterotome (PLPTS) or improved short nose sphincterotome or improved needle knife was applied. VNTPST was carried out in 30 of 280 patients, whose biliary tract could not be exposed well or deep cannulation was difficult to perform during ERCP with traditional methods. Patients were followed up for short-term complications and the therapeutic effect of VNTPS was observed and compared with that of traditional endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST).RESULTS: A total 280 patients underwent ERCP, of which 3 failed in operation because of pathological features in stomch or duodenum, 247 successfully underwent traditional ERCP (89.1%, 247/277), 30 failed (10.8%, 30/277). VNTPS technique succeeded in 24(80%, 24/30) of 30 cases. The successful rate of deep biliary duct cannulation increased 8.6% (24/277), the total cannulation successful rate following precut was 97.7%. There was a significant difference between the two groups (97.7% vs 89.1%, χ2= 17.1, P < 0.01).The incidence of complications was 9.3% (26/277) for traditional ERCP group and 13.3% (4/30) for VNTPS technique group. Guideline tip was broken in pancreatic duct (KPDGP) of one patient, and there was no pancreatitis, slight or moderate bleeding postoperatively occurred in 2 patients, 1 patient had bleeding during operation (PDWN). There were no differences between VNTPS technique group and traditional ERCP(TRERCP)group (13.3% vs 9.3%,χ2 = 0.478, P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: VNTPS procedure and Deng's precut are highly effective methods to get biliary access during ERCP with DBC. With skillful techniques, it can increase the successful rate for deep cannulation of biliary duct and decrease complications. VNTPS technique, especially Deng's precut is as effective and

  18. Reappraisal of the Immunophenotype of Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMNs)—Gastric Pyloric and Small Intestinal Immunophenotype Expression in Gastric and Intestinal Type IPMNs—

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are mucin-producing neoplasms of the main and/or branch pancreatic ducts. To assess differences between various IPMN subtypes, immunohistochemical markers of gastric surface mucous cells (MUC5AC), gastric gland mucous cells (MUC6 and GlcNAcα1→4Galβ→R), gastric pyloric and duodenal epithelial cells (PDX1), intestinal cells (MUC2 and CDX2), small intestinal cells (CPS1) and large intestinal cells (SATB2) were evaluated in 33 surgically treated IPMNs. MUC2 expression classified IPMNs into gastric (n=17), intestinal (n=8) and mixed gastric and intestinal type (collision=7, composite=1). No differences in age or sex were observed among these types. MUC5AC and PDX1 were expressed in all IPMNs. MUC6 expression was higher in gastric and mixed types than in intestinal type. GlcNAcα1→4Galβ→R was detected in gastric and mixed type, but not in intestinal type. MUC2 and CDX2 expression were higher in intestinal type than gastric and mixed type. CPS1 expression was higher in intestinal type than gastric type. SATB2 was not observed in any IPMNs. Frequent abrupt transition between the two IPMN types in mixed-type IPMNs was observed. Gastric pyloric and small intestinal differentiation are characteristic of gastric and intestinal type IPMN, respectively, and these two IPMN types may have distinct pathogenesis

  19. Evaporation duct refractivity profile from satellite meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levadnyi, Iu.; Ivanov, V.; Shalyapin, V.

    The refractivity profile is initial data for the microwave propagation prediction models Evaporation duct height is usually used to characterize refractivity profile in the surface layer over sea The evaporation duct height is calculated using bulk measurement of air temperature wind speed humidity pressure at some level and sea surface temperature Four prevailing models LKB Liu-Katsaros-Businger RSHMU Russian State Hydro-Meteorological University optimized by us ECMWF European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast and COARE Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment were examined The results of computation using above mentioned models were compared with the direct refractometric measurements All measurements meteorological and refractometric were made by us during two marine expeditions First expedition was in the Atlantic ocean from March to May in latitude 22 circ-32° North and longitude 52 circ-65° West 29 measurements Second one was in the Indian ocean from December to February in latitude 0 circ-15° North and longitude 55 circ-80° East 94 measurements The approximation by least square-root method was carried out to compare the direct measurements of evaporation duct height with the results of computations The minimum square-root error is obtained for LKB model 2 59m for negative air-sea temperature difference 2 42m maximum - for ECMWF model 2 72m All models overestimate low evaporation duct heights and underestimate - high values This effect is least of all define in RSHMU

  20. Discontinuous finite element treatment of duct problems in transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discontinuous finite element approach is presented to solve the even-parity Boltzmann transport equation for duct problems. Presence of ducts in a system results in the streaming of particles and hence requires the employment of higher order angular approximations to model the angular flux. Conventional schemes based on the use of continuous trial functions require the same order of angular approximations to be used everywhere in the system, resulting in wastage of computational resources. Numerical investigations for the test problems presented in this paper indicate that the discontinuous finite elements eliminate the above problems and leads to computationally efficient and economical methods. They are also found to be more suitable for treating the sharp changes in the angular flux at duct-observer interfaces. The new approach provides a single-pass alternate to extrapolation and interactive schemes which need multiple passes of the solution strategy to acquire convergence. The method has been tested with the help of two case studies, namely straight and dog-leg duct problems. All results have been verified against those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations and K/sup +/ continuous finite element method. (author)

  1. Coexistence of Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Carcinoma and Thyroid Papillary Microcarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Karbek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant lesion of a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC is an extremely rare entity. Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. Diagnosis is commonly made after pathological examination of the surgical specimen. A 41-year-old male patient with a midline neck mass was initially diagnosed with a thyroglossal duct cyst and underwent a Sistrunks procedure. Histopathologic examination revealed a papillary thyroid car¬cinoma within the thyroglossal duct cyst. Ultrasound elastography of the thyroid gland was performed. We have detected a hypoechoic hypervascular thyroid nodule measuring 3 mm in diameter that appeared completely blue in B-mode ultrasonography, and hard tissue was visualized by elastosonography (ES. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. The final pathological finding showed papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland without cervical lymph node metastasis. When a thyroglossal duct cyst is excised using Sistrunk’s procedure and when the definitive hystological analysis depicts malignancy, the thyroid gland must be studied carefully with radiological examinations. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 127-8

  2. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Yoo; Yohanan Kim; Alfred Simental; Jared C. Inman

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  3. Annular linear induction pump with an externally supported duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several embodiments of an annular linear induction pump for pumping liquid metals are disclosed having the features of generally one pass flow of the liquid metal through the pump and an increased efficiency resulting from the use of thin duct walls to enclose the stator. The stator components of this pump are removable for repair and replacement. 15 claims

  4. Aspect ratio effects in turbulent duct flows studied with DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, R.; Noorani, A.; Lozano-Durán, A.; Schlatter, P.; Fischer, P.; Nagib, H.

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional effects present in turbulent duct flows, i.e., side-wall boundary layers and secondary motions, are studied by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS). The spectral element code Nek5000, developed by Fischer et. al. (2008), is used to compute turbulent duct flows with aspect ratios 1 and 3 in streamwise-periodic boxes of length 25 h (long enough to capture the longest streamwise structures). The total number of grid points is 28 and 62 million respectively, and the inflow conditions were adjusted iteratively in order to keep the same bulk Reynolds number at the centerplane (Reb , c = 2800) in both cases. Spanwise variations in wall shear, mean-flow profiles and turbulence statistics were analyzed with aspect ratio, and also compared with the 2D channel. The simulations were started from a laminar duct profile, and transition to turbulence was triggered by means of trip-forcing in the wall-normal direction, applied at the two horizontal walls. In addition, we developed a convergence criterion aimed at assessing the necessary averaging time TA for converged statistics. We find that econdary motions present in duct flows require longer averaging times and the total shear-stress profile is not necessarily linear.

  5. Experimental study on the particles deposition in the sampling duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Charuau, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    A high standard of protection against the harmful effects of radioactive aerosol dissemination requires a measurement, as representative as possible, of their concentration. This measurement depends on the techniques used for aerosol sampling and transfer to the detector, as well as on the location of the latter with respect to the potential sources. The aeraulic design of the apparatus is also an important factor. Once collected the aerosol particles often have to travel through a variably shaped duct to the measurement apparatus. This transport is responsible for losses due to the particles deposition on the walls, leading to a distortion on the concentration measurements and a change in the particle size distribution. To estimate and minimize measurement errors it is important to determine the optimal transport conditions when designing a duct; its diameter and material, the radius of curvature of the bends and the flow conditions must be defined in particular. This paper presents an experimental study in order to determine, for each deposition mechanism, the retained fraction, or the deposition velocity for different flow regimes. This study has pointed out that it exists a favourable flow regime for the particle transport through the sampling ducts (2 500 < Re < 5 000). It has been established, for any particle diameters, equations to predict the aerosol penetration in smooth-walled cylindrical metal ducts.

  6. A Rare Case of Mediastinal Cyst: Thoracic Duct Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Mergan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic duct cysts are very rarely observed cysts of the mediastinum. These cysts, which can become established in the costovertebral sulcus or the visceral compartment, have generally been reported at the level of the 10th and 11th vertebrae; however, they can be observed at any location along the ductus [1]. A 37-year-old male patient complained of chest pain for the last 3 months that especially increased after meals. He complained of shortness of breath while walking or going up the stairs, for the last month. The lung graphy showed an increased darkening at a 5x6cm smooth (clean-cut, regular, orderly bordered shadow just behind the heart shadow. The patient%u2019s computed thorax tomography showed a retrocardiac-paravertebral, middle line positioned, 8.5x7x6 cm proportioned, regular bordered, thin walled, homogenous cystic bulk at the subcarinal level. The patient, who could not be relieved with medical treatment, was taken to surgery. The lesion was reached by right posterolateral thoracotomy, and drainage of lymph-containing cystic fluid and excision of the cyst walls were performed by incising the thoracic duct cyst with a mediastinal pleura incision. Mass ligation was then performed to the thoracic duct. We wanted to present our thoracic duct cyst case in this article due to the currently limited number of actual cases reported in the literature.

  7. Laparoscopic managment of common bile duct stones: our initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroori, S; Bell, J C

    2002-05-01

    The management of choledocholithiasis has changed radically since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, perceived technical difficulties have deterred many surgeons from treating common bile duct stones laparoscopically at the time of cholecystectomy. This has lead to reliance on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy to deal with common bile duct stones. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who had laparoscopic common bile duct exploration at Downe Hospital between December 1999 and August 2001. Among 149 laparoscopic cholecystectomies done by our group in this period, 10 patients (6.7%) underwent laparoscopic CBD exploration, three by the transcystic technique and seven by choledochotomy. Three patients (2%) had unsuspected stones found on routine per- operative cholangiogram. The mean operative time was 2.34hrs (range 1.50-3.30hrs). The mean hospital post- operative stay was 3 days (range 1-6 days). Post-operative morbidity was zero. Stone clearance was achieved in all cases. We conclude, laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct is relatively safe and straightforward method. The key skill required is the ability to perform laparoscopic suturing with confidence. PMID:12137159

  8. Reynolds-stress model prediction of 3-D duct flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gerolymos, G A

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of different modelling choices in second-moment closures by assessing model performance in predicting 3-D duct flows. The test-cases (developing flow in a square duct [Gessner F.B., Emery A.F.: {\\em ASME J. Fluids Eng.} {\\bf 103} (1981) 445--455], circular-to-rectangular transition-duct [Davis D.O., Gessner F.B.: {\\em AIAA J.} {\\bf 30} (1992) 367--375], and \\tsn{S}-duct with large separation [Wellborn S.R., Reichert B.A., Okiishi T.H.: {\\em J. Prop. Power} {\\bf 10} (1994) 668--675]) include progressively more complex strains. Comparison of experimental data with selected 7-equation models (6 Reynolds-stress-transport and 1 scale-determining equations), which differ in the closure of the velocity/pressure-gradient tensor $\\Pi_{ij}$, suggests that rapid redistribution controls separation and secondary-flow prediction, whereas, inclusion of pressure-diffusion modelling improves reattachment and relaxation behaviour.

  9. Saving energy for ventilation using decentralised duct fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Afshari, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    pressure drops which in turn will increase energy use. This paper presents a novel procedure for balancing CAV-systems using decentralised duct fans instead of flat plate dampers. The procedure will result in lower pressure drops and consequently in a reduction of energy use for ventilation when compared...... mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use for new and renovation of buildings....

  10. Sonographic and radiologic diagnosis of a pancreatic duct stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habscheid, W.; Kulke, H.; Heidbreder, E.

    1986-09-01

    A case is reported in which asymptomatic chronic pancreatitis of initially unknown etiology was detected as result of a routine follow-up examination of a patient with membraneproliferative glomerulonephritis. Ultrasound and endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography detected a stone in the major pancreatic duct. The stone was of such size and irregular form that endoscopic extraction was impossible.

  11. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  12. Radiation from a lined duct in uniform flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a boundary element formulation for modelling the sound field inside and outside a duct in uniform flow. The model is the first step towards models for predicting the noise radiated from turbo fan engines. For this purpose the frequency range is very large (up to ka=40), and non...

  13. Clear cell carcinoid tumor of the distal common bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukada Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoid tumors rarely arise in the extrahepatic bile duct and can be difficult to distinguish from carcinoma. There are no reports of clear cell carcinoid (CCC tumors in the distal bile duct (DBD to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we report a CCC tumor in the DBD and review the literature concerning extrahepatic bile duct carcinoid tumors. Case presentation A 73-old man presented with fever and occult obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP demonstrated a nodular tumor projection in the DBD without regional lymph node swelling. Under suspicion of carcinoma, we resected the head of the pancreas along with 2nd portion duodenectomy and a lymph node dissection. The surgical specimen showed a golden yellow polypoid tumor in the DBD (0.8 × 0.6 × 0.5 cm in size. The lesion was composed of clear polygonal cells arranged in nests and a trabecular pattern. The tumor invaded through the wall into the fibromuscular layer. Immunohistochemical stains showed that neoplastic cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and pancreatic polypeptide and negative for inhibin, keratin, CD56, serotonin, gastrin and somatostatin. The postoperative course was uneventful and he is living well without relapse 12 months after surgery. Conclusion Given the preoperative difficulty in differentiating carcinoid from carcinoma, the pancreaticoduodenectomy is an appropriate treatment choice for carcinoid tumors located within the intra-pancreatic bile duct.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Candidate Materials for Hot Gas Duct of VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot gas duct of VHTR is operated at 950 .deg.. Ni based superalloys, such as Hastelloy XR, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, for hot gas duct have been candidate material because of good strength and corrosion properties at high temperature. Mechanical properties of these alloys are tested at high temperature to apply to hot gas duct of VHTR

  15. The use of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy in a case with a cholecystohepatic duct

    OpenAIRE

    Naonori Kawakubo; Yoshio Zaizen; Yukiko Goto; Shizu Miura

    2015-01-01

    A cholecystohepatic duct is a rare biliary anomaly that is identified by the drainage of the hepatic duct into the gallbladder. We herein report on the case of a 2-year-old boy diagnosed as this anomaly. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy was successfully performed, and this is the first report of a case with a cholecystohepatic duct treated using a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy.

  16. The branch banking boom in Illinois: a byproduct of restrictive branching laws

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Davis; Tara Rice

    2007-01-01

    What’s behind the boom in bank branches across Illinois, particularly in Chicago? The authors explore the history of branch banking within the state and across the nation to help explain this recent trend and discuss its future implications.

  17. Branching pattern in the evolutionary tree for human mitochondrial DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-eight types of mitochondrial (mt) DNA were found by sequencing the most variable part of the control region from 117 Caucasians. In the tree relating those types, most of the branching events occur about two-thirds of the way from the root of the tree to the tips of the branches. Moreover, the distribution of sequence differences between all possible pairs of individuals is approximately Poisson. Other non-African populations show a similar pattern. Assuming a neutral model, these findings imply that the probability of survival of new lineages has undergone dramatic changes, probably due to population expansion. Conversely, African populations show multimodal distributions fitting with a model of constant population size

  18. Some distance bounds of branching processes and their diffusion limits

    CERN Document Server

    Kammerer, Niels B

    2010-01-01

    We compute exact values respectively bounds of "distances" - in the sense of (transforms of) power divergences and relative entropy - between two discrete-time Galton-Watson branching processes with immigration GWI for which the offspring as well as the immigration is arbitrarily Poisson-distributed (leading to arbitrary type of criticality). Implications for asymptotic distinguishability behaviour in terms of contiguity and entire separation of the involved GWI are given, too. Furthermore, we determine the corresponding limit quantities for the context in which the two GWI converge to Feller-type branching diffusion processes, as the time-lags between observations tend to zero. Some applications to (static random environment like) Bayesian decision making and Neyman-Pearson testing are presented as well.

  19. Invasive thyroglossal duct cyst papillary carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghaghazvini Shirin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A thyroglossal duct cyst is the most common congenital anomaly of the thyroid gland and midline masses in childhood (70% abnormality in childhood, 7% in adult. Carcinomas arising from a thyroglossal duct cyst are rare (only 1% of thyroglossal duct cyst cases and characterized by relatively non-aggressive behavior and rare lymphatic spread. They are also diagnosed mostly during the third and fourth decades of life. About 85% to 92% of all thyroglossal duct cyst carcinomas are papillary carcinomas. Case presentation We present the case of a 44-year-old Iranian woman with Cacausian ethnicity with a painless anterior neck mass that appeared gradually over three months. She had a history of frequent painful swelling of the anterior part of her neck, which subsided with antibiotic therapy. Thyroid functional tests were normal and a thyroid scinitigraphy showed a cold nodule in the left lobe of her thyroid. A computed tomography scan revealed a large, heterogeneous enhancing soft tissue mass with cystic components in the midline of the anterior neck space. This extended from the base of the tongue,(completely separated from its muscles, to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland and showed the destruction of the hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage. The diagnosis of a thyroglossal duct cyst with malignant transformation was maintained. A fine needle aspiration revealed papillary carcinoma. Conclusion This patient's case is presented because of its rare, aggressive, and invasive nature and rare and unusual manifestation, as well as its rapid increase in size, the destruction of the hyoid bone, chondrolysis of the thyroid cartilage, lymph adenopathy and the existence of a cold nodule in the thyroid gland.

  20. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients.During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.