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Sample records for branch duct type

  1. Invasive carcinoma derived from branch duct-type IPMN may be a more aggressive neoplasm than that derived from main duct-type IPMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Takehiro; Shima, Yasuo; Kosaki, Takuhiro; Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Kozuki, Akihito; Iiyama, Tastuo; Takezaki, Yuka; Kobayashi, Michiya; Nishimori, Isao; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term follow-up results of patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and to estimate the degree of IPMN malignancy based on pathological and molecular features of resected specimens. The detection rate of IPMN has increased over the last decade; however, the management of this neoplasm remains controversial. This is particularly so for branch duct-type IPMN, which carries a high potential for malignancy and risk of recurrence. We retrospectively reviewed a single institution's prospective pancreatic resection database to identify IPMN patients who underwent pancreatectomy with curative intent. The clinicopathological variables of 100 patients resected for IPMN were analyzed with a detailed review of histopathological results (borderline lesions, non-invasive carcinoma and invasive carcinoma) to determine the grade of IPMN malignancy based on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD4 signaling. The incidence of malignant change was significantly higher in patients with main duct-type IPMN (69.7%) compared with branch duct-type IPMN cases (17.9%). However, patients with an invasive carcinoma had a significantly worse outcome if it was derived from branch duct-type IPMN compared with those derived from main duct-type IPMN, and TGF-β mRNA expression was significantly increased in the former patient group. Immunohistochemistry also showed higher numbers of SMAD4-positive cells in patients with carcinoma derived from branch duct-type IPMN. Our results demonstrated that invasive carcinoma derived from branch duct-type IPMN is more aggressive than that derived from main duct-type IPMN, once invasive morphological change takes place. Determining TGF-β and/or SMAD4 status at initial diagnosis may be useful for stratifying IPMN patients into treatment regimens.

  2. Invasive carcinoma derived from branch duct-type IPMN may be a more aggressive neoplasm than that derived from main duct-type IPMN

    OpenAIRE

    OKABAYASHI, TAKEHIRO; Shima, Yasuo; KOSAKI, TAKUHIRO; SUMIYOSHI, TATSUAKI; KOZUKI, AKIHITO; IIYAMA, TASTUO; Takezaki, Yuka; Kobayashi, Michiya; Nishimori, Isao; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term follow-up results of patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and to estimate the degree of IPMN malignancy based on pathological and molecular features of resected specimens. The detection rate of IPMN has increased over the last decade; however, the management of this neoplasm remains controversial. This is particularly so for branch duct-type IPMN, which carries a high potential for malignancy and risk of recurrence. We ...

  3. Prognosis of cancer with branch duct type IPMN of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhito; Ikeuchi; Takao; Itoi; Atsushi; Sofuni; Fumihide; Itokawa; Takayoshi; Tsuchiya; Toshio; Kurihara; Kentaro; Ishii; Shujiro; Tsuji; Junko; Umeda; Fuminori; Moriyasu; Akihiko; Tsuchida; Kazuhiko; Kasuya

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To examine the coexistence of metachronous and synchronous cancer in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN).METHODS: We reviewed the records of 145 patients with branch duct IPMN between January 1991 and April 2008 and assessed the relationship between IPMN and intraor extra-pancreatic carcinoma and the outcome of IPMN.RESULTS: The mean observation period was 55.9 ± 45.3 mo. Among the 145 patients, the frequency of extra-pancreatic cancer was 29.0%. The frequency of ...

  4. Small-Sized, Flat-Type Invasive Branch Duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm: A Case Report

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    Koji Shindo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent improvements in diagnostic modalities are increasing the frequency of detection of small-sized branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs. International consensus guidelines for IPMN recommend surveillance without immediate resection for small-sized (<3 cm BD-IPMNs without malignant features on imaging. Our patient is the first to have undergone resection of a small-sized BD-IPMN containing invasive cancer, but without malignant features on imaging. We herein report a case involving a 70-year-old man with a small cystic lesion in the pancreas head detected by health screening ultrasonography. Detailed examination revealed that the cystic lesion was a BD-IPMN measuring about 2 cm, with no malignant features. However, cytological examination of the pancreatic juice showed atypical cells with high-grade dysplasia storing intracytoplasmic mucin, indicating malignant BD-IPMN. Pathological examination of the resected specimen showed a BD-IPMN measuring 16 mm with an associated invasive carcinoma that invaded the pancreatic parenchyma over a distance of 11 mm. In this patient, invasive cancer was present within a small BD-IPMN with no high-risk stigmata on imaging. Cytological examination of the pancreatic juice allowed for the detection of pancreatic cancer in such a small-sized IPMN. Although routine endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP with cytology is not recommended in all patients with BD-IPMNs, ERCP may contribute to the detection of small pancreatic cancers in select cases. Accumulation of cases of pancreatic cancer within small BD-IPMNs may help establish the indications for ERCP with cytological examination for the purpose of early detection of small pancreatic cancer.

  5. The laparoscopic enucleation for branch duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms located at the body of pancreas: A case report

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    Stevanović Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN are among the most common cystic neoplasms of the pancreas, but they represent only 1-3% of all exocrine pancreas tumors. With the development of diagnostic possibilities the number of patients with IPMN is constantly increasing and represents approximately 20% of all surgically treated pancreatic tumors. The development of laparoscopic surgery has led to advances in the treatment of cystic tumors of the pancreas with the emergence of new surgical dilemma in the choice of surgical techniques in patients with IPMN. Case Outline. A 23-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital with non-specific symptoms of upper abdomen. Performed diagnostics indicated the existence of a tumor formation at the periphery of the pancreas, in the region of the proximal corpus, 8Ч5 cm in diameter. The cystic formation, wall thickness 3 mm, was filled with dense contents and injected into the tissue of the pancreas, but did not lead to an extension of the pancreatic duct. After adequate preoperative preparation the patient was operated on, when a laparoscopic enucleation of cystic tumor with coagulation and cutting off communication between the peripheral pancreatic duct and pancreatic tumors was performed by using ultrasound scissors. Histopathological analysis of the specimen indicated an IPMN of the branch duct type (BD-IPMN with a low grade dysplasia. The line of resection was without cellular atypia. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positivity on tumor mucins (MUC-5 and MUC-2, which is typical for gastric type of BD-IPMN. Six months postoperatively the patient showed no signs of recurrence of the disease. Conclusion. Surgical treatment is the dominant choice for the treatment for IPMN. Although minimally invasive, laparoscopic enucleation of BD-IPMN is able to achieve an adequate level of radicality without the accompanying complications and with short postoperative recovery period.

  6. Multiple small "imaging" branch-duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) in familial pancreatic cancer: indicator for concomitant high grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia?

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    Bartsch, D K; Dietzel, K; Bargello, M; Matthaei, E; Kloeppel, G; Esposito, I; Heverhagen, J T; Gress, T M; Slater, E P; Langer, P

    2013-03-01

    Most screening programs for familial pancreatic cancer are currently based on endoscopic ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cystic lesions, especially those suspicious for small intraductal pancreatic mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the branch ducts, can be visualized in up to 40 % of individuals at risk, but their pathological importance in the setting of FPC is yet not well established. Individuals at risk from a prospective screening program for familial pancreatic cancer with small "imaging" IPMNs of the branch-duct type (BD-IPMN) who underwent pancreatic resection were analysed regarding clinico-pathological data and the locations of pancreatic lesions. Five of 125 individuals at risk who underwent screening had multiple small (size 2-10 mm) unicystic lesions and/or multicystic single lesions in the pancreatic body and tail suspicious for BD-IPMNs upon MRI imaging and decided to undergo surgical resection after interdisciplinary counselling, although none fulfilled the consensus criteria for IPMN resection. Histological examination revealed BD-IPMNs with low or moderate dysplasia of the gastric type in combination with multifocal PanIN2 and PanIN3 lesions in 4 individuals. The remaining patient had only tiny ductectasias in the pancreatic tail with multifocal PanIN 2 lesions in the entire gland and one PanIN3 lesion in the pancreatic head. Intriguingly, the location of the most dysplastic histological lesions (PanIN3) did not correspond to the preoperatively detected lesions and were not visible in preoperative imaging. In the setting of FPC, the presence of multiple small "imaging" BD-IPMNs may indicate the presence of high-grade PanIN lesions elsewhere in the pancreas.

  7. Artery to Cystic Duct: A Consistent Branch of Cystic Artery Seen in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

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    Arshad Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled arterial bleeding during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a serious problem and may increase the risk of bile duct damage. Therefore, accurate identification of the anatomy of the cystic artery is very important. Cystic artery is notoriously known to have a highly variable branching pattern. We reviewed the anatomy of the cystic artery and its branch to cystic duct as seen through the video laparoscope. A single artery to cystic duct with the classical “H-configuration” was demonstrated in 161 (91.47% patients. This branch may cause troublesome bleeding during laparoscopic dissection in the hepatobiliary triangle. Careful identification of artery to cystic duct is helpful in the proper dissection of Calot’s triangle as it reduces the chances of hemorrhage and thus may also be helpful in prevention of extrahepatic biliary radical injuries.

  8. Small invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas distinct from branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroki Sakamoto; Masayuki Kitano; Takamitsu Komaki; Hajime Imai; Ken Kamata; Masatomo Kimura; Yoshifumi Takeyama; Masatoshi Kudo

    2009-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a highly sensitive diagnostic method for the detection of small pancreatic carcinomas.Recently, there have been some reports describing the utility of contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CEH-EUS) which uses sonographic contrast agent for differentiation of a pancreatic mass.This report describes a case of small adenocarcinoma of the pancreas distinct from branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) in which investigation by EUS took place every 6 mo and diagnosis was made accurately by additional CEH-EUS during the followup of the branch duct IPMN.A 68-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of a branch duct IPMN in the pancreatic body.She had been followedup by EUS every 6 mo.However, after 2 years EUS demonstrated a low echoic area distinct from the branch duct IPMN which was vaguely discernible by EUS, and accurate sizing and differential diagnosis were considered difficult on the EUS imaging.CHEUS with Sonazoid revealed a hypovascular tumor and we suspected small pancreatic carcinoma.The histopathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma (10 mm) in the pancreatic tail, distinct from the branch duct IPMN of the pancreatic body.EUS and CEH-EUS may play an important role in the correct diagnosis of small pancreatic tumors, including synchronous and metachronous occurrence of IPMN and ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

  9. Experience of limited pancreatic head resection for management of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in a single center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang Yeol Paik; Seong Ho Choi

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To share our surgical experience and the outcome of limited pancreatic head resection for the management of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). METHODS: Between May 2005 and February 2008, nine limited pancreatic head resections (LPHR) were performed for IPMN of the pancreatic head. We reviewed the nine patients, retrospectively. RESULTS: Tumor was located in the uncinate process of the pancreas in all nine patients. Three patients had stents inserted in the main pancreatic duct due to injury. The mean size of tumor was 28.4 mm. Postoperative complications were found in five patients: 3 pancreatic leakages, a pancreatitis, and a duodenal stricture. Pancreatic leakages were improved by external drainage. No perioperative mortality was observed and all patients are recorded alive during the mean follow-up period of 17.2 mo. CONCLUSION: In selected patients after careful evaluation, LPHR can be used for the treatment of branch duct type IPMN. In order to avoid pancreatic ductal injury, pre- and intra-operative definite localization and careful operative techniques are required.

  10. Differentiating Branch Duct and Mixed IPMN in Endoscopically Collected Pancreatic Cyst Fluid via Cytokine Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Linda S; Bellizzi, Andrew M.; Banks, Peter A.; Sainani, Nisha I.; Vivek Kadiyala; Shadeah Suleiman; Darwin L Conwell; Paulo, Joao A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Differentiating branch duct from mixed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BD-IPMN) is problematic, but clinically important as mixed IPMNs are managed surgically, while some BD-IPMN may be followed. Inflammatory mediator proteins (IMPs) have been implicated in acute and chronic inflammatory and malignant pancreatic diseases. Aim. To compare IMP profile of pancreatic cyst fluid collected endoscopically from BD-IPMN and mixed IPMN. Methods. Pancreatic cyst fluid from ten patie...

  11. Resistance Characteristics of Hydraulic Oil through Isodiametric T-type Duct with Sharp Corners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jinglin; WANG Liwei; LI Xia

    2009-01-01

    Rational determination and reduction of local energy loss of oil flow at pipe junctions are of important significance to improve hydraulic pipeline's work efficiency, especially for complex hydraulic pipeline connected by isodiametric T-type ducts with sharp comers to get combined and divided flow. From this point of view, the formulae of resistance loss for combined flow and divided flow through isodiametric T-type duct with sharp comers as well as the correlations of resistance loss coefficients in the branches of the duct are derived using energy method. On this basis, resistance characteristics of hydraulic oil in the duct are obtained by numerical simulation of different flow modes, which are commonly applied in hydraulic pipelines, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, and the reasons for the resistance loss are analyzed based on the pressure change mechanism in the flow field. A part of simulation results was validated with the reference data. The research shows that for combined flows the resistance loss of symmetrical is lower than that of tmsymmetrical to obtain low speed in common branch, but to gain high speed is quite the contrary, for divided flows, the symmetrical is always a reasonable choice to reduce resistance loss. These conclusions can be applied to optimize the design of hydraulic pipeline.

  12. TROP2 expressed in the trunk of the ureteric duct regulates branching morphogenesis during kidney development.

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    Tsukahara, Yuko; Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    TROP2, a cell surface protein structurally related to EpCAM, is expressed in various carcinomas, though its function remains largely unknown. We examined the expression of TROP2 and EpCAM in fetal mouse tissues, and found distinct patterns in the ureteric bud of the fetal kidney, which forms a tree-like structure. The tip cells in the ureteric bud proliferate to form branches, whereas the trunk cells differentiate to form a polarized ductal structure. EpCAM was expressed throughout the ureteric bud, whereas TROP2 expression was strongest at the trunk but diminished towards the tips, indicating the distinct cell populations in the ureteric bud. The cells highly expressing TROP2 (TROP2(high)) were negative for Ki67, a proliferating cell marker, and TROP2 and collagen-I were co-localized to the basal membrane of the trunk cells. TROP2(high) cells isolated from the fetal kidney failed to attach and spread on collagen-coated plates. Using MDCK cells, a well-established model for studying the branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud, TROP2 was shown to inhibit cell spreading and motility on collagen-coated plates, and also branching in collagen-gel cultures, which mimic the ureteric bud's microenvironment. These results together suggest that TROP2 modulates the interaction between the cells and matrix and regulates the formation of the ureteric duct by suppressing branching from the trunk during kidney development.

  13. A large mural nodule in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma of the pancreas: a case report.

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    Haruki, Koichiro; Wakiyama, Shigeki; Futagawa, Yasuro; Shiba, Hiroaki; Misawa, Takeyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Indications for resection of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) remain controversial because of their low tendency to be malignant. Surgical resection should be recommended if any factors indicating malignancy are present. However, preoperative differentiation between benign and malignant tumors is very difficult, especially in cases of branch duct IPMNs. We herein report a case of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma (IPMA) of the pancreas with a large mural nodule of 25 mm. A 74-year-old woman was admitted for examination and treatment for a cystic tumor in the head of the pancreas. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography showed a cystic lesion, 50 mm in diameter, with an irregular mural nodule in the pancreatic head. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a multicystic tumor connected with the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The mural nodule had a diameter of 18 mm, and the MPD had a slight dilation of 6 mm. These findings suggested a high potential for malignancy. The patient underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with lymph node dissection. The excised pancreas showed multiple cysts located in the branch pancreatic duct with a maximum diameter of 75 mm. The mural nodule had a maximum diameter of 25 mm. The tumor was diagnosed as an IPMA by pathological examination. After operation, the patient was discharged without any complications. Two years after resection, the patient remains in remission with no evidence of tumor recurrence.

  14. Isolated Pancreatic Uncinate Duct IPMN.

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    Maker, Ajay V; Maker, Vijay K

    2017-04-01

    The ventral pancreas originally forms as an evagination of the common bile duct at 32 days gestation and its duct, the uncinate duct, eventually rotates with the ventral anlage to join the dorsal pancreas and fuse with the main pancreatic duct. Thus, though often considered a "branch" duct of the pancreas, embryologically, the uncinate duct is the "main" pancreatic duct of the ventral pancreas. This concept is not fully addressed in the current definitions of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) where international consensus guidelines consider the main-duct IPMN as high risk for malignancy and most small branch-duct IPMN as low risk for malignancy. Thus, it is important to recognize that isolated uncinate-duct IPMN can occur and, based on its embryologic origin and increased association with high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer, may be managed conceptually as a main duct type of disease rather than a branch duct until better biomarkers of malignancy are discovered. The images provide an example of this unique disease process.

  15. Differentiating Branch Duct and Mixed IPMN in Endoscopically Collected Pancreatic Cyst Fluid via Cytokine Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda S; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Banks, Peter A; Sainani, Nisha I; Kadiyala, Vivek; Suleiman, Shadeah; Conwell, Darwin L; Paulo, Joao A

    2012-01-01

    Background. Differentiating branch duct from mixed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BD-IPMN) is problematic, but clinically important as mixed IPMNs are managed surgically, while some BD-IPMN may be followed. Inflammatory mediator proteins (IMPs) have been implicated in acute and chronic inflammatory and malignant pancreatic diseases. Aim. To compare IMP profile of pancreatic cyst fluid collected endoscopically from BD-IPMN and mixed IPMN. Methods. Pancreatic cyst fluid from ten patients (5 BD-IPMN and 5 mixed IPMN) was collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Concentrations of 89 IMPs in these samples were determined using a multiplexed bead-based microarray protein assay and compared between BD-IPMN and mixed IPMN. Results. Eighty-six of 89 IMPs were detected in at least one of the 10 samples. Fourteen IMPs were detected only in mixed IPMN, while none were only in BD-IPMN. Of these, TGF-β1 was most prevalent, present in 3 of 5 mixed IPMNs. Seventy-two IMPs were detected in both BD-IPMN and mixed IPMNs. Of these, only G-CSF (P IPMNs. Conclusion. TGF-β1 and G-CSF detected in endoscopically collected pancreatic cyst fluid are potential diagnostic biomarkers capable of distinguishing mixed IPMN from BD-IPMN.

  16. Differentiating Branch Duct and Mixed IPMN in Endoscopically Collected Pancreatic Cyst Fluid via Cytokine Analysis

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    Linda S. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Differentiating branch duct from mixed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BD-IPMN is problematic, but clinically important as mixed IPMNs are managed surgically, while some BD-IPMN may be followed. Inflammatory mediator proteins (IMPs have been implicated in acute and chronic inflammatory and malignant pancreatic diseases. Aim. To compare IMP profile of pancreatic cyst fluid collected endoscopically from BD-IPMN and mixed IPMN. Methods. Pancreatic cyst fluid from ten patients (5 BD-IPMN and 5 mixed IPMN was collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Concentrations of 89 IMPs in these samples were determined using a multiplexed bead-based microarray protein assay and compared between BD-IPMN and mixed IPMN. Results. Eighty-six of 89 IMPs were detected in at least one of the 10 samples. Fourteen IMPs were detected only in mixed IPMN, while none were only in BD-IPMN. Of these, TGF-β1 was most prevalent, present in 3 of 5 mixed IPMNs. Seventy-two IMPs were detected in both BD-IPMN and mixed IPMNs. Of these, only G-CSF (P<0.05 was present in higher concentrations in mixed IPMNs. Conclusion. TGF-β1 and G-CSF detected in endoscopically collected pancreatic cyst fluid are potential diagnostic biomarkers capable of distinguishing mixed IPMN from BD-IPMN.

  17. Evolution of incidental branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: A study with magnetic resonance imaging cholangiopancreatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girometti, Rossano; Pravisani, Riccardo; Intini, Sergio Giuseppe; Isola, Miriam; Cereser, Lorenzo; Risaliti, Andrea; Zuiani, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the type and timing of evolution of incidentally found branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (bd-IPMN) of the pancreas addressed to magnetic resonance imaging cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) follow-up. METHODS We retrospectively evaluated 72 patients who underwent, over the period 2006-2016, a total of 318 MRCPs (mean 4.4) to follow-up incidental, presumed bd-IPMN without signs of malignancy, found or confirmed at a baseline MRCP examination. Median follow-up time was 48.5 mo (range 13-95 mo). MRCPs were acquired on 1.5T and/or 3.0T systems using 2D and/or 3D technique. Image analysis assessed the rates of occurrence over the follow-up of the following outcomes: (1) imaging evolution, defined as any change in cysts number and/or size and/or appearance; and (2) alert findings, defined as worrisome features and/or high risk stigmata (e.g., thick septa, parietal thickening, mural nodules and involvement of the main pancreatic duct). Time to outcomes was described with the Kaplan-Meir approach. Cox regression model was used to investigate clinical or initial MRCP findings predicting cysts changes. RESULTS We found a total of 343 cysts (per-patient mean 5.1) with average size of 8.5 mm (range 5-25 mm). Imaging evolution was observed in 32/72 patients (44.4%; 95%CI: 32-9-56.6), involving 47/343 cysts (13.7%). There was a main trend towards small (IPMN appearance (P > 0.01). CONCLUSION Changes in MRCP appearance of incidental bd-IPNM were frequent over the follow-up (44.4%), with relatively rare (8.3%) occurrence of non-malignant alert findings that prompted further diagnostic steps. Changes occurred at a wide interval of time and were unpredictable, suggesting that imaging follow-up should be not discontinued, though MRCPs might be considerably delayed without a significant risk of missing malignancy. PMID:27920477

  18. CT and MR imaging of multilocular acinar cell cystadenoma: comparison with branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMNs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavaud, Christophe; Assignies, Gaspard d' ; Vilgrain, Valerie; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Radiologie, Clichy (France); Cros, Jerome [Hopital Beaujon, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Clichy (France); Ruszniewski, Philippe; Hammel, Pascal; Levy, Philippe [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Pancreato-Gastro-Enterologie, Clichy (France); Couvelard, Anne [Hopital Bichat, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Paris (France); Sauvanet, Alain; Dokmak, Safi [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Chirurgie Hepato-Pancreato-Biliaire, Clichy (France)

    2014-09-15

    To describe CT and MR imaging findings of acinar cell cystadenoma (ACC) of the pancreas and to compare them with those of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (BD-IPMN) to identify distinctive elements. Five patients with ACC and the 20 consecutive patients with histologically proven BD-IPMN were retrospectively included. Clinical and biological information was collected and histological data reviewed. CT and MR findings were analysed blinded to pathological diagnosis in order to identify imaging diagnostic criteria of ACC. Patients with ACC were symptomatic in all but one case and were younger than those with BD-IPMN (p = 0.006). Four radiological criteria allowed for differentiating ACC from IPMN: five or more cysts, clustered peripheral small cysts, presence of cyst calcifications and absence of communication with the main pancreatic duct (p < 0.05). Presence of at least two or three of these imaging criteria had a strong diagnostic value for ACC with a sensitivity of 100 % and 80 % and a specificity of 85 % and 100 %, respectively. Preoperative differential diagnosis between ACC and BD-IPMN can be achieved using a combination of four CT and/or MR imaging criteria. Recognition of ACC patients could change patient management and lead to more conservative treatment. (orig.)

  19. The propagation law and analysis of gas explosion in U type duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; LIN Bai-quan; JIA Zhen-zhen; FENG Tao; WANG Hai-qiao

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore the propagation law of gas explosion in U type laneways, the propagation law of flame and shock wave in U type duct were experimentally and theoretically investigated. It is shown that the shock wave takes on the complicated stress state and the flame takes on complicated change rules in the U type duct. The propagation process of gas explosion in bend duct is the mutual action of explosion wave, flame and complicate flow, the destruction in bend surface is especially serious. In the mine exploitation and laneway design, the bend laneway should be avoided, especially continuous bend laneway.

  20. Simultaneous bile duct and portal venous branch ligation in two-stage hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroya Iida; Chiaki Yasui; Tsukasa Aihara; Shinichi Ikuta; Hidenori Yoshie; Naoki Yamanaka

    2011-01-01

    Hepatectomy is an effective surgical treatment for multiple bilobar liver metastases from colon cancer; however, one of the primary obstacles to completing surgical resection for these cases is an insufficient volume of the future remnant liver, which may cause postoperative liver failure. To induce atrophy of the unilateral lobe and hypertrophy of the future remnant liver, procedures to occlude the portal vein have been conventionally used prior to major hepatectomy. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman in whom two-stage hepatectomy was performed in combination with intraoperative ligation of the portal vein and the bile duct of the right hepatic lobe. This procedure was designed to promote the atrophic effect on the right hepatic lobe more effectively than the conventional technique, and to the best of our knowledge, it was used for the first time in the present case. Despite successful induction of liver volume shift as well as the following procedure, the patient died of subsequent liver failure after developing recurrent tumors. We discuss the first case in which simultaneous ligation of the portal vein and the biliary system was successfully applied as part of the first step of two-stage hepatectomy.

  1. TROP2 Expressed in the Trunk of the Ureteric Duct Regulates Branching Morphogenesis during Kidney Development

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko Tsukahara; Minoru Tanaka; Atsushi Miyajima

    2011-01-01

    TROP2, a cell surface protein structurally related to EpCAM, is expressed in various carcinomas, though its function remains largely unknown. We examined the expression of TROP2 and EpCAM in fetal mouse tissues, and found distinct patterns in the ureteric bud of the fetal kidney, which forms a tree-like structure. The tip cells in the ureteric bud proliferate to form branches, whereas the trunk cells differentiate to form a polarized ductal structure. EpCAM was expressed throughout the ureter...

  2. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis-tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2\\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  3. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis- tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2 \\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  4. Cytological analysis of small branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms provides a more accurate risk assessment of malignancy than symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Ono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Sendai guidelines for management of patients with clinically suspected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN recommend resection of cysts > 30 mm, a dilated main pancreatic duct (MPD > 6 mm, a mural nodule (MN, symptoms or positive cytology. Although sensitive, asymptomatic cysts, nonspecific symptoms, and a high threshold for positive cytology limit the specificity of the guidelines. We have assessed the value of cytology relative to symptom for predicting malignancy in IPMNs without high-risk imaging features. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, radiological, and cytological data of 31 small branch-duct IPMNs without a MN. The cytological presence of high-grade atypical epithelial cells (HGA was considered true positive, with a corresponding histology of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. The performance of cytology versus symptoms was evaluated by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV, positive predictive value (PPV, and accuracy. Results: The sensitivity (0.80, specificity (0.85, and accuracy (0.84 of HGA were higher than the corresponding performance characteristics of symptoms (0.60, 0.45, and 0.48, respectively. The NPV of no HGA on cytology was > 95%. Conclusions: Cytology is a better predictor of malignancy than symptoms, for the conservative management of small branch-duct IPMNs. Cytology contributes to a highly accurate triple negative test for malignancy in small IPMN: No dilated MPD, MN or HGA.

  5. Anatomic relationship between first interlobar duct of superficial parotid and zygomatic branch of facial nerve%腮腺浅部第1叶间导管与面神经颧支的解剖学关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗特坚; 曹妍群; 刘冬强; 易德保

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨腮腺叶间导管转移治疗干眼病的解剖学基础。方法对5具(10侧)成人尸体标本头面部腮腺区进行局部解剖,观察腮腺第1叶间导管与面神经颧支的关系,测量两者的相关数据。结果腮腺浅部第1叶间导管长度为(37.51±1.23) mm,注入腮腺导管处的外径为(0.53±0.15) mm。面神经颧支与腮腺第1叶间导管逆向而行,两者解剖关系密切。结论腮腺叶间导管转位治疗干眼病手术方式可供临床参考。%Objective To provide the anatomic basis of transferring the lobe of parotid gland duct for the treatment of dry eye disease. Methods The first interlobar parotid gland duct and zygomatic branch of facial nerve were dissected and observed on parotid gland region of head and face of 5 (10 sides) of adult head specimens. the measurement data was recorded. Results The length of first interlobar duct of superficial parotid was (37. 51±1. 23) mm, the outside diameter of injected parotid duct was (0. 53±0. 15) mm. There was a close ana-tomical relationship between zygomatic branch of facial nerve and first interlobar duct of parotid gland. Conclusion the parotid interlobar duct transposition operation has the reference value in treatment of dry eye desease.

  6. Two Cases of Type Va Extrahepatic Bile Duct Duplication With Distal Klatskin Tumor Surgically Treated with Whipple Procedure and Hepaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Tariq A; Alastal, Yaseen; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Hammad, Mohammad; Alaradi, Osama; Nigam, Ankesh; Sodeman, Thomas C; Nawras, Ali

    2015-10-01

    We describe the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of a type Va extrahepatic bile duct duplication coexistent with distally located hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor). We present 2 cases that were diagnosed preoperatively and treated with a modified surgical technique of a combined pylorus-preserving Whipple procedure and hepaticojejunostomy.

  7. A case report of an unusual type of choledochal cyst with choledocholithiasis: Saccular dilatation of the confluent portion of both intrahepatic ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A choledochal cyst is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system manifested as the cystic dilatation of bile ducts, usually occurring in the common bile duct. Here, we describe an unusual type of choledochal cyst in a 45-year-old male that did not fit into the most widely accepted Todani classification of these cysts. The lesion mimicked duplication anomalies of the gallbladder and was finally diagnosed as a choledochal cyst involving the confluent portion of both intrahepatic ducts.

  8. Asymptotic behavior of critical primitive multi-type branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Ispány, Márton

    2012-01-01

    Under natural assumptions a Feller type diffusion approximation is derived for critical multi-type branching processes with immigration when the offspring mean matrix is primitive (in other words, positively regular). Namely, it is proved that a sequence of appropriately scaled random step functions formed from a sequence of critical primitive multi-type branching processes with immigration converges weakly towards a squared Bessel process supported by a ray determined by the Perron vector of the offspring mean matrix.

  9. Early experience of robotic surgery for type I congenital dilatation of the bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitoh, Takeshi; Morikawa, Takanori; Tanaka, Naoki; Aoki, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Okada, Takaho; Sakata, Naoaki; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Nakagawa, Kei; Hayashi, Hiroki; Musha, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Katayose, Yu; Unno, Michiaki

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for this disease is not widely spread due to difficulties in its procedure. We started a laparoscopic procedure for this disease since 2011, and the robotic surgery since 2012. The aim of this study is to assess early results of these procedures. We have operated seven cases from September 2011 through December 2013. First two cases were performed by laparoscopic procedure, and following cases were done by robotically assisted surgery. Of these cases, the perioperative outcome and short-term postoperative morbidity were evaluated. Their average age was 43.6 years old (20-64 years old), and male-female ratio was 2:5. Todani classification was type 1 in all cases. The operation time was 321 min in laparoscopic cases, while 489 min in robotic surgery cases. One case of robotic surgery developed postoperative intestinal obstruction of the biliary limb, requiring laparoscopic adhesiolysis. Pancreatic fistula and anastomotic leakage have not been observed. The robotic surgery for the congenital dilatation of the bile duct is feasible and is a theoretically useful option, especially for hepatico-jejunostomy. On the other hand, the limitation of energy devices, high running cost, and time consumption remain questionable.

  10. Relationship between branching density and crystalline structure of A- and B-type maize mutant starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, C; Planchot, V; Colonna, P; Bertoft, E

    2000-06-02

    Amylopectin from two double maize mutant starches of A-crystalline (wxdu) and B-crystalline type (aewx) was subjected successively to hydrolysis involving alpha and beta amylases, which isolated clusters and all branching zones of clusters (BZC). Enzymatic analysis together with ionic and size-exclusion chromatography revealed the structural features of the clusters and BZC and their role in starch crystallization. A-type clusters were larger (dp(n) > 80) and contained more (but shorter) chains than B-type clusters. The BZC of A-type starch was also larger, but with a shorter distance between the branching points than in B-type BZC. A-type clusters had a densely packed structure and B-type a poorly branched structure. Models for the structure of A- and B-type clusters are presented, and a hypothesis for the influence of cluster geometry on crystallization is proposed.

  11. Surgery for Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situation Bile Duct Cancer Treating Bile Duct Cancer Surgery for Bile Duct Cancer There are 2 general ... also help plan the operation to remove it. Surgery for resectable cancers For resectable cancers, the type ...

  12. Estimating the Propagation of Interdependent Cascading Outages with Multi-Type Branching Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Junjian; Sun, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-type branching process is applied to describe the statistics of line outages, the load shed, and isolated buses. The offspring mean matrix of the multi-type branching process is estimated by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and can quantify the extent of outage propagation. The joint distribution of two types of outages is estimated by the multi-type branching process via the Lagrange-Good inversion. The proposed model is tested with data generated by the AC OPA cascading simulations on the IEEE 118-bus system. The largest eigenvalues of the offspring mean matrix indicate that the system is closer to criticality when considering the interdependence of different types of outages. Compared with empirically estimating the joint distribution of the total outages, good estimate is obtained by using the multi-type branching process with a much smaller number of cascades, thus greatly improving the efficiency. It is shown that the multi-type branching process can effectively predi...

  13. Cylindrical dilatation of the choledochus: a special type of congenital bile duct dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todani, T; Watanabe, Y; Fujii, T; Toki, A; Uemura, S; Koike, Y

    1985-11-01

    Cylindrical dilatation of the choledochus develops in 20% of patients with congenital bile duct dilatation and usually has acute-angled unions of the pancreatobiliary ductal system. Symptoms generally develop in patients over 1 year of age. The patients frequently complain of abdominal pain, vomiting, and fever as in those with acute pancreatitis. Ultrasonography and infusion cholangiography are the most useful tools in making a correct diagnosis. A high amylase level in the bile caused by the refluxing of pancreatic juice through anomalous ductal unions is commonly observed. This is responsible for biliary perforation in infancy and possibly carcinoma arising in the bile duct. The amylase concentration in the serum at the time of epigastric pain often is high, which leads to the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. However, evidence of pancreatic inflammation is seldom noted. Accordingly, amylase in the bile may enter the circulating blood through the denuded epithelium or sinusoids of the liver. Excision of the whole extrahepatic duct along with hepaticoenterostomy would be essential for the treatment of cylindrical dilatation of the bile duct, especially when an anomalous ductal union is present.

  14. Common and Uncommon Anatomical Variants of Intrahepatic Bile Ducts in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography and its Clinical Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarawagi, Radha; Sundar, Shyam; Raghuvanshi, Sameer; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Jayaraman, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Preoperative knowledge of intrahepatic bile duct (IHD) anatomy is critical for planning liver resections, liver transplantations and complex biliary reconstructive surgery. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the imaging features of various anatomical variants of IHD using magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP) and their prevalence in our population. Material/Methods This observational clinical evaluation study included 224 patients who were referred for MRCP. MRCP was performed in a 1.5-Tesla magnet (Philips) with SSH MRCP 3DHR and SSHMRCP rad protocol. A senior radiologist assessed the biliary passage for anatomical variations. Results The branching pattern of the right hepatic duct (RHD) was typical in 55.3% of subjects. The most common variant was right posterior sectoral duct (RPSD) draining into the left hepatic duct (LHD) in 27.6% of subjects. Trifurcation pattern was noted in 9.3% of subjects. In 4% of subjects, RPSD was draining into the common hepatic duct (CHD) and in 0.8% of subjects into the cystic duct. Other variants were noted in 2.6% of subjects. In 4.9% of cases there was an accessory duct. The most common type of LHD branching pattern was a common trunk of segment 2 and 3 ducts joining the segment 4 duct in 67.8% of subjects. In 23.2% of subjects, segment 2 duct united with the common trunk of segment 3 and 4 and in 3.4% of subjects segment 2, 3, and 4 ducts united together to form LHD. Other uncommon branching patterns of LHD were seen in 4.9% of subjects. Conclusions Intrahepatic bile duct anatomy is complex with many common and uncommon variations. MRCP is a reliable non-invasive imaging method for demonstration of bile duct morphology, which is useful to plan complex surgeries and to prevent iatrogenic injuries. PMID:27298653

  15. Cherkis bow varieties and Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of affine type $A$

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Hiraku

    2016-01-01

    We show that Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of affine type $A$ are Cherkis bow varieties, which have been introduced as ADHM type description of moduli space of instantons on the Taub-NUT space equivariant under a cyclic group action.

  16. Stochastic Equations for Two-type Continuous-state Branching Processes with Immigration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Gang MA

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional stochastic integral equation system with jumps is studied.We first prove its unique weak solution is a two-type continuous-state branching process with immigration.Then the comparison property of the solution is established.These results imply the existence and uniqueness of the strong solution of the stochastic equation system.

  17. 利用Excel设计多分支风道均匀吸风系统%The Design of Uniform Air Suction System of Multiple-branch Duct System by Excel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍德满

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the principle of static regain method,lists relevant formulas of direct computational method of full pressure loss,analyses the methods and process of designing Excel computation sheets based on the said formulas,solves the computation problem of designing uniform air suction system of multi-branch duct system for carding machines,increase the operating efficiency,and improve the hydraulic balance and economic efficiency of the duct system.%分析了静压复得计算法的原理,列出了全压损失直接计算法相关公式。分析了利用这些有关公式设计出Excel计算表格的方法和过程,解决了梳棉机多分支风道均匀吸风系统设计计算难题,提高设计工作效率,改善了风道系统的平衡性和经济性。

  18. 胆管损伤的预防与治疗指南(2008版)%Guideline for the prevention and management of bile duct injury (2008 edition)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中华医学会外科学分会胆道外科学组

    2008-01-01

    Bile duct injury is an important clinical problem associated with significantly high perioperative morbidity and mortality, reduced long-term survival and poor quality of life, as well as high rate of malpractice litigation following iatrogenic causes. The management of bile duct injury remains a considerable challenge for even the most skilled hepatobiliary surgeons. Based on this situation, the Biliary Surgery Group of Surgery Branch of Chinese Medical Association compiled the Guideline for the prevention and management of bile duct injury. The guideline systematically explains the concept, causes, classification, diagnosis and treatment of bile duct injury. Three categories of bile duct injury, including intrahepatic bile duct injury, extrahepatic bile duct injury and bile duct injury in the pancreaticoduodenal region are proposed according to the anatomical site, causes, pathological characters, prevention and treatment of bile duct injury. Four types and 4 subtypes of the extrahepatic bile duct injury are classified according to the anatomical plane of the injured bile duct and the pathological character of the main bile duct, respectively.

  19. Application of a new-type sutureless anastomosis stent to the primary reconstruction of the bilioenteric continuity after acute bile duct injury in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui Li; Yi Lü; Bo Qu; Zhiyong Zhang; Chang Liu; Yuan Shi; Bo Wang; Xuewen Ji; Liang Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a new-type sutureless magnetic bilioenteric anastomosis stent that was used to reconstruct the bilioenteric continuity (primarily under the circumstances of severe inflammation after acute bile duct injury in dogs).Methods: Establishing an animal model of acute bile duct injury with severe inflammation and bile peritonitis in dogs. The newtype sutureless magnetic bilioenteric anastomosis stent was used to reconstruct the bilioenteric continuity primarily. Results: The experiment group anastomosis healed well with a mild local inflammation reaction, and the collagen lined up in order without the occurrence of observable bile leakage and infection. Conclusion: It was safe and feasible to use the new-type anastomosis stent to reconstruct the bilioenteric continuity primarily under the circumstances of severe inflammation after acute bile duct injury in dogs.

  20. Stopping duct quacks: Longevity of residential duct sealants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2000-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that these seals tend to fail over time periods ranging from days to years. We have used several test methods over the last few years to evaluate the longevity of duct sealants when subjected to temperatures and pressures representative of those found in the field. Traditional cloth duct tapes have been found to significantly under-perform other sealants and have been banned from receiving duct tightness credits in California's energy code (California Energy Commission 1998). Our accelerated testing apparatus has been redesigned since its first usage for improved performance. The methodology is currently under consideration by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as a potential new test method. This report will summarize the set of measurements to date, review the status of the test apparatus and test method, and summarize the applications of these results to codes and standards.

  1. A Lamperti type representation of Continuous-State Branching Processes with Immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Ma Emilia; Bravo, Gerónimo Uribe

    2010-01-01

    Guided by the relationship between the breadth-first walk of a rooted tree and its sequence of generation sizes, we extend the Lamperti representation of continuous-state branching processes to allow immigration. The representation is obtained by solving a random ordinary differential equation defined by a pair of independent L\\'evy processes. Stability of the solutions is studied and gives, in particular, limit theorems (of a type previously studied by Grimvall, Kawazu and Watanabe, and Li) and a simulation scheme for continuous-state branching processes with immigration. We further apply our stability analysis to extend Pitman's limit theorem concerning Galton-Watson processes conditioned on total population size to more general offspring laws.

  2. Open triple-branched stent graft applied to patient of acute type a aortic dissection with Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Changfa; Zhu, Kai; Xu, Demin; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-01

    A 57-year-old Chinese male patient presented with Standford type A aortic dissection with an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA). At operation, the ascending aorta was replaced by a mono–branch vascular prosthesis with the branch bypassing to the ARSA; the triple-branched stent graft was inserted into the true lumen of the arch and proximal descending aorta (covering the origin of the ARSA) with each sidearm graft being positioned into the aortic branches; and then its proximal end was su...

  3. Statistical inference for 2-type doubly symmetric critical irreducible continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We study asymptotic behavior of conditional least squares estimators for 2-type doubly symmetric critical irreducible continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration based on discrete time (low frequency) observations.

  4. PREDICTION OF THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STAR-TYPE BRANCHED POLYMER SOLUTIONS BY MEANS OF THE FIXED SPECTRUM MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiye

    1995-01-01

    The Rouse-Zimm model with slippage was improved and the basic parameters of modelwere modified to explain the rheological properties of star-type branched polymersolutions. The theoretical results show good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Fragmentation of common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones by extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ham Gyum [Ansan Junior College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong; Lee, Won Hong [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    To determine its usefulness and safety of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy in common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones, we analyzed the results of 13 patients with common bile duct stones and 6 patients with pancreatic duct stones which were removed by endoscopic procedures using the balloon or basket, who was performed the extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy using the ultrasonography for stone localization with a spark gap type Lithotriptor(Dornier MPL 9000, Germany). Fragmentation and complete clearance of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones were obtained in 19 of 19 patients(100%). Apart from transient attacks of fever in 2 of 13 patients with common bile duct stones(15%) and mild elevation of serum amylase and lipase in 2 of 6 patients with pancreatic duct stones(33%), no other serious side effects were observed. In our experiences, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is a safe and useful treatment for endoscopically unretrievable common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones.

  6. The Effects of Vortex Generator Types on Heat Transfer and Flow Structure in a Rectangular Duct Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith J.H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this numerical study a detailed evaluation of the heat transfer characteristics and flow structure in a laminar and turbulent flow through a rectangular channel containing built-in of different type vortex generator has been a accomplished in a range of Reynolds number between 500 and 100,000.A modified version of ESCEAT code has been used to solve Navier-Stokes and energy equations. The purpose of this paper is to present numerical comparisons in terms of temperature, Nusselt number and flow patterns on several configurations of longitudinal vortex generator including new five cases. The structures of heat and flow were studied, using iso-contours of velocity components, vortices, temperature and Nusselt number. This study shows that the predicted structures of fluid flow, temperature fields and Nusselt number variation are strongly affected by the presence of the turbulators. Staggered arrangement gains high Nusselt number, also the lower and upper arrangements have higher Nusselt number than plane duct. High Reynolds number (higher air inlet velocity will enhance the Nusselt number. Increase in ribs height will enhance the heat transfer as it works as surface area and turbulator at the same time.

  7. Calcium-Driven Folding of RTX Domain β-Rolls Ratchets Translocation of RTX Proteins through Type I Secretion Ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumba, Ladislav; Masin, Jiri; Macek, Pavel; Wald, Tomas; Motlova, Lucia; Bibova, Ilona; Klimova, Nela; Bednarova, Lucie; Veverka, Vaclav; Kachala, Michael; Svergun, Dmitri I; Barinka, Cyril; Sebo, Peter

    2016-04-07

    Calcium-binding RTX proteins are equipped with C-terminal secretion signals and translocate from the Ca(2+)-depleted cytosol of Gram-negative bacteria directly into the Ca(2+)-rich external milieu, passing through the "channel-tunnel" ducts of type I secretion systems (T1SSs). Using Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin, we solved the structure of an essential C-terminal assembly that caps the RTX domains of RTX family leukotoxins. This is shown to scaffold directional Ca(2+)-dependent folding of the carboxy-proximal RTX repeat blocks into β-rolls. The resulting intramolecular Brownian ratchets then prevent backsliding of translocating RTX proteins in the T1SS conduits and thereby accelerate excretion of very large RTX leukotoxins from bacterial cells by a vectorial "push-ratchet" mechanism. Successive Ca(2+)-dependent and cosecretional acquisition of a functional RTX toxin structure in the course of T1SS-mediated translocation, through RTX domain folding from the C-terminal cap toward the N terminus, sets a paradigm that opens for design of virulence inhibitors of major pathogens.

  8. A hot horizontal branch star with a close K-type main-sequence companion

    CERN Document Server

    Bidin, C Moni; Montalto, M; Catelan, M; Villanova, S; Piotto, G; Geisler, D

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical interactions in binary systems are thought to play a major role in the formation of extreme horizontal branch stars (EHBs) in the Galactic field. However, it is still unclear if the same mechanisms are at work in globular clusters, where EHBs are predominantly single stars. Here we report on the discovery of a unique close binary system (period ~1.61 days) in the globular cluster NGC6752, comprising an EHB and a main-sequence companion of 0.63+-0.05 Msun. Such a system has no counterpart among nearly two hundred known EHB binaries in the Galactic field. Its discovery suggests that either field studies are incomplete, missing this type of systems possibly because of selection effects, or that a particular EHB formation mechanism is active in clusters but not in the field.

  9. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  10. Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome of mixed anatomical variant (combined male and female type with mixed germ cell tumor of left intra-abdominal testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by retention of Müllerian duct derivatives in a phenotypically and karyotypically male patient. Deficiency of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH secretion or resistance to AMH action due to defective AMH-II receptor is presumed to cause such syndrome in the majority of cases. About 158 PMDS cases have been reported so far, out of which 31 cases are associated with testicular neoplasms. Herein, we describe an interesting case of young male initially diagnosed and treated for inguinal hernia, but finally diagnosed as “PMDS of mixed anatomical variant (combined male and female type with mixed germ cell tumor of left intra-abdominal testis” comprising components of seminoma and yolk sac tumor and treated successfully.

  11. The method used for justification of engineering solutions for multistage plate-type mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupov, V. B.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes technical and economic problems associated with the selection of designs of mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants. A method is suggested that makes it possible to determine the dimensions of each stage of plate-type mufflers on the basis of achieving the lowest total discounted costs in order to provide the required acoustical performance at a permissible aerodynamic resistance of a muffler. The condition of the lowest total discounted costs for a multistage muffler, which is valid for different types of mufflers, has been obtained.

  12. Aberrant bile ducts, 'remnant surface bile ducts,' and peribiliary glands: descriptive anatomy, historical nomenclature, and surgical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gharbawy, Ramadan M; Skandalakis, Lee J; Heffron, Thomas G; Skandalakis, John E

    2011-05-01

    The term "aberrant bile ducts" has been used to designate three heterogeneous groups of biliary structures: (1) bile ducts degenerating or disappearing (unknown etiology, diverse locations); (2) curious biliary structures in the transverse fissure; and (3) aberrant right bile ducts draining directly into the common hepatic duct. We report our observations on these three groups. Twenty-nine fresh human livers of stillborns and adults were injected differentially with colored latex and dissected. Adult livers showed portal venous and hepatic arterial branches, and bile ducts not associated with parenchyma, subjacent to and firmly adherent with the liver capsule: elements of ramifications of normal sheaths were present on the liver's surface. These ramifications, having lost parenchyma associated with them, then sequentially lost their portal branches, bile ducts and arterial branches. This process affected the ramifications of the sheaths in the left triangular ligament, adjacent to the inferior vena cava, in the gallbladder bed and anywhere else on the liver's surface and resulted in the presence of bile ducts accompanied by portal venous and/or hepatic arterial branches and not associated with parenchyma for a period of time. This first group represented normal bile ducts that do not meet the criteria of aberration and could be appropriately designated "remnant surface bile ducts." Such changes were not found in the transverse fissures and review of the literature revealed that the curious biliary structures are the microscopic peribiliary glands. The third group met the criteria of aberration and the anatomy of a representative duct is described.

  13. PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

  14. Markov branching diffusions: martingales, Girsanov type theorems and applications to the long term behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engländer, J.; Kyprianou, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Consider a spatial branching particle process where the underlying motion is a conservative diffusion on D C Rd corresponding to the elliptic op- erator L on D, and the branching is strictly binary (dyadic), with spatially varying rate ß(x) => 0 (and ß <> 0) which is assumed to be bounded from above

  15. Male form of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome type I (hernia uteri inguinalis presenting as an obstructed inguinal hernia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujar Nishikant N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is a rare form of male pseudo-hermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in an otherwise phenotypically, as well as genotypically, normal man; only a few cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. We report the case of a 30-year-old man with unilateral cryptorchidism on the right side and a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia containing a uterus and fallopian tube (that is, hernia uteri inguinalis; type I male form of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome coincidentally detected during an operation for an obstructed left inguinal hernia. Case presentation A 30-year-old South Indian man was admitted to our facility with a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia of one day's duration. He had a 12-year history of inguinal swelling and an absence of the right testis since birth. Our patient had well developed masculine features. Local physical examination revealed a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia with an absence of the right testis in the scrotum. Exploration of the inguinal canal revealed an indirect inguinal hernia containing omentum, the left corner of the uterus and a left fallopian tube. Extension of the incision revealed a well formed uterus, cervix and upper part of the vagina attached to the prostate by a thick fibrosed band. Total excision of the uterus, bilateral fallopian tubes and right testis was performed. A biopsy was taken from the left testis. The operation was completed by left inguinal herniorraphy. Histopathological examination of the hernial contents was consistent with that of a uterus and fallopian tubes without ovaries. Both testes were atrophied, with complete arrest of spermatogenesis. Post-operative karyotype analyses were negative for 46,XY and Barr bodies on buccal smear. A semen examination revealed azoospermia with a low serum testosterone level. Conclusions In cases of unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism

  16. A rare case of bile duct cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Gang Wang; Shu-Tian Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Choledochal cyst is an uncommon disease usually seen in young women and can be divided into five types. We report a 66-year-old woman who was diagnosed with types Ⅱ and Ⅱ bile duct cyst simultaneously after surgery, which is a rare type of bile duct cyst.

  17. Radiopaque intrahepatic duct stones in plain radiograph: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Kyun [College of Medicine, Inha University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    We experienced 3 cases of intrahepatic duct stones detected on plain radiographs. The patients had history of multiple episodes of recurrent cholangitis. Radiographic characteristics of these stones included multiple, round or rectangular radiopaque densities surrounded by calcified rim; these densities showed a branching pattern along the intrahepatic ducts.

  18. Imaging diagnosis of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous tumors%分支胰管型胰腺导管内乳头状黏液性肿瘤影像学诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边云; 高振坡; 王莉; 陆建平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the imaging findings of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs). Methods A total of 45 BD-IPMNs were confirmed by pathology after surgery.The clinical data and imaging findings were retrospec-tively reviewed.Image analysis included characteristics and the nature of the lesions.Finally,an ROC curve was performed to evaluate the differential diagnostic efficacy between benign and malignant lesions using the imaging findings.Results There were statistically significant differences for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign BD-IPMNs in the maximum diameter of the lesions and the MPD,walls,wall nodules,shape,and the atrophy of pancreatic parenchyma (P < 0.05 ).The diagnostic sensitivity,specificity, AUC and Kappa value of benign and malignant BD-IPMNs were 94.3%,90%,92.1% and 0.81 (P =0.000 1)respectively.Conclu-sion The imaging technology is valuable in diagnosing and differentiating malignant from benign BD-IPMNs.%目的:探讨影像学方法对分支胰管型胰腺导管内乳头状黏液瘤(BD-IPMNs)良恶性的诊断价值。方法回顾性分析经手术病理证实的45例 BD-IPMNs 患者的影像学资料。患者术前均行 CT、MRCP、MR 三者中的1种或2种以上检查。分析病变的各种影像学特征,对病变的良恶性进行影像学评分,并与病理分级进行对照。绘制 ROC 曲线来评价影像学方法对 BD-IPMNs 良恶性鉴别的诊断能力。结果主胰管的直径、囊肿直径、厚囊壁、壁结节、胰腺实质的萎缩对鉴别病变的良恶性有统计学意义。影像学诊断 BD-IPMNs 的敏感性94.3%,特异性90%,曲线下面积92.1%,Kappa 值为0.81,P 值为0.0001。结论影像学对于 BD-IPMNs 的诊断以及良恶性的鉴别都具有高度的敏感性,对术前诊断和随访具有一定的价值。

  19. [Application of multiple-branch prostheses in reconstruction of the aortic arch in DeBakey Type I aortic dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniavskiĭ, A M; Alsov, S A; Marchenko, A V; Smolianinov, K A; Sizov, G G; Zotov, A S

    2006-01-01

    Over the period from January 2002 to March 2005, a total of 78 patients were operated on for DeBakey type I aortic dissection. Of these, five patients underwent prosthetic reconstruction of the aortic arch and brachiocephalic arteries (BCA), performed with the help of the Dacron prosthesis Gelweave four-branch plexus Vascutek. The major indication for using this prosthesis was the extending of the dissection into the BC As, with various degree of obstruction thereof. The overwhelming majority of the patients were men (80 %). The patients' average age amounted to 44.3+/-5.6 years (ranging from 36 to 57 years). In three cases, the aortic dissection was of chronic course, with acute and subacute dissection being diagnosed in the remaining two cases. The median-sternotomy access, and additional approaches to the left and right common carotid arteries were used in order to carry out prosthetic reconstruction of the ascending branch, aortic arch, right subclavian artery, right common carotid artery (CCA) and left CCA with the help of the multiple-branch prosthesis. Protection of the brain consisted of craniocerebral hypothermia, hypothermal circulatory arrest in a combination with retrograde cerebral perfusions through the vena cava superior. The duration of the circulatory arrest averagely amounted to 59.2+/-4 min, with the mean time of artificial circulation equalling 230.6+/-19.7 min, and the time of aortic occlusion was 193.1+/-11 minutes. None of the patients developed either neurological or haemorrhagic complications postoperatively. Hence, the surgical technique using multiple-branch prostheses for prosthetic reconstruction of the aortic arch in type I aortic dissection with BCA obstruction proved to be effective and safe.

  20. Dynamic variations of nutrient element content among branches with different branch-type of Pistacia chinensis Bunge%中国黄连木不同枝营养元素含量动态变化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文浩; 苏淑钗; 白倩; 陈凤; 陈志钢

    2014-01-01

    中国黄连木雌株结果枝类型有4种,为了探究同一时期结果枝与雄枝各类型枝条间糖类及大量元素含量的差异,2013年花期至花芽发育停滞期间间隔5~20天不等采取除徒长性结果枝以外的各类结果枝条及雄株枝条花芽对应的叶片,烘干粉碎后测量。结果显示:(1)雄枝与结果枝之间的各类营养元素含量差异均较为明显;(2)各结果枝之间淀粉含量变化最相近;(3)各枝类的可溶性糖及蔗糖的含量差异很显著,淀粉及氮,磷,钾的含量变化趋势较为相近,在个别时间段存在较大差异。%Four types of fruiting branches exist in female Pistacia chinensis Bunge. tree. In order to explore the dynamic variations of saccharides and macro-element contents between male branch and 3 types of fruiting branches, the fruiting branch and male branch leaves on the leaf buds during the period of flower bud differentiation and flower bud development stagnation with different time intervals from 5 to 20 days in 2013 were picked and collected, except the spindling fruiting branches, and were washed, dried, grinded and measured. The results show that (1) there existed visible differences of nutrient elements between male branch and fruit branch;(2) there were small dynamic variations of starch contents among the fruiting branches;(3) there were signiifcant differences among different branches in soluble sugar and sucrose contents, the dynamic variations of other nutrient elements (starch, nitrogen, phosphorus, kalium) were not obvious among the branches with different types, but obvious differences except for certain individual time quantum.

  1. Secretory Duct Structure and Phytochemistry Compounds of Yellow Latex in Mangosteen Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORLY

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellow latex is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness, because it is one factor lowering the fruit quality. The structure of yellow latex secretory ducts in the flower and fruit as well as in the root, stem and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. seedling and the qualitative phytochemistry of yellow latex were studied. The ducts were branched, canal-like type. They were found in the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, aril of the fruit, flower, stem, and leaf. In the fruit, the biggest diameter of the secretory ducts was found in the endocarp. There were continuous secretory ducts from fruit stalk to the fruit. Ultrastructural observation showed that the ducts surrounded by specific epithelial cells, which were living cells containing dense cytoplasm with plastid, mitochondria and golgi apparatus organelles. The qualitative test indicated that the yellow latex collected from stem bark, outer part of fruit, young fruit pericarp, mature aril and young aril contained terpenoid, flavonoid and tannin, but not alkaloid, saponin and steroid, except in the young aril containing the steroid.

  2. Antitumor activities and interaction with DNA of oxaliplatin-type platinum complexes with linear or branched alkoxyacetates as leaving groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runting; Gou, Shaohua; Liu, Xia; Lou, Liguang

    2011-08-01

    Five oxaliplatin-typed platinum complexes containing trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane chelating platinum cores, characteristic of linear or branched alkoxycarboxylates as leaving groups, were biologically evaluated. These compounds showed higher antitumor activity, lower toxicity in vivo than cisplatin or oxaliplatin. And the results revealed that the antitumor activity and interaction with DNA of these compounds were highly related to the nature of leaving groups. Among these complexes, 5a, cis-(trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane) bis (2-tert-butoxyacetate) platinum(II), showed the highest antitumor activity and the lowest toxicity.

  3. Tables of experimental branching ratios of Auger-type post collisional ionization of rare gases

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, C C

    2016-01-01

    When an electron is emitted from a sub-valence shell, a vacancy is created and there is a not-null probability for different post collisional ionization (PCI) processes giving rise to a higher target charge state. It is reasonable to consider that PCI is a time-delayed electron emission and, therefore, independent of the projectile. We include the tables of the branching ratios of $0-6$ post-collisionally emitted electrons after single ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in different inner shells. These values have already been employed with good results in previous calculations of multiple ionization of rare gases by electrons, positron, protons, antiprotons and different positive ions (see the text and references therein). These tables and explanation is included in [Montanari C C and Miraglia J E 2014, \\textit{J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.} {\\bf 45}, 105203].

  4. High host density favors greater virulence: a model of parasite-host dynamics based on multi-type branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borovkov, Konstantin; Rice, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    We use a multitype continuous time Markov branching process model to describe the dynamics of the spread of parasites of two types that can mutate into each other in a common host population. Instead of using a single virulence characteristic which is typical of most mathematical models for infectious diseases, our model uses a combination of two characteristics: lethality and transmissibility. This makes the model capable of reproducing the empirically observed fact that the increase in the host density can lead to the prevalence of the more virulent pathogen type. We provide some numerical illustrations and discuss the effects of the size of the enclosure containing the host population on the encounter rate in our model that plays the key role in determining what pathogen type will eventually prevail. We also present a multistage extension of the model to situations where there are several populations and parasites can be transmitted from one of them to another.

  5. Higher order mode propagation in nonuniform circular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of higher order mode propagation in a nonuniform circular duct without mean flow. An approximate wave equation is derived on the assumptions that the duct cross section varies slowly and that mode conversion is negligible. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for a particular class of converging-diverging circular duct which is here referred to as 'circular cosh duct'. Numerical results are presentd in terms of the transmission loss for the various duct shapes and frequencies. The results are applicable to studies of multimodal propagation as well as single mode propagation. The results are also applicable to studies of sound radiation from certain types of contoured inlet ducts, or of sound propagation in a converging-diverging duct of somewhat different shape from a cosh duct.

  6. Early bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Myung Cha; Myung-Hwan Kim; Se Jin Jang

    2007-01-01

    Bile duct cancers are frequently diagnosed as advanced diseases. Over half of patients with advanced bile duct cancer present with unresectable malignancies and their prognosis has been very poor even after curative resections. Although there has been a need to diagnose bile duct cancer at its early stage, it has been a difficult goal to achieve due to our lack of knowledge regarding this disease entity. Early bile duct cancer may be defined as a carcinoma whose invasion is confined within the fibromuscular layer of the extrahepatic bile duct or intrahepatic large bile duct without distant metastasis irrespective of lymph node involvement. Approximately 3%-10% of resected bile duct cancers have been reported to be early cancers in the literature. The clinicopathological features of patients with early bile duct cancer differ from those of patients with advanced bile duct cancer, with more frequent asymptomatic presentation, characteristic histopathological findings,and excellent prognosis. This manuscript is organized to emphasize the need for convening an international consensus to develop the concept of early bile duct cancer.

  7. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  8. The Distance to M101 Hosting Type Ia SN 2011fe Based on the Tip of the Red Giant Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2012-01-01

    We present a new determination of the distance to M101, host of the type Ia SN 2011fe, based on the tip of the red giant branch method (TRGB). Our determination is based on {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} archival $F555W$ and $F814W$ images of nine fields within the galaxy. Color-magnitude diagrams of arm-free regions in all fields show a prominent red giant branch (RGB). We measure the $I$-band magnitudes of the TRGB, obtaining a mean value of $I_{\\rm TRGB}=25.28\\pm0.01$ (where the error is a standard error), using an edge-detection method. We derive a weighted mean value of distance modulus $(m-M)_0=29.30\\pm0.01 ({\\rm random})\\pm0.12 ({\\rm systematic})$, corresponding to a linear distance of $7.24\\pm0.03\\pm0.40 $ Mpc. While previous estimates for M101 show a large range (TRGB distances of $(m-M)_0=29.05$ to 29.42 and Cepheid distances of $(m-M)_0=29.04$ to 29.71), our measurements of the TRGB distances for nine fields show a small dispersion of only 0.02. We combine our distance estimate and photometry in the ...

  9. A Catalog of Candidate Field Horizontal-Branch and A-Type Stars. III. A 2MASS-Cleaned Version

    CERN Document Server

    Beers, T C; Rossi, S; Wilhelm, R; Marsteller, B; Beers, Timothy C.; Almeida, Tiago; Rossi, Silvia; Wilhelm, Ronald; Marsteller, Brian

    2006-01-01

    We present coordinates and available photometric information (either from previous or recent broadband UBV observations, and near-infrared photometry from the 2MASS Point Source Catalog) for 12056 stars (11516 of which are unique) identified in the HK Survey of Beers and colleagues as candidate field horizontal-branch or A-type stars. These stars, in the apparent magnitude range 10 <= B <= 16.0, were selected using an objective-prism/interference-filter survey technique. The availability of 2MASS information permits assembly of a cleaned version of this catalog, comprising likely blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars or blue stragglers in the color interval -0.2 <= (B-V)o <= +0.2, which are of particular interest for investigation of the structure, kinematics, and dynamics of the thick disk and inner halo of the Milky Way, the total mass and mass profile of the Galaxy, and as potential foreground/background objects in efforts to bracket distances to high velocity clouds of H I. A comparison of the st...

  10. Dispersion properties of ducted whistlers, generated by lightning discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Whistler-mode wave propagation in magnetospheric ducts of enhanced cold plasma density is studied. The case of the arbitrary ratio of the duct radius to the whistler wavelength is considered, where the ray-tracing method is not applicable. The set of duct eigenmodes and their spatial structure are analysed and dependencies of eigenmode propagation properties on the duct characteristics are studied. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the group delay time of one-hop propagation of the whistler wave packet along the duct. We found that, in contrast to the case of a wide duct, the group delay time in a rather narrow duct decreases as the eigenmode number increases. The results obtained are suggested for an explanation of some types of multi-component whistler signals.

  11. Development of Processable PMR-Type Polymides with Star-Branched Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Eby, R. K.; Meador, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    In the last two decades, high temperature polyimide matrix composites have found broad applications in aerospace structural components, due to their high specific modulus and high specific strength. As matrix resins, aromatic polyimides exhibit exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties. However, their rodlike structures often result in poor solubility in most common organic solvents, as well as high melt temperature and melt viscosity, making them difficult to process. To overcome this difficulty, flexible linkages including O, SO2 or CH2 non coplanar biphenyl moieties, bulky lateral substituents, and crankshaft structures are often incorporated into the polymer backbones. Addition-curing of low molecular weight polyimides (resins) is another approach to improve processability. One of the most successfully developed materials has been PMR-15 (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants, molecular weight of 1500 g/mol), because of its good combination of thermal and mechanical properties and ease of processability. However, due to the high melt viscosity of PMR-type resins, use of more economical processing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM), is not possible. Recent research has focused on the incorporation of trifunctional monomers into addition-curing polyimides in an attempt to improve the processability of these polymers. The objective of this research is to use an aromatic triamine, 1,3,5 tris (4-aminophenoxy) benzene, to prepare new resin systems with starbranched structures. The glass transition temperatures (Tg's) and thermal oxidative stability TOS) of these polymers are compared to their linear counterparts and PMR-15.

  12. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  13. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  14. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  15. Structural basis for the transglycosylase activity of a GH57-type glycogen branching enzyme from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soohui; Park, Minjeong; Jo, Inseong; Cha, Jaeho; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2017-03-18

    Glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) catalyzes the formation of α-1,6-branching points during glycogenesis by cleaving α-1,4 bonds and making new α-1,6 bonds. Most GBEs belong to the glycoside hydrolase 13 family (GH13), but new GBEs in the GH57 family have been isolated from Archaea. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a GH57 GBE from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhGBE) at a resolution of 2.3 Å. PhGBE exhibits both α-1,6-branching activity and endo-α-1,4 hydrolytic activity. PhGBE has a central (β/α)7-barrel domain that contains an embedded helix domain and an α-helix-rich C-terminal domain. The active-site cleft is located at the interface of the central and C-terminal domains. Amino acid substitution at Trp22, which is separate from the catalytic nucleophilic residue, abolished both enzymatic activities, indicating that Trp22 might be responsible for substrate recognition. We also observed that shortening of the flexible loop near the catalytic residue changed branched chain lengths of the reaction products with increased hydrolytic activity. Taken together, our findings propose a molecular mechanism for how GH57 GBEs exhibit the two activities and where the substrate binds the enzyme.

  16. Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders Overview of Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders Cholecystitis Gallstones Biliary Pain Without Gallstones Narrowing of the ... ducts are blocked, the gallbladder may become inflamed ( cholecystitis ). Biliary pain without gallstones (acalculous biliary pain) can ...

  17. Congenital double bile duct presenting as recurrent cholangitis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Chakravarty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Double common bile duct (DCBD is a rare congenital anomaly. Most of these bile duct anomalies are associated with bile duct stones, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ, pancreatitis and bile duct or gastric cancers. Early detection and treatment is important to avoid long term complications. Surgical resection of the anomalous bile duct and reconstruction of the biliary enteric anastomosis is the treatment of choice. We report a rare case of DCBD anomaly in a girl, who presented with recurrent cholangitis. She had type Va DCBD anomaly. She underwent successful resection of the bile duct and reconstruction of the biliary enteric anastomosis. Preoperative imaging and diagnosis of the congenital biliary anomaly is very important to avoid intraoperative bile duct injury. Review of the literature shows very few cases of type Va DCBD, presenting with either bile duct stones or APBJ.

  18. Anatomic variation in intrahepatic bile ducts: an analysis of intraoperative cholangiograms in 300 consecutive donors for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung Won; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    To describe the anatomical variation occurring in intrahepatic bile ducts (IHDs) in terms of their branching patterns, and to determine the frequency of each variation. The study group consisted of 300 consecutive donors for liver transplantation who underwent intraoperative cholangiography. Anatomical variation in IHDs was classified according to the branching pattern of the right anterior and right posterior segmental duct (RASD and RPSD, respectively), and the presence or absence of the first-order branch of the left hepatic duct (LHD), and of an accessory hepatic duct. The anatomy of the intrahepatic bile ducts was typical in 63% of cases (n=188), showed triple confluence in 10% (n=29), anomalous drainage of the RPSD into the LHD in 11% (n=34), anomalous drainage of the RPSD into the common hepatic duct (CHD) in 6% (n=19), anomalous drainage of the RPSD into the cystic duct in 2% (n=6), drainage of the right hepatic duct (RHD) into the cystic duct (n=1), the presence of an accessory duct leading to the CHD or RHD in 5% (n=16), individual drainage of the LHD into the RHD or CHD in 1% (n=4), and unclassified or complex variation in 1% (n=3)

  19. Cornice Duct System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd

    2004-10-29

    SYNERGETICS, INC., has designed, developed, and tested an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building at the Daylighting Facility at North Carolina State University., Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. Patent Number US 6,511,373 B2 has been granted on the version of the device installed and tested in the laboratory house. (A copy of that patent is attached.) Refinements to the device have been carried through two additional design iterations, with a particular focus on reducing installation time and cost and refining the air control system. These new designs have been fabricated and tested and show substantial promise. Based on these design and testing iterations, a final design is proposed as part of this document. That final design is the basis for a continuation in part currently being filed with the U.5, Patent office.

  20. Classiifcation of iatrogenic bile duct injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Yee Lau; Eric C.H. Lai

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic bile duct injury continues to be an important clinical problem, resulting in serious morbidity, and occasional mortality, to patients. The ease of management, operative risk, and outcome of bile duct injuries vary considerably, and are highly dependent on the type of injury and its location. This article reviews the various classiifcation systems of bile duct injury. DATA SOURCES: A Medline, PubMed database search was performed to identify relevant articles using the keywords"bile duct injury", "cholecystectomy", and “classiifcation”. Additional papers were identiifed by a manual search of the references from the key articles. RESULTS: Traditionally, biliary injuries have been classiifed using the Bismuth's classiifcation. This classiifcation, which originated from the era of open surgery, is intended to help the surgeons to choose the appropriate technique for the repair, and it has a good correlation with the ifnal outcome after surgical repair. However, the Bismuth's classiifcation does not encompass the whole spectrum of injuries that are possible. Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy tends to be more severe than those with open cholecystectomy. Strasberg’s classiifcation made Bismuth’s classiifcation much more comprehensive by including various other types of extrahepatic bile duct injuries. Our group, Bergman et al, Neuhaus et al, Csendes et al, and Stewart et al have also proposed other classiifcation systems to complement the Bismuth's classiifcation. CONCLUSIONS:None of the classiifcation system is universally accepted as each has its own limitation. Hopefully, a universally accepted comprehensive classiifcation system will be published in the near future.

  1. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems....1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the first... auxiliary power unit bleed air duct systems, no hazard may result if a duct failure occurs at any...

  2. 3C DUCT DESIGN METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-RueiShiu; Feng-ChuOu; Sih-LiChen

    2002-01-01

    A new 3C duct design method is proposed for designing a high quality, energy-efficiency cost-effective air duct system. It not only considers the demand of volume flow rate, but also takes into consideration a number of issues including system pressure balance, noise, vibration, space limitation and total system cost. This new method comprises three major calculation procedures:initial computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided simulation (CAS) and correction processes (CP). An example is presented in this study to understand the characteristics of 3C method. It shows that 3C duct design method provides a simple computation procedure for an optimum air duct system. It also shortens the design schedule, prevents human calculation errors, and reduces the dependence on designer experience. In addition to apply in a new duct system design, 3C duct design method is also a powerful design tool for the expansion of an existing duct system.

  3. Salivary duct carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Helle; Elhakim, Mohammad Talal; Godballe, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    1990 to 2005 were identified. Histological slides were reviewed, and data concerning demographics, tumour site, clinical stage, treatment profiles and follow-up were retrieved. Survival estimates and prognostic factors were evaluated by comparing Kaplan-Meier plots using the Mantel-Haenszel log......-rank test. RESULTS: Salivary duct carcinoma showed an incidence of 0.04/100.000 inhabitants/year. Distant recurrence was seen in 52% of patients. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival were 32%, 42% and 35%, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested that overall...... stage (III/IV) and vascular invasion have a negative impact on all survival measures. Involved resection margins correlated with a poorer overall survival and disease-specific survival, whereas adjuvant radiotherapy improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary duct...

  4. Branch Quality Control of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Using a Novel T-Junction Type Distributor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FaChun Liang; Jing Chen; JinLong Wang; Hao Yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to eliminate mal-distribution and ensure the side arm to produce desirable gas quality a special distributor is proposed. The experimental distributor mainly consists of a straight through section, a gas extraction line, a liquid extraction line and a side arm branch. A gas orifice and a liquid orifice are mounted at the gas and liquid extraction line respectively to control the outlet gas quality. The diameter of the liquid orifice was set to 2�50 mm and three gas orifices with different size ( dG = 2�65, 5�00, 10�00 mm) were tested. The experiments were carried out at an air-water two-phase flow loop. The gas superficial velocity ranged from 6�0 to 20�0 m/s and the liquid superficial velocity was in the range of 0�02-0�18 m/s. Flow patterns such as wave flow, slug flow and annular flow were observed. The gas quality of the side arm branch was found mainly determined by the flow area ratio of the gas orifice to the liquid orifice and independent of gas and liquid superficial velocity, flow patterns and extraction flux.

  5. Research on the construction of learning type Party branch of students%学习型学生党支部建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官桂香

    2012-01-01

      This paper introduces the learning typeof students' Party branch, and conducts the correlation analysis on the characteristics, and then combines with the actual point to point out and summarize the approach to construct the learning type Party branch of students, aims to strengthen the building of students' Party branch, better maintain and improve the advanced status and leadership skills of grass-roots Party organizations among students.%  本文对学习型学生党支部的概况进行了介绍,并对其特点进行了相关分析,进而结合实际指出并归纳了构建学习型学生党支部的途径,目的在于切实加强学生党支部的建设,更好地保持和提高基层党组织在学生中的先进性地位和领导能力

  6. Tumor Implantation into the Intrahepatic Bile Duct after Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Tanaka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old man who had undergone transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (Couinaud’s segment III/IV in April 2003 and percutaneous ethanol injection for recurrence at the same site in February 2006 was found to have dilation of the intrahepatic bile duct by computed tomography in October 2008. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed a thrombosis occupying the left hepatic duct to the lateral branches with peripheral bile duct dilation. Serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein was elevated. We performed a left hepatectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct invasion. The cut surface of the resected specimen showed a tumor thrombosis occupying the region between the left hepatic duct and lateral branches, but no tumor in the liver parenchyma. Histologic examination showed that the thrombosis in the intrahepatic bile duct was hepatocellular carcinoma. Since part of the hepatocellular carcinoma in the region treated with percutaneous ethanol injection was adjacent to the tumor thrombosis in the intrahepatic bile duct in diagnostic imaging, we diagnosed implantation into the intrahepatic bile duct due to percutaneous ethanol injection. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient is doing well without recurrence 8 months after the operation.

  7. Insulinotropic and Muscle Protein Synthetic Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids: Potential Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes and Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren G. Candow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The loss of muscle mass and strength with aging (i.e., sarcopenia has a negative effect on functional independence and overall quality of life. One main contributing factor to sarcopenia is the reduced ability to increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis in response to habitual feeding, possibly due to a reduction in postprandial insulin release and an increase in insulin resistance. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, primarily leucine, increases the activation of pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis through insulin-dependent and independent mechanisms, which may help counteract the “anabolic resistance” to feeding in older adults. Leucine exhibits strong insulinotropic characteristics, which may increase amino acid availability for muscle protein synthesis, reduce muscle protein breakdown, and enhance glucose disposal to help maintain blood glucose homeostasis.

  8. Pancreatic fistula through the distal common bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic fistula is usually caused by acute or chronic pancreatitis, injury and operations of the pancreas. The pancreatic juice comes either from the main pancreatic duct or from side branches. Extremely rare pancreatic fistula may come through the distal end of the common bile duct that is not properly sutured or ligated after traumatic or operative transaction. We present a 58-year old man who developed a life threatening high output pancreatic fistula through the distal end of the common bile duct that was simply ligated after resection for carcinoma. Pancreatic fistula was developed two weeks after original surgery and after two emergency reoperations for serious bleeding from the stump of the right gastric artery resected and ligated during radical limphadenectomy. The patient was treated conservatively by elevation of the drain- age bag after firm tunnel round the drain was formed so that there was no danger of spillage of the pancreatic juice within abdomen.

  9. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach

  10. Noise reduction of spiral ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapka, Wojciech; Cempel, Czesław

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents noise reduction (NR) of spiral ducts as a result of computational modeling of acoustic wave propagation. Three-dimensional models were created with the finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics version 3.3. Nine models of spiral ducts with 1-9 spiral leads were considered. Time-harmonic analysis was used to predict NR, which was shown in spectral and interval frequency bands. Spiral duct performance can be seen as a comparison of NR before and after a change from a circular to a spiral duct.

  11. A novel branched side-chain-type sulfonated polyimide membrane with flexible sulfoalkyl pendants and trifluoromethyl groups for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinchao; Liu, Suqin; He, Zhen; Zhou, Zhi

    2017-04-01

    A novel branched side-chain-type sulfonated polyimide (6F-s-bSPI) membrane with accessible branching agents of melamine, hydrophobic trifluoromethyl groups (sbnd CF3), and flexible sulfoalkyl pendants is prepared by a high-temperature polycondensation and post-sulfonation method for use in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The chemical structure of the 6F-s-bSPI membrane is confirmed by ATR-FTIR and 1H NMR spectra. The physico-chemical properties of the as-prepared 6F-s-bSPI membrane are systematically investigated and found to be strongly related to the specially designed structure. The 6F-s-bSPI membrane offers a reduced cost and possesses a significantly lowered vanadium ion permeability (1.18 × 10-7 cm2 min-1) compared to the linear SPI (2.25 × 10-7 cm2 min-1) and commercial Nafion 115 (1.36 × 10-6 cm2 min-1) membranes, prolonging the self-discharge duration of the VRFBs. In addition, the VRFB assembled with a 6F-s-bSPI membrane shows higher coulombic (98.3%-99.7%) and energy efficiencies (88.4%-66.12%) than that with a SPI or Nafion 115 membrane under current densities ranging from 20 to 100 mA cm-2. Moreover, the VRFB with a 6F-s-bSPI membrane delivers a stable cycling performance over 100 cycles with no decline in coulombic and energy efficiencies. These results show that the branched side-chain-type structure is a promising design to prepare excellent proton conductive membranes.

  12. Gallbladder and bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930559 An experimental study on effective hep-atic blood flow and hepatic energy metabolismfollowing acute obstructive cholangitis and bil-iary obstruction.SUN Wenbing (孙文兵),et al.Hepatobili Surg,Center,Southwest Hosp,Chongqing 630000.Chin J Digest 1992;12(5):261—263.The changes of effective hepatic blood flow(E-HBF)and hepatic energy metabolism were stud-ied following acutc obstructive cholangitis(AOC)and bile duct ligation(BDL)in rats.The resultsshowed that EHBF was significantly decreased at24hs after and further decreased at 48hs afterBDL.And EHBF was significantly decreased at

  13. Does preoperative cross-sectional imaging accurately predict main duct involvement in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, M R; Roch, A M; Waters, J A; Parikh, J A; DeWitt, J M; Al-Haddad, M A; Ceppa, E P; House, M G; Zyromski, N J; Nakeeb, A; Pitt, H A; Schmidt, C Max

    2014-03-01

    Main pancreatic duct (MPD) involvement is a well-demonstrated risk factor for malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Preoperative radiographic determination of IPMN type is heavily relied upon in oncologic risk stratification. We hypothesized that radiographic assessment of MPD involvement in IPMN is an accurate predictor of pathological MPD involvement. Data regarding all patients undergoing resection for IPMN at a single academic institution between 1992 and 2012 were gathered prospectively. Retrospective analysis of imaging and pathologic data was undertaken. Preoperative classification of IPMN type was based on cross-sectional imaging (MRI/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and/or CT). Three hundred sixty-two patients underwent resection for IPMN. Of these, 334 had complete data for analysis. Of 164 suspected branch duct (BD) IPMN, 34 (20.7%) demonstrated MPD involvement on final pathology. Of 170 patients with suspicion of MPD involvement, 50 (29.4%) demonstrated no MPD involvement. Of 34 patients with suspected BD-IPMN who were found to have MPD involvement on pathology, 10 (29.4%) had invasive carcinoma. Alternatively, 2/50 (4%) of the patients with suspected MPD involvement who ultimately had isolated BD-IPMN demonstrated invasive carcinoma. Preoperative radiographic IPMN type did not correlate with final pathology in 25% of the patients. In addition, risk of invasive carcinoma correlates with pathologic presence of MPD involvement.

  14. Effects of V-type ducts on condensation heat transfer of HFC245fa on horizontal tube bundles%V型导液槽对HFC245fa水平管束外冷凝换热影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志先; 张吉礼; 孙德兴

    2011-01-01

    试验研究了HFC245fa在水平光管与强化管管束外的冷凝换热特性,提出在管束中加装V型导液槽来消除管束效应的方法,并通过试验研究了V型导液槽对管束冷凝换热特性的影响.试验管束由4列排深为5排的列管构成,带导液槽管束的前4排管下方加装了两段长度为450 mm的导液槽;试验换热管公称外径为19.05 mm、换热长度为1000 mm.试验中,以Wilson描点法获得强化换热管水侧对流传热系数,以对比试验方法研究了V型导液槽对水平管束外冷凝换热性能的影响.结果表明:传统的管束效应模型仅在较小的热通量范围适用;凝液在管间的迁移形态与流态随管上作用凝液量的系列变化是导致管束效应变化的主要因素;加装导液槽可有效控制凝液在管间的迁移,控制管束效应;加装导液槽使光管单管冷凝传热能力下降10%左右,使光管管束总体换热能力提升4.5%~9.5%;加装导液槽对强化管单管冷凝换热性能的影响比对光管影响强近4倍.本文研究成果对引入导液槽开发新型高效卧式冷凝管束具有指导意义.%In a horizontal condensation tube-bundle, the inundation effect, resulted from local condensation film and falling condensate from upper tube rows, may reduce the condensation heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) considerably. This paper presents an experimental study on condensation heat transfer characteristic of HFC245fa on horizontal tube bundles. A scheme was proposed to reduce the tube row effect resulted from falling condensate with V-type ducts, and the effect of the duct on CHTC of the tube bundles was investigated experimentally. The tube bundle consisted of 4 columns, each with 5 tubes, with smooth tubes and enhanced tubes, separately. Two columns out of the four were equipped with the duct. The equivalent outside diameter and effective length for heat transfer of tubes were 19.05 mm and 1000 mm respectively. In the experiment, water

  15. A Dioxobilin-Type Fluorescent Chlorophyll Catabolite as a Transient Early Intermediate of the Dioxobilin-Branch of Chlorophyll Breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbacher, Iris; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-11-09

    Chlorophyll breakdown in higher plants occurs by the so called "PaO/phyllobilin" path. It generates two major types of phyllobilins, the characteristic 1-formyl-19-oxobilins and the more recently discovered 1,19-dioxobilins. The hypothetical branching point at which the original 1-formyl-19-oxobilins are transformed into 1,19-dioxobilins is still elusive. Here, we clarify this hypothetical crucial transition on the basis of the identification of the first natural 1,19-dioxobilin-type fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite (DFCC). This transient chlorophyll breakdown intermediate was isolated from leaf extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana at an early stage of senescence. The fleetingly existent DFCC was then shown to represent the direct precursor of the major nonfluorescent 1,19-dioxobilin that accumulated in fully senescent leaves.

  16. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what treatments are most effective. Parts of the breast where cancer begins include: Milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. This type of cancer forms in the lining of a milk duct within your breast. The ducts carry breast ...

  17. Sound propagation through nonuniform ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of determining the transmission and attenuation of sound propagating in nonuniform ducts with and without mean flows are discussed. The approaches reviewed include purely numerical techniques, quasi-one-dimensional approximations, solutions for slowly varying cross sections, solutions for weak wall undulations, approximation of the duct by a series of stepped uniform cross sections, variational methods and solutions for the mode envelopes.

  18. Intrahepatic Transposition of Bile Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delić, Jasmin; Savković, Admedina; Isaković, Eldar; Marković, Sergije; Bajtarevic, Alma; Denjalić, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the intrahepatic bile duct transposition (anatomical variation occurring in intrahepatic ducts) and to determine the frequency of this variation. Material and Methods. The researches were performed randomly on 100 livers of adults, both sexes. Main research methods were anatomical macrodissection. As a criterion for determination of variations in some parts of bile tree, we used the classification of Segmentatio hepatis according to Couinaud (1957) according to Terminologia Anatomica, Thieme Stuugart: Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, 1988. Results. Intrahepatic transposition of bile ducts was found in two cases (2%), out of total examined cases (100): right-left transposition (right segmental bile duct, originating from the segment VIII, joins the left liver duct-ductus hepaticus sinister) and left-right intrahepatic transposition (left segmental bile duct originating from the segment IV ends in right liver duct-ductus hepaticus dexter). Conclusion. Safety and success in liver transplantation to great extent depends on knowledge of anatomy and some common embryological anomalies in bile tree. Variations in bile tree were found in 24–43% of cases, out of which 1–22% are the variations of intrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, good knowledge on ductal anatomy enables good planning, safe performance of therapeutic and operative procedures, and decreases the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. PMID:22550601

  19. Propagation of sound waves in ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described.......Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described....

  20. Transcatheter stenting of arterial duct in duct-dependent congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Critical congenital heart diseases (CHD are mostly duct-dependent and require stable systemic-pulmonary communication. In order to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus (DA, the first line treatment is Prostaglandin E1 and the second step is the surgical creation of aortic-pulmonary shunt. To reduce surgical risk in neonates with the critical CHD, transcatheter stenting of DA can be performed in selected cases. Case Outline. A four-month old infant was diagnosed with the pulmonary artery atresia with ventricular septal defect (PAA/VSD. The left pulmonary artery was perfused from DA, and the right lung through three major aortopulmonary collaterals (MAPCAs. A coronary stent was placed in the long and critically stenotic DA, with final arterial duct diameter of 3.5 mm, and significantly increased blood supply to the left lung. After the procedure, the infant’s status was improved with regard to arterial oxygen saturation, feeding and weight gain. During the follow-up, one year later, aortography revealed in-stent stenosis. The left pulmonary artery, as well as the branches, was well-developed and the decision was made to proceed with further surgical correction. Conclusion. Stenting of DA can be an effective alternative to primary surgical correction in selected patients with duct-dependent CHD.

  1. Ascariasis of the pancreatic duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimovskij, Michail; Dulskas, Audrius; Kraulyte, Zita; Mikalauskas, Saulius

    2015-09-15

    Ascariasis is a common helminthic disease worldwide, although Lithuania and other European countries are not considered endemic areas. The presence of the Ascaris worm in the biliary tree causes choledocholithiasis-like symptoms. We report a case of pancreatic duct ascariasis causing such symptoms. A 73-year-old Lithuanian woman underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suspecting choledocholithiasis. Contrast injection into the common bile duct demonstrated a slightly dilated biliary tree without any filling defects, and the tail of an Ascaris worm protruding from the opening of the papilla Vater. The worm was captured by a snare but escaped deep into the duct. After a small wirsungotomy the worm was retrieved from the pancreatic duct. The patient received a 150 mg dose of levamisole orally repeated 7 days later and was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms. This first reported sporadic case of pancreatic duct ascariasis in Lithuania was successfully treated with ERCP and Levamisole.

  2. Simultaneous Extensive Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct and Pancreas: A Very Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vor Luvira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB is a specific type of bile duct tumor. It has been proposed that it could be the biliary counterpart of the intraductal papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN-P. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of simultaneous intraductal tumors of both the bile duct and pancreas. There have been five reports of patients with simultaneous IPNB and IPMN-P. In all of these cases, biliary involvement was limited to the intrahepatic and perihilar bile duct, which had characteristics similar to IPMN-P and usually had slow progression in nature. Herein, we present the first case of extensive intraductal neoplasm involving the extrahepatic bile duct, intrahepatic bile duct, and entire length of the pancreas with a poor outcome, even after being treated aggressively with radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, we summarize previous case reports of simultaneous intraductal lesions of the bile duct and pancreas.

  3. High-performance photoelectrochemical-type self-powered UV photodetector using epitaxial TiO₂/SnO₂ branched heterojunction nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Gao, Caitian; Duan, Huigao; Lu, Bingan; Wang, Youqing; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2013-06-10

    TiO₂/SnO₂ branched heterojunction nanostructure with TiO₂ branches on electrospun SnO2 nanofiber (B-SnO₂ NF) networks serves as a model architecture for efficient self-powered UV photodetector based on a photoelectrochemical cell (PECC). The nanostructure simultaneously offers a low degree of charge recombination and a direct pathway for electron transport. Without correcting 64.5% loss of incident photons through light absorption and scattering by the F-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, the incident power conversion efficiency reaches 14.7% at 330 nm, more than twice as large as the nanocrystalline TiO₂ (TiO₂ NC, 6.4%)-film based PECC. By connecting a PECC to an ammeter, the intensity of UV light is quantified using the output short-circuit photocurrent density (J(sc)) without a power source. Under UV irradiation, the self-powered UV photodetector exhibits a high responsivity of 0.6 A/W, a high on/off ratio of 4550, a rise time of 0.03 s and a decay time of 0.01 s for J(sc) signal. The excellent performance of the B-SnO₂ NF-based PECC type self-powered photodetector will enable significant advancements for next-generation photodetection and photosensing applications.

  4. Ret and Etv4 Promote Directed Movements of Progenitor Cells during Renal Branching Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Riccio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfrα1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive knowledge of the genetic control of these events, it is not understood, at the cellular level, how renal branching morphogenesis is achieved or how Ret signaling influences epithelial cell behaviors to promote this process. Analysis of chimeric embryos previously suggested a role for Ret signaling in promoting cell rearrangements in the nephric duct, but this method was unsuited to study individual cell behaviors during ureteric bud branching. Here, we use Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM, combined with organ culture and time-lapse imaging, to trace the movements and divisions of individual ureteric bud tip cells. We first examine wild-type clones and then Ret or Etv4 mutant/wild-type clones in which the mutant and wild-type sister cells are differentially and heritably marked by green and red fluorescent proteins. We find that, in normal kidneys, most individual tip cells behave as self-renewing progenitors, some of whose progeny remain at the tips while others populate the growing UB trunks. In Ret or Etv4 MADM clones, the wild-type cells generated at a UB tip are much more likely to remain at, or move to, the new tips during branching and elongation, while their Ret-/- or Etv4-/- sister cells tend to lag behind and contribute only to the trunks. By tracking successive mitoses in a cell lineage, we find that Ret signaling has little effect on proliferation, in contrast to its effects on cell movement. Our results show that Ret

  5. Sub-branch and mixed-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: 2 case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ozmen, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN is one of the cystic neoplasias of the pancreas. The imaging findings provide that these tumors are differentiated from the other cystic lesions of the pancreas, especially from the chronic pancreatitis, where the treatment protocol is completely different. Therefore, the correct diagnosis and classification of the IPMN ensures that the patient receives the correct approach and the appropriate surgery, if necessary. The purpose of this study is to emphasize the imaging findings of the different types of the IPMN and the changes in the management protocol of the patients according to these radiological findings.

  6. 胆总管取石术后T型管夹管方法的研究%Clinical research on griping T-type pipe earlg after stonermoving operation of common bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解涛; 邢金德; 刘向阳; 孙黎明; 宋吉杰

    2001-01-01

    为探讨一种胆总管取石术后减少胆汁丢失的方法,对180例行胆总管取石术、T型管引流患者给予选择性、试验性早期夹管(夹管组),并与120例不行夹管者(对照组)进行比较。结果显示,夹管组术后血液中电解质变化、每日胆汁丢失量、每日输液量等方面与对照组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01),夹管组肠功能恢复早,平均住院天数短。认为胆总管取石术后早期行T型管夹管,能减少胆汁丢失,患者下床活动早,手术愈合快。%To evaluate a method which can decrease loss of bile after commonduct jtoneremoving operation.180 patients who received common duct stone-removing T-type drainage were given selective and experimental pipe-griping to compare with those who weren’t give such pipe-griping and observed the clinical results.Results showed that the differences of the electrolyte-changing in the blood,the everyday amount of bile-losing,the everyday amount were of remarkable differance in patients who were given early pipe-griping and the control group(P<0.01).As for the pipe-griping group,the intestinal function recovered early and the average hospitalization days were short as well.This suggests that the early pipe-griping of the T-type pipe after common duct stoneremoving openation can reduce the loss of bile,make the patient convenient to move out of bed and favorable to the patient’s clinieal healing

  7. Duct-to-duct reconstruction in liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with fewer biliary complications in comparison with hepaticojejunostomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, Michael E.; Bense, Rico D.; Lisman, Ton; van der Jagt, Eric J.; van den Berg, Aad P.; Porte, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus on the preferred type of biliary reconstruction for patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The aim of this study was to compare long-term outcomes after OLT for PSC using either duct-to-duct anastomosis or Roux-en-Y

  8. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103 Section 29.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  9. Migratory intralaryngeal thyroglossal duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlatti Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intralaryngeal thyroglossal duct cysts are rare; a migrating one, rarer still. Such a case may be a cause for confusion and it is important to understand this entity and its typical findings.

  10. TWO NEW DUCT LEAKAGE TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Two variations on the tests for duct leakage currently embodied in ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) are presented. Procedures are derived for calculating supply and return duct leakage to/from outside using these new variations. Results of these tests are compared with the original ones in Standard 152P on the basis of data collected in three New York State homes.

  11. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  12. Study of active noise control in ducts. Kanrokei ni okeru nodoteki soon seigyo hoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Yoshiatsu

    1988-08-01

    On an active control to reduce noise in ducts, the theoretical and experimental studies of the energies ratio of the noise and the cancelling sound which should be produced by a speaker, were carried out. In case the cancelling sound was produced by the speaker which was set in the branch duct, the energies ratio varied with the setting position, the length and the cross section of the branch duct and the frequency of the noise. As the non-dimensional length of the branch duct was drawing near 0.5, the energies ratio became small. But when the non-dimensional length was 0, the ratio did not become smaller than 1. The experimental test confirmed that it was possible to reduce the noise by the cancelling sound which energies ratio was as small as about one hundredth of the noise. In case the noise was the pure sound, and the wave-length was over one fourth of the duct diameter, it was possible to reduce the noise more than 40 dB. And in case the wave-length was one eighth the reduction quantity was about 20 dB. Therefore, in case the noise is the pure sound or close to the pure sound, it is possible to apply the active noise control. 5 references, 23 figures.

  13. Isolation and characterization of portal branch ligation-stimulated Hmga2-positive bipotent hepatic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroshi [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B51, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Tagawa, Yoh-ichi, E-mail: ytagawa@bio.titech.ac.jp [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B51, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tamai, Miho [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B51, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Motoyama, Hiroaki [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Ogawa, Shinichiro [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); McEwen Center for Regenerative Medicine, University Health Network, 190 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 2C4 (Canada); Soeda, Junpei; Nakata, Takenari; Miyagawa, Shinichi [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Hepatic progenitor cells were isolated from the portal branch-ligated liver of mice. {yields} Portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic progenitor cells (PBLHCs) express Hmga2. {yields} PBLHCs have bidirectional differentiation capability in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic stem/progenitor cells are one of several cell sources that show promise for restoration of liver mass and function. Although hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), including oval cells, are induced by administration of certain hepatotoxins in experimental animals, such a strategy would be inappropriate in a clinical setting. Here, we investigated the possibility of isolating HPCs in a portal branch-ligated liver model without administration of any chemical agents. A non-parenchymal cell fraction was prepared from the portal branch-ligated or non-ligated lobe, and seeded onto plates coated with laminin. Most of the cells died, but a small number were able to proliferate. These proliferating cells were cloned as portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic cells (PBLHCs) by the limiting dilution method. The PBLHCs expressed cytokeratin19, albumin, and Hmga2. The PBLHCs exhibited metabolic functions such as detoxification of ammonium ions and synthesis of urea on Matrigel-coated plates in the presence of oncostatin M. In Matrigel mixed with type I collagen, the PBLHCs became rearranged into cystic and tubular structures. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Hmga2-positive cells around the interlobular bile ducts in the portal branch-ligated liver lobes. In conclusion, successful isolation of bipotent hepatic progenitor cell clones, PBLHCs, from the portal branch-ligated liver lobes of mice provides the possibility of future clinical application of portal vein ligation to induce hepatic progenitor cells.

  14. Observationally constrained modeling of sound in curved ocean internal waves: examination of deep ducting and surface ducting at short range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Timothy F; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reeder, D Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    A study of 400 Hz sound focusing and ducting effects in a packet of curved nonlinear internal waves in shallow water is presented. Sound propagation roughly along the crests of the waves is simulated with a three-dimensional parabolic equation computational code, and the results are compared to measured propagation along fixed 3 and 6 km source/receiver paths. The measurements were made on the shelf of the South China Sea northeast of Tung-Sha Island. Construction of the time-varying three-dimensional sound-speed fields used in the modeling simulations was guided by environmental data collected concurrently with the acoustic data. Computed three-dimensional propagation results compare well with field observations. The simulations allow identification of time-dependent sound forward scattering and ducting processes within the curved internal gravity waves. Strong acoustic intensity enhancement was observed during passage of high-amplitude nonlinear waves over the source/receiver paths, and is replicated in the model. The waves were typical of the region (35 m vertical displacement). Two types of ducting are found in the model, which occur asynchronously. One type is three-dimensional modal trapping in deep ducts within the wave crests (shallow thermocline zones). The second type is surface ducting within the wave troughs (deep thermocline zones).

  15. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  16. Risk Factors associated with Paraurethral Duct Dilatation following Gonococcal Paraurethral Duct Infection in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenge; Zhang, Qingsong; Wang, Lin; Ye, Xun; Jiang, Tingwang

    2016-01-01

    No studies have explored the risk factors for paraurethral duct dilatation following paraurethral duct infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men undergoing ceftriaxone therapy. The present study was performed to explore the risk factors for paraurethral duct dilatation following paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae in men undergoing ceftriaxone therapy and thus guide clinical interventions. We compared the demographic, behavioral, and clinical data of men with paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae with and without dilatation of the paraurethral duct. Univariate analysis showed significant differences in age, disease course of the infected paraurethral duct, Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the paraurethral duct, and a history of paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae between the patient and control groups (Pgonorrhoeae in men. Age, C. trachomatis infection in the paraurethral duct, and a history of paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae are also risk factors. Thus, educating patients to undergo timely therapy and treating the C. trachomatis infection may be effective interventions. PMID:27861521

  17. An isolated nasolacrimal duct osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kwon, Jae Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Osteomas of the nose and paranasal sinus are common benign tumors that can extend to surrounding structures and result in orbital or intracranial involvement. Presenting symptoms include facial pain, headache, cerebral symptoms, ocular symptoms, and so on, depending on the location and size of the tumor. They commonly occur within the frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses; however, there are rare cases of reported osteomas in the nasal cavity, turbinate, or orbit. Our case report describes a patient with nasolacrimal duct osteoma who presented with ipsilateral ocular pain, epiphora, and medial canthal swelling. We performed intranasal dacryocystorhinostomy using a nasal endoscope and removed the lacrimal duct osteoma. This report describes symptoms and management of an isolated nasolacrimal duct stone with a review of the literature.

  18. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery, but Not Calorie Restriction, Reduces Plasma Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Obese Women Independent of Weight Loss or the Presence of Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, M.A.; Klinken, J.B. van; Harmelen, V. van; Dharuri, H.K.; Hoen, P.A.C. 't; Laros, J.F.; Ommen, G.J.B. van; Janssen, I.M; Ramshorst, B. van; Wagensveld, B.A. van; Swank, D.J.; Dielen, F. Van; Dane, A.; Harms, A.; Vreeken, R.; Hankemeier, T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Pijl, H.; Dijk, K van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with increased levels of circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) that may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, weight loss has not been consistently associated with the reduction of BCAA lev

  19. Horizontal ducting of sound by curved nonlinear internal gravity waves in the continental shelf areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Tsong; McMahon, Kara G; Lynch, James F; Siegmann, William L

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic ducting effect by curved nonlinear gravity waves in shallow water is studied through idealized models in this paper. The internal wave ducts are three-dimensional, bounded vertically by the sea surface and bottom, and horizontally by aligned wavefronts. Both normal mode and parabolic equation methods are taken to analyze the ducted sound field. Two types of horizontal acoustic modes can be found in the curved internal wave duct. One is a whispering-gallery type formed by the sound energy trapped along the outer and concave boundary of the duct, and the other is a fully bouncing type due to continual reflections from boundaries in the duct. The ducting condition depends on both internal-wave and acoustic-source parameters, and a parametric study is conducted to derive a general pattern. The parabolic equation method provides full-field modeling of the sound field, so it includes other acoustic effects caused by internal waves, such as mode coupling/scattering and horizontal Lloyd's mirror interference. Two examples are provided to present internal wave ducts with constant curvature and meandering wavefronts.

  20. Fan/Ram Duct Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    mwm^mmmt c INPUT I ] H—f TRANSIENT ROUTINE P"" CONTROL """I FAN ] COMPRESSOR MAIN BURNER I DUCT HZ HIGH TURBINE in— LOW TURBINE I...and pressure ratio. 6. Low Turbine Low turbine characteristics, identical In form to those of the high turbine, are shown in figures 27 and 28. 7

  1. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Conclusion: Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:27433448

  2. A numerical investigation of primary surface rounded cross wavy ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utriainen, E.; Sundén, B.

    A three-dimensional numerical study was conducted to assess the hydraulic and heat transfer performance of primary surface type heat exchanger surfaces, called cross wavy (CW) ducts aimed for recuperators. The governing equations, i.e., the mass conservation equation, Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation, are solved numerically by a finite volume method for boundary fitted coordinates. Periodic boundary conditions are imposed in the main flow direction. In this particular case laminar convective flow and heat transfer prevail. Details of the recuperator ducts and the numerical method as well as relevant results are presented.

  3. Design of a Four-Branch LCL-Type Grid-Connecting Interface for a Three-Phase, Four-Leg Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the three-phase, two-split-capacitor active power filter (3P2C-APF, the three-phase, four-leg active power filter (3P4L-APF has been widely used in three-phase, four-wire grid utility for power quality control due to its numerous advantages, such as higher current output capability, particularly in phase N, lower current and easier voltage control on the DC-side. However, designing the grid-connecting interface, which is between the voltage source converter (VSC and grid utility, is rather difficult due to the higher requirement for current ripple filtering in phase N, cross-coupling in four phases and lack of relevant design methodology and specification. In this paper, a four-branch LCL-type (4B-LCL grid-connecting interface is proposed for 3P4L-APF, which features better current ripple filtering performance without decreasing the current output capability in all phases. First, this paper describes the mathematical models of 4B-LCL in the fully-complex-vector form from the zero and non-zero sequence perspective, resulting in two independent and uniform equivalent circuits without cross coupling terms. Then, the 4B-LCL parameter design method based on the most comprehensive performance index is proposed, including three main stages as the specification: performance index requirement determination, fulfillment of that requirement, and verification. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed design are proven by the simulated and experimental results of a 3P4L-APF with 4B-LCL.

  4. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels...... in pancreatic duct cells, including KCNN4 (K 3.1), KCNMA1 (K1.1), KCNQ1 (K7.1), KCNH2 (K11.1), KCNH5 (K10.2), KCNT1 (K4.1), KCNT2 (K4.2), and KCNK5 (K5.1). We will give an overview of K channels with respect to their electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics and regulation, which we know from...... other cell types, preferably in epithelia, and, where known, their identification and functions in pancreatic ducts and in adenocarcinoma cells. We conclude by pointing out some outstanding questions and future directions in pancreatic K channel research with respect to the physiology of secretion...

  5. Intracellular pH in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Hug, M; Greger, R

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of H+ and HCO3- transport in a HCO3- secreting epithelium, pancreatic ducts, we have measured the intracellular pH (pHi) in this tissue using the pH sensitive probe BCECF. We found that exposures of ducts to solutions containing acetate/acetic acid or NH4+/NH3...... buffers (20 mmol/l) led to pHi changes in accordance with entry of lipid-soluble forms of the buffers, followed by back-regulation of pHi by duct cells. In another type of experiment, changes in extracellular pH of solutions containing HEPES or HCO3-/CO2 buffers led to significant changes in pHi that did....... Under some conditions, these exchangers can be invoked to regulate cell pH....

  6. Main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Manetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct entities among non-inflammatory cystic lesions of the pancreas have been defined: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN, serous cystic neoplasm (SCN and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN. IPMN is characterized by intraductal papillary growth and thick mucus secretion: its incidence has dramatically increased since its initial description. These lesions probably can progress towards invasive carcinoma. IPMNs are symptomatic in most cases: the typical presentation is a recurrent acute pancreatitis, without evident cause, of low or moderate severity. The diagnosis is usually based upon the imaging (CT/cholangio-MRI demonstrating a pancreatic cystic mass, involving a dilated main duct, eventually associated to some filling defects, or a normal Wirsung duct communicating with the cyst lesion. Surgical treatment is generally indicated for main duct IPMN and branch duct IPMN with suspected malignancy (tumour size ≥ 30 mm, mural nodules, dilated main pancreatic duct, or positive cytology or prominent symptoms. Herein we present a case of IPMN of the main duct which occurred with abdominal and back pain associated with weight loss. After the diagnosis, she successfully underwent surgery and is now in a follow-up program.

  7. Condensation in jet engine intake ducts during stationary operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.B. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1995-04-01

    The paper describes on analysis of the condensation of moist air in very long intake ducts of jet engines during stationary operation. Problems arising from such condensation include fan over speed and increased stagnation pressure loss in the intake duct. The analysis demonstrates that, for moderate values of relative humidity, homogeneous condensation will occur in an outer annulus adjacent to the intake cowling if the local flow Mach number attains values of about 1.0. In the central region of the intake duct, where design Mach numbers of 0.8 may be attained, homogeneous condensation is unlikely to occur except, possibly, when the relative humidity is close to 100 percent and the ambient temperature very high. However, if the intake duct is very long, significant heterogeneous condensation on foreign particles present in the atmosphere is possible. The concentration of foreign nuclei required for this type of condensation is comparable to the likely levels of contamination at many industrial test sites. The effects of condensation on engine test results are twofold. First, condensation is a thermodynamically irreversible process and results in an increase of entropy and hence loss of total pressure in the intake duct. Uncorrected measurements using Pitot probes may not record this loss correctly. Second, the mass and energy transfer between the phases during the condensation process has a tendency to accelerate the flow approaching the engine, an effect that may be counteracted by a reduction in mass flow rate in order to maintain the static pressure constant. These conclusions are in agreement with experimental results obtained on-site during the testing of a jet engine fitted with a very long intake duct.

  8. Alumina Ceramics Vacuum Duct for the 3GeV-RCS of the J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsho, Michikazu; Ogiwara, Norio; Saito, Yoshio

    2005-01-01

    It was success to develop alumina ceramics vacuum ducts for the 3GeV-RCS of J-PARC at JAERI. There are two types of alumina ceramics vacuum ducts needed, one being 1.5m-long duct with a circular cross section for use in the quadrupole magnet, the other being 3.5m-long and bending 15 degrees, with a race-track cross section for use in the dipole magnet. These ducts could be manufactured by joining several duct segments of 0.5-0.8 m in length by brazing. The alumina ceramics ducts have copper stripes on the outside surface of the ducts to reduce the duct impedance. One of the ends of each stripe is connected to a titanium flange by way of a capacitor so to interrupt an eddy current circuit. The copper stripes are produced by an electroforming method in which a stripe pattern formed by Mo-Mn metallization is first sintered on the exterior surface and then overlaid by PR-electroformed copper (Periodic current Reversal electroforming method). In order to reduce emission of secondary electrons when protons or elect...

  9. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors of the brain and spinal cord. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... NCINeuroOncology@mail.nih.gov . Our News The Neuro-Oncology Branch Welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as New Branch ...

  10. Current surgical treatment for bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuji Seyama; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2007-01-01

    Since extrahepatic bile duct cancer is difficult to diagnose and to cure, a safe and radical surgical strategy is needed. In this review, the modes of infiltration and spread of extrahepatic bile duct cancer and surgical strategy are discussed. Extended hemihepatectomy, with or without pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), plus extrahepatic bile duct resection and regional lymphadenectomy has recently been recognized as the standard curative treatment for hilar bile duct cancer. On the other hand, PD is the choice of treatment for middle and distal bile duct cancer. Major hepatectomy concomitant with PD (hepatopancreatoduodenectomy) has been applied to selected patients with widespread tumors. Preoperative biliary drainage (BD) followed by portal vein embolization (PVE) enables major hepatectomy in patients with hilar bile duct cancer without mortality. BD should be performed considering the surgical procedure, especially, in patients with separated intrahepatic bile ducts caused by hilar bile duct cancer. Right or left trisectoriectomy are indicated according to the tumor spread and biliary anatomy. As a result, extended radical resection offers a chance for cure of hilar bile duct cancer with improved resectability, curability, and a 5-year survival rate of 40%. A 5-year survival rate has ranged from 24% to 39% after PD for middle and distal bile duct cancer.

  11. Regulated acid–base transport in the collecting duct

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The renal collecting system serves the fine-tuning of renal acid-base secretion. Acid-secretory type-A intercalated cells secrete protons via a luminally expressed V-type H(+)-ATPase and generate new bicarbonate released by basolateral chloride/bicarbonate exchangers including the AE1 anion exchanger. Efficient proton secretion depends both on the presence of titratable acids (mainly phosphate) and the concomitant secretion of ammonia being titrated to ammonium. Collecting duct ammonium excre...

  12. Observations on the anterior testicular ducts in snakes with emphasis on sea snakes and ultrastructure in the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Freeborn, Layla R

    2012-03-01

    The anterior testicular ducts of squamates transport sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductus deferens. These ducts consist of the rete testis, ductuli efferentes, and ductus epididymis. Many histological and a few ultrastructural studies of the squamate reproductive tract exist, but none concern the Hydrophiidae, the sea snakes and sea kraits. In this study, we describe the anterior testicular ducts of six species of hydrophiid snakes as well as representatives from the Elapidae, Homolapsidae, Leptotyphlopidae, and Uropeltidae. In addition, we examine the ultrastructure of these ducts in the yellow-bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus, only the third such study on snakes. The anterior testicular ducts are similar in histology in all species examined. The rete testis is simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium and transports sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductuli efferentes in the extratesticular epididymal sheath. The ductuli efferentes are branched, convoluted tubules composed of simple cuboidal, ciliated epithelium, and many species possess periodic acid-Schiff+ granules in the cytoplasm. The ductus epididymis at the light microscopy level appears composed of pseudostratified columnar epithelium. At the ultrastructural level, the rete testis and ductuli efferentes of P. platurus possess numerous small coated vesicles and lack secretory vacuoles. Apocrine blebs in the ductuli efferentes, however, indicate secretory activity, possibly by a constitutive pathway. Ultrastructure reveals three types of cells in the ductus epididymis of P. platurus: columnar principal cells, squamous basal cells, and mitochondria-rich apical cells. This is the first report of apical cells in a snake. In addition, occasional principal cells possess a single cilium, which has not been reported in reptiles previously but is known in some birds. Finally, the ductus epididymis of P. platurus differs from other snakes that have been studied in possession of apical, biphasic

  13. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  14. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-01-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  15. Methods of evaluating cleanliness of ventilation ducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 罗运有; 于丹; 甘丽斯

    2009-01-01

    A testing system for evaluating cleanliness of ventilation ducts was constructed. Comparisons of four evaluation methods for quantifying the amount of dust on the inner surface of ventilation ducts are presented. The experimental results show that the wiping by solvent method is more efficient than that by the wiping method,especially used on low cleanliness duct surface. The gravimetric tape method is an efficient method of collecting dust samples on the duct surface with low amounts of dust,particularly used to check the cleanliness level after the cleaning work. The optical method can be set up rapidly and is useful for fieldwork measurements.

  16. Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Fully Developed Duct Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, Masoud; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in both straight and wavy ducts, with rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions. A comparison of secondary flow patterns. including velocity vectors and velocity and temperature contours, are shown in order to study the effect of waviness on flow dynamics, and comparisons between the hydraulic parameters. Fanning friction factor and Nusselt number, are also presented. In all cases. isothermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls, and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled using gradient-diffusion type models. The formulation is valid for Reynolds numbers up to 10(exp 5) and this minimizes the need for wall functions that have been used with mixed success in previous studies of complex duct flows. In addition, the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Criteria in terms of heat transfer and friction factor needed to choose the optimal wavy duct cross-section for industrial applications among the ones considered are discussed.

  17. V-Y Type Flap Internal Opening Duct Drainage In The Treatment Of Complex Anal Fistula Relapse Prevention And Control Points For Operation And Skills%V-Y型皮瓣内口封闭导管引流术治疗复杂肛瘘的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高昆; 王进宝

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨V-Y型皮瓣内口封闭导管引流术治疗复杂肛瘘的可行性.方法 对2010年9月至2012年9月我科收治的复杂肛瘘患者20例,行V-Y型皮瓣内口封闭导管引流术的临床资料作回顾性分析.结果 19例痊愈,1例复发.结论 V-Y型皮瓣内口封闭导管引流术治疗复杂肛瘘是安全有效的,保留了肛门括约肌和肛门的功能,且成功率高.%Objective Through the analysis of the causes of anal fistula,classification,comparison research V-Y type flap internal opening duct drainage in the treatment of complex anal fistula feasibility.Methods clinical collect 20 cases,line V-Y type skin flap internal opening catheter drainage.Results 1 case of recurrence and 19 cases were healed.Conclusion V-Y type flap internal opening duct drainage in the treatment of complex anal fistula is safe and effective,retained the anal sphincter and anal function,high success rate.

  18. Numerical simulation of forced convection in a duct subjected to microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.; Kuznetsov, A.V. [North Carolina State University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Campus Box 7910, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sandeep, K.P. [North Carolina State University, Department of Food Science, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, forced convection in a rectangular duct subjected to microwave heating is investigated. Three types of non-Newtonian liquids flowing through the duct are considered, specifically, apple sauce, skim milk, and tomato sauce. A finite difference time domain method is used to solve Maxwell's equations simulating the electromagnetic field. The three-dimensional temperature field is determined by solving the coupled momentum, energy, and Maxwell's equations. Numerical results show that the heating pattern strongly depends on the dielectric properties of the fluid in the duct and the geometry of the microwave heating system. (orig.)

  19. Inlet boundary conditions for shock wave propagation problems in air ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashbaugh, R. H.

    1992-03-01

    Shock waves propagating into air ducting systems are numerically studied using data from Kriebel (1972). Small-scale junctions mounted in shock tubes with an incident shock wave are considered. The stagnation pressure ratio through a duct inlet is evaluated for various junction types. The logarithm of this ratio varies linearly with the Mach number of the flow behind the incident shock wave. The static pressure inside the inlet is established using experimental data with given Mach numbers of the incident and inlet flows. A constant stagnation enthalpy through the inlet junction is assumed to establish inflow to the duct.

  20. Bile salt toxicity aggravates cold ischemic injury of bile ducts after liver transplantation in Mdr2+/- mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, H; Porte, RJ; Tian, Y; Jochum, W; Stieger, B; Moritz, W; Slooff, MJH; Graf, R; Clavien, PA

    2006-01-01

    Intrahepatic bile duct strictures are a serious complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We examined the role of endogenous bile salt toxicity in the pathogenesis of bile duct injury after OLT. Livers from wild-type mice and mice heterozygous for disruption of the multidrug resista

  1. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Walter

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  2. Measure Guideline: Sealing and Insulating of Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Puttagunta, S.

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  3. Measure Guideline. Sealing and Insulating Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  4. Applying micro-perforated panels in the measurement of sound source characteristics in a duct system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Su; Goran Pavic; LIU Bilong; LI Xiaodong; TIAN Jing

    2012-01-01

    In order to measure the acoustic characteristics of the sound source in a duct system effectively without destroying the main duct, micro-perforated panel structures were applied in the new method by attaching the side branch tubes. The effect and influence to change the acoustical impedance of the loads in a duct system was analyzed and simulated for using one layer and double-layer micro-perforated panel and back cavities with different parameters such as panel thickness, hole diameter, perforation ration, back depth and so on. The results show that the load's resistance can be changed efficiently by adjusting panel thickness, hole diameter, perforation ratio, the ratio of cross-section between ducts and tubes and other parameters; and the load's reactance can be changed efficiently by adjusting back depth and distance between micro-perforated panel and main duct. It is also found that combinative usage of one layer and double-layer of these structures can change the reactance substantially in broad frequency domain. The method and the efficient performance of the structures with micro-perforated panel in the measurement were verified by the experiment under the situations of flow and no- flow. Finally, suggestions to design and apply these structures in the above-mentioned method in application were given.

  5. Current perspective in the treatment of bile duct injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jos and eacute; Granados-Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered the gold standard for the treatment of benign gallbladder disease, which is associated with an increased incidence of biliary injuries. These types of injuries are multicausal, and anatomical variations or anatomical perception errors are the most common risk factors. The objective of this study is to describe the evolution in the management of bile duct injuries and actual, diagnostic tools, incidence, prognosis and treatment. A literature research about diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic bile duct injuries as well as their impact on the incidence of morbidity and mortality, based on a 30-year period, was performed on Medline, Cochrane, Embase, MedScape and PubMed database, for all studies that met the eligibility criteria. A thorough quality assessment of all included studies was performed. Synthesis of the results was achieved by narrative review. The bile duct injury is a complication that requires a complex therapy and multidisciplinary management. Reconstruction and treatment techniques have been evolving. The selection of adequate treatment will impact on the patient and acute;s quality of life. The results of the existing studies reporting on iatrogenic bile duct injuries are useful; because the iatrogenic bile duct injuries are complex alterations and constitute one of the most serious complications of a cholecystectomy and require a comprehensive approach, immediate repair, proper drainage and timely referral to adequate treatment to improve long-term prognosis. According to the literature review, currently there better treatments such as absorbable prosthesis, which improve the prognosis and patient and acute;s quality of life, and represent less risk of complications in short/long term. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 677-684

  6. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  7. Duct leakage impacts on VAV system performance in California large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variability of duct leakage impacts on air distribution system performance for typical large commercial buildings in California. Specifically, a hybrid DOE-2/TRNSYS sequential simulation approach was used to model the energy use of a low-pressure terminal-reheat variable-air-volume (VAV) HVAC system with six duct leakage configurations (tight to leaky) in nine prototypical large office buildings (representing three construction eras in three California climates where these types of buildings are common). Combined fan power for the variable-speed-controlled supply and return fans at design conditions was assumed to be 0.8 W/cfm. Based on our analyses of the 54 simulation cases, the increase in annual fan energy is estimated to be 40 to 50% for a system with a total leakage of 19% at design conditions compared to a tight system with 5% leakage. Annual cooling plant energy also increases by about 7 to 10%, but reheat energy decreases (about 3 to 10%). In combination, the increase in total annual HVAC site energy is 2 to 14%. The total HVAC site energy use includes supply and return fan electricity consumption, chiller and cooling tower electricity consumption, boiler electricity consumption, and boiler natural gas consumption. Using year 2000 average commercial sector energy prices for California ($0.0986/kWh and $7.71/Million Btu), the energy increases result in 9 to 18% ($7,400 to $9,500) increases in HVAC system annual operating costs. Normalized by duct surface area, the increases in annual operating costs are 0.14 to 0.18 $/ft{sup 2}. Using a suggested one-time duct sealing cost of $0.20 per square foot of duct surface area, these results indicate that sealing leaky ducts in VAV systems has a simple payback period of about 1.3 years. Even with total leakage rates as low as 10%, duct sealing is still cost effective. This suggests that duct sealing should be considered at least for VAV systems with 10% or more total duct

  8. Pancreatic duct holder for facilitating duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Masanori; Suzuki, Yutaka; Abe, Nobutsugu; Ueki, Hisayo; Masaki, Tadahiko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Atomi, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    Duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy after pancreatoduodenectomy may be technically difficult, particularly in cases in which the remnant pancreas is soft with a small main pancreatic duct. We devised a pancreatic duct holder for duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy. The holder has a cone-shaped tip. A one-third circle of the tip is cut away, which makes a slit. As the tip is inserted gently into the pancreatic duct, the duct can be adequately expanded. The holder provides a good surgical field for anastomosis. A slit of the tip allows needle insertion. The holder facilitates stitches of the jejunum also. Twelve patients underwent pancreatoduodenectomy, followed by duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy using the holder. The holder allowed 8 or more stitches in duct-to-mucosa anastomosis, even in patients with a small pancreatic duct. No patients developed prolonged pancreatic leakage or pancreatic fistula postoperatively. In conclusion, the pancreatic duct holder is a simple and useful tool for facilitating duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy.

  9. Bile duct hamartomas (von Mayenburg complexes) mimicking liver metastases from bile duct cancer: MRC findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiko Nagano; Kenichi Matsuo; Katsuya Gorai; Kazuya Sugimori; Chikara Kunisaki; Hideyuki Ike; Katsuaki Tanaka; Toshio Imada; Hiroshi Shimada

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of a 72-year-old man with a common bile duct cancer, who was initially believed to have multiple liver metastases based on computed tomography findings, and in whom magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) revealed a diagnosis of bile duct hamartomas. At exploration for pancreaticoduodenectomy, liver palpation revealed disseminated nodules at the surface of the liver. These nodules showed gray-white nodular lesions of about 0.5cm in diameter scattered on the surface of both liver lobes, which were looked like multiple liver metastases from bile duct cancer. Frozen section of the liver biopsy disclosed multiple bile ducts with slightly dilated lumens embedded in the collagenous stroma characteristics of multiple bile duct hamartomas (BDHs). Only two reports have described the MRC features of bile duct hamartomas. Of all imaging procedures, MRC provides the most relevant features for the imaging diagnosis of bile duct hamartomas.

  10. Long-term results of treatment of injuries to the sectoral and segmental bile ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Surgically important variations of the sectoral and segmental bile ducts of the right lobe of the liver appear in a significant proportion of patients. Frequency of the injuries to these ducts is not known as the ligature of small ducts may pass without major consequences. MATERIAL AND METHODS Over a 27 year period (1. Jan 1974-31. Dec 2001 along with 168 patients with benign biliary strictures of type I, II, III and IV according to Bismuth's classification, we treated 13 patients with operative sectoral or segmental bile duct injuries, four patients from our institution and nine patients transferred from elsewhere. The injury was recognized at original surgery in all four patients operated in our institution. Primary repair was performed in three patients, in two patients direct end-to-end repair overT-tube and in one patient with anastomosis between the injured duct and Roux-en-Y jejunal limb, while in one patient the injured duct was ligated. In no one of nine patients transferred from elsewhere the injury was recognized during original surgery. Four patients were sent with biliary peritonitis, another four patients with external biliary fistula and one patient for pain and fever due to liver abscess. RESULTS All three patients in whom the primary repair was performed had a quick and uneventful recovery and they stayed symptom-free so far. The patient in whom the injured duct was ligated died after series of complications. Four patients sent to us with biliary peritonitis were treated with relaparotomy, lavage and drainage and all developed external biliary fistula. Three of these patients had their fistula ceased spontaneously within few weeks, while in one patient the fistula didn't show signs of ceasing so that injured duct had to be anastomosed with Roux-en-Y jejunal limb. Two out of four patients sent for external biliary fistula had it ceased spontaneously, while in two patients anastomosis between duct and Roux

  11. Acoustic image typing of thyroglossal duct cyst by high frequency ultrasonography and its diagnosis value%高频超声对甲状舌管囊肿的分型及诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶琴; 林礼务; 薛恩生; 林学英; 何以敉; 吴丽足; 梁荣喜

    2009-01-01

    Objective To probe the clinical diagnosis value of high frequency ultrasonography (HFUS) in thyroglossal duct cyst(TDC). Methods Forty-one TDC were taken HFUS and the location, boundary,shape,interal echo of lesions and the relation to hyoid bone were observed. The periphery and internal blood flow signal were detected by color Doppler flow imaging. The results of HFUS were compared with those of pathology after operation. The cases were divided into groups according to pathological types and were compared with acoustic image shows. Results All cases were diagnosed TDC by pathology after operation. Internal walls of 9 TDC consist of cilium columnar epithelium, 19 consist of stratified pavement epithelium and 13 consist of this two epitheliums. HFUS showed different pathological types had different ultrasonic appearances. In this study, 77.8%(7/9) TDC with columnar epithelium showed echoless,84.2 (16/19) TDC with pavement epithelium showed similar solid echopattern and TDC with two epitheliums mainly showed similar solid echopattern and multi-room cyst. Hyperechogenicity of hyoid bone displayed around the lesion in 80.5%(33/41)TDC. No blood flow signal showed in 41 TDC and a little punctiform blood flow signal showed in the periphery of 5 TDC. The diagnose accordance rate of HFUS in TDC was 95.1%(39/41). Conclusions HFUS can clearly show the location, boundary, shape,interal echo of TDC and its relation to hyoid bone. HFUS is important for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of TDC.%目的 探讨高频超声检查对甲状舌管囊肿(TDC)的临床诊断价值.方法 应用高频超声检查41例TDC,观察病变的位置、边界、形态、内部回声及其与舌骨的关系,并应用彩色多普勒血流显像观察肿物边缘与内部的血流信号.超声检查结果 与手术病理诊断对照,将所有资料按照病理类型分组并分别与声像图表现对比.结果 全部病例均经手术病理证实为TDC,其中9例TDC内衬纤毛柱状上皮,19

  12. Type I bHLH Proteins Daughterless and Tcf4 Restrict Neurite Branching and Synapse Formation by Repressing Neurexin in Postmitotic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell D’Rozario

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Proneural proteins of the class I/II basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH family are highly conserved transcription factors. Class I bHLH proteins are expressed in a broad number of tissues during development, whereas class II bHLH protein expression is more tissue restricted. Our understanding of the function of class I/II bHLH transcription factors in both invertebrate and vertebrate neurobiology is largely focused on their function as regulators of neurogenesis. Here, we show that the class I bHLH proteins Daughterless and Tcf4 are expressed in postmitotic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and mice, respectively, where they function to restrict neurite branching and synapse formation. Our data indicate that Daughterless performs this function in part by restricting the expression of the cell adhesion molecule Neurexin. This suggests a role for these proteins outside of their established roles in neurogenesis.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of thyroglossal duct carcinoma: Report of three cases with review of literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhipeng SUN; Chuanbin GUO; Guangyan YU; Yi ZHAN; Yan CHEN; Yan GAO

    2008-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct carcinoma, which is usually diagnosed postoperatively, is a rare malignant tumor arising in the thyroglossal duct cyst. The definitive diag-nosis can be made only after microscopic examination. We retrospectively reviewed three cases of thyroglossal duct carcinoma diagnosed in Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from January 1986 to August 2006. Clinical and pathological features were investigated and the optimal treatment protocol was proposed. The constituent ratio of thyroglossal duct car-cinoma among surgically excised thyroglossal duct lesions was 2.9%. The clinical presentation of thyroglos-sal duct carcinoma was very similar to that of its benign counterpart. Two cases were diagnosed as thyroglossal duct cyst prior to the operation, the remaining one as dermoid cyst. All three cases were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of thyroid origin after microscopic examina-tion. Primary thyroglossal duct carcinoma should con-form to the following criteria: localization of the carcinoma to a clearly demonstrable thyroglossal duct cyst or tract; clinically or histologically confirmed absence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Papillary carcinoma is the most common histological type, which usually develops slowly with an excellent Prognosis. The histological characteristics including: formation of pap-illary structure; nuclear morphological variations such as ground glass nuclei, pseudoinclusions, intranuclear grooves and filaments; concentrically calcified struc-tures termed psammoma bodies which is regarded as a strong indication of papillary carcinoma; and positiv-ity in immunohistological staining for thyroglobin. Sistrunk procedure of excision is the choice for treat-ment. A close follow-up is needed. In the presence of thyroid gland masses or cervical lymphadenopathy, thyroidectomy or neck dissection should be recom-mended. The effect of thyroid suppression therapy and radioactive iodine therapy is not conclusive.

  14. An anatomical study of the buccinator muscle fibres that extend to the terminal portion of the parotid duct, and their functional roles in salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo-Chang; Kwak, Hyun-Ho; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Youn, Kwan-Hyun; Jin, Guang-Chun; Fontaine, Christian; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2006-05-01

    Until now there has been no definitive anatomical study describing the area where the parotid duct enters the buccinator muscle. In this study, we performed anatomical and histological examinations to investigate the relationship between the parotid duct and the buccinator muscle. Thirty specimens (including the buccinator and the terminal portion of the parotid duct) were obtained from embalmed Korean cadavers. Dissection was performed on 22 of these specimens, and the remaining eight specimens were prepared for histological examination and stained with haematoxylin-eosin or Gomori trichrome. In all specimens, small, distinct muscle fibres originating from the buccinator muscle extended to and inserted into the terminal portion of the parotid duct. The topography of these fibres varied, and we classified them into three categories according to where they originated. Type I buccinator muscle fibres, which inserted into the terminal portion of the parotid duct, originated simultaneously from the anterior and posterior aspects of the duct (ten cases, 45.5%). Type II fibres originated from the anterior aspect of the duct and inserted into the anterior side of the duct (seven cases, 31.8%). Type III fibres originated from the posterior aspect of the parotid duct and ran anteriorly toward the duct (five cases, 22.7%). These results were confirmed in the histological examination of all eight specimens. Based on these findings, we have proposed a tentative description of the physiological role of the buccinator muscle fibres in salivary secretion and in the formation of the sialoliths.

  15. Melons are branched polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  16. Clinical significance of main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography: Single and double duct dilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark D Edge; Maarouf Hoteit; Amil P Patel; Xiaoping Wang; Deborah A Baumgarten; Qiang Cai

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography (CT) and thereby to provide the predictive criteria to identify patients at high risk of significant diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, and to avoid unnecessary work up for patients at low risk of such diseases.METHODS: Patients with dilation of the main pancreatic duct on CT at Emory University Hospital in 2002 were identified by computer search. Clinical course and ultimate diagnosis were obtained in all the identified patients by abstraction of their computer database records.RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were identified in this study. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer were the most common causes of the main pancreatic duct dilation on CT. Although the majority of patients with isolated dilation of the main pancreatic duct (single duct dilation) had chronic pancreatitis, one-third of patients with single duct dilation but without chronic pancreatitis had pancreatic malignancies, whereas most of patients with concomitant biliary duct dilation (double duct dilation) had pancreatic cancer.CONCLUSION: Patients with pancreatic double duct dilation need extensive work up and careful follow up since a majority of these patients are ultimately diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Patients with single duct dilation, especially such patients without any evidence of chronic pancreatitis, also need careful follow-up since the possibility of pancreatic malignancy, including adenocarcinoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumors, is still high.

  17. Bile Duct Adenoma with Oncocytic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Johannesen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile duct adenomas are benign bile duct proliferations usually encountered as an incidental finding. Oncocytic bile duct neoplasms are rare and the majority are malignant. A 61-year-old male with a diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma was undergoing surgery when a small white nodule was discovered on the surface of the right lobe of his liver. This lesion was composed of cytologically bland cells arranged in tightly packed glands. These cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin 7, negative for Hep Par 1, contained mucin, and had a Ki67 proliferation index of 8%. The morphology, immunophenotype, presence of mucin, and normal appearing bile ducts, as well as the increased Ki67 proliferation rate, were consistent with a bile duct adenoma with oxyphilic (oncocytic change. Oncocytic tumors in the liver are rare; the first described in 1992. Only two bile duct adenomas with oncocytic change have been reported and neither of them had reported mucin production or the presence of normal appearing bile ducts within the lesion.

  18. Angular distributions of photon stimulated desorption in a vacuum duct observed by using a unidirectional detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Matumoto, M.; Ueda, S.

    1987-07-01

    Pressures in the vacuum duct of the electron storage rings depend on photodesorption. A multicapillary-type mass spectrometer was applied to observe local outgassing rates in the duct, in which the duct surfaces were irradiated by directly incident photons and/or by scattered photons. Local outgassing rates were nonuniform along the periphery of the duct. The desorption rates at the directly incident point were higher than at the other surfaces when photon dose was less than 200 mA h. At over 9000 mA h the rates at that point decreased more, while the desorption rates at the other surfaces decreased less. Angular distributions of photocurrent were also measured. The distributions were almost uniform except near the directly incident point.

  19. High-frequency data observations from space shuttle main engine low pressure fuel turbopump discharge duct flex joint tripod failure investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, T. F.; Farr, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers during their participation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) low pressure fuel turbopump discharge duct flex joint tripod failure investigation are summarized. New signal processing techniques used by the Component Assessment Branch and the Induced Environments Branch during the failure investigation are described in detail. Moreover, nonlinear correlations between frequently encountered anomalous frequencies found in SSME dynamic data are discussed. A recommendation is made to continue low pressure fuel (LPF) duct testing through laboratory flow simulations and MSFC-managed technology test bed SSME testing.

  20. Paraurethral Skene's duct cyst in a newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralioğlu, Serdar; Bosnalı, Oktav; Celayir, Ayşenur Cerrah; Şahin, Ceyhan

    2013-01-01

    Paraurethral or Skene's duct cysts are rare causes of interlabial masses in neonates. The diagnosis of Skene's duct cysts in the neonatal period is based on its location, in relation to the urethra, and the demonstration of transitional epithelium in the cyst wall. The distinguishing features of paraurethral cysts are the displacement of urethral meatus by the mass and a cyst containing milky fluid. Thus, we report a case of a Skene's duct cyst in a newborn which was treated by incision and drainage. PMID:24049387

  1. The Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distances to Type Ia Supernova Host Galaxies. IV. Color Dependence and Zero-point Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2017-01-01

    We present a revised Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) calibration, accurate to 2.7% of distance. A modified TRGB magnitude corrected for its color dependence, the QT magnitude, is introduced for better measurement of the TRGB. We determine the color–magnitude relation of the TRGB from photometry of deep images of HST/ACS fields around eight nearby galaxies. The zero-point of the TRGB at the fiducial metallicity ([Fe/H] = ‑1.6 ({(V-I)}0,{TRGB}=1.5)) is obtained from photometry of two distance anchors, NGC 4258 (M106) and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), to which precise geometric distances are known: MQT,TRGB = ‑4.023 ± 0.073 mag from NGC 4258 and MQT,TRGB = ‑4.004 ± 0.096 mag from the LMC. A weighted mean of the two zero-points is MQT,TRGB = ‑4.016 ± 0.058 mag. Quoted uncertainty is ∼2× smaller than those of previous calibrations. We compare the empirical TRGB calibration derived in this study with theoretical stellar models, finding that there are significant discrepancies, especially for red color ({({{F}}606{{W}}-{{F}}814{{W}})}0≳ 2.5). We provide the revised TRGB calibration in several magnitude systems for future studies.

  2. Magnetic fields in single late-type giants in the Solar vicinity: How common is magnetic activity on the giant branches?

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantinova-Antova, R; Charbonnel, C; Drake, N A; Wade, G; Tsvetkova, S; Petit, P; Schröder, K -P; Lèbre, A

    2013-01-01

    We present our first results on a new sample containing all single G,K and M giants down to V = 4 mag in the Solar vicinity, suitable for spectropolarimetric (Stokes V) observations with Narval at TBL, France. For detection and measurement of the magnetic field (MF), the Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD) method was applied (Donati et al. 1997) that in the present case enables detection of large-scale MFs even weaker than the solar one (the typical precision of our longitudinal MF measurements is 0.1-0.2 G). The evolutionary status of the stars is determined on the basis of the evolutionary models with rotation (Lagarde et al. 2012; Charbonnel et al., in prep.) and fundamental parameters given by Massarotti et al. (1998). The stars appear to be in the mass range 1-4 M_sun, situated at different evolutionary stages after the Main Sequence (MS), up to the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). The sample contains 45 stars. Up to now, 29 stars are observed (that is about 64 % of the sample), each observed at least twice....

  3. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  4. General Information about Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... duct cancer include jaundice and pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... Dark urine . Clay colored stool . Pain in the abdomen . Fever . Itchy skin. Nausea and vomiting . Weight loss ...

  5. Treatment Options for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... duct cancer include jaundice and pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... Dark urine . Clay colored stool . Pain in the abdomen . Fever . Itchy skin. Nausea and vomiting . Weight loss ...

  6. Stages of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... duct cancer include jaundice and pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... Dark urine . Clay colored stool . Pain in the abdomen . Fever . Itchy skin. Nausea and vomiting . Weight loss ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... duct cancer include jaundice and pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... Dark urine . Clay colored stool . Pain in the abdomen . Fever . Itchy skin. Nausea and vomiting . Weight loss ...

  8. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  9. Ducted propagation of chorus waves: Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yearby

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ducted propagation of whistler waves in the terrestrial magnetosphere-ionosphere system was discussed and studied long before the first in-situ spacecraft measurements. While a number of implicit examples of the existence of ducted propagation have been found, direct observation of ducts has been hampered by the low sampling rates of measurements of the plasma density. The present paper is based on Cluster observations of chorus waves. The ability to use measurements of the spacecraft potential as a proxy for high time resolution electron density measurements is exploited to identify a number of cases when increased chorus wave power, observed within the radiation belts, is observed simultaneously with density enchantments. It is argued that the observation of ducted propagation of chorus implies modification of numerical models for plasma-wave interactions within the radiation belts.

  10. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A.; Patel, Neal; Darge, Kassa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rambhatla, Siri J. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States); Sreedharan, Ram R. [University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  11. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  12. Transition duct assembly with modified trailing edge in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Schott, Carl Gerard; Ingram, Clint Luigie; Siden, Gunnar Leif; Pierre, Sylvain

    2016-10-04

    Transition duct assemblies for turbine systems and turbomachines are provided. In one embodiment, a transition duct assembly includes a plurality of transition ducts disposed in a generally annular array and comprising a first transition duct and a second transition duct. Each of the plurality of transition ducts includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of each transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct assembly further includes an aerodynamic structure defined by the passages of the first transition duct and the second transition duct. The aerodynamic structure includes a pressure side, a suction side, and a trailing edge, the trailing edge having a modified aerodynamic contour.

  13. INTERIOR DUCT SYSTEM DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet E.R. Mcllvaine; David Beal; Philip Fairey

    2001-10-10

    By removing air distribution and conditioning equipment from unconditioned spaces, homeowners stand to benefit substantially with respect to both energy savings and indoor air quality. Duct leakage introduces: Greater heating and cooling loads from air at extreme temperatures and humidity levels; Outside air and air from unconditioned spaces that may contain air borne contaminants, combustion gases, pollen, mold spores, and/or particles of building materials; and Higher whole-house infiltration/exfiltration rates. Exemplary studies conducted since 1990 have demonstrated the prevalence of duct leakage throughout the United States and measured energy savings of approximately 20% during both heating and cooling seasons from leakage reduction. These all dealt with duct leakage to and/or from unconditioned spaces. In the building science community, leakage within the conditioned space is generally presumed to eliminate the negative consequences of duct leakage with the exception of possibly creating pressure imbalances in the house which relates to higher infiltration and/or exfiltration. The practical challenges of isolating ducts and air handlers from unconditioned spaces require builders to construct an air-tight environment for the ducts. Florida Solar Energy Center researchers worked with four builders in Texas, North Carolina, and Florida who build a furred-down chase located either in a central hallway or at the edges of rooms as an architectural detail. Some comparison homes with duct systems in attics and crawl spaces were included in the test group of more than 20 homes. Test data reveals that all of the duct/AHU systems built inside the conditioned space had lower duct leakage to unconditioned spaces than their conventional counterparts; however, none of the homes was completely free of duct leakage to unconditioned spaces. Common problems included wiring and plumbing penetrations of the chase, failure to treat the chase as an air tight space, and misguided

  14. Branched Polymer Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We show that correlation functions for branched polymers correspond to those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves, as has been widely believed. In particular, the two-point function behaves as 1/p^4, not as 1/p^2. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  15. Gas Explosions Mitigation by Ducted Venting

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The mitigation of effects of gas and dust explosions within industrial equipment is effective if venting the combustion products to safe location. The presence of relief duct is however likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to equipment vented to open atmosphere, due to secondary explosions occurring in the initial sections of duct, frictional drag and inertia of the gas column, acoustic and Helmholtz oscillations. The weights of these phenomena on explosion e...

  16. Effect of shear on duct wall impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M.; Rice, E.

    1973-01-01

    The solution to the equation governing the propagation of sound in a uniform shear layer is expressed in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. This result is used to develop a closed-form solution for acoustic wall impedance which accounts for both the duct liner and the presence of a boundary layer in the duct. The effective wall impedance can then be used as the boundary condition for the much simpler problem of sound propagation in uniform flow.

  17. Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-26

    Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction February 26, 2004 Rich Glatt – Lindab Inc. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Wall – DW that installs like SW - easiest installing DW system on the market – Eliminates the need for costly flanged connections – SMACNA Leakage

  18. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  19. Double common bile duct: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srdjan P Djuranovic; Milenko B Ugljesic; Nenad S Mijalkovic; Viktorija A Korneti; Nada V Kovacevic; Tamara M Alempijevic; Slaven V Radulovic; Dragan V Tomic; Milan M Spuran

    2007-01-01

    Double common bile duct (DCBD) is a rare congenital anomaly in which two common bile ducts exist. One usually has normal drainage into the papilla duodeni major and the other usually named accessory common bile duct (ACBD) opens in different parts of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach, duodenum, ductus pancreaticus or septum). This anomaly is of great importance since it is often associated with biliary lithiasis, choledochal cyst, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ) and upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. We recently recognized a rare case of DCBD associated with APBJ with lithiasis in better developed common bile duct. The opening site of ACBD was in the pancreatic duct. The anomaly was suspected by transabdominal ultrasonography and finally confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction. According to the literature, the existence of DCBD with the opening of ACBD in the pancreatic duct is most frequently associated with APBJ and gallbladder carcinoma. In case of DCBD, the opening site of ACBD is of greatest clinical importance because of its close implications with concomitant pathology. The adequate diagnosis of this rare anomaly is significant since the operative complications may occur in cases with DCBD which is not recognized prior to surgical treatment.

  20. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Gu, Lixing [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  1. Partial Müllerian Duct Retention in Smad4 Conditional Mutant Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Fabrice G; Deng, Chuxia; Jamin, Soazik P

    2016-01-01

    Müllerian duct regression is a complex process which involves the AMH signalling pathway. We have previously demonstrated that besides AMH and its specific type II receptor (AMHRII), BMPR-IA and Smad5 are two essential factors implicated in this mechanism. Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Smad4) is a transcription factor and the common Smad (co-Smad) involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling pathway superfamily. Since Smad4 null mutants die early during gastrulation, we have inactivated Smad4 in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme. Specific inactivation of Smad4 in the urogenital ridge leads to the partial persistence of the Müllerian duct in adult male mice. Careful examination of the urogenital tract reveals that the Müllerian duct retention is randomly distributed either on one side or both sides. Histological analysis shows a uterus-like structure, which is confirmed by the expression of estrogen receptor α. As previously described in a β-catenin conditional mutant mouse model, β-catenin contributes to Müllerian duct regression. In our mutant male embryos, it appears that β-catenin expression is locally reduced along the urogenital ridge as compared to control mice. Moreover, the expression pattern is similar to those observed in control female mice. This study shows that reduced Smad4 expression disrupts the Wnt/β-catenin signalling leading to the partial persistence of Müllerian duct.

  2. 高校构建离退休学习型党支部的实践思考%Practical Reflections on the Establishment of Study-type Party Branches of the Retired in Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘美金

    2011-01-01

    当前,随着高校离退休党支部出现的新情况、新问题,在高校推动离退休学习型党支部建设,对于发扬党的优良传统,维护稳定大局,具有十分重要的作用。为此,在为老人本服务中落实学习型党支部建设的常态化;在真情凝聚人心中推动学习型党支部建设的目标化;在宣传典型示范中完善学习型党支部建设的制度化。%With the emergence of some new problems in the Party branches of the retired,and,for the development of the CPC's fine tradition and the maintenance of a stable society,it is essential to promote the construction of a Study-type Party Branches of the Reti

  3. 矮化型、短枝型和柱型苹果苗枝芽特性和叶片特征比较%Comparison of Branch, Bud and Leaf Characteristics of the Dwarf-type, Spur-type and Columnar Young Apple Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯玉珏; 张晓云; 赵彩平; 韩明玉; 刘小媛; 邢利博

    2012-01-01

    为加深对苹果各种生长型的认识,以矮化型(长富2号/M26)、短枝型(福岛短枝)和柱型(鲁加6号)3种苹果生长型嫁接苗为试材,对其枝、芽和叶片的特征进行比较研究.结果表明,三者在株高上有极显著差异,矮化型>短枝型>柱型,但在主干粗度方面差异不显著;主干节间的差异也很明显,3种类型之间差异均达到极显著水平,矮化型最高,而柱型最低;在萌芽率和成枝力方面,柱型萌芽率最高,成枝力最低,而矮化型的萌芽率最低,成枝力最高,差异均达极显著水平;在叶片特征上,柱型品种的叶面积及叶长、叶宽均显著大于其他两种,而短枝型叶片的单位面积干、鲜质量均极显著高于其他两种类型.%Three kinds of growth type of apple young trees, dwarf-type, spur-type and columnar were used as material to investigate the characteristics of branches, buds and leaves. The results indicated that the height of trees and internode length of branches had significant difference among the three types, showing dwarf-type> spur-type>columnar; but stem diameter of trunks did not show obvious differences among the three types. The germination rate of columnar type apple tree was significantly higher than those of other two types, while its branching rate was the lowest. The germination rate of dwarf-type apple tree was the lowest, but its branching rate was the highest. The characteristics of the leaves, leaf area, leaf length and width of columnar type apple tree were obviously larger than those of other two types; dry and fresh mass per unit area of spur-type leaf were higher than those of other two types.

  4. [A case of main-duct IPMN with multicentric invasive carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadai, Eri; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Otsuka, Masayuki; Kato, Atsushi; Furukawa, Katsunori; Takayashiki, Tsukasa; Kuboki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Nakajima, Masayuki; Okamura, Daiki; Sakai, Nozomu; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2014-11-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas often contains multifocal lesions, and total pancreatectomy is sometimes needed for curative resection. We report here our experience with a case of IPMN with multiple invasive carcinoma foci that was successfully treated with total pancreatectomy. A 66-year-old man had jaundice, and a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a hypovascular mass in the pancreas head in conjunction with calcification and dilation of the entire main pancreatic duct. He was diagnosed with pancreas head cancer and chronic pancreatitis, and a pancreaticoduodenectomy was planned. Intraoperative pathological examination revealed papillary growth of high grade dysplasia in the main and branch duct epithelium and perineural invasion of the atypical glands. After 2 additional resections, we performed a total pancreatectomy. Pathological findings showed that the pancreas head tumor was an invasive carcinoma derived from main-duct IPMN of the pancreas. It was a mucinous carcinoma with calcification. Moreover, we found other multiple, discontinuous invasive foci in the body and tail of the pancreas which were undetectable by preoperative imaging. This case was highly suggestive for preoperative diagnosis for pancreas tumor and developmental pattern of main-duct IPMN.

  5. Surgical management in biliary restricture after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy for bile duct injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the surgical method and skill of biliary restricture after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy for bile duct injury.METHODS: From November 2005 to December 2006,eight patients with biliary restricture after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy for bile duct injury were admitted to our hospital. Their clinical data were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: Bile duct injury was caused by cholecystectomy in the eight cases, including seven cases with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and one with miniincision choleystectomy. According to the classification of Strasberg, type E1 injury was found in one patient,type E2 injury in three, type E3 injury in two and type E4 injury in two patients. Both of the type E4 injury patients also had a vascular lesion of the hepatic artery. Six patients received Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy for the second time, and one of them who had type E4 injury with the right hepatic artery disruption received right hepatectomy afterward. One patient who had type E4 injury with the proper hepatic artery lesion underwent liver transplantation, and the remaining one with type E3 injury received external biliary drainage. All the patients recovered fairly well postoperatively.CONCLUSION: Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is still the main approach for such failed surgical cases with bile duct injury. Special attention should be paid to concomitant vascular injury in these cases. The optimal timing and meticulous and excellent skills are essential to the success in this surgery.

  6. The "flying" bile duct: avulsion of the common bile duct in a plane crash survivor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Blunt trauma is an unusual cause of extrahepatic bile duct injury. This is a case of a 51-year-old gentleman who sustained a significant seatbelt injury in a plane crash. Laparotomy, performed due to persistent abdominal pain, revealed that the common bile duct (CBD) was completely avulsed from the duodenum. Following insertion of drains and transfer to a hepatobiliary centre, the devascularised CBD was excised and replaced with a roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy. Necrotic tissue was debrided from the pancreatic head. A persistent bile leak developed from the sub-hepatic drain. Repeat laparotomy revealed a bile leak from small ducts on the liver surface. Ligation of the ducts and bioglue sealing of the area were successfully performed. Subsequent to this a pancreatic fistula developed from the main pancreatic duct, which has since resolved. This unusual case illustrates the need for prompt recognition and early repair to optimise outcomes in traumatic CBD injury.

  7. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  8. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly.......60-1.62). The presence of IRBBB was not associated with any adverse outcome.ConclusionIn this cohort study, RBBB and IRBBB were two to three times more common among men than women. Right bundle branch block was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality, whereas IRBBB was not. Contrary...

  9. Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paick, J S

    2000-05-01

    Complete bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction has long been recognized as an uncommon, treatable form of male infertility. Partial ejaculatory duct obstruction reflects a disturbance of ejaculation where sperm quality is impaired during transit through the distal vas deferens and ejaculatory ducts. With the advent and increased use of high-resolution transrectal ultrasonography, abnormalities of the distal ejaculatory ducts related to infertility have been well documented. Although there are no pathognomonic findings associated with ejaculatory duct obstruction, several clinical findings are highly suggestive. In an infertile man with oligospermia or azoospermia with low ejaculate volume, normal secondary sexual characteristics, testes and hormonal profile and dilated seminal vesicles, midline cyst, or calcification on transrectal ultrasonography, ejaculatory duct obstruction is suggested. Of course, other causes of infertility may be concomitantly present and need to be searched for and treated as well. In selected cases, transurethral resection has resulted in marked improvement in semen parameters and pregnancies have been achieved. As is the case with all surgical procedures, proper patient selection and surgical experience are necessary to obtain optimal results. However, it appears that the treatments currently available for relief of ejaculatory obstruction are not optimally effective. Only approximately one half of treated patients will have an improvement in semen parameters and only about one quarter of treated patients will contribute to a pregnancy. What remains to be determined is how to manage the additional nearly 50% of patients who do not benefit from transurethral resection of ejaculatory obstruction. Based on my experience, I suggest that transrectal ultrasonography should be the first diagnostic procedure used when infertile men are suspected of having ejaculatory duct obstruction; however, vasography should still be considered for a more

  10. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mlika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as "salivary duct carcinoma." The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis.

  11. Characterization of flow in a scroll duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, E. K.; Bennett, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative, flow visualization study was made of a partially elliptic cross section, inward curving duct (scroll duct), with an axial outflow through a vaneless annular cutlet. The working fluid was water, with a Re(d) of 40,000 at the inlet to the scroll duct, this Reynolds number being representative of the conditions in an actual gas turbine scroll. Both still and high speed moving pictures of fluorescein dye injected into the flow and illuminated by an argon ion laser were used to document the flow. Strong secondary flow, similar to the secondary flow in a pipe bend, was found in the bottom half of the scroll within the first 180 degs of turning. The pressure field set up by the turning duct was strong enough to affect the inlet flow condition. At 90 degs downstream, the large scale secondary flow was found to be oscillatory in nature. The exit flow was nonuniform in the annular exit. By 270 degs downstream, the flow appeared unorganized with no distinctive secondary flow pattern. Large scale structures from the upstream core region appeared by 90 degs and continued through the duct to reenter at the inlet section.

  12. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-gao YIN; Xian-wei Cao; Hong-da SHI; Jian MA

    2010-01-01

    The Renormalization Group(RNG)k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid(VOF)method were employed to simulate the flow past a circular duct in order to obtain and analyze hydraulic parameters.According to various upper and bottom gap ratios,the force on the duct was calculated.When the bottom gap ratio is 0,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,and composite force reach their maximum values,and the azimuth reaches its minimum.With an increase of the bottom gap ratio from 0 to 1,the drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply,and the lift force coefficient does not decreases so much,but the azimuth increases dramatically.With a continuous increase of the bottom gap ratio from 1 upward,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,composite force,and azimuth vary little.Thus,the bottom gap ratio is the key factor influencing the force on the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is less than 1,the upper gap ratio has a remarkable influence on the force of the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is greater than 1,the variation of the upper gap ratio has little influence on the force of the circular duct.

  13. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-05-26

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface feature for interfacing with an adjacent transition duct. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface feature to provide a seal between the interface feature and the adjacent transition duct.

  14. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  15. Noise Silencer in the Form of a Helmholtz Resonator at the Outlet of an Air Duct of Finite Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, D. V.; Bazhenova, L. A.; Rimskiĭ-Korsakov, A. V.

    2000-05-01

    A new type of noise silencer with the original design of the air duct-resonator system is proposed. The design is free of the disadvantages that are inherent in the conventional design with a resonator placed inside the air duct. A physical model of the silencer is developed, and its efficiency is calculated for different geometrical and physical parameters of the resonator and the air duct. A comparison between the calculated characteristics and the experimental data is performed, and their agreement is demonstrated.

  16. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, J.; Jícha, M.

    2013-04-01

    The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  17. Friction coefficient measurements of silencers on specialized duct tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnalek Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes test methods on air duct track in Laboratory of Environmental Engineering. It focuses on measurement of silencer parameter like is pressure loss coeffcient. Firstly, the paper describe the measurement apparatus with description of calculation method by standard ISO 7235 and energy equation. Then the paper presents three ways how to accomplish measurement because such way is not covered by procedure in standard. Then follows the evaluation of results of measurements on three types of silencer designed for HVAC applications. The article is concluded with discussion over measured data with outline for further research.

  18. The IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is required for proper growth and branching of pancreatic ductal epithelium but not for differentiation of exocrine or endocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, Mari-Anne; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Dickson, Clive; Otonkoski, Timo

    2003-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and their receptors have been implicated in embryonic pancreas development. Recently it was shown that Fgf10, a major ligand for the IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2b), has an important regulatory role in early pancreas development. The aim of our study was to define the role of Fgfr2b in pancreas development by analyzing the phenotype of Fgfr2b (-/-) mice. Pancreases of Fgfr2b (-/-) embryos were noticeably smaller than the wild type littermates during embryogenesis, and pancreatic ductal branching as well as duct cell proliferation was significantly reduced. However, both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic differentiation occurred relatively normally. Exogenous addition of Fgfr2b ligands (Fgf7 and Fgf10) stimulated duct cell proliferation and inhibited endocrine cell differentiation in the ex vivo embryonic organ cultures of wild type pancreas. Our results thus suggest that Fgfr2b-mediated signaling plays a major role in pancreatic ductal proliferation and branching morphogenesis, but has little effect on endocrine and exocrine differentiation.

  19. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  20. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  1. Multimode geodesic branching components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D.; Voges, E.

    1983-01-01

    Geodesic branching components are investigated for multimode guided wave optics. Geodesic structures with particular properties, e.g. focussing star couplers, are derived by a synthesis technique based on a theorem of Toraldo di Francia. Experimentally, the geodesic surfaces are printed on acrylic glass and are spin-coated with organic film waveguides.

  2. FLUID FLOW IN ROTATING HELICAL SQUARE DUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hua-jun; Zhang Ben-zhao; Zhang Jin-suo

    2003-01-01

    A numerical study is made for a fully developed laminar flow in rotating helical pipes.Due to the rotation, the Coriolis force can also contribute to the secondary flow.The interaction between rotation, torsion, and curvature complicates the flow characteristics.The effects of rotation and torsion on the flow transitions are studied in details.The results show that there are obvious differences between the flow in rotating ducts and in helical ducts without rotation.Certain hitherto unknown flow patterns are found.The effects of rotation and torsion on the friction factor are also examined.Present results show the characteristics of the fluid flow in rotating helical square ducts.

  3. Acoustic energy in ducts - Further observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, W.

    1979-01-01

    The transmission of acoustic energy in uniform ducts carrying uniform flow is investigated with the purpose of clarifying two points of interest. The two commonly used definitions of acoustic 'energy' flux are shown to be related by a Legendre transformation of the Lagrangian density exactly as in deriving the Hamiltonian density in mechanics. In the acoustic case the total energy density and the Hamiltonian density are not the same which accounts for two different 'energy' fluxes. When the duct has acoustically absorptive walls neither of the two flux expressions gives correct results. A reevaluation of the basis of derivation of the energy density and energy flux provides forms which yield consistent results for soft walled ducts.

  4. Xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray combined with laser artificial nasolacrimal duct implantation for nasolacrimal duct obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zhao Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the role of xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray in combination therapy of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and to investigate the effect of nasal inflammation on nasolacrimal duct obstruction. METHODS: Totally 279 patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction were collected, who received lacrimal passage irrigation, CT angiography for lacrimal passage and nasal endoscope before treated by lacrimal laser forming and artificial nasolacrimal duct implantation combined with xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray. In group A, 137 patients were treated with antibiotic eye drop and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after operations. In group B, 142 patients were treated with xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray besides the same treatment for group A. RESULTS:In the 279 patients 217(77.8%, in which 105 cases(76.6%were in group A and 112 cases(78.9%were in group B, were suffered with nasal inflammation, including nasal mucosal hyperemia, inferior turbinate hypertrophy, middle turbinate hypertrophy. At 3mo after the ducts were drawn, efficacy of group B was 95.8%, which was significant better than that of group A(86.1%, PCONCLUSION: Nasal inflammation was an important factor in the incidence of nasolacrimal duct obstruction, which shoud pay more attention in the process of diagnosis and treatment. Combination therapy could improve the cure rate of nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  5. Percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Cerna, Marie [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Havlik, Roman [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kral, Vladimir [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Gryga, Adolf [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Duda, Miloslav [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of treatment of benign bile duct strictures. Materials and methods: From February 1994 to November 2005, 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) with median age of 50.6 years (range 27-77 years) were indicated to percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct stricture. Stricture of hepatic ducts junction resulting from thermic injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was indication for treatment in one patient, stricture of hepaticojejunostomy was indication for treatment in all other patients. Clinical symptoms (obstructive jaundice, anicteric cholestasis, cholangitis or biliary cirrhosis) have appeared from 3 months to 12 years after surgery. Results: Initial internal/external biliary drainage was successful in 20 patients out of 21. These 20 patients after successful initial drainage were treated by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage. Sixteen patients were symptoms free during the follow-up. The relapse of clinical symptoms has appeared in four patients 9, 12, 14 and 24 months after treatment. One year primary clinical success rate of treatment for benign bile duct stricture was 94%. Additional two patients are symptoms free after redilatation (15 and 45 months). One patient is still in treatment, one patient died during secondary treatment period without interrelation with biliary intervention. The secondary clinical success rate is 100%. Conclusion: Benign bile duct strictures of hepatic ducts junction or biliary-enteric anastomosis are difficult to treat surgically and endoscopically inaccessible. Percutaneous treatment by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage is feasible in the majority of these patients. It is minimally invasive, safe and effective.

  6. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in rectangular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to obtain a second-order uniformly valid expansion for nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a rectangular duct whose walls are treated with a nonlinear acoustic material. The wave propagation in the duct is characterized by the unsteady nonlinear Euler equations. The results show that nonlinear materials attenuate sound more than linear materials except at high acoustic frequencies. The nonlinear materials produce higher and combination tones which have higher attenuation rates than the fundamentals. Moreover, the attenuation rates of the fundamentals increase with increasing amplitude.

  7. Preconditioning the Helmholtz Equation for Rigid Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1998-01-01

    An innovative hyperbolic preconditioning technique is developed for the numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation which governs acoustic propagation in ducts. Two pseudo-time parameters are used to produce an explicit iterative finite difference scheme. This scheme eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with numerical solutions to the Helmholtz equation. The solution procedure is very fast when compared to other transient and steady methods. Optimization and an error analysis of the preconditioning factors are present. For validation, the method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D semi-infinite hard wall duct.

  8. Inverse potential scattering in duct acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Barbara J; Pike, E Roy; Sharp, David B; Aktosun, Tuncay

    2006-01-01

    The inverse problem of the noninvasive measurement of the shape of an acoustical duct in which one-dimensional wave propagation can be assumed is examined within the theoretical framework of the governing Klein-Gordon equation. Previous deterministic methods developed over the last 40 years have all required direct measurement of the reflectance or input impedance but now, by application of the methods of inverse quantum scattering to the acoustical system, it is shown that the reflectance can be algorithmically derived from the radiated wave. The potential and area functions of the duct can subsequently be reconstructed. The results are discussed with particular reference to acoustic pulse reflectometry.

  9. Telmisartan attenuates hepatic fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-tong YI; Rui-xia LIU; Yan WEN; Cheng-hong YIN

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifibrotic effect of telmisartan,an angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blocker,in bile duct-ligated rats.Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 3 groups: sham-operated rats,model rats underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL),and BDL rats treated with telmisartan (8 mg/kg,po,for 4 weeks).The animals were sacrificed on d 29,and liver histology was examined,the Knodell and Ishak scores were assigned,and the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 was evaluated with immunohistochemical staining.The mRNAs and proteins associated with liver fibrosis were evaluated using RTQ-PCR and Western blot,respectively.Results: The mean fibrosis score of BDL rats treated with telmisartan was significantly lower than that of the model rats (1.66±0.87 vs 2.13±0.35,P=0.015).However,there was no significant difference in inflammation between the two groups,both of which showed moderate inflammation.Histologically,treatment with telmisartan significantly ameliorated BDL-caused the hepatic fibrosis.Treatment with telmisartan significantly upregulated the mRNA levels of ACE2 and MAS,and decreased the mRNA levels of ACE,angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1-R),collagen type Ⅲ,and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1).Moreover,treatment with telmisartan significantly increased the expression levels of ACE2 and MAS proteins,and inhibited the expression levels of ACE and AT1-R protein.Conclusion: Telmisartan attenuates liver fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats via increasing ACE2 expression level.

  10. Mirizzi syndrome with an unusual aberrant hepatic duct fistula: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Meng Wang,1 Yufei Xing,2 Quangen Gao,1 Zhiqiang Lv,1 Jianmao Yuan1 1Department of General Surgery, The First People’s Hospital of Wujiang, Affiliated Wujiang Hospital of Nantong University, 2Digestive Clinical Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Mirizzi syndrome (MS is a rare complication of chronic cholelithiasis, which is always caused by a calculus in the cystic duct or neck of the gallbladder, resulting in mechanical compression of common bile duct and the gallbladder. It is clinically characterized by abdominal pain, fever, as well as obstructive jaundice. During cholecystectomy, MS is seen as a dangerous adherent and inflammatory tissue in the area of Calot’s triangle. In the general population, aberrant right posterior hepatic duct, one of the causes of bile duct injury during duct surgery, is present in 4.8%–8.4% of people. Herein we report a rare case of a 76-year-old female patient, with hepatolithiasis of right posterior lobe and cholecysto-aberrant right posterior hepatic duct fistula. This is a special type of MS; however, interestingly, she did not have any symptoms, and the disease was found by physical examination incidentally. This case highlights another situation, namely, there may be difficulty in diagnosing MS and dissecting for operation. Therefore, to avoid the complication associated with this special situation, the surgeons need to diagnose carefully and adopt an optimal treatment strategy. Keywords: Mirizzi syndrome, aberrant hepatic duct, hepatolithiasis, anatomical hepatectomy

  11. Should You Have the Air Ducts in Your Home Cleaned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air ducts in your home cleaned. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) urges you to read this document in it entirety as it provides important information on the subject. Duct cleaning has never ...

  12. Algebraically growing waves in ducts with sheared mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Telionis, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of the behavior of standing and traveling acoustic waves in a smooth duct with a fluid flow having a sheared mean velocity profile, when the waves grow algebraically as they travel along the duct axis. It is shown that standing waves growing algebraically with the axial distance cannot exist in a smooth duct when the duct wall have a finite resistance. The existence of traveling waves subject to the same law of growth is also dismissed under realistic flow conditions.

  13. Low frequency sound attenuation in a flow duct using a thin slow sound material

    CERN Document Server

    Auregan, Yves; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We present a thin subwavelength material that can be flush mounted to a duct and which gives a large wide band attenuation at remarkably low frequencies in air flow channels. To decrease the material thickness, the sound is slowed in the material using folded side branch tubes. The impedance of the material is compared to the optimal value, which differs greatly from the characteristic impedance. In particular, the viscous and thermal effects have to be very small to have high transmission losses. Grazing flow on this material increases the losses at the interface between the flow and the material.

  14. Low frequency sound attenuation in a flow duct using a thin slow sound material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurégan, Yves; Farooqui, Maaz; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    A thin subwavelength material that can be flush mounted in a duct and that gives an attenuation band at low frequencies in air flow channels is presented. To decrease the material thickness, the sound is slowed in the material using folded side branch tubes. The impedance of the material is compared to the optimal value given by the Cremer condition, which can differ greatly from the air characteristic impedance. Grazing flow on this material increases the losses at the interface between the flow and the material.

  15. Critical branching neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  16. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  17. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  18. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  19. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented. We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  20. Laser-guided repair of complex bile duct strictures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulik, T. van; Beek, J.; Reuver, P. de; Aronson, D.C.; Delden, O. van; Busch, O.; Gouma, D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repair of bile duct strictures (BDS) requires identification of healthy bile duct proximal to the stenosis. Identification may be difficult in complex bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy or partial liver resection. AIM: We describe a technique to identify the prestenotic bile du

  1. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct.

  2. Surgical treatment of congenital biliary duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang De-chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is acknowledged that total cyst excision is a safe and ideal surgical treatment for congenital biliary duct cyst, compared to simple internal drainage. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal operation occasion and the effect of laparoscopy on congenital biliary duct cyst based upon total cyst excision. Methods From January 2002 to January 2011, 217 patients were admitted to Southwest Hospital for congenital biliary duct cyst. To determine the optimal surgery occasion, we divided these subjects into three groups, the infant group (age ≤ 3 years, the immaturity group (3 18 years, and then evaluated the feasibility, risk and long-term outcome after surgery in the three groups. To analyze the effect of laparoscopic technique on congenital biliary duct cyst, we divided the patients into the laparoscopy and the open surgery groups. Results Among the three groups, the morbidity from cholangiolithiasis before surgical treatment had obvious discrepancy (p 0.05. Similarly, no significant discrepancy was observed in the morbidity from postoperative complications or long-term postoperative complications (p > 0.05 between the laparoscopic and the open surgery groups. Conclusions We conclude that total cyst excision should be performed as early as possible. The optimal treatment occasion is the infant period, and laparoscopic resection may be a new safe and feasible minimally invasive surgery for this disease.

  3. Idea Bank: Duct Tape Note Twister

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Molly

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she observed a middle school math teacher deliver a miserable class. She realized that she did the same thing to her music students. To engage her students, she developed "Note Twister," a music reading game using duct tape to form musical notes and the basic premise behind the game, "Twister." She finds…

  4. IDUS for Biliary and Pancreatic Duct Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao ltoi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the recent decade, wire-guided intraductal US(IDUS), which can be passed through the working channel of standard duodenoscopes to provide high-frequency ultrasound images, has been developed as a newly diagnostic tool for biliary and pancreatic duct lesions.

  5. Laser Beam Duct Pressure Controller System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the axial flow of a conditioning gas within the laser beam duct, by matching the time rate of change of the pressure of the flowing conditioning gas...to the time rate of change of the pressure in the cavity of an operably associated laser beam turret.

  6. Familial occurrence of congenital bile duct dilatation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Congenital bile duct dilatation (CBD) that developed in a parent and son is presented.Familial occurrence of CBD is rare,with only a few male cases having been reported.Since the initial report of CBD occurring in siblings in 1981,a total of 20 cases (10 pairs) have been published as of 2007.Clinical and genetic features of CBD are discussed.

  7. Changing patterns of traumatic bile duct injuries: a review of forty years experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Huang; Xiao-Qiang Huang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the experiences of treating bile ductinjuries in 40 years of clinical practice.METHODS: Based on the experience of more than 40 yearsof clinical work, 122 cases including a series of 61 bile ductinjuries of the Southwest Hospital, Chongqing, and 42cases (1989-1997) and 19 cases (1998-2001) of the GeneralHospital of PLA, Beijing, cases were reviewed with specialreference to the pattern of injury. A series of cases of theliver and the biliary tract injuries following interventionaltherapy for hepatic tumors, most often hemangioma of theliver, were collected. Chinese medical literature from 1995 to1999 dealing with 2742 traumatic bile duct strictures werereviewed.RESULTS: There was a changing pattern of the bile ductinjury. Although most of the cases of bile duct injuriesresulted from open cholecystectomy. Other types of traumasuch as laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and hepaticsurgery were increased in recent years. Moreover, serioushepato-biliary injuries following HAE using sclerotic agentssuch as sodium morrhuate and absolute ethanol for thetreatment of hepatic hemangiomas were encountered inrecent years. Experiences in how to avoid bile duct injuryand to treat traumatic biliary strictures were presented.CONCLUSION: Traumatic bile duct stricture is one of theserious complications of hepato-biliary surgery, itsprevalence seemed to be increased in recent years. Thepattern of bile duct injury was also changed and has becomemore complicated. Interventional therapy with sclerosingagents may cause serious hepatobiliary complications andshould be avoided.

  8. Anatomical Variations of Cystic Ducts in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarawagi, Radha; Sundar, Shyam; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Raghuwanshi, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anatomical variations of cystic duct (CD) are frequently unrecognized. It is important to be aware of these variations prior to any surgical, percutaneous, or endoscopic intervention procedures. Objectives. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the imaging features of CD and its variants using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and document their prevalence in our population. Materials and Methods. This study included 198 patients who underwent MRCP due to different indications. Images were evaluated in picture archiving communication system (PACS) and variations of CD were documented. Results. Normal lateral insertion of CD at middle third of common hepatic duct was seen in 51% of cases. Medial insertion was seen in 16% of cases, of which 4% were low medial insertions. Low insertion of CD was noted in 9% of cases. Parallel course of CD was present in 7.5% of cases. High insertion was noted in 6% and short CD in 1% of cases. In 1 case, CD was draining into right hepatic duct. Congenital cystic dilation of CD was noted in one case with evidence of type IV choledochal cyst. Conclusion. Cystic duct variations are common and MRCP is an optimal imaging modality for demonstration of cystic duct anatomy. PMID:27313891

  9. Autoantibodies Targeting a Collecting Duct-Specific Water Channel in Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landegren, Nils; Pourmousa Lindberg, Mina; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a common cause of kidney failure and may have diverse etiologies. This form of nephritis is sometimes associated with autoimmune disease, but the role of autoimmune mechanisms in disease development is not well understood. Here, we present the cases of three patients...... with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 who developed tubulointerstitial nephritis and ESRD in association with autoantibodies against kidney collecting duct cells. One of the patients developed autoantibodies targeting the collecting duct-specific water channel aquaporin 2, whereas autoantibodies...

  10. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prehn Lea R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three kidney systems appear during vertebrate development: the pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. The pronephric duct is the first or primary ureter of these kidney systems. Its role as a key player in the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme is well established. Here we investigate whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light and transmission electron microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy on fixed tissue and applying the microperfusion technique on isolated pronephric ducts in combination with single cell microelectrode impalements. Our data show that the fully differentiated pronephric duct is composed of a single layered epithelium consisting of one cell type comparable to the principal cell of the renal collecting duct system. The cells are characterized by a prominent basolateral labyrinth and a relatively smooth apical surface with one central cilium. Cellular impalements demonstrate the presence of apical Na+ and K+ conductances, as well as a large K+ conductance in the basolateral cell membrane. Immunolabeling experiments indicate heavy expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the basolateral labyrinth. Conclusions We propose that the pronephric duct is important for the subsequent modification of urine produced by the pronephros. Our results indicate that it reabsorbs sodium and secretes potassium via channels present in the apical cell membrane with the driving force for ion movement provided by the Na+/K+ pump. This is to our knowledge the first characterization of the pronephric duct, the precursor of the collecting duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding

  11. Online dynamic flight optimisation applied to guidance of a variable-flow ducted rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halswijk, W.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Variable-Flow Ducted Rocket (VFDR) is a type of ramjet that can control the fuel mass flow to the combustion chamber. It combines the high efficiency at high-speed of ramjets with the throttlability of turbofans, and this makes VFDR propulsion an excellent choice for high speed, long range missi

  12. Development of a renal collecting duct homing peptide using phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    Homing peptides are useful for in vivo labeling and nonviral gene transfer to selective tissues and cell types. The aim of this project was to develop a renal collecting duct homing peptide. Using phage display, we identified a phage expressing a cyclic 7 amino acid peptide, which was internalize...

  13. Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Three-Dimensional Duct Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, M.; Gatski, T. B.

    1999-01-01

    The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in straight ducts, with square, rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions over a range of Reynolds numbers. Iso-thermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled by gradient-diffusion type models. At high Reynolds numbers (>/= 10(exp 5)), wall functions are used for the velocity and temperature fields; while at low Reynolds numbers damping functions are introduced into the models. Hydraulic parameters such as friction factor and Nusselt number are well predicted even when damping functions are used, and the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Comparison between the models is presented in terms of the hydraulic parameters, friction factor and Nusselt number, as well as in terms of the secondary flow patterns occurring within the ducts.

  14. Heat Transfer in a Superelliptic Transition Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Hippensteele, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Local heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat transfer technique on the surface of a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. The transition duct had a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 and an exit-plane aspect ratio of 3. The crosssectional geometry was defined by the equation of a superellipse. The cross-sectional area was the same at the inlet and exit but varied up to 15 percent higher through the transition. The duct was preheated to a uniform temperature (nominally 64 C) before allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. As the surface cooled, the resulting isothermal contours on the duct surface were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the surface temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. Using this surface temperature-time data together with the temperature of the air flowing through the model and the initial temperature of the model wall, the heat transfer coefficient was calculated by employing the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction model. Test results are reported for inlet diameter-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.4x106 to 2.4x106 and two grid-generated freestream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 16 percent, which may be more typical of real engine conditions.

  15. Undifferentiated (Anaplastic Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Osteoclast-Like Giant Cells Showing Various Degree of Pancreas Duct Involvement. A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Maksymov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Undifferentiated (anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells is exceedingly rare. The prognosis of undifferentiated carcinoma is worse than that of poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas; however, undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells might have a more favorable prognosis. Case report We report the case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells, showing an intraductal growth pattern with various degree of pancreas duct involvement in the different areas. As a result, we were able to demonstrate the entire spectrum of changes, ranging from the early, minimal intraluminal growth to the partial or complete occlusion of the branches of the main pancreatic duct, and finally invasion and formation of the large necrotic/degenerated cysts. Conclusions Our findings support the epithelial origin of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells. In early stages, the affected pancreatic duct epithelium was intermingled with nonepithelial component and had an immunoprofile distinctive from the epithelial lining of the uninvolved (normal pancreatic ducts. Distinctive immunoprofile (CK 5/6, p63 and p53 positive of the epithelial component and p63 and p53 positivity of the nonepithelial component should be explained and further investigated in the similar cases. Our findings support prior assertions that undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells may develop from carcinoma in situ within the main pancreatic duct or its branches

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of extrahepatic bile duct disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Yon-Cheong; Wang, Li-Jen; Chen, Chi-Jen [Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5, Fu-Hsing Street, Gueishan, 33333 Taoyuan (Taiwan); Chen, Ray-Jade [Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5, Fu-Hsing Street, Gueishan, 33333 Taoyuan (Taiwan)

    2002-10-01

    Blunt injury of the extrahepatic bile duct is rare and hence a large series of scientific study of its MRI is difficult to perform. We present the MRI and MR cholangiography of a case of blunt extrahepatic bile duct injury proven at surgery. The diagnosis could be established based on MRI findings of an abrupt tapering of the extrahepatic bile duct with a retracted end, a discordant small-caliber proximal duct, massive ascites, and a hematoma in proximity to the bile duct injury. This non-invasive MRI study is a promising imaging modality to evaluate biliary tract injury. (orig.)

  17. Performance Study and CFD Predictions of a Ducted Fan System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Chang, I-Chung; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7 by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel to study the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The goal of this effort is to study the effect of ducted fan geometry and utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to provide a baseline for correlation. A 38-inch diameter, 10-inch chord duct with a five-bladed fixed-pitch fan was tested. Duct performance data were obtained in hover, vertical climb, and forward flight test conditions. This paper will present a description of the test, duct performance results and correlation with CFD predictions.

  18. Transition duct with divided upstream and downstream portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Maldonado, Jaime Javier; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Flanagan, James Scott

    2015-07-14

    Turbine systems are provided. In one embodiment, a turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion extending from the inlet and a downstream portion extending from the outlet. The turbine system further includes a rib extending from an outer surface of the duct passage, the rib dividing the upstream portion and the downstream portion.

  19. The effect of duct surface character on methane explosion propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Bai-quan; YE Qing; JIAN Cong-guang; WU Hai-jin

    2007-01-01

    The effect of duct surface character on methane explosion propagation was experimentally studied and theoretically analyzed. The roughness has effect on methane explosion propagation. The flame propagation velocity and the peak value pressure of methane explosion in rough duct are larger than the parameters in smooth duct. The heat exchange of the surface has effect on methane explosion propagation. The propagation velocity of flame and strength of explosion wave in the duct covered by heat insulation material are larger than those in duct with good heat transmittability.

  20. Comparison of levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma as measured by the NucliSens nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and Quantiplex branched-DNA assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, C C; Tetali, S; Washburn, D; Zhang, F; Kaplan, M H

    1999-04-01

    This study compared levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma as measured by the Quantiplex branched-DNA and NucliSens nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays. RNA was detectable in 118 of 184 samples (64.13%) by the Quantiplex assay and in 171 of 184 samples (92.94%) by the NucliSens assay. Regression analysis indicated that a linear relationship existed between the two sets of values (P < 0.0001), although the Quantiplex and NucliSens values were significantly different (P < 0.001), with the NucliSens values being approximately 0.323 log higher. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the overall changes in patient viral load patterns were highly correlative between the two assays: r = 0.912, P < 0.0001. The lower limits of sensitivity were determined to be approximately 100 copies/ml and 1,200 to 1,400 copies/ml for the NucliSens and Quantiplex assays, respectively.

  1. Prorenin receptor controls renal branching morphogenesis via Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Renfang; Janssen, Adam; Li, Yuwen; El-Dahr, Samir; Yosypiv, Ihor V

    2017-03-01

    The prorenin receptor (PRR) is a receptor for renin and prorenin, and an accessory subunit of the vacuolar proton pump H(+)-ATPase. Renal branching morphogenesis, defined as growth and branching of the ureteric bud (UB), is essential for mammalian kidney development. Previously, we demonstrated that conditional ablation of the PRR in the UB in PRR(UB-/-) mice causes severe defects in UB branching, resulting in marked kidney hypoplasia at birth. Here, we investigated the UB transcriptome using whole genome-based analysis of gene expression in UB cells, FACS-isolated from PRR(UB-/-), and control kidneys at birth (P0) to determine the primary role of the PRR in terminal differentiation and growth of UB-derived collecting ducts. Three genes with expression in UB cells that previously shown to regulate UB branching morphogenesis, including Wnt9b, β-catenin, and Fgfr2, were upregulated, whereas the expression of Wnt11, Bmp7, Etv4, and Gfrα1 was downregulated. We next demonstrated that infection of immortalized UB cells with shPRR in vitro or deletion of the UB PRR in double-transgenic PRR(UB-/-)/BatGal(+) mice, a reporter strain for β-catenin transcriptional activity, in vivo increases β-catenin activity in the UB epithelia. In addition to UB morphogenetic genes, the functional groups of differentially expressed genes within the downregulated gene set included genes involved in molecular transport, metabolic disease, amino acid metabolism, and energy production. Together, these data demonstrate that UB PRR performs essential functions during UB branching and collecting duct morphogenesis via control of a hierarchy of genes that control UB branching and terminal differentiation of the collecting duct cells.

  2. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  3. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  4. Rationale for Measuring Duct Leakage Flows in Large Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Diamond, Richard C.; Sherman, Max H.

    2005-07-01

    Industry-wide methods of assessing duct leakage are based on duct pressurization tests, and focus on ''high pressure'' ducts. Even though ''low pressure'' ducts can be a large fraction of the system and tend to be leaky, few guidelines or construction specifications require testing these ducts. We report here on the measured leakage flows from ten large commercial duct systems at operating conditions: three had low leakage (less than 5% of duct inlet flow), and seven had substantial leakage (9 to 26%). By comparing these flows with leakage flows estimated using the industry method, we show that the latter method by itself is not a reliable indicator of whole-system leakage flow, and that leakage flows need to be measured.

  5. Curved Duct Noise Prediction Using the Fast Scattering Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Farassat, F.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a study to validate the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) as a duct noise predictor, including the effects of curvature, finite impedance on the walls, and uniform background flow, are presented in this paper. Infinite duct theory was used to generate the modal content of the sound propagating within the duct. Liner effects were incorporated via a sound absorbing boundary condition on the scattering surfaces. Simulations for a rectangular duct of constant cross-sectional area have been compared to analytical solutions and experimental data. Comparisons with analytical results indicate that the code can properly calculate a given dominant mode for hardwall surfaces. Simulated acoustic behavior in the presence of lined walls (using hardwall duct modes as incident sound) is consistent with expected trends. Duct curvature was found to enhance weaker modes and reduce pressure amplitude. Agreement between simulated and experimental results for a straight duct with hard walls (no flow) was excellent.

  6. Cookie branching random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Christian; Kochler, Thomas; Müller, Sebastian; Popov, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk on $\\Z$, where the particles behave differently in visited and unvisited sites. Informally, each site on the positive half-line contains initially a cookie. On the first visit of a site its cookie is removed and particles at positions with a cookie reproduce and move differently from particles on sites without cookies. Therefore, the movement and the reproduction of the particles depend on the previous behaviour of the population of particles. We study the question if the process is recurrent or transient, i.e., whether infinitely many particles visit the origin or not.

  7. Branch formation during organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  8. The Dynamics of Controlled Flow Separation within a Diverter Duct Diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. J.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    2016-11-01

    The evolution and receptivity to fluidic actuation of the flow separation within a rectangular, constant-width, diffuser that is branched off of a primary channel is investigated experimentally at speeds up to M = 0.4. The coupling between the diffuser's adverse pressure gradient and the internal separation that constricts nearly half of the flow passage through the duct is controlled using a spanwise array of fluidic actuators on the surface upstream of the diffuser's inlet plane. The dynamics of the separating surface vorticity layer in the absence and presence of actuation are investigated using high-speed particle image velocimetry combined with surface pressure measurements and total pressure distributions at the primary channel's exit plane. It is shown that the actuation significantly alters the incipient dynamics of the separating vorticity layer as the characteristic cross stream scales of the boundary layer upstream of separation and of the ensuing vorticity concentrations within the separated flow increase progressively with actuation level. It is argued that the dissipative (high frequency) actuation alters the balance between large- and small-scale motions near separation by intensifying the large-scale motions and limiting the small-scale dynamics. Controlling separation within the diffuser duct also has a profound effect on the global flow. In the presence of actuation, the mass flow rate in the primary duct increases 10% while the fraction of the diverted mass flow rate in the diffuser increases by more than 45% at 0.7% actuation mass fraction. Supported by the Boeing Company.

  9. Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín

    2017-01-10

    We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack.

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Prahl, D.; Lange, R.

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  11. Complex resonances and trapped modes in ducted domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yuting; Koch, Werner; Linton, Chris M.; McIver, Maureen

    Owing to radiation losses, resonances in open systems, i.e. solution domains which extend to infinity in at least one direction, are generally complex valued. However, near symmetric centred objects in ducted domains, or in periodic arrays, so-called trapped modes can exist below the cut-off frequency of the first non-trivial duct mode. These trapped modes have no radiation loss and correspond to real-valued resonances. Above the first cut-off frequency isolated trapped modes exist only for specific parameter combinations. These isolated trapped modes are termed embedded, because their corresponding eigenvalues are embedded in the continuous spectrum of an appropriate differential operator. Trapped modes are of considerable importance in applications because at these parameters the system can be excited easily by external forcing. In the present paper directly computed embedded trapped modes are compared with numerically obtained resonances for several model configurations. Acoustic resonances are also computed in two-dimensional models of a butterfly and a ball-type valve as examples of more complicated geometries.

  12. Theoretical analysis of HVAC duct hanger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods are presented which, together, may be used in the analysis of duct hanger systems over a wide range of frequencies. The finite element method (FEM) and component mode synthesis (CMS) method are used for low- to mid-frequency range computations and have been shown to yield reasonably close results. The statistical energy analysis (SEA) method yields predictions which agree with the CMS results for the 800 to 1000 Hz range provided that a sufficient number of modes participate. The CMS approach has been shown to yield valuable insight into the mid-frequency range of the analysis. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to conduct an analysis of a duct/hanger system in a cost-effective way for a wide frequency range, using several methods which overlap for several frequency bands.

  13. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  14. Management of postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy major bile duct injury: Comparison of MRCP with conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou El-Ella Khalid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy bile duct injury remains one of the devastating complications seen in current surgical practice. Aim of Study: This study describes the diagnostic role of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP in such injuries compared with conventional methods. Patients and Methods: Eighteen patients referred to the Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery, King Khalid University Hospital from July 1998 to September 2000 were retrospectively studied. The technique of the repair was by utilizing Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy with establishment of mucosa-to-mucosa anastomosis.The study included presentation, age and gender. Results: The presentation of patients were variable and frequently included pain, jaundice with or without cholangitis in 13 patients, bile leakage with development of biliary peritonitis in three, and development of external biliary fistula in two patients. Besides lower incidence of complication, MRCP was more diagnostic and informative in planning surgery by mapping both ducts proximal and distal to site of injury or stricture in 14 out of 18 patients. The Bismuth level of bile duct injuries were type I in one, type 11 in five, type III in 11 and type IV in one patient. All patients are alive, well and no complications occurred in the immediate postoperative period. Only two patients developed stricture within four months after surgery, one of them treated conservatively with repeated dilatation and stenting was done for the other. Conclusion: Hepaticojejunostomy is the procedure of choice for repair of bile duct injuries and provides adequate bilairy drainage. MRCP is an ideal diagnostic test when bile duct injury is suspected following laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  15. Extrahepatic bile duct neurilemmoma mimicking Klatskin tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Fereshteh; Dorudinia, Atosa; Goravanchi, Farhood; Rahimi, Farzaneh

    2007-04-01

    Neurilemmoma rarely develops in the biliary tree. Here, we report a 39-year-old Iranian woman with neurilemmoma in the extrahepatic bile duct presenting with progressively deepening jaundice. On the basis of clinical and radiological features, this tumor was initially suspected as Klatskin tumor. Histologically, the tumor was a typical neurilemmoma. Immunostaining showed that tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for S-100 protein, which supported the diagnosis of neurilemmoma. Neurilemmoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice.

  16. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-08-07

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother's liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor's biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor.

  17. Particle deposition in industrial duct bends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas M; Leith, David

    2004-07-01

    A study of particle deposition in industrial duct bends is presented. Particle deposition by size was measured by comparing particle size distributions upstream and downstream of bends that had geometries and flow conditions similar to those used in industrial ventilation. As the interior surface of the duct bend was greased to prevent particle bounce, the results are applicable to liquid drops and solid particles where duct walls are sticky. Factors investigated were: (i) flow Reynolds number (Re = 203 000, 36 000); (ii) particle Reynolds number (10 vertical); and (vii) construction technique (smooth, gored, segmented). Measured deposition was compared with models developed for bends in small diameter sampling lines (Re 20 microm, deposition was slightly greater in the horizontal-to-horizontal orientation than in the horizontal-to-vertical orientation due to gravitational settling. Penetration was not a multiplicative function of bend angle as theory predicts, due to the developing nature of turbulent flow in bends. Deposition in a smooth bend was similar to that in a gored bend; however, a tight radius segmented bend (R0 = 1.7) exhibited much lower deposition. For more gradual bends (3 < R0 < 12), curvature ratio had negligible effect on deposition.

  18. Endoscopic Management of Difficult Bile Duct Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ell

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of all common bile duct concrements can be removed via the endoscopic retrograde route via endoscopic sphincterotomy, stone extraction by baskets and balloon catheters, or mechanical lithotripsy. Oversized, very hard or impacted stones, however, often still resist conventional endoscopic therapy. Promising new or improved approaches for the treatment of these stones are intracorporeal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Shockwave lithotriptors for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy are currently available worldwide. However, for the waterbath first generation devices, general anesthesia is required since shockwaves are very painful. Furthermore, an x-ray localization system is essential to visualize the stones after having filled the bile duct over a nasobiliary catheter. An average of two shockwave treatments with additional two to four endoscopic sessions are required. ln tracorporeal lithotripsy promises more comfort and less effort for the patient. Shockwaves are generated either by means of the spark gap principle (electrohydraulic probes or by laser-induced plasma generation. Laser-induced shockwave lithotripsy appears to be more safer, since with dye and solid state lasers, athermal, well-controlled shockwaves can be generateJ without the risks for duct perfo ration (as described for the electrohydraulic system. Furthermore, a recently developed stone-tissue detection system integrated in a new dye laser system enchances the safety of laser-induced lithotripsy. ln consequence, lithotripsy without direct endoscopic control appears possible in selected cases.

  19. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  20. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  1. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasunao; Ishiguro; Masanobu; Hyodo; Takehito; Fujiwara; Yasunaru; Sakuma; Nobuyuki; Hojo; Koichi; Mizuta; Hideo; Kawarasaki; Alan; T; Lefor; Yoshikazu; Yasuda

    2010-01-01

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son,who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years.The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother's liver for living donor transplantation.With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery,we found the right anterior segmental duct(RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct,and the catheter passed into the RASD.After repairing the inci...

  2. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  3. The nursing for type A aortic dissection aneurysm with triple-branched stent graft%三分叉覆膜支架血管治疗A型主动脉瘤夹层手术的护理配合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the nursing for type A aortic dissection aneurysm by means of open placement of triple - branched stent graft. Methods The nursing approaches for 19 cases of type A aortic dissection aneurysms were introduced. Preoperative nursing included visiting patients, health education and preparation of operation facilities. Operative nursing involved anesthesia, posture installation, temperature adjustment, and care of skin and tubes. Results All patients had successful operations. Mean hospital stay was 25.5 d, ranging from 15~36 d. Postoperative follow up was done for 1 ~4 months, All CT scan tests for 19 cases have shown satisfied results of dilation of stents localized in aortic archs and brachiocephalic arteries. The false lumens were all thrombosis or elimination without complications associated with stents placement. Conclusion Adequate preoperative preparation, good cooperation during operation and postoperative visits are helpful for such operations and can help patients' recovery.%目的 探讨三分叉覆膜支架血管治疗A型主动脉瘤夹层手术的护理配合.方法 对19例行三分叉覆膜支架血管治疗A型主动脉瘤夹层患者进行术前护理包括做好访视、健康教育,备齐手术用物和术中配合包括麻醉、体位摆放、根据手术需要调节手术间温度、做好皮肤和管道等护理.结果 19例患者手术顺利.住院15~36 d,平均25.5 d.术后随访1~4个月,19例患者的主动脉弓部及头臂动脉内支架扩张贴壁满意,相应部位假腔消失或血栓填塞.无与支架覆膜血管相关的并发症.结论 对三分叉覆膜支架血管治疗A型主动脉瘤夹层这类特大手术,充分的术前准备、熟练的术中配合及术后访视有利于手术的顺利实施,有利患者康复.

  4. Deterministic and stochastic algorithms for resolving the flow fields in ducts and networks using energy minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2014-01-01

    Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton, and Global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtoni...

  5. Omphalomesenteric duct cyst with gastric mocosa: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Persistance of the omphalomesenteric duct may lead to several anomalies including umblical sinus, umblical cyst, MeckeVs diverticulum or patent omphalomesenteric duct fistula. Clinical manifestations of umblical disorders are usually nonspecific; use of cross-sectional imaging can help identify most of these entities because of their typical locations and distributions in continuity with the other organs and guide therapy. A case of omphalomesenteric duct cyst are presented and analysed toget...

  6. Climate analysis of evaporation ducts in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Evaporation ducts have important implications for U.S. Naval activities involving electromagnetic propagation. The presence of an evaporation duct can affect naval operations involving communications, surveillance, electronic warfare, and detection of low-flying missiles, surface ships, or submarine periscopes. We conducted a climate scale analysis of evaporation duct heights (EDH) in the northern South China Sea (SCS), including how ...

  7. The Branching Bifurcation of Adaptive Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Dercole, Fabio; Landi, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    We unfold the bifurcation involving the loss of evolutionary stability of an equilibrium of the canonical equation of Adaptive Dynamics (AD). The equation deterministically describes the expected long-term evolution of inheritable traits — phenotypes or strategies — of coevolving populations, in the limit of rare and small mutations. In the vicinity of a stable equilibrium of the AD canonical equation, a mutant type can invade and coexist with the present — resident — types, whereas the fittest always win far from equilibrium. After coexistence, residents and mutants effectively diversify, according to the enlarged canonical equation, only if natural selection favors outer rather than intermediate traits — the equilibrium being evolutionarily unstable, rather than stable. Though the conditions for evolutionary branching — the joint effect of resident-mutant coexistence and evolutionary instability — have been known for long, the unfolding of the bifurcation has remained a missing tile of AD, the reason being related to the nonsmoothness of the mutant invasion fitness after branching. In this paper, we develop a methodology that allows the approximation of the invasion fitness after branching in terms of the expansion of the (smooth) fitness before branching. We then derive a canonical model for the branching bifurcation and perform its unfolding around the loss of evolutionary stability. We cast our analysis in the simplest (but classical) setting of asexual, unstructured populations living in an isolated, homogeneous, and constant abiotic environment; individual traits are one-dimensional; intra- as well as inter-specific ecological interactions are described in the vicinity of a stationary regime.

  8. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  9. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-03-10

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  10. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  11. Experimental investigation of a rapidly rotating turbulent duct flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, G.E.; Johansson, A.V. [Department of Mechanics, KTH, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Gunnarsson, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Moberg, H. [Alfa Laval, 14780 Tumba (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Rapidly rotating duct flow is studied experimentally with Rotation numbers in the interval. To achieve this, in combination with relatively high Reynolds numbers (5,000-30,000 based on the hydraulic radius), water was used as the working medium. Square and rectangular duct cross-sections were used and the angle between the rotation vector and the main axis of the duct was varied. The influence of the rotation on the pressure drop in the duct was investigated and suitable scalings of this quantity were studied. (orig.)

  12. Method for Observing Intravascular BongHan Duct

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, X; Shin, H; Lee, B; Choi, C; Soh, K; Cheun, B; Baik, K; Soh, K; Jiang, Xiaowen; Kim, Hee-kyeong; Shin, Hak-soo; Lee, Byong-chon; Choi, Chunho; Soh, Kyung-soon; Cheun, Byeung-soo; Baik, Ku-youn; Soh, Kwang-sup

    2002-01-01

    A method for observing intra blood vessel ducts which are threadlike bundle of tubules which form a part of the BongHan duct system. By injecting 10% dextrose solution at a vena femoralis one makes the intravascular BongHan duct thicker and stronger to be easily detectable after incision of vessels. The duct is semi-transparent, soft and elastic, and composed of smaller tubules whose diameters are of 10$\\mu$m order, which is in agreement with BongHan theory.

  13. Cisto de colédoco em adulto: anomalia da junção do colédoco com o ducto pancreático submetido à ressecção do cisto e à derivação biliar e pancreática Common bile duct cyst in adult: anomaly of the common bile duct-pancreatic junction submitted to excision of the cyst and a biliary and pancreatic deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlio Basilio Speranzini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Common bile duct cysts are rare congenital anomalies which have been diagnosed only in twenty per cent of adults. The etiology is uncertain, but many patients have an anomalous pancreatobiliary junction anatomy. We present a case of a young man with a type I Alonso-Lej/ Todani common bile duct cyst and an anomalous common bile duct-pancreatic junction anatomy. Because the common bile duct did not have a segment of normal caliber, to avoid compromising with the pancreatic channel after the excision of the cyst, we performed a Roux-en-Y anastomosis by anastomosing the biliary duct to the proximal excluded jejunal loop and the common duct-pancreatic junction to the same more distally loop.

  14. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  15. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  16. NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF BLOOD ARTERIAL DUCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄孟才; 顾忠; 沈俊; 唐复勇

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with nonlinear elasticity of blood arterial duct, in which the artery is modeled to bea locally triclinic, transverse isotropic, incorapressible, axisymmetric and thickwalled tube with large deformations, The nonlinear coustitutive relationship of arterial tissues is based on the theorv of Green and Adkins. A nonlinear strain energy density function is introduced for nonlinear stress-strain relationship of second order, in which the coefficient of each term is expressed by means of a Lame’s constant, The elasticity constants are nqcessary to describe such a uonlinear finite strain etastieity of the second order, These constants are determined by means of the stress-strain increment theory.

  17. Classification and management of bile duct injuries

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    To review the classification and general guidelines for treatment of bile duct injury patients and their long term results. In a 20-year period, 510 complex circumferential injuries have been referred to our team for repair at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán” hospital in Mexico City and 198 elsewhere (private practice). The records at the third level Academic University Hospital were analyzed and divided into three periods of time: GI-1990-99 (33 cases...

  18. Radiation of sound from unflanged cylindrical ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartharan, S. L.; Bayliss, A.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of sound radiated from unflanged cylindrical ducts are presented. The numerical simulation models the problem of an aero-engine inlet. The time dependent linearized Euler equations are solved from a state of rest until a harmonic solution is attained. A fourth order accurate finite difference scheme is used and solutions are obtained from a fully vectorized Cyber-203 computer program. Cases of both plane waves and spin modes are treated. Spin modes model the sound generated by a turbofan engine. Boundary conditions for both plane waves and spin modes are treated. Solutions obtained are compared with experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center.

  19. Live 3D image overlay for arterial duct closure with Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreczny, Sebstian; Morgan, Gareth J; Dryzek, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Despite several reports describing echocardiography for the guidance of ductal closure, two-dimensional angiography remains the mainstay imaging tool; three-dimensional rotational angiography has the potential to overcome some of the drawbacks of standard angiography, and reconstructed image overlay provides reliable guidance for device placement. We describe arterial duct closure solely from venous approach guided by live three-dimensional image overlay.

  20. Effectiveness of duct sealing and duct insulation in multi-family buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karins, N.H.; Tuluca, A.; Modera, M.

    1997-07-01

    This research investigated the cost-effectiveness of sealing and insulating the accessible portions of duct systems exposed to unconditioned areas in multifamily housing. Airflow and temperature measurements were performed in 25 apartments served by 10 systems a 9 multi-family properties. The measurements were performed before and after each retrofit, and included apartment airflow (supply and return), duct system temperatures, system fan flow and duct leakage area. The costs for each retrofit were recorded. The data were analyzed and used to develop a prototypical multifamily house. This prototype was used in energy simulations (DOE-2.1E) and air infiltration simulations (COMIS 2.1). The simulations were performed for two climates: New York City and Albany. In each climate, one simulation was performed assuming the basement was tight, and another assuming the basement was leaky. Simulation results and average retrofit costs were used to calculate cost-effectiveness. The results of the analysis indicate that sealing leaks of the accessible ductwork is cost-effective under all conditions simulated (simple payback was between 3 and 4 years). Insulating the accessible ductwork, however, is only cost-effective for buildings with leaky basement, in both climates (simple paybacks were less than 5 years). The simple payback period for insulating the ducts in buildings with tight basements was greater than 10 years, the threshold of cost-effectiveness for this research. 13 refs., 5 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Critical Multitype Branching Systems: Extinction Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kevei, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We consider a critical branching particle system in $\\R^d$, composed of individuals of a finite number of types $i\\in\\{1,...,K\\}$. Each individual of type $i$ moves independently according to a symmetric $\\alpha_i$-stable motion. We assume that the particle lifetimes and offspring distributions are type-dependent. Under the usual independence assumptions in branching systems, we prove extinction theorems in the following cases: (1) all the particle lifetimes have finite mean, or (2) there is a type whose lifetime distribution has heavy tail, and the other lifetimes have finite mean. We get a more complex dynamics by assuming in case (2) that the most mobile particle type corresponds to a finite-mean lifetime: in this case, local extinction of the population is determined by an interaction of the parameters (offspring variability, mobility, longevity) of the long-living type and those of the most mobile type. The proofs are based on a precise analysis of the occupation times of a related Markov renewal process...

  2. Iatrogenic bile duct injury with loss of confluence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel-Angel; Mercado; Mario; Vilatoba; Alan; Contreras; Pilar; Leal-Leyte; Eduardo; Cervantes-Alvarez; Juan-Carlos; Arriola; Bruno-Adonai; Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe our experience concerning the surgical treatment of Strasberg E-4(Bismuth Ⅳ) bile duct injuries. METHODS: In an 18-year period, among 603 patients referred to our hospital for surgical treatment of complex bile duct injuries, 53 presented involvement of the hilar confluence classified as Strasberg E4 injuries. Imagenological studies, mainly magnetic resonance imaging showed a loss of confluence. The files of these patients were analyzed and general data were recorded, including type of operation and postoperative outcome with emphasis on postoperative cholangitis, liver function test and quality of life. The mean time of follow-up was of 55.9 ± 52.9 mo(median = 38.5, minimum = 2, maximum = 181.2). All other patients with Strasberg A, B, C, D, E1, E2, E3, or E5 biliary injuries were excluded from this study.RESULTS: Patients were divided in three groups: G1(n = 21): Construction of neoconfluence + Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy. G2(n = 26): Roux-en-Y portoenterostomy. G3(n = 6): Double(right and left) Rouxen-Y hepatojejunostomy. Cholangitis was recorded in two patients in group 1, in 14 patients in group 2, and in one patient in group 3. All of them required transhepatic instrumentation of the anastomosis and six patients needed live transplantation.CONCLUSION: Loss of confluence represents a surgicalchallenge. There are several treatment options at different stages. Roux-en-Y bilioenteric anastomosis(neoconfluence, double-barrel anastomosis, portoenterostomy) is the treatment of choice, and when it is technically possible, building of a neoconfluence has better outcomes. When liver cirrhosis is shown, liver transplantation is the best choice.

  3. Condition Assessment of PC Tendon Duct Filling by Elastic Wave Velocity Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fook Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques are high in demand for modern nondestructive evaluation of large-scale concrete structures. The travel-time tomography (TTT technique, which is based on the principle of mapping the change of propagation velocity of transient elastic waves in a measured object, has found increasing application for assessing in situ concrete structures. The primary aim of this technique is to detect defects that exist in a structure. The TTT technique can offer an effective means for assessing tendon duct filling of prestressed concrete (PC elements. This study is aimed at clarifying some of the issues pertaining to the reliability of the technique for this purpose, such as sensor arrangement, model, meshing, type of tendon sheath, thickness of sheath, and material type as well as the scale of inhomogeneity. The work involved 2D simulations of wave motions, signal processing to extract travel time of waves, and tomography reconstruction computation for velocity mapping of defect in tendon duct.

  4. Model predictions for the WAXS signals of healthy and malignant breast duct biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, R. J.

    2014-03-01

    A wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) measurement could potentially be used to determine whether a biopsy of a breast duct is healthy or malignant. A ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) occurs when the epithelial cells lining the wall start to replicate and invade the duct interior. Since cells are composed mainly of water a WAXS signal of DCIS could contain a larger component due to water. A model approximates that a breast duct biopsy consists of connective tissue (c.t.) and cells. For a 2 mm diameter 3.81 mm thick healthy duct biopsy, the volumes in cubic mm are 11.56 c.t. and 0.41 cells whereas 6.64 c.t. and 5.33 cells for DCIS. The differential linear scattering coefficients (μs) for both types of biopsies were calculated using the sum vc.t.μsc.t. + vcellμscell where v denotes fractional volume. The cell was assumed to be composed of water, lipids (fat), and other atoms associated with RNA, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. The μscell was calculated using the sum 0.771μswater + 0.023μsfat + 0.206μsother. The μs of c.t., water, and fat were available from literature whereas the independent atomic model approximation was used to calculate values for μsother. A WAXS model provided predictions of the number of 6 degree scattered photons Ns for incident 50 kV beams on healthy and malignant ducts. The sum of Ns between 31.5 <= E <= 45 keV were 1402 and 1529 for respectively the healthy and malignant biopsies. Using Poisson statistics, two Gaussian distributions, and a descision threshold set at their intersection, the false positive and false negative probabilities were 4.7% and 5.0%. This work suggests that DCIS could potentially be diagnosed via energy dispersive WAXS measurements.

  5. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  6. Cystic duct closure by sealing with bipolar electrocoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, S; Damgaard, B; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic duct leakage after cholecystectomy is not uncommon and is a potentially serious complication. The aim of this study was to assess a bipolar sealing system (LigaSure) for closure of the cystic duct. METHODS: The records from consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed i...

  7. Sound Radiation Characteristics of a Rectangular Duct with Flexible Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Raviprolu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic breakout noise is predominant in flexible rectangular ducts. The study of the sound radiated from the thin flexible rectangular duct walls helps in understanding breakout noise. The current paper describes an analytical model, to predict the sound radiation characteristics like total radiated sound power level, modal radiation efficiency, and directivity of the radiated sound from the duct walls. The analytical model is developed based on an equivalent plate model of the rectangular duct. This model has considered the coupled and uncoupled behaviour of both acoustic and structural subsystems. The proposed analytical model results are validated using finite element method (FEM and boundary element method (BEM. Duct acoustic and structural modes are analysed to understand the sound radiation behaviour of a duct and its equivalence with monopole and dipole sources. The most efficient radiating modes are identified by vibration displacement of the duct walls and for these the radiation efficiencies have been calculated. The calculated modal radiation efficiencies of a duct compared to a simple rectangular plate indicate similar radiation characteristics.

  8. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber...

  9. The zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Pashmini, Nazly; Guyuron, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    cephalic direction. Three types of accessory branches were found in relation to the main branch: (1) accessory branch cephalad, (2) accessory branch lateral, and (3) accessory branches in the immediate vicinity of the main branch. This anatomical information has proven colossally helpful in injection of botulinum toxin A in the temporalis muscle to eliminate the trigger sites in the parietotemporal region and surgical management of migraine headaches triggered from this zone.

  10. [Primary carcinoma of the thyroid growing in thyroglossal duct cyst: presentation of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Paulina; Bruszewska, Elzbieta; Kozłowicz-Gudzińska, Izabella; Prokurat, Andrzej I; Chrupek, Małgorzata; Zegadło-Mylik, Maria A; Kluge, Przemysław

    2007-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct remnants (TGDR), most often cysts, are the most common type of developmental abnormalities of the thyroid gland. In about 1 to 2% of TGDR neoplastic transformation occurs. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid may be encountered in over 90% of such cases. Two cases of primary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in TGDR in young girls are presented. The diagnostic and therapeutic problems are shared, and up-to-date management guidelines in similar cases are discussed.

  11. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  12. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  13. Hepatobiliary Scan in Infantile Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeon, Seok Kil; Ryu, Jong Gul; Lee, Eun Young [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Gil [Taegu Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Spontaneous perforation of CBD in infant is a rare but fatal disease. We report a case of bile leakage from common bile duct in 11 months old girl with progressive abdominal distension and vomiting, preoperatively diagnosed by hepatobiliary scan with Tc-99m-DISIDA, which was confirmed by surgery. Operative cholangiogram showed a small perforation at the confluence of cystic duct and common bile duct with mild fusiform dilatation, and no definite abnormality in confluence of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. Simple drainage of the free peritoneal bilous fluid and T-tube drainage were performed without any evidence of the complication. Patient was inevitable for 6 months OPD follow-up examination.

  14. Heat Transfer in Conical Corner and Short Superelliptical Transition Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Hippensteele, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Local surface heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique on the surface of two circular-to-rectangular transition ducts. One has a transition cross section defined by conical corners (Duct 1) and the other by an elliptical equation with changing coefficients (Duct 2). Duct 1 has a length-to-diameter ratio of 0.75 and an exit plane aspect ratio of 1.5. Duct 2 has a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.0 and an exit plane aspect ratio of 2.9. Test results are reported for various inlet-diameter-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.45 106 to 2.39 106 and two freestream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 16 percent, which may be more typical of real engine conditions.

  15. Main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Kensuke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of carcinoma in main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN is high, and surgical resection is recommended for all patients with a main-duct IPMN. Results A main-duct IPMN with typical imagings including protruding lesions in the dilated main pancreatic duct was resected, but the histology was intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma of the pancreas. Discussion It has been reported that the presence of mural nodules and dilatation of MPD are significantly higher in malignant IPMNs. The presented case had protruding lesions in the dilated main pancreatic duct on endoscopic ultrasonography, but the histology was adenoma. Conclusion Preoperative distinction between benign and malignant IPMNs is difficult.

  16. Cystic duct remnant mucocele in a liver transplant recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Sushil K. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington, DC (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Fishbien, Thomas M. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington, DC (United States); Haddad, Nadim G. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Cystic duct remnant mucocele is an extremely rare complication of liver transplantation in children. Surgical correction is usually required for cystic duct remnant mucocele when it causes biliary obstruction. We describe a 14-month-old liver transplant recipient who presented with biliary obstruction 1 month after orthotopic liver transplantation with an end-to-end choledochocholedocal biliary anastomosis for hepatoblastoma. US, CT and cholangiography findings were consistent with mucocele of the allograft cystic duct remnant. Surgery was not needed in our patient because the mucocele and biliary obstruction had resolved on repeat imaging most likely due to guidewire manipulation during cholangiography, resulting in opening of the cystic duct remnant orifice and drainage into the common duct. (orig.)

  17. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tyanev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009 concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump structures and this is the reason for the actuality of its problem. Analysis of this new task is presented and request arbitration functioning principles are formulated for the incoming to joint dot requests. The arbiter is responsible for the fair choice on which depends steady peformance of separate pipeline brances. Paper also describes pipeline controller synthesis and analysis of its operation in two variants: about 2-phase and 4-phase data transfer protocol. The synthesized asynchronous arbiter scheme is invariant to the type of pipeline protocol.

  18. Lacrimal Duct Occlusion Is Associated with Infectious Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guigang; Guo, Jingmin; Liu, Rong; Hu, Weikun; Xu, Lingjuan; Wang, Juan; Cai, Subo; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Yingting

    2016-01-01

    Background: To explore the prevalence of lacrimal duct obstruction in patients with infectious keratitis, and the necessity of lacrimal duct dredge in the treatment of human infectious keratitis. Methodology/Principle Findings: The design is prospective, non-control case series. Thirty-one eyes from twenty-eight continuous patients with infectious keratitis were included in this study. The presence/absence of lacrimal duct obstruction was determined by the lacrimal duct irrigation test. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was made based on clinical manifestations, cornea scraping microscopic examination and bacterial/fungus culture. Diagnosis of viral keratitis was set up based on the recurrent history, deep neovascularization and typical outlook of the cornea scar. The treatment of keratitis included drugs, eye drops or surgery, while treatment of chronic dacryocystitis was lacrimal duct dredging with supporting tube implantation surgery. In the thirty-one eyes with infectious keratitis, fifteen suffered from fungal keratitis (48%), two bacterial keratitis (6%), and fourteen viral keratitis (45%). Eleven eyes (35%) from ten patients with infectious keratitis also suffered from lacrimal duct obstruction. In those cases, six eyes also suffered from lower canalicular obstruction, three nasolacrimal duct obstruction and chronic dacryocystitis, one a combination of upper and lower canalicular obstruction, one upper canalicular obstruction. After local and systemic applications of anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory drugs, twenty-eight eyes (90%) recovered within three weeks, while the ulceration of three patients required the lacrimal duct dredging and supporting tube implantation surgery for the healing. Conclusions: Herein, we first report that the prevalence of infectious keratitis is closely correlated to the occurrence of lacrimal duct obstruction. When both confirmed, simultaneous treatment of keratitis and lacrimal duct obstruction

  19. Successful treatment of plastic bronchitis with low fat diet and subsequent thoracic duct ligation in child with fontan physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, K; Witte, M H; Samson, R; Teodori, M; Carpenter, J B; Lowe, M C; Morgan, W; Hardin, C; Brown, M; Naughton, Y; Sinha, S; Barber, B J

    2012-06-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare condition characterized by the formation and expectoration of long, branching bronchial casts that develop in the tracheobronchial tree and cause airway obstruction. Plastic bronchitis has become increasingly recognized as a feared complication of the Fontan operation with a mortality of up to 50%. We report an 11 year old boy who developed severe plastic bronchitis following Fontan repair and the successful long-term control of cast formation utilizing a low-fat diet and subsequent thoracic duct ligation.

  20. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  1. Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wysocki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6 cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC. Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient’s poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas.

  2. Radiation effects on branched polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    We observed crosslinking and scission caused by gamma radiation in linear and branched polysilanes which have from 5% to 33% of the branching points. The crosslinking reactions become predominant for the irradiation with branching density increasing. The cleavage did not take place exclusively at the branching points and branching polysilanes are sensitive to radiation extraordinary as compared with linear polysilane from a careful study of the radiolysis products of a series of polysilanes. This is due to the increasing Si {center_dot} contributing to the crosslinking reaction and that they are not resonance-stabilized by double bonds as the reaction mechanism in the irradiated polysilanes. However, the gelation curve in linear PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} is almost consistent with that in branching PMPS, indicating that the size of chemical track is responsible for the gel fraction. The crosslinking G value for high molecular weight PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} was drastically decreased as compared with that for low molecular weight. It suggests that there are a large number of intramolecular crosslinking points for high molecular weight PMPS. (author)

  3. Altered collecting duct adenylyl cyclase content in collecting duct endothelin-1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohan Donald E

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1 inhibition of vasopressin (AVP-stimulated water reabsorption by the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD is associated with reduced cAMP accumulation. To determine the effect of ET-1 deficiency, AVP-stimulated cAMP responsiveness was assessed in IMCD from mice with collecting duct-specific deletion of ET-1 (CD ET-1 KO and from control animals. Methods Cyclic AMP production, adenylyl cyclase (AC mRNA, and AC protein were measured in acutely isolated IMCD. Results CD ET-1 KO IMCD had enhanced AVP-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Inhibition of calcium-stimulated AC using BAPTA did not prevent enhanced AVP responsiveness in CD ET-1 KO IMCD. Factors known to be modified by ET-1, including nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase metabolites, and superoxide did not affect the increased AVP responsiveness of CD ET-1 KO IMCD. Differential V2 receptor or G-protein activity was not involved since CD ET-1 KO IMCD had increased cAMP accumulation in response to forskolin and/or cholera toxin. CD ET-1 KO did not affect mRNA or protein levels of AC3, one of the major known collecting duct AC isoforms. However, the other known major collecting duct AC isoform (AC5/6 did have increased protein levels in CD ET-1 KO IMCD, although AC5 (weak signal and 6 mRNA levels were unchanged. Conclusion ET-1 deficiency increases IMCD AC5/6 content, an effect that may synergize with acute ET-1 inhibition of AVP-stimulated cAMP accumulation.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1101-4 - Branch lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch lines. 75.1101-4 Section 75.1101-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-4 Branch lines. As a part of the deluge-type water spray system, two...

  5. Regulated acid-base transport in the collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carsten A; Devuyst, Olivier; Bourgeois, Soline; Mohebbi, Nilufar

    2009-05-01

    The renal collecting system serves the fine-tuning of renal acid-base secretion. Acid-secretory type-A intercalated cells secrete protons via a luminally expressed V-type H(+)-ATPase and generate new bicarbonate released by basolateral chloride/bicarbonate exchangers including the AE1 anion exchanger. Efficient proton secretion depends both on the presence of titratable acids (mainly phosphate) and the concomitant secretion of ammonia being titrated to ammonium. Collecting duct ammonium excretion requires the Rhesus protein RhCG as indicated by recent KO studies. Urinary acid secretion by type-A intercalated cells is strongly regulated by various factors among them acid-base status, angiotensin II and aldosterone, and the Calcium-sensing receptor. Moreover, urinary acidification by H(+)-ATPases is modulated indirectly by the activity of the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. Bicarbonate secretion is achieved by non-type-A intercalated cells characterized by the luminal expression of the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger pendrin. Pendrin activity is driven by H(+)-ATPases and may serve both bicarbonate excretion and chloride reabsorption. The activity and expression of pendrin is regulated by different factors including acid-base status, chloride delivery, and angiotensin II and may play a role in NaCl retention and blood pressure regulation. Finally, the relative abundance of type-A and non-type-A intercalated cells may be tightly regulated. Dysregulation of intercalated cell function or abundance causes various syndromes of distal renal tubular acidosis underlining the importance of these processes for acid-base homeostasis.

  6. Immediate Small Side Branch Occlusion after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ostovan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small side branches, albeit less important than their larger counterparts, have not yet received due attention in the literature. Nor has there ever been a comparison between drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents apropos side branch occlusion. The aim of this study was to compare the patency of small (≥0.5 and ≤1.5 mm in diameter side branches with respect to bare metal vs. drug-eluting stents immediately after their deployment.Methods: This prospective bi-center study, conducted between June 2005 and January 2007, enrolled 82 patients treated with ≥1 of two stents (TAXUSTM LiberteTM or LiberteTM. Side branches ≥0.5 and <1.5 mm in diameter arising from the main vessel at the lesion site were evaluated. Results: Thirty-eight patients were treated with 42 LiberteTM stents (58 side branches and forty-four patients with 50 TAXUSTM LiberteTM (102 side branches. The rate of small side branch occlusion was 35.3% (36 in the TAXUSTM LiberteTM group compared to 29.31% (15 in the LiberteTM group (P-value= 0.7. The presence of type 1 side branch morphology (Lefevre classification was the most powerful predictor of small side branch occlusion (P-value=0.03. Conclusion: This study shows that drug-eluting stents are not inferior to bare metal stents as regards small side branch occlusion during coronary stenting

  7. Propagation of Sound at Moderate and High Intensities in Absorbent and Hard-Walled Cylindrical Ducts. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdaniel, Oliver Herbert

    1975-01-01

    The propagation of plane wave and higher order acoustic modes in both hard-walled and absorbent cylindrical ducts was studied at moderate sound intensities where the linear wave equation is valid, and at high intensities where nonlinear effects can be observed. The experiments were conducted with an anechoically terminated twelve-inch inside-diameter transite pipe. Various types of sound sources were mounted at one end of the duct to generate the desired acoustic fields within the duct. Arrays of conventional loudspeakers were used to generate plane waves and higher order acoustic modes at moderate intensities, and an array of four high intensity electro-pneumatic sound sources was used for the experiments in the nonlinear region. The attenuation of absorbent liners made of several different materials was obtained at moderate intensities for both plane waves and high order modes. It was found that the characteristics of the liners studied did not change appreciably at high intensities.

  8. Hybrid noise control in a duct using a light micro-perforated plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X N; Choy, Y S; Cheng, L

    2012-12-01

    A plate silencer consists of an expansion chamber with two side-branch cavities covered by light but extremely stiff plates. It works effectively with a wide stopband from low-to-medium frequencies only if the plate is extremely stiff, to ensure a strong reflection of acoustic wave to the upstream in the duct. However, a plate with a slightly weak bending stiffness will result in non-uniform transmission loss (TL) spectra with narrowed stopband. In this study, a hybrid silencer is proposed by introducing micro-perforations into the plate to elicit the sound absorption in order to compensate for the deficiency in the passband caused by the insufficient sound reflection in a certain frequency range due to weaker plate stiffness. A theoretical model, capable of dealing with the strong coupling between the vibrating micro-perforated plate and sound fields inside the cavity and the duct, is developed. Through proper balancing between the sound absorption and reflection, the proposed hybrid silencer provides a more flattened and uniform TL and a widened stopband by more than 20% while relaxing the harsh requirement on the bending stiffness of the plate. Theoretical predictions are validated by experimental data, with phenomenon explained through numerical analyses.

  9. Hilbert series and mixed branches of $T[SU(N)]$ theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We consider mixed branches of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ $T[SU(N)]$ theory. We compute the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch part of the mixed branch from a restriction rule acting on the Hilbert series of the full Coulomb branch that will truncate the magnetic charge summation only to the subset of BPS dressed monopole operators that arise in the Coulomb branch sublocus where the mixed branch stems. This restriction can be understood directly from the type IIB brane picture by a relation between the magnetic charges of the monopoles and brane position moduli. We also apply the restriction rule to the Higgs branch part of a given mixed branch by exploiting 3d mirror symmetry. Both cases show complete agreement with the results calculated by different methods.

  10. Mechanical properties of the porcine bile duct wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Helle

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim The function of the common bile duct is to transport bile from the liver and the gall bladder to the duodenum. Since the bile duct is a distensible tube consisting mainly of connective tissue, it is important to obtain data on the passive mechanical wall properties. The aims of this study were to study morphometric and biomechanical wall properties during distension of the bile duct. Methods Ten normal porcine common bile ducts were examined in vitro. A computer-controlled volume ramp infusion system with concomitant pressure recordings was constructed. A video camera provided simultaneous measurement of outer dimensions of the common bile duct. Wall stresses and strains were computed. Results The common bile duct length increased by 25% from 24.4 ± 1.8 mm at zero pressure to 30.5 ± 2.0 mm at 5 kPa (p (βε - 1. The circumferential stress-strain curve was shifted to the left when compared to the longitudinal stress-strain curve, i.e. the linear constants (α values were different (p 0.5. Conclusion The porcine bile duct exhibited nonlinear anisotropic mechanical properties.

  11. Development of a new duct leakage test: DeltaQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker,I.S.; Sherman,M.H.; Wempen, J.; Wang, D.; McWilliams, J.A.; Dickerhoff, D.J.

    2001-08-01

    Duct leakage is a key factor in determining energy losses from forced air heating and cooling systems. Several studies (Francisco and Palmiter 1997 and 1999, Andrews et al. 1998, and Siegel et al. 2001) have shown that the duct system efficiency cannot be reliably determined without good estimates of duct leakage. Specifically, for energy calculations, it is the duct leakage air flow to outside at operating conditions that is required. Existing test methods either precisely measure the size of leaks (but not the flow through them at operating conditions), or measure these flows with insufficient accuracy. The DeltaQ duct leakage test method was developed to provide improved estimates of duct leakage during system operation. In this study we developed the analytical calculation methods and the test procedures used in the DeltaQ test. As part of the development process, we have estimated uncertainties in the test method (both analytically and based on field data) and designed automated test procedures to increase accuracy and reduce the contributions of operator errors in performing field tests. In addition, the test has been evaluated in over 100 houses by several research teams to show that it can be used in a wide range of houses and to aid in finding limits or problems in field applications. The test procedure is currently being considered by ASTM as an update of an existing duct leakage standard.

  12. Research on Power Line as Communication Channel with Multi-Tap and Multi-Branch Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of different branch configuration on transmission characteristic in-home low-voltage (LV communication power line communication (PLC channel, the influences of branch length, number of branch and tap, and branch terminal impedance on the performance of PLC are investigated. The two type power line network structures of the one-tap with multi-branch (OTMB and the multi-tap with multi-branch (MTMB are studied. The transmission characteristics of the PLC channel are simulated by varying the length and terminal impedance of the branch for two configurations. Simulation results show that the length and terminal impedance of the branch have significant influence on the amplitude and phase response of the transfer function. The position and number of notches and crests in the amplitude responses are affected by different branch types and the configurations of branch length and branch terminal impedance. The models developed in this paper can easily handle an arbitrary topology of power line channel and provide accurate calculation for the channel responses of the all kinds of channel branch structures in indoor LV power line network

  13. Duct wall impedance control as an advanced concept for acoustic suppression enhancement. [engine noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    A systems concept procedure is described for the optimization of acoustic duct liner design for both uniform and multisegment types. The concept was implemented by the use of a double reverberant chamber flow duct facility coupled with sophisticated computer control and acoustic analysis systems. The optimization procedure for liner insertion loss was based on the concept of variable liner impedance produced by bias air flow through a multilayer, resonant cavity liner. A multiple microphone technique for in situ wall impedance measurements was used and successfully adapted to produce automated measurements for all liner configurations tested. The complete validation of the systems concept was prevented by the inability to optimize the insertion loss using bias flow induced wall impedance changes. This inability appeared to be a direct function of the presence of a higher order energy carrying modes which were not influenced significantly by the wall impedance changes.

  14. Performance estimation of artificially roughened solar air heater duct provided with continuous ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Sharma, Varun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of an artificial roughness on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the duct of a solar air heater. This paper presents a comparison of exergetic performance of solar air heaters having different types of geometry of roughness elements (continuous ribs on the absorber plate. The exergy efficiency has been computed by using the correlations for heat transfer and friction factor developed by various investigators within the investigated range of operating and system parameters. The exergy efficiency based criterion shows the better results at lower value of Re. There is not a single roughness geometry which gives best exergetic performance for whole range of Reynolds number. Solar air heater having rib-grooved and arc shaped wire as artificial roughness is found to have better exergy efficiency in the lower range of Reynolds number. However, smooth duct is found suitable in the higher range of Reynolds number.

  15. Flow Development through a Duct and a Diffuser Using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K.Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an extensive study of rectangular cross-sectioned C-duct and C-diffuser is made by the help of 2-D mean velocity contours. Study of flow characteristics through constant area duct is a fundamental research area of basic fluid mechanics since the concepts of potential flow and frictional losses in conduit flow were established. C-ducts are used in aircraft intakes, combustors, internal cooling systems of gas turbines, ventilation ducts, wind tunnels etc., while diffuser is mechanical device usually made in the form of a gradual conical expander intended to raise the static pressure of the fluid flowing through it. Flow through curved ducts is more complex compared to straight duct due to the curvature of the duct axis and centrifugal forces are induced on the flowing fluid resulting in the development of secondary motion (normal to the primary flow direction which is manifested in the form of a pair of contra-rotating vortices. For a diffuser in addition to the secondary flow, the diverging flow passage, which causes an adverse stream wise pressure gradient, can lead to flow separation. The combined effect may result n non uniformity of total pressure and total pressure loss at the exit. A comparative study of different turbulent models available in the Fluent using y  as guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and turbulence models are done. Standard k-ε model and RSM models are used to solve the closure problem for both the constant area duct and the diffuser. It has been observed that the Standard k-e model predicts the flow through the constant area duct and the diffuser within a reasonable domain ofthe y  range.

  16. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 6; Theoretical Analysis for Coupling of Active Noise Control Actuator Ring Sources to an Annular Duct with Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an analytical model for the coupling of active noise control (ANC) piston-type actuators that are mounted flush to the inner and outer walls of an annular duct to the modes in the duct generated by the actuator motion. The analysis will be used to couple the ANC actuators to the modal analysis propagation computer program for the annular duct, to predict the effects of active suppression of fan-generated engine noise sources. This combined program will then be available to assist in the design or evaluation of ANC systems in fan engine annular exhaust ducts. An analysis has been developed to predict the modes generated in an annular duct due to the coupling of flush-mounted ring actuators on the inner and outer walls of the duct. The analysis has been combined with a previous analysis for the coupling of modes to a cylindrical duct in a FORTRAN computer program to perform the computations. The method includes the effects of uniform mean flow in the duct. The program can be used for design or evaluation purposes for active noise control hardware for turbofan engines. Predictions for some sample cases modeled after the geometry of the NASA Lewis ANC Fan indicate very efficient coupling in both the inlet and exhaust ducts for the m = 6 spinning mode at frequencies where only a single radial mode is cut-on. Radial mode content in higher order cut-off modes at the source plane and the required actuator displacement amplitude to achieve 110 dB SPL levels in the desired mode were predicted. Equivalent cases with and without flow were examined for the cylindrical and annular geometry, and little difference was found for a duct flow Mach number of 0.1. The actuator ring coupling program will be adapted as a subroutine to the cylindrical duct modal analysis and the exhaust duct modal analysis. This will allow the fan source to be defined in terms of characteristic modes at the fan source plane and predict the propagation to the

  17. Angiographic Findings of Extrahepatic Branches Originating from Hepatic Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong Wang; Ren-jie Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the presentation and variation of extrahepatic branches originating from hepatic artery by hepatic arteriography.Methods: Hepatic arteriogram of 200 cases with unresectable hepatic primary or metastatic tumors before interventional therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Two interventional radiologists independently reviewed the type, originating artery, distribution and variation of extrahepatic artery.Results: Five types of extrahepatic artery were found, with the most common type of the right gastric artery (n=156, 78%), followed by the cystic artery (n=126, 63%), accessory left gastric artery (n=19, 9.5%), hepatic falciform artery (n=5, 2.5%), and accessory left inferior phrenic artery (n=4, 2%). In 188 cases, there were extrahepatic arteries derived from hepatic proper artery or its branches, and the most frequent originating site was the right hepatic artery (130 extrahepatic branches), followed by the proper hepatic artery (103 branches), left hepatic artery (56 branches) and middle hepatic artery (3 branches). The left hepatic artery was the arising site with the multiple types of extrahepatic branches including all above branches except the cystic artery.Conclusion: Many types of extrahepatic branches usually derive from the hepatic artery or its distal branches, and its originating sites are not constant. It is important to avoid damage of extrahepatic tissue during interventional therapy for liver tumors.

  18. Flow in Idealised Compliant Human Cystic Duct Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atabi, M.; Chin, S. B.; Beck, S.; Luo, X. Y.

    The functions of the cystic duct and the role of its complicated geometry (in particular the valves of Heister), in the delivery of bile flow have always been a subject of speculation. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of the flow in idealised, compliant cystic duct models. The valves of Heister were idealised using eight semi-circular alternating baffles fitted inside the compliant tubes. These tubes were arranged in configurations representing the anatomical configurations of real cystic ducts. Models both with and without baffles were tested for comparison. The results show that the valves of Heister seem to play a role in facilitating both the filling and emptying of the gallbladder.

  19. Finite-amplitude waves in cylindrical lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    A second-order uniformly valid expansion is obtained for nonlinear waves propagating in a cylindrical duct lined with a point-reacting acoustic material that consists of a porous sheet followed by honey-comb cavities and backed by the impervious walls of the duct. The effect of the liner is taken into account by coupling the waves in the duct with those in the liner. As in the two-dimensional case, the nonlinearity increases the attenuation rate at all frequencies except in narrow bandwidths around the resonant frequencies, irrespective of the geometrical dimensions of the liner or the acoustic properties of the porous sheet.

  20. BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON Fasciola hepatica AND CATTLE BILIARY DUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panebianco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of bacteria in Fasciola hepatica and into cattle biliary ducts containing the parasite. A total of 24 liver and 58 F. hepatica samples were analysed. In all biliary ducts and in 62,06% of parasite Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. The bacterial specie more frequently isolated from parasite were Citrobacter freundii (34%, Proteus mirabilis (18%, Providencia rettgeri (12%, Staphylococcus spp. (18%, Enterobacter spp. (12%. There doesn’t appear to be a correlation between bacterial specie from parasite and ducts. The Authors conclude with some related inspective consideration.

  1. Paraurethral Skene′s duct cyst in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Moralioglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraurethral or Skene′s duct cysts are rare causes of interlabial masses in neonates. The diagnosis of Skene′s duct cysts in the neonatal period is based on its location, in relation to the urethra, and the demonstration of transitional epithelium in the cyst wall. The distinguishing features of paraurethral cysts are the displacement of urethral meatus by the mass and a cyst containing milky fluid. Thus, we report a case of a Skene′s duct cyst in a newborn which was treated by incision and drainage.

  2. Transition duct with late injection in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray; Flanagan, James Scott; Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-15

    A system for supplying an injection fluid to a combustor is disclosed. The system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The passage defines a combustion chamber. The system further includes a tube providing fluid communication for the injection fluid to flow through the transition duct and into the combustion chamber.

  3. Spontaneous common bile duct perforation due to periampullary growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandiaraja Javabal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous common bile duct perforations are an unusual cause of acute abdomen. In spontaneous common bile duct perforation, malignant growth is even rare. It is a rare entity usually reported in infants and children due to congenital anomalies. It is rarely reported in adults. In this case report, a 55 - year - old male patient who was diagnosed as a duodenal perforation in the pre - operative period, but the intra - operative findings was common bile duct perforation due to periampullary growth, is reported

  4. Spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic biliary ducts with biliary peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Unal; Yazici, Pinar; Coker, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic biliary ducts is a rare cause of acute abdomen due to biliary peritonitis. We report a 92-year-old woman with 48-h history of upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting and peritoneal signs. CT scan showed free fluid in the abdomen and mild dilatation of the common bile duct. Exploratory laparotomy showed bile in the abdominal cavity with leak-age from a ruptured bile duct radicle in segment 3, as confirmed on intraoperative cholangiography. She underwent cholecystectomy, choledochotomy with removal of gallstones, repair of the perforation with primary suture and placement of a T-tube. She had an uneventful recovery.

  5. EFFECT OF AIRFLOW AND HEAT INPUT RATES ON DUCT EFFICIENCY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-05-28

    Reducing the airflow and heat input rates of a furnace that is connected to a duct system in thermal contact with unconditioned spaces can significantly reduce thermal distribution efficiency. This is a straightforward theoretical calculation based on the increased residence time of the air in the duct at the lower flow rate, which results in greater conduction losses. Experimental tests in an instrumented residential-size duct system have confirmed this prediction. Results are compared with the heat-loss algorithm in ASHRAE Standid 152P. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible remedies for this loss of efficiency in existing systems and optional design strategies in new construction.

  6. [Inadvertent thoracic duct puncture during right axially central venous cannulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Shingo; Itagaki, Taiga; Adachi, Yushi; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Midzuki; Doi, Matsuyuki; Sato, Shigehito

    2010-10-01

    A case of inadvertent thoracic duct puncture during right axially central venous cannulation is reported. The catheterization was performed under the real time ultrasound guidance technique and the coronal view image was continuously displayed. After confirming the feelings of venous puncture, clear yellow fluid was aspired into the connected syringe to the needle. Initially, an accidental thoracic puncture with subsequent pleural fluid aspiration was suspected;however, no finding of pleural effusion was observed with ultrasound imaging and computed tomography. Thus, an accidental thoracic duct puncture and the subsequent lymph fluid aspiration were suspected. Even in a right side approach for central venous catheterization, thoracic duct injury might ensure.

  7. Thermo-chemo-radiotherapy for advanced bile duct carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terumi Kamisawa; Yuyang Tu; Naoto Egawa; Katsuyuki Karasawa; Tadayoshi Matsuda; Kouji Tsuruta; Atsutake Okamoto

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Complete resection of the bile duct carcinoma is sometimes difficult by subepithelial spread in the duct wall or direct invasion of adjacent blood vessels. Nonresected extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma has a dismal prognosis,with a life expectancy of about 6 mo to 1 year. To improve the treatment results of locally advanced bile duct carcinoma, we have been conducting a clinical trial using regional hyperthermia in combination with chemoradiation therapy.METHODS: Eight patients complaining of obstructive jaundice with advanced extrahepatic bile duct underwent thermo-chemo-radiotherapy (TCRT). All tumors were located in the upper bile duct and involved hepatic bifurcation, and obstructed the bile duct completely.Radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia was administered simultaneously with chemotherapeutic agents once weekly immediately following radiotherapy at 2 Gy.We administered heat to the patient for 40 min after the tumor temperature had risen to 42 ℃. The chemotherapeutic agents employed were cis-platinum (CDDP,50 mg/m2) in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU,800 mg/m2) or methotrexate (MTX, 30 mg/m2) in combination with 5-FU (800 mg/m2). Number of heat treatments ranged from 2 to 8 sessions. The bile duct at autopsy was histologically examined in three patients treated with TCRT.RESULTS: In respect to resolution of the bile duct, there were three complete regression (CR), two partial regression (PR), and three no change (NC). Mean survival was 13.2±10.8 mo (mean±SD). Four patients survived for more than 20 mo. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube could be removed in placement of self-expandable metallic stent into the patency-restored bile duct after TCRT. No major side effects occurred. At autopsy, marked hyalinization or fibrosis with necrosis replaced extensively bile duct tumor and wall, in which suppressed cohesiveness of carcinoma cells and degenerative cells were sparsely observed.CONCLUSION: Although the number of cases is

  8. A procedure for the calculation of flow through axisymmetric ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Heyns

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for the calculation of flow through axisymmetric ducts as are typically found in turbomachines, is presented. The procedure is based on a streamline curvature method with the governing equations formulated along quasi-orthogonals in the flow field. This formulation allows the procedure to be used for segments of a duct wherein the flow direction is predominantly radial. It is assumed that the flow on specific stream surfaces is isentropic, but normal entropy gradients may exist because of processes which took place upstream of the duct.

  9. The Relationship between auxin transport and maize branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Yang, Yan; Schmidt, Robert J; Jackson, David

    2008-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays) plants make different types of vegetative or reproductive branches during development. Branches develop from axillary meristems produced on the flanks of the vegetative or inflorescence shoot apical meristem. Among these branches are the spikelets, short grass-specific structures, produced by determinate axillary spikelet-pair and spikelet meristems. We investigated the mechanism of branching in maize by making transgenic plants expressing a native expressed endogenous auxin efflux transporter (ZmPIN1a) fused to yellow fluorescent protein and a synthetic auxin-responsive promoter (DR5rev) driving red fluorescent protein. By imaging these plants, we found that all maize branching events during vegetative and reproductive development appear to be regulated by the creation of auxin response maxima through the activity of polar auxin transporters. We also found that the auxin transporter ZmPIN1a is functional, as it can rescue the polar auxin transport defects of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pin1-3 mutant. Based on this and on the groundbreaking analysis in Arabidopsis and other species, we conclude that branching mechanisms are conserved and can, in addition, explain the formation of axillary meristems (spikelet-pair and spikelet meristems) that are unique to grasses. We also found that BARREN STALK1 is required for the creation of auxin response maxima at the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, suggesting a role in the initiation of polar auxin transport for axillary meristem formation. Based on our results, we propose a general model for branching during maize inflorescence development.

  10. Effect of wall thickness and helium cooling channels on duct magnetohydrodynamic flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qingyun; Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • MHD flows in ducts of different wall thickness compared with wall uniform. • Study of velocity, pressure distribution in ducts MHD flows with single pass of helium cooling channels. • Comparison of three types of dual helium cooling channels and acquisition of an option for minimum pressure drop. • A single short duct MHD flow in blanket without FCI has been simulated for pressure gradient analysis. - Abstract: The concept of dual coolant liquid metal (LM) blanket has been proposed in different countries to demonstrate the technical feasibility of DEMO reactor. In the system, helium gas and PbLi eutectic, separated by structure grid, are used to cool main structure materials and to be self-cooled, respectively. The non-uniform wall thickness of structure materials gives rise to wall non-homogeneous conductance ratio. It will lead to electric current distribution changes, resulting in significant changes in the velocity distribution and pressure drop of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. In order to investigate the effect of helium channels on MHD flows, different methods of numerical simulations cases are carried out including the cases of different wall thicknesses, single pass of helium cooling channels, and three types of dual helium cooling channels. The results showed that helium tubes are able to affect the velocity distribution in the boundary layer by forming wave sharp which transfers from Hartmann boundary layer to the core area. In addition, the potential profile and pressure drop in the cases have been compared to these in the case of walls without cooling channel, and the pressure gradient of a simplified single short duct MHD flow in blanket shows small waver along the central axis in the helium channel position.

  11. Plexin A3 and turnout regulate motor axonal branch morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sainath

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch

  12. Experimental study on inhibitory effect of bridgy duct of hepatic artery on apoptosis of liver and bile duct cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Lu; Yiming Li; Hong Ji; Jinkai Xu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the method of bridgy duct established between the recipient's spleen artery and the donor's gastroduodenal artery could inhibit the apoptosis of liver and bile duct cells caused by hepatic artery ischemia.Methods: Twenty-four mongrel dogs from Xi'an area were used to establish simplified models of dog orthotopic liver transplantation and divided into three groups randomly: HAI group (hepatic artery ischemia group),BBB group (bypassing the blood by a bridgy duct) and control group. After cold perfusion, The samples were collected from liver and bile duct in each group at different time and fixed in glutaraldehyde and 4% polyformaldehyde respectively. At last, the apoptosis of liver and bile duct cells were observed and the apoptotic indexes were calculated. Results: Two hours after cold perfusion, apoptotic phenomenon was common in HAI group, rare in BBB group, while no apoptotic phenomenon was observed in control group. TUNEL staining showed that there was no significant difference in apoptotic index among the three groups immediately after cold perfusion. However, with time going, the apoptotic cells were increased in three groups, and the difference in apoptotic index was significant among three groups (P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: Bridgy duct of hepatic artery can inhibit the apoptosis of liver and bile duct cells caused by HAI significantly.

  13. Intestinal prolapse through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small-bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleau, Ghislain; Commandeur, Diane; Andro, Christophe; Chapellier, Xavier

    2012-07-11

    Persistent omphalomesenteric duct as a cause of small-bowel obstruction is an exceptional finding. A neonate presented with occlusion due to intestinal prolapse through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct. Remnants of the duct were successfully resected, and the postoperative course was uneventful. We discuss the presentation of omphalomesenteric duct and its management.

  14. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  15. ß-adrenergic regulation of ion transport in pancreatic ducts: Patch-clamp study of isolated rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I

    1998-01-01

    much smaller effects. At comparable concentrations, it depolarized Vm by a few millivolts. Neither agonist had significant effects on intracellular Ca2+. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first direct evidence that adrenergic stimulation, namely, that of beta-adrenoceptors, controls ion transport....... METHODS: Small intralobular ducts were isolated from rat pancreas and studied in vitro by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cell membrane voltages and currents were indicators of cellular ion transport. In some ducts, intracellular Ca2+ activity was measured by fluorescence optical methods. RESULTS...... in pancreatic ducts. Similar to secretin, isoproterenol stimulation leads to opening of luminal Cl- channels, and HCO3- enters the lumen in exchange for Cl-....

  16. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  17. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  18. Kodiak: An Implementation Framework for Branch and Bound Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Markevicius, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    Recursive branch and bound algorithms are often used to refine and isolate solutions to several classes of global optimization problems. A rigorous computation framework for the solution of systems of equations and inequalities involving nonlinear real arithmetic over hyper-rectangular variable and parameter domains is presented. It is derived from a generic branch and bound algorithm that has been formally verified, and utilizes self-validating enclosure methods, namely interval arithmetic and, for polynomials and rational functions, Bernstein expansion. Since bounds computed by these enclosure methods are sound, this approach may be used reliably in software verification tools. Advantage is taken of the partial derivatives of the constraint functions involved in the system, firstly to reduce the branching factor by the use of bisection heuristics and secondly to permit the computation of bifurcation sets for systems of ordinary differential equations. The associated software development, Kodiak, is presented, along with examples of three different branch and bound problem types it implements.

  19. A computable branching process for the Wigner quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Sihong

    2016-01-01

    A branching process treatment for the nonlocal Wigner pseudo-differential operator and its numerical applications in quantum dynamics is proposed and analyzed. We start from the discussion on two typical truncations of the nonlocal term, i.e., the $k$-truncated and $y$-truncated models. After introducing an auxiliary function $\\gamma(\\bm{x})$, the (truncated) Wigner equation is reformulated into the integral formulation as well as its adjoint correspondence, both of which can be regarded as the renewal-type equations and have transparent stochastic interpretation. We prove that the moment of a branching process happens to be the solution for the adjoint equation, which connects rigorously the Wigner quantum dynamics to the stochastic branching process, and thus a sound mathematical framework for the Wigner Monte Carlo methods is established. Within the framework, the branching process for the $y$-truncated model recovers the popular signed particle Monte Carlo method which needs a discretization of the moment...

  20. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels...

  1. Iatrogenic nasolacrimal duct obstruction following tooth extraction in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Sávia Calline C S; Froes, Tilde R; Lange, Rogério Ribas; Machado, Marcello; Pachaly, José Ricardo; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old DSH cat was referred for a dental evaluation and extraction procedure. Subsequently, the animal developed an acute onset of ocular discharge. Ophthalmologic examination revealed presence of unilateral ocular mucoid discharge leading to a diagnosis of epiphora secondary to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Dacryocystorhinography was performed and confirmed the presence of a nasolacrimal duct obstruction, presumably acquired after an invasive dental procedure. Additionally, a vinyl cast in situ study of the nasolacrymal apparatus was performed to demonstrate the route of the nasolacrimal duct in the cat and its relationship to oral dental structures. This report documents an unusual case in which excessive inflammation/edema following tooth extraction caused acute epiphora secondary to extraluminal compression of the distal nasolacrimal duct.

  2. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, P. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  3. Sound transmission through ducts and aircraft noise prediction, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, J. J.; Datko, J. T.; Guyton, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft engine acoustical lining impedance models, ray acoustics, hydrodynamic modes, and transient analysis of sound propagation in variable area duct studies were applied to aircraft noise prediction. The effects of several duct lining configurations in a TF33 P5 and a CFM56 engined KC-135B aircraft were predicted. The prediction was based on a model corrected to fit flight noise data and modified by including theoretical duct noise attenuation predictions. The transient solution of variable area ducts permitted the prediction of sound propgation in bullet nose inlets for no low and was moderately successful when a potential flow was included with low Mach numbers. Volume 1 contains the technical report and analysis. Volume 2 contains the user's manuals and listings of the computer codes developed.

  4. Extrahepatic right hepatic duct diverticulum:a rare entity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo SM Fernandes; Raquel L Bernardo; Moacir M Fernandes; Rogério MC Araújo; Renato Sebbe; Asterio Monte; José F Coelho; Antonio AP Souza; Joaquim Ribeiro Filho

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Douglas described choledochal cysts in 1852 and Todani proposed an anatomy-based classiifcation in 1977. The classiifcation is the most extensively used, but does not include some rare variations. We present a case of hepatic duct diverticulum, one of the variations, and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A 57-year-old woman presented with upper abdominal pain and discomfort associated with nausea and vomiting. She was ifnally diagnosed with cholelithiasis and right hepatic duct diverticulum. RESULT: The patient underwent resection of the hepatic duct diverticulum and cholecystectomy, and was asymptomatic 26 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic duct diverticulum is a rare form of choledochal cyst, not included in Todani's classiifcation. Todani's classiifcation including this and other uncommon variations of choledochal cysts must be reviewed. The best diagnostic imaging methods and treatment for choledochal cysts must be deifned.

  5. Scattering matrices in non-uniformly lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ahmet

    2017-02-01

    Sudden area expansion and sudden area contraction in an infinitely long duct with discontinuous locally reacting lining are defined by respective mixed boundary value problems. In the absence of a sudden area change, a separate problem with an infinite duct having bifid lining on its wall is described. Introducing Fourier transform along the duct axis boundary value problems is solved by the well-known Wiener-Hopf technique, and then, corresponding scattering matrices are constructed. To show the proper use of scattering matrices in the case of several discontinuities and also validation and comparison purposes, transmitted field in a duct with an inserted expansion chamber whose walls are treated by acoustically absorbent material is derived by the help of the relevant scattering matrices. A perfect agreement is observed when the transmitted fields are compared numerically with a similar work exists in the literature.

  6. Persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction in an adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haridimos Markogiannakis; Dimitrios Theodorou; Konstantinos G Toutouzas; Panagiotis Drimousis; Sotirios Georgios Panoussopoulos; Stilianos Katsaragakis

    2007-01-01

    An extremely rare case of persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction is presented. A 20-year-old female patient without medical history presented with colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, absence of passage of gas and feces, and abdominal distension of 24 h duration. Physical examination and blood tests were normal. Abdominal X-ray showed small bowel obstruction.Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated dilated small bowel and a band originating from the umbilicus and continuing between the small bowel loops;an omphalomesenteric duct remnant was suspected. In exploratory laparotomy, persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction was identified and resected. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the 5th postoperative day. Although persistent omphalomesenteric duct is an extremely infrequent cause of small bowel obstruction in adult patients, it should be taken into consideration in patients without any previous surgical history.

  7. Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium. Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access.

  8. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  9. Design requirement on KALIMER control rod assembly duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, W.; Kang, H. Y.; Nam, C.; Kim, J. O.; Kim, Y. J

    1998-03-01

    This document establishes the design guidelines which are needs for designing the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER as design requirements. it describes control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER and its requirements that includes functional requirements, performance requirements, interfacing systems, design limits and strength requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The control rod system consists of three parts, which are drive mechanism, drive-line, and absorber bundle. This report deals with the absorber bundle and its outer duct only because the others are beyond the scope of fuel system design. The guidelines for design requirements intend to be used for an improved design of the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 19 refs.

  10. Heat Transfer Augmentation in Developing Flow Through a Ribbed Square Duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khan R K; Ali M.A.T; Akhanda M.A.R

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to investigate the heat transfer augmentation in developing turbulent flow through a ribbed square duct. The duct is made of 16mm thick bakelite sheet. The bottom surface of the ribbed wall having rib pitch to height ratio of 10 is heated by passing a c current to the heater placed under it. The uniform heating is controlled using a digital temperature controller and a variac. The results of ribbed duct are compared with the results of a smooth duct under the same experimental conditions. It is observed that the heat transfer augmentation in ribbed duct is better than that of the smooth duct. At Re=5.0 × 104 , the mean temperature of air flowing through the ribbed duct increases by 2.45 percent over the smooth duct, whereas in the ribbed duct Nusselt number increases by 15.14 percent than that of the smooth duct with a 6 percent increase in pressure drop.

  11. STUDY ON VARIATIONS OF INFERIOR SEGMENTAL BRANCH OF RENAL ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandragirish S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The segmental arteries of the kidney supply the organ in such a way that, each renal pole receives its own artery while, the anterior portion between the poles is supplied by an upper and lower segmental vessel. These two arteries also include in their territory the lateral edge of the kidney and adjacent to the strip of parenchyma on the dorsal or posterior aspect of the organ. The knowledge of inferior segmental branch of renal artery is very important for surgeries in its distribution area in kidney. Materials and Methods: 100 kidneys (Fifty pairs intact with abdominal aorta were collected from department of Forensic medicine, JSS Medical College and Mysore Medical College. For study of segmental variation Corrosion cast technique method was used. The variations of inferior segmental branch of renal artery were observed and recorded. Results: In present study type I inferior segmental branch of renal artery were found in - 59% cases, type II in - 6% cases, type III in - 28% cases, type IV in - 2% cases. Conclusion: The inferior segmental artery from the anterior division of the renal artery is the commonest event –arising in 59%. This is Type I, the normal type. It arises from the renal artery (28% or from the posterior division (6% or from the aorta (2%. The knowledge of inferior segmental branch of renal artery helpful in kidney transplantation and renal surgery because these type of surgeries success mainly depends on arterial ligations.

  12. Acoustic propagation in partially choked converging-diverging ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. J.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L. T.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model based on the wave-envelope technique is used to study acoustic propagation in converging-diverging hard walled and lined circular ducts carrying near sonic mean flows. The influences of the liner admittance, boundary layer thickness, spinning mode number, and mean Mach number are considered. The numerical results indicate that the diverging portion of the duct can have a strong reflective effect for partially choked flows.

  13. A case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumihiko Miura; Tadahiro Takada; Hodaka Amano; Masahiro Yoshida; Takahiro Isaka; Naoyuki Toyota; Keita Wada; Kenji Takagi; Kenichiro Karo

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of peribiliary cysts accompaying bile duct carcinoma is presented. A 54-year-old man was diagnosed as having lower bile duct carcinoma and peribiliary cysts by diagnostic imaging. He underwent pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. As for the peribiliary cysts, a course of observation was taken.Over surgery due to misdiagnosis of patients with biliary malignancy accompanied by peribiliary cysts should be avoided.

  14. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  15. A case report of hepatocellular carcinoma in common hepatic duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chi Sung; Park, In Ae; Choi, Sang Woon; Chung, Jung Kee [YongDeungPo City Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    We experienced a rare case of intraductal (common hepatic duct) hepatocellular carcinoma. Review of the literature disclosed 30 cases or less in which common duct involvement was a predominant clinical feature. Well demarcated, ovoid filling defect mass in CHD without parenchymal tumor mass was noted in ultrasound, PTC and CT study. The liver was cirrhotic, but {alpha}-fetoprotein level was normal. Differential diagnosis especially with Klatskin tumor is important and thought to be possible.

  16. Bile duct hamar tomas-the von Meyenburg complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valdemir José Alegre Salles; Alexandre Marotta; Jorge Miguel Kather Netto; Manlio Basílio Speranzini; Marcos Roberto Martins

    2007-01-01

    Hamartomas of the bile duct (von Meyenburg complex) are benign neoplasms of the liver, constituted histologically cystic dilatations of the bile duct, encompassed by ifbrous stroma. We report a 42-year-old female patient with symptomatic cholecystitis, whose gross and ultrasonic appearance suggestive of multiple liver metastases. Magnetic resonance imaging and liver biopsy are the gold standards for diagnosis of this rare hepatobiliary condition.

  17. Renal Collecting Duct Cancer: a Report of 2 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiying Zhou

    2005-01-01

    @@ Renal collecting duct cancer is a rare malignant tumor, which accounts for 1% to 2% of epithelial kidney tumors,[1] Its pathological appearance has been easily misdiagnosed as a mammilliform renal cell carcinoma or as other tumors. The malignancy of renal collecting duct cancer is high, with early metastasis and poor prognosis. The clinical data for 2 cases of the tumor are discussed in this report, including reports on the histopathology and the changes in immunohistochemistry.

  18. Development and regression of the thyroglossal duct in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsuyuki; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji; Takizawa, Shota; Sakashita, Hideaki; Kondo, Hisatake; Amano, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    The thyroid anlage develops in the foramen caecum area of the tongue, and migrates through the anterior neck towards its final position in front of the laryngeal cartilages. During migration, the thyroglossal duct, a temporary structure connecting the thyroid anlage and the foramen caecum, is recognized. In the present study, chronological changes and apoptosis in the thyroglossal duct of mice were investigated histochemically using an antibody against Nkx2-1, initially identified as a thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), and the TUNEL reaction in consecutive serial sagittal sections. At embryonic day 10.00 (E10.00), the thyroid anlage was Nkx2-1-immunoreactive and located just below the foramen caecum. As the thyroid anlage descended, the thyroglossal duct was formed at E10.25, being less than 10μm in diameter. By E10.75, the Nkx2-1-positive thyroglossal duct had progressively elongated up to 100μm. At E11.00 the thyroglossal duct began to disappear, beginning in its mid-portion, and finally became invisible at E11.50. At E11.00-12.00, apoptotic cells were found in an area where the thyroglossal duct was partially discontinuous. After E12.00, cartilaginous tissue of the hyoid bone anlage developed in the mid-portion of the area where the thyroglossal duct had regressed. Immunoreactivity for thyroglobulin, a marker of differentiated thyroid endocrine cells, was detected at E13.00. These results strongly suggest that the mouse thyroglossal duct disappears as a result of apoptosis before differentiation of the endocrine thyroid.

  19. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  20. On One-dimensional Sound Analysis of a Duct Network with Helmholtz Resonators

    OpenAIRE

    寺尾, 道仁; Terao, Michihito; 関根, 秀久; Sekine, Hidehisa; 大川, 真平; Okawa, Shinpei; 林, 大志; Hayashi, Daiji

    2002-01-01

    The outer orifice correction for Helmholtz resonators attached to the sidewall ofcircular ducts was studied. For the outer orifice correction when the axis direction ofthe orifice coincides with that of the duct, .explicit expressions were given by Ingard and Rschevkin. But their application to duct sections with duct-sidewall resonators is beyond their premise. An explicit expression ofthe outer orifice correction for duct-sidewall resonators was derived by conducting three-dimensionalbounda...

  1. Note on reflection and transmission coefficients for converging-diverging ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1981-09-01

    Simple formulas for calculating acoustic reflection and transmission coefficients for converging-diverging ducts are derived; they extend the method of Cho and Ingard to arbitrary, slowly varying ducts. These formulas involve two parameters. The first is a function of duct shape and the second is the ratio of the duct radius downstream of the throat to that upstream of the throat to the upstream of the throat. An extension of the method to include mean flow is made for symmetric ducts.

  2. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  3. An evaporation duct prediction model coupled with the MM5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lin; ZHANG Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation duct is an abnormal refractive phenomenon in the marine atmosphere boundary layer. It has been generally accepted that the evaporation duct prominently affects the performance of the electronic equipment over the sea because of its wide distribution and frequent occurrence. It has become a research focus of the navies all over the world. At present, the diagnostic models of the evaporation duct are all based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, with only differences in the flux and character scale calculations in the surface layer. These models are applicable to the stationary and uniform open sea areas without considering the alongshore effect. This paper introduces the nonlinear factorav and the gust wind itemwg into the Babin model, and thus extends the evaporation duct diagnostic model to the offshore area under extremely low wind speed. In addition, an evaporation duct prediction model is designed and coupled with the fifth generation mesoscale model (MM5). The tower observational data and radar data at the Pingtan island of Fujian Province on May 25–26, 2002 were used to validate the forecast results. The outputs of the prediction model agree with the observations from 0 to 48 h. The relative error of the predicted evaporation duct height is 19.3% and the prediction results are consistent with the radar detection.

  4. WAVE PROPAGATION in the HOT DUCT of VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz; Jim C. P. Liou

    2013-07-01

    In VHTR, helium from the reactor vessel is conveyed to a power conversion unit through a hot duct. In a hypothesized Depressurized Conduction Cooldown event where a rupture of the hot duct occurs, pressure waves will be initiated and reverberate in the hot duct. A numerical model is developed to quantify the transients and the helium mass flux through the rupture for such events. The flow path of the helium forms a closed loop but only the hot duct is modeled in this study. The lower plum of the reactor vessel and the steam generator are treated as specified pressure and/or temperature boundary to the hot duct. The model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and on the equations of state for helium. The numerical solution is based on the method of characteristics with specified time intervals with a predictor and corrector algorithm. The rupture sub-model gives reasonable results. Transients induced by ruptures with break area equaling 20%, 10%, and 5% of the duct cross-sectional area are described.

  5. Energy efficient engine: Turbine transition duct model technology report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, K.; Thurlin, R.

    1982-01-01

    The Low-Pressure Turbine Transition Duct Model Technology Program was directed toward substantiating the aerodynamic definition of a turbine transition duct for the Energy Efficient Engine. This effort was successful in demonstrating an aerodynamically viable compact duct geometry and the performance benefits associated with a low camber low-pressure turbine inlet guide vane. The transition duct design for the flight propulsion system was tested and the pressure loss goal of 0.7 percent was verified. Also, strut fairing pressure distributions, as well as wall pressure coefficients, were in close agreement with analytical predictions. Duct modifications for the integrated core/low spool were also evaluated. The total pressure loss was 1.59 percent. Although the increase in exit area in this design produced higher wall loadings, reflecting a more aggressive aerodynamic design, pressure profiles showed no evidence of flow separation. Overall, the results acquired have provided pertinent design and diagnostic information for the design of a turbine transition duct for both the flight propulsion system and the integrated core/low spool.

  6. Natural convection heat transfer along vertical rectangular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.

    2009-12-01

    Experimental investigations have been reported on steady state natural convection from the outer surface of vertical rectangular and square ducts in air. Seven ducts have been used; three of them have a rectangular cross section and the rest have square cross section. The ducts are heated using internal constant heat flux heating elements. The temperatures along the vertical surface and the peripheral directions of the duct wall are measured. Axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients along the side of each duct are obtained for laminar and transition to turbulent regimes of natural convection heat transfer. Axial (perimeter averaged) Nusselt numbers are evaluated and correlated using the modified Rayleigh numbers for laminar and transition regime using the vertical axial distance as a characteristic length. Critical values of the modified Rayleigh numbers are obtained for transition to turbulent. Furthermore, total overall averaged Nusselt numbers are correlated with the modified Rayleigh numbers and the area ratio for the laminar regimes. The local axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients are observed to decrease in the laminar region and increase in the transition region. Laminar regimes are obtained at the lower half of the ducts and its chance to appear decreases as the heat flux increases.

  7. Iatrogenic bile duct injuries: Etiology, diagnosis and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beata Jab(l)o(n)ska; Pawe(l) Lampe

    2009-01-01

    Iatrogenic bile duct injuries (IBDI) remain an important problem in gastrointestinal surgery. They are most frequently caused by laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is one of the commonest surgical procedures in the world. The early and proper diagnosis of IBDI isvery important for surgeons and gastroenterologists,because unrecognized IBDI lead to serious complications such as biliary cirrhosis, hepatic failure and death.Laboratory and radiological investigations play an important role in the diagnosis of biliary injuries. There are many classifications of IBDI. The most popularand simple classification of IBDI is the Bismuth scale.Endoscopic techniques are recommended for initial treatment of IBDI. When endoscopic treatment is not effective, surgical management is considered.Different surgical reconstructions are performed in patients with IBDI. According to the literature, Rouxen-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the most frequent surgical reconstruction and recommended by most authors.In the opinion of some authors, a more physiological and equally effective type of reconstruction is endto-end ductal anastomosis. Long term results are the most important in the assessment of the effectiveness of IBDI treatment. There are a few classifications for the long term results in patients treated for IBDI;the Terblanche scale, based on clinical biliary symptoms,is regarded as the most useful classification. Proper diagnosis and treatment of IBDI may avoid many serious complications and improve quality of life.

  8. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS). Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth\\'s troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. The results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have implications on atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and the oxidative stability of organic substances. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  9. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  10. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  11. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  12. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  13. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  14. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  15. Transcatheter interruption of large residual flow after device closure of "Type A" patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 3-year-old girl who had persistence of large residual flow following transcatheter closure of a 6 mm ′Type A′ patent ductus arteriosus using a 12 × 10 mm duct occluder. Angiography revealed a large left-to-right shunt coursing through and exiting around the implanted device. Near total abolition of the residual shunt was achieved by initial implantation of an embolization coil within the duct occluder and subsequently an Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO II adjacent to the duct occluder. This challenging case describes an additional technique of abolishing a large residual flow in and around a Nitinol duct occluder device.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Multiplicity and Stability of Mixed Convection in Rotating Curved Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liqiu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is made on the fully developed bifurcation structure and stability of the mixed convection in rotating curved ducts of square cross-section with the emphasis on the effect of buoyancy force. The rotation can be positive or negative. The fluid can be heated or cooled. The study reveals the rich solution and flow structures and complicated stability features. One symmetric and two symmetric/asymmetric solution branches are found with seventy five limit points and fourteen bifurcation points. The flows on these branches can be symmetric, asymmetric, 2-cell, and up to 14-cell structures. Dynamic responses of the multiple solutions to finite random disturbances are examined by the direct transient computation. It is found that possible physically realizable fully developed flows evolve, as the variation of buoyancy force, from a stable steady multicell state at a large buoyancy force of cooling to the coexistence of three stable steady multicell states, a temporal periodic oscillation state, the coexistence of periodic oscillation and chaotic oscillation, a chaotic temporal oscillation, a subharmonic-bifurcation-driven asymmetric oscillating state, and a stable steady 2-cell state at large buoyancy force of heating.

  17. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, J M; Yegutkin, G G; Novak, I

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) channels, and corresponding transcripts were expressed in duct cells. Direct stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling and ethanol application had negligible effects on ATP release. The released ATP was sequentially dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting adenylate kinase (AK1) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) enzymes (NME1, 2), which contribute to metabolism and regeneration of extracellular ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, uridine diphosphate (UDP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)). In conclusion, we illustrate a complex regulation of extracellular purine homeostasis in a pancreatic duct cell model involving: ATP release by several mechanisms and subsequent nucleotide breakdown and ATP regeneration via counteracting nucleotide

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Anatomic Variations of the Cystic Duct during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy%腹腔镜胆囊切除术中胆囊管解剖变异的诊断及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚解其; 严斌; 陈伟新; 沈卫星

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the diagnosis and management of anatomic variation of the cystic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy(LC) .Methods :From Jan 1999 to Dec 2013 ,4652 cases of LC ,which were performed in Qingpu Branch of Zhongshan Hospital ,Fudan University ,were retrospectively analyzed .A total of 34 cases of anatomic variation of the cystic duct were found .Among the 34 cases of anatomic variation of the cystic duct ,11 cases had thick and short cystic duct ,7 cases had a cystic duct converged into right hepatic duct ,6 cases had cystic duct converged into lower part of common hepatic duct ,1 case had cystic duct pronated forward and converged into common hepatic duct from left side ,3 cases had cystic duct that paral-lel itself with common hepatic duct and then converged into common bile duct ,4 cases were diagnosed with Mrizzi syndrome ,2 cases had situs viscera inversus .Results:Among the 34 cases with anatomic variations of cystic duct ,22 cases successfully un-derwent LC ,the other 12 cases were converted to open cholecystectomy .All the complications were biliary duct injury that re-covered well after treatment .Conclusions :Anatomic variation of the cystic duct is hard to diagnose preoperatively .Paying More attention to the anatomic variation during LC ,dissecting calot′s triangle carefully ,and identifying the relationship between the various pipeline is the key to prevent and reduce the biliary duct injury .%目的:探讨腹腔镜胆囊切除术(laparoscopic cholecystectomy ,LC )中胆囊管解剖变异的诊断及处理。方法:回顾分析1999年1月-2013年12月在复旦大学附属中山医院青浦分院行LC的4652例患者的临床资料,其中胆囊管发生解剖变异者34例,包括胆囊管异常粗、短11例,高位汇入右肝管7例,低位汇入肝总管下端6例,从肝总管前方绕至左侧汇入肝总管1例,与肝总管并行一段后汇入胆总管3例,M rizzi综合征4例,内脏反位2

  19. Management of traumatic bile duct injury%外伤性胆道损伤的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑; 王剑明; 杨彦; 刘颜; 何俊闯; 齐卫鹏; 钱亚伟; 付阳

    2014-01-01

    患者发生迟发性胆汁漏及再发胆道狭窄.结论 外伤性胆道损伤的部位隐蔽,易漏诊,常于术中确诊.患者常合并休克和腹腔其他脏器损伤,治疗上应在抗休克治疗的同时尽早行剖腹探查术,并基于损伤程度和部位选择最佳的胆道重建手术.%Objective To investigate the management of traumatic bile duct injury.Methods The clinical data of 26 patients with traumatic bile duct injury were retrospectively analyzed.All the patients were admitted to the Tongji Hospital of the Huazhong University of Science and Technology from July 2009 to May 2014.All the 26 patients had the history of trauma.The trauma of the patients were typed according to the Mattox injury typing system.Besides anti-shock treatment,cholecystectomy,bile duct repair,end-to-end anastomosis of bile duct,choledochojejunostomy and quadrate lobectomy + hilar bile duct reshaping + hepaticojejunostomy were selected according to the site and degree of the injury.Symptomatic treatment was applied to patients who were combined with other organs injury.Patients were followed up via out-patient examination and telephone interview till October 2014.Results Twenty-six patients received exploratory laparotomy,and gallbladder injury was detected in 15 patients,common bile duct injury in 5 patients,common hepatic duct injury in 3 patients,left hepatic duct injury in 2 patients,right hepatic duct in 1 patient.Eleven patients were combined with hepatic rupture,1 with splenic rupture,5 with renal rupture,4 with small intestinal rupture.Eleven patients were with type Ⅰ bile duct injury,4 with type Ⅱ bile duct injury,8 with type Ⅳ bile duct injury and 3 with type Ⅴ bile duct injury.Of the 15patients with gallbladder injury,5 patients with slight bruise of the gallbladder did not receive cholecystectomy.Six patients and 4 patients with type Ⅰ and Ⅱ bruise of the gallbladder received cholecystectomy.Of the 11 patients with hepatic and bile duct injury,5

  20. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at the level of branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA) catabolism. It has been demonstrated that the activity of hepatic BCKDC is markedly decreased in type 2 diabetic animal...

  1. Phytochrome B promotes branching in Arabidopsis by suppressing auxin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Reddy, Srirama; Finlayson, Scott A

    2014-03-01

    Many plants respond to competition signals generated by neighbors by evoking the shade avoidance syndrome, including increased main stem elongation and reduced branching. Vegetation-induced reduction in the red light:far-red light ratio provides a competition signal sensed by phytochromes. Plants deficient in phytochrome B (phyB) exhibit a constitutive shade avoidance syndrome including reduced branching. Because auxin in the polar auxin transport stream (PATS) inhibits axillary bud outgrowth, its role in regulating the phyB branching phenotype was tested. Removing the main shoot PATS auxin source by decapitation or chemically inhibiting the PATS strongly stimulated branching in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) deficient in phyB, but had a modest effect in the wild type. Whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were elevated in young phyB seedlings, there was less IAA in mature stems compared with the wild type. A split plate assay of bud outgrowth kinetics indicated that low auxin levels inhibited phyB buds more than the wild type. Because the auxin response could be a result of either the auxin signaling status or the bud's ability to export auxin into the main shoot PATS, both parameters were assessed. Main shoots of phyB had less absolute auxin transport capacity compared with the wild type, but equal or greater capacity when based on the relative amounts of native IAA in the stems. Thus, auxin transport capacity was unlikely to restrict branching. Both shoots of young phyB seedlings and mature stem segments showed elevated expression of auxin-responsive genes and expression was further increased by auxin treatment, suggesting that phyB suppresses auxin signaling to promote branching.

  2. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  4. Effect of herpesvirus infection on pancreatic duct cell secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Péter Hegyi; András Varró; Mária K Kovács; Mike A Gray; Barry E Argent; Zsolt Boldogk(o)i; Balázs (O)rd(o)g; Zoltán Rakonczai Jr; Tamás Takács; János Lonovics; Annamária Szabolcs; Réka Sári; András Tóth; Julius G Papp

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of acute infection caused by herpesvirus (pseudorabies virus, PRV) on pancreatic ductal secretion.METHODS: The virulent Ba-DupGreen (BDG) and nonvirulent Ka-RREpOlacgfp (KEG) genetically modified strains of PRV were used in this study and both of them contain the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP). Small intra/interlobular ducts were infected with BDG virus (107 PFU/mL for 6 h) or with KEG virus (1010 PFU/mL for 6 h), while non-infected ducts were incubated only with the culture media. The ducts were then cultured for a further 18 h.The rate of HCO3- secretion [base efflux -J(B-)] was determined from the buffering capacity of the cells and the initial rate of intracellular acidification (1) after sudden blockage of basolateral base loaders with dihydro-4,4,-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2,-disulfonic acid (500 μmol/L)and amiloride (200 μmol/L), and (2) after alkali loading the ducts by exposure to NH4Cl. All the experiments were performed in HCO3--buffered Ringer solution at 37 ℃ (n = 5ducts for each experimental condition). Viral structural proteins were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Virallyencoded GFP and immunofluorescence signals were recorded by a confocal laser scanning microscope.RESULTS: The BDG virus infected the majority of accessible cells of the duct as judged by the appearance of GFP and viral antigens in the ductal cells. KEG virus caused a similarly high efficiency of infection. After blockage of basolateral base loaders, BDG infection significantly elevated -J(B-) 24 h after the infection, compared to the non-infected group. However, KEG infection did not modify -J(B-). After alkali loading the ducts, -J(B-) was significantly elevated in the BDG group compared to the control group 24 h after the infection. As we found with the inhibitor stop method, no change was observed in the group KEG compared to the non-infected group.CONCLUSION: Incubation with the BDG or KEG strains of PRV results in an effective

  5. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of bile duct stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Moo Sang; Jo, Jang Hwan; Kim, Byung Ro [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    During the past one and half year, we performed ESWL therapy in 13 patients with common bile duct and intrahepatic duct stones, applying Lithostar-R (Siemens co. West Germany) and analyzed their results. In 13 patients, 9 residual common bile duct stones and 7 intrahepatic duct stones were selected postoperatively. The size of stones were ranged from 0.7 cm to 3.5 cm in diameter. 2 stones were multiple and the remained 14 were single in number. The visualization of stones were done with fluoroscopy after the injection of contrast media via cholangiographic T-tube or ERCP. ESWL were applied continuously until stone disintegration was visible, or upto maximum number of 3500 discharge of shock wave. If not disintegrated upto 3500, patients were underwent second or third lithotripsy session with interval of one week. Our results showed that among 9 common bile duct stones, 4 were completely disintegrated and passed out spontaneously, but 3 partially fragmented and removed by the additional procedure. 2 were failed. Among 7 intrahepatic stones, 3 completely and 2 partially were succeeded. One stone partially fragmented were retained without removal and other one were failed. Skin petechia in all patients were revealed on the entry port of shock wave, but no serous complication was not occurred.

  6. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  7. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home program and California’s proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be installed within conditioned space or that other measures be taken to provide similar improvements in delivery effectiveness (DE). Pacific Gas & Electric Company commissioned a study to evaluate ducts in conditioned space and high-performance attics (HPAs) in support of the proposed codes and standards enhancements included in California’s 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards. The goal was to work with a select group of builders to design and install high-performance duct (HPD) systems, such as ducts in conditioned space (DCS), in one or more of their homes and to obtain test data to verify the improvement in DE compared to standard practice. Davis Energy Group (DEG) helped select the builders and led a team that provided information about HPD strategies to them. DEG also observed the construction process, completed testing, and collected cost data.

  8. Sensor-based navigation of air duct inspection mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyoungchul; Choi, H. J.; Kim, Jae-Seon; Ko, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper deals with an image sensor system and its position estimation algorithm for autonomous duct cleaning and inspection mobile robots. For the real application, a hierarchical control structure that consists of robot motion controller and image sensor system is designed considering the efficient and autonomous motion behaviors in narrow space such as air ducts. The sensor's system consists of a CCD camera and two laser sources to generate slit beams. The image of the structured lights is used for calculating the geometric parameters of the air ducts which are usually designed with a rectangular section. With the acquired 3D information about the environment, the mobile robot with two differential driving wheels is able to autonomously navigates along the duct path without any human intervention. For real time navigation, the relative position estimation of the robot are performed from 3D image reconstructed by the sensor system. The calibration and image processing methods used for the sensor system are presented with the experimental data. The experimental results show the possibility of the sensor based navigation which is important for effective duct cleaning by small mobile robots.

  9. Extrarenal multiorgan metastases of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Hisao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Collecting duct carcinoma is a rare type of renal cell carcinoma. The primary is difficult to diagnose on imaging, and metastases are often present on initial presentation. Extensive multiorgan metastases can result in complex presentations that can be difficult to diagnose. Case presentation We present two case reports of multiorgan metastases of collecting duct carcinoma that were autopsy confirmed. The first case was a 55-year-old man who presented with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed enlargement of the right kidney. Pyelonephritis was considered on the basis of laboratory test results and imaging findings. However, multiple cavitary lesions were found on routine chest radiography. These lesions were biopsied, resulting in a histological diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma. A renal tumor was considered. Transitional cell carcinoma was suspected, which proved to be misdiagnosed and chemotherapy was given accordingly. However, this was not effective and the patient died after 2 months. Autopsy demonstrated the primary tumor to be collecting duct carcinoma, with metastases to lung, liver, spleen, bone marrow, right adrenal gland, and para-aortic lymph node. Computed tomography done while the patient was alive detected lung, liver, and para-aortic lymph node metastases. The second case was a 77-year-old man who presented with fever. Pyelonephritis was considered on the basis of the laboratory test results and imaging findings. Antibiotic therapy improved his symptoms and laboratory indicators of inflammation. One year later, he developed backache. Computed tomography revealed a progressively enlarging right renal lesion, multiple liver masses, enlargement of the para-aortic lymph nodes, and multiple osteoblastic and osteoclastic lesions. A renal tumor with multiple metastases was diagnosed. Chemotherapy was given without effect, and the patient died of cardiac failure 1 year later. Autopsy

  10. [Pancreato-biliary maljunctions and congenital cystic dilatation of the bile ducts in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianmanesh, R; Régimbeau, J M; Belghiti, J

    2001-08-01

    Pancreato-biliary maljunctions (PBM) in adults are defined by the presence of an abnormally long common pancreato-biliary duct (more than 15 mm long) formed outside the duodenal wall and/or by high amylase level in the bile. The high amylase level in the bile is the functional expression of a chronic toxic reflux of pancreatic juices into the biliary tree. The presence of the PBM have two basic consequences: (i) formation of congenital cystic dilatations of the bile duct (CCBD) during embryogenesis and (ii) cancerous degeneration of extrahepatic bile ducts including the gall bladder. CCBD are commonly found in Southeast of Asia and in Japan where more than two-thirds of the worldwide cases are reported. Women are more frequently touched. The main manifestations are pain, cholangitis and acute pancreatitis. Cancerous degeneration mainly due to chronic pancreatico-biliary reflux consecutive to the presence of PBM is the most serious complication of CCBD. Its global incidence is about 16% and increases by age and after cysto-digestive derivations widely performed in the past. In 80% of the cases a cholangiocarcinoma involving the extrahepatic portion of the biliary tree including dilated segments such as the gall bladder and/or cystic wall is found. The treatment of choice of most common types of CCBD with PMD is complete excision of most of the sites where cancer may arise and should interrupt the pancreato-biliary reflux. This treatment significantly reduces the incidence of bile duct cancer to 0.7%. However, despite the absence of mortality, the overall morbidity rates reach from 20% to 40%. In the complete excision, the entire common bile duct from porta hepatis to the intrapancreatic portion of the choledochus and the gall bladder are resected. The bile continuity is assured by a hepatico-jejunal Y anastomosis. When there is no CCBD, the high risk of gall bladder cancer in the presence of a PBM justifies by itself a preventive cholecystectomy even if no biliary

  11. Quantized Coulomb branches of Jordan quiver gauge theories and cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kodera, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    We study quantized Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of Jordan type. We prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is isomorphic to the spherical graded Cherednik algebra in the unframed case, and is isomorphic to the spherical cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebra in the framed case. We also prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is a deformation of a subquotient of the Yangian of the affine $\\mathfrak{gl}(1)$.

  12. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  13. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  14. An Exact Transfer Matrix Formulation of Plane Sound Wave Transmission in Inhomogeneous Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockumaci, E.

    1998-11-01

    The impedance, or the reflection coefficient, of plane sound waves in inhomogeneous ducts satisfies a Riccati equation. The present paper shows that the duct impedance matrix, or the scattering matrix, can be related explicitly to the solutions of the associated linear equation of the Riccati equation for duct impedance, or reflection coefficient, respectively. New exact analytical scattering matrix solutions, which follow as consequences of this connection, are given for two significant duct acoustics problems, namely, the sound transmission in non-uniform ducts carrying an incompressible subsonic low Mach number mean flow transmission of sound in uniform ducts with a full quadratic axial mean temperature gradient.

  15. Stability analysis of a noise control system in a duct by using delay differential equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masakazu Haraguchi; Hai Yan Hu

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the criteria for the closed-loop stability of a noise control system in a duct. To study the stability of the system, the model of delay differential equation is derived from the propagation of acoustic wave governed by a partial differential equation of hyperbolic type. Then, a simple feedback controller is designed, and its closed-loop stability is analyzed on the basis of the derived model of delay differential equation. The obtained criteria reveal the influence of the controller gain and the positions of a sensor and an actuator on the closed-loop stability. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to support the theoreti-cal results.

  16. Collecting Duct Carcinoma With Cardiac Metastases: A Case Report & Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Voss

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC, is a rare and aggressive form of renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounting for around 1% of all renal malignancy. It affects younger patients and is associated with rapid progression, distant spread and poor prognosis. Cardiac metastases from all types of RCC, without involvement of the inferior vena cava are very rare. We present the case of a 54 year old man with a history of CDC, who presents with collapse and ventricular tachycardia secondary to multifocal cardiac metastases. We are not aware of any other reports in the literature of CDC and cardiac metastases.

  17. Propagation of the initial value perturbation in a cylindrical lined duct carrying a gas flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta M. BALINT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the homogeneous Euler equation linearized around a non-slipping mean flow andboundary conditions corresponding to the mass-spring-damper impedance, smooth initial dataperturbations with compact support are considered. The propagation of this type of initial dataperturbations in a straight cylindrical lined duct is investigated. Such kind of investigations is missingin the existing literature. The mathematical tools are the Fourier transform with respect to the axialspatial variable and the Laplace transform with respect to the time variable. The functionalframework and sufficient conditions are researched that the so problem be well-posed in the sense ofHadamard and the Briggs-Bers stability criteria can be applied.

  18. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  19. ECOLO-HOUSE in the heavy snow-fall region. Study of the ventilating function that the heat collecting system of the air duct utilizing attic has; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Kison kaoku no yaneura wo riyoshita duct shunetsu system kanki kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H.; Hirosawa, K. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports a duct heat collecting system installed in the ECOLO-HOUSE for snow countries. This system is an air heat collecting system of the outside air introducing type utilizing as a solar heat collector the single pitch roof often seen in snow countries. Outside air is introduced from below eaves into a heat collecting duct made by nailing plywoods onto rafters from the attic side to collect heat on the roof. Operating a sirocco fan connected to the induction duct located on the high-floor foundation sucks outside air from an air intake opening under the eaves into the heat collecting duct. Air which has absorbed heat on the roof and been warmed in the heat collecting duct by insolation goes into a heat collecting chamber. The air is sent into the high-floor foundation through the induction duct laid from the heat collecting chamber. Air is exchanged 8.7 times by the fan when it is operated all day continuously. Condensation in the fuel chamber floor and walls during the rainy season has disappeared, and so has odor at the same time. As a result of the humidity measurement, a location into which warm air is sent has difference in humidity as great as 15% from a location where no warm air is sent. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Finite amplitude waves in two-dimensional lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    A second-order uniform expansion is obtained for nonlinear wave propagation in a two-dimensional duct lined with a point-reacting acoustic material consisting of a porous sheet followed by honeycomb cavities and backed by the impervious wall of the duct. The waves in the duct are coupled with those in the porous sheet and the cavities. An analytical expression is obtained for the absorption coefficient in terms of the sound frequency, the physical properties of the porous sheet, and the geometrical parameters of the flow configuration. The results show that the nonlinearity flattens and broadens the absorption vs. frequency curve, irrespective of the geometrical dimensions or the porous material acoustic properties, in agreement with experimental observations.

  1. Developing active noise control systems for noise attenuation in ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rosely V.; Ivo, Rodrigo C.; Medeiros, Eduardo B.

    2002-11-01

    The present work describes some of the research effort on Active Noise Control (ANC) being jointly developed by the Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-MINAS) and the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). Considerations about the implementation of Digital Signal Processing for noise control in ducts has been presented. The objective is to establish a study on Active Noise Control in ducts combining geometry and acoustic parameters modification together with adaptive digital filtering implementation. Both algorithm and digital signal processing details are also discussed. The main results for a typical application where real attenuation has been obtained are presented and considered according to their use in developing real applications. The authors also believe that the present text should provide an interesting overview for both designers and students concerned about Active Noise Control in ducts. (To be presented in Portuguese.)

  2. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct cyst: case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Maleki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common form of congenital cysts on the neck. The incidence of thyroid papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst is less than 1%. In most cases the diagnosis is made postoperatively. We present a 22-year-old female with thyroid papillary carcinoma arising from thyroglossal duct cyst,identified in pathologic study after sistrunk operation.In our case there was neither invasion to adjacent tissue nor lymph node involvement.The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. The patient was treated with radioactive iodide and thyroid suppression therapy was given as adjuvant treatment.The patient has been following for two years without any metastasis.

  3. Endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement for inflammatory pancreatic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The role of endoscopic therapy in the management of pancreatic diseases is continuously evolving; at present most pathological conditions of the pancreas are successfully treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS),or both. Endoscopic placement of stents has played and still plays a major role in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, pseudocysts, pancreas divisum, main pancreatic duct injuries, pancreatic fistulae, complications of acute pancreatitis, recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis,and in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis. These stents are currently routinely placed to reduce intraductal hypertension, bypass obstructing stones, restore lumen patency in cases with dominant, symptomatic strictures,seal main pancreatic duct disruption, drain pseudocysts or fluid collections, treat symptomatic major or minor papilla sphincter stenosis, and prevent procedure-induced acute pancreatitis. The present review aims at updating and discussing techniques, indications, and results of endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the pancreas.

  4. Narrow sidebranch arrays for low frequency duct noise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S K

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigates the sound transmission loss across a section of an infinitely long duct where one or more narrow sidebranch tubes are installed flushed with the duct wall. The finite-element method is used to compute the wave propagation characteristics, and a simplified theoretical analysis is carried out at the same time to explain the wave mechanism at frequencies of high sound reduction. Results show that the high sound transmission loss at a particular frequency is due to the concerted actions of three consecutive sidebranch tubes with the most upstream one in the resonant state. The expansion chamber effect of the setup also plays a role in enhancing sound attenuation at non-resonance frequencies. Broadband performance of the device can be greatly enhanced by appropriate arrangements of tube lengths and/or by coupling arrays on the two sides of the duct.

  5. Biliary endoprostheses in tumors at the hepatic duct bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammer, J.; Neumayer, K.; Steiner, H.

    1986-11-01

    In 51 patients with tumors at the hepatic duct bifurcation, endoprostheses were transhepatically inserted into the bile ducts. Patients with Bismuth-3-tumors (i.e. bilateral biliary obstruction) were treated by insertion of 2 or more endoprostheses. Long-term success presumed drainage of all obstructed ducts, because cholangitis has been a common problem secondary to undrained segments. Furthermore the debris and the high viscosity of infected bile increased the risk for obstruction of the endoprostheses, which was observed in 6%. The mean time of survival was 7 months with a maximum of 26 months. In our experience endoprostheses can be used successfully in unresectable Klatskin tumours, which increases the comfort for the patients in their last months of life.

  6. [Postoperative handling in biliodigestive derivation by iatrogenic bile duct injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, I; Mercado, M A

    2008-01-01

    Bile duct injury is a severe complication related to cholecystectomy, impacting in the long-term quality of life and functional status. Bile duct repair is the first-line treatment for complex injuries. During short-term and long-term postoperative care, it is important to bear in mind the diagnostic tools, both laboratory and imaging, that will be useful to evaluate a possible surgical complication and to plan an adequate therapeutic strategy. In addition, post-surgical classification describes patients according to their complications and clinical course. In this review we describe the principal issues of postoperative care after bile duct repair, highlighting the diagnosis, severity classification and therapeutic approach of acute cholangitis.

  7. CASE STUDY OF DUCT RETROFIT OF A 1985 HOME AND GUIDELINES FOR ATTIC AND CRAWL SPACE DUCT SEALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is fully committed to research for developing the information and capabilities necessary to provide cost-effective residential retrofits yielding 50% energy savings within the next several years. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the biggest energy end use in the residential sector, and a significant amount of energy can be wasted through leaky ductwork in unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces. A detailed duct sealing case study is presented for one house along with nine brief descriptions of other duct retrofits completed in the mixed-humid climate. Costs and estimated energy savings are reported for most of the ten houses. Costs for the retrofits ranged from $0.92/ft2 to $1.80/ft2 of living space and estimated yearly energy cost savings due to the duct retrofits range from 1.8% to 18.5%. Lessons learned and duct sealing guidelines based on these ten houses, as well as close work with the HVAC industry in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee, northern Georgia, and south-central Kentucky are presented. It is hoped that the lessons learned and guidelines will influence local HVAC contractors, energy auditors, and homeowners when diagnosing or repairing HVAC duct leakage and will be useful for steering DOE s future research in this area.

  8. A CADAVERIC STUDY OF VARIATION IN BRANCHING PATTERN OF COELIAC TRUNK IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayamma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: purpose of present study was to describe the variations in the branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Caeliac trunk is one of the ventral branch of abdominal aorta.it arises from the abdominal aorta opposite to intervertebral disc of T12 & L1 vertebrae.it has short course of 1.5 cm after which it terminates by dividing in to three branches splenic artery , left ga stric artery and common hepatic artery. Here we report unusual branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Knowledge of such variations in branching pattern of caeliac trunk is very important for surgeons , anatomists and anaesthetists. METHODS : The present study is done on 30 cadavers irrespective of sex in department of Anatomy in KURNOOL MEDICAL COLLEGE , Kurnool. According to dissection guidelines of cunnighams practical manual of Anatomy. RESULTS: The present study was an attempt to study the occurrence of the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk. The available literature was reviewed. The coeliac trunk took origin from the ventral surface of the aorta in all the 30 specimens. The various patterns were normal hepatolienogastric trunk in 92% , lienogastric trunk in. In one Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern o f specimen , coeliac trunk divided into common hepati c & splenic arteries , the left gastric artery took origin from the splenic artery. CONCLUSION : In my study out of 30 specimens 92% belonged to Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. This classification is according to LIPSCHUTZ (1917. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk.

  9. Thermoluminescence measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obryk, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.obryk@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Batistoni, Paola [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Conroy, Sean [EURATOM-VR Association, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Syme, Brian D.; Popovichev, Sergey [EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences, Energy, Technology and Safety, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens (Greece); Bilski, Paweł [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) were used for dose measurements at JET. •Pairs of {sup 6}LiF/{sup 7}LiF TLDs allow to measure thermal neutron component of a radiation field. •For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. •TLDs were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth. •The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. -- Abstract: Thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) were used for dose measurements at JET. Several hundreds of LiF detectors of various types, standard LiF:Mg,Ti and highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P were produced. LiF detectors consisting of natural lithium are sensitive to slow neutrons, their response to neutrons being enhanced by {sup 6}Li-enriched lithium or suppressed by using lithium consisting entirely of {sup 7}Li. Pairs of {sup 6}LiF/{sup 7}LiF detectors allow distinguishing between neutron/non-neutron components of a radiation field. For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. TLDs, located in the centre of cylindrical moderators, were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth in July 2012, and exposure took place during the last two weeks of the experimental campaign. Measurements of the gamma dose were obtained for all positions over a range of about five orders of magnitude variation. As the TLDs were also calibrated in a thermal neutron field, the neutron fluence at the experimental position could be derived. The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. The results confirm that the TLD technology can be usefully applied to measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts.

  10. Recursion relations and branching rules for simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Lyakhovsky, V D

    1995-01-01

    The branching rules between simple Lie algebras and its regular (maximal) simple subalgebras are studied. Two types of recursion relations for anomalous relative multiplicities are obtained. One of them is proved to be the factorized version of the other. The factorization property is based on the existence of the set of weights \\Gamma specific for each injection. The structure of \\Gamma is easily deduced from the correspondence between the root systems of algebra and subalgebra. The recursion relations thus obtained give rise to simple and effective algorithm for branching rules. The details are exposed by performing the explicit decomposition procedure for A_{3} \\oplus u(1) \\rightarrow B_{4} injection.

  11. The acoustics of aircraft engine-duct systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Kaiser, J. E.; Telionis, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Noise generated in aircraft engines is usually suppressed by acoustically treating the engine ducts. The optimization of this treatment requires an understanding of the transmission and attenuation of the acoustic waves. A critical review is presented of the state of the art regarding methods of determining the transmission and attenuation parameters and the effect on these parameters of (1) acoustic properties of liners, (2) the mean velocity, including uniform and shear profiles and nonparallel flow, (3) axial and transverse temperature gradients, (4) slowly and abruptly varying cross sections, and (5) finite-amplitude waves and nonlinear duct liners.

  12. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in two-dimensional ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to obtain a second-order uniformly valid expansion for the nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a two-dimensional duct whose walls are treated with a nonlinear acoustic material. The wave propagation in the duct is characterized by the unsteady nonlinear Euler equations. The results show that nonlinear effects tend to flatten and broaden the absorption versus frequency curve, in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. Moreover, the effect of the gas nonlinearity increases with increasing sound frequency, whereas the effect of the material nonlinearity decreases with increasing sound frequency.

  13. Acoustic propagation in ducts with varying cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Telionis, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to derive the equations that describe the spatial and temporal variation of the amplitudes and phases of a wave packet propagating in slowly varying hard-walled or lined ducts. The analysis is carried out for rectangular as well as circular ducts. These equations are statements of the conservation of energy. For large admittance or high-frequency modes, an approximate expression is obtained for the attenuation. This expression shows that all possible acoustic modes are attenuating. The results also show that decreasing the cross sectional area can lead to elimination of some of the acoustic modes.

  14. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of vanishing bile duct syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Pusl; Ulrich Beuers

    2006-01-01

    Vanishing bile duct syndromes (VBDS) are characterized by progressive loss of small intrahepatic ducts caused by a variety of different diseases leading to chronic cholestasis, cirrhosis, and premature death from liver failure. The majority of adult patients with VBDS suffer from primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic dihydroxy bile acid, is the only drug currently approved for the treatment of patients with PBC, and anticholestatic effects have been reported for several other cholestatic syndromes. Several potential mechanisms of action of UDCA have been proposed including stimulation of hepatobiliary secretion, inhibition of apoptosis and protection of cholangiocytes against toxic effects of hydrophobic bile acids.

  15. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  16. Radiation from a lined duct in uniform flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a boundary element formulation for modelling the sound field inside and outside a duct in uniform flow. The model is the first step towards models for predicting the noise radiated from turbo fan engines. For this purpose the frequency range is very large (up to ka=40), and non......-axisymmetric excitation is important (spinning modes). In addition the model allows the duct to be partially or fully treated with an axisymmetric locally reacting liner. Results determined with the model are compared with results from the literature and results calculated with an analytic model....

  17. Simultaneous Papillary Carcinoma in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cancela e Penna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC is a cystic expansion of a remnant of the thyroglossal duct tract. Carcinomas in the TDC are extremely rare and are usually an incidental finding after the Sistrunk procedure. In this report, an unusual case of a 36-year-old woman with concurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in the TDC and on the thyroid gland is presented, followed by a discussion of the controversies surrounding the possible origins of a papillary carcinoma in the TDC, as well as the current management options.

  18. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  19. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  20. Stability of earthquake clustering models: criticality and branching ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J; Harte, David S

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  1. Stability of earthquake clustering models: Criticality and branching ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J.; Harte, David S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  2. Branching and growth of plantings in fifth year of a seedling seed orchard of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The features of branching and growth studied included height, diameter at breast height (DBH), total number of branches, annual height growth, annual branch elongation in the year of elongating, annual branch number for four consecutive years, diameter of branches of different ages, and diameter of stem where branch-whorl originates. For features of total growth and overall branching, no significant differences were found between families, except for DBH. For annual features, no significant differences were found in annual stem height growth, annual branch elongation in the year of elongation and diameter of branches. In the last four years, differences in number of branches were not significant in the first two years but were significant in the last two year; differences in stem diameter where branch-whorls grow were significant for the four consecutive years. Trend of annual growth and branching features of families can be divided into three types as increasing type, stable type and fluctuating type. Most of families have an increasing type with respect of annual height growth and annual branch elongation, while most families belong to a fluctuating type with annual branch number. The results indicated that in the fifth year after planted in seedling seed orchard, differences between families were mostly insignificant. This result may have two main explanations: one is the growth rhyme in early ages of Masson pine, the other one is the complex paternal components to form the open-pollinated families. Family selection seemed to be not useful based on the result. It is suggested to select some of families in the nursery instead of to use all the families when establishing seedling seed orchards with open-pollinated families from plus-trees.

  3. A pancreatobiliary-type carcinoma in situ at the periphery of a mural nodule developed from a gastric adenoma in an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Naoki; Kimura, Wataru; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Takeshita, Akiko; Murayama, Saijiro; Hirai, Ichiro; Ogata, Shinya

    2010-08-01

    We report a rare case of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) with a pancreatobiliary-type carcinoma in situ (CIS) that originated around a mural nodule formed in a gastric-type adenoma. A 64-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in December 2001 for dilation of the main pancreatic duct, detected on abdominal ultrasonography. Branch-duct-type IPMN (diameter 25 mm) was diagnosed, and because mural nodules were absent, the patient was annually followed up for 5 years. In 2006, computed tomography scans revealed thickening of the tumor wall and the development of a mural nodule (diameter approximately 6 mm); pancreatoduodenectomy with regional lymph-node dissection was performed. Histopathologic examination showed an intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma arising from an adenoma. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed that most of the tumor components, including the mural nodule, had adenomatous changes, indicating the tumor to be of the gastric type; however, immunohistochemistry showed positive MUC2 expression. Histologically, the tissues around the nodule, including those showing a cribriform pattern, were diagnosed as CIS. These tissues were classified as the pancreatobiliary-type on the basis of the results of both H&E staining and immunohistochemistry. The patient remained disease-free for 3 years after surgery.

  4. IMP3 expression in lesions of the biliary tract: a marker for high-grade dysplasia and an independent prognostic factor in bile duct carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, Marc-Oliver; Fritzsche, Florian R; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Jochum, Wolfram; Kristiansen, Glen

    2009-10-01

    The oncofetal protein IMP3 (insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3) is expressed during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. Various tumor types have been analyzed for IMP3 expression, which was exclusively found in tumor cells and correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness and reduced overall survival. To our knowledge, IMP3 expression has not been investigated in bile duct carcinomas. Using large tissue sections from resection specimens of the extrahepatic biliary tract, we analyzed IMP3 in normal bile ducts (n = 36), bile ducts with acute inflammation and reactive epithelial changes (n = 26), low-grade dysplasia (n = 9), and high-grade dysplasia (n = 11). Furthermore, IMP3 expression was assessed in bile duct carcinoma (n = 115) using clinically well-characterized tissue microarrays. The findings were correlated with clinical-pathologic parameters including survival. High-grade dysplasia was strongly positive for IMP3 in all cases studied compared with no or weak expression in normal, inflamed, and low-grade dysplastic bile ducts. Of the bile duct carcinomas 58.3% (67/115) were strongly positive for IMP3, which was associated with a higher proliferation rate (P = .004) and p53 positivity (P = .022). Patients with strong IMP3 expression had significantly reduced overall survival (P = .037) similarly to the subgroup of pT3 carcinomas (P = .007). In multivariate analysis, IMP3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = .040, RR = 1.809). This comprehensive study shows that IMP3 is an independent prognostic biomarker in bile duct carcinoma. In addition, it may be a marker for high-grade dysplasia in the extrahepatic biliary tract.

  5. 103Pd radioactive stent inhibits biliary duct restenosis and reduces smooth muscle actin expression during duct healing in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Jin He; Qin-Yi Gao; Shu-He Xu; Hong Gao; Tao Jiang; Xian-Wei Dai; Kai Ma

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the expression of smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the healing process after implanting a 103Pd radioactive stent in the biliary duct, and to discuss the function and signiifcance of this stent in preventing biliary stricture formation. METHODS:A model of biliary injury in dogs was made and then a 103Pd radioactive stent was positioned in the biliary duct. The expression and distribution of SMA were assessed in the anastomotic tissue 30 days after implantation of the stent. RESULTS:SMA expression was less in the 103Pd stent group than in the ordinary stent group. The 103Pd stent inhibited scar contracture and anastomotic stenosis. CONCLUSION:The 103Pd stent can reduce the expression of SMA in the healing process and inhibit scar contracture and anastomotic stenosis in the dog biliary duct.

  6. Polyphosphazene Based Star-Branched and Dendritic Molecular Brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Helena; Posch, Sandra; Brüggemann, Oliver; Teasdale, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A new synthetic procedure is described for the preparation of poly(organo)phosphazenes with star-branched and star dendritic molecular brush type structures, thus describing the first time it has been possible to prepare controlled, highly branched architectures for this type of polymer. Furthermore, as a result of the extremely high-arm density generated by the phosphazene repeat unit, the second-generation structures represent quite unique architectures for any type of polymer. Using two relativity straight forward iterative syntheses it is possible to prepare globular highly branched polymers with up to 30 000 functional end groups, while keeping relatively narrow polydispersities (1.2–1.6). Phosphine mediated polymerization of chlorophosphoranimine is first used to prepare three-arm star polymers. Subsequent substitution with diphenylphosphine moieties gives poly(organo)phosphazenes to function as multifunctional macroinitiators for the growth of a second generation of polyphosphazene arms. Macrosubstitution with Jeffamine oligomers gives a series of large, water soluble branched macromolecules with high-arm density and hydrodynamic diameters between 10 and 70 nm. PMID:27027404

  7. Effect of flow on the acoustic resonances of an open-ended duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingard, U.; Singhal, V. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of flow on the acoustic resonances of an open-ended, hard-walled duct is analyzed. The flow produces acoustic losses both in the interior of the duct and at the ends. Unless the duct is very long, typically 100 times the diameter, the losses at the ends dominate. At flow Mach numbers in excess of 0.4 the losses are so large that axial duct resonances are almost completely suppressed. The plane-wave Green's function for the duct with flow is expressed in terms of the (experimentally determined) pressure reflection coefficients at the ends of the duct, and the flow dependence of the complex eigenfrequencies of the duct is obtained. Some observations concerning the noise produced by the flow in the duct are also reported.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF FUNGAL (PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) GROWTH ON THREE HVAC DUCT MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article discusses laboratory experiments to evaluate the susceptibility of three ventilation duct materials (fibrous glass ductboard, galvanized steel, and insulated flexible duct) to fungal (P. chrysogenum) growth. [NOTE: Many building investigators have documented fungal bi...

  9. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  10. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  11. Chitin in the silk gland ducts of the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwilym J G Davies

    Full Text Available Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts.

  12. Chitin in the silk gland ducts of the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gwilym J G; Knight, David P; Vollrath, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts.

  13. Sequential embolization of the branches of the bile duct and portal vein to the targeted hepatic lobe in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anuj Shrestha; Huan Feng; Wen Li and Qiang Han; Yong Zhou; Hui Mao; Fu-Yu Li; Wen-Jie Ma; Nan-Sheng Cheng; Ri-Hua Xu; Yong-Qiong Zhang; Ting Jiang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The high recurrence rate of hepatolithiasis and the high operative risk of right posterior, caudate or multiple  lobe  hepatectomy  are  the  unsettled  problems  in hepatobiliary surgery. The present study was to investigate the efifcacy of chemical hepatectomy performed via applying sequential embolization of the branches of the bile duct and portal vein to the targeted hepatic lobe. METHODS: The bile duct and portal vein branches of the median hepatic lobe of rats were treated with: 1) bile duct embolization  followed  by  portal  vein  ligation  (BDE+PVL) and 2) portal vein ligation followed by bile duct embolization (PVL+BDE). The efifcacy of chemical hepatectomy in BDE+PVL and PVL+BDE groups was compared with that of sole BDE by histology and Western blotting analysis of collagen I expression. RESULTS: After six weeks of the chemical hepatectomy, rats in the BDE group showed hepatocyte damages, ifbrosis and "self-cut" only in the periphery of the embolized lobe. In contrast, rats in the PVL+BDE and BDE+PVL groups exhibited complete necrosis  of  hepatocytes  and  replacement  with  proliferative ductules and collagen ifbers, leading to complete ifbrosis and "self-cut" phenomenon in the whole targeted lobe. Collagen I expression in the PVL+BDE group was slightly higher than that in the BDE+PVL group; however, no statistically signiifcant difference was noted. CONCLUSION: The sequential embolization of the bile duct and portal vein branches to the targeted hepatic lobe may be a feasible and effective approach to acheive the ideal effect of chemical hepatectomy in a short period of time.

  14. Experimental study on the particles deposition in the sampling duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Charuau, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    A high standard of protection against the harmful effects of radioactive aerosol dissemination requires a measurement, as representative as possible, of their concentration. This measurement depends on the techniques used for aerosol sampling and transfer to the detector, as well as on the location of the latter with respect to the potential sources. The aeraulic design of the apparatus is also an important factor. Once collected the aerosol particles often have to travel through a variably shaped duct to the measurement apparatus. This transport is responsible for losses due to the particles deposition on the walls, leading to a distortion on the concentration measurements and a change in the particle size distribution. To estimate and minimize measurement errors it is important to determine the optimal transport conditions when designing a duct; its diameter and material, the radius of curvature of the bends and the flow conditions must be defined in particular. This paper presents an experimental study in order to determine, for each deposition mechanism, the retained fraction, or the deposition velocity for different flow regimes. This study has pointed out that it exists a favourable flow regime for the particle transport through the sampling ducts (2 500 < Re < 5 000). It has been established, for any particle diameters, equations to predict the aerosol penetration in smooth-walled cylindrical metal ducts.

  15. Reynolds-stress model prediction of 3-D duct flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gerolymos, G A

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of different modelling choices in second-moment closures by assessing model performance in predicting 3-D duct flows. The test-cases (developing flow in a square duct [Gessner F.B., Emery A.F.: {\\em ASME J. Fluids Eng.} {\\bf 103} (1981) 445--455], circular-to-rectangular transition-duct [Davis D.O., Gessner F.B.: {\\em AIAA J.} {\\bf 30} (1992) 367--375], and \\tsn{S}-duct with large separation [Wellborn S.R., Reichert B.A., Okiishi T.H.: {\\em J. Prop. Power} {\\bf 10} (1994) 668--675]) include progressively more complex strains. Comparison of experimental data with selected 7-equation models (6 Reynolds-stress-transport and 1 scale-determining equations), which differ in the closure of the velocity/pressure-gradient tensor $\\Pi_{ij}$, suggests that rapid redistribution controls separation and secondary-flow prediction, whereas, inclusion of pressure-diffusion modelling improves reattachment and relaxation behaviour.

  16. Design curves for circular and annular duct silencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Willie R.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional models of sound propagation between porous walls (Scott, 1946) are adapted in order to calculate design curves for the lined circular and annular-duct silencers used in HVAC systems. The derivation of the governing equations is outlined, and results for two typical cases are presented graphically. Good agreement with published experimental data is demonstrated.

  17. Benign Pancreatic Duct Strictures: Medical and Endoscopic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Geenen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic duct strictures usually reflect underlying pancreatic disease and are likely caused by one or more of the following: acute or chronic pancreatitis, benign or malignant pancreatic neoplasm, pseudocyst and trauma. The characteristics of pancreatic strictures are identified, and medical and endoscopic therapy options are reviewed.

  18. Two phase flow combustion modelling of a ducted rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, R.A.; Dubois, C.; Harris, P.G.; Mayer, A.E.H.J.; Champlain, A. de; Ringuette, S.

    2001-01-01

    Under a co-operative program, the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier and Université Laval in Canada and the TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory in the Netherlands have studied the use of a ducted rocket for missile propulsion. Hot-flow direct-connect combustion experiments using both simulated and s

  19. [Experimental microendoscopy of the milk duct system (ductoscopy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, S; Wallwiener, D; Fein, A; von Fournier, D; Bastert, G

    1995-01-01

    According to recent reports, the microendoscopic lactiferous duct investigation (ductoscopy) could improve diagnosis in case of pathological nipple discharge. However, the description of a reproducible and reliable methodology, suitable for thorough evaluation of the lactiferous duct is missing so far. Therefore, the pressure study developed a procedure, that may serve now as an experimental basis for further clinical evaluation. Access to the mamillary duct is primarily gained using atraumatic flexible teflon catheters. Corresponding to the diameter of the duct, either a semirigid 0.87 mm fiberendoscope can be successfully introduced via a 1.2 mm catheter, or a flexible 0.50 mm fiberendoscope via a 1.0 mm catheter. A controlled distension using few milliliters of ringer's lactate is the prerequisite for clear visualization of the intraductal space and protection against iatrogenic wall lesions. Metal microtocars are available as prototypes. They carry a somewhat higher risk to perforate, but are advantageous when pointing at an intraductal structure and using the microtrocar as a mark for microdochectomy.

  20. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  1. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…

  2. Measurements of neutron streaming energy spectra in shielding ducts; Medidas e calculos de espectro de energia de neutrons emergentes de um duto em uma blindagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angioletto, Elcio; Abe, Alfredo Y. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail: angiolet@net.ipen.br; Coelho, Rogerio P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the measurements of neutron streaming, for different energy ranges, in shielding ducts. The shielding is composed of plates of different materials (borate polyethylene and paraffin). The two ducts are conceived as labyrinths in order to (a three-legged duct) minimize the radiation streaming. A 37 GBq Americium-Beryllium neutron source type was used for the experimental measurements. The fast neutron energy spectra were measured using a detection system with a liquid organic scintillator, NE-213 detector, and appropriate electronic equipment. The results are in good agreement with the literature. The measurements of thermal neutrons intensity were performed with a BF{sub 3} counter. The MCNP-4B code was used to simulate the experiment. The simulation was performed with success, obtaining a small discrepancy (9.0%) between the calculated results and the measurements with the BF{sub 3} counter, at the duct third leg. From the results it was possible to observe the thermal neutron streaming through the duct, the effects of neutron flux moderation, the attenuation in the shielding and also the neutron energy spectra modifications emerging from the shielding. (author)

  3. Modeling and Control of a Tailsitter with a Ducted Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyle, Matthew Elliott

    There are two traditional aircraft categories: fixed-wing which have a long endurance and a high cruise airspeed and rotorcraft which can take-off and land vertically. The tailsitter is a type of aircraft that has the strengths of both platforms, with no additional mechanical complexity, because it takes off and lands vertically on its tail and can transition the entire aircraft horizontally into high-speed flight. In this dissertation, we develop the entire control system for a tailsitter with a ducted fan. The standard method to compute the quaternion-based attitude error does not generate ideal trajectories for a hovering tailsitter for some situations. In addition, the only approach in the literature to mitigate this breaks down for large attitude errors. We develop an alternative quaternion-based error method which generates better trajectories than the standard approach and can handle large errors. We also derive a hybrid backstepping controller with almost global asymptotic stability based on this error method. Many common altitude and airspeed control schemes for a fixed-wing airplane assume that the altitude and airspeed dynamics are decoupled which leads to errors. The Total Energy Control System (TECS) is an approach that controls the altitude and airspeed by manipulating the total energy rate and energy distribution rate, of the aircraft, in a manner which accounts for the dynamic coupling. In this dissertation, a nonlinear controller, which can handle inaccurate thrust and drag models, based on the TECS principles is derived. Simulation results show that the nonlinear controller has better performance than the standard PI TECS control schemes. Most constant altitude transitions are accomplished by generating an optimal trajectory, and potentially actuator inputs, based on a high fidelity model of the aircraft. While there are several approaches to mitigate the effects of modeling errors, these do not fully remove the accurate model requirement. In this

  4. Levels of miRNA and Hormones in Thoracic Duct Lymph in Rats with Experimental Breast Cancer Induced by N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, A P; Kabakov, A V; Kazakov, O V; Bondarenko, N A; Poveshchenko, O V; Raiter, T V; Poveshchenko, A F; Strunkin, D N; Konenkov, V I

    2017-01-01

    We studied hormone levels in the thoracic duct lymph and expression of miRNA involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer induced in rats by intramammary injection of N-methyl-Nnitrosourea. The correlations between miRNA expression and hormone levels depended on the type of treatment.

  5. Aerodynamic analysis and simulation of a twin-tail tilt-duct unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Cyrus

    The tilt-duct vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) concept has been around since the early 1960s; however, to date the design has never passed the research phase and development phase. Nearly 50 years later, American Dynamics Flight Systems (ADFS) is developing the AD-150, a 2,250lb weight class unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) configured with rotating ducts on each wingtip. Unlike its predecessor, the Doak VZ-4, the AD-150 features a V tail and wing sweep -- both of which affect the aerodynamic behavior of the aircraft. Because no aircraft of this type has been built and tested, vital aerodynamic research was conducted on the bare airframe behavior (without wingtip ducts). Two weeks of static and dynamic testing were performed on a 3/10th scale model at the University of Maryland's 7' x 10' low speed wind tunnel to facilitate the construction of a nonlinear flight simulator. A total of 70 dynamic tests were performed to obtain damping parameter estimates using the ordinary least squares methodology. Validation, based on agreement between static and dynamic estimates of the pitch and yaw stiffness terms, showed an average percent error of 14.0% and 39.6%, respectively. These inconsistencies were attributed to: large dynamic displacements not encountered during static testing, regressor collinearity, and, while not conclusively proven, differences in static and dynamic boundary layer development. Overall, the damping estimates were consistent and repeatable, with low scatter over a 95% confidence interval. Finally, a basic open loop simulation was executed to demonstrate the instability of the aircraft. As a result, it is recommended that future work be performed to determine trim points and linear models for controls development.

  6. Papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santos Martins

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common congenital cervical abnormality in childhood. Malignant lesions are rare in thyroglossal duct cysts (about 1%. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cysts. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 21-year-old female with a four-month history of an anterior midline neck mass but without other symptoms. The physical examination revealed a 4.0 cm diameter, smooth, painless, cystic nodule at the level of the hyoid bone. The thyroid gland was normal by palpation and no neck lymph nodes were found. Indirect laryngoscopy, fine-needle biopsy aspiration and cervical ultrasound were normal and compatible with the physical findings of a thyroglossal duct cyst. The patient underwent surgery with this diagnosis, under general anesthesia, and the mass was resected by the usual Sistrunk procedure. There were no local signs of invasion of the tissue surrounding the cyst or duct at surgery. The patient was discharged within 24 hours. Histopathological examination of the specimen showed a 3.5 x 3.0 x 3.0 cm thyroglossal cyst, partially filled by a solid 1.0 x 0.5 cm brownish tissue. Histological sections showed a papillary carcinoma in the thyroid tissue of a thyroglossal cyst, with normal thyroid tissue at the boundary of the carcinoma. There was no capsule invasion and the margins were negative. The follow-up of the patient consisted of head and neck examinations, ultrasonography of the surgical region and thyroid, and total body scintigraphy. The patient has been followed up for two years with no further evidence of disease.

  7. Modal Analysis in Lined Wedge-Shaped Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechel, F. P.

    1998-10-01

    It has been suggested to describe the sound field in a wedge-shaped duct in a cylindrical co-ordinate system in which the boundaries of the wedge lie in a co-ordinate surface. This suggestion was developed in a companion paper [1]. The wave equation can be separated only if the boundaries are ideally reflecting (rigid or soft). Two solutions were proposed in reference [1] for absorbing boundaries. In the first solution the sound field is composed of “ideal modes” (modes in a wedge with ideally reflecting boundaries); the boundary condition at the absorbing boundary then leads to a system of equations for the mode amplitudes. The problem with this method lies in the fact that there is no radial orthogonality of the ideal modes so that the precision of the field synthesis by ideal modes is doubtful. In the second method in reference [1] one defines “fictitious modes” which satisfy the boundary conditions at the flanks exactly and which are based on hypergeometric functions as radial functions, but which produce a “rest” in the wave equation. It was described how this rest can be minimized; this procedure leads to slow numerical integrations. In the present paper, the wedge is subdivided into duct sections with parallel walls (the boundary is stepped); the fields in the sections are composed of duct modes (modes in a straight lined duct); the mode amplitudes are determined from the boundary conditions at the section limits. The advantages of the present method are (analytically) the duct modes are orthogonal across the sections, so the mode amplitudes can be determined with the usual precision of a modal analysis, and (numerically) no numerical integrations are needed.

  8. Isolated segmental, sectoral and right hepatic bile duct injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radoje B Colovic

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of isolated segmental, sectoral and right hepatic bile duct injuries is controversial. Nineteen patients were treated over a 26-year period. Group one was comprised of 4 patients in whom the injury was primarily repaired during the original surgery;3 over a T-tube, 1 with a Roux-en-Y. These patients had an uneventful recovery. The second group consisted of 5 patients in whom the duct was ligated;4 developed infection, 3 of which required drainage and biliary repair. Two patients had good long-term outcomes;the third developed a late anastomotic stricture requiring further surgery. The fourth patient developed a small bile leak and pain which resolved spontaneously. The fifth patient developed complications from which he died. The third group was comprised of 4 patients referred with biliary peritonitis;all underwent drainage and lavage, and developed biliary fistulae, 3 of which resolved spontaneously, 1 required Roux-en-Y repair, with favorable outcomes. The fourth group consisted of 6 patients with biliary fistulae. Two patients, both with an 8-wk history of a fistula, underwent Roux-en-Y repair. Two others also underwent a Roux-en-Y repair, as their fistulae showed no signs of closure. The remaining 2 patients had spontaneous closure of their biliary fistulae. A primary repair is a reasonable alternative to ligature of injured duct. Patients with ligated ducts may develop complications. Infected ducts require further surgery. Patients with biliary peritonitis must be treated with drainage and lavage. There is a 50% chance that a biliary fistula will close spontaneously. In cases where the biliary fistula does not close within 6 to 8 wk, a Roux-en-Y anastomosis should be considered.

  9. Stabilization of Branching Queueing Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brázdil, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Queueing networks are gaining attraction for the performance analysis of parallel computer systems. A Jackson network is a set of interconnected servers, where the completion of a job at server i may result in the creation of a new job for server j. We propose to extend Jackson networks by "branching" and by "control" features. Both extensions are new and substantially expand the modelling power of Jackson networks. On the other hand, the extensions raise computational questions, particularly concerning the stability of the networks, i.e, the ergodicity of the underlying Markov chain. We show for our extended model that it is decidable in polynomial time if there exists a controller that achieves stability. Moreover, if such a controller exists, one can efficiently compute a static randomized controller which stabilizes the network in a very strong sense; in particular, all moments of the queue sizes are finite.

  10. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  11. Branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Böinghoff, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffusion approximation of branching processes in random environment (BPREs). This diffusion approximation is similar to and mathematically more tractable than BPREs. We obtain the exact asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. As in the case of BPREs, there is a phase transition in the subcritical regime due to different survival opportunities. In addition, we characterize the process conditioned to never go extinct and establish a backbone construction. In the strongly subcritical regime, mean offspring numbers are increased but still subcritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Here survival is solely due to an immortal individual, whose offspring are the ancestors of additional families. In the weakly subcritical regime, the mean offspring number is supercritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Thus this process survives with positive probability even if there was no immortal individual.

  12. Lhx1 is required in Müllerian duct epithelium for uterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Orvis, Grant D; Kwan, Kin Ming; Behringer, Richard R

    2014-05-15

    The female reproductive tract organs of mammals, including the oviducts, uterus, cervix and upper vagina, are derived from the Müllerian ducts, a pair of epithelial tubes that form within the mesonephroi. The Müllerian ducts form in a rostral to caudal manner, guided by and dependent on the Wolffian ducts that have already formed. Experimental embryological studies indicate that caudal elongation of the Müllerian duct towards the urogenital sinus occurs in part by proliferation at the ductal tip. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the elongation of the Müllerian duct are currently unclear. Lhx1 encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor that is essential for male and female reproductive tract development. Lhx1 is expressed in both the Wolffian and Müllerian ducts. Wolffian duct-specific knockout of Lhx1 results in degeneration of the Wolffian duct and consequently the non-cell-autonomous loss of the Müllerian duct. To determine the role of Lhx1 specifically in the Müllerian duct epithelium, we performed a Müllerian duct-specific knockout study using Wnt7a-Cre mice. Loss of Lhx1 in the Müllerian duct epithelium led to a block in Müllerian duct elongation and uterine hypoplasia characterized by loss of the entire endometrium (luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma) and inner circular but not the outer longitudinal muscle layer. Time-lapse imaging and molecular analyses indicate that Lhx1 acts cell autonomously to maintain ductal progenitor cells for Müllerian duct elongation. These studies identify LHX1 as the first transcription factor that is essential in the Müllerian duct epithelial progenitor cells for female reproductive tract development. Furthermore, these genetic studies demonstrate the requirement of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for uterine tissue compartment differentiation.

  13. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  14. Müllerian duct anomalies and mimics in children and adolescents: correlative intraoperative assessment with clinical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Beatriz L P; Allen, Lisa M; Spitzer, Rachel F; Lucco, Kerith L; Babyn, Paul S; Doria, Andrea S

    2009-01-01

    Müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital entities that result from nondevelopment, defective vertical or lateral fusion, or resorption failure of the müllerian (paramesonephric) ducts. MDAs are common, although the majority are asymptomatic, and have been classified by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine according to clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment. Accurate diagnosis of an MDA is essential, since the management approach varies depending on the type of malformation. In females, when a müllerian duct becomes obstructed, the patient may present with an abdominal mass and dysmenorrhea. If the patient is not treated in a timely fashion, the consequences can be severe, extending even to infertility. When an MDA is suspected, ultrasonography (US) should be performed initially to delineate any abnormalities in the genital tract. However, US cannot help identify the type of MDA. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable technique for noninvasive evaluation of the female pelvic anatomy and accurate MDA classification. If obstruction is present, surgical correction of the MDA may be required, and further counseling of the patient with regard to reproductive possibilities becomes important. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/29/4/1085/DC1.

  15. Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis: The pattern of thickening of the extrahepatic bile duct on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Dong Ho; Jeong, Yu Mee; Lee, Eil Seong [Kang Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-15

    The pattern of thickening of the extrahepatic bile duct on computed tomography was analysed in 30 cases with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis diagnosed by surgery (n=19) or by clinical basis (n=11). The mean wall thickness of the extrahepatic bile duct was 3.3 mm (range, 1-6.3 mm). Diffuse thickening of the extrahepatic bile ductal wall was demonstrated in 26 of 30 cases. Diffuse thickening of the extrahepatic bile duct in recurrent pyogenic cholangitis may be differentiated from focal thickening of duct in a common duct cancer or pancreatic cancer.

  16. Morphology, fine structure, biochemistry, and function of the spermatic ducts in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, Franz

    2003-10-01

    The spermatic ducts and the testicular efferent ducts were investigated in different marine teleost fish species (Diplodus sargus, Mullus barbatus, Thalassoma pavo, Trachinus draco, Uranuscopus scaber, Sparisoma cretense, Synodon saurus). From the morphological, histological, fine structural and biochemical investigations it appeared that the testicular main ducts and spermatic ducts of the investigated marine fish have the following functions: storage of spermatozoa, monosacharide synthesis for nutrition of spermatozoa, synthesis of steroid glucuronides, synthesis of seminal plasma proteins, formation of a ionic gradient in the seminal fluid and phagocytotic activity. Species-specific differences were only found in the morphology of the gonads and in the histology of the spermatic duct epithelium.

  17. OBSTRUCTING MUCOCELE OF THE CYSTIC DUCT AFTER TRANSPLANTATION OF THE LIVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Baburao; Zajko, Albert B.; Sher, Linda; Marsh, J. Wallis; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    A tension mucocele was created in three hepatic homografts by ligating a low-lying cystic duct during transplant cholecystectomy and by incorporating its outflow end into the anastomosis of the common hepatic duct to the recipient common duct or Roux limb of jejunum. The consequent complication of obstruction of the biliary tract that necessitated reoperation and excision of the mucocele in all three patients can be avoided by the simple expedient of completely removing the cystic duct when feasible or providing egress to the secretion of the cystic duct as described. PMID:2652346

  18. Controlled Electronic Transport through Branched Molecular Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The conductance through a branched conductor placed between two electrodes is analyzed using the Landauer transport formulation within the framework of the single electron, and the tight binding approximations. Terminal side chains are expressed as self energy terms which map the branched conductor onto an effective linear chain Hamiltonian. The effect of uniform side branches on resonant zero-bias conductance is shown to be analytically solvable and particularly simple, w...

  19. Supercritical branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hutzenthaler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical branching processes in constant environment conditioned on eventual extinction are known to be subcritical branching processes. The case of random environment is more subtle. A supercritical branching diffusion in random environment (BDRE) conditioned on eventual extinction of the population is not a BDRE. However the quenched law of the population size of a supercritical BDRE conditioned on eventual extinction is equal to the quenched law of the population size of a subcritical BDRE. As a consequence, supercritical BDREs have a phase transition which is similar to a well-known phase transition of subcritical branching processes in random environment.

  20. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits.

  1. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  2. Networks of companies and branches in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Chmiel, A M; Sienkiewicz, J; Suchecki, K; Chmiel, Anna M.; Holyst, Janusz A.; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    In this study we consider relations between companies in Poland taking into account common branches they belong to. It is clear that companies belonging to the same branch compete for similar customers, so the market induces correlations between them. On the other hand two branches can be related by companies acting in both of them. To remove weak, accidental links we shall use a concept of threshold filtering for weighted networks where a link weight corresponds to a number of existing connections (common companies or branches) between a pair of nodes.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  4. Pancreaticobiliary duct changes of periampullary carcinomas: Quantitative analysis at MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong Sheng, E-mail: victoryhope@163.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Department of Radiology, No.4 West China Teaching Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Wei Xia, E-mail: wxchen25@126.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wang, Xiao Dong, E-mail: tyfs03yz@163.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Acharya, Riwaz, E-mail: riwaz007@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Jiang, Xing Hua, E-mail: 13881865517@163.com [Department of Pathology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively analyse the pancreaticobiliary duct changes of periampullary carcinomas with volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and true fast imaging with steady-state precession (true FISP) sequence, and investigate the value of these findings in differentiation and preoperative evaluation. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 71 cases of periampullary carcinomas (34 cases of pancreatic head carcinoma, 16 cases of intrapancreatic bile duct carcinoma and 21 cases of ampullary carcinoma) confirmed histopathologically were analysed. The maximum diameter of the common bile duct (CBD) and main pancreatic duct (MPD), dilated pancreaticobiliary duct angle and the distance from the end of the proximal dilated pancreaticobiliary duct to the major papilla were measured. Analysis of variance and the Chi-squared test were performed. Results: These findings showed significant differences among the three subtypes: the distance from the end of proximal dilated pancreaticobiliary duct to the major papilla and pancreaticobiliary duct angle. The distance and the pancreaticobiliary duct angle were least for ampullary carcinoma among the three subtypes. The percentage of dilated CBD was 94.1%, 93.8%, and 100% for pancreatic head carcinoma, intrapancreatic bile duct carcinoma and ampullary carcinoma, respectively. And that for the dilated MPD was 58.8%, 43.8%, and 42.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system can provide accurate and objective assessment of the pancreaticobiliary duct changes. Although benefit in differential diagnosis is limited, these findings are valuable in preoperative evaluation for both radical resection and palliative surgery.

  5. Detection of markers of hepatitis viral infection in the tissue of bile duct carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hou-bao; QIAN Zhen-yu; WANG Bing-sheng; TONG Sai-xiong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an admitted oncogenic virus. Many epidemiological and molecular biological studies have demonstrated that chronic infection with HBV is a major risk factor associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic bile duct cancer.1-4 Compared with hepatocytes and intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells,extrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells have autoploid in embryogenesis,continuity in anatomy and a similar internal environment.The question arises whether extrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells can receive HBV infection or not? The role of hepatitis viral infection in the pathogenesis of bile duct carcinoma has not yet been clarified.although a causative relationship between HBV or HCV infection and extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma has been reported in the literature.5,6 In this study,we focused on the evidence of hepatitis viral infection in tissue of bile duct carcinoma.

  6. Characterization of the secondary flow in hexagonal ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, O.; Vinuesa, R.; Obabko, A. V.; Schlatter, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we report the results of DNSs and LESs of the turbulent flow through hexagonal ducts at friction Reynolds numbers based on centerplane wall shear and duct half-height Reτ,c ≃ 180, 360, and 550. The evolution of the Fanning friction factor f with Re is in very good agreement with experimental measurements. A significant disagreement between the DNS and previous RANS simulations was found in the prediction of the in-plane velocity, and is explained through the inability of the RANS model to properly reproduce the secondary flow present in the hexagon. The kinetic energy of the secondary flow integrated over the cross-sectional area yz decreases with Re in the hexagon, whereas it remains constant with Re in square ducts at comparable Reynolds numbers. Close connection between the values of Reynolds stress u w ¯ on the horizontal wall close to the corner and the interaction of bursting events between the horizontal and inclined walls is found. This interaction leads to the formation of the secondary flow, and is less frequent in the hexagon as Re increases due to the 120∘ aperture of its vertex, whereas in the square duct the 90∘ corner leads to the same level of interaction with increasing Re. Analysis of turbulence statistics at the centerplane and the azimuthal variance of the mean flow and the fluctuations shows a close connection between hexagonal ducts and pipe flows, since the hexagon exhibits near-axisymmetric conditions up to a distance of around 0.15DH measured from its center. Spanwise distributions of wall-shear stress show that in square ducts the 90∘ corner sets the location of a high-speed streak at a distance zv+≃50 from it, whereas in hexagons the 120∘ aperture leads to a shorter distance of zv+≃38 . At these locations the root mean square of the wall-shear stresses exhibits an inflection point, which further shows the connections between the near-wall structures and the large-scale motions in the outer flow.

  7. Cytological features of carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini in voided urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Ishikawa, Masashi; Haba, Reiji

    2009-09-01

    Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini (CCDB) is a rare histological type of renal cell carcinoma. This article describes the cytological features of CCDB in voided urine, confirmed on the basis of the histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The CCDB cells occurred singly in loose aggregates and in small clusters, occasionally in a rosette-like structure. There were various types of cancer cells, including round to oval, spindle, and tadpole-like cells. The nuclei usually showed coarse chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and lacy to vacuolated cytoplasm. CCDB of the kidney is a rare cytodiagnostic challenge in voided urine cytology alone. When the cytological diagnosis is considered, it is necessary to perform immunocytochemistry and correlate the clinical history and imaging studies.

  8. Investigation of hydrodynamics and heat transfer at liquid metal downflow in a rectangular duct in a coplanar magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnyi, I. I.; Razuvanov, N. G.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a liquid metal downflow in a rectangular duct with an aspect ratio of approximately 3/1 in a coplanar magnetic field (MF) are studied upon inhomogeneous (one-sided) heating of the duct. The flow in the heat-transfer duct of the cooling system of a liquid-metal blanket module of the tokamak-type thermonuclear reactor is modeled. Experiments were carried out at the mercury magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) test facility, which is a part of the MHD-complex of Moscow Power Engineering Institute-Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A probe technique is used for measurements in the flow. The studies are performed within the following ranges of regime parameters: Reynolds numbers Re = 10000-55000, Hartmann numbers Ha = 0-800, and Grashof numbers Grq = 0-6 × 108. Averaged profiles of velocity, temperature, temperature fluctuations of the flow, and duct wall temperature are presented for two typical flow regimes. Detailed measurements are performed in the duct cross-section distant from the heating beginning in the region of homogeneous MF. MF leads to the turbulent transport suppression, owing to which the temperature on the heated wall increases. A considerable influence of the heat-gravitational counter-convection, the interaction of which with the external MF leads in some regimes to the appearance and development of instabilities in the laminarized flow, is revealed under the downflow conditions. Generation of large-scale secondary vortices with the axis parallel to the MF induction causes temperature fluctuations of the abnormal intensity that considerably exceeds the level of turbulent fluctuations. Such temperature fluctuations easily penetrate into the duct wall and can lead to the fatigue breakdown of thermonuclear reactor cooling paths. Ranges of unallowable regime parameters are determined and the boundary in coordinates Gr-Re is presented, where this effect is revealed or vanishes. The numerical

  9. FIELD EVALUATION OF IMPROVED METHODS FOR MEASURING THE AIR LEAKAGE OF DUCT SYSTEMS UNDER NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS IN 51 HOMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul W. Francisco; Larry Palmiter; Erin Kruse; Bob Davis

    2003-10-18

    Duct leakage in forced-air distribution systems has been recognized for years as a major source of energy losses in residential buildings. Unfortunately, the distribution of leakage across homes is far from uniform, and measuring duct leakage under normal operating conditions has proven to be difficult. Recently, two new methods for estimating duct leakage at normal operating conditions have been devised. These are called the nulling test and the Delta-Q test. Small exploratory studies have been done to evaluate these tests, but previously no large-scale study on a broad variety of homes has been performed to determine the accuracy of these new methods in the field against an independent benchmark of leakage. This sort of study is important because it is difficult in a laboratory setting to replicate the range of leakage types found in real homes. This report presents the results of a study on 51 homes to evaluate these new methods relative to an independent benchmark and a method that is currently used. An evaluation of the benchmark procedure found that it worked very well for supply-side leakage measurements, but not as well on the return side. The nulling test was found to perform well, as long as wind effects were minimal. Unfortunately, the time and difficulty of setup can be prohibitive, and it is likely that this method will not be practical for general use by contractors except in homes with no return ducts. The Delta-Q test was found to have a bias resulting in overprediction of the leakage, which qualitatively confirms the results of previous laboratory, simulation, and small-scale field studies. On average the bias was only a few percent of the air handler flow, but in about 20% of the homes the bias was large. A primary flaw with the Delta-Q test is the assumption that the pressure between the ducts and the house remain constant during the test, as this assumption does not hold true. Various modifications to the Delta-Q method were evaluated as

  10. Intracatheter hyperthermia and iridium-192 radiotherapy in the treatment of bile duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J Y; Vora, N L; Chou, C K; McDougall, J A; Chan, K W; Findley, D O; Forell, B W; Luk, K H; Philben, V J; Beatty, J D

    1988-02-01

    We report a case of a patient with locally advanced bile duct carcinoma treated with 4500 cGy external beam radiotherapy, followed 3 weeks later by intracatheter 915 MHz microwave hyperthermia and radiotherapy delivered through a biliary U-tube placed at the time of surgery. Heating was to 43-45 degrees C for 1 hour followed immediately by intracatheter Iridium-192 seeds to deliver 5000 cGy over a 72 hour period. Prior to treatment, a thermal dosimetry study in phanton was conducted, using the same type of U-tube catheter tubing as in the patient. Orthogonal X rays of the patient's porta hepatis region were used to reconstruct the catheter geometry in the phantom. Proper insertion depth was determined thermographically to obtain maximum heating at the center of the tumor. The maximum SAR was 8.8 watts per kilogram per watt input. During the treatment, the average power applied was 30 W. Six months after therapy, the patient is asymptomatic. Although alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT have remained elevated, bilirubin has returned to normal and computerized tomographic scans and cholangiograms remain stable. A duodenal ulcer developed after therapy and is healing well with conservative medical management. This case demonstrates that hyperthermia applied through biliary drainage catheters is technically feasible and clinically tolerated. We believe the use of intracatheter hyperthermia in conjunction with external and/or intracatheter radiotherapy in selected patients with unresectable bile duct carcinomas warrants further study.

  11. DOG1: a novel marker of salivary acinar and intercalated duct differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chênevert, Jacinthe; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Chiosea, Simion; Dacic, Sanja; Cieply, Kathleen; Kim, Jean; Shiwarski, Daniel; Seethala, Raja R

    2012-07-01

    Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) (DOG1, TMEM16a) is a calcium-activated chloride channel initially described in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, but now known to be expressed in a variety of normal and tumor tissues including salivary tissue in murine models. We herein perform a comprehensive survey of DOG1 expression in 156 cases containing non-neoplastic human salivary tissues and tumors. ANO1 mRNA levels were significantly higher (8-fold increase, Pcells, striated and excretory ducts were invariably negative. All acinic cell carcinomas (n=28) were DOG1 positive demonstrating a complex mixture of intense (3+) apical membranous, cytoplasmic and complete membranous staining. Most ductal tumor types were negative or only showed a subset of positive cases. Within the biphasic tumor category, adenoid cystic carcinomas (18/24 cases) and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas (8/15 cases) were frequently positive, often showing a distinctive combined apical ductal and membranous/cytoplasmic myoepithelial staining profile. Thus, DOG1 staining is a marker of salivary acinar and to a lesser extent intercalated duct differentiation. Strong staining can be used to support the diagnosis of acinic cell carcinoma. DOG1 may also be a marker of a 'transformed' myoepithelial phenotype in a subset of biphasic salivary gland malignancies.

  12. Modelling of the pathological bile flow in the duct with a calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchumov, Alex G; Nyashin, Yuriy I; Samarcev, Vladimir A; Gavrilov, Vasiliy A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to develop an analytical model for description of the pathological bile flow in the major duodenal papilla duct with a calculus. The problem is separated into two parts. The first part deals with determination of bile behaviour and constitutive relation parameters of the pathological bile. The viscosity vs. shear rate, the viscosity vs. time, and shear stress vs. shear rate dependences are obtained for different types of bile taken from patients of different age and sex. As a result, the approximation of curves described by the Casson equation was obtained. It was shown that the pathological bile is a thixotropic non-Newtonian fluid. The second part is directly related to modelling of the bile flow in the duct with a calculus. As a result of solving the problem, the bile velocity profile, flow rate vs. time, and bile pressure vs. calculus radius were obtained. The dependences obtained may play an important role in the assessment of an indication to operation.

  13. The natural gas ducts and the ICMS; Os dutos de gas natural e o ICMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos; Gomes, Carlos Roberto de Miranda [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-36

    2005-07-01

    With the advent of the Constitutional Emendation no. 9/95 operated it the open of the industry of the oil and the natural gas for companies others that came to be contracted by the State. Ahead of the insertion of new players, the regulation of the sector was given for the Law (no. 9.478/97), as well for legal acts edited for the National Agency of the Oil - ANP. Meanwhile, the Oil norm little disciplined the industry of the natural gas that, for its peculiarities, imposes specific rules. In this context, the transport of the natural gas by means of ducts become prominent for the lack of debates on the correct form to classify them. The present work has for target to analyze the legal types instituted by the Law and for the ANP acts for the ducts, as form of if having a correct understanding of the matter. Thus, will reveal as each one of the adopted classifications can cause (or not) the incidence of the ICMS, or either, as the legal regimen of the gas-lines is correlated with the tax. (author)

  14. Thiazolidinedione treatment inhibits bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in a rat model of chronic cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Marra; Carlo Spirli; Mario Strazzabosco; Massimo Pinzani; Maurizio Parola; Raffaella DeFranco; Gaia Robino; Erica Novo; Eva Efsen; Sabrina Pastacaldi; Elena Zamara; Alessandro Vercelli; Benedetta Lottini

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of troglitazone (TGZ), an anti-diabetic drug which activates peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), for liver tissue repair, and the development of ductular reaction, following common bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats.METHODS: Rats were supplemented with TGZ (0.2% w/w in the pelleted food) for 1 wk before BDL or sham operation.Animals were killed at 1, 2, or 4 wk after surgery.RESULTS: The development of liver fibrosis was reduced in rats receiving TGZ, as indicated by significant decreases of procollagen type Ⅰ gene expression and liver hydroxyproline levels. Accumulation of α-smooth-muscle actin (SMA)-expressing cells surrounding newly formed bile ducts following BDL, as well as total hepatic levels of SMA were partially inhibited by TGZ treatment, indicating the presence of a reduced number and/or activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and myofibroblasts. Development of the ductular reaction was inhibited by TGZ, as indicated by histochemical evaluation and hepatic activity of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT).CONCLUSION: Treatment with thiazolidinedione reduces ductular proliferation and fibrosis in a model of chronic cholestasis, and suggests that limiting cholangiocyte proliferation may contribute to the lower development of scarring in this system.

  15. 3-D reconstruction and virtual ductoscopy of high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast with casting type calcifications using refraction-based X-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Shu; Ando, Masami; Maksimenko, Anton; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Eiko; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Mori, Kensaku; Arai, Yoshinori; Endo, Tokiko

    2008-01-01

    Stereomicroscopic observations of thick sections, or three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions from serial sections, have provided insights into histopathology. However, they generally require time-consuming and laborious procedures. Recently, we have developed a new algorithm for refraction-based X-ray computed tomography (CT). The aim of this study is to apply this emerging technology to visualize the 3-D structure of a high-grade ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) of the breast. The high-resolution two-dimensional images of the refraction-based CT were validated by comparing them with the sequential histological sections. Without adding any contrast medium, the new CT showed strong contrast and was able to depict the non-calcified fine structures such as duct walls and intraductal carcinoma itself, both of which were barely visible in a conventional absorption-based CT. 3-D reconstruction and virtual endoscopy revealed that the high-grade DCIS was located within the dichotomatous branches of the ducts. Multiple calcifications occurred in the necrotic core of the continuous DCIS, resulting in linear and branching (casting type) calcifications, a hallmark of high-grade DCIS on mammograms. In conclusion, refraction-based X-ray CT approaches the low-power light microscopic view of the histological sections. It provides high quality slice data for 3-D reconstruction and virtual ductosocpy.

  16. A Multisection Broadband Impedance Transforming Branch-Line Hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S; Danshin, T

    1995-01-01

    Measurements and design equations for a two section impedance transforming hybrid suitable for MMIC applications and a new method of synthesis for multisection branch-line hybrids are reported. The synthesis method allows the response to be specified either of Butterworth or Chebyshev type. Both symmetric (with equal input and output impedances) and non-symmetric (impedance transforming) designs are feasible. Starting from a given number of sections, type of response, and impedance transformation ratio and for a specified midband coupling, power division ratio, isolation or directivity ripple bandwidth, the set of constants needed for the evaluation of the reflection coefficient response is first calculated. The latter is used to define a driving point impedance of the circuit, synthesize it and obtain the branch line immittances with the use of the concept of double length unit elements (DLUE). The experimental results obtained with microstrip hybrids constructed to test the validity of the brute force optim...

  17. Some distance bounds of branching processes and their diffusion limits

    CERN Document Server

    Kammerer, Niels B

    2010-01-01

    We compute exact values respectively bounds of "distances" - in the sense of (transforms of) power divergences and relative entropy - between two discrete-time Galton-Watson branching processes with immigration GWI for which the offspring as well as the immigration is arbitrarily Poisson-distributed (leading to arbitrary type of criticality). Implications for asymptotic distinguishability behaviour in terms of contiguity and entire separation of the involved GWI are given, too. Furthermore, we determine the corresponding limit quantities for the context in which the two GWI converge to Feller-type branching diffusion processes, as the time-lags between observations tend to zero. Some applications to (static random environment like) Bayesian decision making and Neyman-Pearson testing are presented as well.

  18. 主动脉弓三分支覆膜支架在Stanford A型急性主动脉夹层外科治疗中的应用%The application of triple branches aortic arch stent-graft placement in the surgical treatment of acute Stanford type A aortic dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华菲; 沈振亚; 余云生; 叶文学; 黄浩岳

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结外科处理升主动脉加主动脉弓三分支覆膜支架置入治疗Stanford A型急性主动脉夹层的临床经验.方法 对2010年1月至12月收治的14例Stanford A型主动脉夹层患者行升主动脉手术处理加主动脉弓三分支覆膜支架置入,其中男性12例,女性2例,年龄20~70岁,平均49岁.手术包括升主动脉置换术加支架置入4例,主动脉根部置换术(Bentall术)加支架置入5例,主动脉瓣置换加升主动脉置换术(Wheat术)加支架置入4例,主动脉瓣成形加升主动脉置换术加支架置入1例;其中6例为急诊手术.结果 平均心肺转流时间(186±38)min,心肌阻断时间(101±27)min,选择性脑灌注时间(39±11)min.无住院死亡病例;术后出现短暂性神志障碍1例,肢体活动障碍1例,急性肾功能衰竭1例,二次开胸手术1例,消化道出血1例,乳糜胸1例,治疗后均痊愈.出院前及出院后3个月内行大血管CT血管造影检查:升主动脉及弓部覆膜支架内血流通畅,主动脉弓段及降主动脉假腔缩小,主动脉管壁结构恢复.随访1~12个月,无晚期死亡及需要再次手术纠治血管病变者.结论 主动脉弓三分支覆膜支架置入的主要适应证为内膜破口位于升主动脉但需重建弓部形态的Stanford A型急性主动脉夹层.其同期结合手术处理升主动脉是治疗急性Stanford A型主动脉夹层安全、有效的一种新手段.%Objective To sum up the experience of performing ascending aorta replacement combined triple-branched stent graft implantation for acute Standford type A aortic dissection. Methods From January 2010 to December 2010, 14 patients with acute Standford type A aortic dissection underwent the procedure of performing ascending aorta replacement combined triple-branched stent graft implantation.Right axiuary artery cannulation was used for cardiopulmonary bypass and selected cerebral perfusion.When the body temperature drops below 18 ℃, the ascending aorta

  19. Stochastic transition between turbulent branch and thermodynamic branch of an inhomogeneous plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point and linear stability boundary. (author)

  20. ECONOMIC ISSUES OF BRANCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrov K. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical questions of economy industry production of rice grain. The need for improving the business efficiency of rice today is dictated by political and economic sanctions, the needs of our society in full substitution of this important product. State stimulation of rice development today is carried out through a complex of economic and administrative activities. The economic measures of the state include: price control on rice price and processing products, support of agricultural producers’ incomes, leasing involving the state, marketing of products, and infrastructure development of the grain market. The system of public administrative measures also includes standardization and certification of grain products, control quality of grain and products of its processing, the quarantine protection, licensing activities organizations, and mandatory statistical account of the rice market. These measures are intended to ensure equal conditions of competition between local and imported rice, to spur investment and expansion of domestic production, increase profitability of rice, allowing the rice enterprises to carry out expensive irrigation systems repairs and capital inputs in lot lend. The article suggests that rice branch industry remains competitive and with abolition of import customs barriers within frameworks WTO. It is necessary to invest more heavily in infrastructure with the aim of improving business efficiency of rice

  1. Simulation of Variable Air Volume System with Different Duct Layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hua(陈华); TU Guang-bei(涂光备); FRANCIS W H Yik

    2004-01-01

    The duct static pressure reset (DSPR) control method is a popular modern control method widely applied to variable air volume (VAV) systems of commercial buildings. In this paper, a VAV system simulation program was used to predict the system performance and zone air temperature of two kinds of layouts that were applied to a typical floor of an existing building office in Hong Kong. The position where the static pressure sensor was placed should affect the zones temperature and energy consumption. The comparison of predictions of the two kinds of layouts indicates that with the same DSPR control method the layout of the air duct might influence the fan control result and energy savings.

  2. In vivo multiphoton imaging of bile duct ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Feng-Chieh; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Chang, Po-shou; Yang, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    Bile is the exocrine secretion of liver and synthesized by hepatocytes. It is drained into duodenum for the function of digestion or drained into gallbladder for of storage. Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. However, Bile duct ligation results in the changes of bile acids in serum, liver, urine, and feces1, 2. In this work, we demonstrate a novel technique to image this pathological condition by using a newly developed in vivo imaging system, which includes multiphoton microscopy and intravital hepatic imaging chamber. The images we acquired demonstrate the uptake, processing of 6-CFDA in hepatocytes and excretion of CF in the bile canaliculi. In addition to imaging, we can also measure kinetics of the green fluorescence intensity.

  3. [Experience in thyroglossal duct pathology: clinical case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieri, Patricio; Udaquiola, Julia E; Calello, Santiago E; Libero, Daniel H

    2016-10-01

    The thyroglossal duct cyst pathology represents the second cause of bening cervical anomalies in childhood. Diagnosis is mainly clinical. Sistrunk (1920) proposed a surgical technique that is still considered the gold standard for definitive treatment of this condition. A retrospective study was made including patients who underwent surgery for thyroglossal duct cyst pathology in our department between June 2008 and August 2015. In this period, we performed 54 procedures in 45 patients (39 primary cases). Median age was 4.7 years; 14/39 patients (31.1%) had pre-operative infection. All patients were studied with neck ultrasound. A Sistrunk's procedure was performed in all cases. The global recurrence rate was 17.8% (8/45).

  4. Bilateral endoscopic endonasal marsupialization of nasopalatine duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Honkura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nasopalatine duct cysts are the most common non-odontogenic cysts in the maxilla, and are conventionally treated through a sublabial or palatine approach. Recently, the endoscopic approach has been used, but experience is extremely limited. We treated a 29-year-old male with nasopalatine duct cyst by endoscopic marsupialization, but paresthesia of the incisor region occurred after surgery. This paresthesia gradually remitted within 6 months. The nasopalatine nerve, which innervates the upper incisor region, enters two lateral canals separately at the nasal floor and exits the central main canal at the palate. Damage to the bilateral nasopalatine nerves might lead to paresthesia, so we recommend careful examination for nerve fibers during endoscopic surgery, especially if fenestration is performed on both sides.

  5. A general mapping procedure for variable area duct acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A general mapping procedure is described and applied to the study of noise propagation in variable area ducts. The mapping provides a boundary fitted co-ordinate system which is ideal for the finite difference solution of acoustic fields with irregular boundaries, without the burden of large matrices required by finite element methods. The procedure is first described in general and then applied to a particular two-dimensional geometry under current experimental investigation. This method should be ideally suited to the study of high frequency noise propagation in variable area ducts and in cases where the far field is included in the calculation procedure. Moreover, the current approach can be directly extended to three-dimensions, resulting in numerical calculation over a rectangular parallelepiped in the transformed plane.

  6. Eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture: a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Daniel; Naseem, Zainab; Mustaev, Muslim

    2016-05-24

    Although the most common cause of cholecystitis is gallstones, other conditions may present as acute cholecystitis. We describe a case of eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture. A 36-year-old woman initially had generalised abdominal pain and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed eosinophilic ascites and necrotic nodules on the posterior abdominal wall. She was treated with anthelminthics on presumption of toxacara infection based on borderline positivity of serological tests. She later presented with acute cholecystitis and had a cholecystectomy and choledocotomy. Day 9 T-tube cholangiogram showed irregular narrowing of the distal common bile duct. The patient's symptoms were improved with steroids and the T-tube was subsequently removed.

  7. Generation of ionospheric ducts by the HAARP HF heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J A; Pradipta, R; Burton, L M; Labno, A; Lee, M C [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Watkins, B J; Fallen, C [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Kuo, S P [New York University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Burke, W J [Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States); Mabius, D; See, B Z, E-mail: mclee@mit.edu [Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We report an investigation of ionospheric ducts having the shape of large plasma sheets, generated by vertically transmitted HAARP HF heater waves in several experiments conducted in Gakona, Alaska. Theory predicts that O-mode heater wave-created ionospheric ducts form parallel-plate waveguides within the meridional plane, and those generated by the X-mode heater waves are orthogonal to the meridional plane. Our theoretical prediction is supported by measurements of ionosonde data (namely ionograms), range-time-intensity (RTI) plots of UHF and HF backscatter radars, as well as magnetometer data analyses. When these plasma sheets experienced ExB drifts, they were intercepted by the HAARP UHF radar and seen as slanted stripes in the RTI plots. This striking feature was also observed in our earlier experiments using the Arecibo UHF radar.

  8. Gamma-ray streaming in bent ducts and voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdet, L.; Nimal, J.C.; Vergnaud, T.

    1983-05-01

    We have developed an analytical method to calculate gamma-ray streaming through straight ducts and a numerical method to study the gamma propagation in bends or in annular clearances. The whole set allows a rigorous treatment of gamma streaming through bent ducts. In the same time a Monte Carlo method allows to study any form of geometry, by using sophisticated biasing techniques. All these developments are made with a simplified albedo. An easy to use code is also proposed to calculate very general albedos and a code to calculate the dose rate due to reflection in a room. Gamma dose rate albedos are determined for all elements and the energy range which concerns fission reactors.

  9. Primary sclerosing cholangitis – The arteriosclerosis of the bile duct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trauner Michael

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the large bile ducts and characterized by periductal fibrosis and stricture formation, which ultimately result in biliary cirrhosis and liver failure. Arteriosclerosis involves the accumulation of altered lipids and lipoproteins in large arteries; this drives inflammation and fibrosis and ultimately leads to narrowing of the arteries and hypoperfusion of dependent organs and tissues. Knowledge of the causative factors is crucial to the understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of specific treatment. Based on pathogenetic similarities between PSC and arteriosclerosis, we hypothesize that PSC represents "arteriosclerosis of the bile duct" initiated by toxic biliary lipids. This hypothesis is based on common molecular, cellular, and morphological features providing the conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of their pathogenesis. This hypothesis should stimulate translational research to facilitate the search for novel treatment strategies for both diseases.

  10. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas.

  11. [Surgical therapy of proximal extrahepatic bile duct tumors (Klatskin tumors)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, S; Gassel, H-J; Thiede, A

    2007-08-01

    Due to their anatomical position, the tendency of early infiltrative growth and their poor prognosis without treatment, klatskin tumors are challenging concerning diagnosis and therapy. In contrast to other tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, for which exact diagnostic and stage dependent therapeutic guidelines could be formulated, clear recommendations for klatskin tumors are missing. Thus, survival rates after local resection, e. g. resection of the bile duct bifurcation alone, show high rates of R1/2 resection and early tumor recurrence. With an additional hepatic resection formally curative resections and long-term survival can be improved. Extended liver resections including the portal vein provide the highest rates of R0 resections for hilar carcinomas of the extrahepatic bile duct. Survival rates after liver transplantation for klatskin tumors are not yet convincing. Promising first results have been reported for the combination of neoadjuvant treatment and liver transplantation and might show future perspectives for the treatment of klatskin tumors.

  12. Estimate of the radioisotope inventory inside a ventilation duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, K.

    1980-06-01

    The wide variation in the curie estimate of the ductwork's material inventory was attributed to the fact that /sup 137/Cs is primarily a gamma emitter while /sup 90/Sr is primarily a beta emitter. Thus it requires a larger amount of /sup 90/Sr than /sup 137/Cs to achieve the exposure rates measured on the duct surface. Until the exact percentages of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr contained in the ductwork are determined, an accurate estimate of the total curie inventory contained within the duct system is impossible. However, from an occupational exposure standpoint, it is important to note that the ductwork system material inventory represents 3 to 11 filter changes in the HEPA filter pit whether the inventory is largely /sup 137/Cs or /sup 90/Sr.

  13. An analytical theory of heated duct flows in supersonic combustors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional analytical theory is developed for supersonic duct flow with variation of cross section, wall friction, heat addition, and relations between the inlet and outlet flow parameters are obtained. By introducing a selfsimilar parameter, effects of heat releasing, wall friction, and change in cross section area on the flow can be normalized and a self-similar solution of the flow equations can be found. Based on the result of self-similar solution, the sufficient and necessary condition for the occurrence of thermal choking is derived. A relation of the maximum heat addition leading to thermal choking of the duct flow is derived as functions of area ratio, wall friction, and mass addition, which is an extension of the classic Rayleigh flow theory, where the effects of wall friction and mass addition are not considered. The present work is expected to provide fundamentals for developing an integral analytical theory for ramjets and scramjets.

  14. An archetypal mechanism for branching organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Branched structures are ubiquitous in nature, both in living and non-living systems. While the functional benefits of branching organogenesis are straightforward, the developmental mechanisms leading to the repeated branching of epithelia in surrounding mesoderm remain unclear. Both molecular and physical aspects of growth control seem to play a critical role in shape emergence and maintenance. On the molecular side, the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between epithelial tips and distal mesenchyme seems to be common to branched organs. On the physical side, the branching process seems to require a mechanism of real-time adaptation to local geometry, as suggested by the self-avoiding nature of branching events. In this paper, we investigate the outcomes of a general three-dimensional growth model, in which epithelial growth is implemented as a function of ligand income, while the mesenchyme is considered as a proliferating viscous medium. Our results suggest that the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between distal and proximal mesenchyme implies a growth instability of the epithelial sheet, resulting in spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. While the general nature of the model prevents one from fitting the development of specific organs, it suggests that few ingredients are actually required to achieve branching organogenesis.

  15. High performance absorber structure using subwavelength multi-branch dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kebo; Su, Guangyao; Liu, Chuanhong; Gou, Fangwang; Zhang, Zhaoyu

    2012-11-01

    As the desire growing of the thin film absorption structure for various sub-wavelength applications such as photo detector, thin-film thermal emitters, thermo photovoltaic cells, and multi-color filters, we proposed a type of subwavelength multi-branch dimers which exhibit several tunable dipole-dipole-like plasmonic resonances and integrated it into metal-insulator-metal structure as the top layer. The structures are studied through numerical calculation by finite element method. When normal incident is considered, the novel structure shows three absorption peaks in the considered wavelength range. One peak has near-perfect absorption and the other two also show excellent absorption.. When different angle oblique incident is considered, the absorption only has slight change, which is useful to an ultrathin absorber structure. In addition, we find that the thickness of the dielectric layer can tune the absorption rates for each absorption peak. In general, the multi-branch dimers can easily tune its absorption rates and spectrum via the change of their geometric parameters such as branch lengths, branch angles, and dielectric layer thickness.

  16. Propagation of spinning acoustic modes in partially choked converging ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Kelly, J. J.; Watson, L. T.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model based on the wave-envelope technique is used to study the propagation of spinning acoustic modes in converging hard-walled and lined circular ducts carrying near sonic mean flows. The results show that with increasing spinning mode number the intensification of the acoustic signal at the throat decreases for upstream propagation. The influence of the throat Mach number, frequency, boundary-layer thickness, and liner admittance on the propagation of spinning modes is considered.

  17. Monograph on propagation of sound waves in curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, Wojciech

    1991-01-01

    After reviewing and evaluating the existing material on sound propagation in curved ducts without flow, it seems strange that, except for Lord Rayleigh in 1878, no book on acoustics has treated the case of wave motion in bends. This monograph reviews the available analytical and experimental material, nearly 30 papers published on this subject so far, and concisely summarizes what has been learned about the motion of sound in hard-wall and acoustically lined cylindrical bends.

  18. Euler/Navier-Stokes Solvers Applied to Ducted Fan Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh

    1997-01-01

    Due to noise considerations, ultra high bypass ducted fans have become a more viable design. These ducted fans typically consist of a rotor stage containing a wide chord fan and a stator stage. One of the concerns for this design is the classical flutter that keeps occurring in various unducted fan blade designs. These flutter are catastrophic and are to be avoided in the flight envelope of the engine. Some numerical investigations by Williams, Cho and Dalton, have suggested that a duct around a propeller makes it more unstable. This needs to be further investigated. In order to design an engine to safely perform a set of desired tasks, accurate information of the stresses on the blade during the entire cycle of blade motion is required. This requirement in turn demands that accurate knowledge of steady and unsteady blade loading be available. Aerodynamic solvers based on unsteady three-dimensional analysis will provide accurate and fast solutions and are best suited for aeroelastic analysis. The Euler solvers capture significant physics of the flowfield and are reasonably fast. An aerodynamic solver Ref. based on Euler equations had been developed under a separate grant from NASA Lewis in the past. Under the current grant, this solver has been modified to calculate the aeroelastic characteristics of unducted and ducted rotors. Even though, the aeroelastic solver based on three-dimensional Euler equations is computationally efficient, it is still very expensive to investigate the effects of multiple stages on the aeroelastic characteristics. In order to investigate the effects of multiple stages, a two-dimensional multi stage aeroelastic solver was also developed under this task, in collaboration with Dr. T. S. R. Reddy of the University of Toledo. Both of these solvers were applied to several test cases and validated against experimental data, where available.

  19. Differential diagnosis of microcalcification. Micro-cyst (blunt duct) adenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanyi, M.; Citoler, P.

    1981-03-01

    One hundred and thirty-five operations were carried out because of a finding of microcalcification in the breast. In 10% of these, the calcification was shown histologically to be within foci of micro-cyst (blunt duct) adenosis. Analysis of the radiographic appearances of the microcalcification revealed a characteristic radiographic pattern. The differential diagnosis of groups of calcification in intraduct carcinomas and in benign lesions is discussed.

  20. Will intraoperative cholangiography prevent biliary duct injury inlaparoscopic cholecystectomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bo Li; Xiu Jun Cai; Jun Da Li; Yi Ping Mu; Yue Dong Wang; Xiao Ming Yuan; Xian Fa Wang; Urs Bryner; Robert K.Finley Jr

    2000-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the role of intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) in preventing biliary duct injury duringlaparoscopic cholecystectomy.METHODS Injury location, mechanism, time of detection, treatment outcome, and whether anintraoperative cholangiogram was performed were evaluated in 31 cases of bile duct injuries.RESULTS Cholangiograms were done in 22 cases, but they were misinterpreted in 3 of them. In 12 of 19misidentified cases, the cholangiogram was interpreted correctly, and the injury detected intraoperatively.Primary laparoscopic repair or open repair and T-tube drainage solved the problem. No long-termcomplications occurred. However, in 3 of the 19 cases the cholangiogram was misinterpreted and in 4 of the19 cases no cholangiogram was performed. Three of the seven patients required a cholangioentericanastomosis. In 2 cases the diagnosis was delayed and one of these required a two-stage procedure. Morbiditywas increased. Three cases of clim impingement of the common duct had delayed diagnoses, and two of themhad injuries. Thermal injury developed in 4 cases who had cholangiograms.CONCLUSION Routine IOC plays no role in inducing, preventing, detecting, or minimizing any of theinjuries due to clips, lacerations, or electrocautery, IOC does not prevent injuries due to ductmisidentification either. Careful interpretation of IOC would prevent injuries and avoid an open operation.