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Sample records for branch duct intraductal

  1. The laparoscopic enucleation for branch duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms located at the body of pancreas: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN are among the most common cystic neoplasms of the pancreas, but they represent only 1-3% of all exocrine pancreas tumors. With the development of diagnostic possibilities the number of patients with IPMN is constantly increasing and represents approximately 20% of all surgically treated pancreatic tumors. The development of laparoscopic surgery has led to advances in the treatment of cystic tumors of the pancreas with the emergence of new surgical dilemma in the choice of surgical techniques in patients with IPMN. Case Outline. A 23-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital with non-specific symptoms of upper abdomen. Performed diagnostics indicated the existence of a tumor formation at the periphery of the pancreas, in the region of the proximal corpus, 8Ч5 cm in diameter. The cystic formation, wall thickness 3 mm, was filled with dense contents and injected into the tissue of the pancreas, but did not lead to an extension of the pancreatic duct. After adequate preoperative preparation the patient was operated on, when a laparoscopic enucleation of cystic tumor with coagulation and cutting off communication between the peripheral pancreatic duct and pancreatic tumors was performed by using ultrasound scissors. Histopathological analysis of the specimen indicated an IPMN of the branch duct type (BD-IPMN with a low grade dysplasia. The line of resection was without cellular atypia. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positivity on tumor mucins (MUC-5 and MUC-2, which is typical for gastric type of BD-IPMN. Six months postoperatively the patient showed no signs of recurrence of the disease. Conclusion. Surgical treatment is the dominant choice for the treatment for IPMN. Although minimally invasive, laparoscopic enucleation of BD-IPMN is able to achieve an adequate level of radicality without the accompanying complications and with short postoperative recovery period.

  2. Size of mural nodule as an indicator of surgery for branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas during follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mural nodule is a strong predictive factor for malignancy in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas, but the nodule size has hardly been considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a mural nodule of 10 mm was appropriate as an indicator of surgery for IPMN during follow-up. The follow-up outcomes of 100 patients who had branch duct IPMN without mural nodules or who had branch duct IPMN with mural nodules of less than 9 mm in a tertiary care setting were investigated retrospectively. The patients underwent abdominal ultrasound (US) every 3 months and additional imaging examinations or cytologic examination of pancreatic juice when necessary. Surgery was recommended to them when a mural nodule developed or when a nodule enlarged and reached 10 mm. During an average follow-up period of 97 months, branch duct IPMNs developed mural nodules that reached 10 mm in 5 patients (0.62% per year). In one patient the IPMN was revealed to be non-invasive carcinoma by resection, 1 IPMN was shown to be malignant by further follow-up, and 3 were not resected because of refusal or the patient's age. In 7 patients, mural nodules stayed within 9 mm. The remaining 88 patients lacked mural nodules in their branch duct IPMNs throughout the follow-up. The occurrence of invasive carcinoma around the IPMN was not indicated by imaging examinations in any patient. Univariate analysis showed that the size of the cyst at baseline significantly predicted the development of a mural nodule that reached 10 mm during follow-up (P=0.05). A mural nodule of 10 mm is appropriate as an indicator of surgery in the follow-up of branch duct IPMN. (author)

  3. Intraductal and invasive adenocarcinoma of duct of Luschka, mimicking chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis

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    Cheema Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraductal and invasive adenocarcinoma of duct of Luschka is rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case report of intraductal and invasive carcinoma arising from ducts of Luschka. Case presentation Patient presented to hospital with signs and symptoms of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Ultrasound examination revealed thickening of gallbladder wall with abnormal septation around liver bed. Patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and resection of the adjacent liver bed. Histologic examination confirmed an intraductal and invasive adenocarcinoma arising from Luschka ducts. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma of ducts of Luschka should be considered among differential diagnoses for the patients with typical clinical presentations of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis.

  4. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct with gastric and duodenal fistulas

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    Hong, Man Yong; Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Seung Goun

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the bile duct is still rare and not yet understood despite of its increased incidence and similar clinicopathologic characteristics compared with IPMN of the pancreas. The fistula formation into other organs can occur in IPMN, especially the pancreatic type. To our knowledge, only two cases of IPMN of the bile duct with a choledochoduodenal fistula were reported and we have recently experienced a case of IPMN of the bile duct penetrating into ...

  5. A case of asymptomatic intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct without hepatolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junpei Hayashi; Hisao Kanou; Takatsugu Oida; Mitsuhiko Moriyama; Shyun-ichi Matsuoka; Makiko Inami; Shu Ohshiro; Akiyasu Ishigami; Hirotoshi Fujikawa; Masahide Miyagawa; Kenji Mimatsu; Youichi Kuboi

    2008-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman was found to have dilatation of the intrabepatic bile duct in the right anterior segment during a general health.Laboratory data were within normal ranges and no solid mass was detected in her abdominal computer tomography (CT) or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).However,endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) demonstrated an obstruction of the right bile duct.Intraoperative cholangiography showed stenosis of the intrahepatic bile duct in the anterior inferior segment (B5) and narrowness of the intrahepatic bile duct in the anterior superior segment (B8),so that we strongly suspected intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).Histologically,surgically resected liver specimens,without tumor mass by macroscopic observation,showed intraductal papillary proliferation with fibrovascular cores and intraductal spreading of carcinoma in situ throughout a considerable area,especially in bile ductules around the peripheral small portal area.Furthermore,the immunohistochemical profile of the tumor (MUC5AC+/CK7+) was compatible with an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPN-B).Consequently,this case was diagnosed as IPN-B with spreading CIS,stage I (pT1,pN0,P0,H1,M0).We report a case of IPN-B with interesting histopathological findings and emphasize that cholangiography is especially helpful for the diagnosis of bile duct dilatation due to infiltration of carcinoma cells.

  6. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct in liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Yasunori Sato; Kenichi Harada; Norihide Yoneda; Teruyuki Ueda; Atsushi Kawashima; Akishi Ooi; Yasuni Nakanuma

    2011-01-01

    A case of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) arising in a patient with hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is reported.A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with recurrent HCC.Laboratory data showed that levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were elevated.He died of progressive hepatic failure.At autopsy, in addition to HCCs, an intraductal papillary proliferation of malignant cholangiocytes with fibrovascular cores was found in the dilated large bile ducts in the left lobe, and this papillary carcinoma was associated with an invasive mucinous carcinoma (invasive IPNB).Interestingly, extensive intraductal spread of the cholangiocarcinoma was found from the reactive bile ductular level to the interlobular bile ducts and septal bile ducts and to the large bile ducts in the left lobe.Neural cell adhesion molecule, a hepatic progenitor cell marker, was detected in IPNB cells.It seems possible in this case that hepatic progenitor cells located in reactive bile ductules in liver cirrhosis may have been responsible for the development of the cholangiocarcinoma and HCC, and that the former could have spread in the intrahepatic bile ducts and eventually formed grossly visible IPNB.

  7. Caroli's disease misdiagnosed as intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

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    Gu, Dae Hoe; Park, Min Seon; Jung, Chang Ho; Yoo, Yang Jae; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Yun Ho; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Um, Soon Ho; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2015-01-01

    Caroli's disease is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder caused by malformation of the ductal plate during embryonic development. Although it is present at birth, Caroli's disease is typically not diagnosed until between the second and fourth decades of life, as it was in the present patient. Here we report a rare case of Caroli's disease limited to one liver segment, which was initially misdiagnosed as an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. The asymptomatic patient was treated wi...

  8. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the bile duct: A case report and review of the published work.

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    Nakagawa, Takashi; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fujikura, Kohei; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Takenaka, Mamoru; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson; Azuma, Takeshi; Zen, Yoh

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a peculiar tumor mimicking intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms (ITPN) of the pancreas can develop in the bile duct. Here, we present a similar case and review the published work on the newly proposed biliary neoplasm. A 68-year-old woman was referred to us for further evaluation of a liver mass. On imaging, the tumor was 40 mm in size and intraductal in location, and was enhanced slightly on the contrast-enhanced computed tomography. No mucin overproduction was found. She underwent right hepatectomy for suspected intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. The tumor histologically consisted of the biliary-type epithelium arranged in a tubular architecture within the dilated bile duct. Tumor cells had features of high-grade dysplasia but no stroma invasion. No expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC were noted. On molecular studies, KRAS and GNAS appeared to be wild-type genotypes. These features were in keeping with ITPN. In the published work review, "biliary ITPN" described in four manuscripts were characterized by predominantly intrahepatic/hilar in location, histological tubular architecture, negative expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC, and uncommon alterations of KRAS, GNAS and BRAF. Although invasive malignancy was present in 71%, the outcome was favorable with the 5-year survival expected to be approximately 90%. Biliary ITPN are supposedly uncommon, but a greater awareness of this condition may give more chance to diagnose the underrecognized neoplasm. PMID:26459784

  9. Unexpected metastasis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct into thoracic cavity with direct extension: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is known to arise from intraductal proliferation of mucinous cells with findings of marked dilatation of the biliary or pancreatic duct. There are reports of the metastasis and extension of pancreatic IPMN. However, cases of biliary IPMN with direct metastasis, or metastasis to distant locations, are rare. We present a case of metastasis of biliary IPMN with unexpected direct extension into the thoracic cavity, and we attempt to account for the mechanism of this extension

  10. Intraductal Papillary-Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas Penetrating to the Stomach and the Common Bile Duct

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    Norihiro Goto; Masahiro Yoshioka; Motohito Hayashi; Toshinao Itani; Jun Mimura; Kimio Hashimoto

    2012-01-01

    Context Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas occasionally penetrates to others organs. We present a case of IPMN penetrating to the stomach and the common bile duct. Case report A 75-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of epigastric pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a papillary tumor protruding into the markedly dilated main pancreatic duct and splenic vein obstruction. The tumor was diagnosed as IPMN arising in the main duct, but he rejected surger...

  11. Caroli's disease misdiagnosed as intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dae Hoe; Park, Min Seon; Jung, Chang Ho; Yoo, Yang Jae; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Yun Ho; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Um, Soon Ho; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2015-06-01

    Caroli's disease is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder caused by malformation of the ductal plate during embryonic development. Although it is present at birth, Caroli's disease is typically not diagnosed until between the second and fourth decades of life, as it was in the present patient. Here we report a rare case of Caroli's disease limited to one liver segment, which was initially misdiagnosed as an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. The asymptomatic patient was treated with liver segmentectomy. PMID:26157755

  12. Prognosis of cancer with branch duct type IPMN of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhito; Ikeuchi; Takao; Itoi; Atsushi; Sofuni; Fumihide; Itokawa; Takayoshi; Tsuchiya; Toshio; Kurihara; Kentaro; Ishii; Shujiro; Tsuji; Junko; Umeda; Fuminori; Moriyasu; Akihiko; Tsuchida; Kazuhiko; Kasuya

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To examine the coexistence of metachronous and synchronous cancer in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN).METHODS: We reviewed the records of 145 patients with branch duct IPMN between January 1991 and April 2008 and assessed the relationship between IPMN and intraor extra-pancreatic carcinoma and the outcome of IPMN.RESULTS: The mean observation period was 55.9 ± 45.3 mo. Among the 145 patients, the frequency of extra-pancreatic cancer was 29.0%. The frequency of ...

  13. Localization of intraductal mass through the ostium of the duct using wire guided ductography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To localize intraductal mass (Papilloma) before surgery Materials Guide wire 10-15 cm length of 2/3-0 Prolene/Surgipro Plastic 26G to 20G I/V cannulas Kopans breast lesion localization hook wire Disposable syringe heaving 2ml non-ionic contrast High intensity light and magnified glass. Methods: Prepare patient in sitting or lying position adjust high intensity light clean the nipple with antiseptic lotion. Elicit the discharge with gentle periareolar pressure or ask the patient to bring the discharge. If the opening with discharge is not clearly visualize use magnified glass or loop. Slowly inserted the wire into the duct orifice, it should pass freely into the duct. Introduce the 26G I/V plastic cannula coaxially over the guide wire and remove the guide wire. Gently inject 0.2-0.4 ml contrast, remove and the syringe and apply stopper. The cannula stopper assembly is secured to the breast with tape. Magnified craniocaudal view of the breast is taken, the 26G cannula removed and bigger length 22/20G cannula gradually passed over the guide wire according to distance of lesion from the ostium. Intraductal mass location is verified the hook wire is replaced with guide wire, the position of hook confirmed by mammographic film. The wire is cut 2cms from the nipple and pt. send to operation theater Results:Hook localization has been successfully carried out in six patients. Conclusion:This is a new method of localization of intraductal mass it enables the surgeon to do microductectomy with minimal cosmetic effects to the breast. (author)

  14. Molecular mechanisms of cholangiocarcinogenesis: are biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct precursors to cholangiocarcinoma?

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    Bickenbach, Kai; Galka, Eva; Roggin, Kevin King

    2009-04-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a rare, malignant neoplasm that can develop from any site within the intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary tree. Although the key steps of cholangiocarcinogenesis remain unknown, it has been hypothesized that CC may develop through two key premalignant precursor lesions: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB). These lesions probably are analogous to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, respectively. This article outlines the molecular basis of cholangiocarcinogenesis through the BilIN and IPNB pathways. It highlights the genetic mutations that alter cellular proliferation, tumor suppression, and impairment of critical mucinous, cell-adhesion, and matrix proteins. PMID:19306808

  15. Intraductal neoplasm of the intrahepatic bile duct:Clinicopathological study of 24 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiki Naito; Hironori Kusano; Osamu Nakashima; Eiji Sadashima; Satoshi Hattori; Tomoki Taira; Akihiko Kawahara

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the clinicopathological features of intraductal neoplasm of the intrahepatic bile duct (INihB).METHODS:Clinicopathological features of 24 cases of INihB,which were previously diagnosed as biliary papilIomatosis or intraductal growth of intrahepatic biliary neoplasm,were reviewed.Mucin immunohistochemistry was performed for mucin (MUC)1,MUC2,MUC5AC and MUC6.Ki-67,P53 and β-catenin immunoreactivity were also examined.We categorized each tumor as adenoma (low grade),borderline (intermediate grade),and malignant (carcinoma in situ,high grade including tumors with microinvasion).RESULTS:Among 24 cases of INihB,we identified 24 tumors.Twenty of 24 tumors (83%) were composed of a papillary structure; the same feature observed in intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB).In contrast,the remaining four tumors (17%) showed both tubular and papillary structures.In three of the four tumors (75%),macroscopic mucin secretion was limited but microscopic intracellular mucin was evident.Histologically,16 tumors (67%) were malignant,three (12%) were borderline,and five (21%) were adenoma.Microinvasion was found in four cases (17%).Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MUC1 was not expressed in the borderline/adenoma group but was expressed only in malignant lesions (P =0.0095).Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was significantly higher in the malignant group than in the borderline/adenoma group (22.2± 15.5 vs 7.5 ± 6.3,P < 0.01).In the 16 malignant cases,expression of MUC5AC showed borderline significant association with high Ki-67 LI (P =0.0622).Nuclear expression of β-catenin was observed in two (8%)of the 24 tumors,and these two tumors also showed MUC1 expression.P53 was negative in all tumors.CONCLUSION:Some cases of INihB have a tubular structure,and are subcategorized as IPNB with tubular structure.MUC1 expression in INihB correlates positively with degree of malignancy.

  16. Intraductal Papilloma: Atypical Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    P Ramaswamy; Tanya Khaitan; Anuradha, A.; B Praveen Kumar; Sudhakar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ductal papillomas have unique papillary features arising from the salivary gland duct system. They comprise three rare benign adenomas, namely, inverted ductal papilloma, sialadenoma papilliferum, and intraductal papilloma. Intraductal papilloma is an extremely rare benign salivary gland tumor that occurs most commonly in the minor salivary glands. Here, we are presenting a case report of intraductal papilloma in an 18-year-old patient.

  17. A huge intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma of the bile duct treated by right trisectionectomy with caudate lobectomy

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    Jo Sungho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct (IPMN-B is believed to show a better clinical course than non-papillary biliary neoplasms, it is important to make a precise diagnosis and to perform complete surgical resection. Case presentation We herein report a case of malignant IPMN-B treated by right trisectionectomy with caudate lobectomy and extrahepatic bile duct resection. Radiologic images showed marked dilatation of the left medial sectional bile duct (B4 resulting in a bulky cystic mass with multiple internal papillary projections. Duodenal endoscopic examination demonstrated very patulous ampullary orifice with mucin expulsion and endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram confirmed marked cystic dilatation of B4 with luminal filling defects. These findings suggested IPMN-B with malignancy potential. The functional volume of the left lateral section was estimated to be 45%. A planned extensive surgery was successfully performed. The remnant bile ducts were also dilated but had no macroscopic intraluminal tumorous lesion. The histopathological examination yielded the diagnosis of mucin-producing oncocytic intraductal papillary carcinoma of the bile duct with poorly differentiated carcinomas showing neuroendocrine differentiation. The tumor was 14.0 × 13.0 cm-sized and revealed no stromal invasiveness. Resection margins of the proximal bile duct and hepatic parenchyma were free of tumor cell. The patient showed no postoperative complication and was discharged on 10th postoperative date. He has been regularly followed at outpatient department with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion Considering a favorable prognosis of IPMN-B compared to non-papillary biliary neoplasms, this tumor can be a good indication for aggressive surgical resection regardless of its tumor size.

  18. Intraductal Papillary-Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas Penetrating to the Stomach and the Common Bile Duct

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    Norihiro Goto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas occasionally penetrates to others organs. We present a case of IPMN penetrating to the stomach and the common bile duct. Case report A 75-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of epigastric pain. Computed tomography (CT showed a papillary tumor protruding into the markedly dilated main pancreatic duct and splenic vein obstruction. The tumor was diagnosed as IPMN arising in the main duct, but he rejected surgery and he was followed without treatment. One year later, gastroduodenoscopy revealed gastropancreatic fistula and we were able to pass an endoscope through the fistula and directly examine the lumen of the main pancreatic duct and the papillary tumor adjacent to the fistula. Absence of malignant cells on histopathology suggested mechanical penetration rather than invasive penetration. CT showed splenic vein reperfusion due to decreased inner pressure of the main pancreatic duct. Two and a half years later, CT revealed biliopancreatic fistula formation. Endoscope biliary drainage was performed but failed. Despite jaundice, he is still ambulatory and seen in the clinic three years after the first admission. Conclusions We have experienced a case of IPMN penetrating to the stomach and the common bile duct that has taken a slow course. It represents the importance of distinguishing mechanical penetration from invasive penetration as well as mechanical splenic vein obstruction from splenic vein invasion.

  19. High risk of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of side branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ali A.; Shahid, Haroon; Shah, Apeksha; Khurana, Tanvi; Huntington, William; Ghumman, Saad S.; Loren, David E; Kowalski, Thomas E; Laique, Sobia; Hayat, Umar; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Data on the risk of acute pancreatitis following endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of pancreatic cystic lesions are limited. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of acute pancreatitis after EUS-FNA of pancreatic cysts and solid lesions, and determine whether there was a difference in pancreatitis risk in patients with side branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (SB-IPMN). Patients and Methods: A retrospective review...

  20. Pancreatic Oncocytic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms: Three Case Reports and Review of Cases in Literature

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    James X Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Oncocytic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasias represent a rare morphological subtype of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasias, accounting for 1-8% of cases. Our aim was to characterize clinical factors associated with oncocytic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasias, and factors that may predict invasive carcinoma. Methods Patient data for three consecutive cases of oncocytic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia were abstracted from electronic medical records. Literature search was performed using Pubmed and Google Scholar search engines using the keywords, “oncocytic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm,” “oncocytic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia,” “intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm,” and “intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms.” Studies that reported age, gender, invasiveness, and main versus branch duct involvement were included. Results We detailed three case reports and identified 77 previously published cases of oncocytic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia. The mean age at diagnosis was 61.6 years. There was a significant association of oncocytic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasias with male gender (P=0.03, but not with main/mixed versus branch duct involvement (P=0.053. Invasive carcinoma was observed in 55.8% of oncocytic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasias. In a subgroup of patients that underwent KRAS mutation testing (N=25, 7(28% harbored a KRAS mutation; KRAS mutation did not predict presence of invasive carcinoma (P=1.00. Conclusions Clinical factors or KRAS mutation testing cannot currently predict the malignant potential of oncocytic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasias. Management of oncocytic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasias should still be based upon macroscopic criteria.

  1. Percutaneous transhepatic intraductal biliary sonography for lymph node staging at 12.5 MHz in malignant bile duct obstruction: Work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To assess the value of intraductal ultrasound (US) for lymph node staging in malignant biliary obstruction. Methods, Eighteen patients with malignant extrahepatic obstruction were imaged during percutaneous bile duct drainage with a mechanically rotating US transducer at 12.5 MHz. Detectable lymph nodes were classified as malignant when two of three criteria (hypoechoic, rounded, conspicuous margins) were fulfilled. The results were compared with histopathological data in 8 patients and follow-up CT findings in 10 patients. Results. In 15 of 18 patients (83%) malignant lymph node involvement was suspected at intraductal US and in 5 of 18 patients (28%) during CT. Histopathological investigation after operation (n=8) and follow-up CT studies (n=10) revealed the presence of malignant nodal involvement in 13 of 18 (72%) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of transhepatic intraductal biliary US in determining merely the presence or absence of malignant lymph nodes without specific topographic assignment were 92%, 40%, and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. These preliminary results suggest that intraductal US may develop into a promising adjunctive modality during percutaneous bile duct drainage in patients with suspected malignant regional lymph node involvement

  2. Combined percutaneous and intraductal radiotherapy. Established method of therapy of bile duct carcinomas. Kombinierte perkutane und intraduktale Strahlentherapie. Fester Platz in der Behandlung von Gallengangskarzinomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, U. (Radio-Onkologische Klinik, Offenburg (Germany)); Brambs, H.J. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany). Roentgendiagnostische Abt.); Bruggmoser, G. (Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Strahlentherapie)

    1991-06-01

    Treatment of an inoperable bile duct carcinoma with combined percutaneous and intraductal high dose rate afterloading radiotherapy seems to become a standard within the treatment plan. Via a percutaneous, transhepatic drainage a flexible tube will be inserted, reaching the area of the tumor stenosis, and then a computer controlled Iridium{sup 192}-source will be positioned adequately. Encouraging first results 12-16 months from therapy seem to justify the sophisticated therapeutic method. (orig.).

  3. CT findings of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct: Assessment with multiphase contrast-enhanced examination using multi-detector CT

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    Ogawa, H., E-mail: ogawa.hiroshi@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, S. [Department of Radiology, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya Daiichi Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Nagasaka, T. [Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ota, T. [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University Hospital, Nagakute Aichi (Japan); Naganawa, S. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB), a neoplasm that is considered to be the biliary counterpart of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Materials and methods: Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated multiphase contrast-enhanced CT images with 0.5 or 1 mm collimation in 37 consecutive patients with resected IPNB diagnosed by a single pathologist. The CT findings were correlated with the pathological findings concerning invasion of the surrounding organs and vessels. Results: All patients showed bile duct dilatation. An intraductal mass was detected in 36 patients and the following findings were observed: extensive infiltration along the bile duct more than 20 mm (n = 32), compared with normal hepatic parenchyma, isodense or hyperdense during the late arterial phase (n = 31), not hyperdense during the portal-venous and delayed phases (n = 36), and intense enhancement rim at the base of the mass during the portal-venous or delayed phase (n = 27). Parenchymal invasion of the surrounding organs was seen in eight of 16 tumours showing irregular or bulging margins. Vascular invasion was false positive in four of eight tumours. Conclusions: IPNB exhibits relatively characteristic findings with multiphase contrast-enhanced examination using MDCT. A tendency to overestimate invasion of the surrounding organs and vessels was seen.

  4. Does secretin stimulation add to magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in characterising pancreatic cystic lesions as side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the value of secretin during magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in demonstrating communication between cystic lesions and the pancreatic duct to help determine the diagnosis of side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (SB-IPMN). This is an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study of 29 SB-IPMN patients and 13 non-IPMN subjects (control) who underwent secretin-enhanced MRCP (s-MRCP). Two readers blinded to the final diagnosis reviewed three randomised image sets: (1) pre-secretin HASTE, (2) dynamic s-MRCP and (3) post-secretin HASTE. Logistic regression, generalised linear models and ROC analyses were used to compare pre- and post-secretin results. There was no significant difference in median scores for the pre-secretin [reader 1: 1; reader 2: 2 (range -2 to 2)] and post-secretin HASTE [reader 1: 1; reader 2: 1 (range -2 to 2)] in the SB-IPMN group (P = 0.14), while the scores were lower for s-MRCP [reader 1: 0.5 (range -2 to 2); reader 2: 0 (range -1 to 2); P = 0.016]. There was no significant difference in mean maximum diameter of SB-IPMN on pre- and post-secretin HASTE, and s-MRCP (P > 0.05). Secretin stimulation did not add to MRCP in characterising pancreatic cystic lesions as SB-IPMN. (orig.)

  5. Does secretin stimulation add to magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in characterising pancreatic cystic lesions as side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm?

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    Purysko, Andrei S.; Gandhi, Namita S.; Veniero, Joseph C. [Cleveland Clinic, From the Abdominal Imaging Section, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Walsh, R.M. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of General Surgery, Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Obuchowski, Nancy A. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the value of secretin during magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in demonstrating communication between cystic lesions and the pancreatic duct to help determine the diagnosis of side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (SB-IPMN). This is an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study of 29 SB-IPMN patients and 13 non-IPMN subjects (control) who underwent secretin-enhanced MRCP (s-MRCP). Two readers blinded to the final diagnosis reviewed three randomised image sets: (1) pre-secretin HASTE, (2) dynamic s-MRCP and (3) post-secretin HASTE. Logistic regression, generalised linear models and ROC analyses were used to compare pre- and post-secretin results. There was no significant difference in median scores for the pre-secretin [reader 1: 1; reader 2: 2 (range -2 to 2)] and post-secretin HASTE [reader 1: 1; reader 2: 1 (range -2 to 2)] in the SB-IPMN group (P = 0.14), while the scores were lower for s-MRCP [reader 1: 0.5 (range -2 to 2); reader 2: 0 (range -1 to 2); P = 0.016]. There was no significant difference in mean maximum diameter of SB-IPMN on pre- and post-secretin HASTE, and s-MRCP (P > 0.05). Secretin stimulation did not add to MRCP in characterising pancreatic cystic lesions as SB-IPMN. (orig.)

  6. Intraductal papilloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001238.htm Intraductal papilloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Intraductal papilloma is a small, noncancerous (benign) tumor that grows ...

  7. Sub-branch and mixed-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: 2 case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ozmen, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN is one of the cystic neoplasias of the pancreas. The imaging findings provide that these tumors are differentiated from the other cystic lesions of the pancreas, especially from the chronic pancreatitis, where the treatment protocol is completely different. Therefore, the correct diagnosis and classification of the IPMN ensures that the patient receives the correct approach and the appropriate surgery, if necessary. The purpose of this study is to emphasize the imaging findings of the different types of the IPMN and the changes in the management protocol of the patients according to these radiological findings.

  8. Intraductal mucin-hypersecreting neoplasm of the pancreas : US, CT and ERP findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate US, CT and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) findings of intraductal mucin-hypersecreting neoplasm(IMHN). We categorized an IMHN as belonging to a group of disease that can be clinically detected by the pooling of mucus produced by tumors inside the main duct or branch ducts of the pancreas, thus causing dilatation of these ducts. We retrospectively reviewed the US, CT and ERP findings of five patients(hyperplasia, 4;adenocarcinoma, 1). On US and/or CT, diffuse dilatation of the main pancreatic duct was demonstrated in five patients. In two cystic lesions corresponding to cystic dilatation of branch ducts were noted at the pancreatic head(n=1) and neck(n=1). In one patient, multiple cystic lesions were seen on CT along the entire pancreas, but these were not detected on US. In all patients, dilatation of the main duct and /or its branch ducts was seen on ERP. Filling defects resulting from mucin in the main duct or branch ducts were noted in all cases. Lymphadenopathy was not seen on US or CT, but carcinoma peritonei was found in the adenocarcinoma patient at the time of operation. IMHN usually shows smooth, diffuse dilatation of the main duct, and on US or CT, dilated branch ducts are occasionally noted. ERP findings are the most characteristic and conclusive;dilatation of the main duct and/or branch ducts is noted, with a filling defect corresponding to mucin. If overlooked during diagnosis, an IMHN might be interpreted simply as chronic pancreatitis, and so the recognition of this neoplasm is important

  9. Intraductal mucin-hypersecreting neoplasm of the pancreas : US, CT and ERP findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Yeol [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    To evaluate US, CT and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) findings of intraductal mucin-hypersecreting neoplasm(IMHN). We categorized an IMHN as belonging to a group of disease that can be clinically detected by the pooling of mucus produced by tumors inside the main duct or branch ducts of the pancreas, thus causing dilatation of these ducts. We retrospectively reviewed the US, CT and ERP findings of five patients(hyperplasia, 4;adenocarcinoma, 1). On US and/or CT, diffuse dilatation of the main pancreatic duct was demonstrated in five patients. In two cystic lesions corresponding to cystic dilatation of branch ducts were noted at the pancreatic head(n=1) and neck(n=1). In one patient, multiple cystic lesions were seen on CT along the entire pancreas, but these were not detected on US. In all patients, dilatation of the main duct and /or its branch ducts was seen on ERP. Filling defects resulting from mucin in the main duct or branch ducts were noted in all cases. Lymphadenopathy was not seen on US or CT, but carcinoma peritonei was found in the adenocarcinoma patient at the time of operation. IMHN usually shows smooth, diffuse dilatation of the main duct, and on US or CT, dilated branch ducts are occasionally noted. ERP findings are the most characteristic and conclusive;dilatation of the main duct and/or branch ducts is noted, with a filling defect corresponding to mucin. If overlooked during diagnosis, an IMHN might be interpreted simply as chronic pancreatitis, and so the recognition of this neoplasm is important.

  10. Experimental investigation of shock wave propagation in a 90 $(°) $ ∘ branched duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamino, L.; Jourdan, G.; Igra, O.; Mariani, C.; Tosello, R.; Leriche, D.; Houas, L.

    2014-05-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted examining the option of using branched duct geometry for shock wave attenuation. Experiments were done in an 80 mm 80 mm square section shock tube to which a 20-mm diameter pipe was added vertically. Pressures were recorded along the shock tube wall (static pressure) and at the branched pipe end wall (stagnation pressure). Experiments were repeated with a constant incident shock wave Mach number () and with different pipe lengths. It was found that the length of the branched pipe has a significant effect on the flow inside the branched pipe and that in the present experimental configuration, the stagnation pressure recorded at the branched pipe end wall surpasses the pressure in the main channel behind the original incident shock wave. Finally, simulations were carried out using a commercial program, Star-CCM+, to complete the description of the flow studied here. The computed pressure profiles and shock wave locations agree quite well with the present experimental data.

  11. Intraductal Tubular Carcinoma of the Pancreas: a Case Report with the Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dae Kun; Kim, Seong Hyun; Choi, Seoung Ho; Jang, Kee Taek [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    We describe here a case of intraductal tubular carcinoma of the main pancreatic duct. Gadolinium-enhanced pancreas magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed an enhancing mass that was confined in the dilated main pancreatic duct of the pancreatic body, along with dilatation of the upstream main pancreatic duct and chronic pancreatitis that was due to obstruction. MR cholangiopancreatography and an endoscopic retrograde pancreatogram showed a filling defect that was due to an intraductal mass of the pancreatic body, along with dilatation of the upstream main pancreatic duct and no dilatation of the downstream main pancreatic duct. The pathological findings demonstrated an intraductal nodular appearance without papillary projection or mucin hypersecretion.

  12. A case report of intraductal papilloma in a young female patient with bloody nipple discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraductal papillomas are the most common subtype of papillomas, which are benign neoplasms of the breast. An intraductal papillomas is usually found as a solitary mass which originates in the major duct of the breast. Intraductal papilloma cases are frequently presented as nipple discharge and most commonly occur in individuals between the ages of 30 and 55 years. Few reports exist regarding cases of intraductal papillomas in children. We report a case of an intraductal papilloma, with imaging findings, which occurred in the breast of an 11-years old girl and presented as bloody nipple discharge

  13. A case report of intraductal papilloma in a young female patient with bloody nipple discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Young; Youk, Ji Hyun; Ko, Kyung Hee; Heo, Jin Hyung [Bundang CHA Hospital, Pochon CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Intraductal papillomas are the most common subtype of papillomas, which are benign neoplasms of the breast. An intraductal papillomas is usually found as a solitary mass which originates in the major duct of the breast. Intraductal papilloma cases are frequently presented as nipple discharge and most commonly occur in individuals between the ages of 30 and 55 years. Few reports exist regarding cases of intraductal papillomas in children. We report a case of an intraductal papilloma, with imaging findings, which occurred in the breast of an 11-years old girl and presented as bloody nipple discharge.

  14. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas; Up-to-Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Catalin Dima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN is a proven precursory lesion of pancreatic cancer, maybe the most important. The pancreatic cancer is a pathology associated with high rates of mortality. The IPMN develops from the epithelial ductal pancreatic cells and it expresses as cystic dilation of the main pancreatic duct and/or its branches, being part of the differential diagnosis of the cystic pancreatic masses. The identification of “invasive” and high-grade dysplasia IPMN lesions is imperiously necessary for a correct therapeutic approach; the pancreatic complementary resection being indicated in all cases with high-grade dysplasia upon the surgical margins of frozen section examinations.

  15. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  16. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  17. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumour of the pancreas: differentiation of malignancy and benignancy by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.S.-H.; Lim, J.H.; Lee, W.J.; Chang, K.T.; Oh, D.K.; Lee, K.T.; Lee, J.K.; Choi, S.H

    2006-09-15

    Aim: To retrospectively identify signs predictive of malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumour (IPMT) of the pancreas on computed tomography (CT) images. Materials and methods: Thirty-four benign and 21 malignant pancreatic IPMTs were evaluated. Preoperative helical CT images in these 55 cases of pathologically proven pancreatic IPMT were reviewed by two radiologists unaware of the histological grading. Tumour morphological types, locations, numbers and sizes of cystic lesions, maximum main pancreatic duct diameters, the presence of septa, mural nodule, wall thickening, and calcification in cysts, communication with the main pancreatic duct, peripancreatic haziness, protrusion of duodenal papilla, pancreatic atrophy, lymphadenopathy and distant metastasis were analysed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Main duct IPMTs were more likely to be malignant (71%) than branch duct (23%) or combined type IPMTs (28%; p = 0.002). Among the branch duct type and combined types, large cystic lesion (p = 0.018), the presence of a mural nodule (p = 0.018), a thickened wall (p = 0.009), and peripancreatic haziness (p = 0.039) were found to predict malignancy. Conclusion: CT is helpful in the preoperative differentiation of malignant and benign pancreatic IPMT. The presence of a dilated main pancreatic duct, mural nodules, thickened wall and peripancreatic haziness may be used as independent predictive signs of malignancy.

  18. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumour of the pancreas: differentiation of malignancy and benignancy by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To retrospectively identify signs predictive of malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumour (IPMT) of the pancreas on computed tomography (CT) images. Materials and methods: Thirty-four benign and 21 malignant pancreatic IPMTs were evaluated. Preoperative helical CT images in these 55 cases of pathologically proven pancreatic IPMT were reviewed by two radiologists unaware of the histological grading. Tumour morphological types, locations, numbers and sizes of cystic lesions, maximum main pancreatic duct diameters, the presence of septa, mural nodule, wall thickening, and calcification in cysts, communication with the main pancreatic duct, peripancreatic haziness, protrusion of duodenal papilla, pancreatic atrophy, lymphadenopathy and distant metastasis were analysed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Main duct IPMTs were more likely to be malignant (71%) than branch duct (23%) or combined type IPMTs (28%; p = 0.002). Among the branch duct type and combined types, large cystic lesion (p = 0.018), the presence of a mural nodule (p = 0.018), a thickened wall (p = 0.009), and peripancreatic haziness (p = 0.039) were found to predict malignancy. Conclusion: CT is helpful in the preoperative differentiation of malignant and benign pancreatic IPMT. The presence of a dilated main pancreatic duct, mural nodules, thickened wall and peripancreatic haziness may be used as independent predictive signs of malignancy

  19. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. Personal series and synthetic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gallucci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs are rare pancreatic tumors, accounting for less than 1-2% of all neoplasms of the pancreas. The main characteristic of IPMNs is their favorable prognosis, as these pre-malignant or malignant lesions are usually slow-growing tumors and radical surgery is frequently possible. According to the localization of the lesions, three different tumor types have been identified: the main-duct IPMN, the branch-duct IPMN and the mixed-type IPMN (involving both the main pancreatic duct and the side branches. IMPNs do not present pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The obstruction of the main pancreatic duct system may cause abdominal pain and acute pancreatitis (single or recurrent episodes. The tumor may be incidentally discovered in asymptomatic patients, particularly in those with branch-duct IPMNs. In clinical practice, any non-inflammatory cystic lesion of the pancreas should be considered as possible IPMN. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging with cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography can localize an IPMN and assess its morphology and size. The choice between non-operative and surgical management depends on the risk of malignancy and on the definitive distinction between benign and malignant IPMNs. Main-duct IPMNs have a high risk of malignant degeneration, especially in older patients. The clinical and radiological features, as well as treatment and outcome, of eight patients with IPMN (five with main-duct, two with branch-duct and one with mixed-type observed by the authors over the last ten years are presented.

  20. Imaging of intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas: literature review; Imagerie des tumeurs intracanalaires papillaires mucineuses du pancreas: revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette, O.; Cuilleron, M.; Veyret, C.; Mosnier, J.F. [Hopital Nord, 42 - Saint Etienne (France); Debelle, L.; Regent, D.; Antunes, L. [Hopital de Brabois-Vandoeuvre, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2001-06-01

    Intraductal papillary-mucinous tumor (IPMT) is defined as a syndrome consisting of dilatation of the main pancreatic duct and/or branch ducts associated with mucin overproduction. The purpose was to evaluate the usefulness of different imaging techniques (CT, EUS, ERCP) for determination of tumor invasion and pancreatic extension. Diagnosis often is delayed because it is confused with chronic pancreatitis or cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. It is difficult to rule out invasive malignancy. MRCP can be an essential imaging modality because it is a non-invasive technique. Intraductal ultrasound or pancreato-scopy could become in the future an additional useful preoperative procedure. A high frequency of invasive carcinoma in patients operated for pancreatic IPMT is observed. Surgical resection should be extended until a normal tissue margin is encountered. (authors)

  1. The Utilization of Imaging Features in the Management of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palmucci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs represent a group of cystic pancreatic neoplasms with large range of clinical behaviours, ranging from low-grade dysplasia or borderline lesions to invasive carcinomas. They can be grouped into lesions originating from the main pancreatic duct, main duct IPMNs (MD-IPMNs, and lesions which arise from secondary branches of parenchyma, denominated branch-duct IPMNs (BD-IPMNs. Management of these cystic lesions is essentially based on clinical and radiological features. The latter have been very well described in the last fifteen years, with many studies published in literature showing the main radiological features of IPMNs. Currently, the goal of imaging modalities is to identify “high-risk stigmata” or “worrisome feature” in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts. Marked dilatation of the main duct (>1 cm, large size (3–5 cm, and intramural nodules have been associated with increased risk of degeneration. BD-IPMNs could be observed as microcystic or macrocystic in appearance, with or without communication with main duct. Their imaging features are frequently overlapped with cystic neoplasms. The risk of progression for secondary IPMNs is lower, and subsequently an imaging based follow-up is very often proposed for these lesions.

  2. Intraductal papilloma of the breast: US findings and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Sang Beom; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Eun Sook; Song, Kyung Sub; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Kang Hun; Choi, Hyun Ju [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veteran' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    For analysis of ultrasonographic findings of intraductal papilloma, and correlation to the pathologic findings. Ultrasonographic, mammographic and clinico-pathologic findings of 50 intraductal papillomas in 42 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The ultrasonographic findings of 50 masses were solid mass within dilated duct (type I) (n=15, 30%), solid mass within cyst (type II) (n=17,34%), solid mass without visible cyst or ductal dilatation (type III) (n=18, 36%). The type III masses divided into heterogeneous echoic mass (type IIIa) (n=13, 26%) and homogeneous echoic mass (type IIIb) (n=5, 10%). On microscopic examination,supporting stroma, cystic space and secretory vacuoles were found within the papillary fronds of all intraductal papillomas with variable composition. Type IIIa was proved to have hematoma within dilated duct or cyst on operation records. The mammographic findings were mass without microcalcification (n=8, 23.5%), mass with microcalcification (n=2. 5.9%), only microcalcification (n=1, 2.9%), asymmetric focal increased density (n=3, 8.8%), and normal findings (n=20, 58.8%). The ultrasonographic findings of intraductal papilloma in the breast can be classified into 4 types (type I, II, IIIa, IIIb) according to the presence of ductal dilatation or cyst and homogeneity of the echotexture of the mass. Intraductal papilloma combined with the intraductal or intracystic hematoma or associated with necrosis in the mass could explain the heterogeneity of the echotexture.

  3. The Effect of Pathological Types of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas on Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs of the pancreas consist of papillary growths within the pancreatic ductal system and they are at risk of malignant transformation. They were first described by Ohhashi et al. in 1982 [1] and represent more than one third of all cystic neoplasms of the pancreas but less than 1% of all pancreatic tumors [2, 3]. The World Health Organization has classified IPMNs into four categories based upon the degree of epithelial dysplasia: adenoma, borderline carcinoma, carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma [4] From a morphologic point of view, IPMNs may involve the main pancreatic duct, a side branch or both. The latter is termed “mixed” type.

  4. Multiple intraductal papillomas of breast clinically masquerading as malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intraductal papilloma is characterized by proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells overlying fibro-vascular stalks creating an arborescent structure within the lumen of duct. Some times multiple papillomas with florid proliferation of epithelium may be confused with malignancy. A case of multiple intraductal papillomas of breast with ulceration of overlying skin and large lump leading to clinical diagnosis of malignancy is documented here. Case Report: A 45-year-old female presented with ulcerated mass of six months duration in the left breast. On examination, a firm, immobile lump of 8× 10 cm in size involving nipple with excoriation of surrounding skin and serosanguinous discharge from nipple was present. There was no axillary lymphadenopathy. No family history of carcinoma breast was present. Fine needle aspiration smears showed benign cellular changes with apocrine metaplasia. Biopsy from an area adjacent to nipple showed intraductal papilloma. Simple mastectomy showed lobulated dirty white mass with well circumscribed nodules below the nipple and areola. On histology with immunohistochemistry a diagnosis of multiple intraductal papillomas was made. Patient is on regular follow-up and doing well. Conclusion: The case highlights the problem in differentiating marked papillomatosis from a malignant lesion of breast and importance of biopsy with immunohistochemistry in such cases for proper management.

  5. The mammographic spectrum of intraductal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the atypical radiographic spectrum of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the authors retrospectively reviewed the mammograms of 190 women who had biopsy-proved DCIS at Malmo General Hospital between January 1976 and March 1988. Of these, 117 (61.6%) showed clustered microcalcifications as the major abnormality, a finding often associated with DCIS. The remaining 73 women (38.4%) had either negative mammograms (30 women) or radiographic findings not usually associated with DCIS (43 women), including circumscribed masses (15 women) and focal conglomerates of prominent ducts and nodules (12 cases). Since treatment of DCIS may cure the disease, the radiologist should learn to recognize the more unusual mammographic manifestations of intraductal carcinoma

  6. Intraductal papilloma of the breast in association with preoncogenic gene of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuenchit Khammapirad; Jenjeera Prueksadee; Concepcion Diaz-Arrastia; Shaleen K Botting; Morton Leonard; Louisea Bonoan-Deomampo; Mahmoud A Eltorky

    2011-01-01

    We reported a case of an African American woman who went to the hospital with palpable right breast lump with bloody nipple discharge at University of Texas Medical Branct at Galvestion. The modalities of breast imagings included mammography and ultrasongraphy. The method used for viral identification was Linear ArrayHPV genotyping test. Intraductal papilloma revealed as high density tubular or rounded lobular masses with partially circumscribed, obscured margins and clustered punctate microcalcifications on mammograms. Ultrasound showed as intraductal masses with dilated ducts. The core biopsy demonstrated duct filled with papillary lesion and post excision revealed intraductal papilloma.HPV DNA types16, 33, 58 and71 were detected after use of Linear ArrayHPV genotyping test.

  7. Multifocal intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas-A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-Chun Chiang; Jun Te Hsu; Huang-Yang Chen; Shyh Chuan Jwo; Tsann-Long Hwang; Yi-Yin Jan; Chun-Nan Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are relatively rare, comprising 10 percent of pancreatic cysts and only 1 percent of pancreatic cancers. Cystic neoplasms include mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystadenomas,papillary cystic tumors, cystic islet cell tumors and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs). IPMN was first described in 1982.It has been most commonly described in 60 to 70 years old males, and represents a relatively "new" but increasingly recognized disease. The improvement and widespread use of modern imaging equipments and heightened awareness of physicians contribute to the increasing incidence of IPMN. The majority of IPMNs are located in the pancreatic head (75%) while the rest involves the body/tail regions. Multifocal IPMNs have been hypothesized, but the true presence of multifocality is unknown. Here we present a 72-yearold male diagnosed with IPMN (carcinoma in situ) in the pancreatic head and a branch duct type IPMN (duct atypia) in the pancreatic body and tail. The patient underwent a Whipple intervention and a distal pancreatectomy. A three-year disease-free survival has been observed so far.

  8. Combination radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with intraductal tumor thrombus: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Hiroshi E-mail: info@shin-tokyohospital.or.jp; Furuse, Junji; Yoshino, Masahiro; Ogino, Takashi; Ishikura, Satoshi; Satake, Mitsuo; Hasebe, Takahiro

    2001-06-01

    We report the successful treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with an intraductal tumor thrombus in a 67-year-old male. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) revealed intrahepatic biliary dilatation in the left hepatic lobe and an intraductal tumor thrombus. The main tumor lesion was not clearly visualized on abdominal US, dynamic CT, and hepatic angiography. We biopsied the intraductal tumor thrombus under US guidance. Histologically the biopsy specimen was a poorly differentiated HCC We thus diagnosed HCC with intraductal tumor thrombus. The total serum bilirubin level gradually rose to 3.1 mg/dl. This tumor was inoperable because of severe hepatic dysfunction. We chose to treat the patient with radiotherapy aimed only at the intraductal tumor thrombus because the main tumor was unclear. A percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube was inserted into the common bile duct beyond the tumor thrombus and the tube was dilated. Once total serum bilirubin had reached the normal range, a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) plus an intraluminal brachytherapy, {sup 192}Ir boost was administered. The intraductal tumor thrombus was found to have vanished and the PTBD tube was removed. After this treatment, transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed at the point of tumor appearance. This patient had a relatively long survival, {approx}30 months, with no clinical evidence of recurrent disease and biliary drainage was not necessary.

  9. Pathological features and diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Víctor; M; Castellano-Megías; Carolina; Ibarrola-de; Andrés; Guadalupe; López-Alonso; Francisco; Colina-Ruizdelgado

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm(IPMN) of the pancreas is a noninvasive epithelial neoplasm of mucinproducing cells arising in the main duct(MD) and/or branch ducts(BD) of the pancreas. Involved ducts are dilated and filled with neoplastic papillae and mucus in variable intensity. IPMN lacks ovarian-type stroma, unlike mucinous cystic neoplasm, and is defined as a grossly visible entity(≥ 5 mm), unlike pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm. With the use of high-resolution imaging techniques, very small IPMNs are increasingly being identified. Most IPMNs are solitary and located in the pancreatic head, although 20%-40% are multifocal. Macroscopic classification in MD type, BD type and mixed or combined type reflects biological differences with important prognostic and preoperative clinical management implications. Based on cytoarchitectural atypia, IPMN is classified into low-grade, intermediategrade and high-grade dysplasia. Based on histological features and mucin(MUC) immunophenotype, IPMNs are classified into gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic types. These different phenotypes can be observed together, with the IPMN classified according to the predominant type. Two pathways have been suggested: gastric phenotype corresponds to less aggressive uncommitted cells(MUC1-, MUC2-, MUC5 AC +, MUC6 +) with the capacity to evolve to intestinal phenotype(intestinal pathway)(MUC1-, MUC2 +, MUC5 AC +, MUC6- or weak +) or pancreatobiliary /oncocytic phenotypes(pyloropancreatic pathway)(MUC1 +, MUC 2-, MUC5 AC +, MUC 6 +) becoming more aggressive. Prognosis of IPMN is excellent but critically worsens when invasive carcinoma arises(about 40% of IPMNs), except in some cases of minimal invasion. The clinical challenge is to establish which IPMNs should be removed because of their higher risk of developing invasive cancer. Once resected, they must be extensively sampled or, much better, submitted in its entirety for microscopic study to completely rule out

  10. Intraductal biliary and pancreatic endoscopy:An expanding scope of possibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joel R Judah; Peter V Draganov

    2008-01-01

    Intraductal endoscopy describes the use of an endoscope to directly visualize the biliary and pancreatic ducts.For many years,technological challenges have made performing these procedures difficult.The "mother-baby" system and other various miniscopes have been developed,but routine use has been hampered due to complex setup,scope fragility and the time consuming,technically demanding nature of the procedure.Recently,the SpyGlass peroral cholangiopancreatoscopy system has shown early success at providing diagnostic information and therapeutic options.The clinical utility of intraductal endoscopy is broad.It allows better differentiation between benign and malignant processes by allowing direct visualization and targeted sampling of tissue.Therapeutic interventions,such as electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL),laser lithotripsy,photodynamic therapy,and argon plasma coagulation (APC),may also be performed as part of intraductal endoscopy.Intraductal endoscopy significantly increases the diagnostic and therapeutic yield of standard endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP),and as technology progresses,it is likely that its utilization will only increase.In this review of intraductal endoscopy,we describe in detail the various endoscopic platforms and their diagnostic and clinical applications.

  11. Implications of imaging criteria for the management and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms - benign versus malignant findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Thula Cannon; Steffen, Ingo G.; Stelter, Lars H.; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm; Grieser, Christian [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Maurer, Martin H. [Universitaetsklinik Bern, Universitaetsinstitut fuer Radiologe, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Bahra, Marcus; Faber, Wladimir; Klein, Fritz [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Blaeker, Hendrik [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) subtypes based on objective imaging criteria. Fifty-eight patients with 60 histologically confirmed IPMNs were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-three imaging studies (CT,n = 42; MRI,n = 41) were analysed by three independent blinded observers (O1-O3), using established imaging criteria to assess likelihood of malignancy (-5, very likely benign; 5, very likely malignant) and histological subtype (i.e., low-grade (LGD), moderate-grade (MGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), early invasive carcinoma (IPMC), solid carcinoma (CA) arising from IPMN). Forty-one benign (LGD IPMN,n = 20; MGD IPMN,n = 21) and 19 malignant (HGD IPMN,n = 3; IPMC,n = 6; solid CA,n = 10) IPMNs located in the main duct (n = 6), branch duct (n = 37), or both (n = 17) were evaluated. Overall accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs was 86/92 % (CT/MRI). Exclusion of overtly malignant cases (solid CA) resulted in overall accuracy of 83/90 % (CT/MRI). The presence of mural nodules and ductal lesion size ≥30 mm were significant indicators of malignancy (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Invasive IPMN can be identified with high confidence and sensitivity using CT and MRI. The diagnostic problem that remains is the accurate radiological differentiation of premalignant and non-invasive subtypes. (orig.)

  12. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasm Having Clinical Characteristics of Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm and a Benign Histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatomi Oku

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Context An intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm is a rare pancreatic tumor which was first described by Adsay et al. in 1996. It has been defined as a new subgroup of IPMN. Case report We report the case of a 76-year-old woman who presented with nausea. Imaging studies revealed a cystic mass in the body of the pancreas. She underwent a successful distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, and has subsequently remained well. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by columnar epithelium similar to pancreatic duct epithelium, and the nodular projection consisted of arborizing papillary structures, lined by plump cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. These eosinophilic cells were immunohistochemically positively stained with anti-mitochondrial antibody. The cellular atypism was mild and the proliferating index was low, compatible with adenoma of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm. Although no ovarian type stroma was identified, in our case, no communication to main pancreatic duct (located in the pancreatic body and rapid growth by intracystic hemorrhage were clinical characteristics of a mucinous cystic neoplasm, but not IPMN. Conclusion With only 17 cases reported to date, the clinical and pathological details of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm are still unclear. We herein add one case with different characteristics from those of the past reports. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm with the clinical characteristics of a mucinous cystic neoplasm.

  13. IDUS for Biliary and Pancreatic Duct Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao ltoi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the recent decade, wire-guided intraductal US(IDUS), which can be passed through the working channel of standard duodenoscopes to provide high-frequency ultrasound images, has been developed as a newly diagnostic tool for biliary and pancreatic duct lesions.

  14. Endoscopic Extraction of Biliary Fascioliasis Diagnosed Using Intraductal Ultrasonography in a Patient with Acute Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ji Su; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah; Tae, Jae Woong; Choi, Moon Han; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection may result in biliary obstruction with or without cholangitis in the chronic biliary phase. Because clinical symptoms and signs of F. hepatica are similar to other biliary diseases that cause bile duct obstruction, such as stones or bile duct malignancies, that are, in fact, more common, this condition may not be suspected and diagnosis may be overlooked and delayed. Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic ultrasonography for the evaluation of bile duct obstruction may be incidentally detected with the worm, and diagnosis can be confirmed by extraction of the leaf-like trematode from the bile duct. Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) can provide high-resolution cross-sectional images of the bile duct, and is useful in evaluating indeterminate biliary diseases. We present a case of biliary fascioliasis that was diagnosed using IDUS and managed endoscopically in a patient with acute cholangitis. PMID:26668810

  15. Natural history of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia: How much do we really know?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Information on the natural history of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN) is currently inadequate due to a lack of carefully orchestrated long-term follow-up on a large cohort of patients with asymptomatic disease. Based on the available data, one can draw the conclusions that main duct IPMN is commonly associated with malignancy and an aggressive operative stance should be taken with resection being offered to most patients who are suitable operative candidates. In contrast, the ...

  16. Pseudomyxoma peritonei caused by ruptured intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sun; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lee, Min Hee; Yi, Boem Ha; KIm, Hee Kyung; Jung, Jun Chul; Cha, Jang Gyu [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon disease characterized by the seeding of mucin-secreting tumor cells throughout the abdomen and accumulation of mucin in the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are defined as pancreatic neoplasms that accumulate mucin within dilated ducts. Only a few cases of pancreatic IPMNs are associated with extra-pancreatic mucin and lead to PMP. This manuscript describes an unusual case of PMP caused by ruptured pancreatic IPMN.

  17. Assessment of MRCP for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Detection of diffusely and irregularly dilated side branches of the pancreatic ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi [Hamamatsu Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). School of Medicine; Takahashi, Mamoru; Ichijo, Katsutoshi; Tooyama, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Toki, Fumitake; Nishino, Takayoshi

    2001-12-01

    Detection of diffusely and irregularly dilated side branches of pancreatic ducts is a reliable criterion for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (Japan Pancreas Society, revised 1995). This review deals with our experience with the utility of Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in detecting this type of ductal abnormalities. Seventy patients with symptoms indicative of pancreatic or biliary diseases were evaluated using both MRCP and endoscopic retrograde chlangiopancreatography (ERCP) within an interval of three months or shorter. Using a 1.5 T unit, a multi-angle oblique multi-slab MRCP using a single-shot fast-spin-echo sequence was used to capture the pancreatic ducts. In 36 patients, MRCP was performed after administration of Gd-DTPA. The MRCP images were blindly and separately evaluated by two radiologists by counting the number of irregularly dilated side-branches in each segment. Two gastroenterologists in consensus evaluated the ERCP images as a standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and Az values for MRCP in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis were 0.33-0.50, 0.71-0.88 and 0.67-0.79 respectively without Gd-DTPA and 0.50-0.75, 0.78-0.93 and 0.82-0.89 with Gd-DTPA. Multi-angle oblique slab MRCP can be used for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis with acceptable diagnostic accuracy when it is performed with intravenously administered of Gd chelates. (author)

  18. MRI features of intraductal papilloma of the breast: sheep in wolf's clothing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Kathinka D; Roy, Sumit (Dept. of Radiology, Stavanger Univ. Hospital, Stavanger (Norway)), e-mail: kurk@sus.no; Saleh, Andreas (Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology, Duesseldorf Univ. Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany)); Diallo-Danebrock, Raihana (Inst. of Pathology, Duesseldorf Univ. Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany)); Skaane, Per (Dept. of Radiology, Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-04-15

    Background: Intraductal papillomas often present as small, smooth masses, dilated ducts or microcalcifications at mammography and as smooth, hypoechoic masses at sonography. At magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraductal papillomas often present as small smooth masses, however, often with strong enhancement with type 2 or 3 time intensity curves. The result of the MR analysis is therefore not infrequently inconclusive in order to characterize the mass as benign or malignant. Purpose: To characterize the appearance of intraductal papillomas of the breast at MRI, and determine whether the application of diagnostic rules described in literature could contribute to correctly classifying the lesions as benign. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with histologically proven intraductal papillomas were included. Two radiologists independently reviewed the MR images of the breast. The BI-RADS nomenclature was used to describe morphology and contrast-enhancement kinetics. Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of the MR images by the two investigators was performed. Kappa coefficient was calculated as index for the level of agreement. Subsequently, three sets of diagnostic rules, including the Goettinger score described by Fischer and the interpretation flowcharts according to Kinkel and to Tozaki were applied to characterize whether a biopsy should be recommended or not. Results: All papillomas presented as masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Only five papillomas showed a round, oval, or lobulated shape combined with smooth margins and continuous rise of the time intensity curve. Using the Goettinger score, biopsy would be recommended in 16 patients. Based on the interpretation flowcharts of Kinkel and of Tozaki, an additional 13 and 10 papillomas, respectively, were correctly classified as benign. Dilated ducts were visible in 10 patients. The interobserver agreement was good or excellent for all included variables. Conclusion: Including systematic analysis

  19. Intraductal radiofrequency ablation of tumour ingrowth into an uncovered metal stent used for inoperable cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, K L; Li, K K

    2013-12-01

    A 91-year-old woman diagnosed to have an inoperable cholangiocarcinoma had an uncovered metal stent inserted for palliative drainage. About 1.5 years later, tumour ingrowth into the metal stent caused cholangitis. Intraductal radiofrequency ablation was applied to create local coagulative tumour necrosis and the necrotic tissue was removed via a balloon catheter. A plastic stent was inserted to empirically treat any ensuing potential bile duct injury. The patient was discharged without complication with good palliative drainage. Intraductal radiofrequency ablation is a new technique for the treatment of metal stent occlusion due to tumour ingrowths. This is the first case report of this relatively safe and feasible new technique for the treatment of tumour ingrowth into a metal stent used as palliation for malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:24310661

  20. Diagnosis of a Nonpalpable Intraductal Papilloma without Radiological Abnormality by Nipple Discharge Smear Examination: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Singh; Jitendra Singh Nigam; Vatsala Misra; Pramela Antony Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nipple discharge is the third most common breast complaint after breast pain and breast mass, most commonly associated with endocrine alterations and/or medications, pregnancy, lactation, post lactation, fibrocystic disease, intraductal papilloma, duct ectasia, nipple adenoma, infection, chronic mastitis, subareolar abscess, and least frequently, breast carcinoma. Cytological examination of nipple discharge (ND) is a noninvasive method of diagnosing the underlying breast pathology. We report ...

  1. Laparoscopic resection of synchronous intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Wu Xu; Rong-Hua Li; Wei Zhou; Jie Wang; Ren-Chao Zhang; Ke Chen; Yi-Ping Mou

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein a 68-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a quite rare entity of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) occurring simultaneously in the left lateral lobe of liver and the tail of pancreas.Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed a cystic dilatation of the pancreatic duct in the pancreatic tail,which suggested an IPMN,and multiple intrahepatic duct stones in the left lateral lobe.The patient underwent a laparoscopic left lateral hepatolobectomy and spleenpreserving distal pancreatectomy.Intra-operative finding of massive mucin in the dilated bile duct implied an intraductal mucinous tumor in the liver.The diagnosis of synchronous IPMNs in the liver and pancreas was confirmed by pathological examination.The patient was followed up for 6 mo without signs of recurrence.Although several cases of IPMN of liver without any pancreatic association have been reported,the simultaneous occurrence of IPMNs in the liver and pancreas is very rare.To the best of our knowledge,it is the first reported case treated by laparoscopic resection.

  2. Biliary tract intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: A brief report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendran Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biliary Tract Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (BT-IPMN is a very rare entity, gradually emerging into attention as sporadic cases are being reported worldwide. In this brief report we discuss about such an entity from our part of the world, based on a case from our institution. A 47-year-old female was referred to our department with jaundice, intermittent fever with chills and rigor of 6 weeks duration. Initial evaluation revealed obstructive jaundice with distended gall bladder. Imaging with ultrasonogram (USG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed hugely dilated intra and extrahepatic biliary radicles with multiple and diffuse soft tissue lesions filling the common bile duct (CBD extending to the ductal system of left lobe of liver. A side viewing endoscopy demonstrated mucin extruding from a prominent ampulla of Vater. The patient was managed successfully by left hepatectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy (HPD. Gross pathological examination of the specimen showed marked dilatation of intra and extra hepatic bile ducts with multiple polypoidal lesions and plenty of mucin filling the entire biliary ductal system. Histopathology revealed predominantly intraductal papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma at the hilum extending to left bile duct with diffuse dysplastic changes throughout the biliary tree. Thus the clinical, radiological and pathological features of this lesion clearly fit into the diagnosis of BT-IPMN, which is slowly being established as a definite clinical entity with features much similar to its pancreatic counterpart.

  3. Advances of MRCP in diagnosis of pancreatic duct dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic duct dilatation is a common sign of pancreaticobiliary diseases and may be seen in pancreatic carcinoma, carcinoma of duodenal papilla, distal common bile duct carcinoma, ampullary carcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous tumor, pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst, sphincter of oddi dysfunction, pancreatic trauma, pancreas divisum, annular pancreas, pancreatic tuberculosis, abdominal aorta aneurysm, etc. It is possible to make a correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis by analyzing features of shape, extent, and location of dilated pancreatic duct. This article reviews the advances of MRCP in etiological diagnosis of dilatation of the pancreatic duct. (authors)

  4. A case report of hepatocellular carcinoma in common hepatic duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chi Sung; Park, In Ae; Choi, Sang Woon; Chung, Jung Kee [YongDeungPo City Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    We experienced a rare case of intraductal (common hepatic duct) hepatocellular carcinoma. Review of the literature disclosed 30 cases or less in which common duct involvement was a predominant clinical feature. Well demarcated, ovoid filling defect mass in CHD without parenchymal tumor mass was noted in ultrasound, PTC and CT study. The liver was cirrhotic, but {alpha}-fetoprotein level was normal. Differential diagnosis especially with Klatskin tumor is important and thought to be possible.

  5. Case series: imaging features of intraductal papillomas in patients presenting as nipple discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedita Dhull

    2016-07-01

    Results: 7/25 patients had intraductal papilloma as proven by surgery/ FNA. Mass lesion was identified in all 7 cases on sonography and MRI while it was detected in only 3 cases on mammography. Dilated ducts were demonstated in all 7 cases on sonography, in 6 cases on CE- MRI and 5 cases on mammography respectively. Conclusions: Mammography has limited diagnostic accuracy in patients with unexplained nipple discharge and MRI should be considered the diagnostic technique of choice in this clinical setting, with relevant corresponding area focussed on sonography. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2878-2882

  6. Effect of portal hypertension and duct ligature on pancreatic fluid pressures in cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Heyeraas, K J;

    1990-01-01

    In two groups of cats recordings were performed, during laparotomy, of pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measured by a needle technique, interstitial fluid pressure measured by micropipette technique, pancreatic intraductal pressure, and portal vein pressure. In one group of cats the pressures were....... Acute portal hypertension caused no significant changes in micropipette, needle, or duct pressures. Pancreatic duct ligature increased duct pressure, interstitial fluid pressure, and needle pressure. We conclude that the fluid pressure in the pancreas is probably influenced by the production...

  7. Acute Cholangitis following Intraductal Migration of Surgical Clips 10 Years after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie E. Cookson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents the gold standard approach for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Surgery-associated complications include bleeding, bile duct injury, and retained stones. Migration of surgical clips after cholecystectomy is a rare complication and may result in gallstone formation “clip cholelithiasis”. Case Report. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and severe sepsis having undergone an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy 10 years earlier. Computed tomography (CT imaging revealed hyperdense material in the common bile duct (CBD compatible with retained calculus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP revealed appearances in keeping with a migrated surgical clip within the CBD. Balloon trawl successfully extracted this, alleviating the patient’s jaundice and sepsis. Conclusion. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy which may lead to choledocholithiasis. Appropriate management requires timely identification and ERCP.

  8. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasia (IPMN Highlights from the "2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium". Orlando, FL, USA. January 22-24, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bussom

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (IPMN of the pancreas has evolved over the last decade. IPMN is a disease of the ductal epithelium and represent a spectrum of disease, ranging from benign to malignant lesions, making the early detection and characterization of these lesions important. As with villous adenomas of the colon, not all IPMNs will develop into adenocarcinoma. Definitive management is surgical resection for appropriate candidates, as benign lesions harbor malignant potential. Growing controversy revolves around issues of natural history, management of small-branch-duct lesions, ability to predict malignancy and/or progression, and surveillance strategies. Given these controversies, novel methods are needed to help in detecting and classifying IPMNs’ malignant potential so that appropriate treatment can be administered. The authors review abstracts from the 2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium held in January 2010, including biomarkers helping to classify IPMNs: IL-8 and IL-1beta from IPMN cyst aspirates (Abstract #133, and Foxp3/CD4/CD25 cells (Abstract #148 in peripheral blood. Future studies will hopefully provide insight into the many unanswered questions.

  9. Reappraisal of the Immunophenotype of Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMNs)—Gastric Pyloric and Small Intestinal Immunophenotype Expression in Gastric and Intestinal Type IPMNs—

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are mucin-producing neoplasms of the main and/or branch pancreatic ducts. To assess differences between various IPMN subtypes, immunohistochemical markers of gastric surface mucous cells (MUC5AC), gastric gland mucous cells (MUC6 and GlcNAcα1→4Galβ→R), gastric pyloric and duodenal epithelial cells (PDX1), intestinal cells (MUC2 and CDX2), small intestinal cells (CPS1) and large intestinal cells (SATB2) were evaluated in 33 surgically treated IPMNs. MUC2 expression classified IPMNs into gastric (n=17), intestinal (n=8) and mixed gastric and intestinal type (collision=7, composite=1). No differences in age or sex were observed among these types. MUC5AC and PDX1 were expressed in all IPMNs. MUC6 expression was higher in gastric and mixed types than in intestinal type. GlcNAcα1→4Galβ→R was detected in gastric and mixed type, but not in intestinal type. MUC2 and CDX2 expression were higher in intestinal type than gastric and mixed type. CPS1 expression was higher in intestinal type than gastric type. SATB2 was not observed in any IPMNs. Frequent abrupt transition between the two IPMN types in mixed-type IPMNs was observed. Gastric pyloric and small intestinal differentiation are characteristic of gastric and intestinal type IPMN, respectively, and these two IPMN types may have distinct pathogenesis

  10. Clinical significance of main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography: Single and double duct dilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark D Edge; Maarouf Hoteit; Amil P Patel; Xiaoping Wang; Deborah A Baumgarten; Qiang Cai

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography (CT) and thereby to provide the predictive criteria to identify patients at high risk of significant diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, and to avoid unnecessary work up for patients at low risk of such diseases.METHODS: Patients with dilation of the main pancreatic duct on CT at Emory University Hospital in 2002 were identified by computer search. Clinical course and ultimate diagnosis were obtained in all the identified patients by abstraction of their computer database records.RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were identified in this study. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer were the most common causes of the main pancreatic duct dilation on CT. Although the majority of patients with isolated dilation of the main pancreatic duct (single duct dilation) had chronic pancreatitis, one-third of patients with single duct dilation but without chronic pancreatitis had pancreatic malignancies, whereas most of patients with concomitant biliary duct dilation (double duct dilation) had pancreatic cancer.CONCLUSION: Patients with pancreatic double duct dilation need extensive work up and careful follow up since a majority of these patients are ultimately diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Patients with single duct dilation, especially such patients without any evidence of chronic pancreatitis, also need careful follow-up since the possibility of pancreatic malignancy, including adenocarcinoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumors, is still high.

  11. Difficulty in management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm-associated pancreatobiliary fistulas and the role of “pig-nose” appearance and intraductal ultrasonography in diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Kumagi, Teru; Kuroda, Taira; Azemoto, Nobuaki; Yamanishi, Hirofumi; Ohno, Yoshinori; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Ochi, Hironori; Tange, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Yoshiou; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatobiliary fistulas associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) often develop obstructive jaundice and cholangitis; thus, early diagnosis is important. However, computed tomography and cholangiography, the current methods for detecting pancreatobiliary fistulas, are not always effective. We previously reported a case of IPMN-associated pancreatobiliary fistula and proposed a potential new diagnostic marker: the “pig-nose” appearance of the duodenal papilla, which results from dilated pancreatic and bile ducts and can be visualized via endoscopy. In this study, we report another three cases of IPMN-associated pancreatobiliary fistulas detected by a different technology, intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS). As with our previously reported case, we confirmed the utility of the “pig-nose” appearance and IDUS in the diagnosis of IPMN-associated pancreatobiliary fistulas. In addition, we found it difficult to manage biliary obstruction that resulted from the flow of mucinous material through pancreatobiliary fistulas. The obstruction was treated with endoscopic nasal biliary drainage (ENBD), but this was not always successful. In two of our cases, additional treatment with a large diameter fully covered metal stent failed to improve jaundice. Therefore, we conclude that standard endoscopic stenting may not be effective, and that alternative endoscopic methods or surgery may be necessary. PMID:27092326

  12. Difficulty in management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm-associated pancreatobiliary fistulas and the role of "pig-nose" appearance and intraductal ultrasonography in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Kumagi, Teru; Kuroda, Taira; Azemoto, Nobuaki; Yamanishi, Hirofumi; Ohno, Yoshinori; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Ochi, Hironori; Tange, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Yoshiou; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatobiliary fistulas associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) often develop obstructive jaundice and cholangitis; thus, early diagnosis is important. However, computed tomography and cholangiography, the current methods for detecting pancreatobiliary fistulas, are not always effective. We previously reported a case of IPMN-associated pancreatobiliary fistula and proposed a potential new diagnostic marker: the "pig-nose" appearance of the duodenal papilla, which results from dilated pancreatic and bile ducts and can be visualized via endoscopy. In this study, we report another three cases of IPMN-associated pancreatobiliary fistulas detected by a different technology, intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS). As with our previously reported case, we confirmed the utility of the "pig-nose" appearance and IDUS in the diagnosis of IPMN-associated pancreatobiliary fistulas. In addition, we found it difficult to manage biliary obstruction that resulted from the flow of mucinous material through pancreatobiliary fistulas. The obstruction was treated with endoscopic nasal biliary drainage (ENBD), but this was not always successful. In two of our cases, additional treatment with a large diameter fully covered metal stent failed to improve jaundice. Therefore, we conclude that standard endoscopic stenting may not be effective, and that alternative endoscopic methods or surgery may be necessary. PMID:27092326

  13. Malignancies associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terumi Kamisawa; Yuyang Tu; Naoto Egawa; Hitoshi Nakajima; Kouji Tsuruta; Atsutake Okamoto

    2005-01-01

    AIM: As intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)has a favorable prognosis, associated malignancies have potential significance in these patients. We examined the incidence and characteristics of pre-existing, coexisting and subsequent malignancies in patients with IPMN. METHODS: Seventy-nine cases of IPMN were diagnosed by detection of mucous in the pancreatic duct during endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. Histological diagnosis was confirmed in 30 cases (adenoma (n = 19)and adenocarcinoma (n = 11). Other primary malignancies associated with IPMN, occurring in the prediagnostic or postdiagnostic period, were investigated. Postdiagnostic follow-up period was 3.3±0.5 years (range, 0.2-20 years).RESULTS: Other 40 malignancies occurred in 28 patients (35%). They were found before (n = 15), at (n = 19) and after (n = 6) the diagnosis of IPMT. Major associated malignancies were gastric cancer (n = 12), colonic cancer (n = 7), esophageal cancer (n = 4), pulmonary cancer (n = 4), and independent pancreatic cancer (n = 3).Pancreatic cancer was synchronous with IPMN in two patients and metachronous in one (3 years after diagnosis of IPMN). Thirty-one lesions were treated surgically or endoscopically. Fourteen patients died of associated cancers. Development of other malignancies was related to age (71.9±8.2 vs66.8±9.3, P<0.05), but not to gender or site of the tumor.CONCLUSION: IPMN is associated with a high incidence of other malignancies, particularly gastric and colonic cancers. Common genetic mechanisms between IPMN and other associated malignancies might be present. Clinicians should pay attention to the possibility of associated malignancies in preoperative screening and follow-up of patients with IPMN.

  14. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation is a Safe Treatment for Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizandari, Malkhaz [Tbilisi State Medical University, Department of Radiology (Georgia); Pai, Madhava, E-mail: madhava.pai@imperial.ac.uk; Xi Feng [Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina [University Hospital Brno Bohunice, Department of Radiology (Czech Republic); Quaretti, Pietro [IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina [University of Bologna, Department of Radiology, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi (Italy); Ao Guokun [The 309 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Department of Radiology (China); Kyriakides, Charis [Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Robert [Imperial College London, Department of Bioengineering (United Kingdom); Nicholls, Joanna; Habib, Nagy, E-mail: nagy.habib@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Previous clinical studies have shown the safety and efficacy of this novel radiofrequency ablation catheter when used for endoscopic palliative procedures. We report a retrospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary radiofrequency ablation of their malignant biliary strictures following external biliary decompression with an internal-external biliary drainage. Following ablation, they had a metal stent inserted. Results. Following this intervention, there were no 30-day mortality, hemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the 39 patients, 28 are alive and 10 patients are dead with a median survival of 89.5 (range 14-260) days and median stent patency of 84.5 (range 14-260) days. One patient was lost to follow-up. All but one patient had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. One patient with stent blockage at 42 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and restenting. Among the patients who are alive (n = 28) the median stent patency was 92 (range 14-260) days, whereas the patients who died (n = 10) had a median stent patency of 62.5 (range 38-210) days. Conclusions. In this group of patients, it appears that this new approach is feasible and safe. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  15. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation is a Safe Treatment for Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Previous clinical studies have shown the safety and efficacy of this novel radiofrequency ablation catheter when used for endoscopic palliative procedures. We report a retrospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary radiofrequency ablation of their malignant biliary strictures following external biliary decompression with an internal-external biliary drainage. Following ablation, they had a metal stent inserted. Results. Following this intervention, there were no 30-day mortality, hemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the 39 patients, 28 are alive and 10 patients are dead with a median survival of 89.5 (range 14–260) days and median stent patency of 84.5 (range 14–260) days. One patient was lost to follow-up. All but one patient had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. One patient with stent blockage at 42 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and restenting. Among the patients who are alive (n = 28) the median stent patency was 92 (range 14–260) days, whereas the patients who died (n = 10) had a median stent patency of 62.5 (range 38–210) days. Conclusions. In this group of patients, it appears that this new approach is feasible and safe. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  16. Update on Endoscopic Management of Main Pancreatic Duct Stones in Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun Kwang; Lehman, Glen A.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic duct stones are a common complication during the natural course of chronic pancreatitis and often contribute to additional pain and pancreatitis. Abdominal pain, one of the major symptoms of chronic pancreatitis, is believed to be caused in part by obstruction of the pancreatic duct system (by stones or strictures) resulting in increasing intraductal pressure and parenchymal ischemia. Pancreatic stones can be managed by surgery, endoscopy, or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. ...

  17. Diagnosis of intraductal spread of breast cancer by high-resolution MR imaging. Correlation between MR imaging and pathohistological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate pathohistological factors that affect the MR findings of intraductal spread (IDS) of breast cancer. The subjects of the present study were 42 breast cancer patients who were examined by MR imaging. Fat-suppressed high-resolution T1-weighted spin-echo images (350/13/1 (TR/TE/excitations), 16-cm FOV, 5-mm section thickness, and 512 x 256 matrix) were obtained one minute after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. In this protocol, contrast determination time was 1 min 48 sec. Of the 42 cases, IDS was found to be located more than 1 cm from the primary focus in 22 cases (52%). Rates of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging for the detection of IDS were 82%, 80%, and 81%, respectively. The probable cause of misdiagnosis was parenchymal enhancement due to severe fibrocystic disease and normal menstrual cycle. In 21 of 42 cases, the MR findings were precisely correlated with the pathohistologic findings of almost the same cross-section. The MR findings of IDS varied greatly with observation of linear, band-like, branch-like, plate-like and minute ring enhancements. These findings closely reflected the size, aggregation pattern, and distribution of intraductal lesions. In particular, minute ring enhancement was only observed in 4 comedo-type lesions. This pattern of enhancement is considered to reflect elevated intraductal cellular density with necrosis in the central region. (author)

  18. Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate: interobserver reproducibility survey of 39 urologic pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Egevad, Lars; Ma, Jun; Harding-Jackson, Nicholas; Algaba, Ferran; Billis, Athanase; Camparo, Philippe; Cheng, Liang; Clouston, David; Comperat, Eva M; Datta, Milton W; Evans, Andrew G; Griffiths, David F; Guo, Charles C; Hailemariam, Seife; Huang, Wei; Humphrey, Peter A; Jiang, Zhong; Kahane, Hillel; Kristiansen, Glen; La Rosa, Francisco G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; MacLennan, Gregory T; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Merrimen, Jennifer; Montironi, Rodolfo; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Picken, Maria M; Rao, Nagarjun; Shah, Rajal B; Shanks, Jonathan H; Shen, Steven S; Tawfik, Ossama W; True, Lawrence D; Van der Kwast, Theodorus; Varma, Murali; Wheeler, Thomas M; Zynger, Debra L; Sahr, Natasha; Bostwick, David G

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of intraductal carcinoma (IDC) of the prostate remains subjective because 3 sets of diagnostic criteria are in use. An internet survey was compiled from 38 photomicrographs showing duct proliferations: 14 signed out as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), 17 IDC, and 7 invasive cribriform/ductal carcinoma. Each image was assessed for the presence of 9 histologic criteria ascribed to IDC. Thirty-nine respondents were asked to rate images as (1) benign/reactive, (2) HGPIN, (3) borderline between HGPIN and IDC, (4) IDC, or (5) invasive cribriform/ductal carcinoma. Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.68. There was 70% overall agreement with HGPIN, 43% with IDC, and 73% with invasive carcinoma (P borderline or IDC was reached in 9 (47%). Two-thirds consensus other than IDC was reached in the remaining 19 of 38 cases, with 15 supporting HGPIN and 4 supporting invasive carcinoma. Findings that differed across diagnostic categories were lumen-spanning neoplastic cells (P sufficient criteria for IDC. Finally, 20.5% of respondents agreed that an isolated diagnosis of IDC on needle biopsy warrants definitive therapy, 20.5% disagreed, and 59.0% considered the decision to depend upon clinicopathologic variables. Although IDC diagnosis remains challenging, we propose these criteria: a lumen-spanning proliferation of neoplastic cells in preexisting ducts with a dense cribriform or partial solid growth pattern. Solid growth, in any part of the duct space, emerges as the most reproducible finding to rule in a diagnosis of IDC. Comedonecrosis is a rarer finding, but in most cases, it should rule in IDC. Duct space enlargement to greater than 2× the diameter of the largest, adjacent benign spaces is usually present in IDC, although there may be rare exceptions. PMID:25263387

  19. Diagnosis of Cancer Spread Using Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Cholangioscopy-guided Ultrasonography for Malignant Bile Duct Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Inoue

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of sites of intramural cancer spread were examined by comparing the intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) and wall thickening findings at sites of intramural cancer spread and non-spread, in patients with malignant bile duct stenosis who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). The subjects were ten patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer, two with pancreatic cancer, one with cancer of the gallbladder, and one with cancer of the papilla of Vater wh...

  20. Bile duct sensitivity to high-dose-rate afterloading irradiation with iridium 192. Experimental investigations in pigs. Strahlenempfindlichkeit des gesunden Gallengangs bei High-dose-rate-Afterloadingbestrahlung mit Iridium 192. Experimentelle Untersuchungen am Schwein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik und Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany) Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany) Tierhygienisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Freund, U. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik und Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany) Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany) Tierhygienisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Bruggmoser, G. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik und Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany) Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany) Tierhygienisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Laaff, H. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik und Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany) Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany) Tierhygienisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Kluger, U.W. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik und Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany) Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Ger

    1993-12-01

    This animal study was designed to assess the tolerance of the normal bile duct to a single intraluminal high-dose-rate afterloading irradiation. This information is essential for treatment recommendations in irradiation therapy of malignant bile duct stenoses. In 16 pigs bile duct catheters were inserted surgically. Over these devices single intraductal doses of 7.5 Gy and 15 Gy were applied using an iridium-192 source. After a period of two to three months the bile ducts and the surrounding structures were investigated by means of cholangiography, angiography, and macropathological and histological investigations. A single intraductal dose of 7.5 Gy leads to a slightly scarred shrinkage of the bile duct with sclerosis and obliteration of the capillary vessels. Vasculitis and necrosis of the bile duct wall are still evident three months after irradiation. A single dose of 15 Gy leads to severe lesions with widespread necroses of the bile duct wall which tend to bleed, and result in a high degree of shrinkage of the bile duct. The radiation damage is most prevalent near the papilla and in the narrow segments near the liver. Single intraluminal high-dose-rate afterloading doses of 7.5 and 15 Gy cause significant lesions and complications at the bile ducts. As the intact bile duct is the Achilles heel of intraductal therapy, considerably lower single doses are recommended for a fractioned treatment. (orig.)

  1. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast: intraductal appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Akif Serhat; Unal, Bulent; Edington, Howard; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Soran, Atilla

    2009-08-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign proliferative lesion of breast stroma. The diagnosis of PASH can be made using imaging techniques such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance or mammography. Ductoscopy is a relatively new technique which is used for imaging the intraductal surface. We report a patient with PASH in whom ductoscopy was performed successfully. PMID:19751351

  2. Endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement for inflammatory pancreatic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The role of endoscopic therapy in the management of pancreatic diseases is continuously evolving; at present most pathological conditions of the pancreas are successfully treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS),or both. Endoscopic placement of stents has played and still plays a major role in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, pseudocysts, pancreas divisum, main pancreatic duct injuries, pancreatic fistulae, complications of acute pancreatitis, recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis,and in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis. These stents are currently routinely placed to reduce intraductal hypertension, bypass obstructing stones, restore lumen patency in cases with dominant, symptomatic strictures,seal main pancreatic duct disruption, drain pseudocysts or fluid collections, treat symptomatic major or minor papilla sphincter stenosis, and prevent procedure-induced acute pancreatitis. The present review aims at updating and discussing techniques, indications, and results of endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the pancreas.

  3. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation for Clearance of Occluded Metal Stent in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeThe major complication occurring with biliary stents is stent occlusion, frequently seen because of tumour in-growth, epithelial hyperplasia, and sludge deposits, resulting in recurrent jaundice and cholangitis. We report a prospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency (RF) ablation to clear the blocked metal stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction using a novel bipolar RF catheter.MethodsNine patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary RF ablation through the blocked metal stent following external biliary decompression with an internal–external biliary drainage.ResultsAll nine patients had their stent patency restored successfully without the use of secondary stents. Following this intervention, there was no 30-day mortality, haemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the nine patients, six are alive and three patients are dead with a median follow-up of 122 (range 50–488) days and a median stent patency of 102.5 (range 50–321) days. Six patients had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. Three patients with stent blockage at 321, 290, and 65 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and repeat ablation.ConclusionsIn this selective group of patients, it appears that this new approach is safe and feasible. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies

  4. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation for Clearance of Occluded Metal Stent in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Madhava, E-mail: madhava.pai@imperial.ac.uk [Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, HPB Unit, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina [University Hospital Brno Bohunice, Department of Radiology (Czech Republic); Doros, Attila [Semmelweis University, Radiology Unit, Department of Transplantation and Surgery (Hungary); Quaretti, Pietro [IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina [University of Bologna, Department of Radiology, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi (Italy); Habib, Nagy, E-mail: nagy.habib@imperial.ac.uk [Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, HPB Unit, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-11

    PurposeThe major complication occurring with biliary stents is stent occlusion, frequently seen because of tumour in-growth, epithelial hyperplasia, and sludge deposits, resulting in recurrent jaundice and cholangitis. We report a prospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency (RF) ablation to clear the blocked metal stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction using a novel bipolar RF catheter.MethodsNine patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary RF ablation through the blocked metal stent following external biliary decompression with an internal–external biliary drainage.ResultsAll nine patients had their stent patency restored successfully without the use of secondary stents. Following this intervention, there was no 30-day mortality, haemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the nine patients, six are alive and three patients are dead with a median follow-up of 122 (range 50–488) days and a median stent patency of 102.5 (range 50–321) days. Six patients had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. Three patients with stent blockage at 321, 290, and 65 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and repeat ablation.ConclusionsIn this selective group of patients, it appears that this new approach is safe and feasible. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  5. Radiological intervention in the biliary duct for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Diagnostische und therapeutische radiologische Interventionen am Gallengang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J. (Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany))

    1993-09-01

    Innovative therapeutic approaches have given rise to the need of more refined diagnostic methods in the biliary duct. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy furnishes information that may confirm the presence of bile duct stenoses and also permits biopsy specimens to be obtained in an endoscopy-guided procedure. Intraductal sonography holds out promise as a procedure for a more precise locoregional staging of malignomas. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage is obsolete as a method of permanent bile derivation and endoscopic or percutaneous implantations of a biliary prosthesis are now commonly carried out instead. Among the various methods of tumour ablation, intraductal irradiation treatment using the afterload technique is gaining increasingly in importance. Other means of eliminating neoplasms, like laser beams and bipolar probes, are at present still under investigation. The cholangioscope and some more recently developed tools are a valuable addition to the arsenal for the treatment of concretions in the bile ducts. (origl/MG)

  6. Interrogation of the rat mammary gland using intraductal impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extant technologies for the detection of breast cancer exploit changes in the morphology of the mammary ductal epithelial network and can involve ionizing radiation. Intraductal surveillance of mammary epithelium has the potential to allow for earlier detection based on changes in function of the epithelium. This study investigated the feasibility of using intraductal impedance spectroscopy (IIS) to assess changes in resistance in the mammary epithelium in a small group of female rats in resting, pregnant and ultimately lactating states. In resting rats, intraductal surveillance was able to detect only a single resistive capacitance (RC). In pregnant animals, a second RC became evident in the frequency range between 1 and 190 Hz. The real resistance of this low frequency RC increased when measurements were made after the animals had begun lactating. Equivalent circuit modeling revealed this increase to be a 1.7-fold change from pregnancy to lactation. A model of tight junction closure in the context of ductal expansion is proposed. These results suggest that physiologic measurements can be made in rodent mammary epithelium using this technique allowing for assessment of function in normal and disease states

  7. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN and Chronic Pancreatitis: Overlapping Pathological Entities? Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Petrou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs are a recently classified pancreatic neoplasm with an increasing incidence. IPMN is often misdiagnosed as chronic pancreatitis because of symptoms of relapsing abdominal pain, pancreatitis, and steatorrhea and imaging findings of a dilated pancreatic duct of cystic lesions that are frequently confused with pseudocysts. Early recognition of IPMN allows for prompt surgical resection before malignant transformation. Case reports We report two cases of patients with long histories of chronic pancreatitis (more than 15 years that went on to develop IPMN. Both patients presented with symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, steatorrhoea and eventually weight loss. Biochemical and radiological findings were suggestive of chronic pancreatitis although no clear causes for this were identified. Both patients were followed up with multiple repeat scans with no reported sinister findings. Many years after the initial diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, radiological investigations identified pathological changes suggestive of neoplastic development and histology confirmed IPMN. Conclusions The cases demonstrate the ongoing challenges in diagnosing and managing IPMN effectively; highlights the important aspects of epidemiology in differentiating chronic pancreatitis and IPMN; continues the discussion surrounding the relationship between IPMN and chronic pancreatitis.

  8. Retrospective analysis of ultrasonography characteristics of breast intraductal papilloma in 19 cases%19例乳腺导管内乳头状瘤超声声像图特征的回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文俊; 彭伟国

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ultrasonographic appearance of breast intraductal papilloma.Methods 19 cases of ultrasonography characteristics of breast intraductal papilloma confirmed by pathology,were studied retrospectively. Results Ultrasonography characteristics of breast intraductal papilloma in 19 cases can be classified into four types. Ⅰ type: dilation of duct with intraductal papillary equal echo; Ⅱ type: bag solid mixed masses; Ⅲ type: solid bump; Ⅲ type: simple dilation of duct; Conclusion Ultrasonography can demonstrate direct and indirect ultrasonographic characteristics of breast intraductaI papilloma. The ultrasonographic diagnostic rate can be improved by analysis and summary.%目的 探讨乳腺导管内乳头状瘤的超声表现.方法 回顾性分析19例经手术病理证实的乳腺导管内乳头状瘤的超声声像图特征.结果 19例乳腺导管内乳头状瘤的超声声像图表现可分为四型.Ⅰ型:导管扩张伴导管内乳头状等回声;Ⅱ型:囊实混合性结节;Ⅲ型:实性肿块;Ⅲ型:单纯导管扩张.结论 超声能显示乳腺导管内乳头状瘤的直接或间接声像特征,通过总结分析,诊断率有望进一步提高.

  9. Quantitative nucleic features are effective for discrimination of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Yamada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intraductal proliferative lesions (IDPLs of the breast are recognized as a risk factor for subsequent invasive carcinoma development. Although opportunities for IDPL diagnosis have increased, these lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly, especially atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (LG-DCIS. In order to define the difference between these lesions, many molecular pathological approaches have been performed. However, still we do not have a molecular marker and objective histological index about IDPLs of the breast. Methods: We generated full digital pathology archives from 175 female IDPL patients, including usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH, ADH, LG-DCIS, intermediate-grade (IM-DCIS, and high-grade (HG-DCIS. After total 2,035,807 nucleic segmentations were extracted, we evaluated nuclear features using step-wise linear discriminant analysis (LDA and a support vector machine. Results: High diagnostic accuracy (81.8–99.3% was achieved between pathologists' diagnoses and two-group LDA predictions from nucleic features for IDPL discrimination. Grouping of nuclear features as size and shape-related or intranuclear texture-related revealed that the latter group was more important when distinguishing between normal duct, UDH, ADH, and LG-DCIS. However, these two groups were equally important when discriminating between LG-DCIS and HG-DCIS. The Mahalanobis distances between each group showed that the smallest distance values occurred between LG-DCIS and IM-DCIS and between ADH and Normal. On the other hand, the distance value between ADH and LG-DCIS was larger than this distance. Conclusions: In this study, we have presented a practical and useful digital pathological method that incorporates nuclear morphological and textural features for IDPL prediction. We expect that this novel algorithm is used for the automated diagnosis assisting system for breast cancer.

  10. Ducted turbine theory with right angled ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of an inviscid approach to model a ducted turbine – also known as a diffuser augmented turbine – and a comparison of results with a particular one-dimensional theory. The aim of the investigation was to gain a better understanding of the relationship between a real duct and the ideal diffuser, which is a concept that is developed in the theory. A range of right angled ducts, which have a rim for a 90° exit angle, were modelled. As a result, the performance of right angled ducts has been characterised in inviscid flow. It was concluded that right angled ducts cannot match the performance of their associated ideal diffuser and that the optimum rotor loading for these turbines varies with the duct dimensions

  11. The clinical assessment of intraductal ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the clinical value of intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis with conventional imaging methods. Methods: IDUS was carried out in eighteen patients with pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis

  12. Value of helical computed tomography in diagnosing the extent of intraductal spread of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the value of enhanced helical computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing the extent of intraductal spread of breast cancer. We regarded enhanced spots outside a main tumor as reflecting intraductal spread. The extent of intraductal spread diagnosed with CT was compared with pathologic findings. Overall, the accuracy of CT diagnosis was 67%, and the false-positive rate was 26%. The main cause of false positives was enhancement due to mastopathy. In patients with mastopathy, enhanced spots were scattered outside the main tumor. When this feature of mastopathy was considered, the accuracy of CT examination rose to 75% and the false-positive rate decreased to 11%. We confirmed that the extent of intraductal spread can be correctly diagnosed with CT. We conclude that CT is a useful examination before breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer. (author)

  13. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and other pancreatic cystic lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are being increasingly recognized, even in the absence of symptoms, in large part, due to markedly improved imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography (MRCP) and computer tomography (CT) scanning. During the past 2 decades, better imaging of these cystic lesions has resulted in definition of different types, including pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). While IPMN represent only a distinct minority of all pancreatic cancers, they appear to be a relatively frequent neoplastic form of pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Moreover, IPMN have a much better outcome and prognosis compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Therefore, recognition of this entity is exceedingly important for the clinician involved in diagnosis and further evaluation of a potentially curable form of pancreatic cancer.

  14. Application of Neural Networks to the Classification of Pancreatic Intraductal Proliferative Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Okoń, Krzysztof; Tomaszewska, Romana; Nowak, Krystyna; Stachura, Jerzy

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test applycability of neural networks to classification of pancreatic intraductal proliferative lesions basing on nuclear features, especially chromatin texture. Material for the study was obtained from patients operated on for pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and other tumours requiring pancreatic resection. Intraductal lesions were classified as low and high grade as previously described. The image analysis system consisted of a microscope, CCD camera comb...

  15. Study of Benign and Malignant Intraductal Lesions of the Breast by Fiberoptic Ductoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Xu; Qi Wang; Anqin Zhang; Wenping Li; Juntao Shi; Zhongyang Chen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe and subtype the appearance of intraductal papilloma (lesions) and of infiltrating ductal carcinoma or early infiltrating ductal carcinoma using a fiberoptic ductoscope (FDS) examination, and to discuss the differentiation and diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors by FDS.METHODS The characteristics of FDS images and diagnostic data for 229patients with intraductal papilloma (lesions) and 50 patients with ductal carcinoma, who were confirmed by surgical pathology from October 1998 to December 2003, were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS The appearance of the lesions observed by FDS were grouped into 4 types: a monothelia (type Ⅰ), polythelia (type Ⅱ), superficies (type Ⅲ)and a mixture (type Ⅳ). Intraductal papillomas (lesions) were more commonly seen in type Ⅰ and Ⅱ, and intraductal carcinomas or early infiltrating ductal carcinomas were more commonly seen in type Ⅲ and Ⅳ;there was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of the ductoscopic types, except in type Ⅱ, between the two types of lesions, P<0.001. The focal detection rate by FDS for intraductal papilloma and papillomatosis was 99.6% (228/229) and for breast cancer was 96.0% (48/50). The diagnostic accuracy was 97.8% (224/229) and 82.0% (41/50),respectively.CONCLUSION FDS can be a guide for the treament of benign and malignant intraductal tumors, with early discovery and accurate diagnosis.

  16. Can intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) predicting the longitudinal extension of intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT) of the pancreas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Deok; Jang, Jae Young; Cheon, Young Koog; Moon, Jung Ho; Kim, Yun Soo; Lee, Moon Sung; Hur, Kyung Yul; Shim, Chan Sup [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    The treatment of the choice of IPMT is a partial pancreatic resection with complete excision of this potentially malignant lesion, thus preserving sufficient pancreatic tissue to ensure endocrine and exocrine functions. This strategy, however, requires a reliable preoperative assessment of the highly variable extension of IPMT. We performed this study to determine the role of intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) in predicting extension of IPMT and selecting the resection methods of pancreas. From January 1997 to August 2001, there were 12 consequent patients, including 5 men and 7 women, with a median age of 54 years (range, 37-66) who underwent a resection of IPMT. A preoperative assessment of IPMT by IDUS was performed in all patients. According to the preoperative localization of IPMT by IDUS, various type of limited pancreatic resections were planned. The frozen sectional histologic examination of pancreatic cut surface was performed in all patient. In the case of cut surface tumor positive, a modification of the planned resection was done.

  17. Clinical research of high risk human papillomavirus infection in intraductal papilloma of breast%乳腺导管内乳头状瘤高危型人乳头瘤病毒感染状况的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建棋; 马榕; 吕艳蓉; 王磊一; 刘振平; 马婷婷; 江立玉; 张凯; 高海东; 杨其峰

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究乳腺导管内乳头状瘤中是否存在高危型人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的感染.方法:采用二代杂交捕获技术(HC2)定量检测30例乳腺导管内乳头状瘤患者的肿瘤组织或乳头溢液和18例乳腺纤维腺瘤患者肿瘤组织中13种高危型HPV DNA的含量.结果:30例乳腺导管内乳头状瘤组织或溢液中有3例呈阳性(检测值>1),阳性率为10%,而18例乳腺纤维腺瘤患者肿瘤组织中未发现高危型HPV的感染.30例乳腺导管内乳头状瘤患者中中央型导管内乳头状瘤11例,周围型导管内乳头状瘤19例,3例阳性者均为中央型,中央型导管内乳头状瘤的HPV阳性率与周围型导管内乳头状瘤存在明显差异(P<0.05).结论:乳腺导管内乳头状瘤存在高危型HPV的感染,HPV感染的来源可能是通过乳管的开口进入乳腺,不能支持高危型HPV感染与乳腺导管内乳头状瘤发展及癌变有关的观点.%Objective: To examine the infection of 13 high risk human papilloma-virus (HR-HPV) in Intraductal papilloma of breast. Methods: Hybrid Capture Ⅱ technique was done on 30 nipple discharges samples or tumor tissues from the patients with intraductal papilloma of breast and 18 tissues from the patients with breast fibroadenoma,to examine the infection of high risk human papilloma-virus DNA (HR-HPV DNA). Results: In 30 patients with intraductal papilloma of breast, there are 3 positive of HR-HPV DNA, positive rate is 10%. No HR-HPV DNA was found in patients with breast fibroadenoma.The 3 positives are all the Central-type intraductal papilloma.There are clear difference between the positive rate of HR-HPV of the Central-type intraductal papilloma and Peripheral intraductal papilloma (P<0.05). Conelusion: HR-HPV DNA infection exists in intraductal papilloma, and HR-HPV may infect the breast through the duct opening. Our results can't support that HR-HPV is associated with the development and cancerization of intraductal papilloma.

  18. Early bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Myung Cha; Myung-Hwan Kim; Se Jin Jang

    2007-01-01

    Bile duct cancers are frequently diagnosed as advanced diseases. Over half of patients with advanced bile duct cancer present with unresectable malignancies and their prognosis has been very poor even after curative resections. Although there has been a need to diagnose bile duct cancer at its early stage, it has been a difficult goal to achieve due to our lack of knowledge regarding this disease entity. Early bile duct cancer may be defined as a carcinoma whose invasion is confined within the fibromuscular layer of the extrahepatic bile duct or intrahepatic large bile duct without distant metastasis irrespective of lymph node involvement. Approximately 3%-10% of resected bile duct cancers have been reported to be early cancers in the literature. The clinicopathological features of patients with early bile duct cancer differ from those of patients with advanced bile duct cancer, with more frequent asymptomatic presentation, characteristic histopathological findings,and excellent prognosis. This manuscript is organized to emphasize the need for convening an international consensus to develop the concept of early bile duct cancer.

  19. Color doppler ultrasound in the application of breast intraductal papilloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jialing Wu; Guang Yang; Jian Shi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the application value of high-frequency color Doppler ultrasoundin the diagnosis of intraductal papilloma (IDP). Methods: A retrospective analysis of 64 IDP cases was done, the pathologyproven by surgery with 89 lesions. According to the ultrasonic performance, the lesions were divided into different types andthe solid focal were evaluated according to the classification BI-RADS-US standard. Results: There were 47 patients correspondswith the 64 cases of surgical pathology, the accuracy was 73.4%, according to the ultrasonic performance couldbe divided into two types, named catheter type and solid type, catheter diagnostic accuracy was 22/25 (88%), compared themorphological features of the solid type, grouped according to their size (≥ 2 cm or < 2 cm lesions), discovered there was nostatistically significant difference between the benign and malignant lesions by BI-RADS-US grading standard. Conclusion:Two-dimensional ultrasound and Color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) can make a definite diagnosis and positioning for IDP, butthere are still some limitations to differentiate the benign and malignant, it need to pay more attention to the clinical applicationof substantive IDP and improve the understanding, provide more relevant information for clinic, the focal will be earlier treatedto reduce the possibility of malignant happened change.

  20. Subcellular localization of KL-6 mucin in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Yoshinori; Seyama, Yasuji; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Tang, Wei; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify the expression profile of KL-6 mucin in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and its relation to tumor malignancy. Expression of KL-6 mucin in 38 IPMNs (intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma (IPMA), 24 cases; minimally invasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (MI-IPMC), 8 cases; invasive carcinoma originating from IPMC (IC-IPMC), 6 cases) and 66 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) was evaluated immunohistochemically. IC-IPMCs and MI-IPMCs had positive staining of KL-6 mucin whereas 58% of IPMAs tested negative. Subcellular localization of KL-6 mucin varied among IPMNs whereas all of the PDAC had positive expression in the circumferential membrane and cytoplasm of cancer cells. IC-IPMCs and MI-IPMCs had a higher frequency of circumferential membrane and cytoplasmic localization of KL-6 mucin than did IPMAs. These results suggest that localization of KL-6 mucin could be used to predict the malignancy of IPMN. PMID:25047009

  1. Design of power-plant installations pressure-loss characteristics of duct components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, John R

    1944-01-01

    A correlation of what are believed to be the most reliable data available on duct components of aircraft power-plant installations is presented. The information is given in a convenient form and is offered as an aid in designing duct systems and, subject to certain qualifications, as a guide in estimating their performance. The design and performance data include those for straight ducts; simple bends of square, circular, and elliptical cross sections; compound bends; diverging and converging bends; vaned bends; diffusers; branch ducts; internal inlets; and an angular placement of heat exchangers. Examples are included to illustrate methods of applying these data in analyzing duct systems. (author)

  2. Obstructive Jaundice Due to Hepatocarcinoma With Intraductal Growth. Report of a Successful Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, L. C.; Ana Teruel; Susana Mezquita; Martínez, J; F. Colina

    1990-01-01

    We present a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma causing obstructive jaundice due to intraductal growth, diagnosed intraoperatively by cholangiography and histological examination, and radically treated by left lobectomy, extrahepatic biliary tract resection and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Survival after operation was 13 months. Other similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed.

  3. Patent arterial duct

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Robin P; Elmasry Ola A; Forsey Jonathan T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavi...

  4. THE EXPRESSION OF APOPTOSIS RELATED GENES IN THE PROCESS OF CANCERATION OF ATYPICAL HYPERPLASIA OF MAMMARY DUCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of apoptosis related genes p53 and bcl-2 in atypical hyperplasia of mammary duct and the relationship between the gene expression and oncogenesis of breast. Methods: mRNA of apoptosis related gene p53 and bcl-2 were detected by in situ hybridization in 44 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia. p53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. The data were compared with those of 6 cases of benign hyperplasia and 26 cases of breast carcinoma. Results: The expression of p53 mRNA was 66.7% in benign hyperplasia, 40% in atypical ductal hyperplasia (55.6% in mild, 41.7% in medium, 26.1% in severe) and 19.2% in carcinoma (of which 21.4% were intraductal carcinoma and 16.7% were invasive). The expression of p53 protein was negative in benign hyperplasia, 24% in atypical hyperplasia (mild 11.1%, medium 25%, severe 34.8%), 38.5% in carcinoma (intraductal carcinoma 35.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma 41.7%). The expression of bcl-2 was negative in benign hyperplasia, 78.6% in intraductal carcinoma, 83.3% in invasive ductal carcinoma. Conclusion: Loss and mutation of p53 gene and excessive expression bcl-2 mRNA were detected in severe atypical ductal hyperplasia.

  5. A useful immunohistochemical approach to evaluate intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast and to predict their prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Omi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Okamoto, Takahiro; Obara, Takao; KOBAYASHI, MAKIO

    2011-01-01

    An examination was performed on 16 intraductal proliferative breast lesions diagnosed as intraductal papillomas (IP) or usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH), which were followed up for more than 3 years. An immunohistochemical marker panel combining myoepithelial markers, high-molecular-weight keratin (HMWK) and neuroendocrine markers was used. Two of 11 IP cases were re-evaluated as atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). These cases develo...

  6. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  7. Diagnosis of breast cancer extent and enhancement patterns using 3D-dynamic MR imaging. Correlation with intraductal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of 3D-dynamic MR imaging with fat suppression and magnetization transfer contrast for assessing breast cancer extent and tumor profile was evaluated in 74 breasts with 67 malignant and 7 benign lesions. We classified breast cancer by the intraductal component of the main tumor. Five histological types were assigned: type 1 (DS 0) invasive carcinoma without intraductal component, type 2 (DS 1): intraductal component is less than 50% of whole tumor, type 3 (DS 2): intraductal component is nearly equal to 50%, type 4 (DS 3): intraductal component is more than 50%, type 5 (DS 4): pure DSIC or DCIS associated with microinvasive foci. Histologic results and preoperative MR imaging were analyzed regarding tumor size and enhancement pattern for the various tumor types (DS 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4). The three tumors occult to MR imaging were two DCIS and one Paget's disease. The other 64 breast cancers were detected on MR imaging. Tumor size measured with MR imaging correlated closely with histologic measurement in DS 0, 1 and 2, whereas less accuracy was noted in DS 3 and 4. Rapid enhancement was frequently seen in DS 0, 1, 2 and 3. Peripheral enhancement was highly specific for breast cancer. However, peripheral enhancement was not found in all cases of DS 4. Linear and nodular enhancement was frequently seen in DS 3 and 4. MR imaging was useful in predicting the intraductal component. (author)

  8. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  9. Laser Lithotripsy to Treat Basket Impaction during Mechanical Lithotripsy of a Pancreatic Duct Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Hlaing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Though uncommon, pancreatic duct stones can cause significant discomfort and morbidity. Endoscopic removal ofpancreatic stones may decrease intraductal pressure by augmenting ductal drainage. Endoscopy is shown to be most effective when used early in the course of the disease. Endoscopic methods such as mechanical lithotripsy are often successful in removing the majority of pancreatic stones. However, its complication rate is quite high, with basket malfunction being the one most frequently encountered. Case report We report a case of a patient with idiopathic chronic calcific pancreatitis presenting with symptomatic pancreatic duct stones. During one attempt of basket mechanical lithotripsy, the basket wires fractured. The basket and stone thus became entrapped in the patient’s pancreatic duct. Holmium laser lithotripsy was applied via the mother-baby system of the endoscope. The stone was crushed, and the basket and stone fragments were able to be removed. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first time laser lithotripsy has been employed to relieve basket impaction during attempted mechanical lithotripsy of a pancreatic duct stone. This method may be considered as a rescue technique by endoscopists encountering basket impaction in the future.

  10. THYROGLOSSAL DUCT CYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Târcoveanu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC results from a failure in obliterating the embryogenic duct produced during thyroid migration and it represents the most common type of developmental cyst encountered in the neck region. Ectopic thyroid tissue neoplasias are rare, and even rarer when associated with the TDC. Methods: During the period 1998-2008, in the First Surgical Clinic, University Hospital “St. Spiridon” Iasi, 14 patients with thyroglossal duct cyst were diagnosed and treated. All records were reviewed for age and sex, diagnostic methods, sizes, surgical management and recurrences. Results: All patients with thyroglossal duct cysts are described as midline cysts of the neck. The ratio females/males was 6/1 with mean age 37.6 years (13-60 years. One case was with an external fistula. The treatment performed was a variant of Sistrunk’s procedure in which the thyroglossal tract was excised to a variable extent, but in all cases with central hyoidectomy. The size of the cyst ranged from 1.2 to 4 cm (mean 2.6 cm. Postoperative course was unventful in all cases. No recurrence was recorded in this series. We describe a case, a 19 years old female with thyroid papillary carcinoma evolving from a TDC. The literature is reviewed. Conclusion: The standard surgical approach to TDC is Sistrunk's operation with low recurrence rates. Malignancy within a thyroglossal duct cyst is very rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass. In such cases total thyroidectomy with removal of the tumour of thyroglossal duct and the body of the hyoid bone are recommended – because the carcinoma may be multifocal and because a lymphatic invasion of the thyroid may take place – in order to ensure a correct follow-up.

  11. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  12. Intraductal Proliferative Lesions of the Breast—Terminology and Biology Matter: Premalignant Lesions or Preinvasive Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Mauri; Lucio Fortunato; Leopoldo Costarelli; Domenico Campagna

    2012-01-01

    Morphological criteria for the diagnosis of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast have been an object of research and much controversy, and its terminology is rather confusing. Knowledge of the molecular aspects of this disease probably necessitates further research to clarify if these entities can be identified as breast cancer precursors or as a malignant preinvasive disease. These issues are of great interest not only for their biological implications, but also to the clinician w...

  13. An Intraductal Human-in-mouse Transplantation Model Mimics the Subtypes of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    OpenAIRE

    Behbod, Fariba; Kittrell, Frances S; LaMarca, Heather; Kerbawy, Sofia; Heestand, Jessica C; Young, Evelin; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Allred, D. Craig; Medina, Daniel; Edwards, David; Hu, Min; Polyak, Kornelia; Rosen, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Human models of noninvasive breast tumors are limited, and the existing in vivo models do not mimic inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most common type (80%) of noninvasive breast lesions. The aim of this study was to develop an in vivo model whereby the natural progression of human DCIS might be reproduced and studied. To accomplish this goal, the intraductal human-in-mouse (HIM) transplantation model was developed. The resulting model...

  14. Biliary tract intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: A brief report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Raveendran Subhash; Iyoob Ali Valiyaveettil; Bonny Natesh; Laila Raji

    2014-01-01

    Biliary Tract Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (BT-IPMN) is a very rare entity, gradually emerging into attention as sporadic cases are being reported worldwide. In this brief report we discuss about such an entity from our part of the world, based on a case from our institution. A 47-year-old female was referred to our department with jaundice, intermittent fever with chills and rigor of 6 weeks duration. Initial evaluation revealed obstructive jaundice with distended gall bladder. Im...

  15. Predictive factors associated with malignancy of intraductal papillary mucinous pancreatic neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Hee; Lee; Kyu; Taek; Lee; Jongwook; Park; Sun; Youn; Bae; Kwang; Hyuck; Lee; Jong; Kyun; Lee; Kee-Taek; Jang; Jin; Seok; Heo; Seong; Ho; Choi; Dong; Wook; Choi; Jong; Chul; Rhee

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To identify preoperative predictive factors associated with malignancy of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms(IPMNs) of the pancreas.METHODS:Between April 1995 and April 2010,129 patients underwent surgical resection for IPMNs at our institute and had confirmed pathologic diagnoses.The medical records were retrospectively reviewed and immunohistochemical staining for mucin(MUC) in pancreatic tissues was performed.RESULTS:Univariate analysis showed that the following five variables were closely asso...

  16. In vivo and in vitro Propagation of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiyama, Hirohiko; Kamiyama, Mihoko; Hong, Seung-Mo; Karikari, Collins; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Borges, Michael; Griffith, Margaret; Young, Angela; Norris-Kirby, Alexis; Lubek, Conrad; Mizuma, Masamichi; Feldmann, Georg; Shi, Chanjuan; Liang, Hong; Goggins, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are one of the 3 known curable precursor lesions of invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, an almost uniformly fatal disease. Cell lines from IPMNs and their invasive counterparts should be valuable to identify gene mutations critical to IPMN carcinogenesis, and permit high-throughput screening to identify drugs that cause regression of these lesions. Methods To advance the study of the biological features of IPMNs, we attempted ...

  17. Post-ERCP pancreatogastric fistula associated with an intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas – a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuda Yoshikazu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fistula formation has been reported in intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs with or without invasion of the adjacent organs. The presence or absence of invasion is mostly determined by postoperative histological examination rather than by preoperative work-up. Case presentation A 72 year-old Japanese woman showed remarkable dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD in the distal region of the pancreas. Subsequent ERCP also showed MPD dilatation, after which the patient suffered moderate pancreatitis. A subsequent gastroscopy revealed a small ulceration that had not been observed in a gastroscopy performed 3 months prior. Mucinous discharge from the ulceration suggested it might be the orifice of a fistula connected to the MPD. En bloc resection including the distal region of the pancreas, spleen, stomach and part of the transverse colon was performed under the pre- and intraoperative diagnosis of an invasive malignant IPMN. However, histopathology revealed the lesion to be of "borderline malignancy" without apparent invasion of the stomach. Light microscopy showed inflammatory cellular infiltrates (mainly neutrophils around the pancreatogastric fistula, but there was no evidence of neoplastic epithelia lining the fistulous tract. Conclusion This case highlights that a pancreatogastric fistula can develop after acute inflammation of the pancreas in the absence of cancer invasion. Further information regarding IPMN-associated fistulae is necessary to clarify the pathogenesis, diagnosis, appropriate surgical intervention and prognosis for this disorder.

  18. Magnetic resonance pancreatography: comparison of two- and three-dimensional sequences for assessment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to compare two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance pancreatography (MRP) with 3D MRP to evaluate intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Thirty-four patients (22 men, 12 women; age range, 45-80 years) with IPMN (n = 40) were examined with MRP on 2D and 3D sequences. Two readers independently reviewed the images to assess the overall image quality, artifacts, lesion location, communication with main pancreatic duct, and potential for malignancy. The readers assigned their confidence level (1-5) for predicting ductal communication of the lesion. The results of MRP were compared with endoscopic retrograde pancreatography and surgical and histopathologic findings. Studies obtained with 3D MRP were of significantly higher technical quality than those obtained with 2D MRP. Although 3D MRP showed higher area under the ROC curve (Az) values for predicting ductal communication of the lesion, there was no statistical significance between Az values of 2D and 3D MRP (Az for 2D = 0.821, 0.864 for readers 1 and 2, respectively, and Az for 3D= 0.964, 0.921). Accuracies for discriminating benign from malignant lesions were 70 and 67.5% (reader 1 and 2, respectively, for 2D) and 62.5 and 80.1% (3D). 3D MRP showed superior image quality to that of 2D MRP but did not increase the diagnostic accuracy for predicting ductal communication of the lesion. (orig.)

  19. Positron Emission Tomography with 2-Deoxy-2-[18F] Fluoro-DGlucose in the Detection of Malignancy in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian KP Goh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old Indian male was admitted with upper abdominal discomfort of 1-year duration which was associated with loss of weight and appetite. Clinical examination of the abdomen did not reveal any palpable masses. Laboratory investigations including a complete blood count, liver function tests and serum amylase were unremarkable. Standard serum tumor markers were within normal limits: carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9, 13.4 U/mL (reference range: 3-45 U/mL; carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, 1.4 μg/L (reference range: 0.5-3.5 μg/L and alphafetoprotein, 1.3 μg/L (reference range: 1-10 μg/L. A contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT scan demonstrated a cystically dilated and tortuous pancreatic duct measuring 1.9 cm, suggestive of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN. The common bile duct was dilated up to the level of the ampulla and a 3.2x2.0 cm heterogeneous soft tissue mass was observed in the head of the pancreas which extended into the duodenum, suggestive of a malignant lesion (Images 1 and 2. Fusion positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT was subsequently performed with 12.7 mCi of 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG administered intravenously. A whole body PET/CT scan was performed 60 minutes later with CT data used for attenuation correction and anatomical correlation. This confirmed a metabolically active focus within the pancreatic head mass with a standard uptake value (SUVmax of 3.5 compatible with carcinoma (Image 3.

  20. Gallblader and bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009215 Construction of the specific MUC5AC-siRNA expression plasmid and effect of siRNA on proliferation and apoptosis in human bile duct cancer line HCCC-9810.HUANG Qing(黄强),et al.Dept General Surg,Affili Prov Hosp,Anhui Med Univ,Hefei 230001.World Chin J Digestol.2009;17(6):566-572.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamics in rectangular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetohydrodynamic flow in straight ducts or bends is a key issue, which has to be investigated for developing self-cooled liquid metal blankets of fusion reactors. The code presented solves the full set of governing equations and simulates all phenomena of such flows, including inertial effects. The range of application is limited by computer storage only. (orig./WL)

  2. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  3. Design Optimization of Propeller Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Aasebø, Steinar Martin

    2009-01-01

    This Master Thesis ends up in a design optimization of a propeller duct profile as an example of multi-objective optimization with computationally expensive objective function evaluation. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the ducted propeller is then done as objective evaluation. Response surface methods are employed in the propeller duct profile optimization.

  4. Left hepatic trisectionectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma presenting with an aberrant biliary duct of segment 5: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozawa Fumiaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Management of the biliary ducts during liver resection is one of the most important challenges for hepatobiliary surgeons. Here, we report the case of a left hepatic trisectionectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma with a rare aberrant biliary duct of segment 5, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in previous literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old Asian female initially presented with intrahepatic bile duct dilatation in the left lateral sector, left paramedian sector, and right paramedian sector. Simultaneous cholangiography from a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube in biliary duct of segment 8 and endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube in biliary duct of segment 3 revealed drainage of the right lateral sectoral branch into the common hepatic duct and the aberrant drainage of segment 5 into the right lateral sectoral branch. The left hepatic duct, right paramedian sectoral duct, and the confluence of the right lateral sectoral duct were narrowed. Left hepatic trisectionectomy was successfully performed with careful dissection and division of the aberrant biliary duct of segment 5. Conclusion For safe liver resection, it is important to perform a detailed anatomic evaluation of the intrahepatic ducts, both preoperatively and intraoperatively.

  5. Branching out

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, J D

    2010-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of the rightmost particle in the $n$th generation in the branching random walk are reviewed and the phenomenon of anomalous spreading speeds, noticed recently in related deterministic models, is considered. The relationship between such results and certain coupled reaction-diffusion equations is indicated.

  6. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  7. Primary cystic pancreatic neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. MR cholangiopancreatographic evaluation of lesions and Wirsung's duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the contribution of single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in the diagnosis of cystic lesions in the pancreas, and their relation to Wirsung's duct. Material and methods: In 66 patients (33 women and 33 men; mean age: 66 years) cystic pancreatic lesions were retrospectively analyzed. The SSFSE technique was used, including an evaluation of Wirsung's duct. Conventional pancreatic sequences were added. The following lesion features were assessed: location, number, size, relation to Wirsung's duct, nature of the cystic image and signal intensity of the neoplasm or tumor-like condition. Surgical and anatomopathological correlation was obtained in 31/66 cases (47%). Results: The cystic lesions were divided in 2 groups: A) cystic lesions related to Wirsung's duct, 30 patients: all lesions measured less than 30 mm in size. Seven patients underwent surgical treatment; in 22 cases surgery was not indicated. One patient refused surgery. A mucinous papilliferous intraductal tumor was diagnosed in 3 cases, ampullar carcinoma in 1 case, pancreatic carcinoma, 1 case, autoimmune pancreatitis, 1 case, and cystic duct dilatation due to benign fibrous stenosis, 1 case. B) Cystic lesions not related to Wirsung's duct (36 patients): 7 serous cystadenomas, 7 adenocarcinomas with a cystic component, 1 mucinous cystadenoma, 1 duodenal diverticulum, 7 pseudocysts and 1 neuroendocrine tumor. In 12 patients surgery was not carried out due to clinical contraindication or patient's refusal. Conclusion: SSFSE allowed a clear differentiation between cystic lesions related (Group A) and non-related (Group B) to Wirsung's duct. The diagnosis could not be achieved by usual MRI sequences. However, benign and malignant lesions were observed in both groups. In all cases SSFSE afforded useful data either for surgical treatment or clinical follow-up. (author)

  8. Refractory Jaundice From Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Treated With Cholangioscopy-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas G; Camilo, Joel; McCarter, Martin; Shah, Raj J

    2016-04-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are epithelial neoplasms treated with surgical resection when appropriate. We present a 79-year-old man with jandice refractory to endoscopic stenting. Biliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with cholangioscopy was used as palliation of obstructive jaundice due to a mucin-producing pancreatic IPMN with fistulous biliary communication. Clinical improvement permitted surgery, and he returned to pre-illness status at 17 months. The use of cholangioscopy in the setting of mucinous filling defects can guide over-the-wire RFA for palliation and may be a bridge to surgery. PMID:27144205

  9. Bile duct malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucek, S; Tomasek, J; Halámkova, J; Kiss, I; Andrasina, T; Hemmelová, B; Adámková-Krákorová, D; Vyzula, R

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct malignancies include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), gall bladder carcinoma (GC) and carcinoma of Vater's ampulla (ampulloma). Bile duct neoplasms are rare tumours with overall poor prognosis. The overall incidence affects up to 12.5 per 100,000 persons in the Czech Republic. The mortality rate has risen recently to 9.5 per 100,000 persons. The incidence and mortality have been remarkably stable over the past 3 decades. The survival rate of patients with these tumours is poor, usually not exceeding 12 months. The diagnostic process is complex, uneasy and usually late. Most cases are diagnosed when unresectable, and palliative treatment is the main approach of medical care for these tumours. The treatment remains very challenging. New approaches have not brought much improvement in this field. Standards of palliative care are lacking and quality of life assessments are surprisingly not common. From the scarce data it seems, however, that multimodal individually tailored treatment can prolong patients'survival and improve the health-related quality of life. The care in specialized centres offers methods of surgery, interventional radiology, clinical oncology and high quality supportive care. These methods are discussed in the article in greater detail. Improvements in this field can be sought in new diagnostic methods and new procedures in surgery and interventional radiology. Understanding the tumour biology on the molecular level could shift the strategy to a more successful one, resulting in more cured patients. Further improvements in palliative care can be sought by defining new targets and new drug development. The lack of patients with bile duct neoplasms has been the limiting factor for any improvements. A new design of larger randomized international multicentric clinical trials with prompt data sharing could help to overcome this major problem. Defining standards of palliative care is a necessity

  10. Gallbladder and bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930559 An experimental study on effective hep-atic blood flow and hepatic energy metabolismfollowing acute obstructive cholangitis and bil-iary obstruction.SUN Wenbing (孙文兵),et al.Hepatobili Surg,Center,Southwest Hosp,Chongqing 630000.Chin J Digest 1992;12(5):261—263.The changes of effective hepatic blood flow(E-HBF)and hepatic energy metabolism were stud-ied following acutc obstructive cholangitis(AOC)and bile duct ligation(BDL)in rats.The resultsshowed that EHBF was significantly decreased at24hs after and further decreased at 48hs afterBDL.And EHBF was significantly decreased at

  11. Duct Remediation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Duct Remediation Program was established in March of 1990 to identify and remediate sections of plutonium contaminated ductwork in existing Plutonium Fabrication and Recovery Facilities at Rocky Flats near Golden, Colorado. The program was implemented as a result of non-destructive assay measurements which identified areas of significant holdup accumulations. These facilities housed plutonium operations for over 30 years and included processes such as foundries, machining, and plutonium transfer/storage. The Secretary of Energy defined the criteria for remediation success as ''...as low as practicable, but in no case greater than 400 grams of plutonium in any single upward flow path in a glovebox exhaust system...'' This criteria was additionally restricted to include a non-destructive measurement uncertainty of 100 percent. The remediation project also had to comply with the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 90-6. The ''As Low As Practicable'' criteria became the programmatic goal and the basis of the research and operation that occurred over a two year period. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders provided design and safety criteria bounding the engineering methods used in program development. A Mockup and Test Facility was established for the conception and refinement of holdup material characterization, tool manipulation, remediation equipment, duct access, and operational procedures. With these items in place the remediation operation was implemented and carried through to completion

  12. Secretory Duct Structure and Phytochemistry Compounds of Yellow Latex in Mangosteen Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    DORLY; SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO; ROEDHY POERWANTO; JULIARNI

    2008-01-01

    Yellow latex is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness, because it is one factor lowering the fruit quality. The structure of yellow latex secretory ducts in the flower and fruit as well as in the root, stem and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) seedling and the qualitative phytochemistry of yellow latex were studied. The ducts were branched, canal-like type. They were found in the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, aril of the fruit, flower, stem, and leaf. In the fruit, the biggest...

  13. Propagation of sound waves in ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described.......Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described....

  14. Ascariasis of the pancreatic duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimovskij, Michail; Dulskas, Audrius; Kraulyte, Zita; Mikalauskas, Saulius

    2015-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common helminthic disease worldwide, although Lithuania and other European countries are not considered endemic areas. The presence of the Ascaris worm in the biliary tree causes choledocholithiasis-like symptoms. We report a case of pancreatic duct ascariasis causing such symptoms. A 73-year-old Lithuanian woman underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suspecting choledocholithiasis. Contrast injection into the common bile duct demonstrated a slightly dilated biliary tree without any filling defects, and the tail of an Ascaris worm protruding from the opening of the papilla Vater. The worm was captured by a snare but escaped deep into the duct. After a small wirsungotomy the worm was retrieved from the pancreatic duct. The patient received a 150 mg dose of levamisole orally repeated 7 days later and was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms. This first reported sporadic case of pancreatic duct ascariasis in Lithuania was successfully treated with ERCP and Levamisole. PMID:26374772

  15. Histochemical Study of N-acetylgalactosamine Containing Glycoconjugate in Intraductal Carcinoma of the Breast by HPA Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Arab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycoconjugates are a class of glycoproteins or glycolipids, their terminal sugars are responsible for cell-cell and/or cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Aberrant glycosylation of these compounds are one of the most important aspects of cellular transformation, metastasis and escape of tumoral cells from immune system and resistance to antineoplastic drugs. Recent studies showed that patients with HPA (helix pomatia agglutinin positive intraductal carcinoma cells have worse prognosis compared to patients with HPA negative cells. The aim of the present study was to define the presence of GalNac terminal sugar in glycoconjugate of different grades of intraductal breast carcinoma and to compare the degree and the pattern of reactivity of tumoral cells to HPA lectin. Materials and Methods: The paraffin blocks belonging to 20 patients of intraductal carcinoma was chosen from pathology archive of Khatam-Al-Anbia hospital in Zahedan and 5-7 micrometer sections were prepared. Two expert pathologists determined histopathological grading independently. The lectin histochemistry was performed using HPA. The same observers determined histochemical grading. Data were analyzed by NPAR (non-parametric test of Mann Whitney. Results: Results of this study revealed that the pattern and the degree of histochemical reactivity of neoplastic cells differ in all grades of intraductal carcinoma. Histochemical staining showed significant difference between grades of intraductal carcinoma of the breast (p<0.003. The lowest reactivity was seen in grade I and the highest in grade III. Furthermore, the reaction of tumoral cells was primarily confined to apical surfaces of cells in grade I, to the Golgi zone in grade II, and to a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution in grade III. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the HPA reactivity of tumoral cells were different in all grades of intraductal carcinoma. The tumor cells showed aberrant glycosylation, which

  16. Rare condition of needle tract seeding after EUS-guided FNA for intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Hoshi, Koki; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Sato, Ai; Maki, Takumi; Hojo, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: We report on a 75-year-old man who was admitted due to pancreatic cystic lesion accompanied by a solid mass with liver metastasis. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was performed on the solid mass, and pathological findings revealed the lesion to be an adenocarcinoma diagnosed as intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (IPMC). Approximately 3 months after, a cystic subepithelial lesion appeared in the posterior gastric wall where the EUS-FNA had been performed. We performed EUS-FNA again, which revealed that the cystic mass was IPMC with pathology similar to the original lesion. This is a rare case demonstrating needle tract seeding of EUS-FNA for IPMC.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in size assessment of invasive breast carcinoma with an extensive intraductal component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bult Peter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-conserving treatment of invasive breast carcinoma with an extensive intraductal component (EIC is associated with DCIS-involved surgical margins and therefore it has an increased recurrence rate. EIC is a non-palpable lesion of which the size is frequently underestimated on mammography. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of MRI in size assessment of breast cancer with EIC. Methods 23 patients were identified and the mammographic (n = 21 and MR (n = 23 images were re-reviewed by a senior radiologist. Size on MR images was compared with histopathological tumour extent. Results The correlation of radiological size with histopathological size was r = 0.20 in mammography (p = 0.39 compared to r = 0.65 in MRI (p Conclusion Size assessment of MRI imaging was more accurate compared to mammography. This was predominantly true for poorly differentiated EIC.

  18. The evaluation of extensive intraductal component (EIC) in breast carcinoma using MR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one patients with breast cancer underwent MR mammography (MRM) for evaluation of extensive intraductal component (EIC). Linear or small nodular structures continuing to main tumor, irregular margin, and early stain on dynamic scan were considered to be suggestive of EIC. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of detecting EIC were 88.9%, 91.7% and 90.5%, respectively. Misleading structures or pathological conditions to distinguish from EIC on MRM were interstitial connective tissue, interstitial spreading of the cancer, mastitis, and vessels. Although MRM appears to be very useful in evaluating EIC of the breast cancer, it is necessary for the radiologist to understand that there are several misleading signal intensities or abnormal enhancement to discriminate from EIC. (author)

  19. The evaluation of extensive intraductal component (EIC) in breast carcinoma using MR mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yasuhiro; Mineta, Masayuki; Yamada, Tomonori [Asahikawa Medical Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-one patients with breast cancer underwent MR mammography (MRM) for evaluation of extensive intraductal component (EIC). Linear or small nodular structures continuing to main tumor, irregular margin, and early stain on dynamic scan were considered to be suggestive of EIC. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of detecting EIC were 88.9%, 91.7% and 90.5%, respectively. Misleading structures or pathological conditions to distinguish from EIC on MRM were interstitial connective tissue, interstitial spreading of the cancer, mastitis, and vessels. Although MRM appears to be very useful in evaluating EIC of the breast cancer, it is necessary for the radiologist to understand that there are several misleading signal intensities or abnormal enhancement to discriminate from EIC. (author)

  20. Computational pathology to discriminate benign from malignant intraductal proliferations of the breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dong

    Full Text Available The categorization of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast based on routine light microscopic examination of histopathologic sections is in many cases challenging, even for experienced pathologists. The development of computational tools to aid pathologists in the characterization of these lesions would have great diagnostic and clinical value. As a first step to address this issue, we evaluated the ability of computational image analysis to accurately classify DCIS and UDH and to stratify nuclear grade within DCIS. Using 116 breast biopsies diagnosed as DCIS or UDH from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH, we developed a computational method to extract 392 features corresponding to the mean and standard deviation in nuclear size and shape, intensity, and texture across 8 color channels. We used L1-regularized logistic regression to build classification models to discriminate DCIS from UDH. The top-performing model contained 22 active features and achieved an AUC of 0.95 in cross-validation on the MGH data-set. We applied this model to an external validation set of 51 breast biopsies diagnosed as DCIS or UDH from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and the model achieved an AUC of 0.86. The top-performing model contained active features from all color-spaces and from the three classes of features (morphology, intensity, and texture, suggesting the value of each for prediction. We built models to stratify grade within DCIS and obtained strong performance for stratifying low nuclear grade vs. high nuclear grade DCIS (AUC = 0.98 in cross-validation with only moderate performance for discriminating low nuclear grade vs. intermediate nuclear grade and intermediate nuclear grade vs. high nuclear grade DCIS (AUC = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively. These data show that computational pathology models can robustly discriminate benign from malignant intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast and may aid pathologists in the diagnosis

  1. Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation Followed by Locoregional Tumor Treatments for Treating Occluded Biliary Stents in Non-Resectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Single-Institution Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-Hua Duan; Yan-Li Wang; Xin-Wei Han; Jian-Zhuang Ren; Teng-Fei Li; Jian-Hao Zhang; Kai Zhang; Peng-Fei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the safety and feasibility of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) followed by locoregional tumor treatments in patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction and stent re-occlusion. Methods Fourteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were studied retrospectively. All had intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments and were monitored clinically and radiologically. The practicality, safety, postoperative c...

  2. Ground duct ventilation in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Riera Sayol, Guiu

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse climate control system is simulated in MATLAB and Simulink. The model calculates for every 20 minutes the temperatures and energy consumption over a whole year. Ground ducts are used in order to save energy which is stored in the ground when there is an excess of heat during the day. This energy is used when the temperature is not high enough, generally in the early morning. Additionally, the ground ducts reduce the usage of windows, due to better dehumidification and...

  3. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  4. The detectable double atmospheric ducts for RFC

    OpenAIRE

    Douvenot, Rémi; Fabbro, Vincent; Hurtaud, Yvonick

    2014-01-01

    International audience Refractivity from clutter (RFC) systems are defined for retrieving the atmospheric ducts from the sea clutter echo of a radar in open sea or coastal environment. However, some ducts hardly have an effect on the clutter echo. Consequently, the RFC technique suffers inherent limitations and is unable to provide information about these ducts. To identify these ducts, one important parameter is the range at which a duct modifies the received power. This paper introduces ...

  5. Cervical thoracic duct cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Chi Kyu; Jo, Sung Sik; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Yung [Chunan Hospital Soonchunhyang University, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Thoracic duct cysts are uncommon lesions that most commonly occur in the abdominal and thoracic portion of the thoracic duct: the cervical portion is the rarest location. The main causes of thoracic duct cyst are surgical injuries such as neck dissection and blunt trauma. We report here on a rare case of spontaneous cervical thoracic duct cyst that was noted on ultrasonography and CT. The thoracic duct cyst was confirmed by fine needle aspiration and it was treated by sclerotherapy.

  6. Intraductal radiofrequency ablation for malignant biliary strictures%腔内射频消融治疗胆管恶性狭窄的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡冰; 吴军; 高道键; 潘亚敏; 时之梅; 黄慧; 王淑萍; 陆蕊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and safety of endoscopic intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for unresectable malignant biliary strictures.Methods A total of 12 patients with malignant biliary obstructions,who were unsuitable for surgical resection,were prospectively selected for this study.During ERCP,when successful biliary cannulation achieved,a bipolar radiofrequency probe was introduced into bile duct over a guidewire.RFA was given to the tumor lesion under fluoroscopy,followed by stent placement.The patients were closely observed and followed up after the procedure.Results Successful RFA was achieved in all patients before stents insertion ( plastic and metal stents in 6 respectively,additional pancreatic stents were given to 3).Mild complications of cholangitis and pancreatitis occurred in 1 patient respectively,which were cured with short-term management.Jaundice was promptly controlled in 7 patients (58.3% ).During the mean follow-up duration of 3.4 (range 0.5-5.5) months,one patient died of cardiocerebral accident and others survived without obvious disconffort.The 1- month and 3- month stent patency was 100% (12/12) and 80% (8/10),respectively.Conclusion It is technically feasible and safe to perform endoscopic intraductal RFA for the palliation of biliary malignancies.The short-term outcome is satisfying,however,long-term result and the better therapeutic schedule need further evaluation.%目的 探讨内镜下应用腔内射频消融技术姑息性治疗胆管恶性狭窄的安全性及可行性.方法 前瞻性选取胆管恶性梗阻无法手术切除的12例患者实施ERCP,在胆管插管成功后,循导丝导入专用双极射频电极,于肿瘤部位进行射频烧灼,然后留置胆道支架,观察术后恢复情况并密切随访.结果 所有患者均成功完成射频消融治疗并留置胆道支架(塑料支架6例,金属支架6例,其中3例患者同期放置胰管支架).出现胆管炎1例,胰腺炎1例,均短期保守

  7. Fate of the Pancreatic Remnant Following Curative Intent Surgical Resection for Intraductal Pancreatic Mucinous Neoplasms: An Overview of Current Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Paniccia; Schulick, Richard D.; Edil, Barish H.; McCarter, Martin D.; Csaba Gajdos

    2008-01-01

    Importance Intraductal Pancreatic Mucinous Neoplasms have been recognized with increasing frequency in clinical practice; however, several aspects of their clinical management are poorly defined. Few studies have ever focused on the intra- and post-operative management of the pancreatic remnant following curative intent surgical resection. Objective Overview of the current literature describing approaches to pancreatic preservation, local-regional and systemic recurrences following curative i...

  8. An assessment of extensive intraductal component as a risk factor for local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemier, J; Kurtz, J M; Amalric, R.; Brandone, H.; Ayme, Y.; Spitalier, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of extensive intraductal component (EIC) on local recurrence risk was studied for 496 patients with stage I-II infiltrating ductal cancers treated by conservative surgery and irradiation. EIC was diagnosed in 65 of 231 (28%) premenopausal and 41 of 265 (15.5%) post-menopausal patients. Local recurrence risk was markedly increased in EIC+ patients (5-year actuarial risk 18% versus 8% without EIC, P less than 0.001), but this effect appeared limited to premenopausal patients. Loca...

  9. A case report: Cavitary infarction caused by pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy in a patient with pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoung Kyg; Kwon, Woon Jung; Choi, Seong Hoon; Lee, Jong Hwa; Cha, Hee Jeong [Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan School of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Pulmonary tumor embolism is commonly discovered at autopsy, but is rarely suspected ante-mortem. Microangiopathy is an uncommon and distinct form of simple tumor pulmonary embolism. Here, we present a 52-year-old male with tumor thrombotic microangiopathy and pulmonary infarction, which might have originated from intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas. Multiple wedge-shaped consolidations were found initially and aggravated with cavitation. These CT features of pulmonary infarction were pathologically confirmed to result from pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy.

  10. A case report: Cavitary infarction caused by pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy in a patient with pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary tumor embolism is commonly discovered at autopsy, but is rarely suspected ante-mortem. Microangiopathy is an uncommon and distinct form of simple tumor pulmonary embolism. Here, we present a 52-year-old male with tumor thrombotic microangiopathy and pulmonary infarction, which might have originated from intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas. Multiple wedge-shaped consolidations were found initially and aggravated with cavitation. These CT features of pulmonary infarction were pathologically confirmed to result from pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy

  11. Human primary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) subtype-specific pathology is preserved in a mouse intraductal (MIND) xenograft model

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Kelli Elizabeth; Fang, Fan; Smith, William; Allred, D. Craig; Medina, Daniel; Behbod, Fariba

    2011-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor of invasive breast cancer. The current recognition that DCIS lesions exhibit inter- and intra-lesion diversity suggests that the process of evolution to invasive breast cancer is more complex than previously recognized. Here we demonstrate the reproducible growth of primary DCIS cells derived from patient’s surgical and biopsy samples by the mouse intraductal (MIND) model. MIND involves injection of cells into the NOD-SCID IL2Rgamman...

  12. Clinical implications of bile duct injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of distal arterial branches (P<0.01). Conclusions: Knowledge of imaging findings of TACE-induced bile duct injuries can help interventional radiologists to have prompt correct diagnosis. Adjustment in the amounts of iodized oil and chemotherapeutic agents (ie, cisplatin) in patients with high risk factors may reduce ischemic biliary injuries after TACE. (authors)

  13. Value of a dedicated breast MRI (DBMRI) on diagnosis of breast intraductal papillomas%1.5T乳腺专用磁共振诊断乳腺导管内乳头状瘤的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展颖; 柴维敏; 谭令; 汪登斌; 陈憩; 陈克敏

    2012-01-01

    . The MRI findings with mammography and breast ultrasonography was compared. Results Thirty lesions were found on MRI images in 31 cases. Among them, 23 patients had solitary intraductal papilloma and 8 patients had multiple intraductal papillomas. There were 2 cases of solitary intraductal papilloma with no positive rinding on MRI appearance, and bilateral breast multiple intraductal papilloma reviewed in 1 case. Dynamic enhanced images showed frequently multiple small nodulars or ring-like enhancement distributing along the ducts of the breast (38.7%), followed by solitary/ multiple nodular (22.6%) or ductal (12.9%) enhancement with or without ductal ectasia in the retroareolar region. Most cases had a plateau and wash-out type curve on MRI time-intensity curve. There were 4 cases (12.9%) mimicked invasive breast cancer on MRI appearance which was difficult to distinguished from malignancy. Conclusions The DBMRI shows great advantage on finding of breast papillomas compared with mammography and breast ultrosonography, which plays a valuable role in the preoperative diagnosis and localization.

  14. Evaporation duct communication: Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. D.

    1991-02-01

    The Evaporation Duct Communication (EDCOM) project is an effort to provide an alternative ship-to-ship communications channel using the natural environment. A microwave communication link can be used on an over-the-water, over-the-horizon path through the evaporation duct. This report shows how a microwave communication link, operating at a range separation of more than twice the line-of-sight range, can be constructed. This link can achieve about 80-percent availability at a transmission frequency of 14.5 GHz and can be constructed using off-the-shelf RF equipment. Operation of this link will provide the first set of measurements of channel capacity that can be critically dependent on the existence of an oceanic evaporation duct. Construction of this link presents a unique opportunity to study and evaluate an alternative communications channel that can be used to alleviate naval battlegroup communications load.

  15. A case of eosinophilic cholangitis: Imaging findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, cholangioscopy, and intraductal ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Matsumoto; Masahiko Sugitani; Kiyoshi Yokoyama; Kazuhiko Nakai; Toshiki Yamamoto; Takeshi Otani; Masahiro Ogawa; Naohide Tanaka; Ariyoshi Iwasaki; Yasuyuki Arakawa

    2007-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman was referred to our institution due to epigastralgia. She presented with obstructive jaundice and eosinophilia. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse narrowing from the distal common bile duct to the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts. An endoscopic plastic biliary stent was inserted; the specimen obtained from the common bile duct wall revealed dense infiltration by eosinophils.Treatment was started with prednisolone 60 mg daily.The patient's biliary stenosis and eosinophilia gradually improved. Eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs or stomach is relatively common, but it is rare in the common bile dud. Most of the reported cases of eosinophilic cholangitis presented with eosinophilia; our patient's eosinophil count was over 1000/mm3. Since our patient had allergies to pollen and house dust, a relationship between the allergies and the eosinophilic cholangitis was suspected, but no cause was identified.

  16. Demonstration of caudate lobe bile ducts using 3D-CT cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Yasushi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    The aim of this study is to make precise analysis of bile ducts of the caudate, lobe using 3D-CT cholangiography. Seventy obstructive jaundiced patients without lesions at the hilar duct level were included in this study. According to Kumon`s study, I divided the caudate lobe into three areas: spiegel lobe (sp), caudate process portion (cp) and paracaval portion (pc), and set the range for these three areas in cholangio CT. In 70 cases, 191 caudate branches were detected and those draining areas and confluence patterns were analysed. 3D-CT cholangiography could be obtained from randomized angles. In set up the 8 angles from 0deg to 330deg in sagittal plane to demonstrate intrahepatic bile ducts and investigate the suitable angles for detecting caudate lobe branches in each drainaing area. Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Sp group (104 branches) were 180deg, 210deg, 150deg and 330deg (detectabilities were 89.4%, 61.5%, 51.0% and 47.1% respectively). Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Pc group (80 branches) were 180deg, 210deg, 150deg, 330deg and 0deg (detectabilities were 91.3%, 65.0%, 57.5%, 48.8% and 41.3% respectively). Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Cp group (67 branches) were 210deg, 180deg, 330deg, 150deg and 0deg (detectabilities were 80.1%, 73.1%, 50.7%, 49.3% and 47.8% respectively). The images from 150deg, 180deg, 210deg were necessary to demonstrate the caudate lobe branches in 3D-CT cholangiography. (author).

  17. What's New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bile duct cancer What’s new in bile duct cancer research and treatment? Bile duct cancer is an uncommon ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Bile Duct Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  18. Helical CT of the breast. Detection of intraductal spread and multicentricity of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical utility of postcontrast helical CT (HCT) scan for the detection of intraductal spread (DS) and multicentricity of breast cancer. DS and multicentricity in 84 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma were evaluated by preoperative postcontrast HCT. The HCT protocol of 3-mm section width and 3 mm/sec table speed was used with the patients in a supine position. Scanning started 70 sec after beginning the intravenous injection of 90 ml (27gI) of contrast material at the rate of 1.5 ml/sec. The three-dimensional images were displayed. Eighty-four of 84 main tumors (100%) were shown as enhanced masses by postcontrast HCT. The sensitivity and specificity of HCT for the detection of DS and multicentricity were 60.0% (18/30) and 88.9% (48/54), and 88.9% (16/18) and 90.9% (60/66), respectively. When DS and multicentric lesions were combined, the sensitivity and the specificity were 76.3% (29/38) and 89.1% (41/46), respectively. HCT of the breast is effective in detecting DS and multicentric lesions of breast cancer and might be useful in helping surgeons to successfully perform breast-conserving surgery. (author)

  19. Spontaneous Bile Duct Rupture in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Piotrowski, Joseph J.; Greg Van Stiegmann; R. Dale Liechty

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous bile duct rupture occurred in a 23-year-old who required emergency Cesarean section for fetal distress. This condition has not been reported in association with pregnancy. Only forty cases of spontaneous bile duct perforation in adults have been previously reported. Seventy percent of these perforations were related to biliary calculi. Sites of perforation were evenly distributed between common hepatic duct and common bile duct. Recommended treatment includes cholecystectomy, comm...

  20. GNAS(R201H) and Kras(G12D) cooperate to promote murine pancreatic tumorigenesis recapitulating human intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, K; Ohmuraya, M; Tanji, E; Komatsu, H; Hashimoto, D; Semba, K; Araki, K; Kawaguchi, Y; Baba, H; Furukawa, T

    2016-05-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), the most common pancreatic cystic neoplasm, is known to progress to invasive ductal adenocarcinoma. IPMNs commonly harbor activating somatic mutations in GNAS and KRAS, primarily GNAS(R201H) and KRAS(G12D). GNAS encodes the stimulatory G-protein α subunit (Gsα) that mediates a stimulatory signal to adenylyl cyclase to produce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), subsequently activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. The GNAS(R201H) mutation results in constitutive activation of Gsα. To study the potential role of GNAS in pancreatic tumorigenesis in vivo, we generated lines of transgenic mice in which the transgene consisted of Lox-STOP-Lox (LSL)-GNAS(R201H) under the control of the CAG promoter (Tg(CAG-LSL-GNAS)). These mice were crossed with pancreatic transcription factor 1a (Ptf1a)-Cre mice (Ptf1a(Cre/+)), generating Tg(CAG-LSL-GNAS);Ptf1a(Cre/+) mice. This mouse line showed elevated cAMP levels, small dilated tubular complex formation, loss of acinar cells and fibrosis in the pancreas; however, no macroscopic tumorigenesis was apparent by 2 months of age. We then crossed Tg(CAG-LSL-GNAS);Ptf1a(Cre/+) mice with LSL-Kras(G12D) mice, generating Tg(CAG-LSL-GNAS);LSL-Kras(G12D);Ptf1a(Cre/+) mice. We used these mice to investigate a possible cooperative effect of GNAS(R201H) and Kras(G12D) in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Within 5 weeks, Tg(CAG-LSL-GNAS);LSL-Kras(G12D);Ptf1a(Cre/+) mice developed a cystic tumor consisting of marked dilated ducts lined with papillary dysplastic epithelia in the pancreas, which closely mimicked the human IPMN. Our data strongly suggest that activating mutations in GNAS and Kras cooperatively promote murine pancreatic tumorigenesis, which recapitulates IPMN. Our mouse model may serve as a unique in vivo platform to find biomarkers and effective drugs for diseases associated with GNAS mutations. PMID:26257060

  1. Roentgendiagnostic of the operated bile duct system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roentgendiagnostic after bile duct surgery shall demonstrate postoperative complications, recurrencys of the primary disease and other complications. Planning the diagnostic procedures one has to consider the preceeding operation: surgery of the gall-bladder, the common bile duct, the papilla Vateri, biliodigestive anastomosis, bile duct drainage by plastic tube, and duodenopancreatectomy. (orig.)

  2. Minimum-Volume Conversion Duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider, in connection with an MHD conversion duct with known upstream and downstream stagnation conditions, what conditions will give the minimum volume, which is thought to correspond largely to the most economic conditions. On this basis, the problem of the optimum for the duct and the optima for the other components of the power plant are separated. The authors therefore discuss the most general problem of the optimum specific power σU2B2K(1 - K) for a segmented-electrode Faraday duct in the absence of thermal losses and friction, without the usual arbitrary separation of the optimization of the factor K(1 - K) and that of the product σU2; the magnetic field is assumed to be constant. The conversion equations are written in a simple form which makes it possible to utilize the calculus of variations. A system of two differential equations is obtained characterizing the evolution of the fluid. It is shown that the Mach number and the load factor are no longer independent. The integration of the differential system is performed numerically for a perfect gas in the case of thermodynamic equilibrium, the load factor at the inlet being varied for given initial conditions. It is ascertained that the evolution is different depending on whether the inlet load factor is more or less than 0.5. If a diagram is drawn showing the mean specific power-efficiency, the scatter of points representing all the optimum ducts possible, it is found that this scatter has an envelope. Similarly, all the figurate points of the ducts with constant velocities and load factors are found in an envelope inside the first. The differential equations for the optimization of a real gas are set forth in an annex, but no numerical treatment is given. (author)

  3. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  4. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Management of pancreaticobiliary disease using a new intra-ductal endoscope: The Texas experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas S Fishman; Paul R Tarnasky; Sandeep N Patel; Isaac Raijman

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a new single-operator mini-endoscope,Spyglass(R), for its performance, feasibility and safety in the management of pancreaticobiliary disease.METHODS: In a multicenter retrospective analysis of patients undergoing intraductal endoscopy, we evaluated 128 patients (71 men, mean age 57.6years). Indications were therapeutic (TX) in 72 (56%)and diagnostic (DX) in 56 (44%).RESULTS: Peroral endoscopy was performed in 121and percutaneous in seven. TX indications included CBD stones in 41, PD stones in six, and biliary strictures in 25. DX indications included abnormal LFT's in 15,abnormal imaging in 38 and cholangiocarcinoma staging in three. Visualization of the stone(s) was considered good in 31, fair in six, and poor in four.Advancement of the electrohydraulic lithotripsy probe was not possible in three patients and proper targeting of the lesion was partial in four patients. A holmium laser was used successfully in three patients. Ductal clearance was achieved in 37 patients after one procedure and in four patients after two procedures.Diagnosis of biliary strictures was modified in 20/29 and confirmed to be malignant in 10/23. Of the modified patients, no diagnosis was available in 17. Spyglass(R) Demonstrated malignancy in 8/17 and non-malignancy in nine. Suspected pathology by imaging studies and abnormal LFT's was modified in 43/63 (66%). Staging of cholangiocarcinoma demonstrated multicentric cholangiocarcinoma in 2/3. There was no morbidity associated with the use of Spyglass(R).CONCLUSION: Spyglass Spyscope(R) Is a first generation, single operator miniature endoscope that can evaluate and treat various biliary and pancreatic tract diseases.

  6. HAARP-Induced Ionospheric Ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents observations of the plasma density perturbations caused by the HF-heating of the ionosphere by the HAARP facility. The low orbit satellite DEMETER was used as a diagnostic tool to measure the electron and ion temperature and density along the satellite orbit overflying close to the magnetic zenith of the HF-heater. Those observations will be then checked against the theoretical model of duct formation due to HF-heating of the ionosphere. The model is based on the modified SAMI2 code, and is validated by comparison with well documented experiments.

  7. Formation of artificial ionospheric ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Milikh, G. M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shroff, H; Chang, C. L.; Wallace, T; E. V. Mishin; Parrot, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    International audience It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents the first experimental evidence of plasma modifications associated with ion outflows due to HF heating. The experiments were conducted using the HAARP heater during t...

  8. Small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis without inflammatory bowel disease is genetically different from large duct disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Sigrid; Björnsson, Einar; Anmarkrud, Jarl A.; Al Mamari, Said; Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Chapman, Roger; Bergquist, Annika; Melum, Espen; Marsh, Steven G. E.; Schrumpf, Erik; Lie, Benedicte A.; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Karlsen, Tom H.; Hov, Johannes R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is phenotypically a mild version of large duct PSC, but it is unknown whether these phenotypes share aetiology. We aimed to characterize their relationship by investigating genetic associations in the HLA complex, which represent the strongest genetic risk factors in large duct PSC. Methods Four classical HLA loci (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1) were genotyped in 87 small duct PSC patients, 485 large duct PSC patients and 1117 controls across three geographical regions. Results HLA-DRB1*13:01 (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.4, P=0.01) and HLA-B*08 (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.4, P=0.02) were significantly associated with small duct PSC compared with healthy controls. Based on the observed frequency of HLA-B*08 in small duct PSC, the strongest risk factor in large duct PSC, an estimated 32% (95% CI 4%–65%) of this population can be hypothesized to represent early stages or mild variants of large duct PSC. This subgroup may be constituted by small duct PSC patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which greatly resembled large duct PSC in its HLA association. In contrast, small duct PSC without IBD was only associated with HLA-DRB1*13:01(P=0.03) and was otherwise distinctly dissimilar from large duct PSC. Conclusions Small duct PSC with IBD resembles large duct PSC in its HLA association and may represent early stages or mild variants of large duct disease. Different HLA associations in small duct PSC without IBD could indicate that this subgroup is a different entity. HLA-DRB1*13:01 may represent a specific risk factor for inflammatory bile duct disease. PMID:24517468

  9. Variability of intraductal papillomas of the mammary gland: Clinical, roentgenologic and morphologic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiodiagnostical method of choice is the galactographic technique. However, a specific X-ray image of the papilloma does not exist. The galactographic technique has to be adapted to the surgical and histologic one. Only by combining these three techniques good results can be achieved. It is not possible to draw conclusions from the colour of the pathologic discharge about the type and character of the pathologic process. Contrary to the findings documented in the literature, we were able to diagnose with our technique not only small tumours, but also tumours situated in the periphery of the lactiferous duct. Because of our investigations it is no longer possible to maintain and keep the strict division of the proliferative changes occurring at the lactiferous duct walls. In this study, the most significant morphologic results are described in detail. In all patients with pathologic discharge of the mammary gland, the so-called papillo-carcinoma was found only in one case. As clinical consequence it has therefore to be demanded that in all women with the symptom of pathologic mamillary discharge first of all the origin of this discharge has to be localised by means of galactography. Only the individual morphologic picture of a proliferative change of the lactiferous duct provides some prognostic value. The prerequisites for such an individual assessment are differentiated roentgenologic, surgical and histological techniques. (orig./MG)

  10. Usefulness of KL-6 in the subtyping of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia of the pancreas, including carcinoma, dysplasia, and hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Yuji; Watanabe, Ryohei; Kimura, Masashi; Nomura, Katsuyoshi; Maeda, Tomoharu; Kito, Katsumi; Takeji, Miyuki; Lee, Gang-Hong; Furihata, Mutsuo

    2015-06-01

    KL-6 is known as a useful serum biomarker of the disease activity in interstitial pneumonias. We investigated its usefulness as a biomarker for subtyping intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. IPMNs are generally divided into 4 subtypes, namely pancreatobiliary (PB), intestinal (INT), gastric (GS), and oncocytic (ONC). Aside from the KL-6 antibody, the MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and MIB-1 antibodies were also examined. Eighteen IPMN cases were examined, including 12 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous carcinomas (IPMCs) simultaneously associated with dysplasia (IPMDs) and hyperplasia (IPMHs) and 6 IPMD cases with IPMH. KL-6 antibody was positive in the 8 IPMC cases, corresponding to a MUC2-negative PB subtype, but negative in 4 IPMC cases, corresponding to the INT subtype, which is positive for MUC2. IPMD of moderate-to-severe degree positively stained for the KL-6 antibody in the IPMC cases of the PB subtype but not in those of the INT subtype. The IPMH cases were mostly negative for KL-6, similar to the mild IPMD cases. In the 6 cases of mild IPMD and/or IPMH, KL-6 and MUC2 expressions were mostly negative. In conclusion, the KL-6 antibody is immunohistochemically a good biomarker of the PB subtype of IPMC, but not the INT subtype. Identifying IPMN subtypes based on KL-6 stainability would be useful. Clinicopathological studies with more IPMC cases might be needed for further progress in this field of study. PMID:24908068

  11. Bank branches in supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow

    1996-01-01

    The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.

  12. Pancreatoduodenectomy for bile duct and ampullary cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy has become a standard operation for distal and middle bile duct cancers. Bile duct cancer typically extends longitudinally and invades vertically. It frequently metastasizes to the lymph nodes and infiltrates the perineural spaces. The presence of residual cancer in the bile duct stump and lymph node metastases are significant prognostic factors. Negative surgical margins and D2 lymph node dissection are necessary for curative resection. The clinical c...

  13. Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation Followed by Locoregional Tumor Treatments for Treating Occluded Biliary Stents in Non-Resectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Single-Institution Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Hua Duan

    Full Text Available To determine the safety and feasibility of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments in patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction and stent re-occlusion.Fourteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were studied retrospectively. All had intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments and were monitored clinically and radiologically. The practicality, safety, postoperative complications, jaundice remission, stent patency and survival time were analyzed.Combination treatment was successful for all patients. There were no severe complications during RFA or local treatments. All patients had stent patency restored, with a decline in serum bilirubin. Three patients had recurrent jaundice by 195, 237 and 357 days; two patients underwent repeat intraductal RFA; and one required an internal-external biliary drain. The average stent patency time was 234 days (range 187-544 days. With a median follow-up of 384 days (range 187-544 days, six patients were alive, while eight had died. There was no mortality at 30 days. The 3, 6, 12 and 18 month survival rates were 100%, 100%, 64.3% and 42.9%, respectively.Intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments for occluded metal stents is safe and practically feasible and potential increase stent patency and survival times.

  14. Methods of evaluating cleanliness of ventilation ducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 罗运有; 于丹; 甘丽斯

    2009-01-01

    A testing system for evaluating cleanliness of ventilation ducts was constructed. Comparisons of four evaluation methods for quantifying the amount of dust on the inner surface of ventilation ducts are presented. The experimental results show that the wiping by solvent method is more efficient than that by the wiping method,especially used on low cleanliness duct surface. The gravimetric tape method is an efficient method of collecting dust samples on the duct surface with low amounts of dust,particularly used to check the cleanliness level after the cleaning work. The optical method can be set up rapidly and is useful for fieldwork measurements.

  15. Traumatic injury of the thoracic duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, A E; Rossi, L; Witte, C L; Smyth, S

    2002-03-01

    Injuries to the thoracic duct are infrequent but may become life-threatening when chylous leakage persists. This report describes 6 patients with such injuries in whom the leakage resolved spontaneously in one, was corrected using microsurgical lymphatic repair or lymphatic-venous anastomosis in two, successfully treated either by ligation of the thoracic duct or insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt in two, and was eventually controlled after bilateral pleurodesis and thoracic duct ligation by insertion of a peritoneo-venous shunt in one. Conventional lymphography is superior to lymphoscintigraphy and is usually required to document disruption of the thoracic duct. PMID:11939572

  16. A Method for the Observation of the Primo Vascular System in the Thoracic Duct of a Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungha Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the primo vascular system (PVS has been observed in large caliber lymph vessels by several independent teams, the presence of the PVS in the thoracic duct has been reported by only one team, probably because reproducing the experiment is technically difficult. This brief report presents a new, relatively straightforward method, which is a simple modification of the previous method of dye injection into the lumbar node, to observe the PVS in a thoracic duct of a rat by injecting Alcian blue into the renal node. When this new method was applied to a rat, the branching of the primo vessel in the thoracic duct was clearly displayed. Thus, this new method is expected to extend the network of the PVS from abdominal lymph ducts to thoracic ones.

  17. Resistance Characteristics of Hydraulic Oil through Isodiametric T-type Duct with Sharp Corners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jinglin; WANG Liwei; LI Xia

    2009-01-01

    Rational determination and reduction of local energy loss of oil flow at pipe junctions are of important significance to improve hydraulic pipeline's work efficiency, especially for complex hydraulic pipeline connected by isodiametric T-type ducts with sharp comers to get combined and divided flow. From this point of view, the formulae of resistance loss for combined flow and divided flow through isodiametric T-type duct with sharp comers as well as the correlations of resistance loss coefficients in the branches of the duct are derived using energy method. On this basis, resistance characteristics of hydraulic oil in the duct are obtained by numerical simulation of different flow modes, which are commonly applied in hydraulic pipelines, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, and the reasons for the resistance loss are analyzed based on the pressure change mechanism in the flow field. A part of simulation results was validated with the reference data. The research shows that for combined flows the resistance loss of symmetrical is lower than that of tmsymmetrical to obtain low speed in common branch, but to gain high speed is quite the contrary, for divided flows, the symmetrical is always a reasonable choice to reduce resistance loss. These conclusions can be applied to optimize the design of hydraulic pipeline.

  18. Glypican-3 modulates BMP- and FGF-mediated effects during renal branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaru, S; Cano-Gauci, D; Tee, J; Filmus, J; Rosenblum, N D

    2001-03-01

    The kidney of the Gpc3-/ mouse, a novel model of human renal dysplasia, is characterized by selective degeneration of medullary collecting ducts preceded by enhanced cell proliferation and overgrowth during branching morphogenesis. Here, we identify cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this renal dysplasia. Glypican-3 (GPC3) deficiency was associated with abnormal and contrasting rates of proliferation and apoptosis in cortical (CCD) and medullary collecting duct (MCD) cells. In CCD, cell proliferation was increased threefold. In MCD, apoptosis was increased 16-fold. Expression of Gpc3 mRNA in ureteric bud and collecting duct cells suggested that GPC3 can exert direct effects in these cells. Indeed, GPC3 deficiency abrogated the inhibitory activity of BMP2 on branch formation in embryonic kidney explants, converted BMP7-dependent inhibition to stimulation, and enhanced the stimulatory effects of KGF. Similar comparative differences were found in collecting duct cell lines derived from GPC3-deficient and wild type mice and induced to form tubular progenitors in vitro, suggesting that GPC3 directly controls collecting duct cell responses. We propose that GPC3 modulates the actions of stimulatory and inhibitory growth factors during branching morphogenesis. PMID:11180950

  19. Numerical Simulation of Multiplicity and Stability of Mixed Convection in Rotating Curved Ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liqiu; YANG Tianliang

    2005-01-01

    A numerical study is made on the fully developed bifurcation structure and stability of the mixed convection in rotating curved ducts of square cross-section with the emphasis on the effect of buoyancy force. The rotation can be positive or negative. The fluid can be heated or cooled. The study reveals the rich solution and flow structures and complicated stability features. One symmetric and two symmetric/asymmetric solution branches are found with seventy five limit points and fourteen bifu...

  20. Numerical simulation of multiplicity and stability of mixed convection in rotating curved ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Liqiu; Yang Tianliang

    2005-01-01

    A numerical study is made on the fully developed bifurcation structure and stability of the mixed convection in rotating curved ducts of square cross-section with the emphasis on the effect of buoyancy force. The rotation can be positive or negative. The fluid can be heated or cooled. The study reveals the rich solution and flow structures and complicated stability features. One symmetric and two symmetric/asymmetric solution branches are found with seventy five limit points and fourteen bifu...

  1. Secretory Duct Structure and Phytochemistry Compounds of Yellow Latex in Mangosteen Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORLY

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellow latex is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness, because it is one factor lowering the fruit quality. The structure of yellow latex secretory ducts in the flower and fruit as well as in the root, stem and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. seedling and the qualitative phytochemistry of yellow latex were studied. The ducts were branched, canal-like type. They were found in the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, aril of the fruit, flower, stem, and leaf. In the fruit, the biggest diameter of the secretory ducts was found in the endocarp. There were continuous secretory ducts from fruit stalk to the fruit. Ultrastructural observation showed that the ducts surrounded by specific epithelial cells, which were living cells containing dense cytoplasm with plastid, mitochondria and golgi apparatus organelles. The qualitative test indicated that the yellow latex collected from stem bark, outer part of fruit, young fruit pericarp, mature aril and young aril contained terpenoid, flavonoid and tannin, but not alkaloid, saponin and steroid, except in the young aril containing the steroid.

  2. Measure Guideline: Sealing and Insulating of Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Puttagunta, S.

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  3. Measure Guideline. Sealing and Insulating Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  4. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Biliary Stent Placement for Nonresectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction Improves Stent Patency but not Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Lizhen; Zhou, Chuanguo; Gao, Kun; Huang, Qiang; Wei, Baojie; Gao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been accepted as a curative treatment modality for solid organ tumors, intraductal RF ablation for malignant biliary obstruction has not been widely described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy (in terms of stent patency and survival) of intraductal RF ablation combined with biliary stent placement for nonresectable malignant biliary obstruction. A search of the nonresectable malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction database (179 patients) identified 18 consecutive patients who were treated with biliary intraluminal RF ablation during percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage and inner stent placement (RF ablation group) and 18 patients who underwent inner stent placement without biliary intraluminal RF ablation (control group). The patients were matched for tumor type, location of obstruction, tumor stage, and Child–Pugh class status. Primary endpoints included safety, stent patency time, and survival rates. The secondary endpoint was effectiveness of the technique. The RF ablation and control groups were closely matched in terms of age, diagnosis, presence of metastases, presence of locally advanced tumor, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, and chemotherapy regimen (all P > 0.05). The technical success rate for both groups was 100%. The median time of stent patency in the RF ablation and control groups were 5.8 (2.8–11.5) months and 4.5 (2.4–8.0) months, respectively (Kaplan–Meier analysis: P = 0.03). The median survival times in the RF ablation and control groups were 6.1 (4.8–15.2) months and 5.8 (4.2–16.5) months, with no significant difference according to Kaplan–Meier analysis (P = 0.45). In univariate and multivariate analyses, poorer overall survival was associated with advanced age and presence of metastases (P < 0.05). Intraductal RF ablation combined with biliary stent placement for nonresectable malignant

  5. Iatrogenic bile duct injuries – clinical problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Głuszek Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in surgical wards. Iatrogenic bile duct injuries (IBDI incurred during the procedures are among postoperative complications that are most difficult to treat. The risk of bile duct injury is 0.2-0.4%, and their consequences are unpleasant both for the surgeon and for the patient.

  6. Attenuation of neutrons through ducts and labyrinths

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Egidio

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for the attenuation of neutron radiation produced at proton accelerators through ducts and labyrinths of various design, and the results are compared with the predictions made by analytical expressions available in the literature. The results show that the so-called universal transmission curves are an appropriate and simple tool applicable in many situations, when the radiation source is not in direct view of the duct mouth. This is not the case for point sources located in front of the duct. The simulations showed that it is not possible to apply the same models because the transmission factor is strongly dependent on the cross-sectional area of the duct. A universal expression has been derived to estimate the neutron transmission through a straight duct of length d and cross-sectional area A in direct view of the source, which only depends on A and on a small set of numerical coefficients.

  7. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  8. Oncogenic Role of Skp2 and p27Kip1 in Intraductal Proliferative Lesions of the Breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lv; Yun Niu; Xiu-min Ding; Xu-qi Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the connection of p27Kip1 to S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) plays an oncogenic role in intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast.Methods Here we investigated the mechanism involved in association of Skp2's degradation of p27Kip1 With the breast carcinogenesis by immunohistochemical method through detection of Skp2 and p27Kip1 protein levels in 120 paraffin-embedded tissues of intraductal proliferative lesions including usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH,n=30),atypical ductal hyperplasia (n=30),flat epithelial atypia (FEA,n=30),and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS,n=30).Moreover,the expression status of Skp2 and p27Kip1 in 30 cases of the normal breast paraffin-embedded tissues were explored.Results The DCIS group was with the highest Skp2 level and the lowest p27Kip1 level,and the UDH group was with the lowest Skp2 level and the highest p27Kip1 level.Both Skp2 and p27Kip1 levels in the DCIS group were significantly different from those in the UDH group (all P<0.01).The levels of Skp2 and p27Kip1 in the FEA group were significantly different from both the DCIS and UDH groups (all P<0.05).p27Kip1 was negatively correlated with Skp2 in both the UDH group (r=-0.629,P=0.026) and DCIS group (r=-0.893,P=0.000).Conclusion Overexpression of Skp2 might be the mechanism underlying p27Kip1 over degradation.

  9. Usefulness of breast MRI for diagnosing an extensive intraductal component of breast cancer: comparison with mammography and ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive intraductal component of breast cancer is a principal risk factor for local recurrence, and this is difficult to diagnose with performing only mammography. We investigated the usefulness of breast MRI for evaluating an extensive intraductal component of breast cancer, and we compared this modality with mammography and ultrasonography (US). From March 2003 to July 2004, 90 patients underwent breast MRI among all the patients who were suffering with breast cancer and for whom and EIC was ultimately revealed to be present or not. A total 83 patients with stage I and II breast cancer were finally included in this study. EIC positivity was defined according to the imaging data as follows: 1) microcalcifications beyond the tumor shadow or malignant microcalcifications without a tumor mass on mammography, 2) tubular hypoechoic structures adjacent to the tumor or architectural distortion with calcifications beyond the tumor on US, and 3) linear or ductal enhancement, segmental or regional clumped enhancement, and spotty nodular or reticular enhancement adjacent to the tumor on MRI. EIC was present in 41 patients and this finding was negative in 42 patients. The results were then compared those results from mammography and US. The sensitivities of detecting EIC by mammography, US and MRI were 48.6%, 67.5% and 80.5%, respectively, and the corresponding specificities were 92.3%, 73.2% and 69.0%, respectively. In the cases that were suspected to be EIC positive on more than two imaging modality, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 78.1%. In cases that were suspected of being EIC positive on just one imaging modality, the negative predictive value (NPV) was 75.0%. Breast MRI provides good information about an EIC of breast cancer and it is a more sensitive study than mammography and US, yet the specificity for the detection of EIC is highest on mammography. A combined evaluation by mammography, US and MRI is the most accurate way to diagnose an EIC of breast

  10. Apocrine Metaplasia in Intraductal Papilloma with Foci of DCIS: A Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Debjani; Aniruna, Aniruna; Gon, Sonia; Ghosh, Gayatri

    2016-01-01

    Malignant papillary neoplasms of the breast comprise a number of microscopically distinct lesions, where apocrine metaplasia is commonly found in papillomas compared to other papillary lesions including papillary carcinomas. However, association of apocrine metaplasia in papilloma with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) is not very well defined. The lesions with apocrine metaplasia are not only difficult to categories, but also there is controversy regarding their relative risk of subsequent carcinoma development. A case of extensive apocrine differentiation in duct papilloma with DCIS developing in the background of papillomatosis, posing a diagnostic dilemma for the pathologist and a therapeutic challenge for the surgeon, is hereby reported for its uniqueness and rarity. Awareness of this association should be kept in mind by both the pathologist as well as clinician for optimal therapeutic intervention. PMID:27499780

  11. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  12. The Olive Branch Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  13. Koenigs function and branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tchikilev, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  14. Cell clusters overlying focally disrupted mammary myoepithelial cell layers and adjacent cells within the same duct display different immunohistochemical and genetic features: implications for tumor progression and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous studies detected focal disruptions in myoepithelial cell layers of several ducts with carcinoma in situ. The cell cluster overlying each of the myoepithelial disruptions showed a marked reduction in or a total loss of immunoreactivity for the estrogen receptor (ER). This is in contrast to the adjacent cells within the same duct, which were strongly immunoreactive for the ER. The current study attempts to confirm and expand previous observations on a larger scale. Paraffin sections from 220 patients with ER-positive intraductal breast tumors were double immunostained with the same protocol previously used. Cross-sections of ducts lined by ≥ 40 epithelial cells were examined for myoepithelial cell layer disruptions and for ER expression. In five selected cases, ER-negative cells overlying the disrupted myoepithelial cell layer and adjacent ER-positive cells within the same duct were separately microdissected and assessed for loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability. Of the 220 cases with 5698 duct cross-sections examined, 94 showed disrupted myoepithelial cell layers with 405 focal disruptions. Of the 94 cases, 79 (84%) contained only ER-negative cell clusters, nine (9.6%) contained both ER-negative and ER-positive cell clusters, and six (6.4%) contained only ER-positive cell clusters overlying disrupted myoepithelial cell layers. Of the 405 disruptions, 350 (86.4%) were overlain by ER-negative cell clusters and 55 (13.6%) were overlain by ER-positive cell clusters (P < 0.01). Microdissected ER-negative and ER-positive cells within the same duct from all five selected cases displayed a different frequency or pattern of loss of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability at 10 of the 15 DNA markers. Cells overlying focally disrupted myoepithelial layers and their adjacent counterparts within the same duct displayed different immunohistochemical and molecular features. These features potentially represent an early sign of the formation

  15. Bile Duct Adenoma with Oncocytic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Johannesen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile duct adenomas are benign bile duct proliferations usually encountered as an incidental finding. Oncocytic bile duct neoplasms are rare and the majority are malignant. A 61-year-old male with a diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma was undergoing surgery when a small white nodule was discovered on the surface of the right lobe of his liver. This lesion was composed of cytologically bland cells arranged in tightly packed glands. These cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin 7, negative for Hep Par 1, contained mucin, and had a Ki67 proliferation index of 8%. The morphology, immunophenotype, presence of mucin, and normal appearing bile ducts, as well as the increased Ki67 proliferation rate, were consistent with a bile duct adenoma with oxyphilic (oncocytic change. Oncocytic tumors in the liver are rare; the first described in 1992. Only two bile duct adenomas with oncocytic change have been reported and neither of them had reported mucin production or the presence of normal appearing bile ducts within the lesion.

  16. Duct Remediation Program: Remediation operations and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, T.d.; Davis, M.M.; Karas, T.M.

    1992-11-01

    Plutonium holdup material has accumulated in the process ventilation duct systems at Rocky Flats. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements identified ducts containing this material. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board and the Department of Energy established the criteria for remediation of these ducts. A remediation team was assembled and a program plan created. This program plan included activities such as fissile material accumulation identification, criticality safety assessments, radiation dose determinations, facility safety evaluations, prevention of future accumulation, and removal of holdup material. Several operational considerations had to be evaluated in determining completion of remediation.

  17. Duct Remediation Program: Remediation operations and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium holdup material has accumulated in the process ventilation duct systems at Rocky Flats. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements identified ducts containing this material. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board and the Department of Energy established the criteria for remediation of these ducts. A remediation team was assembled and a program plan created. This program plan included activities such as fissile material accumulation identification, criticality safety assessments, radiation dose determinations, facility safety evaluations, prevention of future accumulation, and removal of holdup material. Several operational considerations had to be evaluated in determining completion of remediation

  18. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtai

  19. The first case of pediatric bile duct adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Li; Xiaoyi Sun; Jiexiong Feng

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic bile duct adenoma (BDA) is a rare benign epithelial liver tumor derived from bile duct cells. We report the first case of pediatric bile duct adenoma in the world. Furthermore, we review the diagnosis, pathology, treatment and prognosis of bile duct adenoma.

  20. Positive margins and intraductal cancer does not impact local control in treating early stage breast cancer conservatively: a study of 902 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We have retrospectively reviewed our community setting cancer center's 14 year experience treating early stage breast cancer (T1, T2, N0, N1) with lumpectomy and post operative (post-op) irradiation (XRT) to determine if the presence of microscopically positive margins and/or intraductal cancer has an impact on local control. Materials and Methods: Between January 1, 1981 and December 31, 1994, 902 consecutive early stage breast cancers were treated with lumpectomy and post-op XRT, totaling 4500 cGy to the whole breast with a 1500 cGy boost to the tumor bed, for a total dose to the tumor bed of 6000 cGy. The presence or absence of microscopically positive margins, pure intraductal tumor and/or minimal (min) or extensive (ext) intraductal component (IDC) associated with an invasive tumor was determined if recorded on the pathology report. If not specifically recorded, the slides were reviewed by our pathologist (one of the authors) and a determination was made. Due to the absence of inking of the specimen and or sending the specimen in pieces, 30 of the tumors were listed as indeterminate. We defined min IDC as less than 25% of the invasive tumor containing intraductal cancer, and ext IDC as greater than 25%. Our average follow up was 5 years (yrs) with a range from 3 months to 15 yrs. Results: Stratification of our cases showed 614 (68%) breasts had T1, 208 (23%) T2, and 80 (9%) pure intraductal tumors. Analysis of the invasive tumors revealed 216 (29%) tumors with min IDC, and 72 (8%) with ext IDC. We identified 251 (28%) with microscopically positive margins that were equally dispersed between the T1, T2 and pure intraductal and invasive tumors with min and ext IDC. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate local control in breasts with tumor having microscopically positive margins which was 95% and 85% at 5 and 10 yrs and for microscopically negative margins 96% and 89% at 5 and 10 yrs. Similar method was used to calculate local control in breasts

  1. 腮腺导管内乳头状瘤1例%Intraductal papilloma of parotid gland in 1 case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄剑; 袁璐

    2014-01-01

    1 case of intraductal papilloma of parotid gland was analyzed by means of clinicopathologic data,hematoxylin-eosin and immuno-histochemical staining.Combined with the relevant literature,clinical pathological features,diagnosis and treatment of the salivary gland intra-ductal papilloma were discussed.%对1例腮腺导管内乳头状瘤的临床资料、病理学形态、免疫表型进行分析。结合相关文献报道,对涎腺导管内乳头状瘤的临床病理学特征、诊断和治疗进行讨论。

  2. [Isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbia, S; Pagola, J; Flaster, N; Guida, A; Jufe, L; González, B; Caniparoli, A

    1995-01-01

    The neurogenic tumors in the biliary tract are rare and usually are amputation neuroma that occur after cholecystectomy. We describe a case of isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct in a young man not cholecystectomized. The patient suffered recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss without clinical signs of Von Recklinghausen's disease or jaundice. The hepatogram was normal. The echography indicated a solid formation with obstruction of the proximal common bile duct. In the ERCP the stenosis was found. Surgical excision of the tumor and anastomosis of bilateral hepatic ducts and jejunum were carried out. At microscopic examination intraparietal neurofibroma of the common bile duct was found. As isolated entity, we know of only one reported case. PMID:8731581

  3. Pipe crawler development for duct elbow removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of equipment for removing an elbow in a 36 inch diameter ventilation line by cutting from the inside. Radiation levels, high air flow and physical constraints preclude any manual rework of the ventilation system. A remotely operated pipe crawler was developed. Testing has been performed in a full-scale mockup which models the ventilation duct configuration with the exception of radiation levels. The results gathered from the testing are discussed, and illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the crawler and plasma arc torch system. To date, the equipment has successfully completed the tasks of maneuvering through the duct geometry, performing the two required cuts, and backing out of the duct mockup. The elbow successfully fell away from the main duct, showing that the line would be clear of obstructions

  4. Investigation of heat transfer in porous duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athani, Abdulgaphur; Khan, T. M. Yunus

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of heat transfer in a square porous duct is carried out. The porous medium is sandwiched between inner and outer surface of a square duct. The flow is assumed to follow the Darcy law. The governing momentum and energy equations are non-dimensionalised and then converted to algebraic form of equations using finite element method. Galerkin method is used to transform the partial differential equations into simpler algebraic equations then solved in a iterative manner to arrive at the solution. The results are presented with respect to various geometric and physical parameters such as depth of porous medium, Rayleigh number etc. It is found that the isotherms and the streamlines take symmetrical position along the vertical central line of square duct. The isotherms are penetrated into deeper area at upper half of duct as compared to lower half.

  5. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  6. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in extrahepatic bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seok Tae; Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Woon Hyuck; Lee, Chang Hong [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Obstructive jaundice due to hepatocellular carcinoma in an extrahepatic bile duct, without a mass lesion in the liver parenchyma, is extremely rare. We experienced two cases of primary hepatocellular carcinoma arising from an extrahepatic bile duct: one in a 53-year-old man whose {alpha} -fetoprotein value was 800 ng/ml, and another in a 39-year-old woman, in whom the mass lesion was found to be attached to an extrahepatic bile duct. These tumors had a well-marginated sausage-like shape on CT and US, and the contrast media passed freely along their margins on both PTC and ERCP. Recurrences of these tumors were observed in the extrahepatic bile duct 6 and 2 months after surgery, respectively.

  7. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A.; Patel, Neal; Darge, Kassa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rambhatla, Siri J. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States); Sreedharan, Ram R. [University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  8. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  9. 胆道支架引流联合腔内射频消融治疗胆道恶性梗阻%Biliary drainage combined with intraductal radiofrequency ablation for treatment of malignant biliary obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军; 潘亚敏; 王田田; 高道键; 胡冰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of biliary drainage combined with endoscopic intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Methods Eighteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction, who were unsuitable for surgical resection, were prospectively selected for this study. During endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), when biliary cannulation was successfully done, a bipolar radiofrequency probe was introduced into the bile duct via a guide wire. RFA was done under fluoroscopy, which was followed by stent placement. The patients were closely observed and followed up after procedure. Results All patients received successful RFA and biliary drainage. Twelve patients were implanted with plastic stents and 6 with metal stents; 3 patients were also implanted with pancreatic stents. Four patients developed mild complications (2 cholangitis and 2 pancreatitis), which were controlled by conservative therapy. Jaundice was promptly controlled in 61% (11/18) patients. The patients were followed up for a median of 10. 9 months (range 2. 0-15. 4 months). The stent patency rates of 3 months, 6 months and 12 months were 87%(13/15), 64% (9/14) and 25% (2/8), respectively. The 6 month- and 12 month-survival rates were 67% (8/12) and 50% (4/8), respectively. Conclusion Biliary drainage combined with endoscopic intraductal RFA is technically feasible and safe for treatment of malignant biliary obstruction.%目的 探讨胆道支架引流联合腔内射频消融治疗胆道恶性梗阻的安全性及临床疗效.方法 前瞻性纳入18例因胆道恶性梗阻接受内镜逆行胆胰管造影(ERCP)治疗的患者,在胆管插管成功后,循导丝插入双极射频电极,于肿瘤部位进行射频消融,并留置胆道支架进行引流,观察治疗的安全性及临床疗效.结果 所有患者均成功接受射频消融治疗;胆道引流成功率为100%(18/18),12例患者留置塑料支架,6

  10. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...

  11. Evaporation duct communication: Test plan, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. D.; Rogers, L. T.

    1991-11-01

    This document is a continuation and expansion of an earlier study that examines the feasibility of using the evaporation duct to support an alternative high-speed communication system for Navy applications. This Evaporation Duct Communication (EDCOM) experiment is a unique opportunity to evaluate another communication channel that can alleviate Navy ship-to-ship communication problems. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to proceed with this measurement program.

  12. Ultrasonographic findings of intrahepatic bile duct stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Suk; Na, Hae Kyung; Yoon, Chong Hyun [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    The intrahepatic duct stones are prevalent in East Asia and pose serious health problem because of the frequent recurrence and often associated suppurative cholangitis. Accurate diagnosis and localization of intrahepatic duct stones are essential to good prognosis and selection of adequate therapeutic method. We studied 112 cases of intrahepatic duct stones diagnosed with ultrasound and confirmed by operation or other radiologic studies for recent 3 years from May 1986 to May 1989 at Department Of Radiology, National Medical Center, and analysed ultrasonographic findings. The results were as follows: 1. Among 112 cases, 73 (65%) were female, 39 (35%) were male with predominancy in 5th decade. 2. The most common location of intrahepatic duct stones was left intrahepatic duct in 48 cases (43%), followed by right intrahepatic duct in 42 cases (37.5%) and both intrahepatic ducts in 22 cases (19.5%). In respect of segmental distribution, left lateral segment is the most common location (53 cases, 34%), followed by right posterior segment (43 cases, 27%). 3. Ultrasonographic findings were as follows: Nodular pattern is the most common (59 cases, 53%), followed by tubular or linear impacted pattern (23 cases, 20%), irregular heterogenous conglomerated mass (13 cases, 12%), smooth homogenous single mass (10 cases, 9%) and mixed (7 cases, 6%) in orders. Ductal dilatations were classified by diffuse dilatation (16 cases, 14%), localized dilatation (50 case, 45%) and no dilatation (46 cases, 41%). Many of the tubular impacted stones showed no ductal dilatation and single mass showed ductal dilatations in all cases. 4. In 53 cases (47%), combined extrahepatic duct stones were present. 5. As associated findings, liver cirrhosis in 11 cases (10%), cholangitis in 9 cases (8%), cholecystitis in 7 cases (6%), hepatic and pericholangitic abscess in 3 cases(3%) and CBD cancer, GB cancer, acute pancreatitis in 2 cases (2%) respectively.

  13. Palliative irradiation of the bile ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutzner, J.; Klose, K.; Keller, E.

    1985-11-01

    Carcinoma of the common hepatic bile duct or common bile duct were treated by interstitial irradiation with gold seeds using the percutaneous transhepatic drainage partly boosted by external irradiation. The interstitial dose of 50 Gy was given in two applications and 40 Gy by linac. Twice histological examination showed wide tumor destruction of local irradiation, but also much more tumor extension than seen before by diagnostic investigation. Mostly the therapy is only palliative because of the infiltration of liver and lymphnodes. (orig.).

  14. Radiotherapy of bile duct carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six patients with cholangiocarcinoma and nineteen patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder treated with external radiotherapy were analyzed. Of the twenty-six patients, eighteen had cancer of the hepatic hilus (Klatskin), four intrahepatic and the remaining four extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. All but two of the patients had advanced disease. Thirty-three patients received primary irradiation for unresectable tumors, ten patients adjuvant irradiation after non-curative gross tumor resection, and two patients preoperative radiotherapy. Patients with cholangiocarcinoma who underwent radiotherapy with relatively small radiation field tolerated the treatment well, but there was no significant difference in survival according to field size or radiation doses (TDF). On the other hand, patients with carcinoma of gallbladder were treated with larger field size and lower dose. In the patients without gross tumor resection, those receiving radiation doses≥90 TDF had significantly longer survival than 2) had longer survival (p=0.07). The patients with gross tumor resection had significantly longer survival than that without resection in both cholangiocarcinoma and carcinoma of gallbladder. Postmortem examination revealed tumor recurrence even in the patients with gross tumor resection, but widespread distant metastases were present simultaneously. Cholangitis and liver abscess were special and lethal conditions related to these carcinomas, and intensive therapy must be developed for these conditions. External radiotherapy may be effective in the treatment of bile duct carcinoma in terms of palliation and survival. (author)

  15. Effect of pipe shapes on penetration length in a closed straight branch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch pipes which are closed during normal reactor operation are connected to main flow pipes in a nuclear power plant for coolant drain or for safety injection systems. The main flow initiates cavity flow in a branch pipe, and hot water penetrates into the branch pipe forming swirl flow and makes a thermal stratified layer between this spiral flow and stagnant cold water. It has been reported that large temperature fluctuation causes thermal fatigue when the penetration fluctuates. To enhance the estimation of the penetration length, the penetration length in the uniform temperature condition was measured in this study. The three cases of experiment are compared to the base case which uses a simple duct main pipe and a branch pipe: a chamfered edge branch pipe, a branch pipe witha joint gap and a rounded main pipe at the corner which imitates a circular main pipe. The penetration length results of the chamfered edge case were smaller about 1 branch pipe diameter than the simple duct results (i.e. base case). The results of joint gap case and the rounded main pipe case did not show any effect on the penetration length. (author)

  16. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Gu, Lixing [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  17. Double common bile duct: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srdjan P Djuranovic; Milenko B Ugljesic; Nenad S Mijalkovic; Viktorija A Korneti; Nada V Kovacevic; Tamara M Alempijevic; Slaven V Radulovic; Dragan V Tomic; Milan M Spuran

    2007-01-01

    Double common bile duct (DCBD) is a rare congenital anomaly in which two common bile ducts exist. One usually has normal drainage into the papilla duodeni major and the other usually named accessory common bile duct (ACBD) opens in different parts of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach, duodenum, ductus pancreaticus or septum). This anomaly is of great importance since it is often associated with biliary lithiasis, choledochal cyst, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ) and upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. We recently recognized a rare case of DCBD associated with APBJ with lithiasis in better developed common bile duct. The opening site of ACBD was in the pancreatic duct. The anomaly was suspected by transabdominal ultrasonography and finally confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction. According to the literature, the existence of DCBD with the opening of ACBD in the pancreatic duct is most frequently associated with APBJ and gallbladder carcinoma. In case of DCBD, the opening site of ACBD is of greatest clinical importance because of its close implications with concomitant pathology. The adequate diagnosis of this rare anomaly is significant since the operative complications may occur in cases with DCBD which is not recognized prior to surgical treatment.

  18. Computed tomography and the dilated pancreatic duct: An ominous sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer Gold, R.; Seaman, W.B.

    1981-01-15

    The main pancreatic duct has been visualized with both ultrasound and computed tomography. A normal pancreatic duct has been reported using CT, and controversy persists over whether a normal duct can be routinely imaged with ultrasound. The dilated pancreatic duct has always been associated with disease - usually pancreatitis or a proximal obstructing pancreatic carcinoma. In the patient with no clinical history or laboratory data suggesting pancreatitis, a dilated pancreatic duct implies a proximal tumor.

  19. Metachronous bile duct cancer nine years after resection of gallbladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye Jin Joo; Gi Hyun Kim; Won Joong Jeon; Hee Bok Chae; Seon Mee Park; Sei Jin Youn; Jae Woon Choi; Rohyun Sung

    2009-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 74-year-old man with metachronous gallbladder cancer and bile duct cancer who underwent curative resection twice, with the operations nine years apart. At the age of 65 years,the patient underwent a cholecystectomy and resection of the liver bed for gallbladder cancer. This was a welldifferentiated adenocarcinoma, with negative resection margins (T2N0M0, stage ⅠB). Nine years later,during a follow-up examination, abdominal computed tomography and MRCP showed an enhanced 1.7 cm mass in the hilum that extended to the second branch of the right intrahepatic bile duct. We diagnosed this lesion as a perihilar bile duct cancer, Bismuth type Ⅲ a, and performed bile duct excision, right hepatic lobectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.The histological diagnosis was a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with one regional lymph node metastasis (T1N1M0, stage ⅡB). Twelve months after the second operation, the patient is well, with no signs of recurrence. This case is compared with 11 other cases of metachronous biliary tract cancer published in the world medical literature.

  20. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  1. A radiographic study of nasopalatine duct cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Chan Duck; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of 35 cases of nasopalatine duct cyst by means of the analysis of periapical and/or occlusal radiograms in 35 persons visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University and Chonbuk National University. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The incidence of nasopalatine duct cysts was higher in males (74.3%) than in females (25.7%). 2. The nasopalatine duct cysts were the most frequently occurred in the 4th decades (34.3%). The 6th and 7th decades (17.1%, 17.1%) were next in order to frequency followed by the 5th decades (14.3%), the 3rd decades (8.6%), the 2nd decades (5.7%), and 8th decades (2.9%). 3. In the signs and symptoms of nasopalatine duct cysts, 25.7% were swelling, 17.1% were swelling and tenderness, 20.0% were swelling and pain, and 37.2% were a symptom. 4. In the shape of nasopalatine duct cysts, 40.0% were round type, 48.6% 11.8% were heart type. 5. In symmetry of the nasopalatine duct cysts, 11.4% were 6-10 mm, 48.6% were 11-20 mm, 25.7% were 21-30 mm, and 14.3% were 31-40 mm. 6. In the periphery of nasopalatine duct cysts, 82.9% were distinct, 17.1% were relatively distinct. 7. In the change of root, 51.5% were intact, 17.1% were root divergence, 20.0% were root resorption, and 11.4% were root divergence and resorption.

  2. A radiographic study of nasopalatine duct cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of 35 cases of nasopalatine duct cyst by means of the analysis of periapical and/or occlusal radiograms in 35 persons visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University and Chonbuk National University. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The incidence of nasopalatine duct cysts was higher in males (74.3%) than in females (25.7%). 2. The nasopalatine duct cysts were the most frequently occurred in the 4th decades (34.3%). The 6th and 7th decades (17.1%, 17.1%) were next in order to frequency followed by the 5th decades (14.3%), the 3rd decades (8.6%), the 2nd decades (5.7%), and 8th decades (2.9%). 3. In the signs and symptoms of nasopalatine duct cysts, 25.7% were swelling, 17.1% were swelling and tenderness, 20.0% were swelling and pain, and 37.2% were a symptom. 4. In the shape of nasopalatine duct cysts, 40.0% were round type, 48.6% 11.8% were heart type. 5. In symmetry of the nasopalatine duct cysts, 11.4% were 6-10 mm, 48.6% were 11-20 mm, 25.7% were 21-30 mm, and 14.3% were 31-40 mm. 6. In the periphery of nasopalatine duct cysts, 82.9% were distinct, 17.1% were relatively distinct. 7. In the change of root, 51.5% were intact, 17.1% were root divergence, 20.0% were root resorption, and 11.4% were root divergence and resorption.

  3. Main Bile Duct Stricture Occurring After Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical course of main bile duct stricture at the hepatic hilum after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among 446 consecutive patients with HCC treated by TACE, main bile duct stricture developed in 18 (4.0%). All imaging and laboratory data, treatment course, and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had 1 to 2 tumors measuring 10 to 100 mm in diameter (mean ± SD 24.5 ± 5.4 mm) near the hepatic hilum fed by the caudate arterial branch (A1) and/or medial segmental artery (A4) of the liver. During the TACE procedure that caused bile duct injury, A1 was embolized in 8, A4 was embolized in 5, and both were embolized in 5 patients. Nine patients (50.0%) had a history of TACE in either A1 or A4. Iodized oil accumulation in the bile duct wall was seen in all patients on computed tomography obtained 1 week later. Bile duct dilatation caused by main bile duct stricture developed in both lobes (n = 9), in the right lobe (n = 3), in the left lobe (n = 4), in segment (S) 2 (n = 1), and in S3 (n = 1). Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase increased in 13 patients. Biloma requiring drainage developed in 2 patients; jaundice developed in 4 patients; and metallic stents were placed in 3 patients. Complications after additional TACE sessions, including biloma (n = 3) and/or jaundice (n = 5), occurred in 7 patients and were treated by additional intervention, including metallic stent placement in 2 patients. After initial TACE of A1 and/or A4, 8 patients (44.4%), including 5 with uncontrollable jaundice or cholangitis, died at 37.9 ± 34.9 months after TACE, and 10 (55.6%) have survived for 38.4 ± 37.9 months. Selective TACE of A1 and/or A4 carries a risk of main bile duct stricture at the hepatic hilum. Biloma and jaundice are serious complications associated with bile duct strictures.

  4. The "flying" bile duct: avulsion of the common bile duct in a plane crash survivor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Blunt trauma is an unusual cause of extrahepatic bile duct injury. This is a case of a 51-year-old gentleman who sustained a significant seatbelt injury in a plane crash. Laparotomy, performed due to persistent abdominal pain, revealed that the common bile duct (CBD) was completely avulsed from the duodenum. Following insertion of drains and transfer to a hepatobiliary centre, the devascularised CBD was excised and replaced with a roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy. Necrotic tissue was debrided from the pancreatic head. A persistent bile leak developed from the sub-hepatic drain. Repeat laparotomy revealed a bile leak from small ducts on the liver surface. Ligation of the ducts and bioglue sealing of the area were successfully performed. Subsequent to this a pancreatic fistula developed from the main pancreatic duct, which has since resolved. This unusual case illustrates the need for prompt recognition and early repair to optimise outcomes in traumatic CBD injury.

  5. ITER L 6 equatorial maintenance duct remote handling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status and conclusions of a preliminary study of equatorial maintenance duct remote handling is reported. Due to issues with the original duct design a significant portion of the study had to be refocused on equatorial duct layout studies. The study gives an overview of some of the options for design of these ducts and the impact of the design on the equipment to work in the duct. To develop a remote handling concept for creating access through the ducts the following design tasks should be performed: define the operations sequences for equatorial maintenance duct opening and closing; review the remote handling requirements for equatorial maintenance duct opening and closing; design concept for door and pipe handling equipment and to propose preliminary procedures for material handling outsides the duct. 35 figs

  6. Size limitations in semicircular duct systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller

    1999-06-01

    The present article discusses mechanical requirements and limitations which are applicable to the construction of the system of semicircular ducts, especially to its size. The simplified case of a single, uniform duct system has been considered which can be described by a second order equation of motion. The principal functional quantities for this rotation-sensor are: (1) response speed; (2) sensitivity; and (3) regular flow. The response speed of a single, uniform semicircular duct is characterized by the short time constant (T2) which is dependent on the duct radius (r). Its estimated range is from 0.04 ms in the smallest to 140 ms in the largest known labyrinth. The sensitivity is characterized by the maximal endolymph displacement after a step stimulus (xmax). Its estimated range is from 0.0016 &mgr;m to 5.97 mm (6.56 decades!), assuming an input angular velocity of omega=1 rad s-1. The Reynolds number is a measure for an undisturbed laminar flow. Its estimated range varies from 7.38.10(-4)to 45.1 for omega=1 rad s-1. The above data follow from graphs in which, for a single uniform duct, circuit radius (R) is plotted against duct radius (r) for labyrinths of 233 species belonging to different vertebrate-groups. A relation R =38.9. r1.60was determined. The smallest labyrinth was found in a carp larva (Cyprinus), the largest in a whale shark (Rhincodon). Large whales possess labyrinths of average mammalian size. It is revealed that semicircular duct size is bound by requirements concerning regular flow and by a too low response speed for large labyrinths, and by a too low sensitivity for small labyrinths. Other important quantities are mechanical amplification factors which are a consequence of more complex vestibular constructions than a single uniform duct circuit. Allometric relationships are interpreted as compromises between the quantities mentioned. A hypothesis for the relatively large semicircular duct sizes of fishes, especially Elasmobranchii, compared

  7. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-gao YIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Fluent software, Renormalization Group (RNGk-ε turbulent model and Volume of Fluid (VOF method are employed to simulate the flow past circular duct to obtain and analyze the hydraulic parameters. According to various upper and bottom gap-ratios, the force on duct is calculated. Firstly, when bottom gap-ratio is 0, drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient and composite force reach the maximum respectively and azimuth reaches the minimum. Secondly, with the increase of bottom gap-ratio from 0 to 1, drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply, lift force coefficient decreases a little, but azimuth increases dramatically. Thirdly, with the continuous increase of bottom gap-ratio from 1, drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, composite force and azimuth vary little. So, bottom gap-ratio is the key factor influencing the force on circular duct. When bottom gap-ratio is less than 1, upper gap-ratio has the remarkable influence on the circular duct force. When bottom gap-ratio is greater than 1, the varation of upper gap-ratio has a little influence on the circular duct force.

  8. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-gao YIN; Xian-wei Cao; Hong-da SHI; Jian MA

    2010-01-01

    The Renormalization Group(RNG)k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid(VOF)method were employed to simulate the flow past a circular duct in order to obtain and analyze hydraulic parameters.According to various upper and bottom gap ratios,the force on the duct was calculated.When the bottom gap ratio is 0,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,and composite force reach their maximum values,and the azimuth reaches its minimum.With an increase of the bottom gap ratio from 0 to 1,the drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply,and the lift force coefficient does not decreases so much,but the azimuth increases dramatically.With a continuous increase of the bottom gap ratio from 1 upward,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,composite force,and azimuth vary little.Thus,the bottom gap ratio is the key factor influencing the force on the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is less than 1,the upper gap ratio has a remarkable influence on the force of the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is greater than 1,the variation of the upper gap ratio has little influence on the force of the circular duct.

  9. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mlika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as "salivary duct carcinoma." The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis.

  10. Presence of extensive intraductal component in patients undergoing breast conservative surgery predicts presence of residual disease in subsequent completion mastectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher C. P. Yiu; Wings T. Y. Loo; C. K. Lam; Louis W. C. Chow

    2009-01-01

    Background Local recurrence remains a serious problem among patients undergoing breast conservative surgery. This study aimed at identifying risk factors for residual disease after breast conservative surgery.Methods This retrospective study was based on patients with invasive breast cancer who have received breast conservative surgery and subsequent completion mastectomy. All patients had a clear resection margin in the initial operation. We analyzed the association between the presence of residual disease during completion mastectomy and the following risk factors: T staging, young age, and presence of extensive intraductal component (EIC), a close margin, lymphovascular permeation (LVP), positivity of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and c-erbB-2.Results Residual disease was encountered in 21 (45.7%) of 46 patients; EIC was present in 28 patients (60.9%), of whom 17 had residual disease. Presence of EIC during breast conservation surgery was associated with a higher risk of residual disease during completion mastectomy (P=0.011). Other variables were not statistically significant risk factors for presence of residual disease. No local recurrence was recorded in our cohort, and the disease-free survival and overall survival after completion mastectomy were similar for patients who had residual disease and those who had not.Conclusions The presence of EIC is a significant risk factor for residual disease in patients after breast conservative surgery. Our findings may suggest the indicated value of completion mastectomy in patients with EIC during initial breast conservative surgery to decrease the risk of subsequent local failure.

  11. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  12. Holographic Coulomb branch vevs

    CERN Document Server

    Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika

    2006-01-01

    We compute holographically the vevs of all chiral primary operators for supergravity solutions corresponding to the Coulomb branch of N=4 SYM and find exact agreement with the corresponding field theory computation. Using the dictionary between 10d geometries and field theory developed to extract these vevs, we propose a gravity dual of a half supersymmetric deformation of N=4 SYM by certain irrelevant operators.

  13. Modeling branching in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jochem B. Evers; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level....

  14. FLUID FLOW IN ROTATING HELICAL SQUARE DUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hua-jun; Zhang Ben-zhao; Zhang Jin-suo

    2003-01-01

    A numerical study is made for a fully developed laminar flow in rotating helical pipes.Due to the rotation, the Coriolis force can also contribute to the secondary flow.The interaction between rotation, torsion, and curvature complicates the flow characteristics.The effects of rotation and torsion on the flow transitions are studied in details.The results show that there are obvious differences between the flow in rotating ducts and in helical ducts without rotation.Certain hitherto unknown flow patterns are found.The effects of rotation and torsion on the friction factor are also examined.Present results show the characteristics of the fluid flow in rotating helical square ducts.

  15. Percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Cerna, Marie [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Havlik, Roman [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kral, Vladimir [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Gryga, Adolf [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Duda, Miloslav [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of treatment of benign bile duct strictures. Materials and methods: From February 1994 to November 2005, 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) with median age of 50.6 years (range 27-77 years) were indicated to percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct stricture. Stricture of hepatic ducts junction resulting from thermic injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was indication for treatment in one patient, stricture of hepaticojejunostomy was indication for treatment in all other patients. Clinical symptoms (obstructive jaundice, anicteric cholestasis, cholangitis or biliary cirrhosis) have appeared from 3 months to 12 years after surgery. Results: Initial internal/external biliary drainage was successful in 20 patients out of 21. These 20 patients after successful initial drainage were treated by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage. Sixteen patients were symptoms free during the follow-up. The relapse of clinical symptoms has appeared in four patients 9, 12, 14 and 24 months after treatment. One year primary clinical success rate of treatment for benign bile duct stricture was 94%. Additional two patients are symptoms free after redilatation (15 and 45 months). One patient is still in treatment, one patient died during secondary treatment period without interrelation with biliary intervention. The secondary clinical success rate is 100%. Conclusion: Benign bile duct strictures of hepatic ducts junction or biliary-enteric anastomosis are difficult to treat surgically and endoscopically inaccessible. Percutaneous treatment by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage is feasible in the majority of these patients. It is minimally invasive, safe and effective.

  16. Preconditioning the Helmholtz Equation for Rigid Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1998-01-01

    An innovative hyperbolic preconditioning technique is developed for the numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation which governs acoustic propagation in ducts. Two pseudo-time parameters are used to produce an explicit iterative finite difference scheme. This scheme eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with numerical solutions to the Helmholtz equation. The solution procedure is very fast when compared to other transient and steady methods. Optimization and an error analysis of the preconditioning factors are present. For validation, the method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D semi-infinite hard wall duct.

  17. Giant muellerian duct cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yoo Mie; Lee, Sun Wha; Park, Young Yo [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    We report a case of giant Muellerian duct cyst in a 6 month-old-boy with urinary tract infection. A mass displacing the bladder and prostatic urethra anteriorly was found on the voiding cystourethrogram, and it was a oval shaped retrovesical anechoic cyst on the abdominal ultrasonogram. On MRI, it was a tear-drop shaped cyst of isosignal intensity with a projection toward the prostatic urethra and located in the midline of vesicorectal space. Grossly, the cyst had communication with prostatic urethra and both vas deferenses were drained to the cyst. Pathologically it was confirmed as a Muellerrian duct cyst lined with squamous spithelium.

  18. Bundle duct interaction studies for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the wire-wrapped rods and duct in an LMFBR are undergoing a gradual structural distortion from the initially uniform geometry under the combined effects of thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling and creep. These deformations have a significant effect on flow characteristics, thus causing changes in thermal behavior such as cladding temperature and temperature distribution within a bundle. The temperature distribution may further enhance or retard irradiation induced deformation of the bundle. This report summarizes the results of the continuing effort in investigating the bundle-duct interaction, focusing on the need for the large development plant

  19. Countercurrent flow limitation in narrow rectangular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countercurrent air-water two phase flow limitation in vertical narrow rectangular ducts was investigated. The scale effect was investigated using three narrow rectangular ducts with different gaps (2 x 100, 5 x 100, 10 x 100 mm). The experimental data showed similar tendency in spite of gap or upper plenum liquid level. The Wallis type correlation with constant C = 0.65 gave a good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison with the prediction by the envelope theory using the Bharathan friction factor correlation was also discussed. (author)

  20. Low-cost orbiting grinder for cutting ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Low-cost, portable machine cuts ducts made from heat-treated alloys. An abrasive wheel, powered by a high-speed air motor mounted on an expandible plug against the inner wall of the duct, gives precise cutting.

  1. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment for bile duct cancer? What should you ask your doctor about bile duct cancer? It is ... your own. For instance, you might want to ask about clinical trials for which you may qualify. ...

  2. Low frequency sound attenuation in a flow duct using a thin slow sound material

    CERN Document Server

    Auregan, Yves; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We present a thin subwavelength material that can be flush mounted to a duct and which gives a large wide band attenuation at remarkably low frequencies in air flow channels. To decrease the material thickness, the sound is slowed in the material using folded side branch tubes. The impedance of the material is compared to the optimal value, which differs greatly from the characteristic impedance. In particular, the viscous and thermal effects have to be very small to have high transmission losses. Grazing flow on this material increases the losses at the interface between the flow and the material.

  3. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  4. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  5. Dust in ventilation ducts : accumulation, measurement and removal

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Rauno

    2004-01-01

    This thesis focuses on dust accumulation in, and removal from, recently installed supply air ducts and on the bristle behaviour of rotating duct cleaning brushes. The results of dust accumulation, measured using three different methods, were compared and the amount of dust in newly installed air ducts was evaluated. The vacuum test was found to be an efficient method of collecting dust samples on the duct surface. The vacuum test and the gravimetric tape method gave approximately the same res...

  6. Solitary intrahepatic bile-duct cyst presenting with Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroli's disease is an uncommon condition, and characterized by congenital segmental saccular dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts. A case of Caroli's disease, manifested by only a large communicating cystic dilatation of left intrahepatic bile duct and causing extrinsic pressure over the extrahepatic bile duct, is presented. The patient was 43-year-old housewife, hospitalized because of abdominal distension and severe jaundice. To relieve jaundice and alleviate surgical intervention, percutaneous drainage of the bile-duct cyst preceded surgery

  7. Ring-shaped variation of the coeliac trunk branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, A; Pynadath, N; Anguswamy, N; Vallath, S; Kordali, P; Stirling, A

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant arterial variations in the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk are of great interest to surgeons and radiologists. We report on a rare arterial variation found in a 79-year-old cadaver during educational dissection. Specifically, the coeliac axis formed a unique incomplete trunk termed the hepato-hepatic trunk. The splenic artery arose separately from the anterior aspect of the abdominal aorta. On the right side, there was a right hepatic artery giving rise to a gastroduodenal but an absence of the left hepatic. On the left side, there was a branch coursing towards the porta hepatis; the left hepatic artery, dividing into the left gastric, an accessory left gastric, and a branch to the distal oesophagus. The hepato-hepatic trunk formed a ring-shaped vascular structure around the caudate lobe of the liver. Precise mapping and observation of the extrahepatic arteries and bile duct branches is essential in a variety of hepato-biliary laparoscopic procedures of the liver and gallbladder. Other operative procedures requiring, a comprehensive kno-wledge of the varied coeliac trunk patterns are liver transplantation and arterial embolism for hepatic tumour therapy. PMID:26620519

  8. Surgical treatment of congenital biliary duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang De-chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is acknowledged that total cyst excision is a safe and ideal surgical treatment for congenital biliary duct cyst, compared to simple internal drainage. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal operation occasion and the effect of laparoscopy on congenital biliary duct cyst based upon total cyst excision. Methods From January 2002 to January 2011, 217 patients were admitted to Southwest Hospital for congenital biliary duct cyst. To determine the optimal surgery occasion, we divided these subjects into three groups, the infant group (age ≤ 3 years, the immaturity group (3 18 years, and then evaluated the feasibility, risk and long-term outcome after surgery in the three groups. To analyze the effect of laparoscopic technique on congenital biliary duct cyst, we divided the patients into the laparoscopy and the open surgery groups. Results Among the three groups, the morbidity from cholangiolithiasis before surgical treatment had obvious discrepancy (p 0.05. Similarly, no significant discrepancy was observed in the morbidity from postoperative complications or long-term postoperative complications (p > 0.05 between the laparoscopic and the open surgery groups. Conclusions We conclude that total cyst excision should be performed as early as possible. The optimal treatment occasion is the infant period, and laparoscopic resection may be a new safe and feasible minimally invasive surgery for this disease.

  9. Idea Bank: Duct Tape Note Twister

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Molly

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she observed a middle school math teacher deliver a miserable class. She realized that she did the same thing to her music students. To engage her students, she developed "Note Twister," a music reading game using duct tape to form musical notes and the basic premise behind the game, "Twister." She finds…

  10. Calcium influx pathways in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hug, M J; Pahl, C; Novak, I

    1996-01-01

    A number of agonists increase intracellular Ca2+ activity, [Ca2+]i, in pancreatic ducts, but the influx/efflux pathways and intracellular Ca2+ stores in this epithelium are unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterise the Ca2+ influx pathways, especially their pH sensitivity, in nati...

  11. Detonation duct gas generator demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Andrew; Brinlee, Gayl A.; Othmer, Peter; Whelan, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of the generation of detonation waves moving periodically across high speed channel flow is experimentally demonstrated. Such waves are essential to the concept of compressing requirements and increasing the engine pressure compressor with the objective of reducing conventional compressor requirements and increasing the engine thermodynamic efficiency through isochoric energy addition. By generating transient transverse waves, rather than standing waves, shock wave losses are reduced by an order of magnitude. The ultimate objective is to use such detonation ducts downstream of a low pressure gas turbine compressor to produce a high overall pressure ratio thermodynamic cycle. A 4 foot long, 1 inch x 12 inch cross-section, detonation duct was operated in a blow-down mode using compressed air reservoirs. Liquid or vapor propane was injected through injectors or solenoid valves located in the plenum or the duct itself. Detonation waves were generated when the mixture was ignited by a row of spark plugs in the duct wall. Problems with fuel injection and mixing limited the air speeds to about Mach 0.5, frequencies to below 10 Hz, and measured pressure ratios of about 5 to 6. The feasibility of the gas dynamic compression was demonstrated and the critical problem areas were identified.

  12. DIFFERENT MULLERIAN DUCT ANOMALIES - DIAGNOSED INCIDENTALLY OR DURING EMERGENCY INTERVENTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runa; Kana; Mangal Prasad

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Mullerian duct fusion abnormalities result in different reproductive outcomes ranging from multiple uneventful childbirths to ruptures of rudimentary horn during pregnancy. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : We intended to show the range of reproductive outcomes in different Mullerian duct anomalies . MATERIAL AND METHODS : We included 15 cases with fusion abnormalities of Mullerian ducts diagnosed for the first time while they presented to us, eith...

  13. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct.

  14. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct

  15. Heat Transfer in a Superelliptic Transition Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Hippensteele, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Local heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat transfer technique on the surface of a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. The transition duct had a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 and an exit-plane aspect ratio of 3. The crosssectional geometry was defined by the equation of a superellipse. The cross-sectional area was the same at the inlet and exit but varied up to 15 percent higher through the transition. The duct was preheated to a uniform temperature (nominally 64 C) before allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. As the surface cooled, the resulting isothermal contours on the duct surface were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the surface temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. Using this surface temperature-time data together with the temperature of the air flowing through the model and the initial temperature of the model wall, the heat transfer coefficient was calculated by employing the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction model. Test results are reported for inlet diameter-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.4x106 to 2.4x106 and two grid-generated freestream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 16 percent, which may be more typical of real engine conditions.

  16. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  17. Transition duct with divided upstream and downstream portions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Maldonado, Jaime Javier; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Flanagan, James Scott

    2015-07-14

    Turbine systems are provided. In one embodiment, a turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion extending from the inlet and a downstream portion extending from the outlet. The turbine system further includes a rib extending from an outer surface of the duct passage, the rib dividing the upstream portion and the downstream portion.

  18. The effect of duct surface character on methane explosion propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Bai-quan; YE Qing; JIAN Cong-guang; WU Hai-jin

    2007-01-01

    The effect of duct surface character on methane explosion propagation was experimentally studied and theoretically analyzed. The roughness has effect on methane explosion propagation. The flame propagation velocity and the peak value pressure of methane explosion in rough duct are larger than the parameters in smooth duct. The heat exchange of the surface has effect on methane explosion propagation. The propagation velocity of flame and strength of explosion wave in the duct covered by heat insulation material are larger than those in duct with good heat transmittability.

  19. Maritime Branch Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià;

    after-sales service and have therefore embarked on business development activities that tightly combine product and service offerings in their portfolios. Closer customer contact, commoditisation of goods, total cost of ownership, and product liability are just some of the reasons for this transition......The vast majority of countries in the developed world are now dependent on their service sectors for between 70-80% of their gross domestic product. Even companies with decades of expertise in producing manufactured products are experiencing an increased need to understand before-, during- and...... and influencing a move towards intensified service integration into business- and product development activities. The workbook has been created by condensing the transcripts and the insights we have gained from a wealth of studies across the maritime branch, and it serves to provide a unique insight...

  20. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  1. Dispersion properties of ducted whistlers, generated by lightning discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Whistler-mode wave propagation in magnetospheric ducts of enhanced cold plasma density is studied. The case of the arbitrary ratio of the duct radius to the whistler wavelength is considered, where the ray-tracing method is not applicable. The set of duct eigenmodes and their spatial structure are analysed and dependencies of eigenmode propagation properties on the duct characteristics are studied. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the group delay time of one-hop propagation of the whistler wave packet along the duct. We found that, in contrast to the case of a wide duct, the group delay time in a rather narrow duct decreases as the eigenmode number increases. The results obtained are suggested for an explanation of some types of multi-component whistler signals.

  2. MR pancreatography (MRP) for mucin-producing pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR pancreatography was performed in 11 patients with mucin-producing pancreatic tumor (main duct type: four and branch duct type: seven) using HASTE with a body phased array coil on a 1.5-T unit. The results of MR pancreatography were compared with imaging of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP). In all cases, MR pancreatography demonstrated all dilated pancreatic ducts and cysts. ERP did not completely demonstrate dilated ducts and cysts because of mucinous materials. Conspicuity of an intraductal tumor was more excellent by ER pancreatography than MR pancreatography. Therefore MR pancreatography and ER pancreatography are complementary methods in diagnosis for mucin-producing pancreatic tumors. (author)

  3. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  4. Can galactography-guided stereotactic, 11-gauge, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy of intraductal lesions serve as an alternative to surgical biopsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, Caecilia S.; Helbich, Thomas H.; Ponhold, Lothar; Riedl, Christopher C.; Fuchsjaeger, Michael H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rudas, Margaretha [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Clinical Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Kropf, Nina [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of galactography-guided, stereotactic, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) for the assessment of intraductal breast lesions and its potential as a therapeutic tool that could eliminate the need for surgical excision. Eighteen patients (median age 64 years, range 37-80) with nipple discharge and galactography-verified intraductal lesions underwent galactography-guided, stereotactic, 11-gauge VABB followed by surgery. Histopathology findings from VABB and subsequent surgery were compared. Underestimation and false-negative rates were assessed. After VABB, histopathology revealed invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in three (17%), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in six (33%), high-risk lesions in six (33%) and benign lesions in three (17%) cases. After surgical biopsy, histopathology confirmed the previously established diagnosis in 11 lesions (61%). The underestimation rate for high-risk lesions and DCIS was 50% (6/12). The false-negative rate was 7% (1/14). Histopathology examination after surgery showed that not a single lesion had been completely removed at VABB. Galactography-guided VABB is a feasible diagnostic tool. However, its value as a therapeutic procedure is limited because of the high number of underestimated and missed lesions and because of the histopathological detection of lesions' remnants in every case. Surgical excision should be the therapeutic gold standard in cases of pathological nipple discharge and galactography abnormalities. (orig.)

  5. Can the branching exponent reliably relate the branching indexes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2015), s. 80-84. ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching exponent * branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2014

  6. Evaporation duct assessment from meteorological buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitney, Herbert V.

    2002-07-01

    The evaporation duct over the sea is usually assessed using bulk meteorological measurements. This paper investigates the utility of meteorological buoys as a source for these bulk measurements and compares evaporation duct assessments using two buoys in southern California waters separated by 128 km. A simple radio propagation experiment at 2.4 GHz between one of the buoys and the coast on an 18.2 km path is described. Observed propagation loss from this experiment is compared to modeled loss based on the meteorological measurements at each buoy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate radio propagation effects using established and accepted methods already described in the literature. Accordingly, no discussion of atmospheric surface layer meteorology affecting radio propagation is given.

  7. Whistler wave ducting caused by antenna actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whistler waves launched from an antenna damp away for small incident power. With increasing power, undamped nondiverging waves (the ducted waves) are observed, together with a field-aligned density trough and electron heating. However, the density trough is found not only in the wave propagation regime (ω/ω/sub c/1). This implies that the density depression is mainly created by the effect of the antenna near-zone field rather than by the wave radiation pressure. The intense localized field near the antenna gives rise to electron heating which leads to the density trough. The ducting of antenna-launched whistler waves has been explained as a filamentation instability in terms of nonlinear wave-plasma interactions

  8. Management of Thyroglossal Duct Remnants: Our Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar J. S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroglossal duct remnants are more common in paediatric population. Complete excision of the tract is necessary to prevent recurrence. Sistrunk's surgery is done for thyroglossal duct remnants. This surgery has considerable failure rate. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to present our clinical experience regarding the successful management of thyroglossal cyst and fistula to know the role of imaging in prevention of recurrence after Sisktrunk's surgery. Material and Methods: This is an observational study of 15 cases of thyroglossal cyst and fistula. The data was collected retrospectively from the medical records of SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital. Results: No recurrence was seen in this series with a follow up period of 1 year. Conclusion: CT fistulography for thyroglossal fistula and USG neck for thyroglossal cyst is the imaging modality of choice. Nevertheless, it is pivotal to excise a wider core of tissue in revision cases to ensure complete cure to prevent possible recurrence.

  9. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunao Ishiguro, Masanobu Hyodo, Takehito Fujiwara, Yasunaru Sakuma, Nobuyuki Hojo, Koichi Mizuta, Hideo Kawarasaki, Alan T Lefor, Yoshikazu Yasuda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother’s liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor’s biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor.

  10. The transient response above an evaporation duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Seliem, Adel A. S.

    1998-11-01

    The transient electromagnetic field generated by a vertical electric dipole above an evaporation duct is investigated theoretically. The evaporation duct model used is that previously described by Kahan and Eckart. A vertical electric dipole, above the surface layer, is taken as the source of the electromagnetic field. We determine the electrical field strength exactly at some fixed point above the duct layer, having chosen a certain polarization of the primary source whose moment is allowed to vary arbitrarily with time. A series expansion with respect to the images of the primary source permits us to apply the method first reported by Cagniard and later extended by de Hoop and Frankena to the case where the source is positioned in a medium of lesser permittivity. Hence, we can give a physically intuitive description of the polarization dependence of the time history of the electrical field strength. The distinction of different cases where the distances between the receiving and transmitting ends are greater or lesser than the total reflection distance is studied. The electrical field strength is evaluated for different excitation functions at some fixed but arbitrary positions of the point of observation in the half-space.

  11. MR features of common hepatic duct cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of MRI in the detection of cholangiocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct has rarely been described. This study was attempted to ascertain characteristic MR features of cholangiocarcinoma. The T1(500/30, TRs/TEs) and T2 weighted(200/80, TRs/TEs) MR images were obtained from nine patients with cholangiocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct. The common hepatic lesions were detected in seven cases. MR features of cholangiocarcinoma were analysed according to the signal intensity and associated findings. The seven cases showed lower signal intensity than the surrounding normal liver parenchyma on T1 weighted image. On T2 weighted image, the tumor showed isosignal intensity and hyperintensity in four and three patients, respectively. T2 image also revealed diffusely increased signal intensity in some hepatic lobe or segment in four cases, and intrahepatic periductal high signal intensity in one case. Other associated MR findings were intrahepatic metastasis, and intratumoral hemorrhage, each noted in a different case. T2 weighted image appears to be effective in the detection of cholangiocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct and evaluation of its associated intrahepatic lesions

  12. MRI of the biliary and pancreatic ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavone, P.; Laghi, A.; Catalano, C.; Panebianco, V.; Fabiano, S.; Passariello, R. [Dept. of Radiology II, Univ. of Rome ``La Sapienza`` (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging technique able to provide projectional images of the bile ducts. Different sequences, using both breath-hold and non-breath-hold acquisition techniques, have been employed in order to obtain MRCP images. The authors discuss technical aspects, considering both three-dimensional non-breath-hold techniques and two-dimensional breath-hold, multi-slice and thick slab sequences. Clinical applications of MRCP are evaluated, presenting data from both the literature and personal experience. The main indication for MRCP study is represented by the evaluation of common bile duct obstruction, with the aim of assessing the presence of the obstruction (accuracy 85-100 %) and, subsequently, its level (accuracy 91-100 %) and its cause. The utility of associating conventional MR images to MRCP in malignant strictures, in order to characterize and stage the malignant lesion, is also discussed. Finally, data are presented regarding the indications and the utility of MR-pancreatography in the evaluation of patients with pancreatic duct anomalies and chronic pancreatitis. (orig.) With 9 figs., 39 refs.

  13. Autoimmune Pancreatitis Presenting a Short Narrowing of Main Pancreatic Duct with Subsequent Progression to Diffuse Pancreatic Enlargement over 24 Months; Natural History of Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Umemura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Initial pancreatogram and natural history of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP have not been clarified, and there were few recent studies concerning the association between AIP and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN. Case report We report an 81-yearold man with AIP associated with IPMN. Although the initial pancreatogram was normal, a short narrowing of the main pancreatic duct (MPD appeared during a follow-up for IPMN after 6 months, which was highly suggestive of pancreatic cancer. A narrowing of the MPD extended after 15 months, and this progressed to diffuse narrowing of the MPD with an elevation in the serum IgG4 levels after 24 months. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with diffuse-type AIP, according to the Japanese diagnostic criteria 2011 and the International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria. Considering the natural history of AIP, this marked change of the MPD is indicative of this condition. Conclusion Wereport a case of AIP presenting with a short narrowing of the MPD with subsequent progression to diffuse pancreatic enlargement during a follow-up for IPMN.

  14. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  15. Pronephric duct extension in amphibian embryos: migration and other mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawbridge, Julie; Meighan, Christopher M; Lumpkins, Rebecca; Kite, Mary E

    2003-01-01

    Initiation of excretory system development in all vertebrates requires (1) delamination of the pronephric and pronephric duct rudiments from intermediate mesoderm at the ventral border of anterior somites, and (2) extension of the pronephric duct to the cloaca. Pronephric duct extension is the central event in nephric system development; the pronephric duct differentiates into the tubule that carries nephric filtrate out of the body and induces terminal differentiation of adult kidneys. Early studies concluded that pronephric ducts formed by means of in situ segregation of pronephric duct tissue from lateral mesoderm ventral to the forming somites; more recent studies highlight caudal migration of the pronephric duct as the major morphogenetic mechanism. The purpose of this review is to provide the historical background on studies of the mechanisms of amphibian pronephric duct extension, to review evidence showing that different amphibians perform pronephric duct morphogenesis in different ways, and to suggest future studies that may help illuminate the molecular basis of the mechanisms that have evolved in amphibians to extend the pronephric duct to the cloaca. PMID:12508219

  16. Optimization of air ducts for nuclear reactor power generation station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the optimization study on the heating, ventilating and air conditions system in Nuclear Reactor Power Generation Station, proper arrangement of air ducts has been studied using the experimental and analytical investigation from a viewpoint of duct arrangement optimization. This study consists of two parts. Part I is optimization of air ducts in the corridors and Part II is optimization of air duct in each room. In part I, from viewpoints of confinement of radioactive materials in facilities having possible radioactive contamination and improvement of thermal environment for workers, the authors have studied air ducts system in which fresh air is supplied to corridors and heat removal and ventilation for each room are performed by transferring air from the corridors, instead of current ducts system with supply duct to each room. In part II, the condenser room with complex configuration and large space, and the electrical equipment room with simple space are selected for model areas. Based on these studies, experimental and analytical investigation (using a three-dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis) technique has been established, and the effective design method for duct arrangement of HVAC design has been verified for Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. The air-duct arrangements optimized in this study are applied to an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Power Station in trial and reduction of the air-duct quantity is confirmed

  17. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  18. Idiopathic chylopericardium treated by percutaneous thoracic duct embolization after failed surgical thoracic duct ligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)

  19. Idiopathic chylopericardium treated by percutaneous thoracic duct embolization after failed surgical thoracic duct ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Malachi; Ayyagari, Raj R. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, 789 Howard Avenue, P.O. Box 208042, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)

  20. Malignant carcinoid tumor of the cystic duct:a rare cause of bile duct obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelos Felekouras; Athanasios Petrou; Konstantinos Bramis; Evangelos Prassas; Ioannis Papaconstantinou; Nikoleta Dimitriou; Anastasia Pazaiti; Christos Tsigris; Athanasios Giannopoulos

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for 0.2%-2%of all gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, while carcinoids of the cystic duct are an uncommon entity and an extremely unusual cause of bile duct obstruction. METHODS: After an extensive literature review, we retrospectively analysed 61 cases of carcinoid tumor of the biliary tree as well as one additional case of a 60-year-old female with symptoms and laboratory/imaging examination ifndings compatible with those of a malignant biliary tract obstruction. At laparotomy, resection of the gallbladder and common bile duct was performed. Histological study revealed a well-differentiated neuro-endocrine carcinoma of the cystic duct. The patient remained disease-free at 16 months. RESULTS: Our presentation is the seventh case reported in the world literature. Compared to cholangiocarcinoma, analysis of the reviewed group indicates an increased incidence of extrahepatic carcinoid tumors in younger persons along with a slight female predominance. Statistically, the most common anatomic location is the common bile duct, followed by the perihilar region and the cystic duct. Jaundice is the most common ifnding. Curative surgery was realized in the majority of cases and long-term disease-free survival was achieved when surgery was curative. CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors obstructing the biliary tree are extremely dififcult to diagnose preoperatively, and nearly impossible to differentiate from non-neuroendocrine tumors. As surgery offers the only potential cure for both biliary carcinoids and cholangiocarcinoma, we recommend aggressive surgical therapy as the treatment of choice in every case of potentially resectable biliary tumor.

  1. Interposition of the gallbladder - or the absent common hepatic duct and cystic duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interposition of the gallbladder is a rare anomaly, but its diagnosis is important since it represents a surgically correctable cause of jaundice. The patients present with jaundice, abdominal pain and sometimes an enlarged gallbladder. Radiological diagnosis may be difficult since the condition may be mistaken for a choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder or Caroli's disease. The ultrasound, cholangiogram and surgical findings of dilated intrahepatic ducts adjacent to a normal or enlarged gallbaldder with no dilatation of the common bile duct are presented in two children with this condition. (orig.)

  2. Interposition of the gallbladder - or the absent common hepatic duct and cystic duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringer, D.A.; Daneman, A.; Dobranowski, J.; Ein, S.H.; Filler, R.M.; Roberts, E.A.

    1987-02-01

    Interposition of the gallbladder is a rare anomaly, but its diagnosis is important since it represents a surgically correctable cause of jaundice. The patients present with jaundice, abdominal pain and sometimes an enlarged gallbladder. Radiological diagnosis may be difficult since the condition may be mistaken for a choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder or Caroli's disease. The ultrasound, cholangiogram and surgical findings of dilated intrahepatic ducts adjacent to a normal or enlarged gallbaldder with no dilatation of the common bile duct are presented in two children with this condition.

  3. Sublingual thyroglossal duct cyst (SLTGDC: An unusual location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Mukul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cyst is the most common cause of midline congenital swelling in the neck. Classically, it presents as an asymptomatic midline swelling below the hyoid bone that moves with deglutination and protrusion of the tongue. Sometimes thyroglossal duct cyst presents atypical posing a diagnostic challenge. A sublingual location of thyroglossal duct cyst is rare, and differs quite remarkably in presentation from the classical thyroglossal duct cyst. We describe here the case of a young boy who presented with episodes of postural dyspnea due to elevation of the tongue which was secondary to huge sublingual swelling. Surgical decompression of the lesion was planned on an emergency basis with feasible preoperative workup. The aim of this case report is to highlight the unique presentation and a varied approach in the management of an unusually located sublingual thyroglossal duct cyst. Sublingual/intralingual thyroglossal duct cyst needs to be analyzed in a larger study population for establishing definitive management protocols.

  4. Experimental and analytical studies on aseismic design of ventilation ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For seismic resistant design of the ventilation ducts, it is the most popular and convenient way to idealize duct as a simple beam model and to compute maximum support spacing which makes duct rigid enough. However, few practical data are available to assume the precise stiffness of thinwalled duct on which accurate prediction of dynamic properties depends essentially. In this paper, the experimental study including the vibration tests and the static load tests with regard to two full scale duct models is described and a comparison between experimental and analytical results on the dynamic properties, the deflections and the stress distributions is discussed. Also, the mode of failure of the ducts due to vertically applied static load with negative internal pressure is observed. (orig.)

  5. Climate analysis of evaporation ducts in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Evaporation ducts have important implications for U.S. Naval activities involving electromagnetic propagation. The presence of an evaporation duct can affect naval operations involving communications, surveillance, electronic warfare, and detection of low-flying missiles, surface ships, or submarine periscopes. We conducted a climate scale analysis of evaporation duct heights (EDH) in the northern South China Sea (SCS), including how ...

  6. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  7. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  8. Occlusion of the cystic duct by electrocoagulation: A radiologic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical dissolution and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are promising new methods for the treatment of cholelithiasis without cholecystectomy. Nonsurgical defunctionalization of the gallbladder is now required to prevent recurrent stone formation. The authors consider cystic duct occlusion to be the first step. Ten domestic pigs underwent transcatheter electrocoagulation of the cystic duct via a cholecystostomy under fluoroscopic control. Stricture formation was followed by complete cystic duct occlusion in all ten cases. After a follow-up period ranging from 2 to 17 weeks (mean, 13 weeks), the animals were killed. Histologic studies demonstrated that complete obliteration of the cystic duct lumen was due to fibrous scar formation

  9. Method for Observing Intravascular BongHan Duct

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, X; Shin, H; Lee, B; Choi, C; Soh, K; Cheun, B; Baik, K; Soh, K; Jiang, Xiaowen; Kim, Hee-kyeong; Shin, Hak-soo; Lee, Byong-chon; Choi, Chunho; Soh, Kyung-soon; Cheun, Byeung-soo; Baik, Ku-youn; Soh, Kwang-sup

    2002-01-01

    A method for observing intra blood vessel ducts which are threadlike bundle of tubules which form a part of the BongHan duct system. By injecting 10% dextrose solution at a vena femoralis one makes the intravascular BongHan duct thicker and stronger to be easily detectable after incision of vessels. The duct is semi-transparent, soft and elastic, and composed of smaller tubules whose diameters are of 10$\\mu$m order, which is in agreement with BongHan theory.

  10. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  11. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  12. Digital subtraction angiography in the open arterial duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 31 patients with the open arterial duct (OAD), of them 15 were outpatients. Diagnosis was made in all primary patients using DSA, indications and contraindications for endovascular occlusion of the OAD were defined. Of 17 patients examined at varying time after endovascular occlusion of the duct, valid signs of reliable occlusion of the duct were obtained in 16. In one patient a contrast medium got from the aorta to the pulmonary artery via the arterial duct indicating OAD incomplete closure. DSA can be used under uotpatient conditions to define indications and contraindications for endovascular occlusion of the OAD and to assess its long-term effectiveness

  13. Solitary intrahepatic bile-duct cyst presenting with Jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Chun, Ki Sung; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Jun Gi [St. Vincent Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    Caroli's disease is an uncommon condition, and characterized by congenital segmental saccular dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts. A case of Caroli's disease, manifested by only a large communicating cystic dilatation of left intrahepatic bile duct and causing extrinsic pressure over the extrahepatic bile duct, is presented. The patient was 43-year-old housewife, hospitalized because of abdominal distension and severe jaundice. To relieve jaundice and alleviate surgical intervention, percutaneous drainage of the bile-duct cyst preceded surgery.

  14. Thyroglossal duct cysts: sonographic findings revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Kyu Ho; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Shu, Dae Chul; Kim, Sang Yoon [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review and re-evaluate the well-known ultrasonographic characteristics of cysts of the thyroglossal duct. We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings in 31 patients with pathologically proven cysts of the thyloglossal duct. Assessment involve the following variables: relationship to the hyoid bone,location,shape,size,margin,internal echogenicity,the presence of septa,solid component,and thickness of the cystic wall. The echogenicity of cystic contents was evaluated in 23 cysts for which surgical or aspiration biopsy reports were available.Cysts were closely attached to the hyoid bone in 30 cases (97%). Their location was infrahyoid in 14 cases, hyoid in 11, and surprahyoid in six; and midline in 18, both midline and of-midline in nine, and off-midline in four. A triangular shape was seen in 15 cases ,a round or oval shape in 12, and a lobulated shape in three. Their diameter varied from 1 to 3.8 (mean,2) cm, while internal echogenicity was hypoechoic in 12 cases, anechoic in ten, and isoechoic in nine. Septations were noted in six cases, and a solid component in two.The cystic wall was less than 1mm in six. Among 23 cases, the cystic contents were mucous in 18, serous in three , and purulent in two. The echogenicity of cysts with mucous content varied,while serous or purolent cysts were isoechoic. The characteristic sonographic finding of cyst of the thyroglossal duct is a centrally located triangular neck cyst, closely related to the hyoid bone.

  15. Thyroglossal duct cysts: sonographic findings revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to review and re-evaluate the well-known ultrasonographic characteristics of cysts of the thyroglossal duct. We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings in 31 patients with pathologically proven cysts of the thyloglossal duct. Assessment involve the following variables: relationship to the hyoid bone,location,shape,size,margin,internal echogenicity,the presence of septa,solid component,and thickness of the cystic wall. The echogenicity of cystic contents was evaluated in 23 cysts for which surgical or aspiration biopsy reports were available.Cysts were closely attached to the hyoid bone in 30 cases (97%). Their location was infrahyoid in 14 cases, hyoid in 11, and surprahyoid in six; and midline in 18, both midline and of-midline in nine, and off-midline in four. A triangular shape was seen in 15 cases ,a round or oval shape in 12, and a lobulated shape in three. Their diameter varied from 1 to 3.8 (mean,2) cm, while internal echogenicity was hypoechoic in 12 cases, anechoic in ten, and isoechoic in nine. Septations were noted in six cases, and a solid component in two.The cystic wall was less than 1mm in six. Among 23 cases, the cystic contents were mucous in 18, serous in three , and purulent in two. The echogenicity of cysts with mucous content varied,while serous or purolent cysts were isoechoic. The characteristic sonographic finding of cyst of the thyroglossal duct is a centrally located triangular neck cyst, closely related to the hyoid bone

  16. [Liver, bile ducts and pancreatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, T

    1995-06-01

    A fundamental guideline for the use of test results concerning liver, bile duct and pancreatic diseases was proposed in 1991 from the Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JSCP). This guideline was principally based on the document of 1988 from the Committee on liver function tests of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSG). The document from the JSG was revised in May, 1994. Also a guideline for selection of markers of hepatitis virus in hepatic disorders, was proposed in January, 1994 from the same Committee of JSG. Here, we reevaluated and discussed the JSCP guideline as taking into consideration the two 1994 JSG documents. PMID:7602802

  17. Anatomy of the nipple and breast ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca-Matthes, Gustavo; Urban, Cícero; Vallejo, André

    2016-02-01

    Over time, variations of mastectomy came up and started allowing the oncological safety and the possibility of an immediate breast reconstruction. Nipple sparing mastectomy (NSM) procedures have strongly increased in frequency and have become one of the best alternatives to treat breast cancer, also improving overall aesthetic outcomes and the achievement of contralateral breast symmetry. The nipple areola-complex (NAC) must be considered the identity of the breast concerning self-esteem of patients. This paper will remind the main anatomical topics around the nipple and breast ducts. PMID:26855906

  18. MULLERIAN DUCT ANOMALY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of mullerian duct anomalies vary widely owing to different patient populations, non-standardized classification systems, and differences in diagnostic data acquisition, these anomalies are clinically important, particularly in women who present with infertility. Many of the anomalies are initially diagnosed at hysterosalpingography and ultrasonography; however, further imaging is often required for definitive diagnosis and elaboration of secondary findings. At this time, magnetic resonance imaging is the study of choice because of its high accuracy and detailed elaboration of uterovaginal anatomy. Here, we report a case of 30 years old female who presented to emergency department with bad obstetric history.

  19. Clinical significance of main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography: Single and double duct dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Edge, Mark D; Hoteit, Maarouf; Patel, Amil P; Wang, Xiaoping; Baumgarten, Deborah A.; Cai, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography (CT) and thereby to provide the predictive criteria to identify patients at high risk of significant diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, and to avoid unnecessary work up for patients at low risk of such diseases.

  20. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  1. Seasonal variations of surface duct conditions in Ngaoundere, North Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Nzeukou, Armand; Tchawoua, Clément; Vondou, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variations of refractivity gradients from 104 to 3000 m above ground level in the troposphere layer are presented based on observations from the radiosonde station located in Ngaoundere (13.5°E, 7.3°N), a middle belt savannah region of Cameroon. Six years (2006-2011) of data from in situ measurements made by Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) of the temperature, moisture, and pressure are used to determine the surface duct conditions over Ngaoundere region. Each time that a negative gradient from the Abel-retrieved refractivity profiles is seen, it implies the presence of a duct in this study. The occurrence of ducts strongly depends on the local climate and synoptic weather conditions which have an appreciable influence on the refractivity vertical profile, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which provides wet and dry seasons to the region. Monthly and seasonal variations of ducts were also determined from the measured data. The highest and the lowest occurrence rate of surface ducts were observed during the wet and the dry seasons, respectively. September appears as the month when most of the ducts occur at the rate of at least one duct per day. The median duct thickness and duct strength are high and strong during the wet season, whereas they are low and weak during the dry season. When the data are separated into stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, we noticed that surface duct characteristics show some seasonal differences. Surface ducts are found to be more frequent in a stable atmosphere than in an unstable atmosphere. Statistical results are discussed alongside with local meteorological conditions and weather systems affecting the town of Ngaoundere. Besides, comments are made on their prospective significance in the region.

  2. Evaporation duct effects at millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. D.

    1992-03-01

    The evaporation duct strongly influences low-altitude over-the-horizon propagation at millimeter wavelengths. Results from more than 2000 hours of propagation and meteorological measurements made at 94 GHz on a 40.6 km over-horizon, over-water path along the southern California coast show that the average received power was 63 dB greater than d for propagation in a nonducting, or standard, atmosphere; 90 percent of the measurements were at least 55 dB greater than diffraction. A numerical model of transmission loss based on the observed surface meteorology is discussed and results are compared to measured transmission loss. On average, modeling results underestimate observations by only 10 dB. In addition, results from modeling based on an independent climatology of evaporation duct heights for the area are shown to be adequate for most propagation assessment purposes. The reliability and reasonable accuracy of the numerical model provides a strong justification for utilizing the technique to assess millimeter wave communication and radar systems operating in many, if not all, ocean regions.

  3. Slow sound in lined flow ducts

    CERN Document Server

    Auregan, Yves

    2015-01-01

    We consider the acoustic propagation in lined flow duct with a purely reactive impedance at the wall. This reacting liner has the capability to reduce the speed of sound, and thus to enhance the interaction between the acoustic propagation and the low Mach number flow ($M\\simeq0.3$). At the lower frequencies, there are typically 4 acoustic or hydrodynamic propagating modes, with 3 of them propagating in the direction of the flow. Above a critical frequency, there are only 2 propagating modes that all propagate in the direction of the flow. From the exact 2D formulation an approximate 1D model is developed to study the scattering of acoustic waves in a straight duct with varying wall impedance. This simple system, with a uniform flow and with a non-uniform liner impedance at the wall, permits to study the scattering between regions with different waves characteristics. Several situations are characterized to show the importance of negative energy waves, strong interactions between acoustic and hydrodynamic mod...

  4. Variable stromal periductular expression of CD34 and smooth muscle actin (SMA in intraductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Catteau

    Full Text Available In breast carcinoma, the stromal loss of CD34 expression and acquisition of SMA myofibroblastic features may constitute a prerequisite for tumor invasiveness. However, this hypothesis remains controversial, with some authors describing the loss of CD34 fibrocytes in the absence of SMA myofibroblastic-like cells in the stroma of invasive carcinoma. Others have also described the disappearance of CD34 fibrocytes from in situ carcinoma. To clarify this issue, we compared the distribution of CD34 fibrocytes and SMA reactive myofibroblasts between stromal areas of tumor-free mammary tissue, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC. In addition to 28 IDC, 300 normal duct-lobular units and 600 ducts with DCIS (158 low-grade, 266 intermediate, and 176 high-grade were scored. The relationships between staining patterns and different histological features (grade of DCIS and presence or absence of necrosis were compared. Loss of CD34 expression and acquisition of SMA expression were more frequent in high-grade in situ lesions than in intermediate and low-grade lesions (p<0.001. When necrosis was found in association with grade 2 or 3 DCIS, the decrease in CD34 expression was higher than in lesions without necrosis and that independently of the grade of DCIS (p<0.05. Necrosis did not appear to play a significant role in the expression of SMA (p = 0.35. In all cases, the stroma of invasive carcinomas showed a complete loss of CD34 fibrocytes. Future research on both CD34 fibrocytes and mechanisms stromal changes are essential in the future and may potentially lead to new treatment approaches.

  5. Do We Know What Causes Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can bile duct cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes bile duct cancer? We don’t know the exact cause of most ... genes – the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  6. Seismic assessment of the Pickering pressure relief duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the study are to examine the structural response of the Pickering pressure relief duct when subjected to earthquake ground motion and to estimate the seismic withstand capacity of various components of the structural system on the basis of performance criteria consistent with the safety function of the duct. (author). 24 refs., 16 tabs., 31 figs

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... to top » Guide Topics What Is Bile Duct Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  8. Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J.D.; Waxler, R.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the state of the polar vortex in the midlatitudes changed significantly due to a minor sudden stratospheric warming event. As a result, a bidirectional duct for infrasound propagation developed in the middle atmosphere that persisted for 2 weeks. The ducts were due to two zonal wind

  9. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber and...

  10. Cystic duct closure by sealing with bipolar electrocoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, S; Damgaard, B; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Larsen, S S; Kristiansen, V B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic duct leakage after cholecystectomy is not uncommon and is a potentially serious complication. The aim of this study was to assess a bipolar sealing system (LigaSure) for closure of the cystic duct. METHODS: The records from consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in...

  11. Congenital bile duct dilatation (Caroli's disease - Grumbach's disease)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital bile duct dilatation is an autosomal recessive inherited disease. Pathologically tortuous dilated, dyplastic intrahepatic bile ducts were found. It may be associated with hepatic fibrosis (Grumbach's disease), or without (Caroli's disease). A common additional finding is an infantile polycystic kidney. Three cases are reported and the radiological and sonographic findings are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach

  13. A new evaporation duct climatology over the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Yang, Kunde; Yang, Yixin; Ma, Yuanliang

    2015-10-01

    The climatology of evaporation ducts is important for shipborne electromagnetic system design and application. The evaporation duct climatology that is currently used for such applications was developed in the mid 1980s; this study presents efforts to improve it over the South China Sea (SCS) by using a state-of-the-art evaporation duct model and an improved meteorology dataset. This new climatology provides better evaporation duct height (EDH) data over the SCS, at a higher resolution of 0.312°×0.313°. A comparison between the new climatology and the old one is performed. The monthly average EDH in the new climatology is between 10 and 12 m over the SCS, higher than that in the old climatology. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the evaporation duct over the SCS in different months are analyzed in detail, based on the new climatology.

  14. Consistent approach to air-cleaning system duct design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant air-cleaning system effectiveness is dependent on the capability of a duct system to safely convey contaminated gas to a filtration unit and subsequently to a point of discharge. This paper presents a logical and consistent design approach for selecting sheet metal ductwork construction to meet applicable criteria. The differences in design engineers' duct construction specifications are acknowledged. Typical duct construction details and suggestions for their effective use are presented. Improvements in duct design sections of ANSI/ASME N509-80 are highlighted. A detailed leakage analysis of a control room HVAC system is undertaken to illustrate the effects of conceptual design variations on duct construction requirements. Shortcomings of previously published analyses and interpretations of a current standard are included

  15. Extravasation Mucocele Arising from a Lingual Thyroglossal Duct Remnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiko Nakahira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital anomaly, it can also appear in adults. Despite the presence of embryological remnants, it is still unclear why the cyst should suddenly develop later in life. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with an extravasation mucocele arising from a long-standing lingual thyroglossal duct remnant. MRI demonstrated a lingual cystic lesion near the hyoid bone associated with a suprahyoid tract-like structure masquerading as a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, histopathological examination demonstrated a mucocele secondary to a rupture of a thyroglossal duct remnant with numerous intramural heterotopic salivary glands. We propose a new mechanism of an acquired cystic formation of this congenital disease that excessive production of mucus from heterotopic salivary glands and a physical trauma such as swallowing may lead to extravasation of mucus from the thyroglossal duct.

  16. Cystic duct remnant mucocele in a liver transplant recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Sushil K. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington, DC (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Fishbien, Thomas M. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington, DC (United States); Haddad, Nadim G. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Cystic duct remnant mucocele is an extremely rare complication of liver transplantation in children. Surgical correction is usually required for cystic duct remnant mucocele when it causes biliary obstruction. We describe a 14-month-old liver transplant recipient who presented with biliary obstruction 1 month after orthotopic liver transplantation with an end-to-end choledochocholedocal biliary anastomosis for hepatoblastoma. US, CT and cholangiography findings were consistent with mucocele of the allograft cystic duct remnant. Surgery was not needed in our patient because the mucocele and biliary obstruction had resolved on repeat imaging most likely due to guidewire manipulation during cholangiography, resulting in opening of the cystic duct remnant orifice and drainage into the common duct. (orig.)

  17. Cystic duct remnant mucocele in a liver transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cystic duct remnant mucocele is an extremely rare complication of liver transplantation in children. Surgical correction is usually required for cystic duct remnant mucocele when it causes biliary obstruction. We describe a 14-month-old liver transplant recipient who presented with biliary obstruction 1 month after orthotopic liver transplantation with an end-to-end choledochocholedocal biliary anastomosis for hepatoblastoma. US, CT and cholangiography findings were consistent with mucocele of the allograft cystic duct remnant. Surgery was not needed in our patient because the mucocele and biliary obstruction had resolved on repeat imaging most likely due to guidewire manipulation during cholangiography, resulting in opening of the cystic duct remnant orifice and drainage into the common duct. (orig.)

  18. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in common bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljebreen Abdulrahman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When the clinical features strongly suggest the presence of bile duct stones, management is fairly straightforward; diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC may in some cases constitute the entire strategy. Unfortunately, the clinical picture is often equivocal or uncertain. Although stones are unlikely to be present in the bile duct when the clinical index of suspicion is low, their presence can never be completely ruled out based on clinical and biochemical parameters. Thus, an accurate, noninvasive, reliable, and safe method for bile duct imaging would be highly advantageous. Low-risk tests, such as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS, are emerging as reliable substitutes for diagnostic ERC. This review highlights the technical aspects of examining the extra-hepatic biliary duct system and the performance and results of EUS in diagnosing patients who present with possible common bile duct stones.

  19. PERSISTENT MULLERIAN DUCT SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddalingeshwar V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : A 3-year-old boy presenting with right inguinal hernia was found to have uterus, fallopian tube and testes in a position analogous to ovaries in hernial sac, warranting a diagnosis of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS. PMDS is an extremely rare form of internal male pseudo-hermaphroditism in which female internal sex organs, including the uterus, cervix and proximal vagina, persist in a 46XY male with normal external genitalia. The condition results from a congenital insensitivity to anti-Mullerian hormone, or lack of anti-Mullerian hormone, leading to persistence of the female internal sex organs in a male. Clinically, this condition is associated with cryptochoridism. Controversy persists regarding the appropriate treatment of PMDS, since resection of the remnant structures is associated with potential morbidity, but retention risks development of occasional malignancies. We review the literature and discuss various aspects of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of PMDS.

  20. Hollow-duct radiation delivery system investigation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fibrich, Martin; Rus, Bedřich; Kramer, Daniel

    Praha : IPP AS CR - TOPTEC, 2012 - (Vít, T.; Kovačičinová, J.; Lédl, V.), 13-16 ISBN 978-80-87026-02-1. [OaM 2012 International Conference on Optics and Measurement. Liberec (CZ), 16.10.2012-18.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0091 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OP VK 1 LaserSys(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0091 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser * diode-array-radiation * hollow -duct radiation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  1. Common bile duct pathologies at nawabshah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the causes, presentation, management and outcome of Common Bile Duct (CBD) pathologies. All patients who presented with CBD pathologies. Data of all the patients with CBD pathologies was collected and entered on a proforma, including their complaints, positive examination findings, investigations, diagnosis, procedure performed and its outcome. During the study period 45 patients presented with CBD pathology. Amongst them 14 were males and the rest females (31), with a mean age of 36.7 years. Around 67% patients had choledocholithiasis as the commonest cause. Exploration of the CBD with T-tube insertion was the commonest procedure, performed in 69% patients. About 4% patients had retained stones and 20% developed wound infection. Mean hospital stay was 13 days. Most common pathology involving the CBD was secondary stones; 95% patients had associated gall stones also. (author)

  2. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  3. Computer simulation of long-chain branching and branching indexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    Vienna : University of Vienna, 2014. s. 22. [International Conference on Polymer Behaviour /6./. 22.09.2014-26.09.2014, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  4. A novel gene delivery method transduces porcine pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M A; Restrepo, M S; Abu-El-Haija, M; Wallen, T; Buchanan, E; Rokhlina, T; Chen, Y H; McCray, P B; Davidson, B L; Divekar, A; Uc, A

    2014-02-01

    Gene therapy offers the possibility to treat pancreatic disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene; however, gene transfer to the pancreas is untested in humans. The pancreatic disease phenotype is very similar between humans and pigs with CF; thus, CF pigs create an excellent opportunity to study gene transfer to the pancreas. There are no studies showing efficient transduction of pig pancreas with gene-transfer vectors. Our objective is to develop a safe and efficient method to transduce wild-type (WT) porcine pancreatic ducts that express CFTR. We catheterized the umbilical artery of WT newborn pigs and delivered an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 vector expressing green-fluorescent protein (AAV9CMV.sceGFP) or vehicle to the celiac artery, the vessel that supplies major branches to the pancreas. This technique resulted in stable and dose-dependent transduction of pancreatic duct epithelial cells that expressed CFTR. Intravenous (IV) injection of AAV9CMV.sceGFP did not transduce the pancreas. Our technique offers an opportunity to deliver the CFTR gene to the pancreas of CF pigs. The celiac artery can be accessed via the umbilical artery in newborns and via the femoral artery at older ages--delivery approaches that can be translated to humans. PMID:24257348

  5. Modeling low elevation GPS signal propagation in maritime atmospheric ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Wu, Zhensen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Hongguang; Zhu, Qinglin

    2012-05-01

    Using the parabolic wave equation (PWE) method, we model low elevation GPS L1 signal propagation in maritime atmospheric ducts. To consider sea surface impedance, roughness, and the effects of earth's curvature, we propose a new initial field model for the GPS PWE split-step solution. On the basis of the comparison between the proposed model and the conventional initial field model for a smooth, perfectly conducting sea surface on a planar earth, we conclude that both the amplitude and phase of the initial field are influenced by surface impedance and roughness, and that the interference behavior between direct and reflected GPS rays is affected by earth's curvature. The performance of the proposed model is illustrated with examples of low elevation GPS L1 signal propagation in three types of ducts: an evaporation duct, a surface-based duct, and an elevated duct. The GPS PWE is numerically implemented using the split-step discrete mixed Fourier transform algorithm to enforce impedance-type boundary conditions at the rough sea surface. Because the GPS signal is right hand circularly polarized, we calculate its power strength by combining the propagation predictions of the horizontally and the vertically polarized components. The effects of the maritime atmospheric ducts on low elevation GPS signal propagation are demonstrated according to the presented examples, and the potential applications of the GPS signals affected by ducts are discussed.

  6. Mechanical properties of the porcine bile duct wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Helle

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim The function of the common bile duct is to transport bile from the liver and the gall bladder to the duodenum. Since the bile duct is a distensible tube consisting mainly of connective tissue, it is important to obtain data on the passive mechanical wall properties. The aims of this study were to study morphometric and biomechanical wall properties during distension of the bile duct. Methods Ten normal porcine common bile ducts were examined in vitro. A computer-controlled volume ramp infusion system with concomitant pressure recordings was constructed. A video camera provided simultaneous measurement of outer dimensions of the common bile duct. Wall stresses and strains were computed. Results The common bile duct length increased by 25% from 24.4 ± 1.8 mm at zero pressure to 30.5 ± 2.0 mm at 5 kPa (p (βε - 1. The circumferential stress-strain curve was shifted to the left when compared to the longitudinal stress-strain curve, i.e. the linear constants (α values were different (p 0.5. Conclusion The porcine bile duct exhibited nonlinear anisotropic mechanical properties.

  7. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  8. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  9. Multi-Level Flow Branching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    Praha: UTAM AV ČR, 2006 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 380-381 ISBN 80-86246-27-2. [Engineering mechanics 2006 : national conference with international participation. Svratka (CZ), 15.05.2006-18.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : branching * respiratory system * aortic system * microfluidics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  10. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50. PMID:24010026

  11. Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.

  12. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  13. Scintigraphic and echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary flow after percutaneous closure of patent arterial duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: During the evolution of patients submitted to percutaneous closure of a patent arterial duct (PAD), some degree of protrusion of the occlusive device into the left pulmonary arterial branch has been described. Aim: We tested the hypothesis that patients (pts) with device protrusion have also decreased pulmonary blood perfusion. Material and Methods: We studied 70 pts submitted to percutaneous closure of the PAD with Gianturco coils (mean age: 8.6, median: 7.5 years), with a mean time follow-up of 55 months. Comprehensive Doppler echocardiographic studies were performed. We calculated the percentage of difference of blood flow velocities between the left and right pulmonary arterial branches. Pulmonary scintigraphy was performed using an intravenous injection of 99mTc labeled human albumin macroaggregates to evaluate bilateral lung perfusion ( relative quantification ). The same determinations were performed in 22 controls. Results: 66 pts (94,3%) showed some degree of protrusion of the device into the left pulmonary artery. Patients were grouped according to the difference in the percentage of flow velocity between arterial branches as detected by Doppler: ≥ 30% (16 pts, group A); < 30% (54 pts, group B) and controls (22 pts, group C). The mean value of left lung perfusion was significantly lower in group A (41.9% ± 3,2%), compared to group B (46.8% ± 1,93 %) and to group C (46,8% ± 2,4%) (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.001). There was a significant negative linear correlation between the values of left lung perfusion and the percentage difference of blood flow velocities. Conclusion: Protrusion of the occlusive device in pts with PAD is not always associated to pulmonary artery obstruction. However, pts showing blood flow acceleration ≥30% at the left pulmonary arterial branch by Doppler have significantly lower values of lung perfusion

  14. Mechanism of primitive duct formation in the pancreas and submandibular glands: a role for SDF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtoy Pierre J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exocrine pancreas is composed of a branched network of ducts connected to acini. They are lined by a monolayered epithelium that derives from the endoderm and is surrounded by mesoderm-derived mesenchyme. The morphogenic mechanisms by which the ductal network is established as well as the signaling pathways involved in this process are poorly understood. Results By morphological analyzis of wild-type and mutant mouse embryos and using cultured embryonic explants we investigated how epithelial morphogenesis takes place and is regulated by chemokine signaling. Pancreas ontogenesis displayed a sequence of two opposite epithelial transitions. During the first transition, the monolayered and polarized endodermal cells give rise to tissue buds composed of a mass of non polarized epithelial cells. During the second transition the buds reorganize into branched and polarized epithelial monolayers that further differentiate into tubulo-acinar glands. We found that the second epithelial transition is controlled by the chemokine Stromal cell-Derived Factor (SDF-1. The latter is expressed by the mesenchyme, whereas its receptor CXCR4 is expressed by the epithelium. Reorganization of cultured pancreatic buds into monolayered epithelia was blocked in the presence of AMD3100, a SDF-1 antagonist. Analyzis of sdf1 and cxcr4 knockout embryos at the stage of the second epithelial transition revealed transient defective morphogenesis of the ventral and dorsal pancreas. Reorganization of a globular mass of epithelial cells in polarized monolayers is also observed during submandibular glands development. We found that SDF-1 and CXCR4 are expressed in this organ and that AMD3100 treatment of submandibular gland explants blocks its branching morphogenesis. Conclusion In conclusion, our data show that the primitive pancreatic ductal network, which is lined by a monolayered and polarized epithelium, forms by remodeling of a globular mass of non

  15. Determination of the evaporation duct height from standard meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. K.; Shalyapin, V. N.; Levadnyi, Yu. V.

    2007-02-01

    Four models used for evaluating the height of the evaporation duct from measured atmospheric pressure, water and air temperatures, and air humidity are considered.The calculated results are compared with the duct heights measured during two oceanographic expeditions in the tropical zone of the Atlantic Ocean and the equatorial zone of the Indian Ocean. The sensitivity of models to the errors in the meteorological parameters is investigated. It is shown that, in the case of unstable stratification, the heights of ducts in the 5 20-m range can be evaluated with an error of about 2.5 m. Recommendations for selection of optimal models are given.

  16. Millimetre-wave propagation in the evaporation duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. F.; Craig, K. H.

    1990-03-01

    Recent developments in propagation modeling based on the Parabolic Equation Method allow the forecasting of two-dimensional antenna coverage diagrams at millimeter wavelengths, in a dispersive atmosphere with arbitrary two-dimensional variation of the refractive index. The model was applied successfully to mm-wave propagation in the evaporation duct. The evaporation duct height is not sufficient to characterize mm-wave propagation, and information on the water vapor content is essential for the correct modeling of atmospheric absorption. Turbulence simulations were carried out, showing marked scintillation, effects in the evaporation duct. The method can be applied to arbitrary refractivity spectra, and gives a complete numerical description of the field statistics.

  17. EFFECT OF AIRFLOW AND HEAT INPUT RATES ON DUCT EFFICIENCY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-05-28

    Reducing the airflow and heat input rates of a furnace that is connected to a duct system in thermal contact with unconditioned spaces can significantly reduce thermal distribution efficiency. This is a straightforward theoretical calculation based on the increased residence time of the air in the duct at the lower flow rate, which results in greater conduction losses. Experimental tests in an instrumented residential-size duct system have confirmed this prediction. Results are compared with the heat-loss algorithm in ASHRAE Standid 152P. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible remedies for this loss of efficiency in existing systems and optional design strategies in new construction.

  18. Effects of explosion-generated shock waves in ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explosion in a space causes an increase in temperature and pressure. To quantify the challenge that will be presented to essential components in a ventilation system, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of a shock wave generated by an explosion, with attention directed to the propagation of such a wave in a duct. Using the equations of unsteady flow and shock tube theory, a theoretical model has been formulated to provide flow properties behind moving shock waves that have interacted with various changes in duct geometry. Empirical equations have been derived to calculate air pressure, temperature, Mach number, and velocity in a duct following an explosion

  19. BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON Fasciola hepatica AND CATTLE BILIARY DUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panebianco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of bacteria in Fasciola hepatica and into cattle biliary ducts containing the parasite. A total of 24 liver and 58 F. hepatica samples were analysed. In all biliary ducts and in 62,06% of parasite Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. The bacterial specie more frequently isolated from parasite were Citrobacter freundii (34%, Proteus mirabilis (18%, Providencia rettgeri (12%, Staphylococcus spp. (18%, Enterobacter spp. (12%. There doesn’t appear to be a correlation between bacterial specie from parasite and ducts. The Authors conclude with some related inspective consideration.

  20. Subsonic Flows through S-Ducts with Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi

    An inlet duct of an aircraft connects the air intake mounted on the fuselage to the engine within the aircraft body. The ideal outflow quality of the duct is steady, uniform and of high total pressure. Recently compact S-shaped inlet ducts are drawing more attention in the design of UAVs with short propulsion system. Compact ducts usually involve strong streamwise adverse pressure gradient and transverse secondary flow, leading to large-scale harmful vortical structures in the outflow. To improve the outflow quality modern flow control techniques have to be applied. Before designing successful flow control methods a solid understanding of the baseline flow field with the duct is crucial. In this work the fundamental mechanism of how the three dimensional flow topology evolves when the relevant parameters such as the duct geometry and boundary layer thickness are varied, is studied carefully. Two distinct secondary-flow patterns are identified. For the first time the sensitivity of the flow topology to the inflow boundary layer thickness in long ducts is clearly addressed. The interaction between the transverse motion induced by the transverse pressure gradient and the streamwise separation is revealed as the crucial reason for the various flow patterns existing in short ducts. A non-symmetric flow pattern is identified for the first time in both experiments and simulations in short ducts in which the intensity of the streamwise separation and the transverse invasion are in the same order of magnitude. A theory of energy accumulation and solution bifurcation is used to give a reasonable explanation for this non-symmetry. After gaining the knowledge of where and how the harmful vortical structures are generated several flow control techniques are tested to achieve a better outflow quality. The analysis of the flow control cases also provides a deeper insight into the behavior of the three-dimensional flow within the ducts. The conventional separation control method

  1. Investigation of Control Effectors for Ducted Fan VTOL UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jr., W. A.

    2007-01-01

    Ducted fan VTOL UAVs are currently being designed for use by the Army for surveillance and reconnaissance in the battlefield. The vehicle tested in this research is part of the Honeywell MAV program. Able to be carried in a backpack by a single soldier, it has a duct diameter of 11.5-in. and weighs approximately 20-lbs at takeoff. It is designed for flight up to 50-knots with fan speeds varying between 5000 and 8500 RPM. Reynolds numbers, based on the duct diameter, were on the order of R...

  2. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems, task 1: Ducted propfan analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Bettner, James L.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent three-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics were solved numerically to study the steady compressible transonic flow about ducted propfan propulsion systems. Aerodynamic calculations were based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. An implicit residual smoothing operator was used to aid convergence. Two calculation grids were employed in this study. The first grid utilized an H-type mesh network with a branch cut opening to represent the axisymmetric cowl. The second grid utilized a multiple-block mesh system with a C-type grid about the cowl. The individual blocks were numerically coupled in the Euler solver. Grid systems were generated by a combined algebraic/elliptic algortihm developed specifically for ducted propfans. Numerical calculations were initially performed for unducted propfans to verify the accuracy of the three-dimensional Euler formulation. The Euler analyses were then applied for the calculation of ducted propfan flows, and predicted results were compared with experimental data for two cases. The three-dimensional Euler analyses displayed exceptional accuracy, although certain parameters were observed to be very sensitive to geometric deflections. Both solution schemes were found to be very robust and demonstrated nearly equal efficiency and accuracy, although it was observed that the multi-block C-grid formulation provided somewhat better resolution of the cowl leading edge region.

  3. Observations of Strong Surface Radar Ducts over the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ian M.; Goroch, Andreas K.; Rogers, David P.

    1999-09-01

    Ducting of microwave radiation is a common phenomenon over the oceans. The height and strength of the duct are controlling factors for radar propagation and must be determined accurately to assess propagation ranges. A surface evaporation duct commonly forms due to the large gradient in specific humidity just above the sea surface; a deeper surface-based or elevated duct frequently is associated with the sudden change in temperature and humidity across the boundary layer inversion.In April 1996 the U.K. Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules research aircraft took part in the U.S. Navy Ship Antisubmarine Warfare Readiness/Effectiveness Measuring exercise (SHAREM-115) in the Persian Gulf by providing meteorological support and making measurements for the study of electromagnetic and electro-optical propagation. The boundary layer structure over the Gulf is influenced strongly by the surrounding desert landmass. Warm dry air flows from the desert over the cooler waters of the Gulf. Heat loss to the surface results in the formation of a stable internal boundary layer. The layer evolves continuously along wind, eventually forming a new marine atmospheric boundary layer. The stable stratification suppresses vertical mixing, trapping moisture within the layer and leading to an increase in refractive index and the formation of a strong boundary layer duct. A surface evaporation duct coexists with the boundary layer duct.In this paper the authors present aircraft- and ship-based observations of both the surface evaporation and boundary layer ducts. A series of sawtooth aircraft profiles map the boundary layer structure and provide spatially distributed estimates of the duct depth. The boundary layer duct is found to have considerable spatial variability in both depth and strength, and to evolve along wind over distances significant to naval operations (100 km). The depth of the evaporation duct is derived from a bulk parameterization based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory

  4. Kidney branching morphogenesis under the control of a ligand–receptor-based Turing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main signalling proteins that control early kidney branching have been defined. Yet the underlying mechanism is still elusive. We have previously shown that a Schnakenberg-type Turing mechanism can recapitulate the branching and protein expression patterns in wild-type and mutant lungs, but it is unclear whether this mechanism would extend to other branched organs that are regulated by other proteins. Here, we show that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor–RET regulatory interaction gives rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing model that reproduces the observed budding of the ureteric bud from the Wolffian duct, its invasion into the mesenchyme and the observed branching pattern. The model also recapitulates all relevant protein expression patterns in wild-type and mutant mice. The lung and kidney models are both based on a particular receptor–ligand interaction and require (1) cooperative binding of ligand and receptor, (2) a lower diffusion coefficient for the receptor than for the ligand and (3) an increase in the receptor concentration in response to receptor–ligand binding (by enhanced transcription, more recycling or similar). These conditions are met also by other receptor–ligand systems. We propose that ligand–receptor-based Turing patterns represent a general mechanism to control branching morphogenesis and other developmental processes. (paper)

  5. Meandering Main Pancreatic Duct in a Case of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Prakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meandering main pancreatic duct is an anatomical variant of main pancreatic duct, characterized by abnormal configuration of the duct in pancreatic head region. Meandering pancreatic duct can be underlying cause for recurrent pancreatitis. This less common variant can be easily diagnosed on imaging, particularly magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

  6. ß-adrenergic regulation of ion transport in pancreatic ducts: Patch-clamp study of isolated rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I

    1998-01-01

    . METHODS: Small intralobular ducts were isolated from rat pancreas and studied in vitro by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cell membrane voltages and currents were indicators of cellular ion transport. In some ducts, intracellular Ca2+ activity was measured by fluorescence optical methods. RESULTS......: Unstimulated duct cells had a membrane voltage (Vm) of about -50 mV. Isoproterenol had a concentration-dependent effect on Vm; at 10(-7) mol/L, it depolarized Vm by 20-25 mV and the cell conductance increased by 100 nanosiemens. These effects were a result of opening of luminal Cl- channels. Phenylephrine had...

  7. Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de; Rosier, Vitor Veloso; Luz, Tovar Vicente; Verde, Raquel Crisóstomo Lima; Lima, Clara Mônica Figueiredo de; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access. PMID:25992160

  8. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, P. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  9. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels in...

  10. Persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction in an adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haridimos Markogiannakis; Dimitrios Theodorou; Konstantinos G Toutouzas; Panagiotis Drimousis; Sotirios Georgios Panoussopoulos; Stilianos Katsaragakis

    2007-01-01

    An extremely rare case of persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction is presented. A 20-year-old female patient without medical history presented with colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, absence of passage of gas and feces, and abdominal distension of 24 h duration. Physical examination and blood tests were normal. Abdominal X-ray showed small bowel obstruction.Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated dilated small bowel and a band originating from the umbilicus and continuing between the small bowel loops;an omphalomesenteric duct remnant was suspected. In exploratory laparotomy, persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction was identified and resected. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the 5th postoperative day. Although persistent omphalomesenteric duct is an extremely infrequent cause of small bowel obstruction in adult patients, it should be taken into consideration in patients without any previous surgical history.

  11. Nasolacrimal duct mucocele: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de; Rosier, Vitor Veloso; Luz, Tovar Vicente; Verde, Raquel Crisóstomo Lima; Lima, Clara Mônica Figueiredo de; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access. PMID:25992160

  12. Technology Solutions Case Study: Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation; specifically for use in humid climates.

  13. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of...

  14. Design requirement on KALIMER control rod assembly duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the design guidelines which are needs for designing the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER as design requirements. it describes control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER and its requirements that includes functional requirements, performance requirements, interfacing systems, design limits and strength requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The control rod system consists of three parts, which are drive mechanism, drive-line, and absorber bundle. This report deals with the absorber bundle and its outer duct only because the others are beyond the scope of fuel system design. The guidelines for design requirements intend to be used for an improved design of the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 19 refs

  15. Bile Duct Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bile Duct Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bileductdiseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  16. Air in the Wirsung Duct. An Unusual Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Brindisi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Air in the pancreas is frequently reported to be associated with an abscess or a pancreatic fistula but has also been demonstrated in normal pancreatic glands. Air in the Wirsung duct has been reported in three pediatric patients with duodenal obstruction [1], in a child with biliary and pancreatic ascariasis with liver abscesses and a pancreatic pseudocyst [2], in an adult patient with cystic dilatation of the main pancreatic duct limited to the head [3], and in 11 patients with various acute or chronic pancreatic and/or biliary diseases [4]. We report an additional case of air in the Wirsung duct; in the present case, we also observed the presence of air in the duct of Santorini .

  17. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  18. DUCT RETROFIT STRATEGY TO COMPLEMENT A MODULATING FURNACE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2002-10-02

    Some recent work (Walker 2001, Andrews 2002) has indicated that installing a modulating furnace in a conventional duct system may, in many cases, result in a significant degradation in thermal distribution efficiency. The fundamental mechanism was pointed out nearly two decades ago (Andrews and Krajewski 1985). The problem occurs in duct systems that are less-than-perfectly insulated (e.g., R-4 duct wrap) and are located outside the conditioned space. It stems from the fact that when the airflow rate is reduced, as it will be when the modulating furnace reduces its heat output rate, the supply air will have a longer residence time in the ducts and will therefore lose a greater percentage of its heat by conduction than it did at the higher airflow rate. The impact of duct leakage, on the other hand, is not expected to change very much under furnace modulation. The pressures in the duct system will be reduced when the airflow rate is reduced, thus reducing the leakage per unit time. This is balanced by the fact that the operating time will increase in order to meet the same heating load as with the conventional furnace operating at higher output and airflow rates. The balance would be exact if the exponent in the pressure vs. airflow equation were the same as that in the pressure vs. duct leakage equation. Since the pressure-airflow exponent is usually {approx}0.5 and the pressure-leakage exponent is usually {approx}0.6, the leakage loss as a fraction of the load should be slightly lower for the modulating furnace. The difference, however, is expected to be small, determined as it is by a function with an exponent equal to the difference between the above two exponents, or {approx}0.1. The negative impact of increased thermal conduction losses from the duct system may be partially offset by improved efficiency of the modulating furnace itself. Also, the modulating furnace will cycle on and off less often than a single-capacity model, and this may add a small amount

  19. Evaporation duct occurrences in the northeast Atlantic during late summer

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Thomas Edwin

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Analyses and interpretation of surface layer and synoptic-scale data obtained in the Northwest Atlantic were performed to obtain descriptions of the evaporation duct and associated atmospheric and oceanic synoptic features. The surface layer data were quite unique because they were obtained from high quality measurements from ships spatially separated in a fixed array. Magnitudes and horizontal homogeneity of duct heights were compar...

  20. Lidar description of the evaporative duct in ocean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willitsford, Adam; Philbrick, C. R.

    2005-08-01

    The description of radar propagation in the presence of the evaporation duct has proven to be a difficult problem in both littoral and open ocean environments. To properly characterize the propagation of a radar beam at low elevation angles, the evaporation duct must be located and scattering properties quantified. The two key elements defining an evaporation duct are the gradients in density and specific humidity. The gradients of the neutral density are determined from the rotational Raman temperature profile. The profile of water vapor is measured directly from the vibrational Raman scattered returns. High spatial resolution and high temporal resolution measurements of water vapor and temperature are required to accurately describe the evaporation duct. Raman lidar techniques can provide these measurements continuously with high accuracy and high resolution so the development of the evaporation duct can be studied. A detailed simulation of a Raman lidar has been developed and applied to a near horizontal path, to examine the expected accuracy for high vertical resolution profiles. The simulation also allows various atmospheric scenarios to be investigated and analyzed. The evaporation duct is an atmospheric phenomenon that causes radar propagation to remain trapped in the surface layer. The duct can be thought of as a waveguide that bends and reflects the radar beam along a path effectively trapping it and guiding it over long distances. This is a major problem for radar propagation paths in both littoral and open ocean environments. Moreover, ducting skews details of radar returns such that radar objects are hidden, or are detected at unexpected distances, or may appear with apparent cross-sections and speeds much different than their actual values.

  1. Female form of persistent mullerian duct syndrome: Rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS is a rare form of Disorder of sex development in which Mullerian duct derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus and the proximal vagina are present in an otherwise normally differentiated 46 XY male. In the majority of cases, PMDS is a surprise finding either during orchidopexy or during inguinal hernia repair. We report a case of 4 year child with female type (Type III PMDS. We are discussing the presentation, management and review of the literature.

  2. Bilateral Endoscopic Endonasal Marsupialization of Nasopalatine Duct Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Yohei Honkura; Kazuhiro Nomura; Hidetoshi Oshima; Yusuke Takata; Hiroshi Hidaka; Yukio Katori

    2015-01-01

    Nasopalatine duct cysts are the most common non-odontogenic cysts in the maxilla, and are conventionally treated through a sublabial or palatine approach. Recently, the endoscopic approach has been used, but experience is extremely limited. We treated a 29-year-old male with nasopalatine duct cyst by endoscopic marsupialization, but paresthesia of the incisor region occurred after surgery. This paresthesia gradually remitted within 6 months. The nasopalatine nerve, which innervates the upper ...

  3. Rare Bilateral Nasopalatine Duct Cysts: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Cicciù, Marco; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Borgonovo, Andrea; Santoro, Giacomo; Pallotti, Francesco; Maiorana, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC) is the most common of the non-odontogenic cyst of the jaws. This cysts are usually central or unilateral with no prevalence of side occurrence. The NPDC is the most frequent developmental, nonodontogenic cyst of the jaws. This cyst originates from epithelial remnants from the nasopalatine duct. The cells could be activated spontaneously during life, or are eventually stimulated by the irritating action of various agents (infection, etc.). Generally, patients ...

  4. Biliary Metal Stent as a Nidus for Bile Duct Stone

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Young Koog; Moon, Jong Ho; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Yun Soo; Lee, Moon Sung; Shim, Chan Sup

    2002-01-01

    Several cases of recurrent stone formation caused by a surgical material as a nidus have been reported. Recently, we experienced one case in which a migrated metal stent might have been served as a nidus for common duct stone formation. The diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP, the stone was successfully removed with endoscopic therapy. Six years ago, she had undergone a lithotripsy using a percutaneous cholangioscopy (PTCS) because of intrahepatic cile duct stoes. Six years later, she developed a...

  5. Pancreatitis complicating mucin-hypersecreting common bile duct adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panagiotis Katsinelos; George Basdanis; Grigorios Chatzimavroudis; Giorgia Karagiannoulou; Taxiarchis Katsinelos; George Paroutoglou; Basilios Papaziogas; George Paraskevas

    2006-01-01

    Villous adenomas of the bile ducts are extremely uncommon. We describe a 58-year-old man presenting with clinical signs and laboratory findings of acute pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice. Preoperative investigation demonstrated a dilated papillary orifice with mucus exiting (fish-mouth sign) and a filling defect in the distal common bile duct. He underwent a modified Whipple operation and histological examination of the surgical specimen showed villous adenoma with rich secretion of mucus.

  6. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  7. Numerical techniques in linear duct acoustics - A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented covering both finite difference and finite element analysis of small amplitude (linear) sound propagation in straight and variable area ducts with flow, as might be found in a typical turbojet engine duct, muffer, or industrial ventilation system. Both 'steady' state and transient theories are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advantages and limitations associated with the various numerical techniques. Examples of practical problems are given for which the numerical techniques have been applied.

  8. Numerical Modeling of a Ducted Rocket Combustor With Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The present work was conducted with the intent of developing a high-fidelity numerical model of a unique combustion flow problem combining multi-phase fuel injection with substantial momentum and temperature into a highly complex turbulent flow. This important problem is very different from typical and more widely known liquid fuel combustion problems and is found in practice in pulverized coal combustors and ducted rocket ramjets. As the ducted rocket engine cycle is only now finding wides...

  9. Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de; Rosier, Vitor Veloso; Luz, Tovar Vicente; Verde, Raquel Crisóstomo Lima; Lima, Clara Mônica Figueiredo de; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and t...

  10. Endoscopic Ultrasonography Assessment for Ampullary and Bile Duct Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Q. L. Zhang; Nian, W. D.; Zhang, L. P.; Liang, J. Y.

    1996-01-01

    From 1989 through 1992, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was undertaken preoperatively to evaluate the extent of primary tumor, involvement of regional lymph nodes, and distant metastases in 22 patients with ampullary carcinoma and 18 patients with bile duct carcinoma. The results were compared with histopathological findings according to the TNM staging system. The accurate rate in assessing the extent of cancer invasion was 82% for ampullary carcinoma, 66% for common hepatic duct carcinoma,...

  11. Air in the Wirsung Duct. An Unusual Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Brindisi; Lucia Calculli; Riccardo Casadei; Raffaele Pezzilli

    2008-01-01

    Air in the pancreas is frequently reported to be associated with an abscess or a pancreatic fistula but has also been demonstrated in normal pancreatic glands. Air in the Wirsung duct has been reported in three pediatric patients with duodenal obstruction [1], in a child with biliary and pancreatic ascariasis with liver abscesses and a pancreatic pseudocyst [2], in an adult patient with cystic dilatation of the main pancreatic duct limited to the head [3], and in 11 patients with various acut...

  12. Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Bing Ou; Jian-Ping Gong; Sheng-Wei Li; Chang-An Liu; Bing Tu; Chuan-Xin Wu; Xiong Ding; Zuo-Jin Liu; Ke Sun; Hu-Yi Feng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the widespread adoption of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in the late 1980s, a rise in common bile duct (CBD) injury has been reported. We analyzed the factors contributing to a record of zero CBD injuries in 10 000 consecutive LCs. METHODS: The retrospective investigation included 10 000 patients who underwent LC from July 1992 to June 2007. LC was performed by 4 teams of surgeons. The chief main surgeon of each team has had over 10 years of experience in hepatobiliary surgery. Calot's triangle was carefully dissected, and the relationship of the cystic duct to the CBD and common hepatic duct was clearly identiifed. A clip was applied to the cystic duct at the neck of the gallbladder and the duct was incised with scissors proximal to the clip. The cystic artery was dissected by the same method. Then, the gallbladder was dissected from its liver bed. A drain was routinely left at the gallbladder bed for 1-2 days postoperatively. RESULTS: No CBD injuries occurred in 10 000 consecutive LCs, and there were 16 duct leaks (0.16%). Among these, there were 10 Luschka duct leaks (0.1%) and 6 cystic duct leaks (0.06%). Four hundred thirty cases were converted to open cholecystectomy (OC), giving a conversion rate of 4.3%. After a mean follow-up of 17.5 months (range 6-24 months), no postoperative death due to LC occurred, and good results were observed in 95% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our 10 000 LCs with zero CBD injuries, the techniques used and practices at our department have been successful. Surgeon's expertise in biliary surgery,preoperative imaging, precise operative procedures, and conversion from LC to OC when needed are important measures to prevent CBD injuries.

  13. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  14. Renal Collecting Duct Cancer: a Report of 2 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiying Zhou

    2005-01-01

    @@ Renal collecting duct cancer is a rare malignant tumor, which accounts for 1% to 2% of epithelial kidney tumors,[1] Its pathological appearance has been easily misdiagnosed as a mammilliform renal cell carcinoma or as other tumors. The malignancy of renal collecting duct cancer is high, with early metastasis and poor prognosis. The clinical data for 2 cases of the tumor are discussed in this report, including reports on the histopathology and the changes in immunohistochemistry.

  15. Bile duct cyst in adults: Interventional treatment, resection, or transplantation?

    OpenAIRE

    Herwig Cerwenka

    2013-01-01

    Cystic dilatations of the bile ducts may be found along the extrahepatic biliary tree, within the liver, or in both of these locations simultaneously. Presentation in adults is often associated with complications. The therapeutic possibilities have changed considerably over the last few decades. If possible, complete resection of the cyst(s) can cure the symptoms and avoid the risk of malignancy. According to the type of bile duct cyst, surgical procedures include the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejuno...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF A VARIABLE GEOMETRY DUCTED PROPELLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Muszyński

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents preliminary results of experimental research on the variable geometry of a ducted propeller. The purpose of this work is explore the area of ​​application of the ducted propellers of variable geometry. The paper contains the description of a test station and a model, initial tests’ results of some selected geometries intakes and exit vents in comparison with an open propeller.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF A VARIABLE GEOMETRY DUCTED PROPELLER

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Muszyński; Piotr Strzelczyk

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary results of experimental research on the variable geometry of a ducted propeller. The purpose of this work is explore the area of ​​application of the ducted propellers of variable geometry. The paper contains the description of a test station and a model, initial tests’ results of some selected geometries intakes and exit vents in comparison with an open propeller.

  18. Ducted propeller performance analysis using a boundary element model

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore, Francesco; Calcagni, Danilo; Greco, Luca

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the computational analysis of the unviscid flow around a ducted propeller using a BEM model. The activity is performed in the framework of a research program co-funded by the European Union under the "SUPERPROP" Project TST4-CT-2005-516219. The theoretical and computational methodology is described and results of a validation excercise on several test cases is presented and discussed. In particular, the proposed formulation is applied to the analysis of ducted propellers...

  19. Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Extrahepatic Bile Duct: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sin Hyung; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Kim, Anna; Cha, Sang Woo; Jung, Sung Hee; Go, Hoon; Lee, Woong Chul

    2007-01-01

    Most malignant tumors originating from the biliary tract are adenocarcinomas, and adenosqamous carcinoma of Klatskin's tumor is a very rare finding. An 83-yr-old man was admitted to our hospital because of jaundice. The abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed wall thickening and luminal stenosis of both the intrahepatic duct confluent portion and the common hepatic duct. These findings were compatible with Klatskin's tumor, Bismuth type III. Cons...

  20. BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON Fasciola hepatica AND CATTLE BILIARY DUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of bacteria in Fasciola hepatica and into cattle biliary ducts containing the parasite. A total of 24 liver and 58 F. hepatica samples were analysed. In all biliary ducts and in 62,06% of parasite Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. The bacterial specie more frequently isolated from parasite were Citrobacter freundii (34%), Proteus mirabilis (18%), Providencia rettgeri (12%), Staphylococcus spp. (18%), Enterobacter spp. (12%). There doesn&r...

  1. Benign disease of the common bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R; Pradeep, R; Chander, J; Kumar, P; Wig, J D; Yadav, R V; Kaushik, S P

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of common bile duct (CBD) pathology in a group of patients with benign biliary disease (n = 505) was found to be 23.2 per cent. The spectrum included 111 patients (90.2 per cent) with CBD stones, 37 of whom (33.3 per cent) had no symptoms or findings pre-operatively indicating CBD involvement. Five patients had papillary stenosis, three had postoperative CBD strictures, one had a choledochal cyst and one had an external biliary fistula. Of the 100 CBDs measuring more than 10 mm in diameter, 90 harboured calculi. In the remaining 23 CBDs measuring less than 10 mm, calculi were present in 21. The presence of CBD calculi was demonstrated by intra-operative cholangiography in 49 patients. In the remaining patients (n = 74), the diagnosis of CBD pathology was made either by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography, T-tube cholangiography or peroperative palpation. The surgical procedures performed included choledochotomy and T-tube drainage (n = 74), transduodenal sphincteroplasty (n = 27) and choledochoduodenostomy (n = 18). The overall mortality and morbidity of CBD exploration was 3.3 per cent and 24.4 per cent respectively, which was significantly greater than that for cholecystectomy alone (0.3 per cent and 8.6 per cent respectively). Transduodenal sphincteroplasty carried a much higher mortality (11 per cent) and morbidity (52 per cent) when compared with other procedures. PMID:3167536

  2. Biliary reconstruction with right hepatic lobectomy due to delayed management of laparoscopic bile duct injuries: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ota T

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case requiring biliary reconstruction with right hepatic lobectomy due to biliary strictures caused by continuous cholangitis after laparoscopic bile duct injury. The patient, a 55-year-old woman, underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis at another hospital. Although a bile leakage from the intraabdominal drain was observed several days after the operation, the patient was not given adequate treatment to stop the leakage. Two months after the initial laparoscopic cholecystectomy, she was referred to our hospital. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP showed complete obstruction of the common hepatic duct, which was caused by clipping during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cholangiography from percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD catheters revealed that sections of the secondary branches of the right intrahepatic bile duct had become constricted due to persistent cholangitis. Fortunately, the left hepatic duct was judged to be normal by imaging. Therefore, we elected to perform a right hepatic lobectomy and left hepaticojejunostomy, because we felt that performing a hepaticojejunostomy without hepatic resection would put the patient at risk of continuing to suffer from cholangitis. The patient was discharged on the 55 th postoperative day, and, 5 years after reconstructive surgery, is healthy and has remained free from biliary strictures in the remnant liver. Appropriate decision-making is essential in the treatment of biliary injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgeons should not hesitate to perform biliary reconstruction with hepatic resection to reduce the risk of cholangitis or biliary strictures of the remnant liver. More importantly, preoperative clear imaging of the biliary tree and suitable management of any biliary injury which might occur are necessary to avoid having to perform reconstructive surgery.

  3. Remote sensing of evaporation ducts for Naval warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geernaert, G. L.

    1989-11-01

    Areas critical to naval operations are the prediction and application of atmospheric refractivity gradients. This report describes the use of the evaporation duct over the ocean and a plan for obtaining information about the evaporation duct by space-borne sensors. There has been little research on the theory and modeling of lower atmospheric refractivity, particularly evaporation ducts over a nonhomogeneous ocean over the past five decades. Much is known about surface layer similarity theory and propagation model techniques, but little attention has been placed on the spatial variabilities in the turbulent propagation medium (such as the atmospheric surface layer) in regions of strategic Navy interest. These regions include the coastal shelf, Gulf Stream, marginal ice zone, and those places where sharp sea surface temperature fronts exist. For tomorrow's Navy, using remote sensing techniques to infer evaporative and tropospheric ducts are a requirement. Although research efforts on ducts must couple the tropospheric and surface layer components, this report summarizes the state of the art for the evaporative duct and assess the potential of new and future results on improving next generation naval warfare capabilities.

  4. A New Model of the Oceanic Evaporation Duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Steven M.; Young, George S.; Carton, James A.

    1997-03-01

    Failure to consider anomalous propagation of microwave radiation in the troposphere may result in erroneous meteorological radar measurements. The most commonly occurring anomalous propagation phenomenon over the ocean is the evaporation duct. The height of this duct is dependent on atmospheric variables and is a major input to microwave propagation prediction models. This evaporation duct height is determined from an evaporation duct model using bulk measurements. Two current evaporation duct models in widespread operational use are examined. We propose and test a new model that addresses deficiencies in these two models. The new model uses recently refined bulk similarity expressions developed for the determination of the ocean surface energy budget in the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. Comparison of these models is made using data collected from a boat off Wallops Island, Virginia, during a range of seasons and weather conditions and from the tidal Potomac River during June and August. Independent evaporation duct height determinations are made using profile measurements from the same boat and are corroborated with fade measurements made with a nearby microwave link whenever possible. The proposed model performs better than the other (operational) models for the cases examined and has advantages of internal consistency.

  5. [Thoracic duct valves in man and albino rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, V M; Kruglov, S V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the number, structure and position of valves along the whole length of thoracic duct in man and albino rat. The study was performed using the material obtained from 30 human corpses of men and women aged 17 to 60 years with no history of cardiovascular pathology and from 60 outbred albino rats of both sexes aged 5 to 12 months. Material was fixed in 10% neutral formalin. Anterior wall of thoracic duct was longitudinally dissected. Thoracic duct of 30 rats was stained with gallocyanin-chrome alum, in the remaining animals it was studied after its injection with blue Gerota's mass. In most cases, the valves consisted of two semilunar cusps. Thoracic duct was found to contain on the average 14.7+/-0.2 valves in man and 11.9+/-0.2 valves in rat. Most of all valves were found in the upper (anterior) 1/3 of the thoracic duct, least--in its middle part. This seems to be determined by anatomo-topographic features of the different parts of thoracic duct. PMID:15839250

  6. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  7. Collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney: CT and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seong Kuk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 1, 3-Ga, Dongdaesin-Dong, Seo-Ku, Busan (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cerub@chollian.net; Nam, Kyung Jin [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 1, 3-Ga, Dongdaesin-Dong, Seo-Ku, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Seo-Hee [Department of Pathology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Kon [Department of Radiology, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoung-Sik [Department of Radiology, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bohyun [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kie Hwan [Department of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung-Ah [Department of Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: We characterized CT findings of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney and correlated these with the histopathologic findings. Materials and methods: CT scans of 18 patients with pathologically proven collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed CT findings of collecting duct carcinoma and also correlated CT findings with the histopathologic findings. Results: The mean size of the tumors was 6.9 cm and all cases were solid. Seventeen (94%) tumors had a medullary location. Nine (69%) and 11 (85%) cases showed weak and heterogeneous enhancement, respectively. A cystic component (50%) was frequently seen within the tumors. Lymphadenopathy and metastasis were noted in 10 (56%) and 6 (33%) cases, respectively. Perinephric stranding and vascular invasion were present in 10 (56%) and 5 (28%) cases, respectively. In 17 (94%) of the 18 cases, involvement of the renal sinus was present. Infiltrative growth (67%) and preservation of the renal contour (61%) were more common than expansile growth (33%) and exophytic configuration (39%), respectively. These CT features were well correlated with the histopathologic findings. Conclusion: Medullary location, weak and heterogeneous enhancement, involvement of the renal sinus, infiltrative growth, preserved renal contour, and a cystic component are CT findings frequently seen in patients with collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney. CT findings are nevertheless nonspecific and do not allow collecting duct carcinoma to be easily differentiated from the other subtypes of renal cell carcinoma. However, when CT demonstrates a renal tumor with these findings, collecting duct carcinoma can be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  8. Application of post-buckling theory to HVAC duct design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventionally, HVAC duct spans range from 8 feet 0 inches to 10 feet 0 inches. However, a utilization of duct panel post-buckling strength allows the use of significantly larger spans for Seismic Class I rectangular ducts. Duct behavior is better described when sheet panel post-buckling behavior is taken into consideration. The thin panel due to its large h/t of w/t ratio is unable to remain fully effective during the entire loading history. As the loading is applied, it may undergo local instability due to either excessive compressive stress, shear stress, or a combination thereof. However, such local instability does not constitute overall failure as duct panel post-buckling behavior is stable. Duct corner chords in conjunction with the transverse reinforcing stiffeners and the web panels develop a pratt truss-like behavior, capable of maintaining post-buckling stability. Once bifurcation of the web due to shear has occurred, the tension-field action in the web develops a band of tensile forces. Equilibrium is maintained by the transfer of stress to the transverse stiffeners and the adjacent panel chords. As a result of the application of the post-buckling method, HVAC hangers required by a conventional analysis can be reduced by up to 50 percent

  9. An evaporation duct prediction model coupled with the MM5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lin; ZHANG Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation duct is an abnormal refractive phenomenon in the marine atmosphere boundary layer. It has been generally accepted that the evaporation duct prominently affects the performance of the electronic equipment over the sea because of its wide distribution and frequent occurrence. It has become a research focus of the navies all over the world. At present, the diagnostic models of the evaporation duct are all based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, with only differences in the flux and character scale calculations in the surface layer. These models are applicable to the stationary and uniform open sea areas without considering the alongshore effect. This paper introduces the nonlinear factorav and the gust wind itemwg into the Babin model, and thus extends the evaporation duct diagnostic model to the offshore area under extremely low wind speed. In addition, an evaporation duct prediction model is designed and coupled with the fifth generation mesoscale model (MM5). The tower observational data and radar data at the Pingtan island of Fujian Province on May 25–26, 2002 were used to validate the forecast results. The outputs of the prediction model agree with the observations from 0 to 48 h. The relative error of the predicted evaporation duct height is 19.3% and the prediction results are consistent with the radar detection.

  10. WAVE PROPAGATION in the HOT DUCT of VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz; Jim C. P. Liou

    2013-07-01

    In VHTR, helium from the reactor vessel is conveyed to a power conversion unit through a hot duct. In a hypothesized Depressurized Conduction Cooldown event where a rupture of the hot duct occurs, pressure waves will be initiated and reverberate in the hot duct. A numerical model is developed to quantify the transients and the helium mass flux through the rupture for such events. The flow path of the helium forms a closed loop but only the hot duct is modeled in this study. The lower plum of the reactor vessel and the steam generator are treated as specified pressure and/or temperature boundary to the hot duct. The model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and on the equations of state for helium. The numerical solution is based on the method of characteristics with specified time intervals with a predictor and corrector algorithm. The rupture sub-model gives reasonable results. Transients induced by ruptures with break area equaling 20%, 10%, and 5% of the duct cross-sectional area are described.

  11. Mullerian duct cyst misdiagnosed as ovarian cyst: a rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alpana Singh; Sneha Shree; Vandana Mishra; Gita Radhakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    The Mullerian duct cyst is a remnant of the caudal ends of the fused embryologic paramesonephric ducts (or Mullerian ducts). Preoperative distinction of ovarian cyst from a Mullerian duct cyst is important and is based on visualization of the ipsilateral ovary separate from the mass. Mullerian duct cysts may also be mistaken as paratubal, paraovarian or peritoneal inclusion cysts and hydrosalpinx. Thus, preoperative diagnosis of Mullerian cyst of the uterus can be very challenging. However, w...

  12. Branching problems of unitary representations

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The irreducible decomposition of a unitary representation often contains continuous spectrum when restricted to a non-compact subgroup. The author singles out a nice class of branching problems where each irreducible summand occurs discretely with finite multiplicity (admissible restrictions). Basic theory and new perspectives of admissible restrictions are presented from both analytic and algebraic view points. We also discuss some applications of admissible restrictions to modular varieties...

  13. Cash efficiency for bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks’ branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...

  14. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Creep of welded branched pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Creep failure of welds in high-temperature power plant steam piping systems is known to be a potential cause of plant failure. Creep behaviour of plain pipes with circumferential welds and cross-weld specimens have received fairly extensive attention. However, research into the creep behaviour of welded thick-walled branched steam pipes has received less attention. Consequently, this thesis addresses improving the understanding of the creep behaviour for this type of geometry. Numerical and a...

  16. Interactions between Axillary Branches of Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veronica Ongaro; Katherine Bainbridge; Lisa Williamson; Ottoline Leyser

    2008-01-01

    Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean,in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches.In these two-branch shoots,a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other,prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals,which are still poorly understood.Here,we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis,using consecutive branches on the bolting stem.As with the classical studies in pea and bean,these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth.Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch,but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch,illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals.Using mutants,we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch,the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak,and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem.

  17. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  18. Effects of Duct Cross Section Camber and Thickness on the Performance of Ducted Propulsion Systems for Aeronautical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Bontempo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The axisymmetric flow field around a ducted rotor is thoroughly analysed by means of a nonlinear and semi-analytical model which is able to deal with some crucial aspects of shrouded systems like the interaction between the rotor and the duct, and the slipstream contraction and rotation. Not disregarding the more advanced CFD based methods, the proposed procedure is characterised by a very low computational cost that makes it very appealing as analysis tool in the preliminary steps of a design procedure of hierarchical type. The work focuses on the analysis of the effects of the camber and thickness of the duct cross section onto the performance of the device. It has been found that an augmentation of both camber and thickness of the duct leads to an increase of the propulsive ideal efficiency.

  19. Anomalies of the bile ducts: a case report of direct drain of the cystic duct into the papilla of Vater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct drain of the cystic duct and drain of the biliary tract through an internal fistula into the duodenum in a 81-year-old man were endoscopically diagnosed without an operation.

  20. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Multiplicity and Stability of Mixed Convection in Rotating Curved Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liqiu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is made on the fully developed bifurcation structure and stability of the mixed convection in rotating curved ducts of square cross-section with the emphasis on the effect of buoyancy force. The rotation can be positive or negative. The fluid can be heated or cooled. The study reveals the rich solution and flow structures and complicated stability features. One symmetric and two symmetric/asymmetric solution branches are found with seventy five limit points and fourteen bifurcation points. The flows on these branches can be symmetric, asymmetric, 2-cell, and up to 14-cell structures. Dynamic responses of the multiple solutions to finite random disturbances are examined by the direct transient computation. It is found that possible physically realizable fully developed flows evolve, as the variation of buoyancy force, from a stable steady multicell state at a large buoyancy force of cooling to the coexistence of three stable steady multicell states, a temporal periodic oscillation state, the coexistence of periodic oscillation and chaotic oscillation, a chaotic temporal oscillation, a subharmonic-bifurcation-driven asymmetric oscillating state, and a stable steady 2-cell state at large buoyancy force of heating.

  2. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: interest of IV secretin administration in the evaluation of pancreatic ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicaise, N.; Pellet, O.; Metens, T.; Braude, P.; Struyven, J.; Matos, C. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Deviere, J. [Department of Gastroenterology, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether IV secretin administration is useful to enhance the delineation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and its side branches, and if it provides additional information concerning signal voids and strictures. Twenty-seven patients referred for abdominal pain or laboratory abnormalities (group 1, n = 13) or for the follow-up of chronic pancreatitis (CP; group 2, n = 14) were studied. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was acquired at 1.5 T before and after IV secretin by a coronal 3D TSE T2-weighted sequence with maximum intensity projection postprocessing. In group 1 secretin provided a better visualization of MPD in 9 patients. In a patient with pancreas divisum, it allowed suggestion of stenosis of the accessory papilla, confirmed at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In group 2 secretin provided a better visualization of MPD only in the 3 patients with mild disease. A mild dilation upstream a stricture occurred in 2 cases and a marked dilation appeared upstream a wallstent which was non-patent at ERCP. Few changes were noticed concerning side branches. These preliminary results indicate that in patients without CP, secretin improves MPD delineation avoiding invasive diagnostic ERCP. In patients with mild CP secretin does not improve the characterization of signal voids, but it may be useful to appreciate their significance and to follow-up stenosis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 24 refs.

  3. Isolation and characterization of portal branch ligation-stimulated Hmga2-positive bipotent hepatic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroshi [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B51, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Tagawa, Yoh-ichi, E-mail: ytagawa@bio.titech.ac.jp [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B51, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tamai, Miho [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B51, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Motoyama, Hiroaki [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Ogawa, Shinichiro [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); McEwen Center for Regenerative Medicine, University Health Network, 190 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 2C4 (Canada); Soeda, Junpei; Nakata, Takenari; Miyagawa, Shinichi [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Hepatic progenitor cells were isolated from the portal branch-ligated liver of mice. {yields} Portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic progenitor cells (PBLHCs) express Hmga2. {yields} PBLHCs have bidirectional differentiation capability in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic stem/progenitor cells are one of several cell sources that show promise for restoration of liver mass and function. Although hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), including oval cells, are induced by administration of certain hepatotoxins in experimental animals, such a strategy would be inappropriate in a clinical setting. Here, we investigated the possibility of isolating HPCs in a portal branch-ligated liver model without administration of any chemical agents. A non-parenchymal cell fraction was prepared from the portal branch-ligated or non-ligated lobe, and seeded onto plates coated with laminin. Most of the cells died, but a small number were able to proliferate. These proliferating cells were cloned as portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic cells (PBLHCs) by the limiting dilution method. The PBLHCs expressed cytokeratin19, albumin, and Hmga2. The PBLHCs exhibited metabolic functions such as detoxification of ammonium ions and synthesis of urea on Matrigel-coated plates in the presence of oncostatin M. In Matrigel mixed with type I collagen, the PBLHCs became rearranged into cystic and tubular structures. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Hmga2-positive cells around the interlobular bile ducts in the portal branch-ligated liver lobes. In conclusion, successful isolation of bipotent hepatic progenitor cell clones, PBLHCs, from the portal branch-ligated liver lobes of mice provides the possibility of future clinical application of portal vein ligation to induce hepatic progenitor cells.

  4. Effects of Duct Cross Section Camber and Thickness on the Performance of Ducted Propulsion Systems for Aeronautical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Bontempo; Marcello Manna

    2016-01-01

    The axisymmetric flow field around a ducted rotor is thoroughly analysed by means of a nonlinear and semi-analytical model which is able to deal with some crucial aspects of shrouded systems like the interaction between the rotor and the duct, and the slipstream contraction and rotation. Not disregarding the more advanced CFD based methods, the proposed procedure is characterised by a very low computational cost that makes it very appealing as analysis tool in the preliminary steps of a desig...

  5. Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Velasco, Miguel; Martinez, Rodrigo; Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Contains papers presented at the Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications (WBPA09), held in Badajoz, Spain, April 20-23, 2009, which deal with theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory

  6. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  7. Estimating evaporation duct heights from radar sea echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. Ted; Hattan, Claude P.; Stapleton, Janet K.

    2000-07-01

    The evaporation duct is a downward refracting layer that results from the rapid decrease in humidity with respect to altitude occurring in the atmospheric surface layer above bodies of water. The evaporation duct affects radar detection ranges at frequencies of approximately 1 GHz and above. Models based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory are usually used to calculate evaporation duct refractivity profiles from bulk measurements of air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and the sea surface temperature. Modeling results by Pappert et al. [1992] indicated that the falloff of radar sea echo as a function of range was an increasing function of the evaporation duct height. On the basis of those results, the authors proposed inferring the evaporation duct height by a slope fit to modeled clutter power, a nonlinear least squares inversion procedure. Data for testing the inversion procedure were obtained using the S band Space Range Radar at Wallops Island, Virginia. Evaporation duct heights were inferred from the radar data on the basis of the assumption of a range-independent evaporation duct height and sea clutter radar cross section (σ°). Validation data consist of buoy and boat in situ bulk measurements. The result of comparing the radar-inferred evaporation duct heights and those calculated from bulk measurements indicates that the radar-inferred duct heights are strongly correlated with those from the in situ measurements, but there is some uncertainty as to whether they are biased or unbiased. That uncertainty arises from the assumed dependence of σ° on the grazing angle ψ. That dependence is currently a matter of debate in the open literature, with the lower and upper ends of modeling results being σ° ∝ ψ0; and σ° ∝ ψ4, respectively. We show results for both dependencies and note that the σ° ∝ ψ0; provides the best agreement with our measurements. It should be noted that inferring the evaporation duct height from radar sea echo is a problem

  8. An incidence study on thyroglossal duct cysts in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the incidence of the asymptomatic thyroglossal duct anomalies and to review the literature and make comments on the significance of this condition. A total of 80 cadavers were dissected in the present study. This study was carried out during 2005, where the cadavers were randomly included from the criminal laboratories of the Ministry of Justice, Republic of Turkey in Istanbul. None of the cadavers had laryngeal and cervical injuries resulting from a trauma or the cause of their death. The examined cadavers included 59 men and 21 females, and their ages were ranged from 35-80 years old. The larynges were removed and fixed in 10% formalin and then dissected. The sections were examined using surgical SMZ 10 Nikon stereomicroscope. We evaluated the presence, localization and diameter of the cysts with regard to age and sex of the cadavers. We observed a total of 12 different localization of thyroglossal ducts and cysts among the 80 dissected cadavers. Ten of these ducts cysts were found in males with an age range of 35-68 years and 2 female cadavers aged 45-65 years. In 6 cases, the thyroglossal ducts and cysts were located in the left of the midline of the neck, while 3 cases were from the right of the midline, and the remaining was located on the midline of the neck. In all cases, thryoglossal ducts and cysts were complete and restricted to the infrahyoid region: all of them had connection with the hyoid bone, but not with the perichondrium of the cartilage. In addition, the thyroglossal ducts have connection with the left lobe of the thyroid glands in 3 cases, one case in the right lobe, and 2 cases with the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Finally in 5 cases thyroglossal ducts were complete and had well developed cysts. Thyroglossal duct remnants are one of the most often seen congenital asymptomatic masses of the neck region (7%). The presence of these duct remnants may lead to abnormal phonation and epithelial carcinomas. Therefore, correlation of

  9. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  10. Ret and Etv4 Promote Directed Movements of Progenitor Cells during Renal Branching Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Riccio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfrα1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive knowledge of the genetic control of these events, it is not understood, at the cellular level, how renal branching morphogenesis is achieved or how Ret signaling influences epithelial cell behaviors to promote this process. Analysis of chimeric embryos previously suggested a role for Ret signaling in promoting cell rearrangements in the nephric duct, but this method was unsuited to study individual cell behaviors during ureteric bud branching. Here, we use Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM, combined with organ culture and time-lapse imaging, to trace the movements and divisions of individual ureteric bud tip cells. We first examine wild-type clones and then Ret or Etv4 mutant/wild-type clones in which the mutant and wild-type sister cells are differentially and heritably marked by green and red fluorescent proteins. We find that, in normal kidneys, most individual tip cells behave as self-renewing progenitors, some of whose progeny remain at the tips while others populate the growing UB trunks. In Ret or Etv4 MADM clones, the wild-type cells generated at a UB tip are much more likely to remain at, or move to, the new tips during branching and elongation, while their Ret-/- or Etv4-/- sister cells tend to lag behind and contribute only to the trunks. By tracking successive mitoses in a cell lineage, we find that Ret signaling has little effect on proliferation, in contrast to its effects on cell movement. Our results show that Ret

  11. Clinical analysis of 78 patients with intraductal papilloma lesions of the breast%乳腺导管内乳头状瘤78例诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄信; 王宁霞

    2016-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic methods of intraductal pa-pillary lesions of the breast.Methods:The clinical data of 78 patients who had been pathologically diag-nosed as having intraductal papilloma from January 2011 to December 2014 were analyzed retrospective-ly.Patients were divided into intraductal papilloma and intraductal papillomas groups according to the re-sults of the final paraffin pathology.Results:(1 )The composition of starting symptoms in both groups had significant differences,the peripheral intraductal papilloma starting symptoms also with hemorrhagic discharge or areola nodule,peripheral intraductal papilloma starting symptom is not obvious (P 0.05).Conclusion:(1 )The main clinical characteristic of intraductal papilloma is nipple dis-charge and breast lumps;segment resection surgery is the most commonly used surgical procedure;(2) peripheral intraductal papilloma also with fibroadenoma,adenosis,atypical hyperplasia lesions in combi-nation.The US-guided Mammotome biopsy appears to be an effective treatment in intraductal papillomas patients.(3)Ultrasonography and mammography in the diagnosis of intraductal papilloma accuracy is low,ductal endoscopy has a high accuracy in diagnosis of inverted papilloma with nipple discharge.%目的:探讨导管内乳头状瘤的临床病理特点及诊断与治疗方法.方法:收集我院2011年1月至2014年12月收治的78例术后经病理证实为导管内乳头状瘤的病例,共78例,根据最终石蜡病理结果分为中央型导管内乳头状瘤与周围型导管内乳头状瘤病,分别对其首发症状、合并疾病、诊断方法、手术方式等进行分析.结果:(1)中央型导管内乳头状瘤与周围型乳头状瘤的首发症状在构成比上有显著性差异,中央型导管内乳头状瘤首发症状以乳头血性溢液或乳晕旁结节多见,周围型导管内乳头状瘤首发症状不明显,常因体检发现而就诊(P<0.05);(2)中央型导管内

  12. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, J M; Yegutkin, G G; Novak, I

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) channels, and corresponding transcripts were expressed in duct cells. Direct stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling and ethanol application had negligible effects on ATP release. The released ATP was sequentially dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting adenylate kinase (AK1) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) enzymes (NME1, 2), which contribute to metabolism and regeneration of extracellular ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, uridine diphosphate (UDP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)). In conclusion, we illustrate a complex regulation of extracellular purine homeostasis in a pancreatic duct cell model involving: ATP release by several mechanisms and subsequent nucleotide breakdown and ATP regeneration via counteracting nucleotide

  13. Stochastic Transition between Turbulent Branch and Thermodynamic Branch of an Inhomogeneous Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2002-01-01

    Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point an...

  14. Technical Note: Thoracic duct embolization for treatment of chylothorax: A novel guidance technique for puncture using combined MRI and fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alampath Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic duct embolization (TDE is an established radiological interventional procedure for thoracic duct injuries. Traditionally, it is done under fluoroscopic guidance after opacifying the thoracic duct with bipedal lymphangiography. We describe our experience in usinga heavily T2W sequence for guiding thoracic duct puncture and direct injection of glue through the puncture needle without cannulating the duct.

  15. Treatment of bile duct carcinoma using photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Biliary papillomatosis, is a rare, benign tumour characterised by extensive mucosal involvement of the bile duct with carcinoma in 30% of cases. Treatment has been largely limited to surgical resection and is often accompanied by tumour recurrence. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat a 64 year old man with mucous-secreting papillomatosis of the common bile hepatic duct which presented with obstructive jaundice and recurrent cholangitis. The successful use of PDT in treating a case of cholangiocarcinoma and the treatment of similar colonic villous tumours encourage the use of PDT in this patient. Porfimer Sodium (Photofrin), 2 mg/kg was given intravenously 64 hours prior to light exposure. A Spectra Physics argon-ion pumped dye laser was used to provide 50 mW of 630 nm wavelength light at a 3 cm long diffusing tip attached to a 3 m optical fibre. A power density of approximately 15 mW.cm-2 was provided at the tissue surface under illumination at a radial distance of approximately 1.8 mm from the diffusing tip. The dose was designed to give a necrosis depth of 3 mm. A transparent 3.6 mm outer diameter catheter was placed in the duct using fluoroscopy and the fibre and diffusing tip then manoeuvred into position. The transparent catheter was left in place during the treatment and forced a minimum inner diameter on the duct of 3.6 mm and also helped to centre the diffuser within the duct. Repeat endoscopy, 48 hours after treatment revealed little duct mucous; necrosed tissue was removed with a balloon catheter with significant increase in size of the duct lumen. Since then, the patient's bilirubin has remained normal. Repeat endoscopic cholangiography one month later has shown no diminution in the diameter of the bile duct. The use of Photodynamic Therapy in the biliary tree using endoscopic retrograde placement of light source is feasible and the results in this patient encourage a trial of its use in operable bile duct carcinoma

  16. Evaluation of simplified evaporation duct refractivity models for inversion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeger, J. T.; Grimes, N. G.; Rickard, H. E.; Hackett, E. E.

    2015-10-01

    To assess a radar system's instantaneous performance on any given day, detailed knowledge of the meteorological conditions is required due to the dependency of atmospheric refractivity on thermodynamic properties such as temperature, water vapor, and pressure. Because of the significant challenges involved in obtaining these data, recent efforts have focused on development of methods to obtain the refractivity structure inversely using radar measurements and radar wave propagation models. Such inversion techniques generally use simplified refractivity models in order to reduce the parameter space of the solution. Here the accuracy of three simple refractivity models is examined for the case of an evaporation duct. The models utilize the basic log linear shape classically associated with evaporation ducts, but each model depends on various parameters that affect different aspects of the profile, such as its shape and duct height. The model parameters are optimized using radiosonde data, and their performance is compared to these atmospheric measurements. The optimized models and data are also used to predict propagation using a parabolic equation code with the refractivity prescribed by the models and measured data, and the resulting propagation patterns are compared. The results of this study suggest that the best log linear model formulation for an inversion problem would be a two-layer model that contains at least three parameters: duct height, duct curvature, and mixed layer slope. This functional form permits a reasonably accurate fit to atmospheric measurements as well as embodies key features of the profile required for correct propagation prediction with as few parameters as possible.

  17. Guideline for design requirement on KALIMER driver fuel assembly duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes design requirements which are needs for designing the driver fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER as design guidance. The driver fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER consists of fuel rods, mounting rail, nosepiece, duct with pad, handling socket with pad. Fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with solid ferritic-martensitic steel rod and key way, fuel slug, cladding, and wire wrap. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array, and the rod bundle attaches to the nosepiece with mounting rails. The bottom end of the assembly duct is formed by a long nosepiece which provides the lower restraint function and the coolant inlet. It contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The design requirements are intended to be used for the design of the driver fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs

  18. The value of sonography in determining cystic duct patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, F P; Gibney, R G; Burhenne, H J

    1992-07-01

    A prospective blinded comparison of ultrasonography (US) and oral cholecystography (OCG) was performed in 100 patients with symptomatic gall-stones to determine whether US would enable an accurate assessment of cystic duct patency to be made. Patency of the cystic duct was defined as gall-bladder opacification on OCG or a greater than 20% decrease in gall-bladder volume by US post-fatty meal. The ellipsoid method of volume measurement was used. Any patient who had a non-opacified gall-bladder on OCG but a greater than 20% volume decrease on US had cholescintigraphy performed (DISIDA). Oral cholecystography demonstrated cystic duct patency in 88 patients (88%), and fatty-meal gall-bladder US met the specified study criteria for patency in 86 patients (86%). False negative results were identified in four of the OCG and in six of the US examinations. The results of this study indicate that gall-bladder sonography with a post-fatty meal contraction of greater than 20% is a very accurate predictor of cystic duct patency. A contraction of less than 20%, however, cannot be considered a reliable predictor of cystic duct occlusion. PMID:1643780

  19. Percutaneous lithotripsy for removing difficult bile duct stones using endoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Hyung; Sohn, Chul Ho; Kim, Young Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    To describe efficacy of percutaneous lithotripsy for removing difficult bile duct stones using endoscopy. A total of 88 patients with difficulties for the removal of bile duct stones using endoscopy (an impacted stone, stone size > 15 mm, intrahepatic duct (IHD) stone, stone size to bile duct diameter ratio > 1.0), were enrolled in this study. A 12 Fr sheath was inserted through the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tract, and then nitrol stone baskets and a 0.035' snare wire were used to capture, fragment and remove the stones. The technical and clinical success rates were analyzed, together with an analysis of any complications. The overall technical success rate of stone removal was achieved in 79 of 88 patients (89.8%). In five of nine patients with failed stone removal, small residual IHD stones were noted on a cholangiogram. Even if stone removal failed in these cases, cholangitic symptoms were improved and the drainage catheter was successfully removed. Therefore, clinical success was achieved in 84 of 88 patients (95.5%). There were no significant procedure-related complications, except for sepsis in one case. Billiary stone removal using the stone basket and guide-wire snare technique through the PTBD tract is a safe and effective procedure that can be used as a primary method in patients with difficulties for the removal of bile duct stones using endoscopy.

  20. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home program and California’s proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be installed within conditioned space or that other measures be taken to provide similar improvements in delivery effectiveness (DE). Pacific Gas & Electric Company commissioned a study to evaluate ducts in conditioned space and high-performance attics (HPAs) in support of the proposed codes and standards enhancements included in California’s 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards. The goal was to work with a select group of builders to design and install high-performance duct (HPD) systems, such as ducts in conditioned space (DCS), in one or more of their homes and to obtain test data to verify the improvement in DE compared to standard practice. Davis Energy Group (DEG) helped select the builders and led a team that provided information about HPD strategies to them. DEG also observed the construction process, completed testing, and collected cost data.

  1. Management of excluded segmental bile duct leakage following liver resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Charles; Vibert, Eric; Hoti, Emir; Azoulay, Daniel; Adam, René; Castaing, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postoperative bile leak secondary to a fistula is a known complication of hepatic surgery. Four different biliary fistula sub-types have been described: type A refers to minor leakage from the bile duct stump; type B to major leakage caused by insufficient closure of the bile duct stump; type C to major leakage caused by injury to the bile duct, and type D (the rarest) to the division and exclusion of a bile duct. This complication results from functional liver parenchyma in which bile drainage is excluded from the main duct. Methods: A retrospective review of the database for 163 patients diagnosed with post-hepatic surgery bile leak from April 1992 to June 2007 was performed. Results: Three patients were found to have type D biliary fistula, with durations of 3–21 months. The bile leak developed after a right hepatectomy in two patients and a right hepatectomy extending to segment IV in one patient. All three patients were rescheduled for surgical exploration, following failure of medical treatment. The procedure consisted of repeat resection of the independent liver parenchyma containing the fistula. One patient developed a postoperative leak from a hepaticojejunal anastomosis (treated conservatively) and the other two patients had an uneventful recovery. No recurrence of bile leak was encountered during their follow-up. Conclusions: Our experience indicates that conservative treatment is deceptive and not efficacious. For this condition, surgical intervention is the treatment of choice because it is very effective and is associated with a low morbidity. PMID:19718366

  2. MCNP - transport calculations in ducts using multigroup albedo coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the use of multigroup albedo coefficients in Monte Carlo calculations of particle reflection and transmission by ducts is investigated. The procedure consists in modifying the MCNP code so that an albedo matrix computed previously by deterministic methods or Monte Carlo is introduced into the program to describe particle reflection by a surface. This way it becomes possible to avoid the need of considering particle transport in the duct wall explicitly, changing the problem to a problem of transport in the duct interior only and reducing significantly the difficulty of the real problem. The probability of particle reflection at the duct wall is given, for each group, as the sum of the albedo coefficients over the final groups. The calculation is started by sampling a source particle and simulating its reflection on the duct wall by sampling a group for the emerging particle. The particle weight is then reduced by the reflection probability. Next, a new direction and trajectory for the particle is selected. Numerical results obtained for the model are compared with results from a discrete ordinates code and results from Monte Carlo simulations that take particle transport in the wall into account. (author)

  3. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  4. Modal analysis of an ECC duct for APR+ reactor barrel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) provides four Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) ducts on the reactor barrel to enhance the performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). Several studies on safety analysis have verified the excellent performance of the DVI duct. In this study, from the viewpoint of mechanical integrity, modal analyses of two full-scaled DVI ducts have been presented; both numerical analysis and modal tests have been performed in air and water. It was found that the numerical simulation and modal test coincide with each other. The DVI duct is a thin shell of 5 mm thickness, so that harmonic responses to RCP blade passing frequencies should be checked. The dominant passing frequencies are known to be 20, 40, 60, 120 and 240 Hz. In addition, an interesting thing in this study is that added mass effect by coolant seems to be so significant that the natural frequency of the ducts under water could be considerably low as compared with those in air; the natural frequency under water is 60 % lower than that in air. (author)

  5. [A case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bile duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Michiko; Nakahira, Shin; Takeda, Yutaka; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Yosuke; Kanemura, Takeshi; Uchiyama, Chieko; Okishiro, Masatsugu; Takeno, Atsushi; Suzuki, Rei; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Egawa, Chiyomi; Nakata, Ken; Miki, Hirofumi; Kato, Takeshi; Nagano, Teruaki; Nakatsuka, Shinichi; Tamura, Shigeyuki

    2012-11-01

    A 74-year-old man presented to a physician with a chief complaint of jaundice. He was diagnosed with bile duct carcinoma and admitted to our hospital. Laboratory data revealed abnormally elevated levels of total bilirubin, serum hepatic transaminase, and CA19-9. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed neoplastic stenosis from the hilus hepatis to the common bile duct. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed an enhancing tumor in the hilus hepatis bile duct, and positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) revealed abnormal fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the tumor. Under a diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma, the patient underwent an extended right hepatectomy and left hepatico -jejunostomy. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for neuroendocrine markers such as chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56. The tumor was diagnosed as primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bile duct. The patient exhibited multiple liver metastasis 6 months after the operation. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was performed for the liver metastasis. Although TACE exerted a cytoreductive effect temporarily, multiple liver abscesses developed. The patient died of liver failure 16 months after the operation. We report this rare case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bile duct. PMID:23267998

  6. PERSONALISED DENTURES WITH BRANCHING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: While the basic process of making dentures has chang ed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help labor atories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value t o patients. Unlike the conventional “linear” methods which foll ow specific steps in a cookbook fashion, the Branching Technique is a dynamic conce pt which can be adjusted to meet the clinical needs of each patient. This customized tec hnique allows for a “trial” denture to be worn by each patient that is used to pinpoint and solve th e patient’s denture problems before the final denture is made. This individualized approach helps t o eliminate disappointments or surprises. From the preliminary impressions and the “training” d enture (it’s actually a provisional denture to the functional impressions and porcelain teeth to hold the patient’s vertical dimension, the Branching Technique produces the most esthetically pleasing and functionally stable dentures possible.

  7. Progenitor cell niches in the human pancreatic duct system and associated pancreatic duct glands: an anatomical and immunophenotyping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, Guido; Renzi, Anastasia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Franchitto, Antonio; Onori, Paolo; Overi, Diletta; Rossi, Massimo; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Alvaro, Domenico; Reid, Lola M; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) are tubule-alveolar glands associated with the pancreatic duct system and can be considered the anatomical counterpart of peribiliary glands (PBGs) found within the biliary tree. Recently, we demonstrated that endodermal precursor niches exist fetally and postnatally and are composed functionally of stem cells and progenitors within PBGs and of committed progenitors within PDGs. Here we have characterized more extensively the anatomy of human PDGs as novel niches containing cells with multiple phenotypes of committed progenitors. Human pancreata (n = 15) were obtained from cadaveric adult donors. Specimens were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. PDGs were found in the walls of larger pancreatic ducts (diameters > 300 μm) and constituted nearly 4% of the duct wall area. All of the cells identified were negative for nuclear expression of Oct4, a pluripotency gene, and so are presumably committed progenitors and not stem cells. In the main pancreatic duct and in large interlobular ducts, Sox9(+) cells represented 5-30% of the cells within PDGs and were located primarily at the bottom of PDGs, whereas rare and scattered Sox9(+) cells were present within the surface epithelium. The expression of PCNA, a marker of cell proliferation, paralleled the distribution of Sox9 expression. Sox9(+) PDG cells proved to be Pdx1(+) /Ngn3(+/-) /Oct4A(-) . Nearly 10% of PDG cells were positive for insulin or glucagon. Intercalated ducts contained Sox9(+) /Pdx1(+) /Ngn3(+) cells, a phenotype that is presumptive of committed endocrine progenitors. Some intercalated ducts appeared in continuity with clusters of insulin-positive cells organized in small pancreatic islet-like structures. In summary, PDGs represent niches of a population of Sox9(+) cells exhibiting a pattern of phenotypic traits implicating a radial axis of maturation from the bottoms of the PDGs to the surface of pancreatic ducts. Our results complete the

  8. Evaluation of the anatomical correlation between biliary branches of the left lobe of the liver and the umbilical portion of the portal vein (UP) by CT with injection of contrast material into biliary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kazuo [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Shinohara, Yasushi; Amano, Hodaka; Okazumi, Shinichi; Asano, Takehide; Isono, Kaichi; Ryu, Munemasa

    1995-12-01

    We analyzed anatomical correlation between biliary trees of the left lobe of the liver and the umbilical portion of the portal vein (UP) by CT with injection of contrast material into biliary tract through the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube (Cholangio-CT). Cholangio-CT was performed in 27 patients with obstructive jaundice. In 15 cases out of these 27 cases, left lateral superior subsegment branch (B2) and left lateral inferior subsegment branch (B3) originated in the right side of UP and ran in the cranial side of UP. In 6 cases, B2 and B3 arose in the cranial side of UP from the common duct of B2 and B3. In 5 cases, B2 and B3 arose in the left side of UP from the common duct which ran in the cranial side of UP. In one patient, B3 ran in the caudate side of UP. In 10 out of 27 cases, a bile duct branch which originated and ran in the cranial side of UP was depicted. It was not clear whether this branch belonged to medial segment branch or B3. (author).

  9. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct cyst: case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Maleki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common form of congenital cysts on the neck. The incidence of thyroid papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst is less than 1%. In most cases the diagnosis is made postoperatively. We present a 22-year-old female with thyroid papillary carcinoma arising from thyroglossal duct cyst,identified in pathologic study after sistrunk operation.In our case there was neither invasion to adjacent tissue nor lymph node involvement.The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. The patient was treated with radioactive iodide and thyroid suppression therapy was given as adjuvant treatment.The patient has been following for two years without any metastasis.

  10. Nose and inlet duct radomes for the firebolt aerial target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoots, L. C.

    Radomes of the Firebolt Aerial Target (AQM-81A) facilitate an uncommon set of operational conditions. The target vehicle is first carried captively. Stones may be dislodged from the runway and impact the Nose or Inlet Duct Radomes with considerable force. The drone has various flight profiles after launch, encompassing levels of MACH 1.2 at 35,000 feet to MACH 4 at 100,000 feet. For flights of 10 minutes, attendant aerothermal loads produce temperature peaks of 680 deg F and 980 deg F for the Nose and Inlet Duct units, respectively. Firebolt is normally retrieved, by helicopter after its parachute deploys, for refurbishment and re-use. Occasionally, sea recovery is effected using flotation gear. Electrically, the Nose Radome accommodates an L-band antenna for the electronic scoring system, and a small circulary polarized X-band horn. The Inlet Duct Radome houses an identical broad-beamed horn.

  11. Intracellular pH in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Hug, M; Greger, R

    1997-01-01

    buffers (20 mmol/l) led to pHi changes in accordance with entry of lipid-soluble forms of the buffers, followed by back-regulation of pHi by duct cells. In another type of experiment, changes in extracellular pH of solutions containing HEPES or HCO3-/CO2 buffers led to significant changes in pHi that did......- exchanger. Under some conditions, these exchangers can be invoked to regulate cell pH.......In order to study the mechanism of H+ and HCO3- transport in a HCO3- secreting epithelium, pancreatic ducts, we have measured the intracellular pH (pHi) in this tissue using the pH sensitive probe BCECF. We found that exposures of ducts to solutions containing acetate/acetic acid or NH4+/NH3...

  12. Diagnosis of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction using dacryoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the value of dacryoscintigraphy in the assessment of patients with a clinical diagnosis of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Dacryoscintigraphy was performed in symptomatic 35 lacrimal drainage systems in 18 patients (age range: 37 ∼76,8 males, 10 females) that were patent on syringing. Abnormalities were detected with dacryoscintigraphy in 75.8% of systems. The positive scintigrams were subdivided into those demonstrating prelacrimal sac delay (31.8%), delay at the lacrimal sac/junction (40.9%), or delay within the duct (27%). Dacryoscintigraphy is noninvasive useful technique in the assessment of the functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction and very sensitive at detecting abnormalities in patients with lid laxity caused by senile change and facial nerve palsy

  13. Diagnosis of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction using dacryoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Wook; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Euy Neyng; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the value of dacryoscintigraphy in the assessment of patients with a clinical diagnosis of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Dacryoscintigraphy was performed in symptomatic 35 lacrimal drainage systems in 18 patients (age range: 37 {approx}76,8 males, 10 females) that were patent on syringing. Abnormalities were detected with dacryoscintigraphy in 75.8% of systems. The positive scintigrams were subdivided into those demonstrating prelacrimal sac delay (31.8%), delay at the lacrimal sac/junction (40.9%), or delay within the duct (27%). Dacryoscintigraphy is noninvasive useful technique in the assessment of the functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction and very sensitive at detecting abnormalities in patients with lid laxity caused by senile change and facial nerve palsy.

  14. Thermal behavior of the duct applied functionally graded material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), the high temperature results from friction among the air, combustion of fuel in engine and combustion gas of a nozzle. The high temperature may cause serious damages in UAV structure. The Functionally Graded Material(FGM) is chosen as a material of the engine duct structure. Thermal stress analysis of FGM is performed in this paper. FGM is composed of two constituent materials that are mixed up according to the specific volume fraction distribution in order to withstand high temperature. Therefore, hoop stress, axial stress and shear stress of duct with 2 layers, 4 layers and 8 layers FGM are compared and analyzed respectively. In addition, the creep behavior of FGM used in duct structure of an engine is analyzed for better understanding of FGM characteristics

  15. Shielding analysis of the ITER/EDA NBI duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the shielding properties of the ITER/EDA NBI ducts based on the current JCT design of the 24 superconductive toroidal field coils (the 24 TFC). The two-dimensional transport calculations have been performed by DOT 3.5. First, the neutron fluxes, dose to insulator and peak nuclear heating rate were calculated in the TFC and the NBI duct. The X-Y calculational model with detail description of the neutron source shape and the TFC geometry is used for that calculation. Second, the R-Z calculational model with detail description of the NBI components was set up. The nuclear heating in the NBI cryo panels and displacement damage in NBI copper grids were obtained in that calculation. In summary, it it concluded that the shielding performance of the current NBI duct design is enough to decrease all considered neutronics responses below the limits. (author)

  16. Shielding analysis of the ITER/EDA NBI duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimin, S.; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Sato, Satoshi; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Inoue, Takashi; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Maki, Koichi

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the shielding properties of the ITER/EDA NBI ducts based on the current JCT design of the 24 superconductive toroidal field coils (the 24 TFC). The two-dimensional transport calculations have been performed by DOT 3.5. First, the neutron fluxes, dose to insulator and peak nuclear heating rate were calculated in the TFC and the NBI duct. The X-Y calculational model with detail description of the neutron source shape and the TFC geometry is used for that calculation. Second, the R-Z calculational model with detail description of the NBI components was set up. The nuclear heating in the NBI cryo panels and displacement damage in NBI copper grids were obtained in that calculation. In summary, it it concluded that the shielding performance of the current NBI duct design is enough to decrease all considered neutronics responses below the limits. (author).

  17. Retrospective analysis of 88 patients with pancreatic duct stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Shui Li; Zhao-Da Zhang; Yong Tang; Rong Jiang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Pancreatic duct stone is a rare disease, but there appears to be a rising trend in its incidence in recent years. Its pathogenesis remains unknown. The causes, diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic duct stone are reviewed through a retrospective analysis of the cases treated in our hospital. METHODS:The medical records of 88 patients with pancreatic duct stone treated in West China Hospital, Sichuan University from January 1, 1998 to November 30, 2004 were analyzed retrospectively in terms of clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS:Epigastric pain was the most common symptom in the 88 patients with an average age of 45.44±6.72 years. Various other symptoms were also observed. Eighty-one patients were subjected to B-ultrasonography, 51 to CT, and 47 to magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Fifty-six patients (63.64%) were operated on, 25 (28.41%) were treated with Chinese and Western medicine, and 7 (7.95%) abandoned treatment. Chronic pancreatitis was pathologically conifrmed in all patients undergoing operation. CONCLUSIONS: B-ultrasonography is the ifrst choice to check for pancreatic duct stone, while MRCP proves instructively useful for the diagnosis and treatment. Chronic pancreatitis is the most important cause of pancreatic duct stone, but whether there is not a direct correlation between stone formation and alcohol abuse needs further study in China. Surgery is the most curative method for pancreatic duct stone patients with severe symptoms or suspected pancreatic carcinoma, while individual treatment is emphasized, and microtraumatic surgery may be a developing option for treating pancreatic stone.

  18. Contryphans from Conus textile venom ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, E C; Watkins, M; Juszczak, L J; Cruz, L J; Olivera, B M

    2001-06-01

    Contryphans are unusual Conus peptides which contain a distinctive post-translational modification, D-tryptophan or D-leucine. cDNA clones encoding new contryphans from the mollusc-hunting cone snail Conus textile were identified and the inferred mature peptides were synthesized: contryphan-Tx (Gly-Cys-Hyp-D-Trp-Gln-Pro-Tyr-Cys-NH(2)), Leu-contryphan-Tx (Cys-Val-D-Leu-Tyr-Pro-Trp-Cys-NH(2)) and contryphan R/Tx which is identical to contryphan-R [Jimenez et al., 1996. Contryphan is a D-tryptophan containing Conus peptide. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 28002-28005]. Leu-contryphan-Tx exhibits a single peak, but contryphan-Tx shows two peaks under reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions. Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy demonstrates a difference in the D-tryptophan dihedral angle for the two contryphan-Tx equilibrium conformers. Both the sequences and in vivo effects of all contryphans isolated suggest that there are two major branches of the contryphan family. PMID:11137539

  19. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  20. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Yegutkin, G.G.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our...... dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting...

  1. Whistler propagation in ionospheric density ducts: Simulations and DEMETER observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, J. R.; Streltsov, A. V.; Vartanyan, A.; Milikh, G. M.

    2013-11-01

    On 16 October 2009, the Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) satellite observed VLF whistler wave activity coincident with an ionospheric heating experiment conducted at HAARP. At the same time, density measurements by DEMETER indicate the presence of multiple field-aligned enhancements. Using an electron MHD model, we show that the distribution of VLF power observed by DEMETER is consistent with the propagation of whistlers from the heating region inside the observed density enhancements. We also discuss other interesting features of this event, including coupling of the lower hybrid and whistler modes, whistler trapping in artificial density ducts, and the interference of whistlers waves from two adjacent ducts.

  2. Ionospheric duct propagation and Pc 1 pulsation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed study of two Pc 1 hydromagnetic emission events observed at Great Whale River, Quebec: Boulder, Colorado; and College, Alaska, indicates that emission energy propagated westward in an ionospheric duct from an extended source region east of Great Whale River with duct velocities ranging from 500 to 2500 km s-1. Sources located using both triangulation direction of arrival and polarization techniques were found to be generally consistent. Autocorrelation measurements of fine structure element spacing within the events show that dispersion increased with longitudinal distance from the source

  3. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  4. Endoscopic-assisted reconstructive surgery of the lacrimal duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poublon, René M L; Hertoge, K de Roon

    2009-07-01

    Reconstructive surgery of the nasolacrimal duct, or dacryocystorhinostomy, can be performed via an external or endonasal approach. For almost a century external dacryocystorhinostomy was the gold standard for correction of lacrimal duct obstruction. The endonasal approach became a safe surgical procedure using endoscopes and has the same anatomic and functional success rate as the external approach. It can be performed in adults and in children with close collaboration between a rhinologist and an ophthalmologist. An overview is given of the literature and of the authors' experience in this field. PMID:19505610

  5. Adenoma of the distal common bile duct -a case report-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Young Soo; Lee, Hyun Gon; Han, Ho Seong; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Sung Hoon [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    On rare occasions, Obstructive Jaundice may be caused by a benign tumor of the biliary tract. We describe a patient in whom the diagnosis of an adenoma of the distal common bile duct (CBD) was established. The CT showed a soft tissue density mass in the distal CBD and diffuse dilatation of the intrahepatic duct, gall the bladder, and CBD. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopnacreatography showed an irregularly marginated polypoid mass in the distal CBD. The clinical, radiological, and histological features of this neoplasm are reviewed. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this neoplasm are reviewed.

  6. Collecting duct carcinoma of kidney in a teenage boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini are rare aggressive neoplasms of distal nephron origin; it accounts for 2% of all renal cell carcinomas. Clinically, collecting duct carcinoma (CDC is characterized by an extremely aggressive phenotype, accompanying metastatic diseases at presentation in most reported cases. Most cases of CDC have been reported with median age above 50 years. To our knowledge, this is the only second case report of CDC in a young teenager patient below 19 years with metastasis to lungs and bones at presentation.

  7. DCTDOS, Neutron and Gamma Penetration in Composite Duct System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A - Description of program or function: Estimates are made of neutron and gamma-ray fluence rate (flux density), dose, and spectral features due to penetration through a series of duct segments - straight sections and bends - in arbitrary combinations; and the resulting composite can include computations for a room at the end, if there is one. This method was developed for the rapid estimates that are needed for analysis of protection problems against nuclear weapons, but the concepts are more generally applicable. B - Method of solution: The method, called 'orders of reflection', involves the following steps: (1) The penetration of the radiation (neutrons or gamma rays) through single straight ducts of various dimensions is first calculated in a one-velocity treatment, assuming an albedo with an angular dependence given by Chandrasekhar's theory, and assuming isotropic scattering. This penetration probability is calculated for the case of 0, 1, 2,...n reflections from walls; (2) An estimate of the energy and angular characteristics of the radiation transmitted after 0, 1, 2,..., n reflections is then made by using the results of a Monte Carlo calculation in which the energy and angular characteristics of the multiply-reflected radiation is computed in a space-independent treatment; (3) The results of calculations (1) and (2) are combined to obtain a transfer function which relates the intensities, direction, and energy characteristics of the radiations entering and leaving a single straight duct or duct segment. Using the output of one such calculation as the input for the next, the transmissions of the radiation through a sequence of ducts can readily be calculated for any spatial configuration of successive duct legs. The approximations made in the orders-of- reflection method are particularly applicable to neutrons. However, the method, with some adaptation, has also been found to be applicable to gamma rays. An extensive data base of neutron and gamma albedo

  8. Branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Böinghoff, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffusion approximation of branching processes in random environment (BPREs). This diffusion approximation is similar to and mathematically more tractable than BPREs. We obtain the exact asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. As in the case of BPREs, there is a phase transition in the subcritical regime due to different survival opportunities. In addition, we characterize the process conditioned to never go extinct and establish a backbone construction. In the strongly subcritical regime, mean offspring numbers are increased but still subcritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Here survival is solely due to an immortal individual, whose offspring are the ancestors of additional families. In the weakly subcritical regime, the mean offspring number is supercritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Thus this process survives with positive probability even if there was no immortal individual.

  9. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  10. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  11. 103Pd radioactive stent inhibits biliary duct restenosis and reduces smooth muscle actin expression during duct healing in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Jin He; Qin-Yi Gao; Shu-He Xu; Hong Gao; Tao Jiang; Xian-Wei Dai; Kai Ma

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the expression of smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the healing process after implanting a 103Pd radioactive stent in the biliary duct, and to discuss the function and signiifcance of this stent in preventing biliary stricture formation. METHODS:A model of biliary injury in dogs was made and then a 103Pd radioactive stent was positioned in the biliary duct. The expression and distribution of SMA were assessed in the anastomotic tissue 30 days after implantation of the stent. RESULTS:SMA expression was less in the 103Pd stent group than in the ordinary stent group. The 103Pd stent inhibited scar contracture and anastomotic stenosis. CONCLUSION:The 103Pd stent can reduce the expression of SMA in the healing process and inhibit scar contracture and anastomotic stenosis in the dog biliary duct.

  12. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  13. Congenital double bile duct presenting as recurrent cholangitis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Chakravarty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Double common bile duct (DCBD is a rare congenital anomaly. Most of these bile duct anomalies are associated with bile duct stones, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ, pancreatitis and bile duct or gastric cancers. Early detection and treatment is important to avoid long term complications. Surgical resection of the anomalous bile duct and reconstruction of the biliary enteric anastomosis is the treatment of choice. We report a rare case of DCBD anomaly in a girl, who presented with recurrent cholangitis. She had type Va DCBD anomaly. She underwent successful resection of the bile duct and reconstruction of the biliary enteric anastomosis. Preoperative imaging and diagnosis of the congenital biliary anomaly is very important to avoid intraoperative bile duct injury. Review of the literature shows very few cases of type Va DCBD, presenting with either bile duct stones or APBJ.

  14. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants. Branching is regulated by multiple internal factors which are modulated by different environmental signals. A key environmental signal in the context of a plant population is a low red / far-red intensi...

  15. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  16. A QUANTITATIVE METHOD FOR ANALYSING 3-D BRANCHING IN EMBRYONIC KIDNEYS: DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNIQUE AND PRELIMINARY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fricout

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The normal human adult kidney contains between 300,000 and 1 million nephrons (the functional units of the kidney. Nephrons develop at the tips of the branching ureteric duct, and therefore ureteric duct branching morphogenesis is critical for normal kidney development. Current methods for analysing ureteric branching are mostly qualitative and those quantitative methods that do exist do not account for the 3- dimensional (3D shape of the ureteric "tree". We have developed a method for measuring the total length of the ureteric tree in 3D. This method is described and preliminary data are presented. The algorithm allows for performing a semi-automatic segmentation of a set of grey level confocal images and an automatic skeletonisation of the resulting binary object. Measurements of length are automatically obtained, and numbers of branch points are manually counted. The final representation can be reconstructed by means of 3D volume rendering software, providing a fully rotating 3D perspective of the skeletonised tree, making it possible to identify and accurately measure branch lengths. Preliminary data shows the total length estimates obtained with the technique to be highly reproducible. Repeat estimates of total tree length vary by just 1-2%. We will now use this technique to further define the growth of the ureteric tree in vitro, under both normal culture conditions, and in the presence of various levels of specific molecules suspected of regulating ureteric growth. The data obtained will provide fundamental information on the development of renal architecture, as well as the regulation of nephron number.

  17. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:20420411

  18. A simple method to calculate the neutron flow through full ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary of a study of assessment of the probability for neutrons to be guided in a full duct with a square cross section and doubly bent. Two software have been developed, based on the Monte Carlo simulation, to compute the neutron transmission probability at the end of the duct. Results are in good agreement with that obtained with the MCNP-5 code. The neutron flow and probability at the duct end have been determined for different materials and different duct dimensions

  19. An Immunocytochemical Profile of the Endocrine Pancreas Using an Occlusive Duct Ligation Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Page BJ; du Toit DF; Muller CJF; Mattysen J; Lyners R

    2000-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ligation of the pancreatic duct, distally to its confluence into the bile duct has been shown to induce endocrine tissue regeneration. The surplus endocrine tissue formed is presumed to be able to replace pathologically and/or experimentally compromised tissue. OBJECTIVE: This is a quantitative study on the histology of duct ligated pancreas employing immunocytochemistry and computerised morphometry. INTERVENTIONS: Pancreatic duct ligation was performed on 25 groups of six normal Spr...

  20. Evaporation duct refractivity profile from satellite meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levadnyi, Iu.; Ivanov, V.; Shalyapin, V.

    The refractivity profile is initial data for the microwave propagation prediction models Evaporation duct height is usually used to characterize refractivity profile in the surface layer over sea The evaporation duct height is calculated using bulk measurement of air temperature wind speed humidity pressure at some level and sea surface temperature Four prevailing models LKB Liu-Katsaros-Businger RSHMU Russian State Hydro-Meteorological University optimized by us ECMWF European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast and COARE Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment were examined The results of computation using above mentioned models were compared with the direct refractometric measurements All measurements meteorological and refractometric were made by us during two marine expeditions First expedition was in the Atlantic ocean from March to May in latitude 22 circ-32° North and longitude 52 circ-65° West 29 measurements Second one was in the Indian ocean from December to February in latitude 0 circ-15° North and longitude 55 circ-80° East 94 measurements The approximation by least square-root method was carried out to compare the direct measurements of evaporation duct height with the results of computations The minimum square-root error is obtained for LKB model 2 59m for negative air-sea temperature difference 2 42m maximum - for ECMWF model 2 72m All models overestimate low evaporation duct heights and underestimate - high values This effect is least of all define in RSHMU

  1. Discontinuous finite element treatment of duct problems in transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discontinuous finite element approach is presented to solve the even-parity Boltzmann transport equation for duct problems. Presence of ducts in a system results in the streaming of particles and hence requires the employment of higher order angular approximations to model the angular flux. Conventional schemes based on the use of continuous trial functions require the same order of angular approximations to be used everywhere in the system, resulting in wastage of computational resources. Numerical investigations for the test problems presented in this paper indicate that the discontinuous finite elements eliminate the above problems and leads to computationally efficient and economical methods. They are also found to be more suitable for treating the sharp changes in the angular flux at duct-observer interfaces. The new approach provides a single-pass alternate to extrapolation and interactive schemes which need multiple passes of the solution strategy to acquire convergence. The method has been tested with the help of two case studies, namely straight and dog-leg duct problems. All results have been verified against those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations and K/sup +/ continuous finite element method. (author)

  2. Coexistence of Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Carcinoma and Thyroid Papillary Microcarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Karbek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant lesion of a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC is an extremely rare entity. Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. Diagnosis is commonly made after pathological examination of the surgical specimen. A 41-year-old male patient with a midline neck mass was initially diagnosed with a thyroglossal duct cyst and underwent a Sistrunks procedure. Histopathologic examination revealed a papillary thyroid car¬cinoma within the thyroglossal duct cyst. Ultrasound elastography of the thyroid gland was performed. We have detected a hypoechoic hypervascular thyroid nodule measuring 3 mm in diameter that appeared completely blue in B-mode ultrasonography, and hard tissue was visualized by elastosonography (ES. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. The final pathological finding showed papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland without cervical lymph node metastasis. When a thyroglossal duct cyst is excised using Sistrunk’s procedure and when the definitive hystological analysis depicts malignancy, the thyroid gland must be studied carefully with radiological examinations. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 127-8

  3. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Yoo; Yohanan Kim; Alfred Simental; Jared C. Inman

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  4. Annular linear induction pump with an externally supported duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several embodiments of an annular linear induction pump for pumping liquid metals are disclosed having the features of generally one pass flow of the liquid metal through the pump and an increased efficiency resulting from the use of thin duct walls to enclose the stator. The stator components of this pump are removable for repair and replacement. 15 claims

  5. Aspect ratio effects in turbulent duct flows studied with DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, R.; Noorani, A.; Lozano-Durán, A.; Schlatter, P.; Fischer, P.; Nagib, H.

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional effects present in turbulent duct flows, i.e., side-wall boundary layers and secondary motions, are studied by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS). The spectral element code Nek5000, developed by Fischer et. al. (2008), is used to compute turbulent duct flows with aspect ratios 1 and 3 in streamwise-periodic boxes of length 25 h (long enough to capture the longest streamwise structures). The total number of grid points is 28 and 62 million respectively, and the inflow conditions were adjusted iteratively in order to keep the same bulk Reynolds number at the centerplane (Reb , c = 2800) in both cases. Spanwise variations in wall shear, mean-flow profiles and turbulence statistics were analyzed with aspect ratio, and also compared with the 2D channel. The simulations were started from a laminar duct profile, and transition to turbulence was triggered by means of trip-forcing in the wall-normal direction, applied at the two horizontal walls. In addition, we developed a convergence criterion aimed at assessing the necessary averaging time TA for converged statistics. We find that econdary motions present in duct flows require longer averaging times and the total shear-stress profile is not necessarily linear.

  6. Experimental study on the particles deposition in the sampling duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Charuau, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    A high standard of protection against the harmful effects of radioactive aerosol dissemination requires a measurement, as representative as possible, of their concentration. This measurement depends on the techniques used for aerosol sampling and transfer to the detector, as well as on the location of the latter with respect to the potential sources. The aeraulic design of the apparatus is also an important factor. Once collected the aerosol particles often have to travel through a variably shaped duct to the measurement apparatus. This transport is responsible for losses due to the particles deposition on the walls, leading to a distortion on the concentration measurements and a change in the particle size distribution. To estimate and minimize measurement errors it is important to determine the optimal transport conditions when designing a duct; its diameter and material, the radius of curvature of the bends and the flow conditions must be defined in particular. This paper presents an experimental study in order to determine, for each deposition mechanism, the retained fraction, or the deposition velocity for different flow regimes. This study has pointed out that it exists a favourable flow regime for the particle transport through the sampling ducts (2 500 < Re < 5 000). It has been established, for any particle diameters, equations to predict the aerosol penetration in smooth-walled cylindrical metal ducts.

  7. A Rare Case of Mediastinal Cyst: Thoracic Duct Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Mergan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic duct cysts are very rarely observed cysts of the mediastinum. These cysts, which can become established in the costovertebral sulcus or the visceral compartment, have generally been reported at the level of the 10th and 11th vertebrae; however, they can be observed at any location along the ductus [1]. A 37-year-old male patient complained of chest pain for the last 3 months that especially increased after meals. He complained of shortness of breath while walking or going up the stairs, for the last month. The lung graphy showed an increased darkening at a 5x6cm smooth (clean-cut, regular, orderly bordered shadow just behind the heart shadow. The patient%u2019s computed thorax tomography showed a retrocardiac-paravertebral, middle line positioned, 8.5x7x6 cm proportioned, regular bordered, thin walled, homogenous cystic bulk at the subcarinal level. The patient, who could not be relieved with medical treatment, was taken to surgery. The lesion was reached by right posterolateral thoracotomy, and drainage of lymph-containing cystic fluid and excision of the cyst walls were performed by incising the thoracic duct cyst with a mediastinal pleura incision. Mass ligation was then performed to the thoracic duct. We wanted to present our thoracic duct cyst case in this article due to the currently limited number of actual cases reported in the literature.

  8. Laparoscopic managment of common bile duct stones: our initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroori, S; Bell, J C

    2002-05-01

    The management of choledocholithiasis has changed radically since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, perceived technical difficulties have deterred many surgeons from treating common bile duct stones laparoscopically at the time of cholecystectomy. This has lead to reliance on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy to deal with common bile duct stones. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who had laparoscopic common bile duct exploration at Downe Hospital between December 1999 and August 2001. Among 149 laparoscopic cholecystectomies done by our group in this period, 10 patients (6.7%) underwent laparoscopic CBD exploration, three by the transcystic technique and seven by choledochotomy. Three patients (2%) had unsuspected stones found on routine per- operative cholangiogram. The mean operative time was 2.34hrs (range 1.50-3.30hrs). The mean hospital post- operative stay was 3 days (range 1-6 days). Post-operative morbidity was zero. Stone clearance was achieved in all cases. We conclude, laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct is relatively safe and straightforward method. The key skill required is the ability to perform laparoscopic suturing with confidence. PMID:12137159

  9. Reynolds-stress model prediction of 3-D duct flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gerolymos, G A

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of different modelling choices in second-moment closures by assessing model performance in predicting 3-D duct flows. The test-cases (developing flow in a square duct [Gessner F.B., Emery A.F.: {\\em ASME J. Fluids Eng.} {\\bf 103} (1981) 445--455], circular-to-rectangular transition-duct [Davis D.O., Gessner F.B.: {\\em AIAA J.} {\\bf 30} (1992) 367--375], and \\tsn{S}-duct with large separation [Wellborn S.R., Reichert B.A., Okiishi T.H.: {\\em J. Prop. Power} {\\bf 10} (1994) 668--675]) include progressively more complex strains. Comparison of experimental data with selected 7-equation models (6 Reynolds-stress-transport and 1 scale-determining equations), which differ in the closure of the velocity/pressure-gradient tensor $\\Pi_{ij}$, suggests that rapid redistribution controls separation and secondary-flow prediction, whereas, inclusion of pressure-diffusion modelling improves reattachment and relaxation behaviour.

  10. Saving energy for ventilation using decentralised duct fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Afshari, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    pressure drops which in turn will increase energy use. This paper presents a novel procedure for balancing CAV-systems using decentralised duct fans instead of flat plate dampers. The procedure will result in lower pressure drops and consequently in a reduction of energy use for ventilation when compared...... mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use for new and renovation of buildings....

  11. Bile duct cyst in adults: Interventional treatment, resection, or transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Cerwenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic dilatations of the bile ducts may be found along the extrahepatic biliary tree, within the liver, or in both of these locations simultaneously. Presentation in adults is often associated with complications. The therapeutic possibilities have changed considerably over the last few decades. If possible, complete resection of the cyst(s can cure the symptoms and avoid the risk of malignancy. According to the type of bile duct cyst, surgical procedures include the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and variable types of hepatic resection. However, the diffuse forms of Todani type V cysts (Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome in particular remain a therapeutic problem, and liver transplantation has become an important option. The mainstay of interventional treatment for Todani type III bile duct cysts is via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnostic term “bile duct cyst” comprises quite different pathological and clinical entities. Interventional therapy, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation all have their place in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease group. They should not be seen as competitive treatment modalities, but as complementary options. Each patient should receive individualized treatment after all of the clinical findings have been considered by an interdisciplinary team.

  12. Bile duct cyst in adults: interventional treatment, resection, or transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2013-08-28

    Cystic dilatations of the bile ducts may be found along the extrahepatic biliary tree, within the liver, or in both of these locations simultaneously. Presentation in adults is often associated with complications. The therapeutic possibilities have changed considerably over the last few decades. If possible, complete resection of the cyst(s) can cure the symptoms and avoid the risk of malignancy. According to the type of bile duct cyst, surgical procedures include the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and variable types of hepatic resection. However, the diffuse forms of Todani type V cysts (Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome) in particular remain a therapeutic problem, and liver transplantation has become an important option. The mainstay of interventional treatment for Todani type III bile duct cysts is via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnostic term "bile duct cyst" comprises quite different pathological and clinical entities. Interventional therapy, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation all have their place in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease group. They should not be seen as competitive treatment modalities, but as complementary options. Each patient should receive individualized treatment after all of the clinical findings have been considered by an interdisciplinary team. PMID:23983423

  13. Sonographic and radiologic diagnosis of a pancreatic duct stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habscheid, W.; Kulke, H.; Heidbreder, E.

    1986-09-01

    A case is reported in which asymptomatic chronic pancreatitis of initially unknown etiology was detected as result of a routine follow-up examination of a patient with membraneproliferative glomerulonephritis. Ultrasound and endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography detected a stone in the major pancreatic duct. The stone was of such size and irregular form that endoscopic extraction was impossible.

  14. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  15. Radiation from a lined duct in uniform flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a boundary element formulation for modelling the sound field inside and outside a duct in uniform flow. The model is the first step towards models for predicting the noise radiated from turbo fan engines. For this purpose the frequency range is very large (up to ka=40), and non...

  16. Clear cell carcinoid tumor of the distal common bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukada Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoid tumors rarely arise in the extrahepatic bile duct and can be difficult to distinguish from carcinoma. There are no reports of clear cell carcinoid (CCC tumors in the distal bile duct (DBD to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we report a CCC tumor in the DBD and review the literature concerning extrahepatic bile duct carcinoid tumors. Case presentation A 73-old man presented with fever and occult obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP demonstrated a nodular tumor projection in the DBD without regional lymph node swelling. Under suspicion of carcinoma, we resected the head of the pancreas along with 2nd portion duodenectomy and a lymph node dissection. The surgical specimen showed a golden yellow polypoid tumor in the DBD (0.8 × 0.6 × 0.5 cm in size. The lesion was composed of clear polygonal cells arranged in nests and a trabecular pattern. The tumor invaded through the wall into the fibromuscular layer. Immunohistochemical stains showed that neoplastic cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and pancreatic polypeptide and negative for inhibin, keratin, CD56, serotonin, gastrin and somatostatin. The postoperative course was uneventful and he is living well without relapse 12 months after surgery. Conclusion Given the preoperative difficulty in differentiating carcinoid from carcinoma, the pancreaticoduodenectomy is an appropriate treatment choice for carcinoid tumors located within the intra-pancreatic bile duct.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Candidate Materials for Hot Gas Duct of VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot gas duct of VHTR is operated at 950 .deg.. Ni based superalloys, such as Hastelloy XR, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, for hot gas duct have been candidate material because of good strength and corrosion properties at high temperature. Mechanical properties of these alloys are tested at high temperature to apply to hot gas duct of VHTR

  18. The use of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy in a case with a cholecystohepatic duct

    OpenAIRE

    Naonori Kawakubo; Yoshio Zaizen; Yukiko Goto; Shizu Miura

    2015-01-01

    A cholecystohepatic duct is a rare biliary anomaly that is identified by the drainage of the hepatic duct into the gallbladder. We herein report on the case of a 2-year-old boy diagnosed as this anomaly. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy was successfully performed, and this is the first report of a case with a cholecystohepatic duct treated using a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy.

  19. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Menshykau

    Full Text Available Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation. While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10 and sonic hedgehog (SHH as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc. We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes.

  20. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  1. The branch banking boom in Illinois: a byproduct of restrictive branching laws

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Davis; Tara Rice

    2007-01-01

    What’s behind the boom in bank branches across Illinois, particularly in Chicago? The authors explore the history of branch banking within the state and across the nation to help explain this recent trend and discuss its future implications.

  2. Current perspective in the treatment of bile duct injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jos and eacute; Granados-Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered the gold standard for the treatment of benign gallbladder disease, which is associated with an increased incidence of biliary injuries. These types of injuries are multicausal, and anatomical variations or anatomical perception errors are the most common risk factors. The objective of this study is to describe the evolution in the management of bile duct injuries and actual, diagnostic tools, incidence, prognosis and treatment. A literature research about diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic bile duct injuries as well as their impact on the incidence of morbidity and mortality, based on a 30-year period, was performed on Medline, Cochrane, Embase, MedScape and PubMed database, for all studies that met the eligibility criteria. A thorough quality assessment of all included studies was performed. Synthesis of the results was achieved by narrative review. The bile duct injury is a complication that requires a complex therapy and multidisciplinary management. Reconstruction and treatment techniques have been evolving. The selection of adequate treatment will impact on the patient and acute;s quality of life. The results of the existing studies reporting on iatrogenic bile duct injuries are useful; because the iatrogenic bile duct injuries are complex alterations and constitute one of the most serious complications of a cholecystectomy and require a comprehensive approach, immediate repair, proper drainage and timely referral to adequate treatment to improve long-term prognosis. According to the literature review, currently there better treatments such as absorbable prosthesis, which improve the prognosis and patient and acute;s quality of life, and represent less risk of complications in short/long term. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 677-684

  3. Invasive thyroglossal duct cyst papillary carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghaghazvini Shirin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A thyroglossal duct cyst is the most common congenital anomaly of the thyroid gland and midline masses in childhood (70% abnormality in childhood, 7% in adult. Carcinomas arising from a thyroglossal duct cyst are rare (only 1% of thyroglossal duct cyst cases and characterized by relatively non-aggressive behavior and rare lymphatic spread. They are also diagnosed mostly during the third and fourth decades of life. About 85% to 92% of all thyroglossal duct cyst carcinomas are papillary carcinomas. Case presentation We present the case of a 44-year-old Iranian woman with Cacausian ethnicity with a painless anterior neck mass that appeared gradually over three months. She had a history of frequent painful swelling of the anterior part of her neck, which subsided with antibiotic therapy. Thyroid functional tests were normal and a thyroid scinitigraphy showed a cold nodule in the left lobe of her thyroid. A computed tomography scan revealed a large, heterogeneous enhancing soft tissue mass with cystic components in the midline of the anterior neck space. This extended from the base of the tongue,(completely separated from its muscles, to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland and showed the destruction of the hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage. The diagnosis of a thyroglossal duct cyst with malignant transformation was maintained. A fine needle aspiration revealed papillary carcinoma. Conclusion This patient's case is presented because of its rare, aggressive, and invasive nature and rare and unusual manifestation, as well as its rapid increase in size, the destruction of the hyoid bone, chondrolysis of the thyroid cartilage, lymph adenopathy and the existence of a cold nodule in the thyroid gland.

  4. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients.During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  5. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  6. Acoustic imaging of a duct spinning mode by the use of an in-duct circular microphone array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingkai; Huang, Xun; Peers, Edward

    2013-06-01

    An imaging method of acoustic spinning modes propagating within a circular duct simply with surface pressure information is introduced in this paper. The proposed method is developed in a theoretical way and is demonstrated by a numerical simulation case. Nowadays, the measurements within a duct have to be conducted using in-duct microphone array, which is unable to provide information of complete acoustic solutions across the test section. The proposed method can estimate immeasurable information by forming a so-called observer. The fundamental idea behind the testing method was originally developed in control theory for ordinary differential equations. Spinning mode propagation, however, is formulated in partial differential equations. A finite difference technique is used to reduce the associated partial differential equations to a classical form in control. The observer method can thereafter be applied straightforwardly. The algorithm is recursive and, thus, could be operated in real-time. A numerical simulation for a straight circular duct is conducted. The acoustic solutions on the test section can be reconstructed with good agreement to analytical solutions. The results suggest the potential and applications of the proposed method. PMID:23742352

  7. Flow characteristics of developing laminar steady flows in a straight duct connected to a square curved duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hyun Chull [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-01

    In the present study, the characteristics of developing steady laminar flows of a straight duct connected to a 180 .deg. curved duct were examined in the entrance region through experimental measurement. Flow characteristics such as shear stress distributions, pressure distributions and friction coefficient experimentally in a square cross-sectional straight duct by using the PIV system. For the PIV measurement by particles produced from mosquito coils particles. The experimental data were obtained at 9 points dividing the test sections by 400 mm. Experimental results can be summarized as follows. Critical Reynolds number, Re{sub cr} which indicates transition from laminar steady flow to transition steady flow was 2,150. Shear stress per unit length on the wall was stronger than that in the fully developed flow region. This was attributed to the fact that shear stress and pressure loss in the curvature of a duct were increased. Pressure distributions were gradually decreased irrespective of Reynolds number in the whole test section. This trends were in a good agreement with the reference results. Pipe friction coefficient in the steady state flow region was calculate from method of least squares. The co-relationship between fiction coefficient and Reynolds number was established as follow; {lambda}=56/Re.

  8. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that were sweeping…

  9. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Contents of Business Plan. The written business plan must address the following: (1) Analysis of market... regarding the branch (shares, lending, capital, charge-offs, collections); (6) The field of membership or... for branch operations (balance sheet and income and expense projections) for the first and second...

  10. Spectral problem for branching chain quantum graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branching chain of rings as a quantum graph is considered. We use the transfer matrix method to obtain the spectral equation. The existence of bound states is proved. The discrete spectrum of the Schrödinger operator for the system is described. We find the dependence of the eigenvalues positions on the branching angle.

  11. Incidental finding of elongated ventral duct in a case of pancreatic divisum mimicking double pancreatic ducts on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography—a rare normal variant

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Richa; Rani, Y. Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Anatomic variations and developmental anomalies of the pancreas and pancreatic duct are often noticed as an incidental finding on imaging. However, knowledge of these variants may prove to be crucial during surgery as it may prevent unintentional ductal injury. We report a case of pancreatic divisum with codominant ventral duct mimicking double pancreatic ducts along with the elongated uncinate process of pancreas. It was picked incidentally on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (M...

  12. Large Eddy Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Staggered 45° Ribbed Duct and a Rotating 90° Ribbed Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Wahab, Samer

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years there has been great effort in the analysis of internal duct cooling. The steady increase in power output and thermal efficiency requirements for gas turbine engines has called for significant advancement in turbine blade internal duct cooling technology. Numerical analysis of turbulent duct flow has been largely limited to Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations. This is because of the low computational requirements of such calculations relative to La...

  13. Pancreatic enzymes in the epithelium of intrahepatic large bile ducts and in hepatic bile in patients with extrahepatic bile duct obstruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, T.; Morita, T; Hoso, M; Nakanuma, Y

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To determine whether pancreatic enzymes are present in hepatic bile and in intrahepatic bile duct epithelium. METHODS--The activity and proteins of pancreatic enzymes (pancreatic alpha-amylase, lipase, trypsin/trypsinogen) in hepatic bile were investigated using biochemical and western blot analyses in 25 patients with extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Immunolocalization of enzyme proteins was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 20 necropsy livers with extrahepatic bile duct obstructi...

  14. High Prevalence of Proposed Müllerian Duct Remnant Cysts on the Spermatic Duct in Wild Eurasian Otters (Lutra lutra) from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Anna; Ågren, Erik O.

    2013-01-01

    The spermatic ducts (vasa deferentia) of 235 otters (Lutra lutra) found dead between 1999 and 2012 in Sweden were examined for presence of paraductular cysts. Single or multiple elongated uni- or bilateral cysts parallel to the spermatic duct were noted in 72% of the examined males. The cysts were adjacent to, but did not communicate with the lumen of the spermatic duct, and were usually located within a few centimeters of the testis and epididymis. The cysts are proposed to be congenital Mul...

  15. [A research on three-dimensional reconstruction of nasolacrimal duct in lacrimal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xiao, Caiwen; Fan, Xianqun; Wang, Lisheng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new method which can reconstruct the three-dimensional model of nasolacrimal duct. We firstly resampled the volume data along nasolacrimal duct direction, then segmented the nasolacrimal duct into slices, and finally, completed the 3D reconstruction from the two-D contours. Using this method, we can not only reconstruct normal nasolacrimal duct, but also reconstruct catagmatic nasolacrimal duct. It overcomes the current shortcomings of some traditional methods. Consequently, the technology proposed is of great significance in computer aided technique and surgical planning related to ophthalmonogy. PMID:23198411

  16. Modeling of Two-Phase Flow through a Rotating Tube with Twin Exit Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Wen Cheng

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model is proposed to determine the dynamic behavior of single-phase and twophase, two-component flows through a horizontal rotating tube with identical twin exit branches. The working fluid, oil, enters the tube through a radial duct attached at one end and exits into open air through the twin radial branches, one located at midway and the other at the end of the tube. The branch-to-tube diameter ratio, rotational speed, and total oil flow rate are varied. It is experimentally revealed in previous study that the air cavitation occurs at lower speeds, leading to a two-phase flow with the air-oil ratio (void fraction varying with the rotating speed. A unique characteristic in two-phase flow, i.e., hysteresis, is found to exist in both oil flow rates and inlet pressure. In theoretical modeling, the governing flow equations are incorporated by empirical equations for hydraulic head losses. The predicted and measured exit oil flow rates are compared with good agreement in both the single-phase and annular flow regimes. Only qualitative agreement is achieved in the bubbly and bubbly-slug flow regimes. The model can be applied to improve the design and thus enhance the performance of automatic transmission lines, and the cooling efficiency of rotating machines and petroleum drilling process.

  17. Disconnected Duct Syndrome: Refractory Inflammatory External Pancreatic Fistula Following Percutaneous Drainage of an Infected Peripancreatic Fluid Collection. A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashesh Solanki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Inflammatory external pancreatic fistulas behave differently from postoperative external pancreatic fistulas in that the former are less likely to close without intervention and take a longer time to do so. The principal determinants of closure of an external pancreatic fistula are the anatomy of the fistulous tract (end versus side, main duct versus side branch, the presence of downstream ductal obstruction, ongoing peripancreatic inflammation and etiology of the fistula (inflammatory versus postoperative. While the approach to diagnosis and management of postoperative pancreatic fistulas has been standardized, the same is lacking for inflammatory external pancreatic fistulas, partly due to the absence of a unifying definition of the latter and a paucity of data on the topic. Case report We report the case of disconnected duct syndrome, an end inflammatory fistula, following percutaneous drainage of an infected pancreatic fluid collection with two failed attempts at endoscopic treatment, treated successfully by surgery, and we also attempted to review the literature on the topic. Conclusions “Disconnected duct syndrome”, an end inflammatory fistula, following percutaneous or surgical treatment of severe acute pancreatitis is a distinct entity as spontaneous closure is exceedingly uncommon. Surgery is almost always required and is successful in the majority of cases.

  18. The experimental study of radiation injury on bile duct and liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the safety, acceptance and the effective extent of 192Ir-internal irradiation, providing theoretical guidelines for HC. Methods: Sixteen male healthy hybrid dogs enrolled in the experiment were divided into 4 groups of 4 each. The brachytherapy applicator was introduced from gall bladder into the convergence of cystic duct with common hepatic duct during the operation and a small chip of 1 cm3 liver tissue was cut off and taken for control later on. The animals in group A-D were irradiated by 192Ir-internal irradiation with 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy arid 60 Gy at the correlative dose points respectively. Animals were put to death after 10 days subsequently, with sampling specimens obtained from radiation cystic duct and the in between liver tissue with the distant cystic duct. The radiation injury of the cystic duct and liver tissue near bile ducts were observed and studied by light microscope and transmission election microscope. Results: By the limit of the safest endurance dose(50 Gy) of Bile duct, unreversed injury of the nuclei of liver cells occurred at 0 to 15 mm from bile duct revealed by transmission electron microscope and light microscope. The whole biliary duct wall would be undergone necrosis with irradiation dose over 60 Gy. Conclusions: Normal bile duct possesses good endurance to 192Ir-internal irradiation. Within the safest endurance limit of 50 Gy the effective irradiation field could reach 15 mm from the involved bile duct. (authors)

  19. Radiation field calculation of ventilation duct for 3-MeV electron irradiation accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Ozone will be produced when the accelerator runs. Because ozone can cause corrosive damage to metal, ventilation duct has to be set in the irradiation room to discharge ozone. Purpose: Photons go into the ventilation duct, and then produce additional radiation. To do the quantitative assessment of radiation field at the outlet of duct, the simulate calculation of radiation doses at the outlet has been done. Methods: The Monte Carlo code of MCNP can analog the electronic and photon transport, so that using MCNP can solve the problem. Results: The result shows that the location and the number of backscattered interface of duct significantly affect the dosage rate while the size of duct doesn't. Increasing a backscatter interface can lower dosage rate attenuation about three orders of magnitude. The dosage rate under the target is two orders of magnitude than that in the comer. The setting project of duct is drawn and the ratio of length and depth has been optimized. The duct should be about 3 m long and 80 cm deep when the multi-tortuous duct is placed under the target, and U-shaped duct should be about 6 m long and l m deep when it is set at the comer of irradiation room. Conclusions: In order to reduce dosage rates and economic costs, the shape of duct and the location of duct are designed critically. And according to the actual situation, the project is flexible. (authors)

  20. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.