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Sample records for branch and bound algorithms

  1. A new branch and bound algorithm for minimax ratios problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yingfeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an efficient branch and bound algorithm for globally solving the minimax fractional programming problem (MFP. By introducing an auxiliary variable, an equivalent problem is firstly constructed and the convex relaxation programming problem is then established by utilizing convexity and concavity of functions in the problem. Other than usual branch and bound algorithm, an adapted partition skill and a practical reduction technique performed only in an unidimensional interval are incorporated into the algorithm scheme to significantly improve the computational performance. The global convergence is proved. Finally, some comparative experiments and a randomized numerical test are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. PENERAPAN BRANCH AND BOUND ALGORITHM DALAM OPTIMALISASI PRODUKSI ROTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEDE SURYAWAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies which engaged in production activities such as Ramadhan Bakery would want optimal profit in their every production. The aim of this study was to find optimal profit and optimal combination of bread production (original chocolate bread, extra chocolate bread, rounding chocolate bread and mattress chocolate bread that was produced by Ramadhan Bakery by applying Branch and Bound Algorithm method. Branch and Bound Algorithm is one method to solve Integer Programming’s problems other than Cutting Plane method. Compared with Cutting Plane method, Branch and Bound Algorithm method is more effective in determining the optimal value. As the result of this study showed that to get optimal profit, Ramadhan Bakery should produce 360 pcs of original chocolate bread, 300 pcs of extra chocolate bread, 306 pcs of rounding chocolate bread and 129 pcs of mattress chocolate bread with optimal profit amounts Rp. 1.195.624,00.. The profit will increase amounts 25,2 % than before.

  3. A branch and bound algorithm for the global optimization of Hessian Lipschitz continuous functions

    KAUST Repository

    Fowkes, Jaroslav M.

    2012-06-21

    We present a branch and bound algorithm for the global optimization of a twice differentiable nonconvex objective function with a Lipschitz continuous Hessian over a compact, convex set. The algorithm is based on applying cubic regularisation techniques to the objective function within an overlapping branch and bound algorithm for convex constrained global optimization. Unlike other branch and bound algorithms, lower bounds are obtained via nonconvex underestimators of the function. For a numerical example, we apply the proposed branch and bound algorithm to radial basis function approximations. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. The lower bound on complexity of parallel branch-and-bound algorithm for subset sum problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, Roman; Posypkin, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    The subset sum problem is a particular case of the Boolean knapsack problem where each item has the price equal to its weight. This problem can be informally stated as searching for most dense packing of a set of items into a box with limited capacity. Recently, coarse-grain parallelization approaches to Branch-and-Bound (B&B) method attracted some attention due to the growing popularity of weakly-connected distributed computing platforms. In this paper we consider one of such approaches for solving the subset sum problem. One of the processors (manager) performs some number of B&B steps on the first stage with generating some subproblems. On the second stage, the generated subproblems are sent to other processors, one subproblem per processor. The processors solve completely the received subproblems, the manager collects all the obtained solutions and chooses the optimal one. For this algorithm we formally define the parallel execution model (frontal scheme of parallelization) and the notion of the frontal scheme complexity. We study the frontal scheme complexity for a series of subset sum problems.

  5. A GPU-accelerated Branch-and-Bound Algorithm for the Flow-Shop Scheduling Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Melab, Nouredine; Chakroun, Imen; Mezmaz, Mohand; Tuyttens, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Branch-and-Bound (B&B) algorithms are time intensive tree-based exploration methods for solving to optimality combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we investigate the use of GPU computing as a major complementary way to speed up those methods. The focus is put on the bounding mechanism of B&B algorithms, which is the most time consuming part of their exploration process. We propose a parallel B&B algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated bounding model. The pr...

  6. Summary Of Branch And Bound Algorithm For BIP (0,1) Using LP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A generic algorithm is presented and illustrated by solving a knapsack problem. Keywords: Linear programming, Binary Integer programming, Relaxation, Branch and Bound, Variable selection, Partitioning, fathoming, Depth-first search, Fixing Variable Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume ...

  7. Branch and bound algorithms to solve semiring constraint satisfaction problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available . (2004) 4. Georget, Y., Codognet, P.: Compiling semiring-based constraint with clp(fd,s). In: Proceedings of CP-1998. (1998) 5. Bistarelli, S., Fargier, H., Montanari, U., Rossi, F., Schiex, T., Verfaillie, G.: Semiring-based CSPs and valued CSPs...

  8. A branch-and-bound algorithm for the capacitated facility location problem with convex production costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Andreas

    We consider the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) with differentiable convex production cost functions. The problem arises in numerous real-world applications as queues in call-centres, serverqueueing or when production is pushed beyond normal capacity limits. For finding proven optimal...... solutions, we suggest a branch-and-bound algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation and subgradient optimization. The algorithm basically extends a similar method for the classical linear cost CFLP to the convex cost case. The method is compared on a large number of test instances to three other exact...

  9. A Branch-and-Bound Algorithm Embedded with DCA for DC Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The special importance of Difference of Convex (DC functions programming has been recognized in recent studies on nonconvex optimization problems. In this work, a class of DC programming derived from the portfolio selection problems is studied. The most popular method applied to solve the problem is the Branch-and-Bound (B&B algorithm. However, “the curse of dimensionality” will affect the performance of the B&B algorithm. DC Algorithm (DCA is an efficient method to get a local optimal solution. It has been applied to many practical problems, especially for large-scale problems. A B&B-DCA algorithm is proposed by embedding DCA into the B&B algorithms, the new algorithm improves the computational performance and obtains a global optimal solution. Computational results show that the proposed B&B-DCA algorithm has the superiority of the branch number and computational time than general B&B. The nice features of DCA (inexpensiveness, reliability, robustness, globality of computed solutions, etc. provide crucial support to the combined B&B-DCA for accelerating the convergence of B&B.

  10. A multi-queue branch-and-bound algorithm for anytime optimal search with biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, R H; Sazhin, A; Sun, Y; Steffin, N; Irani, S S

    2001-01-01

    Many practical biological problems involve an intractable (NP-hard) search through a large space of possibilities. This paper describes preliminary results from a multi-queue variant of branch-and-bound search that combines anytime and optimal search behavior. The algorithm applies to problems whose solutions may be described by an N-dimensional vector. It produces an approximate solution quickly, then iteratively improves the result over time until a global optimum is produced. A global optimum may be produced before producing its proof of global optimality. Local minima are never revisited. We describe preliminary applications to ab initio protein backbone prediction, small drug-like molecule conformations, and protein-DNA binding motif discovery. The results are encouraging, although still quite preliminary.

  11. A simple but usually fast branch-and-bound algorithm for the capacitated facility location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. To guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions to the Lagrangean...... subproblem. Branching decisions are then based on this estimated (fractional) primal solution. Extensive numerical results reveal that the method is much faster and more robust than other state-of-the-art methods for solving the CFLP exactly....

  12. A subgradient-based branch-and-bound algorithm for the capacitated facility location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. In order to guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions to the L......This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. In order to guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions...... to the Lagrangean subproblem. Branching decisions are then based on this estimated (fractional) primal solution. Extensive numerical results reveal that the method is much more faster and robust than other state-of-the-art methods for solving the CFLP exactly....

  13. A Branch and Bound Algorithm for a Class of Biobjective Mixed Integer Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan; Dammann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Most real-world optimization problems are multiobjective by nature, involving noncomparable objectives. Many of these problems can be formulated in terms of a set of linear objective functions that should be simultaneously optimized over a class of linear constraints. Often there is the complicat......Most real-world optimization problems are multiobjective by nature, involving noncomparable objectives. Many of these problems can be formulated in terms of a set of linear objective functions that should be simultaneously optimized over a class of linear constraints. Often...... Pareto-optimal front). In this paper, we first give a survey of the newly developed branch and bound methods for solving MOMIP problems. After that, we propose a new branch and bound method for solving a subclass of MOMIP problems, where only two objectives are allowed, the integer variables are binary...

  14. On parallel Branch and Bound frameworks for Global Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, Juan F.R.; Salmerón, José M.G.; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Asenjo, Rafael; Casado, Leocadio G.

    2017-01-01

    Branch and Bound (B&B) algorithms are known to exhibit an irregularity of the search tree. Therefore, developing a parallel approach for this kind of algorithms is a challenge. The efficiency of a B&B algorithm depends on the chosen Branching, Bounding, Selection, Rejection, and Termination

  15. A Single-Machine Two-Agent Scheduling Problem by a Branch-and-Bound and Three Simulated Annealing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangchia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of distributed decision making, different agents share a common processing resource, and each agent wants to minimize a cost function depending on its jobs only. These issues arise in different application contexts, including real-time systems, integrated service networks, industrial districts, and telecommunication systems. Motivated by its importance on practical applications, we consider two-agent scheduling on a single machine where the objective is to minimize the total completion time of the jobs of the first agent with the restriction that an upper bound is allowed the total completion time of the jobs for the second agent. For solving the proposed problem, a branch-and-bound and three simulated annealing algorithms are developed for the optimal solution, respectively. In addition, the extensive computational experiments are also conducted to test the performance of the algorithms.

  16. A Branch and Bound Algorithm for the Exact Solution of the Problem of EMU Circulation Scheduling in Railway Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the scheduling of Electrical Multiple Units (EMUs under the condition of their utilization on one sector or within several interacting sectors. Based on the introduction of the train connection graph which describes the possible connection relationship between trains, the integer programming model of EMU circulation planning is constructed. In order to analyzing the resolution of the model, a heuristic which shares the characteristics with the existing methods is introduced first. This method consists of two stages: one is a greedy strategy to construct a feasible circulation plan fragment, and another is to apply a stochastic disturbance to it to generate a whole feasible solution or get a new feasible solution. Then, an exact branch and bound method which is based on graph designing is proposed. Due to the complexity, the lower bound is computed through a polynomial approximation algorithm which is a modification from the one solving the degree constraint minimum 1-tree problem. Then, a branching strategy is designed to cope with the maintenance constraints. Finally, we report extensive computational results on a railway corridor in which the sectors possess the basic feature of railway networks.

  17. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubeva Yana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer’s interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  18. PICO: An Object-Oriented Framework for Branch and Bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ECKSTEIN,JONATHAN; HART,WILLIAM E.; PHILLIPS,CYNTHIA A.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the design of PICO, a C++ framework for implementing general parallel branch-and-bound algorithms. The PICO framework provides a mechanism for the efficient implementation of a wide range of branch-and-bound methods on an equally wide range of parallel computing platforms. We first discuss the basic architecture of PICO, including the application class hierarchy and the package's serial and parallel layers. We next describe the design of the serial layer, and its central notion of manipulating subproblem states. Then, we discuss the design of the parallel layer, which includes flexible processor clustering and communication rates, various load balancing mechanisms, and a non-preemptive task scheduler running on each processor. We describe the application of the package to a branch-and-bound method for mixed integer programming, along with computational results on the ASCI Red massively parallel computer. Finally we describe the application of the branch-and-bound mixed-integer programming code to a resource constrained project scheduling problem for Pantex.

  19. Parallel Branch-and-Bound Methods for the Job Shop Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Perregaard, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Job-shop scheduling (JSS) problems are among the more difficult to solve in the class of NP-complete problems. The only successful approach has been branch-and-bound based algorithms, but such algorithms depend heavily on good bound functions. Much work has been done to identify such functions...

  20. A branch-and-bound algorithm for single-machine earliness-tardiness scheduling with idle time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    We address the NP-hard single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs so as to minimize the sum of α times total completion time and β times total earliness with β > α, which can be rewritten as an earliness–tardiness problem. Postponing jobs by leaving the machine idle may then be

  1. New Mathematical Strategy Using Branch and Bound Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarray, Tanveer Ahmad; Bhat, Muzafar Rasool

    In this paper, the problem of optimal allocation in stratified random sampling is used in the presence of nonresponse. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem (NLPP) and is solved using Branch and Bound method. Also the results are formulated through LINGO.

  2. Bi-objective branch-and-cut algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Sune Lauth; Ehrgott, Matthias; Nielsen, Lars Relund

    bound sets that prevents us from solving the bi-objective LP-relaxation of each branching node. To strengthen the lower bound sets, we propose a bi-objective cutting plane algorithm that dynamically adjusts the weights of the objective functions such that different parts of the feasible set...... are strengthened by cutting planes. In addition, we suggest an extension of the branching strategy "Pareto branching''. Extensive computational results obtained for the bi-objective single source capacitated facility location problem prove the effectiveness of the algorithms....

  3. Subdivision, Sampling, and Initialization Strategies for Simplical Branch and Bound in Global Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Zilinskas, A,

    2002-01-01

    are based on the sampling of function values. We propose a branch and bound algorithm based on regular simplexes. Initially, the domain in question is covered with regular simplexes, and our subdivision scheme maintains this property. The bound calculation becomes both simple and efficient, and we describe...... two schemes for sampling points of the function: midpoint sampling and vertex sampling. The convergence of the algorithm is proved, and numerical results are presented for the two dimensional case, for which also a special initial covering is presented. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights...

  4. Branch-and-bound approach for parsimonious inference of a species tree from a set of gene family trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Jean-Philippe; Chauve, Cedric

    2011-01-01

    We describe a Branch-and-Bound algorithm for computing a parsimonious species tree, given a set of gene family trees. Our algorithm can consider three cost measures: number of gene duplications, number of gene losses, and both combined. Moreover, to cope with intrinsic limitations of Branch-and-Bound algorithms for species trees inference regarding the number of taxa that can be considered, our algorithm can naturally take into account predefined relationships between sets of taxa. We test our algorithm on a dataset of eukaryotic gene families spanning 29 taxa.

  5. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n......) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...... perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  6. Solving standard traveling salesman problem and multiple traveling salesman problem by using branch-and-bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shakila; Wan Jaafar, Wan Nurhadani; Jamil, Siti Jasmida

    2013-04-01

    The standard Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is the classical Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) while Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP) is an extension of TSP when more than one salesman is involved. The objective of MTSP is to find the least costly route that the traveling salesman problem can take if he wishes to visit exactly once each of a list of n cities and then return back to the home city. There are a few methods that can be used to solve MTSP. The objective of this research is to implement an exact method called Branch-and-Bound (B&B) algorithm. Briefly, the idea of B&B algorithm is to start with the associated Assignment Problem (AP). A branching strategy will be applied to the TSP and MTSP which is Breadth-first-Search (BFS). 11 nodes of cities are implemented for both problem and the solutions to the problem are presented.

  7. A semidefinite programming based branch-and-bound framework for the quadratic assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truetsch, U.

    2014-01-01

    The practical approach to calculate an exact solution for a quadratic assignment problem (QAP) via a branch-and-bound framework depends strongly on a "smart" choice of different strategies within the framework, for example the branching strategy, heuristics for the upper bound or relaxations for the

  8. A Partitioning and Bounded Variable Algorithm for Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Theodore J.

    2006-01-01

    An interesting new partitioning and bounded variable algorithm (PBVA) is proposed for solving linear programming problems. The PBVA is a variant of the simplex algorithm which uses a modified form of the simplex method followed by the dual simplex method for bounded variables. In contrast to the two-phase method and the big M method, the PBVA does…

  9. Efficient Implementation Of Branch-And-Bound Method On Desktop Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC is an opensource middleware system for volunteer and desktop grid computing. In this paper we propose BNBTEST, a BOINC version of distributed branch and bound method. The crucial issues of distributed branch-and-bound method are traversing the search tree and loading balance. We developed subtaskspackaging method and three dierent subtasks' distribution strategies to solve these.

  10. Balancing Waste Water Treatment Plant Load Using Branch and Bound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nooijen, R.R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of smoothing dry weather inflow variations for
    a Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) that receives sewage from
    multiple mixed sewer systems is presented, together with a first rough
    solution algorithm. A simplification followed by a naive translation into
    a zero-one linear

  11. A return to the traveling salesman model: a network branch and bound approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Munapo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a network branch and bound approach for solving the traveling salesman problem. The problem is broken into sub-problems, each of which is solved as a minimum spanning tree model. This is easier to solve than either the linear programming-based or assignment models.

  12. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with multiple use of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Karaoğlan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the vehicle routing problem with multiple use of vehicles (VRPMUV, an important variant of the classic vehicle routing problem (VRP. Unlike the classical VRP, vehicles are allowed to use more than one route in the VRPMUV. We propose a branch-and-cut algorithm for solving the VRPMUV. The proposed algorithm includes several valid inequalities from the literature for the purpose of improving its lower bounds, and a heuristic algorithm based on simulated annealing and a mixed integer programming-based intensification procedure for obtaining the upper bounds. The algorithm is evaluated in terms of the test problems derived from the literature. The computational results which follow show that, if there were 120 customers on the route (in the simulation, the problem would be solved optimally in a reasonable amount of time.

  13. Design of planar articulated mechanisms using branch and bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers an optimization model and a solution method for the design of two-dimensional mechanical mechanisms. The mechanism design problem is modeled as a nonconvex mixed integer program which allows the optimal topology and geometry of the mechanism to be determined simultaneously. T...

  14. Design of planar articulated mechanisms using branch and bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers an optimization model and a solution method for the design of two-dimensional mechanical mechanisms. The mechanism design problem is modeled as a nonconvex mixed integer program which allows the optimal topology and geometry of the mechanism to be determined simultaneously. T...

  15. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the symmetric two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an exact method for solving the symmetric two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem, a transportation problem concerned with the distribution of goods from a depot to a set of customers through a set of satellite locations. The presented method is based on an edge flow...... model that is a relaxation and provides a valid lower bound. A specialized branching scheme is employed to obtain feasible solutions. Out of a test set of 93 instances the algorithm is able to solve 47 to optimality surpassing previous exact algorithms....

  16. Aplikasi Algoritma Branch and Bound Untuk Optimasi Jalur Pemadam Kebakaran Kota Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Margiyani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kasus kebakaran di Indonesia, khususnya Kota Yogyakarta dari tahun ke tahun masih menunjukkan angka yang tinggi. Hal ini mengakibatkan kerugian yang cukup tinggi bagi korban kebakaran. Untuk meminimalisasi terjadinya korban jiwa dan kerugian secara material saat terjadi kebakaran, maka pihak pemadam kebakaran mengupayakan melalui rute terpendek untuk sampai di lokasi kebakaran. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah pencarian rute terpendek jalur pemadam kebakaran dari kantor pemadam sampai ke lokasi kebakaran. Permasalahan pencarian rute terpendek jalur pemadam kebakaran secara abstrak dapat digambarkan dengan suatu graf yang merupakan masalah optimasi dalam pencarian rute terpendek (Shortest Path Problem. Pemecahan permasalahan tersebut adalah dengan merepresentasikan peta pemadam kebakaran ke dalam bentuk graf berbobot dan berarah, selanjutnya permasalahan diselesaikan menggunakan Algoritma Branch and Bound. Perhitungan dilakukan secara manual dengan jarak (dalam meter sebagai bobot perhitungan.  Berdasarkan perhitungan menggunakan Algoritma Branch and Bound untuk optimasi jalur pemadam kebakaran Kota Yogyakarta untuk wilayah Kecamatan Umbulharjo menghasilkan solusi rute: Kantor pemadam kebakaran – Jln. Ipda Tut Harsono - Jln. Kusumanegara – Jln. Glagahsari – Kantor Kecamatan Umbulharjo dengan total jarak 5305 meter atau 5,035 km.

  17. APLIKASI PARALEL BRANCH AND BOUND UNTUK MENYELESAIKAN VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEM MENGGUNAKAN PUSTAKA MPICH DAN GLPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.X. Arunanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP merupakan permasalahan optimasi dalam Riset Operasional, yaitu permasalahan melakukan pengantaran barang (komoditas dari sebuah depot ke sejumlah pelanggan dengan lokasi dan jumlah permintaan barang yang diketahui. Karakteristik VRP yang diimplementasikan adalah VRP yang mempunyai kapasitas kendaraan sama, jumlah kendaraan tetap, batasan jarak dan meminimalkan jarak tempuh semua kendaraan sebagai tujuan. Untuk penyelesaian VRP, diimplementasikan algoritma paralel branch and bound yang dapat dijalankan oleh beberapa komputer untuk mendapatkan solusi eksak dengan waktu komputasi yang lebih cepat. Langkah-langkah penyelesaian VRP dengan algoritma paralel branch and bound dimulai dengan tahap inisialisasi, yang menghasilkan subproblem yang berupa program linear pada search tree, kemudian dilakukan pembagian subproblem ke sejumlah komputer untuk dikerjakan masing-masing komputer. Setelah proses komputasi selesai, diperoleh solusi optimal beserta informasi rute terbaik yang ditemukan. Uji coba dan evaluasi dilakukan dengan data yang dihasilkan secara acak, untuk jumlah pelanggan sebanyak 15-40, dengan menggunakan 1, 2, 4, dan 8 komputer. Dari hasil pengukuran waktu komputasi, didapat bahwa penambahan jumlah komputer pada proses komputasi dapat mempercepat waktu komputasi, bahkan dapat mencapai superlinear speedup terutama untuk jumlah pelanggan yang besar, akan tetapi pada suatu saat penambahan jumlah komputer malah memperlambat waktu komputasi, karena overhead waktu komunikasi yang semakin besar.

  18. Deterministic Optimization Model of Elevetor Operation Problemsand An Application of Branch-and-Bound Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Tsutomu; Tamaki, Hisashi; Murao, Hajime; Kitamura, Shinzo

    In this paper, we propose a framework for obtaining the optimal car service to elevator operation problems by applying branch-and-bound methods based on the deterministic optimization model. In building the model, we assume the followings: the numbers such as time and car positions are discritized, the movement of cars and passengers synchronized with discrete time, and all passengers arriving to the hall is known beforehand. In the model, the transportation of any passenger is considered as a combination of two jobs, i.e., an into-job and an out-of-job. The into-job corresponds to a passenger's getting into a car, while the out-of-job corresponds to getting out of a car. Here, the optimal car service of the problem is obtained by assigning each into-job to an appropriate car and determining the processing order of into- and out-of-jobs for each car under some constraints including the precedence conditions. In designing a BAB solution, the assignment of into-jobs to cars and the processing order of jobs on each car are taken as decision variables. It is expected that the optimal (or near-optimal) car service obtained by applying such techniques as branch-and-bound methods based on the model is helpful to estimate the effectiveness of the utilization of look-ahead information. It is also useful in valuating the performance of the existing rules for elevator operation. In the paper, by using the proposed method, the validity of an existing rule, i.e., the Call-Dispatching and Selective-Collective rule (CDSC), is examined. The results of computational experiments show that the performance of the CDSC rule is not always the optimal or near-optimal, while it reveals a practical potential, i.e., it generates rather good car services within very short time.

  19. A Branch-and-Bound Framework for Unsupervised Common Event Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wen-Sheng; De la Torre, Fernando; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Messinger, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    Event discovery aims to discover a temporal segment of interest, such as human behavior, actions or activities. Most approaches to event discovery within or between time series use supervised learning. This becomes problematic when some relevant event labels are unknown, are difficult to detect, or not all possible combinations of events have been anticipated. To overcome these problems, this paper explores Common Event Discovery (CED), a new problem that aims to discover common events of variable-length segments in an unsupervised manner. A potential solution to CED is searching over all possible pairs of segments, which would incur a prohibitive quartic cost. In this paper, we propose an efficient branch-and-bound (B&B) framework that avoids exhaustive search while guaranteeing a globally optimal solution. To this end, we derive novel bounding functions for various commonality measures and provide extensions to multiple commonality discovery and accelerated search. The B&B framework takes as input any multidimensional signal that can be quantified into histograms. A generalization of the framework can be readily applied to discover events at the same or different times (synchrony and event commonality, respectively). We consider extensions to video search and supervised event detection. The effectiveness of the B&B framework is evaluated in motion capture of deliberate behavior and in video of spontaneous facial behavior in diverse interpersonal contexts: interviews, small groups of young adults, and parent-infant face-to-face interaction.

  20. Solving Quadratic Assignment Problem with Fixed Assignment (QAPFA) using Branch and Bound Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuthairah Syed-Abdullah, Sharifah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Mauziah Benjamin, Aida; Wibowo, Antoni; Ku-Mahamud, Ku-Ruhana

    2018-01-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) has been a very popular problem to be solved among researchers due to its practical applications. Several variants of QAP have been proposed by researchers in the past in order to reflect the real situations of QAP. One of the real problems of QAP is related with facilities which are required to be assigned to certain locations due to its function. In solving this problem, a fixed assignment has to be made thus allowing for the complexity of the problem to be reduced. Hence, this study introduces Quadratic Assignment Problem with Fixed Assignment (QAPFA) with the objective to minimize the assignment cost between the facility and location. This assignment takes into account the flow and distance between facility and location. QAPFA represents the real-world situation of the problem especially in dealing with specific requirement of some facilities to specific locations. Dataset of QAPFA is introduced and is solved using branch and bound approach. As for validation, the results of QAPFA are compared with QAP in terms of objective function and running time. The computational results show that the solution quality of QAPFA is lower when compared with the QAP, while the running time for QAPFA is lower than the QAP. Since the complexity of the problem is reduced by fixing the assignment, thus there is possibility that QAPFA has lower quality than QAP due to the fixed assignment. Nevertheless, in terms of running time QAPFA is better than QAP. It can be concluded that this problem reflect the real problem and practical to be used.

  1. A Branch-and-Cut Algorithm for Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    The elementary shortest path with resource constraints are commonly solved with dynamic programming algorithms. We present a branch-and-cut algorithm for the undirected version. Two types of resources are discussed: A capacity and a fixed charge resource. The former is the subproblem...

  2. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    The elementary shortest path with resource constraints have commonly been solved with dynamic programming algorithms. Assuming an undirected graph, we present a compact formulation of this problem and a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve it. Two types of resources are discussed: a capacity...... and a fixed charge resource. The former is the subproblem of the capacitated vehicle routing problem and the latter is from the split delivery version. Computational results are presented and compared to dynamic programming algorithms....

  3. Nonatomic dual bakery algorithm with bounded tokens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravind, Alex A.; Hesselink, Wim H.

    A simple mutual exclusion algorithm is presented that only uses nonatomic shared variables of bounded size, and that satisfies bounded overtaking. When the shared variables behave atomically, it has the first-come-first-served property (FCFS). Nonatomic access makes information vulnerable. The

  4. Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...

  5. A Branch-and-Price Algorithm for the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Holk; Lysgaard, Jens; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    We address the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands (CARPSD), which we formulate as a Set Partitioning Problem. The CARPSD is solved by a Branch-and-Price algorithm, which we apply without graph transformation. The demand's stochastic nature is incorporated into the pricing...

  6. CUDA optimization strategies for compute- and memory-bound neuroimaging algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daren; Dinov, Ivo; Dong, Bin; Gutman, Boris; Yanovsky, Igor; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-06-01

    As neuroimaging algorithms and technology continue to grow faster than CPU performance in complexity and image resolution, data-parallel computing methods will be increasingly important. The high performance, data-parallel architecture of modern graphical processing units (GPUs) can reduce computational times by orders of magnitude. However, its massively threaded architecture introduces challenges when GPU resources are exceeded. This paper presents optimization strategies for compute- and memory-bound algorithms for the CUDA architecture. For compute-bound algorithms, the registers are reduced through variable reuse via shared memory and the data throughput is increased through heavier thread workloads and maximizing the thread configuration for a single thread block per multiprocessor. For memory-bound algorithms, fitting the data into the fast but limited GPU resources is achieved through reorganizing the data into self-contained structures and employing a multi-pass approach. Memory latencies are reduced by selecting memory resources whose cache performance are optimized for the algorithm's access patterns. We demonstrate the strategies on two computationally expensive algorithms and achieve optimized GPU implementations that perform up to 6× faster than unoptimized ones. Compared to CPU implementations, we achieve peak GPU speedups of 129× for the 3D unbiased nonlinear image registration technique and 93× for the non-local means surface denoising algorithm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phylogenies without Branch Bounds: Contracting the Short, Pruning the Deep

    CERN Document Server

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Roch, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new phylogenetic reconstruction algorithm which, unlike most previous rigorous inference techniques, does not rely on assumptions regarding the branch lengths or the depth of the tree. The algorithm returns a forest which is guaranteed to contain all edges that are: 1) sufficiently long and 2) sufficiently close to the leaves. How much of the true tree is recovered depends on the sequence length provided. The algorithm is distance-based and runs in polynomial time.

  8. JPLEX: Java Simplex Implementation with Branch-and-Bound Search for Automated Test Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ryoungsun; Kim, Jiseon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chung, Hyewon

    2011-01-01

    JPLEX, short for Java simPLEX, is an automated test assembly (ATA) program. It is a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver written in Java. It reads in a configuration file, solves the minimization problem, and produces an output file for postprocessing. It implements the simplex algorithm to create a fully relaxed solution and…

  9. Cutting Planes for Branch-and-Price Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desaulniers, Guy; Desrosiers, Jacques; Spoorendonk, Simon

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a general framework for formulating cutting planes in the context of column generation for integer programs. Valid inequalities can be derived using the variables of an equivalent compact formulation (i.e., the subproblem variables) or the master problem variables. In the fi......This article presents a general framework for formulating cutting planes in the context of column generation for integer programs. Valid inequalities can be derived using the variables of an equivalent compact formulation (i.e., the subproblem variables) or the master problem variables....... In the first case, cuts are added to the compact formulation, either at the master level or the subproblem level, and the decomposition process is reapplied. In the second case, we show that it is possible to model inequalities defined on the master problem variables by adding new variables and constraints......, and the cutting stock problem. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. NETWORKS, Vol. 58(4), 301–310 2011...

  10. $b \\to d$ Penguins CP Violation, General Lower Bounds on the Branching Ratios and Standard Model Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert; Fleischer, Robert; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    With the wealth of new data from the B-factories, b -> d penguin decays become available for study, in addition to their b -> s counterparts that have proven an indespensable tool for the exploration of new-physics effects in flavour physics. A prominent example of the b -> d penguin transitions is $\\bar B^0_d \\to K^0 \\bar K^0$. We show that this decay can be charaterized in the Standard Model by a surface in the observable space of the direct and mixing-induced CP asymmetries and the branching ratio. The form of this surface, which is theoretically clean, implies a lower bound for the branching ratio that has recently been confirmed experimentally. If future measurements of the CP asymmetries yield a point away from the SM surface, this would be an interesting signal of new physics. We point out that the hadronic parameters in $\\bar B^0_d \\to K^0 \\bar K^0$ that parameterize the position on the SM surface are related to hadronic parameters in the B -> pi K system. The fact that the branching ratio of $\\bar B^...

  11. New facets and a branch-and-cut algorithm for the weighted clique problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2004-01-01

    defining inequalities in a branch-and-cut algorithm for the problem. We give a description of this algorithm, including some separation procedures, and present the computational results for different sets of test problems. The computation times that are obtained indicate that this algorithm is more......We consider a polyhedral approach to the weighted maximal b-clique problem. Given a node- and edge-weighted complete graph the problem is to find a complete subgraph (clique) with no more than b nodes such that the sum of the weights of all nodes and edges in the clique is maximal. We introduce...... four new classes of facet defining inequalities for the associated b-clique polytope. One of these inequality classes constitutes a generalization of the well known tree inequalities; the other classes are associated with multistars. We use these inequalities together with other classes of facet...

  12. New Facets and a Branch-and-Cut Algorithm for the Weighted Clique Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2001-01-01

    of facet defining inequalities in a branch-and-cut algorithm for the problem. We give a description of this algorithm, including some separation procedures, and present the computational results for different sets of test problems. The computation times that are obtained indicate that this algorithm......We consider a polyhedral approach to the weighted maximal b-clique problem. Given a node- and edge-weighted complete graph the problem is to find a complete subgraph (clique) with no more than b nodes such that the sum of the weights of all nodes and edges in the clique is maximal. We introduce...... four new classes of facet defining inequalities for the associated b-clique polytope. One of these inequality classes constitutes a generalization of the well known tree inequalities; the other classes are associated with multistars. We utilize these inequality classes together with other classes...

  13. Solusi Optimal Model Optimisasi Robust Untuk Masalah Traveling Salesman Dengan Ketidaktentuan Kotak Dan Pendekatan Metode Branch And Bound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Amriyati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP merupakan teknik pencarian rute yang dimulai dari satu titik awal, setiap kota harus dikunjungi sekali dan kemudian kembali ke tempat asal sehingga total jarak atau waktu perjalanan adalah minimum. Untuk mengatasi kedakpastian jarak atau waktu perjalanan, maka perlu dilakukan pengembangan model TSP. Salah satu bidang Optimisasi yang mampu menyelesaikan permasalahan terkait ketidakpastian adalah Optimisasi Robust. Dalam makalah ini dibahas mengenai penerapan Optimisasi Robust pada TSP (RTSP menggunakan pendekatan Box Uncertainty dan diselesaikan dengan menggunakan Metode Branch and Bound. Disajikan simulasi numerik pada software aplikasi Maple untuk beberapa kasus nyata terkait penerapan Optimisasi RTSP , seperti masalah manajemen konstruksi, penentuan jarak tempuh kota di Pulau Jawa, dan Penentuan Rute Mandiri Fun Run.

  14. Formulations and Branch-and-Cut Algorithms for the Generalized Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bektas, Tolga; Erdogan, Günes; Røpke, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The Generalized Vehicle Routing Problem (GVRP) consists of nding a set of routes for a number of vehicles with limited capacities on a graph with the vertices partitioned into clusters with given demands such that the total cost of travel is minimized and all demands are met. This paper offers four...... new integer linear programming formulations for the GVRP, two based on multicommodity flow and the other two based on exponential sets of inequalities. Branch-and-cut algorithms are proposed for the latter two. Computational results on a large set of instances are presented....

  15. A hybrid of genetic algorithm and Fletcher-Reeves for bound constrained optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoke Kumar Bhunia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid algorithm for solving bound constrained optimization problems having continuously differentiable objective functions using Fletcher Reeves method and advanced Genetic Algorithm (GA have been proposed. In this approach, GA with advanced operators has been applied for computing the step length in the feasible direction in each iteration of Fletcher Reeves method. Then this idea has been extended to a set of multi-point approximations instead of single point approximation to avoid the convergence of the existing method at local optimum and a new method, called population based Fletcher Reeves method, has been proposed to find the global or nearer to global optimum. Finally to study the performance of the proposed method, several multi-dimensional standard test functions having continuous partial derivatives have been solved. The results have been compared with the same of recently developed hybrid algorithm with respect to different comparative factors.

  16. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the capacitated open vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letchford, A.N.; Lysgaard, Jens; Eglese, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    In open vehicle routing problems, the vehicles are not required to return to the depot after completing service. In this paper, we present the first exact optimization algorithm for the open version of the well-known capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). The algorithm is based on branch......-and-cut. We show that, even though the open CVRP initially looks like a minor variation of the standard CVRP, the integer programming formulation and cutting planes need to be modified in subtle ways. Computational results are given for several standard test instances, which enables us for the first time...... to assess the quality of existing heuristic methods, and to compare the relative difficulty of open and closed versions of the same problem....

  17. Affordances of the 'branch and bound' paradigm for developing computational thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Joris; Timmer, Mark

    As technological advances in engineering and computer science happen more and more quickly, we must shift focus from teaching specific techniques or programming languages to teaching something more transcending: computational thinking (Wing, 2006). Wing explained this concept later as “the thought

  18. New Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Sequential-Access Data Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagie, Travis

    2009-02-01

    This thesis concerns sequential-access data compression, i.e., by algorithms that read the input one or more times from beginning to end. In one chapter we consider adaptive prefix coding, for which we must read the input character by character, outputting each character's self-delimiting codeword before reading the next one. We show how to encode and decode each character in constant worst-case time while producing an encoding whose length is worst-case optimal. In another chapter we consider one-pass compression with memory bounded in terms of the alphabet size and context length, and prove a nearly tight tradeoff between the amount of memory we can use and the quality of the compression we can achieve. In a third chapter we consider compression in the read/write streams model, which allows us passes and memory both polylogarithmic in the size of the input. We first show how to achieve universal compression using only one pass over one stream. We then show that one stream is not sufficient for achieving good grammar-based compression. Finally, we show that two streams are necessary and sufficient for achieving entropy-only bounds.

  19. Disjunctive cuts in a branch-and-price algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    This talk presents computational results that show the usefulness of the general-purpose valid inequalities disjunctive cuts when applied to the CVRP. Results indicate that the disjunctive cuts are able to reduce the gap between lower bound and upper bound more than state-of-the-art problem speci...

  20. Measurements of the branching fractions and bounds on the charge asymmetries of charmless three-body charged B decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dorsten, M P; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Bozzi, C; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Back, J J; Bellodi, G; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Ernst, J A; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-08-01

    We present measurements of branching fractions and charge asymmetries for charmless B-meson decays to three-body final states of charged pions and kaons. The analysis uses 81.8 fb(-1) of data collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric B Factory. We measure the branching fractions B(B+-->pi(+)pi(-)pi(+))=(10.9+/-3.3+/-1.6)x10(-6), B(B+-->K+pi(-)pi(+))=(59.1+/-3.8+/-3.2)x10(-6), and B(B+-->K+K-K+)=(29.6+/-2.1+/-1.6)x10(-6) and provide 90% C.L. upper limits for other decays. We observe no charge asymmetries for these modes.

  1. Iterative Estimation Algorithms Using Conjugate Function Lower Bound and Minorization-Maximization with Applications in Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Deng

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in signal processing is to estimate signal from noisy observations. This is usually formulated as an optimization problem. Optimizations based on variational lower bound and minorization-maximization have been widely used in machine learning research, signal processing, and statistics. In this paper, we study iterative algorithms based on the conjugate function lower bound (CFLB and minorization-maximization (MM for a class of objective functions. We propose a generalized version of these two algorithms and show that they are equivalent when the objective function is convex and differentiable. We then develop a CFLB/MM algorithm for solving the MAP estimation problems under a linear Gaussian observation model. We modify this algorithm for wavelet-domain image denoising. Experimental results show that using a single wavelet representation the performance of the proposed algorithms makes better than that of the bishrinkage algorithm which is arguably one of the best in recent publications. Using complex wavelet representations, the performance of the proposed algorithm is very competitive with that of the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  2. Recurrent neural networks training with stable bounding ellipsoid algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen; de Jesús Rubio, José

    2009-06-01

    Bounding ellipsoid (BE) algorithms offer an attractive alternative to traditional training algorithms for neural networks, for example, backpropagation and least squares methods. The benefits include high computational efficiency and fast convergence speed. In this paper, we propose an ellipsoid propagation algorithm to train the weights of recurrent neural networks for nonlinear systems identification. Both hidden layers and output layers can be updated. The stability of the BE algorithm is proven.

  3. Bounded Error Approximation Algorithms for Risk-Based Intrusion Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0324 Bounded Error Approximation Algorithms for Risk-Based Intrusion Response K Subramani West Virginia University Research...2015. 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bounded Error Approximation Algorithms for Risk-Based Intrusion Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0199. 5b. GRANT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our research consisted of modeling the intrusion response problem as one of finding a partial vertex cover in

  4. Properties of branching exponential flights in bounded domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoia, A.; Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2012-11-01

    In a series of recent works, important results have been reported concerning the statistical properties of exponential flights evolving in bounded domains, a widely adopted model for finite-speed transport phenomena (Blanco S. and Fournier R., Europhys. Lett., 61 (2003) 168; Mazzolo A., Europhys. Lett., 68 (2004) 350; Bénichou O. et al., Europhys. Lett., 70 (2005) 42). Motivated by physical and biological systems where random spatial displacements are coupled with Galton-Watson birth-death mechanisms, such as neutron multiplication, diffusion of reproducing bacteria or spread of epidemics, in this letter we extend those results in two directions, via a Feynman-Kac formalism. First, we characterize the occupation statistics of exponential flights in the presence of absorption and branching, and give explicit moment formulas for the total length travelled by the walker and the number of performed collisions in a given domain. Then, we show that the survival and escape probability can be derived as well by resorting to a similar approach.

  5. Measurement of the branching fraction, and bounds on the CP-violating asymmetries, of neutral B decays to D*+/- D-/+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bernet, R; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Borean, C; Bozzi, C; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Back, J J; Bellodi, G; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Winterton, J; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Tehrani, F Safai; Serra, M; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Liu, R; Lodovico, F Di; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-06-06

    We present measurements of the branching fraction and CP-violating asymmetries for neutral B decays to D(*+/-)D-/+. The measurement uses a data sample of approximately 88x10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BBmacr; decays collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e(+)-e(-) collider. By fully reconstructing the D(*+/-)D-/+ decay products, we measure the branching fraction to be (8.8+/-1.0+/-1.3)x10(-4) and the time-integrated CP-violating asymmetry between the rates to D(*-)D+ and D(*+)D- to be A=-0.03+/-0.11+/-0.05. We also measure the time-dependent CP-violating asymmetry parameters to be S(-+)=-0.24+/-0.69+/-0.12, C(-+)=-0.22+/-0.37+/-0.10 for B-->D(*-)D+ and S(+-)=-0.82+/-0.75+/-0.14, C(+-)=-0.47+/-0.40+/-0.12 for B-->D(*+)D-. In each case, the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  6. Application of Heuristic and Metaheuristic Algorithms in Solving Constrained Weber Problem with Feasible Region Bounded by Arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous planar facility location problem with the connected region of feasible solutions bounded by arcs is a particular case of the constrained Weber problem. This problem is a continuous optimization problem which has a nonconvex feasible set of constraints. This paper suggests appropriate modifications of four metaheuristic algorithms which are defined with the aim of solving this type of nonconvex optimization problems. Also, a comparison of these algorithms to each other as well as to the heuristic algorithm is presented. The artificial bee colony algorithm, firefly algorithm, and their recently proposed improved versions for constrained optimization are appropriately modified and applied to the case study. The heuristic algorithm based on modified Weiszfeld procedure is also implemented for the purpose of comparison with the metaheuristic approaches. Obtained numerical results show that metaheuristic algorithms can be successfully applied to solve the instances of this problem of up to 500 constraints. Among these four algorithms, the improved version of artificial bee algorithm is the most efficient with respect to the quality of the solution, robustness, and the computational efficiency.

  7. Heuristic Algorithms for Solving Bounded Diameter Minimum Spanning Tree Problem and Its Application to Genetic Algorithm Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nghia, Nguyen Duc; Binh, Huynh Thi Thanh

    2008-01-01

    We have introduced the heuristic algorithm for solving BDMST problem, called CBRC. The experiment shows that CBRC have best result than the other known heuristic algorithm for solving BDMST prolem on Euclidean instances. The best solution found by the genetic algorithm which uses best heuristic algorithm or only one heuristic algorithm for initialization the population is not better than the best solution found by the genetic algorithm which uses mixed heuristic algorithms (randomized heurist...

  8. Effect of a Culture-Based Screening Algorithm on Tuberculosis Incidence in Immigrants and Refugees Bound for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Posey, Drew L.; Cetron, Martin S.; Painter, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Before 2007, U.S.-bound immigrants and refugees were screened for tuberculosis (TB) by a smear-based algorithm that could not diagnose smear-negative and culture-positive TB. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began to implement a culture-based algorithm. Objective To evaluate the effect of the culture-based algorithm on preventing the importation of TB to the United States by immigrants and refugees from foreign countries. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Setting Panel physician sites for overseas medical examination. Patients Immigrants and refugees with TB. Measurements Comparison of the increase of smear-negative and culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm with the decline of reported TB cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Results Of the 3 212 421 arrivals of immigrants and refugees from 2007 to 2012, 1 650 961 (51.4%) were screened by the smear-based algorithm and 1 561 460 (48.6%) were screened by the culture-based algorithm. Among the 4032 TB cases diagnosed by the culture-based algorithm, 2195 (54.4%) were smear-negative and culture-positive. Before implementation (2002 to 2006), the annual number of reported TB cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival was relatively constant (range, 1424 to 1626 cases; mean, 1504 cases) but decreased from 1511 to 940 cases during implementation (2007 to 2012). During the same period, the annual number of smear-negative and culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among U.S.-bound immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm increased from 4 in 2007 to 629 in 2012. Limitation This analysis did not control for the decline in new arrivals of nonimmigrant visitors to the United States and the decrease of incidence of TB in their countries of origin. Conclusion Implementation of the culture-based algorithm in U.S.-bound

  9. A New Bound for 3-Satisfiable MaxSat and its Algorithmic Application

    CERN Document Server

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Let $F$ be a CNF formula with $n$ variables and $m$ clauses. $F$ is $t$-satisfiable if for any $t$ clauses in $F$, there is a truth assignment which satisfies all of them. Lieberherr and Specker (1982) and, later, Yannakakis (1994) proved that in each 3-satisfiable CNF formula at least 2/3 of its clauses can be satisfied by a truth assignment. Yannakakis's proof utilizes the fact that 2/3 m$ is a lower bound on the expected number of clauses satisfied by a random truth assignment over a certain distribution. A CNF formula $F$ is called \\emph{expanding} if for every subset $X$ of the variables of $F$, the number of clauses containing variables of $X$ is not smaller than $|X|.$ In this paper we strengthen the 2/3 m bound by showing that, for every expanding 3-satisfiable CNF formula $F$, at least 2/3 m + \\rho n$ clauses of $F$ can be satisfied by a truth assignment, where $\\rho(>0.0019)$ is a constant. Our proof uses the probabilistic method with a sophisticated distribution for truth values. We use the bound 2...

  10. Optimizing thermal conductivity in functionalized macromolecules using Langevin dynamics and the globalized and bounded Nelder-Mead algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait moussa, Abdellah; Jassemnejad, Bahaeddin

    2014-05-01

    Nanocomposites with high-aspect ratio fillers attract enormous attention because of the superior physical properties of the composite over the parent matrix. Nanocomposites with functionalized graphene as fillers did not produce the high thermal conductivity expected due to the high interfacial thermal resistance between the functional groups and graphene flakes. We report here a robust and efficient technique that identifies the configuration of the functionalities for improved thermal conductivity. The method combines linearization of the interatomic interactions, calculation, and optimization of the thermal conductivity using the globalized and bounded Nelder-Mead algorithm.

  11. A branch-and-price algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Holk; Lysgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces a new exact algorithm for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands (CVRPSD). The CVRPSD can be formulated as a Set Partitioning Problem and it is shown that the associated column generation subproblem can be solved using a dynamic programming scheme...

  12. A General Nonlinear Optimization Algorithm for Lower Bound Limit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The non-linear programming problem associated with the discrete lower bound limit analysis problem is treated by means of an algorithm where the need to linearize the yield criteria is avoided. The algorithm is an interior point method and is completely general in the sense that no particular...... load optimization problem, and finally the efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated by means of examples of plate and slab structures obeying different non-linear yield criteria....

  13. A branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    2012-01-01

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans such that a high quality of service is maintained, the work hours of the employees are respected, and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. We...... propose a branchand-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates a one-day plan for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect to regularity constraints. The method is capable of generating plans with up to 44 visits during one week....

  14. A Branch-and-Price Algorithm for Two Multi-Compartment Vehicle Routing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Samira; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    Despite the vast body of literature on vehicle routing problems, little attention has been paid to multi-compartment vehicle routing problems that investigate transportation of different commodities on the same vehicle, but in different compartments. In this project, we present two strategically...... by comparing the optimal costs of the two versions. Computational results are presented for instances with up to 100 customers and the algorithm can solve instances with up to 50 customers and 4 commodities to optimality. NOTE: An early version of the paper was made public on the website of the journal...

  15. Upper and lower bounds for disadvantage factors as a test of an algorithm used in a synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackroyd, R.T.; Nanneh, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A lower bound for the disadvantage factor of a lattice cell of arbitrary configuration is obtained using a finite element method which is based on a variational principle for the even-parity angular flux. An upper bound for the disadvantage factor is given by a finite element method using the complementary variational principle for the odd-parity angular flux. These theoretical results are illustrated by calculations for urnaium/graphite and uranium/water lattices. As the approximations are refined the fluxes obtained by the first method tend towards the actual flux from below in the moderator, and from above in the fuel. These trends are reversed for the second method. This derivation of benchmarks for disadvantage factors has been undertaken primarily as a test of an important algorithm used by the authors in a method of synthesising transport solutions starting with a diffusion theory approximation. The algorithm is used to convert odd-parity approximations for the angular flux into even-parity approximations and vice versa.

  16. First direct observation of bound-state beta-decay. Measurements of branching and lifetime of {sup 207}Tl{sup 81+} fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, D.

    2005-08-01

    The first experimental observation of bound-state beta-decay showed, that due solely to the electron stripping, a stable nuclide, e.g. {sup 163}Dy, became unstable. Also a drastic modification of the half-life of bare {sup 187}Re, from 4.12(2) x 10{sup 10} years down to 32.9(20) years, could be observed. It was mainly due to the possibility for the mother nuclide to decay into a previously inaccessible nuclear level of the daughter nuclide. It was proposed to study a nuclide where this decay mode was competing with continuum-state beta-decay, in order to measure their respective branchings. The ratio {beta}{sub b}/{beta}{sub c} could also be evaluated for the first time. {sup 207}Tl was chosen due to its high atomic number, and Q-value of about 1.4 MeV, small enough to enhance the {beta}{sub b} probability and large enough to allow the use of time-resolved Schottky Mass Spectrometry (SMS) to study the evolution of mother and bound-state beta-decay daughter ions. The decay properties of the ground state and isomeric state of {sup 207}Tl{sup 81+} have been investigated at the GSI accelerator facility in two separate experiments. For the first time {beta}-decay where the electron could go either to a bound state (atomic orbitals) and lead to {sup 207}Pb{sup 81+} as a daughter nuclide, or to a continuum state and lead to {sup 207}Pb{sup 82+}, has been observed. The respective branchings of these two processes could be measured as well. The deduced total nuclear half-life of 255(17) s for {sup 207}Tl{sup 81+}, was slightly modified with respect to the half-life of the neutral atom of 286(2) s. It was nevertheless in very good agreement with calculations based on the assumption that the beta-decay was following an allowed type of transition. The branching {beta}{sub b}/{beta}{sub c}=0.192(20), was also in very good agreement with the same calculations. The application of stochastic precooling allowed to observe in addition the 1348 keV short-lived isomeric state of {sup

  17. Spanning Trees whose Stems have a Bounded Number of Branch Vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Let T be a tree, a vertex of degree one and a vertex of degree at least three is called a leaf and a branch vertex, respectively. The set of leaves of T is denoted by Leaf(T. The subtree T − Leaf(T of T is called the stem of T and denoted by Stem(T. In this paper, we give two sufficient conditions for a connected graph to have a spanning tree whose stem has a bounded number of branch vertices, and these conditions are best possible.

  18. A Novel Frequency Synchronization Algorithm and its Cramer Rao Bound in Practical UWB Environment for MB-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chakrabarti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient time-domain coarse frequency offset (FO synchronizer (TCFS for multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM systems effective for practical ultra-wideband (UWB environment. The proposed algorithm derives its estimates based on phase differences in the received subcarrier signals of several successive OFDM symbols in the preamble. We consider different carrier FOs and different channel responses in different bands to keep the analysis and simulation compatible for practical multiband UWB scenario. Performance of the algorithm is studied by means of bit error rate (BER analysis of MBOFDM system. We derive the Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB of the estimation error variance and compare it with the simulated error variance both in additive white Gaussian noise and UWB channel model (CM environments, CM1-CM4. Both analysis and simulation show that TCFS can estimate coarse carrier FO more efficiently in UWB fading channels for MB-OFDM applications compared to the other reported results in literature. Also, computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is analyzed for its usability evaluation.

  19. High-Speed Rail Train Timetabling Problem: A Time-Space Network Based Method with an Improved Branch-and-Price Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisheng He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-space network based optimization method is designed for high-speed rail train timetabling problem to improve the service level of the high-speed rail. The general time-space path cost is presented which considers both the train travel time and the high-speed rail operation requirements: (1 service frequency requirement; (2 stopping plan adjustment; and (3 priority of train types. Train timetabling problem based on time-space path aims to minimize the total general time-space path cost of all trains. An improved branch-and-price algorithm is applied to solve the large scale integer programming problem. When dealing with the algorithm, a rapid branching and node selection for branch-and-price tree and a heuristic train time-space path generation for column generation are adopted to speed up the algorithm computation time. The computational results of a set of experiments on China’s high-speed rail system are presented with the discussions about the model validation, the effectiveness of the general time-space path cost, and the improved branch-and-price algorithm.

  20. Comparing branch-and-price algorithms for the Multi-Commodity k-splittable Maximum Flow Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Petersen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    -Protocol Label Switching. The problem has previously been solved to optimality through branch-and-price. In this paper we propose two exact solution methods both based on an alternative decomposition. The two methods differ in their branching strategy. The first method, which branches on forbidden edge sequences......The Multi-Commodity k-splittable Maximum Flow Problem consists in routing as much flow as possible through a capacitated network such that each commodity uses at most k paths and the capacities are satisfied. The problem appears in telecommunications, specifically when considering Multi...

  1. A branch-and-price algorithm for the capacitated facility location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Andreas; Görtz, Simon

    2007-01-01

    operating and transportation costs. A number of solution approaches based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization has been proposed for this problem. Subgradient optimization does not provide a primal (fractional) optimal solution to the corresponding master problem. However, in order...

  2. A branch-and-price algorithm for a hierarchical crew scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Diego B.C.; Spieksma, Frits C.R.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    We describe a real-life problem arising at a crane rental company. This problem is a generalization of the basic crew scheduling problem given in Mingozzi et al. [18] and Beasley and Cao [6]. We formulate the problem as an integer programming problem and establish ties with the integer

  3. A Branch and Cut algorithm for the container shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    programming model minimizing the overall cost. To better reflect the real-life situation we take into account the cost of transhipment, a heterogeneous fleet, route dependant capacities, and butterfly routes. To the best of our knowledge it is the first time an exact solution method to the problem considers......The network design problem in liner shipping is of increasing importance in a strongly competitive market where potential cost reductions can influence market share and profits significantly. In this paper the network design and fleet assignment problems are combined into a mixed integer linear...

  4. A Branch and Cut algorithm for the container shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Pisinger, David

    The network design problem in liner shipping is of increasing importance in a strongly competitive market where potential cost reductions can influence market share and profits significantly. In this paper the network design and fleet assignment problems are combined into a mixed integer linear...... programming model minimizing the overall cost. To better reflect the real-life situation we take into account the cost of transhipment, a heterogeneous fleet, route dependant capacities, and butterfly routes. To the best of our knowledge it is the first time an exact solution method to the problem considers...

  5. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the capacitated profitable tour problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem (CPTP) which is a special case of the Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints (ESPPRC). The CPTP belongs to the group of problems known as traveling salesman problems with profits. In CPTP each customer is associated...... with a profit and a demand and the objective is to find a capacitated tour (rooted in a depot node) that minimizes the total travel distance minus the profit of the visited customers. The CPTP can be recognized as the sub-problem in many column generation applications, where it is traditionally solved through...

  6. A Branch-and-Price algorithm for railway rolling stock rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Larsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    How to best reschedule their fleet of rolling stock units during a disruption is an optimization problem regularly faced by railway operators. Despite the problem’s high complexity, it is still usually solved manually. In this paper we propose a path based mathematical formulation and solve...

  7. Communication Lower Bounds and Optimal Algorithms for Programs that Reference Arrays - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    by UC Discovery (award DIG07-10227), with additional support from ParLab affiliates National Instruments, Nokia , NVIDIA, Oracle, and Samsung, and...award 024894), and matching funding by UC Discovery (award DIG07-10227), with additional support from ParLab affiliates National Instruments, Nokia

  8. Robust Branch-and-Cut-and-Price for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukasawa, R.; Longo, H.; Lysgaard, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The best exact algorithms for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) have been based on either branch-and-cut or Lagrangean relaxation/column generation. This paper presents an algorithm that combines both approaches: it works over the intersection of two polytopes, one associated...... with a traditional Lagrangean relaxation over q-routes, the other defined by bound, degree and capacity constraints. This is equivalent to a linear program with exponentially many variables and constraints that can lead to lower bounds that are superior to those given by previous methods. The resulting branch...

  9. Analysis of the contact graph routing algorithm: Bounding interplanetary paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrane, Edward; Burleigh, Scott; Kasch, Niels

    2012-06-01

    Interplanetary communication networks comprise orbiters, deep-space relays, and stations on planetary surfaces. These networks must overcome node mobility, constrained resources, and significant propagation delays. Opportunities for wireless contact rely on calculating transmit and receive opportunities, but the Euclidean-distance diameter of these networks (measured in light-seconds and light-minutes) precludes node discovery and contact negotiation. Propagation delay may be larger than the line-of-sight contact between nodes. For example, Mars and Earth orbiters may be separated by up to 20.8 min of signal propagation time. Such spacecraft may never share line-of-sight, but may uni-directionally communicate if one orbiter knows the other's future position. The Contact Graph Routing (CGR) approach is a family of algorithms presented to solve the messaging problem of interplanetary communications. These algorithms exploit networks where nodes exhibit deterministic mobility. For CGR, mobility and bandwidth information is pre-configured throughout the network allowing nodes to construct transmit opportunities. Once constructed, routing algorithms operate on this contact graph to build an efficient path through the network. The interpretation of the contact graph, and the construction of a bounded approximate path, is critically important for adoption in operational systems. Brute force approaches, while effective in small networks, are computationally expensive and will not scale. Methods of inferring cycles or other librations within the graph are difficult to detect and will guide the practical implementation of any routing algorithm. This paper presents a mathematical analysis of a multi-destination contact graph algorithm (MD-CGR), demonstrates that it is NP-complete, and proposes realistic constraints that make the problem solvable in polynomial time, as is the case with the originally proposed CGR algorithm. An analysis of path construction to complement hop

  10. Urinary bladder extracellular matrix hydrogels and matrix-bound vesicles differentially regulate central nervous system neuron viability and axon growth and branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anne; Kandakatla, Apoorva; van der Merwe, Yolandi; Ren, Tanchen; Huleihel, Luai; Hussey, George; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Johnson, Scott; Badylak, Stephen; Steketee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Central nervous system neurons often degenerate after trauma due to the inflammatory innate immune response to injury, which can lead to neuronal cell death, scarring, and permanently lost neurologic function. Extracellular matrix bioscaffolds, derived by decellularizing healthy tissues, have been widely used in both preclinical and clinical studies to promote positive tissue remodeling, including neurogenesis, in numerous tissues, with extracellular matrix from homologous tissues often inducing more positive responses. Extracellular matrix hydrogels are liquid at room temperature and enable minimally invasive extracellular matrix injections into central nervous system tissues, before gelation at 37℃. However, few studies have analyzed how extracellular matrix hydrogels influence primary central nervous system neuron survival and growth, and whether central nervous system and non-central nervous system extracellular matrix specificity is critical to neuronal responses. Urinary bladder extracellular matrix hydrogels increase both primary hippocampal neuron survival and neurite growth to similar or even greater extents, suggesting extracellular matrix from non-homologous tissue sources, such as urinary bladder matrix-extracellular matrix, may be a more economical and safer alternative to developing central nervous system extracellular matrices for central nervous system applications. Additionally, we show matrix-bound vesicles derived from urinary bladder extracellular matrix are endocytosed by hippocampal neurons and positively regulate primary hippocampal neuron neurite growth. Matrix-bound vesicles carry protein and RNA cargos, including noncoding RNAs and miRNAs that map to the human genome and are known to regulate cellular processes. Thus, urinary bladder matrix-bound vesicles provide natural and transfectable cargoes which offer new experimental tools and therapeutic applications to study and treat central nervous system neuron injury.

  11. A new algorithm for computing branching rules and Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of unitary representations of compact groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibort, A.; López Yela, A.; Moro, J.

    2017-10-01

    A numerical algorithm that computes the decomposition of any finite-dimensional unitary reducible representation of a compact Lie group is presented. The algorithm, which does not rely on an algebraic insight into the group structure, is inspired by quantum mechanical notions. After generating two adapted states (these objects will be conveniently defined in Definition II.1) and after appropriate algebraic manipulations, the algorithm returns the block matrix structure of the representation in terms of its irreducible components. It also provides an adapted orthonormal basis. The algorithm can be used to compute the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the tensor product of irreducible representations of a given compact Lie group. The performance of the algorithm is tested on various examples: the decomposition of the regular representation of two finite groups and the computation of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of two examples of tensor products of representations of SU(2).

  12. Bound states and the Bekenstein bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2003-10-16

    We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

  13. Fast Branch & Bound algorithms for optimal feature selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somol, Petr; Pudil, Pavel; Kittler, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 7 (2004), s. 900-912 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/02/1271; GA ČR GA402/03/1310; GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : subset search * feature selection * search tree Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.352, year: 2004

  14. Origin and diagenetic transformations of C 25 and C 30 highly branched isoprenoid sulphur compounds: Further evidence for the formation of organically bound sulphur during early diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, M. E. L.; Damsté, J. S. Slnninghe; Kock-van Dalen, A. C.; Haven, H. L. Ten; Rullkötter, J.; De Leeuw, J. W.

    1990-11-01

    A number of C 25 and C 30 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) sulphur compounds (E.G., thiolanes, 1-oxo-thiolanes, thiophenes, and benzo[ b]thiophenes) with 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)pentadecane and 2,6,10,14,18-pentamethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)nonadecane carbon skeletons were identified in sediments, ranging from Holocene to Upper Cretaceous. These identifications are based on mass spectral characterisation, desulphurisation, and, in some cases, by comparison of mass spectral and relative retention time data with those of authentic standards. The presence of unsaturated C 25 and C 30 HBI thiolanes in a Recent sediment from the Black Sea (age 3-6 × 10 3 a) strongly supports their formation during early diagenesis. The co-occurrence of HBI polyenes (C 25 and C 30) and unsaturated HBI thiolanes (C 25 and C 30) possessing two double bonds less than the corresponding HBI polyenes, in this Recent sediment, testifies to the formation of unsaturated HBI thiolanes by a reaction of inorganic sulphur species with double bonds of the HBI polyenes. Furthermore, a diagenetic scheme for HBI sulphur compounds is proposed based on the identification of HBI sulphur compounds in sediment samples with different maturity levels.

  15. Effect of a culture-based screening algorithm on tuberculosis incidence in immigrants and refugees bound for the United States: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Posey, Drew L; Cetron, Martin S; Painter, John A

    2015-03-17

    Before 2007, immigrants and refugees bound for the United States were screened for tuberculosis (TB) by a smear-based algorithm that could not diagnose smear-negative/culture-positive TB. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a culture-based algorithm. To evaluate the effect of the culture-based algorithm on preventing the importation of TB to the United States by immigrants and refugees from foreign countries. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Panel physician sites for overseas medical examination. Immigrants and refugees with TB. Comparison of the increase of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm with the decline of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Of the 3 212 421 arrivals of immigrants and refugees from 2007 to 2012, a total of 1 650 961 (51.4%) were screened by the smear-based algorithm and 1 561 460 (48.6%) were screened by the culture-based algorithm. Among the 4032 TB cases diagnosed by the culture-based algorithm, 2195 (54.4%) were smear-negative/culture-positive. Before implementation (2002 to 2006), the annual number of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival was relatively constant (range, 1424 to 1626 cases; mean, 1504 cases) but decreased from 1511 to 940 cases during implementation (2007 to 2012). During the same period, the annual number of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees bound for the United States by the culture-based algorithm increased from 4 to 629. This analysis did not control for the decline in new arrivals of nonimmigrant visitors to the United States and the decrease of incidence of TB in their countries of origin. Implementation of the culture-based algorithm may have substantially reduced the incidence of TB among newly arrived, foreign-born persons in

  16. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  17. Exponential Lower Bounds for the PPSZ k-SAT Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shiteng; Scheder, Dominik Alban; Talebanfard, Navid

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, Paturi, Pudl´ak, Saks, and Zane presented PPSZ, an elegant randomized algorithm for k-SAT. Fourteen years on, this algorithm is still the fastest known worst-case algorithm. They proved that its expected running time on k-CNF formulas with n variables is at most 2(1−k)n, where k 2 (1/k...

  18. A database of linear codes over F_13 with minimum distance bounds and new quasi-twisted codes from a heuristic search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Z. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Error control codes have been widely used in data communications and storage systems. One central problem in coding theory is to optimize the parameters of a linear code and construct codes with best possible parameters. There are tables of best-known linear codes over finite fields of sizes up to 9. Recently, there has been a growing interest in codes over $\\mathbb{F}_{13}$ and other fields of size greater than 9. The main purpose of this work is to present a database of best-known linear codes over the field $\\mathbb{F}_{13}$ together with upper bounds on the minimum distances. To find good linear codes to establish lower bounds on minimum distances, an iterative heuristic computer search algorithm is employed to construct quasi-twisted (QT codes over the field $\\mathbb{F}_{13}$ with high minimum distances. A large number of new linear codes have been found, improving previously best-known results. Tables of $[pm, m]$ QT codes over $\\mathbb{F}_{13}$ with best-known minimum distances as well as a table of lower and upper bounds on the minimum distances for linear codes of length up to 150 and dimension up to 6 are presented.

  19. Branch-and-Cut-and-Price for the Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan; Cordeau, Jean-Francois

    2009-01-01

    -and-cut-and-price algorithm in which lower bounds are computed by solving through column generation the linear programming relaxation of a set partitioning formulation. Two pricing subproblems are considered in the column generation algorithm: an elementary and a non-elementary shortest path problem. Valid inequalities......In the pickup and delivery problem with time windows (PDPTW), vehicle routes must be designed to satisfy a set of transportation requests, each involving a pickup and a delivery location, under capacity, time window, and precedence constraints. This paper introduces a new branch...... are added dynamically to strengthen the relaxations. Some of the previously proposed inequalities for the PDPTW are also shown to be implied by the set partitioning formulation. Computational experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms a recent branch-and-cut algorithm....

  20. Bounded variation and around

    CERN Document Server

    Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José

    2013-01-01

    This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.

  1. Path integral Monte Carlo approach for weakly bound van der Waals complexes with rotations: algorithm and benchmark calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, Nicholas; Song, XiaoGeng; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2004-04-01

    A path integral Monte Carlo technique suitable for the treatment of doped helium clusters with inclusion of the rotational degrees of freedom of the dopant is introduced. The extrapolation of the results to the limit of infinite Trotter number is discussed in detail. Benchmark calculations for small weakly bound (4)He(N)--OCS clusters are presented. The Monte Carlo results are compared with those of basis set calculations for the He--OCS dimer. A technique to analyze the orientational imaginary time correlation function is suggested. It allows one to obtain information regarding the effective rotational constant for a doped helium cluster based on a model for the rotational Hamiltonian. The renormalization of the effective rotational constant for (4)He(N)--OCS clusters derived from the orientational imaginary time correlation function is in good agreement with experimental results.

  2. Subexponential lower bounds for randomized pivoting rules for the simplex algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedmann, Oliver; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Zwick, Uri

    2011-01-01

    The simplex algorithm is among the most widely used algorithms for solving linear programs in practice. With essentially all deterministic pivoting rules it is known, however, to require an exponential number of steps to solve some linear programs. No non-polynomial lower bounds were known, prior...... to this work, for randomized pivoting rules. We provide the first subexponential (i.e., of the form 2Ω(nα), for some α>0) lower bounds for the two most natural, and most studied, randomized pivoting rules suggested to date. The first randomized pivoting rule considered is Random-Edge, which among all improving...... pivoting steps (or edges) from the current basic feasible solution (or vertex) chooses one uniformly at random. The second randomized pivoting rule considered is Random-Facet, a more complicated randomized pivoting rule suggested by Kalai and by Matousek, Sharir and Welzl. Our lower bound for the Random...

  3. A branch-and-price algorithm to solve the integrated berth allocation and yard assignment problem in bulk ports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robenek, Tomáš; Umang, Nitish; Bierlaire, Michel

    2014-01-01

    the integrated problem. In the proposed model, the master problem is formulated as a set-partitioning problem, and subproblems to identify columns with negative reduced costs are solved using mixed integer programming. To obtain sub-optimal solutions quickly, a metaheuristic approach based on critical...

  4. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  5. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  6. Durability of branches in branched and fenestrated endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Tara M; Greenberg, Roy K; Eagleton, Matthew J; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2013-04-01

    Branched and fenestrated repair has been shown to be effective for treatment of complex aortic aneurysms. However, the long-term durability of branches is not well reported. Prospective data collected for all patients enrolled in a physician-sponsored investigational device exemption trial for branched and fenestrated endografts were analyzed. Retrospective review of imaging studies and electronic records was used to supplement the dataset. Incidences of branch stent secondary intervention, stent fracture, migration, branch-related rupture, and death were calculated. A time-to-event analysis was performed for secondary intervention for any branch. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify related variables. Branch instability, a composite outcome of any branch event, was reported as a function of exponential decay to capture the loss of freedom from complications over time. Between the years 2001 and 2010, 650 patients underwent endovascular aortic repair with branched or fenestrated devices. Over 9 years of follow-up (mean [standard deviation], 3 [2.3] years), secondary procedures were performed for 0.6% of celiac, 4% of superior mesenteric artery (SMA), 6% of right renal artery, and 5% of left renal artery stents. Mean time to reintervention was 237 (354) days. The 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year freedom from branch intervention was 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 96%-99%), 94% (95% CI, 92%-96%), and 84% (95% CI, 78%-90%), respectively. Death from branch stent complications occurred in three patients, two related to SMA thrombosis and one due to an unstented SMA scallop. Multivariable analysis revealed no factors as independent predictors of need for branch reintervention. Branches, after branched or fenestrated aortic repair, appear to be durable and are rarely the cause of patient death. The absence of long-term data on branch patency in open repair precludes comparison, yet the lower morbidity and mortality risk coupled with longer

  7. A Finite Continuation Algorithm for Bound Constrained Quadratic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, Mustafa C.

    1999-01-01

    The dual of the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with unit bounds is posed as a linear $\\ell_1$ minimization problem with quadratic terms. A smooth approximation to the linear $\\ell_1$ function is used to obtain a parametric family of piecewise-quadratic approximation problems...

  8. Lower bounds on the run time of the univariate marginal distribution algorithm on OneMax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejca, Martin S.; Witt, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm (UMDA), a popular estimation of distribution algorithm, is studied from a run time perspective. On the classical OneMax benchmark function, a lower bound of Ω(μ√n + n log n), where μ is the population size, on its expected run time is proved. This is......The Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm (UMDA), a popular estimation of distribution algorithm, is studied from a run time perspective. On the classical OneMax benchmark function, a lower bound of Ω(μ√n + n log n), where μ is the population size, on its expected run time is proved...

  9. A subexponential lower bound for the Random Facet algorithm for Parity Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedmann, Oliver; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Zwick, Uri

    2011-01-01

    for LP-type problems, an abstract generalization of linear programming. The expected running time of both algorithms is subexponential in the size of the game, i.e., 2O(√n log n), where n is the number of vertices in the game. We focus in this paper on the algorithm of Matouˇsek, Sharir and Welzl...... of turn-based Stochastic Mean Payoff Games. It is a major open problem whether these game families can be solved in polynomial time. The currently theoretically fastest algorithms for the solution of all these games are adaptations of the randomized algorithms of Kalai and of Matouˇsek, Sharir and Welzl...... and refer to it as the Random Facet algorithm. Matouˇsek constructed a family of abstract optimization problems such that the expected running time of the Random Facet algorithm, when run on a random instance from this family, is close to the subexponential upper bound given above. This shows...

  10. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  11. Exponential Regret Bounds for Gaussian Process Bandits with Deterministic Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Freitas, N.; Smola, A.J.; Zoghi, M.; Langford, J.; Pineau, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of Gaussian process (GP) bandits with deterministic observations. The analysis uses a branch and bound algorithm that is related to the UCB algorithm of (Srinivas et al, 2010). For GPs with Gaussian observation noise, with variance strictly greater than zero, Srinivas

  12. Step Size Bound of the Sequential Partial Update LMS Algorithm with Periodic Input Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrubia Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives an upper bound for the step size of the sequential partial update (PU LMS adaptive algorithm when the input signal is a periodic reference consisting of several harmonics. The maximum step size is expressed in terms of the gain in step size of the PU algorithm, defined as the ratio between the upper bounds that ensure convergence in the following two cases: firstly, when only a subset of the weights of the filter is updated during every iteration; and secondly, when the whole filter is updated at every cycle. Thus, this gain in step-size determines the factor by which the step size parameter can be increased in order to compensate the inherently slower convergence rate of the sequential PU adaptive algorithm. The theoretical analysis of the strategy developed in this paper excludes the use of certain frequencies corresponding to notches that appear in the gain in step size. This strategy has been successfully applied in the active control of periodic disturbances consisting of several harmonics, so as to reduce the computational complexity of the control system without either slowing down the convergence rate or increasing the residual error. Simulated and experimental results confirm the expected behavior.

  13. Step Size Bound of the Sequential Partial Update LMS Algorithm with Periodic Input Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives an upper bound for the step size of the sequential partial update (PU LMS adaptive algorithm when the input signal is a periodic reference consisting of several harmonics. The maximum step size is expressed in terms of the gain in step size of the PU algorithm, defined as the ratio between the upper bounds that ensure convergence in the following two cases: firstly, when only a subset of the weights of the filter is updated during every iteration; and secondly, when the whole filter is updated at every cycle. Thus, this gain in step-size determines the factor by which the step size parameter can be increased in order to compensate the inherently slower convergence rate of the sequential PU adaptive algorithm. The theoretical analysis of the strategy developed in this paper excludes the use of certain frequencies corresponding to notches that appear in the gain in step size. This strategy has been successfully applied in the active control of periodic disturbances consisting of several harmonics, so as to reduce the computational complexity of the control system without either slowing down the convergence rate or increasing the residual error. Simulated and experimental results confirm the expected behavior.

  14. HiggsBounds-4. Improved tests of extended Higgs sectors against exclusion bounds from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtle, Philip [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Heinemeyer, Sven [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Staal, Oscar [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Stefaniak, Tim; Williams, Karina E. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Brein, Oliver

    2013-12-15

    We describe the new developments in version 4 of the public computer code HiggsBounds. HiggsBounds is a tool to test models with arbitrary Higgs sectors, containing both neutral and charged Higgs bosons, against the published exclusion bounds from Higgs searches at the LEP, Tevatron and LHC experiments. From the model predictions for the Higgs masses, branching ratios, production cross sections and total decay widths - which are specified by the user in the input for the program - the code calculates the predicted signal rates for the search channels considered in the experimental data. The signal rates are compared to the expected and observed cross section limits from the Higgs searches to determine whether a point in the model parameter space is excluded at 95% confidence level. In this paper we present a modification of the HiggsBounds main algorithm that extends the exclusion test in order to ensure that it provides useful results in the presence of one or more significant excesses in the data, corresponding to potential Higgs signals. We also describe a new method to test whether the limits from an experimental search performed under certain model assumptions can be applied to a different theoretical model. Further developments discussed here include a framework to take into account theoretical uncertainties on the Higgs mass predictions, and the possibility to obtain the {chi}{sup 2} likelihood of Higgs exclusion limits from LEP. Extensions to the user subroutines from earlier versions of HiggsBounds are described. The new features are demonstrated by additional example programs.

  15. HiggsBounds-4: improved tests of extended Higgs sectors against exclusion bounds from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, Philip; Brein, Oliver; Heinemeyer, Sven; Stål, Oscar; Stefaniak, Tim; Weiglein, Georg; Williams, Karina E.

    2014-03-01

    We describe the new developments in version 4 of the public computer code HiggsBounds. HiggsBounds is a tool to test models with arbitrary Higgs sectors, containing both neutral and charged Higgs bosons, against the published exclusion bounds from Higgs searches at the LEP, Tevatron and LHC experiments. From the model predictions for the Higgs masses, branching ratios, production cross sections and total decay widths—which are specified by the user in the input for the program—the code calculates the predicted signal rates for the search channels considered in the experimental data. The signal rates are compared to the expected and observed cross section limits from the Higgs searches to determine whether a point in the model parameter space is excluded at 95 % confidence level. In this paper we present a modification of the HiggsBounds main algorithm that extends the exclusion test in order to ensure that it provides useful results in the presence of one or more significant excesses in the data, corresponding to potential Higgs signals. We also describe a new method to test whether the limits from an experimental search performed under certain model assumptions can be applied to a different theoretical model. Further developments discussed here include a framework to take into account theoretical uncertainties on the Higgs mass predictions, and the possibility to obtain the likelihood of Higgs exclusion limits from LEP. Extensions to the user subroutines from earlier versions of HiggsBounds are described. The new features are demonstrated by additional example programs.

  16. Length-Bounded Hybrid CPU/GPU Pattern Matching Algorithm for Deep Packet Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since frequent communication between applications takes place in high speed networks, deep packet inspection (DPI plays an important role in the network application awareness. The signature-based network intrusion detection system (NIDS contains a DPI technique that examines the incoming packet payloads by employing a pattern matching algorithm that dominates the overall inspection performance. Existing studies focused on implementing efficient pattern matching algorithms by parallel programming on software platforms because of the advantages of lower cost and higher scalability. Either the central processing unit (CPU or the graphic processing unit (GPU were involved. Our studies focused on designing a pattern matching algorithm based on the cooperation between both CPU and GPU. In this paper, we present an enhanced design for our previous work, a length-bounded hybrid CPU/GPU pattern matching algorithm (LHPMA. In the preliminary experiment, the performance and comparison with the previous work are displayed, and the experimental results show that the LHPMA can achieve not only effective CPU/GPU cooperation but also higher throughput than the previous method.

  17. The data-correcting algorithm for the minimization of supermodular functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, B; Sierksma, G; Tijssen, GA; Tso, M

    1999-01-01

    The Data-Correcting (DC) Algorithm is a recursive branch-and-bound type algorithm, in which the data of a given problem instance are "heuristically corrected" at each branching in such a way that the new instance will be as close as possible to polynomially solvable and the result satisfies a

  18. Exact colouring algorithm for weighted graphs applied to timetabling problems with lectures of different lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cangalovic, Mirjana; Schreuder, J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    An exact algorithm is presented for determining the interval chromatic number of a weighted graph. The algorithm is based on enumeration and the Branch-and-Bound principle. Computational experiments with the application of the algorithm to random weighted graphs are given. The algorithm and its

  19. Belief and bounded rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Jago, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Predictive accounts of belief ascription, either following the principle of charity or Dennett's intentional stance, have proved popular recently. However, such accounts require us first to treat agents as perfectly rational agents and then revise this assumption as appropriate. I argue that such downwards revision is no easy task and that several proposed accounts are not satisfactory. I propose a way of characterising agent's belief states which shares Dennett's approach but avoids treating...

  20. A new Dantzig-Wolfe reformulation and branch-and-price algorithm for the capacitated lot-sizing problem with setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Degraeve (Zeger); R.F. Jans (Raf)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the textbook Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition reformulation for the capacitated lot-sizing problem, as already proposed by Manne [Manne, A. S. 1958. Programming of economic lot sizes. Management Sci. 4(2) 115-135], provides a strong lower bound, it also has an important structural

  1. Reconciling taxonomy and phylogenetic inference: formalism and algorithms for describing discord and inferring taxonomic roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsen Frederick A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although taxonomy is often used informally to evaluate the results of phylogenetic inference and the root of phylogenetic trees, algorithmic methods to do so are lacking. Results In this paper we formalize these procedures and develop algorithms to solve the relevant problems. In particular, we introduce a new algorithm that solves a "subcoloring" problem to express the difference between a taxonomy and a phylogeny at a given rank. This algorithm improves upon the current best algorithm in terms of asymptotic complexity for the parameter regime of interest; we also describe a branch-and-bound algorithm that saves orders of magnitude in computation on real data sets. We also develop a formalism and an algorithm for rooting phylogenetic trees according to a taxonomy. Conclusions The algorithms in this paper, and the associated freely-available software, will help biologists better use and understand taxonomically labeled phylogenetic trees.

  2. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...

  3. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  4. Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Velasco, Miguel; Martinez, Rodrigo; Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Contains papers presented at the Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications (WBPA09), held in Badajoz, Spain, April 20-23, 2009, which deal with theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory

  5. Solução exacta de problemas de corte unidimensional usando o método de partição e avaliação sucessivas e geração diferida de colunas Exact solution of one-dimensional cutting stock problems using branch-and-bound and column generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Valério de Carvalho

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando se pretende obter uma solução inteira para o problema de corte unidimensional, depois de se ter resolvido a sua relaxação linear, é frequente recorrer, quer a técnicas de arredondamento de soluções, quer a diversos tipos de heurísticas. Estas dificuldades decorrem do facto de não ser viável enumerar todas as variáveis estruturais do problema, cujo número pode ser da ordem dos milhões. Neste artigo, apresenta se uma formulação em que o número de variáveis e restrições é uma função polinomial da largura do stock e do número de pedidos. Para algumas classes de problemas, é possível enumerar todas as variáveis e obter a solução óptima usando o método da partição e avaliação sucessivas. Para instâncias de maiores dimensões, apresenta se um procedimento que combina a geração diferida de colunas e o método da partição e avaliação sucessivas. Define se o subproblema e o modo como é modificado durante a fase de partição e avaliação sucessivas. São apresentados resultados de testes computacionais para diversos problemas de teste.If an integer solution to the one-dimensional cutting stock problem is required, after solving the linear programming relaxation, one frequently resorts to heuristics based on rounding up and down the continuos solution, or other heuristics similar type. The difficulties arise from the fact that it may not be practically possible to enumerate all the structural variables of the problem, whose number may be in the order of millions, even for instances of moderate size. In this article we present a formulation with a number of variables and constraints that is polinomial with respect to the width of the stock and the number of orders. For some classes of instances, it is possible to enumerate completely all the variables and to obtain an integer optional solution using a branch-and-bound method. For larger instances, we present a procedure that combines column generation and

  6. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  7. RUSSIAN HOUSING AND COMMUNAL ECONOMY BRANCH REFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ivanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of socially oriented principles and market tools is main direction of Russian housing and communal economy branch reformation aimed at proving the population with decent housing conditions. At present, owners of dwelling facilities are bound to maintain and repair them at their own. If dwellings were privatized in houses that were to be overhauled, respective current and capital repairs work is to be carried out by the state in accordance with norms. Housing and communal economy branch reformation assistance Fund and Program are created in the country, the latter being organized on the co-financing principle (major part of means needed for the repairs is provided by Fund, lesser part – by regional and local governments, some 10% – by the owners. Coordinated activities of governmental, scientific and business organizations as well as dwelling owners are needed for further sustainable development of the branch.

  8. Purity- and Gaussianity-bounded uncertainty relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandilara, A.; Karpov, E.; Cerf, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    Bounded uncertainty relations provide the minimum value of the uncertainty assuming some additional information on the state. We derive analytically an uncertainty relation bounded by a pair of constraints, those of purity and Gaussianity. In a limiting case this uncertainty relation reproduces the purity-bounded derived by Man’ko and Dodonov and the Gaussianity-bounded one (Mandilara and Cerf 2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 030102R).

  9. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  10. Stellar Evolution Bounds on the ALP-Photon Coupling: new Results and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Stellar evolution considerations are of fundamental importance in our understanding of the axion/ALP-photon coupling, g_{a\\gamma}. Helium burning stars are the best laboratories to study this coupling. Here, we will review the bounds from massive and low mass helium burning stars, and present a new analysis of the bound from the horizontal branch stars. The analysis provides the strongest bound to date on g_{a\\gamma} in a wide mass range.

  11. Sharp Bounds by Probability-Generating Functions and Variable Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Fouz, Mahmoud; Witt, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    We introduce to the runtime analysis of evolutionary algorithms two powerful techniques: probability-generating functions and variable drift analysis. They are shown to provide a clean framework for proving sharp upper and lower bounds. As an application, we improve the results by Doerr et al...

  12. Recursion relations and branching rules for simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Lyakhovsky, V D

    1995-01-01

    The branching rules between simple Lie algebras and its regular (maximal) simple subalgebras are studied. Two types of recursion relations for anomalous relative multiplicities are obtained. One of them is proved to be the factorized version of the other. The factorization property is based on the existence of the set of weights \\Gamma specific for each injection. The structure of \\Gamma is easily deduced from the correspondence between the root systems of algebra and subalgebra. The recursion relations thus obtained give rise to simple and effective algorithm for branching rules. The details are exposed by performing the explicit decomposition procedure for A_{3} \\oplus u(1) \\rightarrow B_{4} injection.

  13. Better algorithms for satisfiability problems for formulas of bounded rank-width

    CERN Document Server

    Ganian, Robert; Obdržálek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We provide a parameterized polynomial algorithm for the propositional model counting problem #SAT, the runtime of which is single-exponential in the rank-width of a formula. Previously, analogous algorithms have been known -- e.g.~[Fischer, Makowsky, and Ravve] -- with a single-exponential dependency on the clique-width of a formula. Our algorithm thus presents an exponential runtime improvement (since clique-width reaches up to exponentially higher values than rank-width), and can be of practical interest for small values of rank-width. We also provide an algorithm for the MAX-SAT problem along the same lines.

  14. Boundedly UC spaces: characterisations and preservation | Jain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A metric space (X, d) is called a boundedly UC space if every closed and bounded subset of X is a UC space. A metric space (X, d) is called a UC space if each real-valued continuous function on (X, d) is uniformly continuous. In this paper, we study twenty-two equivalent conditions for a metric space to be a boundedly UC ...

  15. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  16. Hierarchical Ring Network Design Using Branch-and-Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Stidsen, Thomas K.

    2005-01-01

    link establishment costs and the link capacity costs into account. Hierarchical ring network design problems combines the following optimization problems: Clustering, hub selection, metro ring design, federal ring design and routing problems. In this paper a branch-and-price algorithm is presented...... for jointly solving the clustering problem, the metro ring design problem and the routing problem. Computational results are given for networks with up to 36 nodes....

  17. Algorithmic test design using classical item parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Adema, Jos J.

    Two optimalization models for the construction of tests with a maximal value of coefficient alpha are given. Both models have a linear form and can be solved by using a branch-and-bound algorithm. The first model assumes an item bank calibrated under the Rasch model and can be used, for instance,

  18. Bounded rationality and learning in complex markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.H.; Barkely Rosser Jr, J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter reviews some work on bounded rationality, expectation formation and learning in complex markets, using the familiar demand-supply cobweb model. We emphasize two stories of bounded rationality, one story of adaptive learning and another story of evolutionary selection. According to the

  19. Bounded rationality and learning in complex markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews some work on bounded rationality, expectation formation and learning in complex markets, using the familiar demand-supply cobweb model. We emphasize two stories of bounded rationality, one story of adaptive learning and another story of evolutionary selection. According to the

  20. A Forward Reachability Algorithm for Bounded Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Timed-arc Petri nets (TAPN) are a well-known time extension of thePetri net model and several translations to networks of timedautomata have been proposed for this model.We present a direct, DBM-basedalgorithm for forward reachability analysis of bounded TAPNs extended with transport arcs...

  1. A branch-and-bound approach for robust railway timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maróti, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the robust cyclic timetabling problem. The goal is to modify a given reference timetable to enhance its robustness against small stochastic disturbances. The robustness is measured by the expected total delay of the realised timetable. Kroon et al. (Transp Res Part B

  2. Mechanisms of Side Branching and Tip Splitting in a Model of Branching Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yina; Sun, Mingzhu; Garfinkel, Alan; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE), due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth) direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1) a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2) the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1) side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2) tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3) when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs together with side

  3. Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Guo

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE, due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1 a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2 the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1 side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2 tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3 when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs

  4. Prognosis assessment of persistent left bundle branch block after TAVI by an electrophysiological and remote monitoring risk-adapted algorithm: rationale and design of the multicentre LBBB–TAVI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoullié, Grégoire; Bordachar, Pierre; Irles, Didier; Caussin, Christophe; Da Costa, Antoine; Defaye, Pascal; Jean, Frédéric; Mechulan, Alexis; Mondoly, Pierre; Souteyrand, Géraud; Pereira, Bruno; Ploux, Sylvain; Eschalier, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Percutaneous aortic valve replacement (transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)) notably increases the likelihood of the appearance of a complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) by direct lesion of the LBB of His. This block can lead to high-grade atrioventricular conduction disturbances responsible for a poorer prognosis. The management of this complication remains controversial. Method and analysis The screening of LBBB after TAVI persisting for more than 24 hours will be conducted by surface ECG. Stratification will be performed by post-TAVI intracardiac electrophysiological study. Patients at high risk of conduction disturbances (≥70 ms His–ventricle interval (HV) or presence of infra-Hisian block) will be implanted with a pacemaker enabling the recording of disturbance episodes. Those at lower risk (HV <70 ms) will be implanted with a loop recorder device with remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Clinical, ECG and implanted device follow-up will also be performed at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary objective is to assess the efficacy and safety of a decisional algorithm based on electrophysiological study and remote monitoring of CIEDs in the prediction of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI. The primary end point is to compare the incidence (rate and time to onset) of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI between the two groups at 12 months. Given the proportion of high-grade conduction disturbances (20–40%), a sample of 200 subjects will allow a margin of error of 6–7%. The LBBB–TAVI Study has been in an active recruiting phase since September 2015 (21 patients already included). Ethics and dissemination Local ethics committee authorisation was obtained in May 2015. We will publish findings from this study in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and present results at national and international conferences. Trial

  5. Prognosis assessment of persistent left bundle branch block after TAVI by an electrophysiological and remote monitoring risk-adapted algorithm: rationale and design of the multicentre LBBB-TAVI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoullié, Grégoire; Bordachar, Pierre; Irles, Didier; Caussin, Christophe; Da Costa, Antoine; Defaye, Pascal; Jean, Frédéric; Mechulan, Alexis; Mondoly, Pierre; Souteyrand, Géraud; Pereira, Bruno; Ploux, Sylvain; Eschalier, Romain

    2016-10-26

    Percutaneous aortic valve replacement (transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)) notably increases the likelihood of the appearance of a complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) by direct lesion of the LBB of His. This block can lead to high-grade atrioventricular conduction disturbances responsible for a poorer prognosis. The management of this complication remains controversial. The screening of LBBB after TAVI persisting for more than 24 hours will be conducted by surface ECG. Stratification will be performed by post-TAVI intracardiac electrophysiological study. Patients at high risk of conduction disturbances (≥70 ms His-ventricle interval (HV) or presence of infra-Hisian block) will be implanted with a pacemaker enabling the recording of disturbance episodes. Those at lower risk (HV <70 ms) will be implanted with a loop recorder device with remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Clinical, ECG and implanted device follow-up will also be performed at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary objective is to assess the efficacy and safety of a decisional algorithm based on electrophysiological study and remote monitoring of CIEDs in the prediction of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI. The primary end point is to compare the incidence (rate and time to onset) of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI between the two groups at 12 months. Given the proportion of high-grade conduction disturbances (20-40%), a sample of 200 subjects will allow a margin of error of 6-7%. The LBBB-TAVI Study has been in an active recruiting phase since September 2015 (21 patients already included). Local ethics committee authorisation was obtained in May 2015. We will publish findings from this study in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and present results at national and international conferences. NCT02482844; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  6. The Manpower Allocation Problem with Time Windows and Job-Teaming Constraints: A Branch-and-Price Approach - Technical Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Kolind, Esben; Clausen, Jens

    . The problem is solved by column generation in a Branch-and-Price framework. Simultaneous execution of tasks is enforced by the branching scheme. To test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, 12 realistic test instances are introduced. The algorithm is able to find the optimal solution in 11 of the test...

  7. Sound velocity bound and neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaque, Paulo; Steiner, Andrew W

    2015-01-23

    It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by sqrt[3]. Simple arguments support this bound in nonrelativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound.

  8. Lower Bounds and Semi On-line Multiprocessor Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Edwin Cheng

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We are given a set of identical machines and a sequence of jobs from which we know the sum of the job weights in advance. The jobs have to be assigned on-line to one of the machines and the objective is to minimize the makespan. An algorithm with performance ratio 1.6 and a lower bound of 1.5 is presented. This improves recent results by Azar and Regev who published an algorithm with performance ratio 1.625 for the less general problem that the optimal makespan is known in advance.

  9. Graphs and matroids weighted in a bounded incline algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling-Xia; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Firstly, for a graph weighted in a bounded incline algebra (or called a dioid), a longest path problem (LPP, for short) is presented, which can be considered the uniform approach to the famous shortest path problem, the widest path problem, and the most reliable path problem. The solutions for LPP and related algorithms are given. Secondly, for a matroid weighted in a linear matroid, the maximum independent set problem is studied.

  10. An efficient algorithm for computing fixed length attractors based on bounded model checking in synchronous Boolean networks with biochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Yang, G W; Zheng, D S; Guo, W S; Hung, W N N

    2015-04-28

    Genetic regulatory networks are the key to understanding biochemical systems. One condition of the genetic regulatory network under different living environments can be modeled as a synchronous Boolean network. The attractors of these Boolean networks will help biologists to identify determinant and stable factors. Existing methods identify attractors based on a random initial state or the entire state simultaneously. They cannot identify the fixed length attractors directly. The complexity of including time increases exponentially with respect to the attractor number and length of attractors. This study used the bounded model checking to quickly locate fixed length attractors. Based on the SAT solver, we propose a new algorithm for efficiently computing the fixed length attractors, which is more suitable for large Boolean networks and numerous attractors' networks. After comparison using the tool BooleNet, empirical experiments involving biochemical systems demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our approach.

  11. Assessment of Smith Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Presence of Left Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Andrea; Anguera, Ignasi; Rodríguez, Marcos; Sionis, Alessandro; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Rodríguez, Jany; Ariza-Solé, Albert; Sánchez-Salado, José Carlos; Díaz-Nuila, Mario; Masotti, Mónica; Villuendas, Roger; Dallaglio, Paolo; Gómez-Hospital, Joan Antoni; Cequier, Ángel

    2017-07-01

    Recently, a new electrocardiography algorithm has shown promising results for the the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB). We aimed to assess these new electrocardiography rules in a cohort of patients referred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Retrospective observational cohort study that included all patients with suspected myocardial infarction and LBBB on the presenting electrocardiogram, referred for pPCI to 4 tertiary hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. A total of 145 patients were included. Fifty four (37%) had an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) equivalent. Among patients with STEMI, 25 (46%) presented in Killip class III or IV, and in-hospital mortality was 15%. Smith I and II rules performed better than Sgarbossa algorithms and showed good specificity (90% and 97%, respectively) but their sensitivity was 67% and 54%, respectively. In a strategy guided by Smith I or Smith II rules, 18 (33%) or 25 (46%) patients with STEMI would have not received a pPCI, respectively. Moreover, the severity and prognosis of STEMI patients was similar regardless of the positivity of Smith rules. Cardiac biomarkers were positive in 54% of non-STEMI patients, limiting their usefulness for initial diagnostic screening. Diagnosis of STEMI in the presence of LBBB remains a challenge. Smith rules can be useful but are limited by suboptimal sensitivity. The search for new electrocardiography algorithms should be encouraged to avoid unnecessary aggressive treatments in the majority of patients, while providing timely reperfusion to a high-risk subgroup of patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  13. Behavioral Consistency of C and Verilog Programs Using Bounded Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    We present an algorithm that checks behavioral consistency between an ANSI-C program and a circuit given in Verilog using Bounded Model Checking . Both...behavioral consistency between an ANSI-C program and a circuit given in Verilog using Bounded Model Checking . Both the circuit and the program are unwound

  14. Headward growth and branching in subterranean channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrolli, Arshad; Ionkin, Nikolay; Panaitescu, Andreea

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the erosive growth of channels in a thin subsurface sedimentary layer driven by hydrodynamic drag toward understanding subterranean networks and their relation to river networks charged by ground water. Building on a model based on experimental observations of fluid-driven evolution of bed porosity, we focus on the characteristics of the channel growth and their bifurcations in a horizontal rectangular domain subject to various fluid source and sink distributions. We find that the erosion front between low- and high-porosity regions becomes unstable, giving rise to branched channel networks, depending on the spatial fluctuations of the fluid flow near the front and the degree to which the flow is above the erodibility threshold of the medium. Focusing on the growth of a network starting from a single channel, and by identifying the channel heads and their branch points, we find that the number of branches increases sublinearly and is affected by the source distribution. The mean angles between branches are found to be systematically lower than river networks in humid climates and depend on the domain geometry.

  15. Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julie

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing project at Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries illustrates how utilizing established assessment guidelines, stakeholder input, and a clear understanding of audience and curriculum needs may all be used to optimize a collection. Academic branch libraries often have clear collection development limitations in terms of…

  16. A Scheduling Algorithm for Time Bounded Delivery of Packets on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vaishnavi (Ishan)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis aims to provide a better scheduling algorithm for Real-Time delivery of packets. A number of emerging applications such as VoIP, Tele-immersive environments, distributed media viewing and distributed gaming require real-time delivery of packets. Currently the scheduling

  17. Linear and Branching System Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J., Hilston; de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; M.Z., Kwiatkowska; Telek, M.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    We extend the classical system relations of trace inclusion, trace equivalence, simulation, and bisimulation to a quantitative setting in which propositions are interpreted not as boolean values, but as elements of arbitrary metric spaces. Trace inclusion and equivalence give rise to asymmetrical

  18. Equivalence principle and bound kinetic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensee, Michael A; Müller, Holger; Wiringa, R B

    2013-10-11

    We consider the role of the internal kinetic energy of bound systems of matter in tests of the Einstein equivalence principle. Using the gravitational sector of the standard model extension, we show that stringent limits on equivalence principle violations in antimatter can be indirectly obtained from tests using bound systems of normal matter. We estimate the bound kinetic energy of nucleons in a range of light atomic species using Green's function Monte Carlo calculations, and for heavier species using a Woods-Saxon model. We survey the sensitivities of existing and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle, and report new constraints at the level of between a few parts in 10(6) and parts in 10(8) on violations of the equivalence principle for matter and antimatter.

  19. Correlation Distance and Bounds for Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. W. Hall

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The correlation distance quantifies the statistical independence of two classical or quantum systems, via the distance from their joint state to the product of the marginal states. Tight lower bounds are given for the mutual information between pairs of two-valued classical variables and quantum qubits, in terms of the corresponding classical and quantum correlation distances. These bounds are stronger than the Pinsker inequality (and refinements thereof for relative entropy. The classical lower bound may be used to quantify properties of statistical models that violate Bell inequalities. Partially entangled qubits can have lower mutual information than can any two-valued classical variables having the same correlation distance. The qubit correlation distance also provides a direct entanglement criterion, related to the spin covariance matrix. Connections of results with classically-correlated quantum states are briefly discussed.

  20. Yukawa Bound States and Their LHC Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhbat Tsedenbaljir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status on the possible bound states of extra generation quarks. These include phenomenology and search strategy at the LHC. If chiral fourth-generation quarks do exist their strong Yukawa couplings, implied by current experimental lower bound on their masses, may lead to formation of bound states. Due to nearly degenerate 4G masses suggested by Precision Electroweak Test one can employ “heavy isospin” symmetry to classify possible spectrum. Among these states, the color-octet isosinglet vector ω 8 is the easiest to be produced at the LHC. The discovery potential and corresponding decay channels are covered in this paper. With possible light Higgs at ~125 GeV two-Higgs doublet version is briefly discussed.

  1. A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelin Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the convergence of the algorithm is proved. Numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. The DMM Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we derive aggregate separation bounds, named after Davenport-Mahler-Mignotte (DMM), on the isolated roots of polynomial systems, specifically on the minimum distance between any two such roots. The bounds exploit the structure of the system and the height of the sparse (or toric) re...... bound on the number of steps that subdivision-based algorithms perform in order to isolate all real roots of a polynomial system. This leads to the first complexity bound of Milne's algorithm [22] in 2D....

  3. Systolic array architecture for convolutional decoding algorithms: Viterbi algorithm and stack algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    New results on efficient forms of decoding convolutional codes based on Viterbi and stack algorithms using systolic array architecture are presented. Some theoretical aspects of systolic arrays are also investigated. First, systolic array implementation of Viterbi algorithm is considered, and various properties of convolutional codes are derived. A technique called strongly connected trellis decoding is introduced to increase the efficient utilization of all the systolic array processors. The issues dealing with the composite branch metric generation, survivor updating, overall system architecture, throughput rate, and computations overhead ratio are also investigated. Second, the existing stack algorithm is modified and restated in a more concise version so that it can be efficiently implemented by a special type of systolic array called systolic priority queue. Three general schemes of systolic priority queue based on random access memory, shift register, and ripple register are proposed. Finally, a systematic approach is presented to design systolic arrays for certain general classes of recursively formulated algorithms.

  4. A Fourier space algorithm for solving quadratic assignment problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kondor, Risi

    2010-01-01

    The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is a central problem in combinatorial optimization. Several famous computationally hard tasks, such as graph matching, partitioning, and the traveling salesman all reduce to special cases of the QAP. In this paper we propose a new approach to the QAP based on the theory of non–commutative Fourier analysis on the symmetric group. Specifically, we present a branch–and–bound algorithm that performs both the branching and the bound...

  5. Entropy Bounds, Holographic Principle and Uncertainty Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Volovich

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A simple derivation of the bound on entropy is given and the holographic principle is discussed. We estimate the number of quantum states inside space region on the base of uncertainty relation. The result is compared with the Bekenstein formula for entropy bound, which was initially derived from the generalized second law of thermodynamics for black holes. The holographic principle states that the entropy inside a region is bounded by the area of the boundary of that region. This principle can be called the kinematical holographic principle. We argue that it can be derived from the dynamical holographic principle which states that the dynamics of a system in a region should be described by a system which lives on the boundary of the region. This last principle can be valid in general relativity because the ADM hamiltonian reduces to the surface term.

  6. An enhanced genetic algorithm with simulated annealing for job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exact methods such as the branch and bound method and dynamic programming take considerable computing time to obtain the optimum solution. In order to overcome this difficulty, it is more sensible to obtain a good solution near the optimal one. Stochastic search techniques such as evolutionary algorithms can be used ...

  7. Learning in Leaps and Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2006-01-01

    Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1993) identifies several ways of "learning and knowing." Among these are the logical/mathematical and linguistic intelligence--the two most validated by society and on which all standardized tests are based. Therefore, physical education specialist are facing more pressure than ever to advocate for their…

  8. Career Development and Personal Functioning Differences between Work-Bound and Non-Work Bound Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…

  9. Fibered Transverse Knots and the Bennequin Bound

    OpenAIRE

    Etnyre, John B.; Van Horn-Morris, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    We prove that a nicely fibered link (by which we mean the binding of an open book) in a tight contact manifold $(M,\\xi)$ with zero Giroux torsion has a transverse representative realizing the Bennequin bound if and only if the contact structure it supports (since it is also the binding of an open book) is $\\xi.$ This gives a geometric reason for the non-sharpness of the Bennequin bound for fibered links. We also note that this allows the classification, up to contactomorphism, of maximal self...

  10. Pluto's Paleoglaciation: Processes and Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umurhan, Orkan; Howard, Alan D.; White, Oliver L.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Grundy, William M.; Schenk, Paul M.; Beyer, Ross A.; McKinnon, William B.; Singer, Kelsi N.; Lauer, Tod R.; Cheng, Andrew F.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine; New Horizons Science Team

    2017-10-01

    New Horizons imaging of Pluto’s surface shows eroded landscapes reminiscent of assorted glaciated terrains found on the Earth such as alpine valleys, dendritic networks and others. For example, LORRI imaging of fluted craters show radially oriented ridging which also resembles Pluto’s washboard terrain. Digital elevation modeling indicates that these down-gradient oriented ridges are about 3-4 km spaced apart with depths ranging from 0.2-0.5 km. Present day glaciation on Pluto is characterized by moving N2 ice blocks presumably riding over a H2O ice bedrock substrate. Assuming Pluto’s ancient surface was sculpted by N2 glaciation, what remains a mystery is the specific nature of the glacial erosion mechanism(s) responsible for the observed features.To better resolve this puzzle, we perform landform evolution modeling of several glacial erosion processes known from terrestrial H2O ice glaciation studies. These terrestrial processes, which depend upon whether or not the glacier’s base is wet or dry, include quarrying/plucking and fluvial erosion. We also consider new erosional processes (to be described in this presentation) which are unique to the highly insulating character of solid N2 including both phase change induced hydrofracture and geothermally driven basal melt. Until improvements in our knowledge of solid N2’s rheology are made available (including its mechanical behavior as a binary/trinary mixture of CH4 and CO), it is difficult to assess with high precision which of the aforementioned erosion mechanisms are responsible for the observed surface etchings.Nevertheless, we consider a model crater surface and examine its erosional development due to flowing N2 glacial ice as built up over time according to N2 deposition rates based on GCM modeling of Pluto’s ancient atmosphere. For given erosional mechanism our aim is to determine the permissible ranges of model input parameters (e.g., ice strength, flow rates, grain sizes, quarrying rates, etc

  11. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  12. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...... was first suggested by Saul Kripke in a letter to A.N. Prior, dated September 3, 1958, and it is shown how the elaboration of the idea in the course of the correspondence was intimately intervowen with considerations of how to represent indeterminism and of the adequacy of tensed logic in light of special...... relativity. The correspondence underpins the point that Prior’s later development of branching time may be understood as a crucial part of his attempt at the formulating a conceptual framework integrating basic human notions of time and free choice....

  13. Stress growth and relaxation of dendritically branched macromolecules in shear and uniaxial extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Costanzo, S.; Das, C.

    2017-01-01

    stress relaxation, suggesting a strong ‘elastic memory’ of the material. These results are 2 described by BoB semi-quantitatively, both in linear and nonlinear shear and extensional regimes. Given the fact that the segments between branch points are less than 3 entanglements long, this is a very...... of the remarkable properties of these highly branched macromolecules. In particular, we address three questions pertinent to the specific molecular structure: (i) is steady state attainable during uniaxial extension? (ii) what is the respective transient response in simple shear? and (iii) how does stress relax...... the Branch-on-Branch (BoB) algorithm. The data indicates that the extensional viscosity reaches a steady state value, whose dependence on extension rate is identical to that of entangled linear and other branched polymer melts. Nonlinear shear is characterized by transient stress overshoots and the validity...

  14. Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…

  15. Lower Bounds for Howard's Algorithm for Finding Minimum Mean-Cost Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Zwick, Uri

    2010-01-01

    Howard’s policy iteration algorithm is one of the most widely used algorithms for finding optimal policies for controlling Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). When applied to weighted directed graphs, which may be viewed as Deterministic MDPs (DMDPs), Howard’s algorithm can be used to find Minimum ...

  16. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharali Malik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD: There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  17. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  18. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Using Kalai's result, Tay (1995) proved LBT for a bigger class of simplicial complexes (namely, normal pseudomanifolds). In 2008, we (Bagchi & Datta) have presented a self-contained combinatorial proof of LBT for normal pseudomanifolds. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta.

  19. Trial and Error: A new Approach to Space-Bounded Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ameur, F.; Fischer, Paul; Hoeffgen, H.-U.

    1996-01-01

    A pac-learning algorithm is d-space bounded, if it stores at most d examples from the sample at any time. We characterize the d-space learnable concept classes. For this purpose we introduce the compression parameter of a concept class 𝒞 and design our trial and error learning algorithm. We ...

  20. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... hand delivery. Please note that comments submitted by fax or email and those submitted after the... 1995 (PRA) (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)), provides the general public and Federal agencies with an...

  1. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  2. Data streams algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Muthukrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Data stream algorithms as an active research agenda emerged only over the past few years, even though the concept of making few passes over the data for performing computations has been around since the early days of Automata Theory. The data stream agenda now pervades many branches of Computer Science including databases, networking, knowledge discovery and data mining, and hardware systems. Industry is in synch too, with Data Stream Management Systems (DSMSs) and special hardware to deal with data speeds. Even beyond Computer Science, data stream concerns are emerging in physics, atmospheric

  3. Bounded perturbation resilience of extragradient-type methods and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Q-L; Gibali, A; Jiang, D; Tang, Y

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study the bounded perturbation resilience of the extragradient and the subgradient extragradient methods for solving a variational inequality (VI) problem in real Hilbert spaces. This is an important property of algorithms which guarantees the convergence of the scheme under summable errors, meaning that an inexact version of the methods can also be considered. Moreover, once an algorithm is proved to be bounded perturbation resilience, superiorization can be used, and this allows flexibility in choosing the bounded perturbations in order to obtain a superior solution, as well explained in the paper. We also discuss some inertial extragradient methods. Under mild and standard assumptions of monotonicity and Lipschitz continuity of the VI's associated mapping, convergence of the perturbed extragradient and subgradient extragradient methods is proved. In addition we show that the perturbed algorithms converge at the rate of [Formula: see text]. Numerical illustrations are given to demonstrate the performances of the algorithms.

  4. Bounded perturbation resilience of extragradient-type methods and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q-L Dong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we study the bounded perturbation resilience of the extragradient and the subgradient extragradient methods for solving a variational inequality (VI problem in real Hilbert spaces. This is an important property of algorithms which guarantees the convergence of the scheme under summable errors, meaning that an inexact version of the methods can also be considered. Moreover, once an algorithm is proved to be bounded perturbation resilience, superiorization can be used, and this allows flexibility in choosing the bounded perturbations in order to obtain a superior solution, as well explained in the paper. We also discuss some inertial extragradient methods. Under mild and standard assumptions of monotonicity and Lipschitz continuity of the VI’s associated mapping, convergence of the perturbed extragradient and subgradient extragradient methods is proved. In addition we show that the perturbed algorithms converge at the rate of O ( 1 / t $O(1/t$ . Numerical illustrations are given to demonstrate the performances of the algorithms.

  5. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  6. Novel black hole bound states and entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R

    2011-01-01

    We solve for the spectrum of the Laplacian as Hamiltonian on $\\mathbb{R}^{2}-\\mathbb{D}$ and in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}-\\mathbb{B}$. A self-adjointness analysis with $\\partial\\mathbb{D}$ and $\\partial\\mathbb{B}$ as the boundary for the two cases shows that a general class of boundary conditions for which the Hamiltonian operator is essentially self-adjoint are of the mixed (Robin) type. With this class of boundary conditions we obtain 'bound state' solutions for the Schroedinger equation. Interestingly, these solutions are all localized near the boundary. We further show that the number of bound states is finite and is infact proportional to the perimeter or area of the removed \\emph{disc} or \\emph{ball}. We then argue that similar considerations should hold for static black hole backgrounds with the horizon treated as the boundary.

  7. Herbert Simon: bounded rationality and organizations theory

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This article evaluates Herbert A. Simon’s contribution to organization theory, placing special emphasis on the criterion of bounded rationality. Simon’s criticism of the orthodox version of organizational bureaucracy is interpreted and his analysis is extended to institutional economics. One of Simon’s main achievements in organizational theory consisted of analytically evaluating the psychology of individual and collective behaviour, thereby opening up the way for future investigation by D. ...

  8. Spectral singularities and zero energy bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, W.D. [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study, and Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Stellenbosch, 7602 Matieland (South Africa); Nazmitdinov, R.G. [Department de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-15

    Single particle scattering around zero energy is re-analysed in view of recent experiments with ultra-cold atoms, nano-structures and nuclei far from the stability valley. For non-zero orbital angular momentum the low energy scattering cross section exhibits dramatic changes depending on the occurrence of either a near resonance or a bound state or the situation in between, that is a bound state at zero energy. Such state is singular in that it has an infinite scattering length, behaves for the eigenvalues but not for the eigenfunctions as an exceptional point and has no pole in the scattering function. These results should be observable whenever the interaction or scattering length can be controlled. (authors)

  9. Dendrimers and methods of preparing same through proportionate branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yihua (Bruce); Yue, Xuyi

    2015-09-15

    The present invention provides for monodispersed dendrimers having a core, branches and periphery ends, wherein the number of branches increases exponentially from the core to the periphery end and the length of the branches increases exponentially from the periphery end to the core, thereby providing for attachment of chemical species at the periphery ends without exhibiting steric hindrance.

  10. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments to FY 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1992 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA LeRC. Highlights from the branch's major work areas--Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods are included in the report as well as a listing of the fiscal year 1992 branch publications.

  11. Smoothed Analysis of the Minimum-Mean Cycle Canceling Algorithm and the Network Simplex Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Kamiel; Manthey, Bodo; Xu, Dachuan; Du, Donglei; Du, Dingzhu

    2015-01-01

    The minimum-cost flow (MCF) problem is a fundamental optimization problem with many applications and seems to be well understood. Over the last half century many algorithms have been developed to solve the MCF problem and these algorithms have varying worst-case bounds on their running time.

  12. Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massaro, D.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of

  13. Upper Bounds on the Number of Errors Corrected by the Koetter–Vardy Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    By introducing a few simplifying assumptions we derive a simple condition for successful decoding using the Koetter-Vardy algorithm for soft-decision decoding of Reed-Solomon codes. We show that the algorithm has a significant advantage over hard decision decoding when the code rate is low, when ...... two or more sets of received symbols have substantially different reliabilities, or when the number of alternative transmitted symbols is very small....

  14. Coarrays, MUSIC, and the Cramér-Rao Bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mianzhi; Nehorai, Arye

    2017-02-01

    Sparse linear arrays, such as co-prime arrays and nested arrays, have the attractive capability of providing enhanced degrees of freedom. By exploiting the coarray structure, an augmented sample covariance matrix can be constructed and MUSIC (MUtiple SIgnal Classification) can be applied to identify more sources than the number of sensors. While such a MUSIC algorithm works quite well, its performance has not been theoretically analyzed. In this paper, we derive a simplified asymptotic mean square error (MSE) expression for the MUSIC algorithm applied to the coarray model, which is applicable even if the source number exceeds the sensor number. We show that the directly augmented sample covariance matrix and the spatial smoothed sample covariance matrix yield the same asymptotic MSE for MUSIC. We also show that when there are more sources than the number of sensors, the MSE converges to a positive value instead of zero when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) goes to infinity. This finding explains the "saturation" behavior of the coarray-based MUSIC algorithms in the high SNR region observed in previous studies. Finally, we derive the Cram\\'er-Rao bound (CRB) for sparse linear arrays, and conduct a numerical study of the statistical efficiency of the coarray-based estimator. Experimental results verify theoretical derivations and reveal the complex efficiency pattern of coarray-based MUSIC algorithms.

  15. Bounds Estimation Via Regression with Asymmetric Cost Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoste, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses a significant but mostly-neglected class of problems that we call bounds estimation. This includes learning empirical best-case and worst-case algorithmic complexity bounds and red-line bounds on sensor data.

  16. Algorithms for Multiple Fault Diagnosis With Unreliable Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Mojdeh; Raghavan, Vijaya; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing optimal and near-optimal multiple fault diagnosis (MFD) in bipartite systems with unreliable (imperfect) tests. It is known that exact computation of conditional probabilities for multiple fault diagnosis is NP-hard. The novel feature of our diagnostic algorithms is the use of Lagrangian relaxation and subgradient optimization methods to provide: (1) near optimal solutions for the MFD problem, and (2) upper bounds for an optimal branch-and-bound algorithm. The proposed method is illustrated using several examples. Computational results indicate that: (1) our algorithm has superior computational performance to the existing algorithms (approximately three orders of magnitude improvement), (2) the near optimal algorithm generates the most likely candidates with a very high accuracy, and (3) our algorithm can find the most likely candidates in systems with as many as 1000 faults.

  17. A Simple Algorithm for the Metric Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm was designed for a wire list net sort problem. A branch and bound algorithm for the metric traveling salesman problem is presented for this. The algorithm is a best bound first recursive descent where the bound is based on the triangle inequality. The bounded subsets are defined by the relative order of the first K of the N cities (i.e., a K city subtour). When K equals N, the bound is the length of the tour. The algorithm is implemented as a one page subroutine written in the C programming language for the VAX 11/750. Average execution times for randomly selected planar points using the Euclidean metric are 0.01, 0.05, 0.42, and 3.13 seconds for ten, fifteen, twenty, and twenty-five cities, respectively. Maximum execution times for a hundred cases are less than eleven times the averages. The speed of the algorithms is due to an initial ordering algorithm that is a N squared operation. The algorithm also solves the related problem where the tour does not return to the starting city and the starting and/or ending cities may be specified. It is possible to extend the algorithm to solve a nonsymmetric problem satisfying the triangle inequality.

  18. A branch-and-cut-and-price approach for the pickup and delivery problem with shuttle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masson, Renaud; Røpke, Stefan; Lehuédé, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    for the PDPS and a branch-and-cut-and-price algorithm to solve it. The pricing sub-problem, an Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints (ESPPRC), is solved with a labeling algorithm enhanced with efficient dominance rules. Three families of valid inequalities are used to strengthen...

  19. Output-Feedback Adaptive SP-SD-Type Control with an Extended Continuous Adaptation Algorithm for the Global Regulation of Robot Manipulators with Bounded Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela J. López-Araujo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an output-feedback adaptive SP-SD-type control scheme for the global position stabilization of robot manipulators with bounded inputs is proposed. Compared with the output-feedback adaptive approaches previously developed in a bounded-input context, the proposed velocity-free feedback controller guarantees the adaptive regulation objective globally (i.e. for any initial condition, avoiding discontinuities throughout the scheme, preventing the inputs from reaching their natural saturation bounds and imposing no saturation-avoidance restrictions on the choice of the P and D control gains. Moreover, through its extended structure, the adaptation algorithm may be configured to evolve either in parallel (independently or interconnected to the velocity estimation (motion dissipation auxiliary dynamics, giving an additional degree of design flexibility. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is not restricted to the use of a specific saturation function to achieve the required boundedness, but may involve any one within a set of smooth and non-smooth (Lipschitz-continuous bounded passive functions that include the hyperbolic tangent and the conventional saturation as particular cases. Experimental results on a 3-degree-of-freedom manipulator corroborate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  20. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...... giant branch (AGB) population (21 stars) using AAOmega/2dF spectra with R ~ 3000. We discover that NGC 1851 hosts a quadrimodal distribution of CN band strengths in its RGB and AGB populations. This result supports the merger formation scenario proposed for this cluster, such that the CN quadrimodality...... found that the four CN peaks may be paired—the two CN-weaker populations being associated with low Ba and the two CN-stronger populations with high Ba. If true, then s-process abundances would be a good diagnostic for disentangling the two original clusters in the merger scenario. More observations...

  1. Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according to which objective optimization is impracticable in the real world because it would demand an immense level of sophistication of the analytical and computational processes of human beings. We show how normative valuation models should rather be viewed as forms of reality representation, frameworks according to which the real world is perceived, fragmented for a better understanding, and recomposed, providing an orderly method for undertaking a task as complex as the investment decision.

  2. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  3. Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according...

  4. Tail paradox, partial identifiability, and influential priors in Bayesian branch length inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannala, Bruce; Zhu, Tianqi; Yang, Ziheng

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have observed that Bayesian analyses of sequence data sets using the program MrBayes sometimes generate extremely large branch lengths, with posterior credibility intervals for the tree length (sum of branch lengths) excluding the maximum likelihood estimates. Suggested explanations for this phenomenon include the existence of multiple local peaks in the posterior, lack of convergence of the chain in the tail of the posterior, mixing problems, and misspecified priors on branch lengths. Here, we analyze the behavior of Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms when the chain is in the tail of the posterior distribution and note that all these phenomena can occur. In Bayesian phylogenetics, the likelihood function approaches a constant instead of zero when the branch lengths increase to infinity. The flat tail of the likelihood can cause poor mixing and undue influence of the prior. We suggest that the main cause of the extreme branch length estimates produced in many Bayesian analyses is the poor choice of a default prior on branch lengths in current Bayesian phylogenetic programs. The default prior in MrBayes assigns independent and identical distributions to branch lengths, imposing strong (and unreasonable) assumptions about the tree length. The problem is exacerbated by the strong correlation between the branch lengths and parameters in models of variable rates among sites or among site partitions. To resolve the problem, we suggest two multivariate priors for the branch lengths (called compound Dirichlet priors) that are fairly diffuse and demonstrate their utility in the special case of branch length estimation on a star phylogeny. Our analysis highlights the need for careful thought in the specification of high-dimensional priors in Bayesian analyses.

  5. Modeling of branching density and branching distribution in low-density polyethylene polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.M.; Iedema, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (ldPE) is a general purpose polymer with various applications. By this reason, many publications can be found on the ldPE polymerization modeling. However, scission reaction and branching distribution are only recently considered in the modeling studies due to difficulties

  6. Polynomially Bounded Sequences and Polynomial Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okazaki Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize polynomially bounded sequences that plays an important role in computational complexity theory. Class P is a fundamental computational complexity class that contains all polynomial-time decision problems [11], [12]. It takes polynomially bounded amount of computation time to solve polynomial-time decision problems by the deterministic Turing machine. Moreover we formalize polynomial sequences [5].

  7. Patterned cell and matrix dynamics in branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohe; Sekiguchi, Rei; Daley, William P; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2017-03-06

    Many embryonic organs undergo branching morphogenesis to maximize their functional epithelial surface area. Branching morphogenesis requires the coordinated interplay of multiple types of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM). During branching morphogenesis, new branches form by "budding" or "clefting." Cell migration, proliferation, rearrangement, deformation, and ECM dynamics have varied roles in driving budding versus clefting in different organs. Elongation of the newly formed branch and final maturation of the tip involve cellular mechanisms that include cell elongation, intercalation, convergent extension, proliferation, and differentiation. New methodologies such as high-resolution live imaging, tension sensors, and force-mapping techniques are providing exciting new opportunities for future research into branching morphogenesis. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  8. CBC bound proteins and RNA fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacometti, Simone

    The cap-binding complex (CBC) plays a pivotal role in post-transcriptional processing events and orchestrates a variety of metabolic pathways, through association with different interaction partners. Two CBC sub-complexes, the CBC-ARS2-PHAX (CBCAP) and the CBC-nuclear exosome targeting (NEXT......) binding varies with the RNA maturation stage, with the CBC being highly enriched on mature mRNA, ARS2/PHAX/ZC3H18/MTR4 less so, and RMB7 preferentially bound to pre-mRNAs; (iv) MTR4 and RBM7 show different specificities, with RBM7 being highly enriched on introns and promoter upstream transcripts (PROMPTs......) complex (CBCN), were recently shown to target capped RNA either toward export or degradation, but the mechanisms by which they can discriminate between different RNA families and route them toward different metabolic pathways still remain unclear. A major question to be answered is how and when...

  9. University Competition and Transnational Education: The Choice of Branch Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Poyago-Theotoky; Alessandro Tampieri

    2015-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework in which an elitist and a non- elitist university in a developed country compete by choosing their admission standards and deciding whether or not to open a branch campus in a developing country. Students from a developing country attend university either if a branch campus is opened or if they can afford to move to the developed country. We characterise the equi- libria by focussing on the relationship between the investment costs of a branch campus and the...

  10. Toward integration and interaction of branches in sport psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiroshi Sekiya

    2009-01-01

    .... Members of the JSSP have developed various research associations in branches and related fields of sport psychology, such as motor learning, motivation, social sport psychology, clinical sport...

  11. Drivers of apoplastic freezing in gymnosperm and angiosperm branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Mayr, Stefan; Salmon, Yann; Cochard, Hervé; Hölttä, Teemu

    2018-01-01

    It is not well understood what determines the degree of supercooling of apoplastic sap in trees, although it determines the number and duration of annual freeze-thaw cycles in a given environment. We studied the linkage between apoplastic ice nucleation temperature, tree water status, and conduit size. We used branches of 10 gymnosperms and 16 angiosperms collected from an arboretum in Helsinki (Finland) in winter and spring. Branches with lower relative water content froze at lower temperatures, and branch water content was lower in winter than in spring. A bench drying experiment with Picea abies confirmed that decreasing branch water potential decreases apoplastic ice nucleation temperature. The studied angiosperms froze on average 2.0 and 1.8°C closer to zero Celsius than the studied gymnosperms during winter and spring, respectively. This was caused by higher relative water content in angiosperms; when branches were saturated with water, apoplastic ice nucleation temperature of gymnosperms increased to slightly higher temperature than that of angiosperms. Apoplastic ice nucleation temperature in sampled branches was positively correlated with xylem conduit diameter as shown before, but saturating the branches removed the correlation. Decrease in ice nucleation temperature decreased the duration of freezing, which could have an effect on winter embolism formation via the time available for gas escape during ice propagation. The apoplastic ice nucleation temperature varied not only between branches but also within a branch between consecutive freeze-thaw cycles demonstrating the stochastic nature of ice nucleation.

  12. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of branched polymers and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborieau, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Branched polymers are among the most important polymers, ranging from polyolefins to polysaccharides. Branching plays a key role in the chain dynamics. It is thus very important for application properties such as mechanical and adhesive properties and digestibility. It also plays a key role in viscous properties, and thus in the mechanism of the separation of these polymers in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Critically reviewing the literature, particularly on SEC of polyolefins, polyacrylates and starch, we discuss common pitfalls but also highlight some unexplored possibilities to characterize branched polymers. The presence of a few long-chain branches has been shown to lead to a poor separation in SEC, as evidenced by multiple-detection SEC or multidimensional liquid chromatography. The local dispersity can be large in that case, and the accuracy of molecular weight determination achieved by current methods is poor, although hydrodynamic volume distributions offer alternatives. In contrast, highly branched polymers do not suffer from this extensive incomplete separation in terms of molecular weight. Figure Representation of (a) a linear polymer chain and various branched polymer structures with (b) longchain branches (amylose-like), (c) short-chain branches (amylopectin-like), (d) both short-chain and long-chain branches (polyacrylate- or polyethylene-like). PMID:20967430

  13. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica

    2009-11-15

    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Software Management Environment (SME): Components and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Robert; Kistler, David; Valett, Jon

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the components and algorithms of the Software Management Environment (SME), a management tool developed for the Software Engineering Branch (Code 552) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SME provides an integrated set of visually oriented experienced-based tools that can assist software development managers in managing and planning software development projects. This document describes and illustrates the analysis functions that underlie the SME's project monitoring, estimation, and planning tools. 'SME Components and Algorithms' is a companion reference to 'SME Concepts and Architecture' and 'Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Relationships, Models, and Management Rules.'

  15. On the Optimization and Parallelizing Little Algorithm for Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vasilchikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some ways to accelerate solving the NP-complete Traveling Salesman Problem. The classic Little algorithm belonging to the category of ”branch and bound methods” can solve it both for directed and undirected graphs. However, for undirected graphs its operation can be accelerated by eliminating the consideration of branches examined earlier. The paper proposes changes to be made in the key operations of the algorithm to speed up its execution. It also describes the results of an experiment that demonstrated a significant acceleration of solving the problem by using an advanced algorithm. Another way to speed up the work is to parallelize the algorithm. For problems of this kind it is difficult to break the task into a sufficient number of subtasks having comparable complexity. Their parallelism arises dynamically during the execution. For such problems, it seems reasonable to use parallel-recursive algorithms. In our case the use of the library RPM ParLib developed by the author was a good choice. It allows us to develop effective applications for parallel computing on a local network using any .NET-compatible programming language. We used C# to develop the programs. Parallel applications were developed as for basic and modified algorithms, the comparing of their speed was made. Experiments were performed for the graphs with the number of vertexes up to 45 and with the number of network computers up to 16. We also investigated the acceleration that can be achieved by parallelizing the basic Little algorithm for directed graphs. The results of these experiments are also presented in the paper. 

  16. The hyperbolic step potential: Anti-bound states, SUSY partners and Wigner time delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadella, M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Kuru, Ş. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Negro, J., E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    We study the scattering produced by a one dimensional hyperbolic step potential, which is exactly solvable and shows an unusual interest because of its asymmetric character. The analytic continuation of the scattering matrix in the momentum representation has a branch cut and an infinite number of simple poles on the negative imaginary axis which are related with the so called anti-bound states. This model does not show resonances. Using the wave functions of the anti-bound states, we obtain supersymmetric (SUSY) partners which are the series of Rosen–Morse II potentials. We have computed the Wigner reflection and transmission time delays for the hyperbolic step and such SUSY partners. Our results show that the more bound states a partner Hamiltonian has the smaller is the time delay. We also have evaluated time delays for the hyperbolic step potential in the classical case and have obtained striking similitudes with the quantum case. - Highlights: • The scattering matrix of hyperbolic step potential is studied. • The scattering matrix has a branch cut and an infinite number of poles. • The poles are associated to anti-bound states. • Susy partners using antibound states are computed. • Wigner time delays for the hyperbolic step and partner potentials are compared.

  17. Optimization algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Choose the Correct Solution Method for Your Optimization ProblemOptimization: Algorithms and Applications presents a variety of solution techniques for optimization problems, emphasizing concepts rather than rigorous mathematical details and proofs. The book covers both gradient and stochastic methods as solution techniques for unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It discusses the conjugate gradient method, Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm, Powell method, penalty function, augmented Lagrange multiplier method, sequential quadratic programming, method of feasible direc

  18. Approximation and online algorithms in scheduling and coloring

    OpenAIRE

    Fishkin, Aleksei V.

    2003-01-01

    In the last three decades, approximation and online algorithms have become a major area of theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics. Scheduling and coloring problems are among the most popular ones for which approximation and online algorithms have been analyzed. On one hand, motivated by the well-known difficulty to obtain good lower bounds for the problems, it is particularly hard to prove results on the online and offline performance of algorithms. On the other hand, the theor...

  19. Bounded Semantics of CTL and SAT-Based Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui

    Bounded model checking has been proposed as a complementary approach to BDD based symbolic model checking for combating the state explosion problem, esp. for efficient error detection. This has led to a lot of successful work with respect to error detection in the checking of LTL, ACTL (the universal fragment of CTL) and ACTL* properties by satisfiability testing. The use of bounded model checking for verification (in contrast to error detection) of LTL and ACTL properties has later also been studied. This paper studies the potentials and limitations of bounded model checking for the verification of CTL and CTL* formulas. On the theoretical side, we first provide a framework for discussion of bounded semantics, which serves as the basis for bounded model checking, then extend the bounded semantics of ACTL to a bounded semantics of CTL, and discuss the limitation of developing such a bounded semantics for CTL*. On the practical side, a deduction of a SAT-based bounded model checking approach for ACTL properties from the bounded semantics of CTL is demonstrated, and a comparison of such an approach with BDD-based model checking is presented based on experimental results.

  20. News and Events - Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The latest news from the Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branch and the Alliance, as well as upcoming and past events attended by the Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branchstaff, and relevant upcoming scientific meetings.

  1. A Genetic Algorithm-Based Approach for Single-Machine Scheduling with Learning Effect and Release Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Chiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The way to gain knowledge and experience of producing a product in a firm can be seen as new solution for reducing the unit cost in scheduling problems, which is known as “learning effects.” In the scheduling of batch processing machines, it is sometimes advantageous to form a nonfull batch, while in other situations it is a better strategy to wait for future job arrivals in order to increase the fullness of the batch. However, research with learning effect and release times is relatively unexplored. Motivated by this observation, we consider a single-machine problem with learning effect and release times where the objective is to minimize the total completion times. We develop a branch-and-bound algorithm and a genetic algorithm-based heuristic for this problem. The performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated and compared via computational experiments, which showed that our approach has superior ability in this scenario.

  2. Generalized and synthetic regression estimators for randomized branch sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire

    2015-01-01

    In felled-tree studies, ratio and regression estimators are commonly used to convert more readily measured branch characteristics to dry crown mass estimates. In some cases, data from multiple trees are pooled to form these estimates. This research evaluates the utility of both tactics in the estimation of crown biomass following randomized branch sampling (...

  3. Identity and dynamics of mammary stem cells during branching morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheele, Colinda L.G.J.; Hannezo, Edouard; Muraro, Mauro J.; Zomer, Anoek; Langedijk, Nathalia S.M.; Van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Simons, Benjamin D; Van Rheenen, Jacco

    2017-01-01

    During puberty, the mouse mammary gland develops into a highly branched epithelial network. Owing to the absence of exclusive stem cell markers, the location, multiplicity, dynamics and fate of mammary stem cells (MaSCs), which drive branching morphogenesis, are unknown. Here we show that

  4. Linear and Branched PEIs (Polyethylenimines and Their Property Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu N. Lungu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A chemical property space defines the adaptability of a molecule to changing conditions and its interaction with other molecular systems determining a pharmacological response. Within a congeneric molecular series (compounds with the same derivatization algorithm and thus the same brute formula the chemical properties vary in a monotonic manner, i.e., congeneric compounds share the same chemical property space. The chemical property space is a key component in molecular design, where some building blocks are functionalized, i.e., derivatized, and eventually self-assembled in more complex systems, such as enzyme-ligand systems, of which (physico-chemical properties/bioactivity may be predicted by QSPR/QSAR (quantitative structure-property/activity relationship studies. The system structure is determined by the binding type (temporal/permanent; electrostatic/covalent and is reflected in its local electronic (and/or magnetic properties. Such nano-systems play the role of molecular devices, important in nano-medicine. In the present article, the behavior of polyethylenimine (PEI macromolecules (linear LPEI and branched BPEI, respectively with respect to the glucose oxidase enzyme GOx is described in terms of their (interacting energy, geometry and topology, in an attempt to find the best shape and size of PEIs to be useful for a chosen (nanochemistry purpose.

  5. Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Heydarzade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.

  6. Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Hadi, H.; Corda, C.; Darabi, F.

    2018-01-01

    The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.

  7. Monetary and fiscal policy under bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lustenhouwer, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to use plausible and intuitive models of bounded rationality to give new insights in monetary and fiscal policy. Particular focus is put on the zero lower bound on the nominal interest rate, forward guidance, and fiscal consolidations. The thesis considers different forms

  8. Nonequilibrium quantum bounds to Landauer's principle: Tightness and effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Steve; Guarnieri, Giacomo; Paternostro, Mauro; Vacchini, Bassano

    2017-10-01

    We assess two different nonequilibrium quantum Landauer bounds: the traditional approach based on the change in entropy, referred to as the "entropic bound," and one based on the details of the dynamical map, referred to as the "thermodynamic bound." By first restricting to a simple exactly solvable model of a single two-level system coupled to a finite-dimensional thermal environment and by exploiting an excitation-preserving interaction, we establish the dominant role played by the population terms in dictating the tightness of these bounds with respect to the dissipated heat and clearly establish that coherences only affect the entropic bound. Furthermore, we show that sharp boundaries between the relative performance of the two quantities emerge and find that there are clear instances where both approaches return a bound weaker than Clausius' statement of the second law, rendering them ineffective. Finally, we show that our results extend to generic interaction terms.

  9. Upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the notions of exact and approximate decision reducts for binary decision tables. We present upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts depending on the number of rows (objects) in the decision table. We show that the bound for exact reducts is unimprovable in the general case, and the bound for approximate reducts is almost unimprovable in the general case. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha

    2013-01-01

    We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes...

  11. Boundaries and Topological Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    models of situations in space and models of events over time. For example, suppose that we want to describe the process of freezing water in an icecube ...derived properties are also useful in predicting material properties. For example, we can assume that objects in a kitchen that look like icecube ...properties tend to have abrupt changes at a common set of locations. Consider, for example, the bound- ary between the ice and the icecube tray in the

  12. Presenting an algorithm of integer nonlinear multiple objective programming in conditions of uncertainty for balanced scorecard method (case study in Islamic Azad University, Semnan Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Karkehabadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balanced scorecard is a performance appraisal method planned for measuring the organizational efficiency to develop their strategies. Organization’s strategies in a specified period are the main inputs in this model. Furthermore, due to nature, experts' opinions play the vital role in determining the strategies. In this research, the proposed algorithm is designed by using fuzzy set covering problem and non-linear multiple objective integer programming (zero and one variables, so that it can be useful to choose the best combination of strategies for specified period of time with the least deviation in experts` opinions. The presented model is carried out in Islamic Azad University, Semnan Branch. The results indicate that the designed model can provide the best combination of strategies for entering into the balanced scorecard system.

  13. Upper bounds on quantum uncertainty products and complexity measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Angel; Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesus S. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain) and Institute Carlos I for Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Institute Carlos I for Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The position-momentum Shannon and Renyi uncertainty products of general quantum systems are shown to be bounded not only from below (through the known uncertainty relations), but also from above in terms of the Heisenberg-Kennard product . Moreover, the Cramer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and Lopez-Ruiz, Mancini, and Calbet shape measures of complexity (whose lower bounds have been recently found) are also bounded from above. The improvement of these bounds for systems subject to spherically symmetric potentials is also explicitly given. Finally, applications to hydrogenic and oscillator-like systems are done.

  14. The number of recombination events in a sample history: conflict graph and lower bounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafna, Vineet; Bansal, Vikas

    2004-01-01

    We consider the following problem: Given a set of binary sequences, determine lower bounds on the minimum number of recombinations required to explain the history of the sample, under the infinite-sites model of mutation. The problem has implications for finding recombination hotspots and for the Ancestral Recombination Graph reconstruction problem. Hudson and Kaplan gave a lower bound based on the four-gamete test. In practice, their bound Rm often greatly underestimates the minimum number of recombinations. The problem was recently revisited by Myers and Griffiths, who introduced two new lower bounds Rh and Rs which are provably better, and also yield good bounds in practice. However, the worst-case complexities of their procedures for computing Rh and Rs are exponential and super-exponential, respectively. In this paper, we show that the number of nontrivial connected components, Rc, in the conflict graph for a given set of sequences, computable in time O(nm2), is also a lower bound on the minimum number of recombination events. We show that in many cases, Rc is a better bound than Rh. The conflict graph was used by Gusfield et al. to obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the galled tree problem, which is a special case of the Ancestral Recombination Graph (ARG) reconstruction problem. Our results also offer some insight into the structural properties of this graph and are of interest for the general Ancestral Recombination Graph reconstruction problem.

  15. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a sing...

  16. Generic Lower Bounds for Root Extraction and Signature Schemes in General Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Koprowski, Maciej

    2002-01-01

    not use any special properties of the group at hand. We prove an exponential lower bound on the generic complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the public exponent itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms....... The results hold for arbitrary groups, so security w.r.t. generic attacks follows for any cryptographic construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we revisit Cramer-Shoup signature scheme [10]. We modify the scheme such that it becomes a generic algorithm. This allows us to implement...

  17. Branch-and-cut-and-price for the traveling salesman problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    In the traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW) one is given a depot and a set of nodes to be visited by a salesman. The salesman starts his trip at the depot and must visit all nodes while respecting time windows at the nodes. The objective of the problem is to minimize the total...... distance traveled by the salesman. The TSPTW is formulated as a set-partitioning problem which is solved by using combined cut and column generation. The pricing sub problem in the column generation procedure is a shortest path problem with time window constraints and 2-cycle elimination. A standard column...... paradigms such as branch-and-cut, dynamic programming and constraint programming. We cannot conclude that the branch-and-cut-and-price approach always is superior to the others paradigms, but several instances are reported solved to optimality for the rst time and bounds are strengthened for other, still...

  18. Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; Velázquez-Ahumada, María C; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán

    2016-06-24

    A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along meter-size transmission-line circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed.

  19. Extra-muscular branching and distribution of obturator nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zare

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the obturator nerve distribution pattern is essential in reconstructive surgery and rehabilitation. To reveal pathway and branching of the nerve, 64 fixed cadavers in Bushehr and Tehran University of Medical Sciences were evaluated. In all cases, the obturator nerve arised from the anterior branches of the 2nd-4th lumbar nerves and passed through the medial side of psoas muscle to pelvis and in obturator grove divided to anterior and posterior branches the anterior division passed over the external obturator muscle.The skin of the medial side of thigh in 3.12% of cases was innervated by a direct branch of anterior branch.The posterior division of obturator nerve passed over the external obturator muscle in 3.12% and passed through it in 96.88% of cases. The articular branch for knee joint passed through the distal part of adductor magnus muscle in 82.8% and through the Hunter channel along with femoral artery in 17.2% of cases. Therefore, the distribution pattern of obturator nerve is accordant with the other researches except for adductor brevis muscle which was innervated only by the anterior branch of obturator nerve.

  20. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the description of algorithms and programming languages, what is the role of control abstraction? • What are the inherent limitations of the algorithmic processes? In future articles in this series, we will show that these constructs are powerful and can be used to encode any algorithm. In the next article, we will discuss ...

  1. Preparation and Properties of Branched Polystyrene through Radical Suspension Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical solvent-free suspension polymerization of styrene with 3-mercapto hexyl-methacrylate (MHM as the branching monomer has been carried out using 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as the initiator to prepare branched polymer beads of high purity. The molecular weight and branching structure of the polymers have been characterized by triple detection size exclusion chromatography (TD-SEC, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The glass transition temperature and rheological properties have been measured by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and rotational rheometry. At mole ratios of MHM to AIBN less than 1.0, gelation was successfully avoided and branched polystyrene beads were prepared in the absence of any solvent. Branched polystyrene has a relatively higher molecular weight and narrower polydispersity (Mw.MALLS = 1,036,000 g·mol−1, Mw/Mn = 7.76 than those obtained in solution polymerization. Compared with their linear analogues, lower glass transition temperature and decreased chain entanglement were observed in the presently obtained branched polystyrene because of the effects of branching.

  2. Selective branch prediction reversal by correlating with data values and control flow

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón, Juan Luis; González, José; García Carrasco, José M.; González Colás, Antonio María

    2001-01-01

    Branch prediction is one of the main hurdles in the roadmap towards deeper pipelines and higher clock frequencies. This work presents a new approach to enhancing current branch predictors: Selective Branch Prediction Reversal. The rationale behind this proposal is the fact that many branch mispredictions can be avoided if branch prediction is selectively reversed. We present a Branch Prediction Reversal Unit (BPRU) that selectively reverses branch predictions by correlating with the predicted...

  3. Forecasting with Universal Approximators and a Learning Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl

    bounds for the combination rules applied. We apply the Weighted Average Algorithm (WAA) of Kivinen and Warmuth (1999) for which such loss bounds exist. Specifically, one can bound the worst case performance of the WAA compared to the performance of the best single model in the set of models combined from....... The use of universal approximators along with a combination scheme for which explicit loss bounds exist should give a solid theoretical foundation to the way the forecasts are performed. The practical performance will be investigated by considering various monthly postwar macroeconomic data sets for the G...

  4. [Craniotomy and the temporal branch of the facial nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekar, L; Bláha, M; Schwab, J; Melechovský, D

    2004-05-01

    The surgical anatomy of the temporal branch of the facial nerve was studied in the anatomical laboratory. The temporal branch divides into an anterior, middle (frontal), and a posterior ramus after it pierces the parotid fascia. The anterior ramus innervates orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles; the middle branch is for the ipsilateral frontalis muscle. The posterior branch innervates the anterior and superior auricular and tragus muscles. Below the zygomatic arch, the temporal branch of the facial nerve is located in the subcutaneous tissue. Above the arch, it continues in the subgaleal space with the superficial temporal fascia deeply. The terminal twigs of the temporal branch penetrate the galea to reach their target muscles that are all located superficial to the galea. There is a significant variability in the course of the temporal branch of the facial nerve. Occasionally, the terminal twigs of the middle ramus may penetrate superficial layer of superficial temporal fascia and run in the intrafascial fat pad before entering the frontalis muscle. There are four available operative techniques in this anatomical location. The subgaleal dissection of a temporofrontal scalp flap is associated with a high incidence of postoperative palsy of the temporal branch of the facial nerve and cosmetically bothersome results. Reflecting the scalp and temporalis muscle together as a single layer is the safest procedure. Unfortunately, this technique can not be used for the transzygomatic approaches and the bulky temporalis muscle may compromise basal exposure in the pterional route. Third technique was described and propagated by Yasargil. He proposed a subgaleal dissection up to the anterior one-fourth of the temporalis muscle where the dissection has to be deepened between the two layers of the superficial temporal fascia (in the interfascial fat pad). This approach may also infrequently injure the temporal branch in case of anatomical variation. The last

  5. Extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal dynamics during branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental developmental process which results in amplification of epithelial surface area for exchanging molecules in organs including the lung, kidney, mammary gland and salivary gland. These complex tree-like structures are built by iterative rounds of simple routines of epithelial morphogenesis, including bud formation, extension, and bifurcation, that require constant remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cytoskeleton. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the role of the ECM and cytoskeletal dynamics in branching morphogenesis across these different organs. The cellular and molecular mechanisms shared during this morphogenetic process provide insight into the development of other branching organs. PMID:22609561

  6. Agency and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns Holger Rutz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of algorithms has been established a long time ago, their current topicality indicates a shift in the discourse. Classical definitions based on logic seem to be inadequate to describe their aesthetic capabilities. New approaches stress their involvement in material practices as well as their incompleteness. Algorithmic aesthetics can no longer be tied to the static analysis of programs, but must take into account the dynamic and experimental nature of coding practices. It is suggested that the aesthetic objects thus produced articulate something that could be called algorithmicity or the space of algorithmic agency. This is the space or the medium – following Luhmann’s form/medium distinction – where human and machine undergo mutual incursions. In the resulting coupled “extimate” writing process, human initiative and algorithmic speculation cannot be clearly divided out any longer. An observation is attempted of defining aspects of such a medium by drawing a trajectory across a number of sound pieces. The operation of exchange between form and medium I call reconfiguration and it is indicated by this trajectory. 

  7. Business Systems Branch Abilities, Capabilities, and Services Web Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Pena, Aida Yoguely

    2009-01-01

    During the INSPIRE summer internship I acted as the Business Systems Branch Capability Owner for the Kennedy Web-based Initiative for Communicating Capabilities System (KWICC), with the responsibility of creating a portal that describes the services provided by this Branch. This project will help others achieve a clear view ofthe services that the Business System Branch provides to NASA and the Kennedy Space Center. After collecting the data through the interviews with subject matter experts and the literature in Business World and other web sites I identified discrepancies, made the necessary corrections to the sites and placed the information from the report into the KWICC web page.

  8. Synthesis of branched polyglucans by the tandem action of potato phosphorylase and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, Jeroen; Reixach, Marta Palomo; van der Maarel, Marc; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Schouten, Arend Jan; Loos, Katja

    2008-01-01

    An enzymatic tandem reaction is described in which the enzymes phosphorylase and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) catalyze the synthesis of branched polyglucans from glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P). Phosphorylase consumes G-1-P and polymerizes linear amylose while DR GBE

  9. Branching Out in Roots: Uncovering Form, Function, and Regulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Rasmussen, Amanda; Traini, Richard; Voß, Ute; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha J.; Wells, Darren M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Root branching is critical for plants to secure anchorage and ensure the supply of water, minerals, and nutrients. To date, research on root branching has focused on lateral root development in young seedlings. However, many other programs of postembryonic root organogenesis exist in angiosperms. In cereal crops, the majority of the mature root system is composed of several classes of adventitious roots that include crown roots and brace roots. In this Update, we initially describe the diversity of postembryonic root forms. Next, we review recent advances in our understanding of the genes, signals, and mechanisms regulating lateral root and adventitious root branching in the plant models Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). While many common signals, regulatory components, and mechanisms have been identified that control the initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence of new lateral and adventitious root organs, much more remains to be done. We conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities facing root branching research. PMID:25136060

  10. Antibiotics and renal branching morphogenesis: comparison of toxicities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueters, R.R.G.; Kusters, L.J.; Klaasen, A.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Schreuder, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many premature born neonates receive antibiotic drugs to treat infections, which are applied during active nephrogenesis. We studied the impact of clinical concentrations of gentamicin and alternatives, ceftazidime and meropenem, on ureteric branching. METHODS: Mice metanephroi were

  11. Establishment report: Reforestation of the Pen Branch corridor and delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.; Dulohery, N.J.; Bunton, C.S.; Trettin, C.C.; McKee, W.H. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.

  12. Quasi-bound states, resonance tunnelling, and tunnelling times ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In analogy with the definition of resonant or quasi-bound states used in three-dimensional quantal scattering, we define the quasi-bound states that occur in one- dimensional transmission generated by twin symmetric potential barriers and evaluate their energies and widths using two typical examples: (i) twin ...

  13. Parallel Algorithms and Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation on parallel algorithms and patterns. A parallel algorithm is a well-defined, step-by-step computational procedure that emphasizes concurrency to solve a problem. Examples of problems include: Sorting, searching, optimization, matrix operations. A parallel pattern is a computational step in a sequence of independent, potentially concurrent operations that occurs in diverse scenarios with some frequency. Examples are: Reductions, prefix scans, ghost cell updates. We only touch on parallel patterns in this presentation. It really deserves its own detailed discussion which Gabe Rockefeller would like to develop.

  14. Synergism between soluble and dietary fiber bound antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-03-04

    This study investigates the synergism between antioxidants bound to dietary fibers (DF) of grains and soluble antioxidants of highly consumed beverages or their pure antioxidants. The interaction between insoluble fractions of grains containing bound antioxidants and soluble antioxidants was investigated using (i) a liposome-based system by measuring the lag phase before the onset of oxidation and (ii) an ESR-based system by measuring the reduction percentage of Fremy's salt radical. In both procedures, antioxidant capacities of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were measured as well as their combinations, which were prepared at different ratios. The simple addition effects of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were compared with measured values. The results revealed a clear synergism for almost all combinations in both liposome- and ESR-based systems. The synergism observed in DF-bound-soluble antioxidant system paints a promising picture considering the role of fiber in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract health.

  15. Higgs interchange and bound states of superheavy fermions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hypothetical superheavy fourth-generation fermions with a very small coupling with the rest of the Standard Model can give rise to long enough lived bound states. The production and the detection of these bound states would be experimentally feasible at the LHC. Extending, in the present study, the analysis of other ...

  16. Algorithmization in Learning and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, L. N.

    An introduction to the theory of algorithms reviews the theoretical issues of teaching algorithms, the logical and psychological problems of devising algorithms of identification, and the selection of efficient algorithms; and then relates all of these to the classroom teaching process. It also descirbes some major research on the effectiveness of…

  17. A polynomial lower bound for testing monotonicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Belovs (Aleksandr); Blais, E. (Eric)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe show that every algorithm for testing n-variate Boolean functions for monotonicity has query complexity Ω(n1/4). All previous lower bounds for this problem were designed for nonadaptive algorithms and, as a result, the best previous lower bound for general (possibly adaptive)

  18. Extracellular matrix and growth factors in branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    The unifying hypothesis of the NSCORT in gravitational biology postulates that the ECM and growth factors are key interrelated components of a macromolecular regulatory system. The ECM is known to be important in growth and branching morphogenesis of embryonic organs. Growth factors have been detected in the developing embryo, and often the pattern of localization is associated with areas undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Causal relationships between these components may be of fundamental importance in control of branching morphogenesis.

  19. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberte, Lasma [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Baggioli, Matteo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics, Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-14

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a non-zero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  20. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-07-01

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a nonzero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  1. AC Transmission Network Expansion Planning: A Semidefinite Programming Branch-and-Cut Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaddar, Bissan; Jabr, Rabih

    2017-01-01

    Transmission network expansion planning is a mixed-integer optimization problem, whose solution is used to guide future investment in transmission equipment. An approach is presented to find the global solution of the transmission planning problem using an AC network model. The approach builds on the semidefinite relaxation of the AC optimal power flow problem (ACOPF); its computational engine is a new specialized branch-and-cut algorithm for transmission expansion planning to deal with the u...

  2. Density functional steric analysis of linear and branched alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ess, Daniel H; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank

    2010-12-16

    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (E(s)[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (E(e)[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (E(q)[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes.

  3. Curvature Continuous and Bounded Path Planning for Fixed-Wing UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs play an important role in applications such as data collection and target reconnaissance. An accurate and optimal path can effectively increase the mission success rate in the case of small UAVs. Although path planning for UAVs is similar to that for traditional mobile robots, the special kinematic characteristics of UAVs (such as their minimum turning radius have not been taken into account in previous studies. In this paper, we propose a locally-adjustable, continuous-curvature, bounded path-planning algorithm for fixed-wing UAVs. To deal with the curvature discontinuity problem, an optimal interpolation algorithm and a key-point shift algorithm are proposed based on the derivation of a curvature continuity condition. To meet the upper bound for curvature and to render the curvature extrema controllable, a local replanning scheme is designed by combining arcs and Bezier curves with monotonic curvature. In particular, a path transition mechanism is built for the replanning phase using minimum curvature circles for a planning philosophy. Numerical results demonstrate that the analytical planning algorithm can effectively generate continuous-curvature paths, while satisfying the curvature upper bound constraint and allowing UAVs to pass through all predefined waypoints in the desired mission region.

  4. Curvature Continuous and Bounded Path Planning for Fixed-Wing UAVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Jiang, Peng; Li, Deshi; Sun, Tao

    2017-09-19

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) play an important role in applications such as data collection and target reconnaissance. An accurate and optimal path can effectively increase the mission success rate in the case of small UAVs. Although path planning for UAVs is similar to that for traditional mobile robots, the special kinematic characteristics of UAVs (such as their minimum turning radius) have not been taken into account in previous studies. In this paper, we propose a locally-adjustable, continuous-curvature, bounded path-planning algorithm for fixed-wing UAVs. To deal with the curvature discontinuity problem, an optimal interpolation algorithm and a key-point shift algorithm are proposed based on the derivation of a curvature continuity condition. To meet the upper bound for curvature and to render the curvature extrema controllable, a local replanning scheme is designed by combining arcs and Bezier curves with monotonic curvature. In particular, a path transition mechanism is built for the replanning phase using minimum curvature circles for a planning philosophy. Numerical results demonstrate that the analytical planning algorithm can effectively generate continuous-curvature paths, while satisfying the curvature upper bound constraint and allowing UAVs to pass through all predefined waypoints in the desired mission region.

  5. Type-checking Liveness for Collaborative Processes with Bounded and Unbounded Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2016-01-01

    We present the first session typing system guaranteeing request-response liveness properties for possibly non-terminating communicating processes. The types augment the branch and select types of the standard binary session types with a set of required responses, indicating that whenever...... a particular label is selected, a set of other labels, its responses, must eventually also be selected. We prove that these extended types are strictly more expressive than standard session types. We provide a type system for a process calculus similar to a subset of collaborative BPMN processes with internal...... (data-based) and external (event-based) branching, message passing, bounded and unbounded looping. We prove that this type system is sound, i.e., it guarantees request-response liveness for dead-lock free processes. We exemplify the use of the calculus and type system on a concrete example...

  6. Hitting times of local and global optima in genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to upper bounds on the expected first hitting times of the sets of local or global optima for non-elitist genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure. The results of this paper extend the range of situations where the upper bounds on the expected runtime are known for genetic algorithms and apply, in particular, to the Canonical Genetic Algorithm. The obtained bounds do not require the probability of fitness-decreasing mutation to be bounded by a constant which is less than one.

  7. AXILLARY ARTERY- A STUDY ON BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswary Thampi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Study of variations in the branching pattern of axillary artery is of considerable importance. There may be variations in the origin of branches, additional branches or 2 or more from common trunk or the artery may arise separately. The anomalous branching pattern can be correlated to the developmental defects of vasculature during embryonic life. The axillary artery is a part of axis artery of upper limb. Morphological variations of axillary artery of upper limb is very important for vascular surgeons, cardiologists, anaesthetists, radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons. Present study is aimed at finding out the branching pattern of axillary artery, clinical significance and to correlate its embryological basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 20 formalin fixed cadavers (40 limbs, which were allotted to the undergraduate, postgraduate students and BDS students of Government Medical College, Kottayam. Cadavers were numbered 1-20 and the axillary artery and its branches were dissected on both sides following the classical incision and dissection procedure taking care to preserve all branches. The artery was studied under the following headings- 1. Origin of all branches; 2. Course and variation. RESULTS In the present study, it was observed that the branching pattern of axillary artery showed variations in 80% of cases. 8 upper limbs showed normal pattern of distribution (20%. The branches revealed different levels of origin and distribution from the normal pattern. The most common variations observed in the origin of subscapular artery and anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries together constitute 40%. The remaining 40% of variations were observed in superior thoracic (17.5%, thoracoacromial (12.5% and lateral thoracic (10%. These observations in the arterial variations highlights the awareness during regional surgeries and other interventional procedures. CONCLUSION Variations observed in this

  8. Butterfly velocity bound and reverse isoperimetric inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.

    2017-03-01

    We study the butterfly effect of the AdS planar black holes in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We find that the butterfly velocities can be expressed by a universal formula vB2=T S /(2 VthP ). In doing so, we come upon a near-horizon geometrical formula for the thermodynamical volume Vth . We verify the volume formula by examining a variety of AdS black holes. We also show that the volume formula implies that the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality follows straightforwardly from the null-energy condition, for static AdS black holes. The inequality is thus related to an upper bound of the butterfly velocities.

  9. Free and bound water in normal and cataractous human lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heys, Karl R; Friedrich, Michael G; Truscott, Roger J W

    2008-05-01

    To analyze free and total water in human normal and cataractous lenses. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine total water, and differential scanning calorimetry was used for free water. In normal human lenses, the total water content of the nucleus remained unchanged with age, but the state of the water altered. The ratio of free to bound water increased steadily throughout adult life. In a 20-year-old person, there was approximately one bound water molecule for each free water molecule in the lens center, whereas in a 70- to 80-year-old person, there were two free water molecules for each bound water molecule. This conversion of bound to free water does not appear to be simply a consequence of the aggregation of soluble crystallins into high molecular weight aggregates because studies with intact pig lenses, in which such processes were facilitated by heat, did not show similar changes. The region of the lens in which the barrier to diffusion develops at middle age corresponds to a transition zone in which the protein concentration is intermediate between that of the cortex and the nucleus. In cataractous lenses, the free-to-bound water ratio was not significantly different from that of age-matched normal lenses; however, total water content in the center of advanced nuclear cataractous lenses was slightly lower than in normal lenses. As the human lens ages, bound water is progressively changed to free water. Advanced nuclear cataract may be associated with lower total hydration of the lens nucleus.

  10. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  11. DAL Algorithms and Python

    CERN Document Server

    Aydemir, Bahar

    2017-01-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is composed of a large number of distributed hardware and software components. TDAQ system consists of about 3000 computers and more than 25000 applications which, in a coordinated manner, provide the data-taking functionality of the overall system. There is a number of online services required to configure, monitor and control the ATLAS data taking. In particular, the configuration service is used to provide configuration of above components. The configuration of the ATLAS data acquisition system is stored in XML-based object database named OKS. DAL (Data Access Library) allowing to access it's information by C++, Java and Python clients in a distributed environment. Some information has quite complicated structure, so it's extraction requires writing special algorithms. Algorithms available on C++ programming language and partially reimplemented on Java programming language. The goal of the projec...

  12. Boosting foundations and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Schapire, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Boosting is an approach to machine learning based on the idea of creating a highly accurate predictor by combining many weak and inaccurate "rules of thumb." A remarkably rich theory has evolved around boosting, with connections to a range of topics, including statistics, game theory, convex optimization, and information geometry. Boosting algorithms have also enjoyed practical success in such fields as biology, vision, and speech processing. At various times in its history, boosting has been perceived as mysterious, controversial, even paradoxical.

  13. Bounds on charge and heat diffusivities in momentum dissipating holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova,via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Genova,via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); Lorentz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden NL-2333 CA (Netherlands); Braggio, Alessandro [INFN - Sezione di Genova,via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); CNR-SPIN,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146, Genova (Italy); Magnoli, Nicodemo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova,via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Genova,via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); Musso, Daniele [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-07-20

    Inspired by a recently conjectured universal bound for thermo-electric diffusion constants in quantum critical, strongly coupled systems and relying on holographic analytical computations, we investigate the possibility of formulating Planckian bounds in different holographic models featuring momentum dissipation. For a certain family of solutions to a simple massive gravity dilaton model at zero charge density we find linear in temperature resistivity and entropy density alongside a constant electric susceptibility. In addition we explicitly find that the sum of the thermo-electric diffusion constants is bounded.

  14. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  15. Fuzzy Object Skeletonization: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Saha, Punam; Jin, Dakai; Liu, Yinxiao; E Christensen, Gary; Chen, Cheng

    2017-08-10

    Skeletonization offers a compact representation of an object while preserving important topological and geometrical features. Literature on skeletonization of binary objects is quite mature. However, challenges involved with skeletonization of fuzzy objects are mostly unanswered. This paper presents a new theory and algorithm of skeletonization for fuzzy objects, evaluates its performance, and demonstrates its applications. A formulation of fuzzy grassfire propagation is introduced; its relationships with fuzzy distance functions, level sets, and geodesics are discussed; and new results are presented. A notion of collision-impact of fire-fronts at skeletal points is introduced, and its role in filtering noisy skeletal points is demonstrated. A fuzzy object skeletonization algorithm is developed using new ideas of surface- and curve-skeletal voxels, digital collision-impact, and continuity of skeletal surfaces. A skeletal noise pruning algorithm is presented using branch-level significance. Accuracy and robustness of the new algorithm are examined on computer-generated phantoms and micro- and conventional CT imaging of trabecular bone specimens. An application of fuzzy object skeletonization to compute structure-width at a low image resolution is demonstrated, and its ability to predict bone strength is examined. Finally, the performance of the new fuzzy object skeletonization algorithm is compared with two binary object skeletonization methods.

  16. Tight bounds on accessible information and informational power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Buscemi, Francesco; Ozawa, Masanao

    2014-06-01

    The accessible information quantifies the amount of classical information that can be extracted from an ensemble of quantum states. Analogously, the informational power quantifies the amount of classical information that can be extracted by a quantum measurement. For both quantities, we provide upper and lower bounds that depend only on the dimension of the system, and we prove their tightness. In the case of symmetric informationally complete (SIC) ensembles and measurements, stronger bounds are provided and their tightness proved for qubits and qutrits. From our upper bounds, we notice, perhaps surprisingly, that the statistics generated by SIC ensembles or measurements in arbitrary dimension, though optimal for tomographic purposes, in fact never contain more than just one bit of information, the rest being constituted by completely random bits. On the other hand, from our lower bounds, we obtain an explicit strategy beating the so-called pretty-good one for the extraction of mutual information in the case of SIC ensembles and measurements.

  17. On the Coulomb and Higgs branch formulae for multi-centered black holes and quiver invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke

    2013-01-01

    In previous work we have shown that the equivariant index of multi-centered N=2 black holes localizes on collinear configurations along a fixed axis. Here we provide a general algorithm for enumerating such collinear configurations and computing their contribution to the index. We apply this machinery to the case of black holes described by quiver quantum mechanics, and give a systematic prescription -- the Coulomb branch formula -- for computing the cohomology of the moduli space of quiver representations. For quivers without oriented loops, the Coulomb branch formula is shown to agree with the Higgs branch formula based on Reineke's result for stack invariants, even when the dimension vector is not primitive. For quivers with oriented loops, the Coulomb branch formula parametrizes the Poincar\\'e polynomial of the quiver moduli space in terms of single-centered (or pure-Higgs) BPS invariants, which are conjecturally independent of the stability condition (i.e. the choice of Fayet-Iliopoulos parameters) and a...

  18. Relationship between cell-bound dextransucrase and the agglutination of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M M; Smith, E E

    1975-01-01

    Dextran-induced agglutination of Streptococcus mutans cells is independent of cell-bound dextransucrase activity. Toluene extraction or the presence of Hg2+ or Cu2+ markedly decreased or completely abolished cell-bound dextransucrase activity without adversely affecting dextran-induced cell agglutination. Cells treated by heating at 100 C until cell-bound dextransucrase was completely inactivated continued to agglutinate when induced by dextran-induced cell agglutination resulted from cell treatment with trypsin and several other enzymes, as well as from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid treatment, without a corresponding loss of cell-bound dextransucrase activity. Cells possessed a greater avidity for branched dextrans of low molecular weight than for linear dextrans of the same weight, indicating that size alone does not determine the efficiency of dextran as an inducer of agglutination. Divalent metal ions were required for both sucrose- and dextran-induced agglutination of S. mutans K1-R cells. Although normal cells of strain 6715-49 did not appear to require divalent cations for agglutination, heat- and ethlyenediaminetetraacetic acid-treated cells specifically required Ca2+. The role of Ca2+ in cell agglutination may be either to activate the cell-surface dextran receptor or to form specific intercellular Ca2+ bridges. PMID:809356

  19. Entropy relations and bounds of horizons in modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Meng, Xin-he; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Bin

    2017-07-01

    We first give some entropy relations for black holes in modified gravity models, which are introduced as an elegant technique trick for handling various entropy bounds. For these entropy relations, some are mass-independent and universal, while others are not. Then we study the entropy bound of horizons in modified gravity, including Horava-Lifshitz gravity, massive gravity and Einstein-dilaton gravity. We focus on black holes with two or three physical horizons, containing the event horizon, Cauchy horizon and negative horizon which is physical for the observers in the negative radial coordinate region. In these modified gravity, entropy bounds are geometrical bounds which are related close to the cosmological radius for asymptotically (A)dS black holes, while they are Penrose-like inequalities for asymptotically flat black holes. Moreover, they depend on the constants characterizing the strength of modified terms in the actions. We also present the first law of thermodynamics and Smarr relations for horizons.

  20. Optimal combinations bounds of root-square and arithmetic means ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Math. Sci.) Vol. 122, No. 1, February 2012, pp. 41–51. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Optimal combinations bounds of root-square and arithmetic means for Toader mean. YU-MING CHU1,∗. , MIAO-KUN ..... Computational and numerical experiments show that the bounds in (3.24) and (3.25) for E(r) are better than that in ...

  1. An exact algorithm for generating homogenous two-segment cutting patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.

    2007-04-01

    An exact algorithm is proposed for generating homogenous two-segment patterns for the constrained two-dimensional guillotine-cutting problems of rectangular items. It is a bottom-up approach combined with branch-and-bound techniques. The stock plate is divided into two segments. Each segment consists of strips of the same length and direction. Only homogenous strips are considered, each of which contains items of the same type. The strip directions of the two segments may be either the same or perpendicular to each other. The algorithm uses a tree-search procedure. It starts from an initial lower bound, implicitly generates all possible segments through the assembly of strips, and constructs possible patterns through the combination of two segments. Tighter bounds are established to discard non-promising segments. The computational results indicate that the algorithm is efficient both in computation time and in material utilization, and is able to deal with relatively large-scale problems.

  2. The role of branch architecture in assimilate production and partitioning: the example of apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanwoua, Julienne; Bairam, Emna; Delaire, Mickael; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of branch architecture in carbon production and allocation is essential to gain more insight into the complex process of assimilate partitioning in fruit trees. This mini review reports on the current knowledge of the role of branch architecture in carbohydrate production and partitioning in apple. The first-order carrier branch of apple illustrates the complexity of branch structure emerging from bud activity events and encountered in many fruit trees. Branch architecture influences carbon production by determining leaf exposure to light and by affecting leaf internal characteristics related to leaf photosynthetic capacity. The dynamics of assimilate partitioning between branch organs depends on the stage of development of sources and sinks. The sink strength of various branch organs and their relative positioning on the branch also affect partitioning. Vascular connections between branch organs determine major pathways for branch assimilate transport. We propose directions for employing a modeling approach to further elucidate the role of branch architecture on assimilate partitioning.

  3. Branch and peg algorithms for the simple plant location problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, Boris; Ghosh, Diptesh; Sierksma, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    The simple plant location problem is a well-studied problem in combinatorial optimization. It is one of deciding where to locate a set of plants so that a set of clients can be supplied by them at the minimum cost. This problem of ten appears as a subproblem in other combinatorial problems. Several

  4. Branch and peg algorithms for the simple plant location problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, B.; Ghosh, D.; Sierksma, G.

    The simple plant location problem is a well-studied problem in combinatorial optimization. It is one of deciding where to locate a set of plants so that a set of clients can be supplied by them at the minimum cost. This problem often appears as a subproblem in other combinatorial problems. Several

  5. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , i is referred to as the loop-index, 'stat-body' is any sequence of ... while i ~ N do stat-body; i: = i+ 1; endwhile. The algorithm for sorting the numbers is described in Table 1 and the algorithmic steps on a list of 4 numbers shown in. Figure 1.

  6. Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, José; Lanchares, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This monograph presents examples of best practices when combining bioinspired algorithms with parallel architectures. The book includes recent work by leading researchers in the field and offers a map with the main paths already explored and new ways towards the future. Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms will be of value to both specialists in Bioinspired Algorithms, Parallel and Distributed Computing, as well as computer science students trying to understand the present and the future of Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms.

  7. Cosmological stability bound in massive gravity and bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2013-12-01

    We give a simple derivation of a cosmological bound on the graviton mass for spatially flat FRW solutions in massive gravity with an FRW reference metric and for bigravity theories. This bound comes from the requirement that the kinetic term of the helicity zero mode of the graviton is positive definite. The bound is dependent only on the parameters in the massive gravity potential and the Hubble expansion rate for the two metrics. We derive the decoupling limit of bigravity and FRW massive gravity, and use this to give an independent derivation of the cosmological bound. We recover our previous results that the tension between satisfying the Friedmann equation and the cosmological bound is sufficient to rule out all observationally relevant FRW solutions for massive gravity with an FRW reference metric. In contrast, in bigravity this tension is resolved due to different nature of the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that in bigravity theories there exists an FRW solution with late-time self-acceleration for which the kinetic terms for the helicity-2, helicity-1 and helicity-0 are generically nonzero and positive making this a compelling candidate for a model of cosmic acceleration. We confirm that the generalized bound is saturated for the candidate partially massless (bi)gravity theories but the existence of helicity-1/helicity-0 interactions implies the absence of the conjectured partially massless symmetry for both massive gravity and bigravity.

  8. Measurement of Branching Fractions and Spectral Functions in tau Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Full LEP-I data collected by the ALEPH detector during 1991-1995 running are analyzed in order to measure the tau decay branching fractions and the hadronic spectral functions. The analysis follows the global method used in the published study based on 1991-1993 data, with several improvements, especially concerning the treatment of photons and pi /sup 0/'s. Extensive systematic studies are performed, in order to match the large statistics of the data sample corresponding to 327148 measured and identified tau decays. Preliminary values for the branching fractions are obtained for the 2 leptonic channels and 11 hadronic channels defined by their respective numbers of charged particles and pi /sup 0/'s. Using previously published ALEPH results on final states with charged and neutral kaons, corrections are applied so that branching ratios for exclusive final states without kaons are derived. Some physics implications of the results are given, in particular concerning universality in the leptonic charged weak cu...

  9. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: • Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways • Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually • Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or “compartment” • Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU • Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, • Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs • Computing the

  10. Unusually Looped and Muzzled Branches of Right Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Guru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death in developed countries as it accounts on an average for 1 of every 5 deaths. Morphological variations of coronary arterial system is one of the causative factor for CAD. Anatomical knowledge of all possible variant patterns of coronary arterial system is imperative in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of CAD. We report here a rare branching pattern of right coronary artery (RCA. The origin of RCA was normal but the course and branching pattern of it were atypical. RCA was not occupying its usual position in atrioventricular (coronary sulcus and its course was incomplete. It gave a ventricular branch to right ventricle, which presented an unusual looping pattern. It terminated as right marginal artery following its muzzled appearance within the musculature of the ventricle.

  11. Horizontal Branch Stars in M3 and M13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. O.; Corbally, C. J.; Hill, J. M.

    1994-12-01

    We found unexpected spectral characteristics in a set of field horizontal branch stars with spectral types near A0. They showed Balmer line wings that were broad and characteristic of high gravity stars, and further, one third of the FHB stars appeared to have normal metal line strengths despite low m_1 photometric indices. To find out whether the horizontal branch stars in actual clusters show the same characteristics, we have obtained spectra of stars in M3 and in M13. Initial results of classifying these stars support our earlier findings for the FHB stars. We present some atmospheric modelling as our first attempt to understand the parameters of this kind of near-A0, horizontal branch star.

  12. Institutional tensions between the Executive and Legislative branches in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita JIMÉNEZ BADILLO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to explain the mechanism through which the Brazilian president manages to govern in Brazil amidst a non majority parliamentary scenario with a highly fragmented party system, rising numbers of switchers, an ostensible lack of discipline of the political parties members, and a precarious party coalition. If the Brazilian political system has not yet fallen into an institutional paralysis of governability it is due to the ability of the Executive branch to obtain support from certain parliamentary coalitions and succeeding thereof to outdo actors with veto power, attempting to hinder relations between the Executive and the Legislative branches.

  13. Coulomb branch Hilbert series and Hall-Littlewood polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonesi, Stefano; Mekareeya, Noppadol; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    There has been a recent progress in understanding the chiral ring of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ superconformal gauge theories by explicitly constructing an exact generating function (Hilbert series) counting BPS operators on the Coulomb branch. In this paper we introduce Coulomb branch Hilbert series in the presence of background magnetic charges for flavor symmetries, which are useful for computing the Hilbert series of more general theories through gluing techniques. We find a simple formula of the Hilbert series with background magnetic charges for $T_\\rho(G)$ theories in terms of Hall-Littlewood polynomials. Here $G$ is a classical group and $\\rho$ is a certain partition related to the dual group of $G$. The Hilbert series for vanishing background magnetic charges show that Coulomb branches of $T_\\rho(G)$ theories are complete intersections. We also demonstrate that mirror symmetry maps background magnetic charges to baryonic charges.

  14. Positive branch of asteroid polarization: Observational data and computer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, D. V.; Kiselev, N. N.

    2017-07-01

    Observations of near-Earth asteroids at large phase angles made it possible to obtain a more complete (for ground-based observations) phase dependence of the polarization of the E-type asteroids' radiation including the maximum of the positive branch of the linear polarization degree. It is shown that the position of the polarization maximum of high-albedo asteroids is noticeably shifted to the decrease of phase angles compared with S-type asteroids. Model calculations of polarimetric properties of random Gaussian particles that simulate dust particles on the regolith surface are carried out. Model calculations show a qualitatively similar behavior pattern of parameters of the positive polarization branch. The influence of the refractive index of individual scattering particles on the size and position of the maximum of the positive branch of the linear polarization degree is investigated within the considered model.

  15. Robust branch-cut-and-price for the Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree problem over a large extended formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uchoa, Eduardo; Fukasawa, Ricardo; Lysgaard, Jens

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a robust branch-cut-and-price algorithm for the Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (CMST). The variables are associated to q-arbs, a structure that arises from a relaxation of the capacitated prize-collecting arborescence problem in order to make it solvable in pseudo-p...

  16. The Coin Problem  and Pseudorandomness for Branching Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua; Verbin, Elad

    2010-01-01

    be distinguished by small-width read-once branching programs. We suggest one application for this kind of theorems: we prove that Nisan's Generator fools width-$w$ read-once emph{regular} branching programs, using seed length $O(w^4 log n log log n + log n log (1/eps))$. For $w=eps=Theta(1)$, this seed length...... is $O(log n log log n)$. The coin theorem and its relatives might have other connections to PRGs. This application is related to the independent, but chronologically-earlier, work of Braver man, Rao, Raz and Yehudayoff~cite{BRRY}....

  17. Genetic Algorithm for Optimization: Preprocessor and Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S. K.; Shaykhian, Gholam A.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic algorithm (GA) inspired by Darwin's theory of evolution and employed to solve optimization problems - unconstrained or constrained - uses an evolutionary process. A GA has several parameters such the population size, search space, crossover and mutation probabilities, and fitness criterion. These parameters are not universally known/determined a priori for all problems. Depending on the problem at hand, these parameters need to be decided such that the resulting GA performs the best. We present here a preprocessor that achieves just that, i.e., it determines, for a specified problem, the foregoing parameters so that the consequent GA is a best for the problem. We stress also the need for such a preprocessor both for quality (error) and for cost (complexity) to produce the solution. The preprocessor includes, as its first step, making use of all the information such as that of nature/character of the function/system, search space, physical/laboratory experimentation (if already done/available), and the physical environment. It also includes the information that can be generated through any means - deterministic/nondeterministic/graphics. Instead of attempting a solution of the problem straightway through a GA without having/using the information/knowledge of the character of the system, we would do consciously a much better job of producing a solution by using the information generated/created in the very first step of the preprocessor. We, therefore, unstintingly advocate the use of a preprocessor to solve a real-world optimization problem including NP-complete ones before using the statistically most appropriate GA. We also include such a GA for unconstrained function optimization problems.

  18. Forecasting with Universal Approximators and a Learning Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies three universal approximators for forecasting. They are the Artificial Neural Networks, the Kolmogorov-Gabor polynomials, as well as the Elliptic Basis Function Networks. We are particularly interested in the relative performance and stability of these. Even though forecast...... combination has a long history in econometrics focus has not been on proving loss bounds for the combination rules applied. We apply the Weighted Average Algorithm (WAA) of Kivinen & Warmuth (1999) for which such loss bounds exist. Specifically, one can bound the worst case performance of the WAA compared...

  19. Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-01-01

    A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.

  20. P2-16: Dual-Bound Model and the Role of Time Bound in Perceptual Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeseob Lim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion model (DM encapsulates the dynamics of perceptual decision within a ‘diffusion field’ that is defined by a basis with sensory-evidence (SE and time vectors. At the core of the DM, it assumes that a decision is not made until an evidence particle drifts in the diffusion field and eventually hits one of the two pre-fixed bounds defined in the SE axis. This assumption dictates when and which choice is made by referring to when and which bound will be hit by the evidence particle. What if urgency pressures the decision system to make a choice even when the evidence particle has yet hit the SE bound? Previous modeling attempts at coping with time pressure, despite differences in detail, all manipulated the coordinate of SE bounds. Here, we offer a novel solution by adopting another bound on the time axis. This ‘dual-bound’ model (DBM posits that decisions can also be made when the evidence particle hits a time bound, which is determined on a trial-by-trial basis by a ‘perceived time interval’ – how long the system can stay in the ‘diffusion’ field. The classic single-bound model (SBM exhibited systematic errors in predicting both the reaction time distributions and the time-varying bias in choice. Those errors were not corrected by previously proposed variants of the SBM until the time bound was introduced. The validity of the DBM was further supported by the strong across-individual correlation between observed precision of interval timing and the predicted trial-by-trial variability of the time bound.

  1. 12 CFR 208.6 - Establishment and maintenance of branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management. The financial history and condition of the applying bank and the general character of its management; (2) Capital. The adequacy of the bank's capital in accordance with § 208.4, and its future... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and maintenance of branches. 208...

  2. Floral bud damage compensation by branching and biomass allocation in genotypes of Brassica napus with different architecture and branching potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie ePinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant branching is a key process in the yield elaboration of winter oilseed rape (WOSR. It is also involved in plant tolerance to flower damage because it allows the setting of new fertile inflorescences. Here we characterize the changes in the branching and distribution of the number of pods between primary and secondary inflorescences in response to floral bud clippings. Then we investigate the impacts of the modifications in branching on the biomass allocation and its consequence on the crop productivity (harvest index. These issues were addressed on plants with contrasted architecture and branching potential, using three genotypes (Exocet, Pollen, and Gamin grown under two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Clipping treatments of increasing intensities were applied to either inflorescences or flower buds.We were able to show that restoration of the number of pods after clipping is the main lever for the compensation. Genotypes presented different behaviors in branching and biomass allocation as a function of clipping treatments. The number of fertile ramifications increased for the high intensities of clipping. In particular, the growth of secondary ramifications carried by branches developed before clipping has been observed. The proportions of yield and of number of pods carried by these secondary axes increased and became almost equivalent to the proportion carried by primary inflorescences. In terms of biomass allocation, variations have also been evidenced in the relationship between pod dry mass on a given axis and the number of pods set, while the shoot/root ratio was not modified. The harvest index presented different responses: it decreased after flower buds clipping, while it was maintained after the clipping of the whole inflorescences. The results are discussed relative to their implications regarding the identification of interesting traits to be target in breeding programs in order to improve WOSR tolerance.

  3. Linear, branched and network polysilanes with thienyl/furyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Linear, branched and network polysilanes with thienyl/furyl substituted sila-alkyl side chains and their applications for the synthesis of fluorescent silver ... By virtue of -delocalized silicon backbone and variable HOMO-LUMO band gap energies, these polymers are found to be promising candidates as reducing agents for ...

  4. Highly Branched Polyethylenes as Lubricant Viscosity and Friction Modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; Bays, John T.; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylenes (BPE) were prepared and used in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The lubricating performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants’ performance, which provide scientific insights for polymer design in future lubricant development.

  5. Scaling properties of crack branching and brittle fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the correlation of scaling properties of crack branching and brittle fragmentation with damage accumulation and a change in the fracture mechanism. The experimental results obtained from the glass fragmentation tests indicate that the size distribution of fragments has a fractal character and is described by a power law.

  6. Portal venous branches to the caudate lobe: number and origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six livers from adult black Kenyans were obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi – Kenya. The porta hepatis was carefully dissected and the number and origin of the portal venous branches to the caudate lobe observed and recorded. The collected data was analyzed using ...

  7. Synthesis and application of branched type II arabinogalactans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch; Boos, Irene; Ruprecht, Colin

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of linear- and (1→6)-branched β-(1→3)-D-galactans, structures found in plant arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) is described. The synthetic strategy relies on iterative couplings of mono- and disaccharide thioglycoside donors, followed by a late stage glycosylation of heptagalactan...

  8. The annealing helicase and branch migration activities of Drosophila HARP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Kassavetis

    Full Text Available HARP (SMARCAL1, MARCAL1 is an annealing helicase that functions in the repair and restart of damaged DNA replication forks through its DNA branch migration and replication fork regression activities. HARP is conserved among metazoans. HARP from invertebrates differs by the absence of one of the two HARP-specific domain repeats found in vertebrates. The annealing helicase and branch migration activity of invertebrate HARP has not been documented. We found that HARP from Drosophila melanogaster retains the annealing helicase activity of human HARP, the ability to disrupt D-loops and to branch migrate Holliday junctions, but fails to regress model DNA replication fork structures. A comparison of human and Drosophila HARP on additional substrates revealed that both HARPs are competent in branch migrating a bidirectional replication bubble composed of either DNA:DNA or RNA:DNA hybrid. Human, but not Drosophila, HARP is also capable of regressing a replication fork structure containing a highly stable poly rG:dC hybrid. Persistent RNA:DNA hybrids in vivo can lead to replication fork arrest and genome instability. The ability of HARP to strand transfer hybrids may signify a hybrid removal function for this enzyme, in vivo.

  9. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  10. A Robust and Efficient Curve Skeletonization Algorithm for Tree-Like Objects Using Minimum Cost Paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dakai; Iyer, Krishna S; Chen, Cheng; Hoffman, Eric A; Saha, Punam K

    2016-06-01

    Conventional curve skeletonization algorithms using the principle of Blum's transform, often, produce unwanted spurious branches due to boundary irregularities, digital effects, and other artifacts. This paper presents a new robust and efficient curve skeletonization algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D) elongated fuzzy objects using a minimum cost path approach, which avoids spurious branches without requiring post-pruning. Starting from a root voxel, the method iteratively expands the skeleton by adding new branches in each iteration that connects the farthest quench voxel to the current skeleton using a minimum cost path. The path-cost function is formulated using a novel measure of local significance factor defined by the fuzzy distance transform field, which forces the path to stick to the centerline of an object. The algorithm terminates when dilated skeletal branches fill the entire object volume or the current farthest quench voxel fails to generate a meaningful skeletal branch. Accuracy of the algorithm has been evaluated using computer-generated phantoms with known skeletons. Performance of the method in terms of false and missing skeletal branches, as defined by human experts, has been examined using in vivo CT imaging of human intrathoracic airways. Results from both experiments have established the superiority of the new method as compared to the existing methods in terms of accuracy as well as robustness in detecting true and false skeletal branches. The new algorithm makes a significant reduction in computation complexity by enabling detection of multiple new skeletal branches in one iteration. Specifically, this algorithm reduces the number of iterations from the number of terminal tree branches to the worst case performance of tree depth. In fact, experimental results suggest that, on an average, the order of computation complexity is reduced to the logarithm of the number of terminal branches of a tree-like object.

  11. Linear and Branching Formats in Culture Assimilator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Roy S.; Salancik, Gerald R.

    1977-01-01

    Defines the "branching format" of training materials as materials not requiring an absolute judgement of appropriateness of alternatives and the "linear format" as materials requiring an independent evaluation of each alternative. Tests these contrasting formats for effectiveness in cross cultural training programs. Available from: International…

  12. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  13. Nanocrystals with linear and branched topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Milliron, Delia; Manna, Liberato; Hughes, Steven M.

    2007-12-04

    Disclosed herein are nanostructures comprising distinct dots and rods coupled through potential barriers of tuneable height and width, and arranged in three dimensional space at well defined angles and distances. Such control allows investigation of potential applications ranging from quantum information processing to artificial photosynthesis.

  14. An improved cut-and-solve algorithm for the single-source capacitated facility location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Sune Lauth; Klose, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Relund

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved cut-and-solve algorithm for the single-source capacitated facility location problem. The algorithm consists of three phases. The first phase strengthens the integer program by a cutting plane algorithm to obtain a tight lower bound. The second phase uses a two...

  15. A Convergence Analysis of Unconstrained and Bound Constrained Evolutionary Pattern Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, W.E.

    1999-04-22

    The authors present and analyze a class of evolutionary algorithms for unconstrained and bound constrained optimization on R{sup n}: evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs). EPSAs adaptively modify the step size of the mutation operator in response to the success of previous optimization steps. The design of EPSAs is inspired by recent analyses of pattern search methods. They show that EPSAs can be cast as stochastic pattern search methods, and they use this observation to prove that EpSAs have a probabilistic weak stationary point convergence theory. This work provides the first convergence analysis for a class of evolutionary algorithms that guarantees convergence almost surely to a stationary point of a nonconvex objective function.

  16. A Robust and Efficient Curve Skeletonization Algorithm for Tree-Like Objects Using Minimum Cost Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Dakai; Iyer, Krishna S; Chen, Cheng; Hoffman, Eric A; Saha, Punam K

    2015-01-01

    Conventional curve skeletonization algorithms using the principle of Blum���s transform, often, produce unwanted spurious branches due to boundary irregularities, digital effects, and other artifacts. This paper presents a new robust and efficient curve skeletonization algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D) elongated fuzzy objects using a minimum cost path approach, which avoids spurious branches without requiring post-pruning. Starting from a root voxel, the method iteratively expands the ske...

  17. Information-Theoretic Bounded Rationality and ε-Optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Braun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bounded rationality concerns the study of decision makers with limited information processing resources. Previously, the free energy difference functional has been suggested to model bounded rational decision making, as it provides a natural trade-off between an energy or utility function that is to be optimized and information processing costs that are measured by entropic search costs. The main question of this article is how the information-theoretic free energy model relates to simple ε-optimality models of bounded rational decision making, where the decision maker is satisfied with any action in an ε-neighborhood of the optimal utility. We find that the stochastic policies that optimize the free energy trade-off comply with the notion of ε-optimality. Moreover, this optimality criterion even holds when the environment is adversarial. We conclude that the study of bounded rationality based on ε-optimality criteria that abstract away from the particulars of the information processing constraints is compatible with the information-theoretic free energy model of bounded rationality.

  18. The roots and branches of human altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F

    2009-08-01

    The authors' rigorous and ingenious programme of work documents young humans' capacity for prosocial action (Warneken & Tomasello, 2009). Their laboratory findings are corroborated by centuries of observational data, spanning cultures, and historical epochs. Two general questions are raised. Firstly, what are the rules of evidence needed in using comparative data to make claims about the evolution of human social behaviours? Secondly, what ontogenetic processes contribute to the transformation of toddlers' helpfulness into mature, cognitively informed and rule-governed altruism? These findings alone do not provide complete evidence for the phylogenetic roots of altruism. I argue that selective pressures in human evolution have favoured sociability, which could lead to aggression or altruism, depending on context and the nature of the rearing environment. Any social behaviour shown in infancy may have multiple functions, at phylogenetic, ontogenetic and episodic levels of analysis.

  19. Learning curve in fenestrated and branched grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Mastracci, Tara M

    2017-04-01

    In surgical practice new technologies and techniques require a period of adjustment before the main operator becomes familiar with the new procedure, improving the results and the performances. This period, called learning curve, could be applied into the endovascular aortic treatment. The CUSUM technique had been used to define the learning curve in new procedures and through the literature some studies applied it to demonstrate the improving outcomes in complex endovascular aneurysm repair during increasing experience time. However, in the complex endovascular field this period included also other factors besides the proficiency in the deployment, as the improvement in patient selection and device design, making difficult to determine the level of experience needed to become an expert.

  20. Breaking of PT Symmetry in Bounded and Unbounded Scattering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Ambichl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PT-symmetric scattering systems with balanced gain and loss can undergo a symmetry-breaking transition in which the eigenvalues of the nonunitary scattering matrix change their phase shifts from real to complex values. We relate the PT-symmetry-breaking points of such an unbounded scattering system to those of the underlying bounded systems. In particular, we show how the PT thresholds in the scattering matrix of the unbounded system translate into analogous transitions in the Robin boundary conditions of the corresponding bounded systems. Based on this relation, we argue and then confirm that the PT transitions in the scattering matrix are, under very general conditions, entirely insensitive to a variable coupling strength between the bounded region and the unbounded asymptotic region, a result that can be tested experimentally and visualized using the concept of Smith charts.

  1. Breaking of PT Symmetry in Bounded and Unbounded Scattering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambichl, Philipp; Makris, Konstantinos G.; Ge, Li; Chong, Yidong; Stone, A. Douglas; Rotter, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    PT-symmetric scattering systems with balanced gain and loss can undergo a symmetry-breaking transition in which the eigenvalues of the non-unitary scattering matrix change their phase shifts from real to complex values. We relate the PT-symmetry breaking points of such an unbounded scattering system to those of underlying bounded systems. In particular, we show how the PT-thresholds in the scattering matrix of the unbounded system translate into analogous transitions in the Robin boundary conditions of the corresponding bounded systems. Based on this relation, we argue and then confirm that the PT-transitions in the scattering matrix are, under very general conditions, entirely insensitive to a variable coupling strength between the bounded region and the unbounded asymptotic region, a result that can be tested experimentally and visualized using the concept of Smith charts.

  2. Structure and functional significance of branched anastomosing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Research International ... Abstract. Histology has provided morphologist a powerful tool that enhances the nature, form and detailed structure of organs. ... The predominating acid mucin suggest air-breathing function since the acid will always make the epithelium moist for gaseous exchange between dissolved air in ...

  3. Introduction: Wilting Leaves and Rotting Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shefferson, Richard; Jones, Owen; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    We humans have long wondered about the seemingly inevitable physiological decline that happens after our maturity. This phenomenon, known as ‘senescence’, is recognised as the physiological deterioration that results in increasing age-specific mortality or decreasing age-specific fertility...... at or beyond some age in maturity. But is this phenomenon universal, and is it always the result of the same processes? Although evolutionary theories of ageing exist that suggest that senescence should be universal, empirical data increasingly suggest that senescence may not necessarily be a ubiquitous...

  4. Fractal methods and the problem of estimating scaling exponents: A new approach based on upper and lower linear bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, Antoine [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, C.P. 6079, Station centre-ville, Montreal (Que.), H3C-3A7 (Canada)]. E-mail: Antoine.Saucier@polymtl.ca; Soumis, Francois [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, C.P. 6079, Station centre-ville, Montreal (Que.), H3C-3A7 (Canada)]. E-mail: Francois.Soumis@gerad.ca

    2006-06-15

    The characterization of irregular objects with fractal methods often leads to the estimation of the slope of a function which is plotted versus a scale parameter. The slope is usually obtained with a linear regression. The problem is that the fit is usually not acceptable from the statistical standpoint. We propose a new approach in which we use two straight lines to bound the data from above and from below. We call these lines the upper and lower linear bounds. We propose to define these bounds as the solution of an optimization problem. We discuss the solution of this problem and we give an algorithm to obtain its solution. We use the difference between the upper and lower linear bounds to define a measure of the degree of linearity in the scaling range. We illustrate our method by analyzing the fluctuations of the variogram in a microresistivity well log from an oil reservoir in the North Sea.

  5. Atomic Stretch: Optimally bounded real-time stretching and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color-modification, co......Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color...

  6. Stability and response bounds of non-conservative linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a stability theorem and response bounds for non-conservative systems of the form MX + (D + G)x + (K + N)x = f(t), with hermitian positive-definite matrices M, D and K, and skew-hermitian matrices G and N. To this end, we first find a Lyapunov function by solving the Lyapunov...... matrix equation. Then, if a system satisfies the condition of the stability theorem, the associated Lyapunov function can be used to obtain response bounds for the norms as well as for the individual coordinates of the solution. Examples from rotor dynamics illustrate the results....

  7. Performance driven cooperation between Kernel and auto-tuning multi-threaded interval B&B applications, B. Murgante et al.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanjuan-Estrada, J.F.; Casado, L.G.; García, I.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamically determining the appropriate number of threads for a multi-threaded application may lead to a higher efficiency than predetermining the number of threads beforehand. Interval branch-and-bound (B&B) global optimization algorithms are typically irregular algorithms that may benefit from

  8. Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Murao, Mio [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of an exact comb polyisoprene with three branches having the middle branch twice the molecular weight of the other two identical external branches

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2013-01-01

    An exact comb polyisoprene (PI) with three branches, with the middle branch having twice the molecular weight of the two other identical external branches, was synthesized by using anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and appropriate chlorosilane chemistry. The synthetic approach involves (a) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of 4-(dichloromethylsilyl) diphenylethylene (DCMSDPE, key molecule) with identical PI chains by titration with PILi, (b) the addition of sec-BuLi to the double bond of DPE followed by the polymerization of isoprene from the newly created anionic site to form a 3-arm living star PI, (c) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of trichloromethylsilane with 3-arm star PI to form an H-shape intermediate, and (d) the replacement of the remaining chlorine of trichloromethylsilane by linear PI chains with double the molecular weight. All intermediate and final products were characterized via size exclusion chromatography, temperature gradient interaction chromatography and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As expected, due to the inability to control the exact stoichiometry of the linking reactants, the main product (exact comb PI) is contaminated by a few by-products, despite the fact that anionic polymerization is the most efficient way to produce well-defined polymers. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Algorithmic test design using classical item parameters

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Adema, Jos J.

    1988-01-01

    Two optimalization models for the construction of tests with a maximal value of coefficient alpha are given. Both models have a linear form and can be solved by using a branch-and-bound algorithm. The first model assumes an item bank calibrated under the Rasch model and can be used, for instance, when classical test theory has to serve as an interface between the item bank system and a user not familiar with modern test theory. Maximization of alpha was obtained by inserting a special constra...

  11. Left bundle branch block and suspected myocardial infarction: does chronicity of the branch block matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulos, Vasileios; Kellerth, Thomas; Christensen, Kjeld

    2013-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate if patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI) and a new or presumed new left bundle branch block (nLBBB) were treated according to the ESC reperfusion guidelines and to compare them with patients having a previously known LBBB (oLBBB). Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of ST-segment concordance in this population. Retrospective data was collected from the Swedeheart registry for patients admitted to the cardiac care unit at Örebro University Hospital with LBBB and suspected MI during 2009 and 2010. The patients were divided in two age groups; <80 or ≥80 years and analysed for LBBB chronicity (nLBBB or oLBBB), MI, and reperfusion treatment. We also compared our data with the national Swedeheart database for 2009. A total of 99 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis of MI was significantly more common in the group ≥80 years compared to the group <80 years (53.8 vs. 25%, p=0.007). The rate of MI was similar in the groups with nLBBB and oLBBB (33 and 37% respectively, p=0.912). Of the 36 patients with a final diagnosis of MI, only eight (22%) had nLBBB. Reperfusion treatment, defined as an acute coronary angiography with or without intervention, was significantly more often performed in patients with nLBBB compared to patients with oLBBB (42 vs. 8%, p<0.001). The rate of MI and reperfusion treatment did not differ between our institution and the Swedish national data. ST-concordance was present in only two cases, one of which did not suffer an MI. The proportion of patients receiving reperfusion treatment was low, but higher in nLBBB, reflecting a partial adherence to the guidelines. We found no correlation between LBBB chronicity and MI. Furthermore, only a minority of the MIs occurred in patients with nLBBB. ST-concordance was found in only one of 36 MI cases, indicating lack of sensitivity for this test.

  12. Resource-Bounded Information Acquisition and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    all for en- couragement, ideas and impromptu discussions. A special thanks to Kedar Bellare, Greg Druck , and Micheal Wick for all the help on my...under the generalized expectation criteria by Druck et al. [25], and Attenberg et al. [4]. Under the “budgeted descriminative attribute learning...international (2009). 123 [25] Druck , Gregory, Mann, Gideon, and McCallum, Andrew. Learning from la- beled features using generalized expectation

  13. Efficient Algorithms and Data Structures for Massive Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alka

    2010-05-01

    For many algorithmic problems, traditional algorithms that optimise on the number of instructions executed prove expensive on I/Os. Novel and very different design techniques, when applied to these problems, can produce algorithms that are I/O efficient. This thesis adds to the growing chorus of such results. The computational models we use are the external memory model and the W-Stream model. On the external memory model, we obtain the following results. (1) An I/O efficient algorithm for computing minimum spanning trees of graphs that improves on the performance of the best known algorithm. (2) The first external memory version of soft heap, an approximate meldable priority queue. (3) Hard heap, the first meldable external memory priority queue that matches the amortised I/O performance of the known external memory priority queues, while allowing a meld operation at the same amortised cost. (4) I/O efficient exact, approximate and randomised algorithms for the minimum cut problem, which has not been explored before on the external memory model. (5) Some lower and upper bounds on I/Os for interval graphs. On the W-Stream model, we obtain the following results. (1) Algorithms for various tree problems and list ranking that match the performance of the best known algorithms and are easier to implement than them. (2) Pass efficient algorithms for sorting, and the maximal independent set problems, that improve on the best known algorithms. (3) Pass efficient algorithms for the graphs problems of finding vertex-colouring, approximate single source shortest paths, maximal matching, and approximate weighted vertex cover. (4) Lower bounds on passes for list ranking and maximal matching. We propose two variants of the W-Stream model, and design algorithms for the maximal independent set, vertex-colouring, and planar graph single source shortest paths problems on those models.

  14. Computed bound and continuum electronic states of the nitrogen molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennyson Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissociative recombination (DR of N2+ is important for processes occurring in our atmosphere. However, it is not particularly well characterised, experimentally for the vibrational ground state and, theoretically for the v ≥ 4. We use the R-matrix method to compute potential energy curves for both the bound Rydberg states of nitrogen and for quasi-bound states lying in the continuum. Use of a fine mesh of internuclear separations allows the details of avoided crossings to be determined. The prospects for using the curves as the input for DR calculations is discussed.

  15. Electron waves and resonances in bounded plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenplas, Paul E

    1968-01-01

    General theoretical methods and experimental techniques ; the uniform plasma slab-condenser system ; the hollow cylindrical plasma ; scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a plasma column in steady magnetic fields (cold plasma approximation) ; hot non-uniform plasma column ; metallic and dielectric resonance probes, plasma-dielectric coated antenna, general considerations.

  16. Culture Bound: Science, Teaching and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblit, George W.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, the author first examines how culture is being used in the articles in this special issue, points to the venerable histories being deployed in these usages, and explores a sense of what could be in the sociocultural and cultural analysis of science education for each article. His review of these articles led to a trope, a…

  17. Quantum Gravity Mathematical Models and Experimental Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Fauser, Bertfried; Zeidler, Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    The construction of a quantum theory of gravity is the most fundamental challenge confronting contemporary theoretical physics. The different physical ideas which evolved while developing a theory of quantum gravity require highly advanced mathematical methods. This book presents different mathematical approaches to formulate a theory of quantum gravity. It represents a carefully selected cross-section of lively discussions about the issue of quantum gravity which took place at the second workshop "Mathematical and Physical Aspects of Quantum Gravity" in Blaubeuren, Germany. This collection covers in a unique way aspects of various competing approaches. A unique feature of the book is the presentation of different approaches to quantum gravity making comparison feasible. This feature is supported by an extensive index. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicists who are interested in questions related to mathematical physics. It allows the reader to obtain a broad and up-to-date overview on ...

  18. Quantum reading capacity: General definition and bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum reading refers to the task of reading out classical information stored in a classical memory. In any such protocol, the transmitter and receiver are in the same physical location, and the goal of such a protocol is to use these devices, coupled with a quantum strategy, to read out as much information as possible from a classical memory, such as a CD or DVD. In this context, a memory cell is a collection of quantum channels that can be used to encode a classical message in a memory. Th...

  19. Size-change termination and bound analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2006-01-01

    Despite its simplicity, the size-change termination principle, presented by Lee, Jones and Ben-Amram in [LJB01], is surprisingly strong and is able to show termination for a large class of programs. A significant limitation for its use, however, is the fact that the SCT requires data types to be ...... implemented in a subject language independent shared library, libesct (available at http://esct.kvante.org), as well as for the ANSI C specializer C-Mix/ii, handling a subset of its internal language Core-C....

  20. Left bundle branch block, chest pain and catheterization laboratory activation: an unavoidable cascade reaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, G; Del Pinto, M; Notaristefano, F; Zingarini, G; Ambrosio, G; Cavallini, C

    2016-01-01

    Identification of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) remains challenging. European guidelines recommend prompt reperfusion therapy in patients with suspected ongoing myocardial ischemia and new or presumably new LBBB, whereas AHA/ACC guidelines state that LBBB should not be considered diagnostic of AMI in isolation. Sgarbossa criteria and their recent modified version with the introduction of ST/S ratio can be helpful in this setting. A clinical-instrumental algorithm to manage suspected AMI in the presence of LBBB has been recently proposed. We present five paradigmatic clinical cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Power generation assets. Energy constraints, upper bounds and hedging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enge, Thomas

    2010-09-20

    The overall topic of this thesis is the valuation of power generation assets under energy and risk constraints. Our focus is on the modeling aspect i.e. to find the right balance between accuracy and computational feasibility. We define a new not yet investigated unit commitment problem that introduces an energy constraint to a thermal power plant. We define a continuous stochastic dynamic program with a nested mixed integer program (MIP). We introduce a fast implementation approach by replacing the MIP with an efficient matrix calculation and use principal component analysis to reduce the number of risk factors. We also provide a fast heuristic valuation approach for comparison. As both models can only provide lower bounds of the asset value, we investigate the theory of upper bounds for a proper validation of our power plant results. We review the primal dual algorithm for swing options by Meinshausen and Hambly and in particular clarify their notation and implementation. Then we provide an extension for swing options with multiple exercises at the same stage that we developed together with Prof. Bender, University of Braunschweig. We outline Prof. Bender's proof and describe the implementation in detail. Finally we provide a risk analysis for our thermal power plant. In particular we investigate strategies to reduce spot price risk to which power plants are significantly exposed. First, we focus on the measurement of spot price risk and propose three appropriate risk figures (Forward delta as opposed to Futures delta, synthetic spot delta and Earnings-at-Risk) and illustrate their application using a business case. Second we suggest risk mitigation strategies for both periods, before and in delivery. The latter tries to alter the dispatch policy i.e. pick less risky hours and accept a (desirably only slightly) smaller return. We introduce a benchmark that weighs risk versus return and that we will call EaR-efficient option value. We propose a mitigation

  2. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  3. Bounded Rationality and Cognitive Development: Upper Limits on Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaklee, Harriet

    1979-01-01

    Piaget's characterization of formal operational thought and human judgment psychologists' model of bounded rationality are two conflicting models dealing with the nature and limits of mature thought. However, a look at the respective databases demonstrates their complementarity and their contribution to understanding mature cognition. (Author/RD)

  4. Toward improved branch prediction through data mining.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmert, K. Scott; Johnson, D. Eric (University of Texas at Austin)

    2009-09-01

    Data mining and machine learning techniques can be applied to computer system design to aid in optimizing design decisions, improving system runtime performance. Data mining techniques have been investigated in the context of branch prediction. Specifically, a comparison of traditional branch predictor performance has been made to data mining algorithms. Additionally, the possiblity of whether additional features available within the architectural state might serve to further improve branch prediction has been evaluated. Results show that data mining techniques indicate potential for improved branch prediction, especially when register file contents are included as a feature set.

  5. Identification and carbon isotope composition of a novel branched GDGT isomer in lake sediments: Evidence for lacustrine branched GDGT production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Y.; De Jonge, C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Schubert, C.J.; Lehmann, M.F.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Niemann, H.

    2015-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that occur ubiquitously in soils and lacustrine sediments and have great potential as proxy indicators for paleotemperature and pH reconstructions. Initially, brGDGTs in lakes were thought to originate from soils

  6. The interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic bounded noises in biomolecular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Caravagna

    Full Text Available After being considered as a nuisance to be filtered out, it became recently clear that biochemical noise plays a complex role, often fully functional, for a biomolecular network. The influence of intrinsic and extrinsic noises on biomolecular networks has intensively been investigated in last ten years, though contributions on the co-presence of both are sparse. Extrinsic noise is usually modeled as an unbounded white or colored gaussian stochastic process, even though realistic stochastic perturbations are clearly bounded. In this paper we consider Gillespie-like stochastic models of nonlinear networks, i.e. the intrinsic noise, where the model jump rates are affected by colored bounded extrinsic noises synthesized by a suitable biochemical state-dependent Langevin system. These systems are described by a master equation, and a simulation algorithm to analyze them is derived. This new modeling paradigm should enlarge the class of systems amenable at modeling. We investigated the influence of both amplitude and autocorrelation time of a extrinsic Sine-Wiener noise on: (i the Michaelis-Menten approximation of noisy enzymatic reactions, which we show to be applicable also in co-presence of both intrinsic and extrinsic noise, (ii a model of enzymatic futile cycle and (iii a genetic toggle switch. In (ii and (iii we show that the presence of a bounded extrinsic noise induces qualitative modifications in the probability densities of the involved chemicals, where new modes emerge, thus suggesting the possible functional role of bounded noises.

  7. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  8. Antibiotics and renal branching morphogenesis: comparison of toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueters, Ruud R G; Kusters, Lisanne J A; Klaasen, Annelies; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F

    2014-12-01

    Many premature born neonates receive antibiotic drugs to treat infections, which are applied during active nephrogenesis. We studied the impact of clinical concentrations of gentamicin and alternatives, ceftazidime and meropenem, on ureteric branching. Mice metanephroi were dissected at embryonic day 13 and cultured in media with or without various concentrations of gentamicin, ceftazidime, or meropenem. Zero and 24 h kidney size were assessed by surface area measurements, and the ureteric tree was visualized by whole mount staining and confocal microscopy. Branching was evaluated by counting and gene expression levels of Wt1, Sox9, Bmp7, Fgf8, and Gdnf were investigated. A concentration of 2,000 μmol/l ceftazidime impaired ureteric development. In addition, a 4.5-fold and a 2.5-fold downregulation was noted in Fgf8 and Gdnf, respectively. No adverse effects were noted after gentamicin or meropenem treatment. No relationship was noted between surface area expansion and ureteric bud formation, but surface area at explantation related to bud count after 24 h of culture. Ceftazidime, but not gentamicin or meropenem reduced ureteric branching in mice and suggest a role for Fgf8 and Gdnf in its mechanism. Metanephros surface area measurements can be used to reduce intra- and inter-litter variation.

  9. 1967-1968 UPWARD BOUND PROPOSAL AND STATEMENTS. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco State Coll., CA.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A PROPOSAL FOR THE CONTINUATION OF THE UPWARD BOUND SUMMER RESIDENTIAL AND ACADEMIC-YEAR PROGRAMS AT SAN FRANCISCO STATE COLLEGE. TO PREPARE DISADVANTAGED HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION, THE PROJECT WILL OFFER REMEDIAL WORK AND COUNSELING SERVICES. INCLUDED IN THE SUMMER CURRICULUM WILL BE A COMMUNICATIONS CORE COURSE,…

  10. Elastic membrane equation in bounded and unbounded domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Rodrigues Clark

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The small-amplitude motion of a thin elastic membrane is investigated in $n$-dimensional bounded and unbounded domains, with $n\\in \\mathbb{N}$. Existence and uniqueness of solutions are established. Asymptotic of solutions is proved too.

  11. Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bennich, B.; Rojas, E.; Melo, J. P. B. C. de [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo 01506-000 SP (Brazil); Paracha, M. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo 01506-000 SP, Brazil and Centre for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-11

    We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.

  12. Some upper and lower bounds on PSD-rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. J. Lee (Troy); Z. Wei (Zhaohui); R. M. de Wolf (Ronald)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPositive semidefinite rank (PSD-rank) is a relatively new quantity with applications to combinatorial optimization and communication complexity. We first study several basic properties of PSD-rank, and then develop new techniques for showing lower bounds on the PSD-rank. All of these

  13. Some upper and lower bounds on PSD-rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, T.; Wei, Z.; de Wolf, R.

    Positive semidefinite rank (PSD-rank) is a relatively new complexity measure on matrices, with applications to combinatorial optimization and communication complexity. We first study several basic properties of PSD-rank, and then develop new techniques for showing lower bounds on the PSD-rank. All

  14. Chemical Composition of Sea Buckthorn Leaves, Branches and Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradt Ina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties and Germany (four varieties were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren. The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %.

  15. The Services Sector and Economic Growth in Mauritius. A Bounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the long run and short run impact of the services sector on economic growth in Mauritius. Using an augmented aggregate production function growth model, we apply the bounds testing approach to cointegration to assess the impact of different activities in the services sector on economic performance ...

  16. Reference Service and Bounded Rationality: Helping Students with Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felix T.

    1994-01-01

    In university libraries, reference librarians often get ambiguous questions to which they try to give appropriate answers. Because of limitations on resources, time, and mental capability for information processing, the decision-making process involved in answering reference questions becomes bounded by the rationality of these constraints.…

  17. Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The minimum cost flow problem with interval data can be solved using two minimum cost flow problems with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum flow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and flows. This problem can be solved using two minimum flow ...

  18. Key management and encryption under the bounded storage model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, Timothy John; Neumann, William Douglas; Lanzone, Andrew J.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-11-01

    There are several engineering obstacles that need to be solved before key management and encryption under the bounded storage model can be realized. One of the critical obstacles hindering its adoption is the construction of a scheme that achieves reliable communication in the event that timing synchronization errors occur. One of the main accomplishments of this project was the development of a new scheme that solves this problem. We show in general that there exist message encoding techniques under the bounded storage model that provide an arbitrarily small probability of transmission error. We compute the maximum capacity of this channel using the unsynchronized key-expansion as side-channel information at the decoder and provide tight lower bounds for a particular class of key-expansion functions that are pseudo-invariant to timing errors. Using our results in combination with Dziembowski et al. [11] encryption scheme we can construct a scheme that solves the timing synchronization error problem. In addition to this work we conducted a detailed case study of current and future storage technologies. We analyzed the cost, capacity, and storage data rate of various technologies, so that precise security parameters can be developed for bounded storage encryption schemes. This will provide an invaluable tool for developing these schemes in practice.

  19. In-medium K̄ interactions and bound states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Correct treatment of subthreshold K̄ N dynamics is mandatory in K− -atom and K̄ -nuclear bound-state calculations, as demonstrated by using in-medium chirally-based models of K̄ N interactions. Recent studies of kaonic atom data reveal appreciable multi-nucleon contributions. K̄ -nuclear widths larger than 50 MeV are anticipated.

  20. Chiral Symmetry, Heavy Quark Symmetry and Bound States

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Yuhsuke

    1995-01-01

    I investigate the bound state problems of lowest-lying mesons and heavy mesons. Chiral symmetry is essential when one consider lowest-lying mesons. Heavy quark symmetry plays an central role in considering the semi-leptonic form factors of heavy mesons. Various properties based on the symmetries are revealed using Bethe-Salpeter equations.

  1. Organizational coordination and costly communication with boundedly rational agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Jochem, Torsten

    How does costly communication affect organizational coordination? This paper develops a model of costly communication based on the weakest-link game and boundedly rational agents. Solving for the stochastically stable states, we find that communication increases the possibilities for efficient...

  2. Auxin, cytokinin and the control of shoot branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dörte; Leyser, Ottoline

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been known for many decades that auxin inhibits the activation of axillary buds, and hence shoot branching, while cytokinin has the opposite effect. However, the modes of action of these two hormones in branching control is still a matter of debate, and their mechanisms of interaction are equally unresolved. Scope Here we review the evidence for various hypotheses that have been put forward to explain how auxin and cytokinin influence axillary bud activity. In particular we discuss the roles of auxin and cytokinin in regulating each other's synthesis, the cell cycle, meristem function and auxin transport, each of which could affect branching. These different mechanisms have implications for the main site of hormone action, ranging from systemic action throughout the plant, to local action at the node or in the bud meristem or leaves. The alternative models have specific predictions, and our increasing understanding of the molecular basis for hormone transport and signalling, cell cycle control and meristem biology is providing new tools to enable these predictions to be tested. PMID:21504914

  3. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight excit...

  4. Bounded Rationality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballester Pla, Coralio; Hernández, Penélope

    2012-01-01

    The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models...

  5. Elementary functions algorithms and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    This textbook presents the concepts and tools necessary to understand, build, and implement algorithms for computing elementary functions (e.g., logarithms, exponentials, and the trigonometric functions). Both hardware- and software-oriented algorithms are included, along with issues related to accurate floating-point implementation. This third edition has been updated and expanded to incorporate the most recent advances in the field, new elementary function algorithms, and function software. After a preliminary chapter that briefly introduces some fundamental concepts of computer arithmetic, such as floating-point arithmetic and redundant number systems, the text is divided into three main parts. Part I considers the computation of elementary functions using algorithms based on polynomial or rational approximations and using table-based methods; the final chapter in this section deals with basic principles of multiple-precision arithmetic. Part II is devoted to a presentation of “shift-and-add” algorithm...

  6. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Algorithms. 3. Procedures and Recursion. R K Shyamasundar. In this article we introduce procedural abstraction and illustrate its uses. Further, we illustrate the notion of recursion which is one of the most useful features of procedural abstraction. Procedures. Let us consider a variation of the pro blem of summing the first M.

  7. Reasoning the fast and frugal way: models of bounded rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, G; Goldstein, D G

    1996-10-01

    Humans and animals make inferences about the world under limited time and knowledge. In contrast, many models of rational inference treat the mind as a Laplacean Demon, equipped with unlimited time, knowledge, and computational might. Following H. Simon's notion of satisfying, the authors have proposed a family of algorithms based on a simple psychological mechanism: one-reason decision making. These fast and frugal algorithms violate fundamental tenets of classical rationality: They neither look up nor integrate all information. By computer simulation, the authors held a competition between the satisfying "Take The Best" algorithm and various "rational" inference procedures (e.g., multiple regression). The Take The Best algorithm matched or outperformed all competitors in inferential speed and accuracy. This result in an existence proof that cognitive mechanisms capable of successful performance in the real world do not need to satisfy the classical norms of rational inference.

  8. Bounding the $\

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A

    2003-01-01

    A bound on the nu /sup tau / magnetic moment is calculated through the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model at LEP energies. We find that the bound is almost independent of the mixing angle phi of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter. (31 refs).

  9. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro......-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper...... high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences...

  10. MSOL-Definability Equals Recognizability for Halin Graphs and Bounded Degree k-Outerplanar Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffke, Lars; Bodlaender, Hans L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most famous algorithmic meta-theorems states that every graph property that can be defined by a sentence in counting monadic second order logic (CMSOL) can be checked in linear time for graphs of bounded treewidth, which is known as Courcelle's Theorem. These algorithms are constructed as

  11. Plexin A3 and turnout regulate motor axonal branch morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sainath

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch

  12. On the Applicability of Lower Bounds for Solving Rectilinear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Karisch, Stefan E.; Perregaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) belongs to the hard core of NP-hard optimization problems. After almost forty years of research only relatively small instances can be solved to optimality. The reason is that the quality of the lower bounds available for exact methods is not sufficient....... Recently, lower bounds based on decomposition were proposed for the so called rectilinear QAP that proved to be the strongest for a large class of problem instances. We investigate the strength of these bounds when applied not only at the root node of a search tree but as the bound function used...... in a Branch-and-Bound code solving large scale QAPs....

  13. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    number of elements. We shall illustrate the widely used matrix multiplication algorithm using the two dimensional arrays in the following. Consider two matrices A and B of integer type with di- mensions m x nand n x p respectively. Then, multiplication of. A by B denoted, A x B , is defined by matrix C of dimension m xp where.

  14. P 6- and triangle-free graphs revisited: structure and bounded clique-width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brandstädt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Weight Stable Set (MWS Problem is one of the fundamental problems on graphs. It is well-known to be NP-complete for triangle-free graphs, and Mosca has shown that it is solvable in polynomial time when restricted to P 6- and triangle-free graphs. We give a complete structure analysis of (nonbipartite P 6- and triangle-free graphs which are prime in the sense of modular decomposition. It turns out that the structure of these graphs is extremely simple implying bounded clique-width and thus, efficient algorithms exist for all problems expressible in terms of Monadic Second Order Logic with quantification only over vertex predicates. The problems Vertex Cover, MWS, Maximum Clique, Minimum Dominating Set, Steiner Tree, and Maximum Induced Matching are among them. Our results improve the previous one on the MWS problem by Mosca with respect to structure and time bound but also extends a previous result by Fouquet, Giakoumakis and Vanherpe which have shown that bipartite P 6-free graphs have bounded clique-width. Moreover, it covers a result by Randerath, Schiermeyer and Tewes on polynomial time 3-colorability of P 6- and triangle-free graphs.

  15. Bound States in the Continuum in Nuclear and Hadron Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lenske, H; Cao, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The population of bound states in the continuum and their spectral properties are studied on the nuclear and hadronic scale. The theoretical approach is presented and realizations in nuclear and charmonium spectroscopy are dis- cussed. The universality of the underlying dynamical principles is pointed out. Applications to nuclear systems at the neutron dripline and for charmonium spectroscopy by $e^- e^+ \\to D\\bar{D}$ production are discussed.

  16. Bounds and asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials for varying weights

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Eli

    2018-01-01

    This book establishes bounds and asymptotics under almost minimal conditions on the varying weights, and applies them to universality limits and entropy integrals.  Orthogonal polynomials associated with varying weights play a key role in analyzing random matrices and other topics.  This book will be of use to a wide community of mathematicians, physicists, and statisticians dealing with techniques of potential theory, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, as well as random matrices. .

  17. Bound state densities and the Helmholtz free energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza S.R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bohr's conception of the compound nucleus is based on the idea of ‘longlived’ nuclear states in which all single particles are bound. We briefly discuss the properties of the density of bound states and then use two prescriptions, that of Brack and Quentin and that of Bonche, Levit e Vautherin to calculate the equivalent temperaturedependent quantity – the Helmholtz free energy.We compare the temperature dependence of the latter, as well as that of the excitation energy and entropy, obtained using the two prescriptions in self-consistent calculations within the relativistic Hartree and Skyrme models. We then discuss the extended, temperature-dependent liquid-drop approximation to the excitation and free energies obtained from fits to the self-consistent calculations over a wide range of charge and mass numbers.

  18. BCDP: Budget Constrained and Delay-Bounded Placement for Hybrid Roadside Units in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU and wireless RSU (w-RSU. c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods.

  19. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    positive numbers. The word 'algorithm' was most often associated with this algorithm till 1950. It may however be pOinted out that several non-trivial algorithms such as synthetic (polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used.

  20. Upper and lower bounds of solutions for fractional integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaher Momani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the integral equation offractional order in sense of Riemann-Liouville operatorum(t = a(t Iα [b(tu(t]+f(twith m ≥ 1, t ∈ [0, T], T < ∞ and 0< α <1. We discuss the existence, uniqueness, maximal, minimal and the upper and lower bounds of the solutions. Also we illustrate our results with examples.

  1. Precision bounds on m$_{H}$ and m$_{t}$

    CERN Document Server

    del Águila, F; Quirós, Mariano

    1992-01-01

    We perform a fit to precise electroweak data to determine the Higgs and top masses. Penalty functions taking into account their production limits are included. We find ${\\displaystyle m_H=65^{+245}_{-4}\\ GeV}$ and ${\\displaystyle m_t=122^{+25}_{-20}\\ GeV}$. However whereas the top $\\chi^2$ distribution behaves properly near the minimum, the Higgs $\\chi^2$ distribution does not, indicating a statistical fluctuation or new physics. In fact no significative bound on the Higgs mass can be given at present. However, if the LEP accuracy is improved and the top is discovered in the preferred range of top masses, a meaningful bound on the Higgs mass could be obtained within the standard model framework.

  2. Ataques de nervios: culturally bound and distinct from panic attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Meghan E; Timpano, Kiara R; Schmidt, Norman B

    2009-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) has emphasized the importance of understanding psychopathology within a cultural framework by including culture-bound syndromes within its appendices. These syndromes are proposed to be bound to certain cultures and distinct from other psychological disorders. Included among the syndromes are ataques de nervios (ADN), which are reported to be bound to the Hispanic culture and closely resemble panic attacks. However, the cultural distinctiveness and phenomenology of ADN has not been adequately investigated. The current study employed an ethnically diverse study sample (N=342) of undergraduates. Participants completed a number of measures that assessed acculturation, syndrome and anxiety risk factors. In contrast to the DSM-IV's conceptualization of ADN, the rate of ADN did not significantly vary across the three main groups (African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic participants) nor did it vary based on acculturation. More consistent with the DSM-IV, the symptom comparisons indicated some differentiation between ADN and panic attacks. The present report provides data indicating that ADNs, as described by the DSM-IV, are not unique to the Hispanic culture and are experienced by non-Hispanic individuals at similar rates to Hispanic-endorsement. The findings are consistent with the DSM-IV assertion that ADNs and PAs are distinct syndromes. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Conjugate flows and amplitude bounds for internal solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Makarenko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude bounds imposed by the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for strongly nonlinear waves in stratified fluid are considered. We discuss the theoretical scheme which allows to determine broadening limits for solitary waves in the terms of a given upstream density profile. Attention is focused on the continuously stratified flows having multiple broadening limits. The role of the mean density profile and the influence of fine-scale stratification are analyzed.

  4. Algorithms Design Techniques and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alsuwaiyel, M H

    1999-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential part of every scientific discipline. It has two components: (1) problem identification and formulation, and (2) solution of the formulated problem. One can solve a problem on its own using ad hoc techniques or follow those techniques that have produced efficient solutions to similar problems. This requires the understanding of various algorithm design techniques, how and when to use them to formulate solutions and the context appropriate for each of them. This book advocates the study of algorithm design techniques by presenting most of the useful algorithm desi

  5. Hilbert Series and Mixed Branches of T[SU(N)] theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, Federico [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hayashi, Hirotaka [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Tokai University,4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2017-02-07

    We consider mixed branches of 3dN=4T[SU(N)] theory. We compute the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch part of the mixed branch from a restriction rule acting on the Hilbert series of the full Coulomb branch that will truncate the magnetic charge summation only to the subset of BPS dressed monopole operators that arise in the Coulomb branch sublocus where the mixed branch stems. This restriction can be understood directly from the type IIB brane picture by a relation between the magnetic charges of the monopoles and brane position moduli. We also apply the restriction rule to the Higgs branch part of a given mixed branch by exploiting 3d mirror symmetry. Both cases show complete agreement with the results calculated by different methods.

  6. Complexity of stochastic branch and bound for belief tree search in Bayesian reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrakakis, C.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a lot of recent work on Bayesian methods for reinforcement learning exhibiting near-optimal online performance. The main obstacle facing such methods is that in most problems of interest, the optimal solution involves planning in an infinitely large tree. However, it is possible to

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Flocculation Properties of Branched Cationic Polyacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A water soluble branched cationic polyacrylamide (BCPAM was synthesized using solution polymerization. The polymerization was initiated using potassium diperiodatocuprate, K5[Cu(HIO62](Cu(III, initiating the self-condensing vinyl copolymerization of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC monomer. The resulting copolymer was characterized by the use of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Its flocculation properties were evaluated with standard jar tests of sewage. The effects of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction temperature, and the mass ratio of monomers on intrinsic viscosity and flocculation properties of the product were determined using single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiment.

  8. Lower and Upper Bounds for Deniable Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendlin, Rikke; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Nordholt, Peter Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    A deniable cryptosystem allows a sender and a receiver to communicate over an insecure channel in such a way that the communication is still secure even if the adversary can threaten the parties into revealing their internal states after the execution of the protocol. This is done by allowing...... the parties to change their internal state to make it look like a given ciphertext decrypts to a message different from what it really decrypts to. Deniable encryption was in this way introduced to allow to deny a message exchange and hence combat coercion. Depending on which parties can be coerced...... that it is impossible to construct a non-interactive bi-deniable public-key encryption scheme with better than polynomial security. Specifically, we give an explicit bound relating the security of the scheme to how efficient the scheme is in terms of key size. Our impossibility result establishes a lower bound...

  9. Bound 'de re' pronouns and the LFs of attitude reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Charlow

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An empirical argument is given in support of Percus & Sauerland's (2003 theory of 'de re' ascription, according to which the internal argument of "believe" is a function from concept-generators to propositions. The argument concerns pronouns in the scope of attitude verbs that are interpreted both 'de re' and as bound variables. It is argued that more traditional theories of 'de re' ascription --- specifically, theories that take the 'res' to be an internal argument of "believe" --- fail to account for such pronouns, because a pronoun cannot simultaneously be an argument of "believe" and bound by a quantifier in the scope of "believe". http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.7.3 BibTeX info

  10. Matchgate and space-bounded quantum computations are equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Jozsa, Richard; Kraus, Barbara; Miyake, Akimasa; Watrous, John

    2009-01-01

    Matchgates are an especially multiflorous class of two-qubit nearest neighbour quantum gates, defined by a set of algebraic constraints. They occur for example in the theory of perfect matchings of graphs, non-interacting fermions, and one-dimensional spin chains. We show that the computational power of circuits of matchgates is equivalent to that of space-bounded quantum computation with unitary gates, with space restricted to being logarithmic in the width of the matchgate circuit. In parti...

  11. About the Absence of Exotics and the Coulomb Branch Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Zotto, Michele; Sen, Ashoke

    2017-11-01

    The absence of exotics is a conjectural property of the spectrum of BPS states of four-dimensional {N=2} supersymmetric QFT's. In this note we revisit the precise statement of this conjecture, and develop a general strategy that, if applicable, entails the absence of exotic BPS states. Our method is based on the Coulomb branch formula and on quiver mutations. In particular, we obtain the absence of exotic BPS states for all pure SYM theories with simple, simply-laced gauge group G, and, as a corollary, of infinitely many other lagrangian {N=2} theories.

  12. HDL-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate restrains lymphopoiesis and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaho, Victoria A; Galvani, Sylvain; Engelbrecht, Eric; Liu, Catherine; Swendeman, Steven L; Kono, Mari; Proia, Richard L; Steinman, Lawrence; Han, May H; Hla, Timothy

    2015-07-16

    Lipid mediators influence immunity in myriad ways. For example, circulating sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a key regulator of lymphocyte egress. Although the majority of plasma S1P is bound to apolipoprotein M (ApoM) in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle, the immunological functions of the ApoM-S1P complex are unknown. Here we show that ApoM-S1P is dispensable for lymphocyte trafficking yet restrains lymphopoiesis by activating the S1P1 receptor on bone marrow lymphocyte progenitors. Mice that lacked ApoM (Apom(-/-)) had increased proliferation of Lin(-) Sca-1(+) cKit(+) haematopoietic progenitor cells (LSKs) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) in bone marrow. Pharmacological activation or genetic overexpression of S1P1 suppressed LSK and CLP cell proliferation in vivo. ApoM was stably associated with bone marrow CLPs, which showed active S1P1 signalling in vivo. Moreover, ApoM-bound S1P, but not albumin-bound S1P, inhibited lymphopoiesis in vitro. Upon immune stimulation, Apom(-/-) mice developed more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, characterized by increased lymphocytes in the central nervous system and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the ApoM-S1P-S1P1 signalling axis restrains the lymphocyte compartment and, subsequently, adaptive immune responses. Unique biological functions imparted by specific S1P chaperones could be exploited for novel therapeutic opportunities.

  13. Flood Plain Information, Toms River, Union Branch Ridgeway Branch, and Long Swamp Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    heights at Brook Road along Union Branch ........ .. 24 N * COUNTY PENI SYLvANIA JRE - LOCAT ION / *"MW OF STUDY JACKSON TOWNSHIP TONSI j cl VICINITY...34 "Million Dollars Damage in Ocean County" "Island Heights Lost its 1,200ft. Boardwalk Erected in 1949 at $20,000- Total Damages Estimated at $100,000" Toms...roads, Jersey coast line, rendering it helpless and and several thousand families lost electricity almost unrecognizable. The storm brought for

  14. Branched polymers on branched polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Jonsson, Thordur

    1996-01-01

    We study an ensemble of branched polymers which are embedded on other branched polymers. This is a toy model which allows us to study explicitly the reaction of a statistical system on an underlying geometrical structure, a problem of interest in the study of the interaction of matter and quantized gravity. We find a phase transition at which the embedded polymers begin to cover the basis polymers. At the phase transition point the susceptibility exponent $\\gamma$ takes the value 3/4 and the ...

  15. Cluster algorithms and computational complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuenan

    Cluster algorithms for the 2D Ising model with a staggered field have been studied and a new cluster algorithm for path sampling has been worked out. The complexity properties of Bak-Seppen model and the Growing network model have been studied by using the Computational Complexity Theory. The dynamic critical behavior of the two-replica cluster algorithm is studied. Several versions of the algorithm are applied to the two-dimensional, square lattice Ising model with a staggered field. The dynamic exponent for the full algorithm is found to be less than 0.5. It is found that odd translations of one replica with respect to the other together with global flips are essential for obtaining a small value of the dynamic exponent. The path sampling problem for the 1D Ising model is studied using both a local algorithm and a novel cluster algorithm. The local algorithm is extremely inefficient at low temperature, where the integrated autocorrelation time is found to be proportional to the fourth power of correlation length. The dynamic exponent of the cluster algorithm is found to be zero and therefore proved to be much more efficient than the local algorithm. The parallel computational complexity of the Bak-Sneppen evolution model is studied. It is shown that Bak-Sneppen histories can be generated by a massively parallel computer in a time that is polylog in the length of the history, which means that the logical depth of producing a Bak-Sneppen history is exponentially less than the length of the history. The parallel dynamics for generating Bak-Sneppen histories is contrasted to standard Bak-Sneppen dynamics. The parallel computational complexity of the Growing Network model is studied. The growth of the network with linear kernels is shown to be not complex and an algorithm with polylog parallel running time is found. The growth of the network with gamma ≥ 2 super-linear kernels can be realized by a randomized parallel algorithm with polylog expected running time.

  16. Thermus thermophilus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 57 Branching Enzyme : Crystal Structure, Mechanism of Action, and Products Formed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomo, Marta; Pijning, Tjaard; Booiman, Thijs; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Vlist, Jeroen van der; Kralj, Slavko; Planas, Antoni; Loos, Katja; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Maarel, Marc J.E.C. van der; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Leemhuis, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18; glycogen branching enzyme; GBE) catalyzes the formation of alpha 1,6-branching points in glycogen. Until recently it was believed that all GBEs belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13). Here we describe the cloning and expression of the Thermus thermophilus

  17. Beating Landauer's Bound: Tradeoff between Accuracy and Heat Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Saurav; Bhaban, Shreyas; Salapaka, Murti

    The Landauer's Principle states that erasing of one bit of stored information is necessarily accompanied by heat dissipation of at least kb Tln 2 per bit. However, this is true only if the erasure process is always successful. We demonstrate that if the erasure process has a success probability p, the minimum heat dissipation per bit is given by kb T(plnp + (1 - p) ln (1 - p) + ln 2), referred to as the Generalized Landauer Bound, which is kb Tln 2 if the erasure process is always successful and decreases to zero as p reduces to 0.5. We present a model for a one-bit memory based on a Brownian particle in a double well potential motivated from optical tweezers and achieve erasure by manipulation of the optical fields. The method uniquely provides with a handle on the success proportion of the erasure. The thermodynamics framework for Langevin dynamics developed by Sekimoto is used for computation of heat dissipation in each realization of the erasure process. Using extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the Landauer Bound of kb Tln 2 is violated by compromising on the success of the erasure process, while validating the existence of the Generalized Landauer Bound.

  18. Planar graphs theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizeki, T

    1988-01-01

    Collected in this volume are most of the important theorems and algorithms currently known for planar graphs, together with constructive proofs for the theorems. Many of the algorithms are written in Pidgin PASCAL, and are the best-known ones; the complexities are linear or 0(nlogn). The first two chapters provide the foundations of graph theoretic notions and algorithmic techniques. The remaining chapters discuss the topics of planarity testing, embedding, drawing, vertex- or edge-coloring, maximum independence set, subgraph listing, planar separator theorem, Hamiltonian cycles, and single- or multicommodity flows. Suitable for a course on algorithms, graph theory, or planar graphs, the volume will also be useful for computer scientists and graph theorists at the research level. An extensive reference section is included.

  19. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  20. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  1. Multiagent scheduling models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Agnetis, Alessandro; Gawiejnowicz, Stanisław; Pacciarelli, Dario; Soukhal, Ameur

    2014-01-01

    This book presents multi-agent scheduling models in which subsets of jobs sharing the same resources are evaluated by different criteria. It discusses complexity results, approximation schemes, heuristics and exact algorithms.

  2. Branched and fenestrated options to treat aortic arch aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Blandine; Mastracci, Tara M; Spear, Rafaelle; Hertault, Adrien; Azzaoui, Richard; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Haulon, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Conventional surgical repair of aortic arch aneurysms using cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest remains the gold standard, however it is associated with a substantial mortality and morbidity rate, especially in the elderly. Hybrid techniques avoid aortic cross-clamping and circulatory arrest, but are of limited use and are only applicable to selected patients. The development of new devices to treat aortic arch aneurysms endovascularly has the potential to offer a treatment modality to patients unfit for an open repair. We present the challenges specific to endovascular arch repair based on our experience and the literature available from the first experience in 1999 to the third generation graft currently commonly used. Following an initial learning curve associated with the use of the third generation arch branch device, along with careful patient selection and operator experience, early results are promising. Technical success was achieved in all cases, there was no early mortality and strokes were noted in 11%. As with branched and fenestrated technology for thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair, the use of total endovascular repair for arch pathology will require an evolution in endovascular practice and device design. However, at present, the early use of the latest generation device offers a novel approach to patients who previously had no surgical options.

  3. Fast concurrent array-based stacks, queues and deques using fetch-and-increment-bounded, fetch-and-decrement-bounded and store-on-twin synchronization primitives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alana; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Wisniewski, Robert

    2014-09-16

    Implementation primitives for concurrent array-based stacks, queues, double-ended queues (deques) and wrapped deques are provided. In one aspect, each element of the stack, queue, deque or wrapped deque data structure has its own ticket lock, allowing multiple threads to concurrently use multiple elements of the data structure and thus achieving high performance. In another aspect, new synchronization primitives FetchAndIncrementBounded (Counter, Bound) and FetchAndDecrementBounded (Counter, Bound) are implemented. These primitives can be implemented in hardware and thus promise a very fast throughput for queues, stacks and double-ended queues.

  4. Fundamentals of natural computing basic concepts, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, Leandro Nunes

    2006-01-01

    Introduction A Small Sample of Ideas The Philosophy of Natural Computing The Three Branches: A Brief Overview When to Use Natural Computing Approaches Conceptualization General Concepts PART I - COMPUTING INSPIRED BY NATURE Evolutionary Computing Problem Solving as a Search Task Hill Climbing and Simulated Annealing Evolutionary Biology Evolutionary Computing The Other Main Evolutionary Algorithms From Evolutionary Biology to Computing Scope of Evolutionary Computing Neurocomputing The Nervous System Artif

  5. Developing a complex endovascular fenestrated and branched aortic program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzer, Andres; Baril, Donald; Robinson, William P; Simons, Jessica P; Aiello, Francesco A; Messina, Louis M

    2015-03-01

    In 2008, the top priority in our division's 5-year strategic plan was "to become an internationally recognized center of excellence for the endovascular treatment of complex aortic pathology extending from the aortic valve to the external iliac artery." Five components were identified as "most critical" to achieve this strategic priority: (1) training at centers of excellence in complex endovascular repair; (2) industry partnership to improve access to developing technologies; (3) a fully integrated team approach with one leader involved in all steps of all cases; (4) prospective data collection; and (5) development and implementation of a physician-sponsored investigational device exemption for juxtarenal, pararenal, and thoracoabdominal aneurysms. We have now performed 49 repairs (16 commercially manufactured devices, 33 physician-modified devices) for 3 common iliac, 20 juxtarenal, 9 pararenal, and 17 thoracoabdominal aneurysms, using 142 fenestrations, branches, and scallops. All patients had complete 30-day follow-up for calculation of 30-day events. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate 1-year events. In 5 years, we developed a successful complex endovascular aortic program that uses fenestrated/branched repair techniques. A focused team strategic planning approach to program development is an effective way for vascular surgery divisions to gain experience and expertise with new complex technologies while ensuring acceptable patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Btbd7 is essential for region-specific epithelial cell dynamics and branching morphogenesis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daley, William P; Matsumoto, Kazue; Doyle, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis of developing organs requires coordinated but poorly understood changes in epithelial cell-cell adhesion and cell motility. We report that Btbd7 is a crucial regulator of branching morphogenesis in vivo. Btbd7 levels are elevated in peripheral cells of branching epithelial...... end buds, where it enhances cell motility and cell-cell adhesion dynamics. Genetic ablation of Btbd7 in mice disrupts branching morphogenesis of salivary gland, lung, and kidney. Btbd7 knockout results in more tightly packed outer bud cells, which display stronger E-cadherin localization, reduced cell...... dynamics of cell adhesion and motility during epithelial branching morphogenesis....

  7. Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Steven Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.

  8. WW cross section and branching fraction measurements at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Malgeri, L

    1999-01-01

    In two years of running at energies above WW production threshold, LEP-II provided each experiment an integrated luminosity of ~80 pb /sup -1/ until the end of 1997. The amount of collected events, ~1000 /experiment, allows to measure with high precision the total e/sup + /e/sup -/ to WW cross section: sigma /sub WW/( square root s=182.7 Ge V)=15.89+or-0.40 pb and the W-boson decay branching fractions: BR(W to qq)=68.79+or-0.77% and BR(W to l nu /sub l/)=10.40+or-0.26%, both in good agreement with Standard Model expectations. The W decay branching fractions and the total WW cross section are also used to extract a value for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Mas kawa matrix element V /sub cs/ and to put stringent limits on the invisible W width, Gamma /sub W//sup in upsilon /. A preliminary and incomplete look at the first data of this year, which is foreseen to increase the available statistics by four times, is also herein presented. (14 refs).

  9. SkyAlign: a portable, work-efficient skyline algorithm for multicore and GPU architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden; Chester, Sean; Assent, Ira

    2016-01-01

    The skyline operator determines points in a multidimensional dataset that offer some optimal trade-off. State-of-the-art CPU skyline algorithms exploit quad-tree partitioning with complex branching to minimise the number of point-to-point comparisons. Branch-phobic GPU skyline algorithms rely...... on compute throughput rather than partitioning, but fail to match the performance of sequential algorithms. In this paper, we introduce a new skyline algorithm, SkyAlign, that is designed for the GPU, and a GPU-friendly, grid-based tree structure upon which the algorithm relies. The search tree allows us...... to dramatically reduce the amount of work done by the GPU algorithm by avoiding most point-to-point comparisons at the cost of some compute throughput. This trade-off allows SkyAlign to achieve orders of magnitude faster performance than its predecessors. Moreover, a NUMA-oblivious port of SkyAlign outperforms...

  10. Exponential-Time Algorithms and Complexity of NP-Hard Graph Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taslaman, Nina Sofia

    NP-hard problems are deemed highly unlikely to be solvable in polynomial time. Still, one can often find algorithms that are substantially faster than brute force solutions. This thesis concerns such algorithms for problems from graph theory; techniques for constructing and improving this type...... to a polylogarithmic factor in the exponent. For planar graphs, lower bounds are found by examining and combining existing reductions. An asymptotically tight bound is found for points corresponding to evaluation of the 3-state Potts model partition function; for remaining points the obtained lower bounds...

  11. Strepsiptera, Phylogenomics and the Long Branch Attraction Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussau, Bastien; Walton, Zaak; Delgado, Juan A.; Collantes, Francisco; Beani, Laura; Stewart, Isaac J.; Cameron, Sydney A.; Whitfield, James B.; Johnston, J. Spencer; Holland, Peter W.H.; Bachtrog, Doris; Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney; Huelsenbeck, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Insect phylogeny has recently been the focus of renewed interest as advances in sequencing techniques make it possible to rapidly generate large amounts of genomic or transcriptomic data for a species of interest. However, large numbers of markers are not sufficient to guarantee accurate phylogenetic reconstruction, and the choice of the model of sequence evolution as well as adequate taxonomic sampling are as important for phylogenomic studies as they are for single-gene phylogenies. Recently, the sequence of the genome of a strepsipteran has been published and used to place Strepsiptera as sister group to Coleoptera. However, this conclusion relied on a data set that did not include representatives of Neuropterida or of coleopteran lineages formerly proposed to be related to Strepsiptera. Furthermore, it did not use models that are robust against the long branch attraction artifact. Here we have sequenced the transcriptomes of seven key species to complete a data set comprising 36 species to study the higher level phylogeny of insects, with a particular focus on Neuropteroidea (Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, Neuropterida), especially on coleopteran taxa considered as potential close relatives of Strepsiptera. Using models robust against the long branch attraction artifact we find a highly resolved phylogeny that confirms the position of Strepsiptera as a sister group to Coleoptera, rather than as an internal clade of Coleoptera, and sheds new light onto the phylogeny of Neuropteroidea. PMID:25272037

  12. Strepsiptera, phylogenomics and the long branch attraction problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Boussau

    Full Text Available Insect phylogeny has recently been the focus of renewed interest as advances in sequencing techniques make it possible to rapidly generate large amounts of genomic or transcriptomic data for a species of interest. However, large numbers of markers are not sufficient to guarantee accurate phylogenetic reconstruction, and the choice of the model of sequence evolution as well as adequate taxonomic sampling are as important for phylogenomic studies as they are for single-gene phylogenies. Recently, the sequence of the genome of a strepsipteran has been published and used to place Strepsiptera as sister group to Coleoptera. However, this conclusion relied on a data set that did not include representatives of Neuropterida or of coleopteran lineages formerly proposed to be related to Strepsiptera. Furthermore, it did not use models that are robust against the long branch attraction artifact. Here we have sequenced the transcriptomes of seven key species to complete a data set comprising 36 species to study the higher level phylogeny of insects, with a particular focus on Neuropteroidea (Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, Neuropterida, especially on coleopteran taxa considered as potential close relatives of Strepsiptera. Using models robust against the long branch attraction artifact we find a highly resolved phylogeny that confirms the position of Strepsiptera as a sister group to Coleoptera, rather than as an internal clade of Coleoptera, and sheds new light onto the phylogeny of Neuropteroidea.

  13. Identity and dynamics of mammary stem cells during branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Colinda L G J; Hannezo, Edouard; Muraro, Mauro J; Zomer, Anoek; Langedijk, Nathalia S M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Simons, Benjamin D; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2017-02-16

    During puberty, the mouse mammary gland develops into a highly branched epithelial network. Owing to the absence of exclusive stem cell markers, the location, multiplicity, dynamics and fate of mammary stem cells (MaSCs), which drive branching morphogenesis, are unknown. Here we show that morphogenesis is driven by proliferative terminal end buds that terminate or bifurcate with near equal probability, in a stochastic and time-invariant manner, leading to a heterogeneous epithelial network. We show that the majority of terminal end bud cells function as highly proliferative, lineage-committed MaSCs that are heterogeneous in their expression profile and short-term contribution to ductal extension. Yet, through cell rearrangements during terminal end bud bifurcation, each MaSC is able to contribute actively to long-term growth. Our study shows that the behaviour of MaSCs is not directly linked to a single expression profile. Instead, morphogenesis relies upon lineage-restricted heterogeneous MaSC populations that function as single equipotent pools in the long term.

  14. Strepsiptera, phylogenomics and the long branch attraction problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussau, Bastien; Walton, Zaak; Delgado, Juan A; Collantes, Francisco; Beani, Laura; Stewart, Isaac J; Cameron, Sydney A; Whitfield, James B; Johnston, J Spencer; Holland, Peter W H; Bachtrog, Doris; Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney; Huelsenbeck, John P

    2014-01-01

    Insect phylogeny has recently been the focus of renewed interest as advances in sequencing techniques make it possible to rapidly generate large amounts of genomic or transcriptomic data for a species of interest. However, large numbers of markers are not sufficient to guarantee accurate phylogenetic reconstruction, and the choice of the model of sequence evolution as well as adequate taxonomic sampling are as important for phylogenomic studies as they are for single-gene phylogenies. Recently, the sequence of the genome of a strepsipteran has been published and used to place Strepsiptera as sister group to Coleoptera. However, this conclusion relied on a data set that did not include representatives of Neuropterida or of coleopteran lineages formerly proposed to be related to Strepsiptera. Furthermore, it did not use models that are robust against the long branch attraction artifact. Here we have sequenced the transcriptomes of seven key species to complete a data set comprising 36 species to study the higher level phylogeny of insects, with a particular focus on Neuropteroidea (Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, Neuropterida), especially on coleopteran taxa considered as potential close relatives of Strepsiptera. Using models robust against the long branch attraction artifact we find a highly resolved phylogeny that confirms the position of Strepsiptera as a sister group to Coleoptera, rather than as an internal clade of Coleoptera, and sheds new light onto the phylogeny of Neuropteroidea.

  15. Degenerate quantum codes and the quantum Hamming bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Klappenecker, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    The parameters of a nondegenerate quantum code must obey the Hamming bound. An important open problem in quantum coding theory is whether the parameters of a degenerate quantum code can violate this bound for nondegenerate quantum codes. In this article we show that Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes, over a prime power alphabet q⩾5, cannot beat the quantum Hamming bound. We prove a quantum version of the Griesmer bound for the CSS codes, which allows us to strengthen the Rains’ bound that an [[n,k,d

  16. A comparison between skeleton and bounding box models for falling direction recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narupiyakul, Lalita; Srisrisawang, Nitikorn

    2017-12-01

    Falling is an injury that can lead to a serious medical condition in every range of the age of people. However, in the case of elderly, the risk of serious injury is much higher. Due to the fact that one way of preventing serious injury is to treat the fallen person as soon as possible, several works attempted to implement different algorithms to recognize the fall. Our work compares the performance of two models based on features extraction: (i) Body joint data (Skeleton Data) which are the joint's positions in 3 axes and (ii) Bounding box (Box-size Data) covering all body joints. Machine learning algorithms that were chosen are Decision Tree (DT), Naïve Bayes (NB), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Voting Classification (VC), and Gradient boosting (GB). The results illustrate that the models trained with Skeleton data are performed far better than those trained with Box-size data (with an average accuracy of 94-81% and 80-75%, respectively). KNN shows the best performance in both Body joint model and Bounding box model. In conclusion, KNN with Body joint model performs the best among the others.

  17. Regeneration of Aplysia Bag Cell Neurons is Synergistically Enhanced by Substrate-Bound Hemolymph Proteins and Laminin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Callen; Dufrense, Eric R.; Forscher, Paul

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated Aplysia hemolymph as a source of endogenous factors to promote regeneration of bag cell neurons. We describe a novel synergistic effect between substrate-bound hemolymph proteins and laminin. This combination increased outgrowth and branching relative to either laminin or hemolymph alone. Notably, the addition of hemolymph to laminin substrates accelerated growth cone migration rate over ten-fold. Our results indicate that the active factor is either a high molecular weight protein or protein complex and is not the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Substrate-bound factor(s) from central nervous system-conditioned media also had a synergistic effect with laminin, suggesting a possible cooperation between humoral proteins and nervous system extracellular matrix. Further molecular characterization of active factors and their cellular targets is warranted on account of the magnitude of the effects reported here and their potential relevance for nervous system repair.

  18. Model-Independent Analysis of $B \\to \\pi K$ Decays and Bounds on the Weak Phase $\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, M

    1999-01-01

    A general parametrization of the amplitudes for the rare two-body decays B -> pi K is introduced, which makes maximal use of theoretical constraints arising from flavour symmetries of the strong interactions and the structure of the low-energy effective weak Hamiltonian. With the help of this parametrization, a model-independent analysis of the branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries in the various B -> pi K decay modes is performed, and the impact of hadronic uncertainties on bounds on the weak phase gamma = arg(Vub*) is investigated.

  19. The role of branch architecture in assimilate production and partitioning: the example of Apple (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne eFanwoua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of branch architecture in carbon production and allocation is essential to gain more insight into the complex process of assimilate partitioning in fruit trees. This mini review reports on the current knowledge of the role of branch architecture in carbohydrate production and partitioning in apple. The first-order carrier branch of apple illustrates the complexity of branch structure emerging from bud activity events and encountered in many fruit trees. Branch architecture influences carbon production by determining leaf exposure to light and by affecting leaf internal characteristics related to leaf photosynthetic capacity. The dynamics of assimilate partitioning between branch organs depends on the stage of development of sources and sinks. The sink strength of various branch organs and their relative positioning on the branch also affect partitioning. Vascular connections between branch organs determine major pathways for branch assimilate transport. We propose directions for employing a modelling approach to further elucidate the role of branch architecture on assimilate partitioning.

  20. Resource Loading by Branch-and-Price Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.

    2001-01-01

    The main contribution of this thesis is twofold. First, we propose a modeling approach that offers a generic framework to formulate various types of resource loading and RCCP problems as ILP models. Second, we propose various algorithms that can solve problems of reasonable size, i.e., typically

  1. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  2. Heterologous expression and purification of membrane-bound pyrophosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellosalo, J.; Kajander, T.; Palmgren, Michael Broberg

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (M-PPases) are enzymes that couple the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate to pumping of protons or sodium ions. In plants and bacteria they are important for relieving stress caused by low energy levels during anoxia, drought, nutrient deficiency, cold and low...... and monodisperse active states. To generate M-PPases with an increased hydrophilic surface area, which potentially should facilitate formation of crystal contacts, phage T4 lysozyme was inserted into different extramembraneous loops of one of these M-PPases. Two of these fusion proteins were active and expressed...

  3. Greedy algorithms withweights for construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2009-09-10

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of the total weight of attributes occurring in partial association rules. We consider mainly greedy algorithms with weights for construction of rules. The paper contains bounds on precision of these algorithms and bounds on the minimal weight of partial association rules based on an information obtained during the greedy algorithm run.

  4. Side Branch Interaction with Main Line Standing Waves and Related Signal Handling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Ruggles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from a low pressure air test facility are used to quantify the influence of the acoustic field in the main line on side branch resonance behavior. The main line of diameter = 7.6 cm may accumulate acoustic energy broadcast from a resonating branch of diameter = 1.9 cm ( = 0.25. The side branch resonance amplitude is a strong function of branch position along the main line with the normalized pressure rising to 1.2 in the most favorable branch positions with Strouhal number near 0.3. Large time variation of the side branch and main line resonance amplitude is apparent for most branch positions. A moving window is used on the time history to collect an array of power spectral densities (PSDs. Peak amplitude values from the PSD array are represented in a probability density function (PDF that provides a repeatable characterization of data from the system.

  5. Algorithms, complexity, and the sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Christos

    2014-11-11

    Algorithms, perhaps together with Moore's law, compose the engine of the information technology revolution, whereas complexity--the antithesis of algorithms--is one of the deepest realms of mathematical investigation. After introducing the basic concepts of algorithms and complexity, and the fundamental complexity classes P (polynomial time) and NP (nondeterministic polynomial time, or search problems), we discuss briefly the P vs. NP problem. We then focus on certain classes between P and NP which capture important phenomena in the social and life sciences, namely the Nash equlibrium and other equilibria in economics and game theory, and certain processes in population genetics and evolution. Finally, an algorithm known as multiplicative weights update (MWU) provides an algorithmic interpretation of the evolution of allele frequencies in a population under sex and weak selection. All three of these equivalences are rife with domain-specific implications: The concept of Nash equilibrium may be less universal--and therefore less compelling--than has been presumed; selection on gene interactions may entail the maintenance of genetic variation for longer periods than selection on single alleles predicts; whereas MWU can be shown to maximize, for each gene, a convex combination of the gene's cumulative fitness in the population and the entropy of the allele distribution, an insight that may be pertinent to the maintenance of variation in evolution.

  6. Linear lower bounds and simulations in Frege systems with substitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet Carbonell, M. Luisa; Galesi, Nicola

    1996-01-01

    Our work concerns Frege systems, substitution Frege systems (sF), renaming Frege systems, top/bottom-Frege systems and extended Frege systems (eF). Urquhart shows that tautologies associated to a binary strings require Omega(n/log n) lines to be proved in sF. Here we prove, by giving a sF proof of O(n/log n) lines in substitution Frege, that his lower bound is optimal and we show that in the tree-like case Omega(n) lines are required for a p...

  7. Network marketing with bounded rationality and partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiet, Hoang Anh Tuan; Kim, Beom Jun

    2008-08-01

    Network marketing has been proposed and used as a way to spread the product information to consumers through social connections. We extend the previous game model of the network marketing on a small-world tree network and propose two games: In the first model with the bounded rationality, each consumer makes purchase decision stochastically, while in the second model, consumers get only partial information due to the finite length of social connections. Via extensive numerical simulations, we find that as the rationality is enhanced not only the consumer surplus but also the firm’s profit is increased. The implication of our results is also discussed.

  8. Structure and Hydration of Highly Branched, Monodisperse Phytoglycogen Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, John; Nickels, Jonathan; Stanley, Christopher; Diallo, Souleymane; Katsaras, John; Dutcher, John

    Monodisperse phytoglycogen nanoparticles are a promising, new soft colloidal nanomaterial with many applications in the personal care, food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. These applications rely on exceptional properties that emerge from the highly branched structure of phytoglycogen and its interaction with water, such as extraordinarily high water retention, and low viscosity and exceptional stability in water. The structure and hydration of the nanoparticles was characterized using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). SANS allowed us to determine the size of the nanoparticles, evaluate their radial density profile, quantify the particle-to-particle spacing, and determine their water content. The results show clearly that the nanoparticles are highly hydrated, with each nanoparticle containing 250% of its mass in water, and that aqueous dispersions approach a jamming transition at ~ 25% (w/w). QENS experiments provided an independent and consistent measure of the high level of hydration of the particles.

  9. An algorithm for envy-free allocations in an economy with indivisible objects and money

    OpenAIRE

    Flip Klijn

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies envy-free allocations for economies with indivisible objects, quasi-linear utility functions, and an amount of money. We give a polynomially bounded algorithm for finding envy-free allocations. Connectedness of envy-graphs, which are used in the algorithm, characterizes the extreme points of the polytopes of sidepayments corresponding with envy-free allocations.

  10. Envy-Free Allocations of Indivisible Objects : An Algorithm and an Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies envy-free allocations for economies with indivisible objects, quasi-linear utility functions, and an amount of money.We give a polynomially bounded algorithm for finding envy-free allocations.Connectedness of envy-graphs, which are used in the algorithm, characterizes the extreme

  11. Isolated Common Hepatic Artery Branch Thrombosis: Results and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulhossein Davoodabadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated common hepatic artery branch thrombosis with severe gastric ischemia and duodenojejunal infarction is a rare condition; it usually presents with acute abdomen and may be associated with underlying thrombotic risk factors. We present a 35-year-old man admitted to our hospital with five days history of sudden abdominal pain and deteriorating epigastric pain. He was a driver and had no any past medical history. Explorative laparotomy showed: distal 2/3 gastric, duodenojejunal and papilla vater was sloughed. The stomach subtotal and sloughed duodenum and first 20 cm of jejunum were resected, continuity of the gastrointestinal was preserved with anastomosis of the proximal part of jejunum to gastric stump, pancreatic duct, and CBD repaired to the lateral side of jejunum on the guide of two 18 French feeding tube as an external drain. The patient had a good immediate postoperative recovery. Coagulation checkup after operation revealed isolated Hyperhomocysteinemia.

  12. Computational geometry algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Berg, Mark; Overmars, Mark; Schwarzkopf, Otfried

    1997-01-01

    Computational geometry emerged from the field of algorithms design and anal­ ysis in the late 1970s. It has grown into a recognized discipline with its own journals, conferences, and a large community of active researchers. The suc­ cess of the field as a research discipline can on the one hand be explained from the beauty of the problems studied and the solutions obtained, and, on the other hand, by the many application domains--computer graphics, geographic in­ formation systems (GIS), robotics, and others-in which geometric algorithms play a fundamental role. For many geometric problems the early algorithmic solutions were either slow or difficult to understand and implement. In recent years a number of new algorithmic techniques have been developed that improved and simplified many of the previous approaches. In this textbook we have tried to make these modem algorithmic solutions accessible to a large audience. The book has been written as a textbook for a course in computational geometry, but it can ...

  13. Bounded Rationality and the Diffusion of Modern Investment Treaties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    Given the considerable sovereignty costs involved, the adoption of modern investment treaties by practically all developing countries presents somewhat of a puzzle. Based on a review of leading explanations of investment treaty diffusion, the article advances a new theory using behavioral economics...... insights on cognitive heuristics. In line with recent work on policy diffusion, it suggests that a bounded rationality framework has considerable potential to explain why, and how, developing countries have adopted modern investment treaties. To illustrate the potential of this approach, the case of South...

  14. Bridge between bound state and reaction effective nucleon–nucleon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bridge between bound state and N–N potentials. Table 2. Parameters of the potential. v0 (MeV). 590. 432. 448. 495 c (fm). 1.34. 1.12. 1.03. 0.99 r0 (fm). 1.2. 1.2. 1.2. 1.2 σ (fm). 0.8. 1.0. 1.2. 1.4. BE (MeV). 128.4. 127.6. 127.5. 126.8. R (fm). 2.73. 2.73. 2.73. 2.73. It must be mentioned here that in our earlier detailed analysis ...

  15. A Branch-and-Price Approach to the Feeder Network Design Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Alberto; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Røpke, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of designing a container liner shipping feeder network. The designer has to choose which port to serve during many rotations that start and end at a central hub. Many operational characteristics are considered, such as variable leg-by-leg speeds and cargo tra....... These insights were obtained by means of an analysis where scenarios are generated varying internal and external conditions, such as fuel costs and port demands....... transit times. Realistic instances are generated from the LinerLib benchmark suite. The problem is solved with a branch-and-price algorithm, which can solve most instances to optimality within one hour. The results also provide insights on the cost structure and desirable features of optimal routes...

  16. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mateiu, Ramona V.; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  17. Combinatorial optimization theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Korte, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is one of the youngest and most active areas of discrete mathematics, and is probably its driving force today. This book describes the most important ideas, theoretical results, and algorithms of this field. It is conceived as an advanced graduate text, and it can also be used as an up-to-date reference work for current research. The book includes the essential fundamentals of graph theory, linear and integer programming, and complexity theory. It covers classical topics in combinatorial optimization as well as very recent ones. The emphasis is on theoretical results and algorithms with provably good performance. Some applications and heuristics are mentioned, too.

  18. Bounds for percolation thresholds on directed and undirected graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kathleen; Pryadko, Leonid

    2015-03-01

    Percolation theory is an efficient approach to problems with strong disorder, e.g., in quantum or classical transport, composite materials, and diluted magnets. Recently, the growing role of big data in scientific and industrial applications has led to a renewed interest in graph theory as a tool for describing complex connections in various kinds of networks: social, biological, technological, etc. In particular, percolation on graphs has been used to describe internet stability, spread of contagious diseases and computer viruses; related models describe market crashes and viral spread in social networks. We consider site-dependent percolation on directed and undirected graphs, and present several exact bounds for location of the percolation transition in terms of the eigenvalues of matrices associated with graphs, including the adjacency matrix and the Hashimoto matrix used to enumerate non-backtracking walks. These bounds correspond t0 a mean field approximation and become asymptotically exact for graphs with no short cycles. We illustrate this convergence numerically by simulating percolation on several families of graphs with different cycle lengths. This research was supported in part by the NSF Grant PHY-1416578 and by the ARO Grant W911NF-11-1-0027.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of non-transferrin-bound and transferring-bound iron uptake in primary hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Changyi; Kosman, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms of iron trafficking in neurons have not been elucidated. In this study, we characterized the expression and localization of ferrous iron transporters Zip8, Zip14 and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferrireductases Steap2 and stromal cell-derived receptor 2 in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Steap2 and Zip8 partially co-localize, indicating these two proteins may function in Fe(3+) reduction prior to Fe(2+) permeation. Zip8, DMT1, and Steap2 co-localize with the transferrin receptor/transferrin complex, suggesting they may be involved in transferrin receptor/transferrin-mediated iron assimilation. In brain interstitial fluid, transferring-bound iron (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) exist as potential iron sources. Primary hippocampal neurons exhibit significant iron uptake from TBI (Transferrin-(59) Fe(3+)) and NTBI, whether presented as (59) Fe(2+) -citrate or (59) Fe(3+) -citrate; reductase-independent (59) Fe(2+) uptake was the most efficient uptake pathway of the three. Kinetic analysis of Zn(2+) inhibition of Fe(2+) uptake indicated that DMT1 plays only a minor role in the uptake of NTBI. In contrast, localization and knockdown data indicate that Zip8 makes a major contribution. Data suggest also that cell accumulation of (59) Fe from TBI relies at least in part on an endocytosis-independent pathway. These data suggest that Zip8 and Steap2 play a major role in iron accumulation from NTBI and TBI by hippocampal neurons. Analysis of the expression and localization of known iron uptake transporters demonstrated that Zip8 makes a major contribution to iron accumulation in primary cultures of rat embryonic hippocampal neurons. These cells exhibit uptake pathways for ferrous and ferric iron (non-transferrin-bound iron, NTBI in figure) and for transferrin-bound iron; the ferrireductases Steap2 and SDR2 support the uptake of ferric iron substrates. Zip8 and Steap2 are strongly expressed in the plasma membrane of both soma

  20. Wavelets theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Montefusco, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Wavelets: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications is the fifth volume in the highly respected series, WAVELET ANALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATIONS. This volume shows why wavelet analysis has become a tool of choice infields ranging from image compression, to signal detection and analysis in electrical engineering and geophysics, to analysis of turbulent or intermittent processes. The 28 papers comprising this volume are organized into seven subject areas: multiresolution analysis, wavelet transforms, tools for time-frequency analysis, wavelets and fractals, numerical methods and algorithms, and applicat

  1. Analytic Confusion Matrix Bounds for Fault Detection and Isolation Using a Sum-of-Squared- Residuals Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Given a system which can fail in 1 or n different ways, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm uses sensor data in order to determine which fault is the most likely to have occurred. The effectiveness of an FDI algorithm can be quantified by a confusion matrix, which i ndicates the probability that each fault is isolated given that each fault has occurred. Confusion matrices are often generated with simulation data, particularly for complex systems. In this paper we perform FDI using sums of squares of sensor residuals (SSRs). We assume that the sensor residuals are Gaussian, which gives the SSRs a chi-squared distribution. We then generate analytic lower and upper bounds on the confusion matrix elements. This allows for the generation of optimal sensor sets without numerical simulations. The confusion matrix bound s are verified with simulated aircraft engine data.

  2. Q-branch Raman scattering and modern kinetic thoery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchick, L. [The Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The program is an extension of previous APL work whose general aim was to calculate line shapes of nearly resonant isolated line transitions with solutions of a popular quantum kinetic equation-the Waldmann-Snider equation-using well known advanced solution techniques developed for the classical Boltzmann equation. The advanced techniques explored have been a BGK type approximation, which is termed the Generalized Hess Method (GHM), and conversion of the collision operator to a block diagonal matrix of symmetric collision kernels which then can be approximated by discrete ordinate methods. The latter method, which is termed the Collision Kernel method (CC), is capable of the highest accuracy and has been used quite successfully for Q-branch Raman scattering. The GHM method, not quite as accurate, is applicable over a wider range of pressures and has proven quite useful.

  3. In-medium bound states and pairing gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, O. A.; Kukulin, V. I.; Pomerantsev, V. N.; Müther, H.

    2017-09-01

    The two-particle Green's function and T matrix including pphh correlations in infinite nuclear matter are evaluated by a diagonalization of the effective total Hamiltonian. This diagonalization procedure corresponds to the same eigenvalue problem as for the pphh Random Phase Approximation. The effective Hamiltonian is nonHermitian and, for specific density domains and partial waves, yields pairs of complex conjugated eigenvalues and eigenfunctions representing in-medium bound states of two nucleons. The occurrence of these complex poles of the two-particle in-medium Green's function indicates the well known pairing instability. It is shown that the corresponding bound-state wave functions contain momentum dependencies of the BCS gap function, so that the latter can be found from a single diagonalization procedure for the effective Hamiltonian matrix. The approach is illustrated by calculations for S10 and 2 3P F gap functions in neutron matter which essentially coincide with the results found by a direct solving of the BCS gap equation. However the developed approach shows a new interesting feature, i.e., the gap closure and a phase transition point at very low density in the case of coupled channels 1 3S D in symmetric nuclear matter. This finding goes beyond the conventional BCS treatment and is discussed in the context of transition from Bose-Einstein condensation of quasideuterons to the formation of BCS pairing.

  4. Quark-antiquark bound-state spectroscopy and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, E.D.

    1982-11-01

    The discussion covers quarks as we know them, the classification of ordinary mesons in terms of constituent quarks, hidden charm states and charmed mesons, bottom quarks, positronium as a model for quarti q, quantum chromodynamics and its foundation in experiment, the charmonium model, the mass of states, fine structure and hyperfine structure, classification, widths of states, rate and multipolarity of gamma transitions, questions about bottom, leptonic widths and the determination of Q/sub b/, the mass splitting of the n/sup 3/S/sub 1/ states, the center of gravity of the masses of the n/sup 3/P; states, n/sup 3/ P; fine structure and classification, branching ratios for upsilon' ..-->.. tau chi/sub 6j/ and the tau cascade reactions, hyperfine splitting, and top. (GHT)

  5. Semileptonic branching fractions of charged and neutral B mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Athanas, M; Masek, G E; Paar, H P; Gronberg, J B; Kutschke, R; Menary, S R; Morrison, R J; Nakanishi, S; Nelson, H N; Nelson, T K; Qiao, C; Richman, J D; Ryd, A; Tajima, H; Sperka, D; Witherell, M S; Balest, R; Cho, K; Ford, W T; Johnson, D R; Lingel, K; Lohner, M; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Bebek, C; Berkelman, K; Bloom, K; Browder, T E; Cassel, David G; Cho, H A; Coffman, D M; Crowcroft, D S; Drell, P S; Dumas, D J P; Ehrlich, R; Gaidarev, P B; García-Sciveres, M; Geiser, B; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Henderson, S; Jones, C D; Jones, S L; Kandaswamy, J; Katayama, N; Kim, P C; Kreinick, D L; Ludwig, G S; Masui, J; Mevissen, J; Mistry, N B; Ng, C R; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Salman, S; Sapper, M; Würthwein, F; Avery, P; Freyberger, A P; Rodríguez, J; Yang, S; Yelton, J; Cinabro, D; Liu, T; Saulnier, M; Wilson, R; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G; Ong, B; Palmer, M; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Edwards, K W; Ogg, M; Bellerive, A; Britton, D I; Hyatt, E R F; MacFarlane, D B; Patel, P M; Spaan, B; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Besson, D; Coppage, D; Copty, N K; Davis, R; Hancock, N; Kelly, M S; Kotov, S A; Kravchenko, I V; Kwak, N; Lam, H; Kubota, Y; Lattery, M; Momayezi, M; Nelson, J K; Patton, S; Poling, R A; Savinov, V; Schrenk, S; Wang, R; Alam, M S; Kim, I J; Ling, Z; Mahmood, A H; O'Neill, J J; Severini, H; Sun, C R; Wappler, F; Crawford, G; Daubenmier, C M; Fulton, R; Fujino, D; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Lee, J; Malchow, R L; Skovpen, Y; Sung, M; White, C; Zoeller, M M; Butler, F; Fu, X; Nemati, B; Ross, W R; Skubic, P L; Wood, M; Bishai, M; Fast, J; Gerndt, E; McIlwain, R L; Miao, T; Miller, D H; Modesitt, M; Payne, D; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Wang Pei Ning; Battle, M; Ernst, J; Gibbons, L K; Kwon, Y; Roberts, S; Thorndike, E H; Wang, C H; Dominick, J; Lambrecht, M; Sanghera, S; Shelkov, V; Skwarnicki, T; Stroynowski, R; Volobuev, I P; Wei, G; Zadorozhny, P; Artuso, M; Gao, M; Golberg, M; He, D; Horwitz, N; Kennett, R; Mountain, R; Moneti, G C; Muheim, F; Mukhin, Y; Playfer, S; Rozen, Y; Stone, S; Vasseur, G; Xing, X; Zhu, G; Bartelt, J; Csorna, S E; Egyed, Z; Jain, V; Gibaut, D; Kinoshita, K; Pomianowski, P A; Barish, B C; Chadha, M; Chan, S; Cowen, D F; Eigen, G; Miller, J S; O'Grady, C; Urheim, J; Weinstein, A J

    1994-01-01

    An examination of leptons in {\\Upsilon (4S)} events tagged by reconstructed B decays yields semileptonic branching fractions of b_-=(10.1 \\pm 1.8\\pm 1.4)\\% for charged and b_0=(10.9 \\pm 0.7\\pm 1.1)\\% for neutral B mesons. This is the first measurement for charged B. Assuming equality of the charged and neutral semileptonic widths, the ratio b_-/b_0=0.93 \\pm 0.18 \\pm 0.12 is equivalent to the ratio of lifetimes. A postscript version is available through World-Wide-Web in http://w4.lns.cornell.edu/publi c/CLNS/1994

  6. Minimal Z' models present bounds and early LHC reach

    CERN Document Server

    Salvioni, Ennio; Zwirner, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    We consider `minimal' Z' models, whose phenomenology is controlled by only three parameters beyond the Standard Model ones: the Z' mass and two effective coupling constants. They encompass many popular models motivated by grand unification, as well as many arising in other theoretical contexts. This parameterization takes also into account both mass and kinetic mixing effects, which we show to be sizable in some cases. After discussing the interplay between the bounds from electroweak precision tests and recent direct searches at the Tevatron, we extend our analysis to estimate the early LHC discovery potential. We consider a center-of-mass energy from 7 towards 10 TeV and an integrated luminosity from 50 to several hundred pb^-1, taking all existing bounds into account. We find that the LHC will start exploring virgin land in parameter space for M_Z' around 700 GeV, with lower masses still excluded by the Tevatron and higher masses still excluded by electroweak precision tests. Increasing the energy up to 10...

  7. Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Particle Swarm Optimization for detecting Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kora, Padmavathi; Kalva, Sri Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal cardiac beat identification is a key process in the detection of heart diseases. Our present study describes a procedure for the detection of left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) Electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns. The electrical impulses that control the cardiac beat face difficulty in moving inside the heart. This problem is termed as bundle branch block (BBB). BBB makes it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively through the heart circulatory system. ECG feature extraction is a key process in detecting heart ailments. Our present study comes up with a hybrid method combining two heuristic optimization methods: Bacterial Forging Optimization (BFO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the feature selection of ECG signals. One of the major controlling forces of BFO algorithm is the chemotactic movement of a bacterium that models a test solution. The chemotaxis process of the BFO depends on random search directions which may lead to a delay in achieving the global optimum solution. The hybrid technique: Bacterial Forging-Particle Swarm Optimization (BFPSO) incorporates the concepts from BFO and PSO and it creates individuals in a new generation. This BFPSO method performs local search through the chemotactic movement of BFO and the global search over the entire search domain is accomplished by a PSO operator. The BFPSO feature values are given as the input for the Levenberg-Marquardt Neural Network classifier.

  8. Confidence bounds and hypothesis tests for normal distribution coefficients of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; Richard A. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    For normally distributed populations, we obtain confidence bounds on a ratio of two coefficients of variation, provide a test for the equality of k coefficients of variation, and provide confidence bounds on a coefficient of variation shared by k populations.

  9. Branch and price for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabia, Said; Dabia, Said; Van Woensel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a branch-and-price algorithm for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with time windows (TDVRPTW). We capture road congestion by considering time-dependent travel times, i.e., depending on the departure time to a customer, a different travel time is incurred. We consider...... the variant of the TDVRPTW where the objective is to minimize total route duration and denote this variant the duration minimizing TDVRPTW (DM-TDVRPTW). Because of time dependency, vehicles' dispatch times at the depot are crucial as road congestion might be avoided. Because of its complexity, all known...... solution methods to the DM-TDVRPTW are based on (meta-)heuristics. The decomposition of an arc-based formulation leads to a setpartitioning problem as the master problem, and a time-dependent shortest path problem with resource constraints as the pricing problem. The master problem is solved by means...

  10. Parallel algorithms and cluster computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2007-01-01

    This book presents major advances in high performance computing as well as major advances due to high performance computing. It contains a collection of papers in which results achieved in the collaboration of scientists from computer science, mathematics, physics, and mechanical engineering are presented. From the science problems to the mathematical algorithms and on to the effective implementation of these algorithms on massively parallel and cluster computers we present state-of-the-art methods and technology as well as exemplary results in these fields. This book shows that problems which seem superficially distinct become intimately connected on a computational level.

  11. Quantum walks and search algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Portugal, Renato

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses an interesting area of quantum computation called quantum walks, which play an important role in building quantum algorithms, in particular search algorithms. Quantum walks are the quantum analogue of classical random walks. It is known that quantum computers have great power for searching unsorted databases. This power extends to many kinds of searches, particularly to the problem of finding a specific location in a spatial layout, which can be modeled by a graph. The goal is to find a specific node knowing that the particle uses the edges to jump from one node to the next. This book is self-contained with main topics that include: Grover's algorithm, describing its geometrical interpretation and evolution by means of the spectral decomposition of the evolution operater Analytical solutions of quantum walks on important graphs like line, cycles, two-dimensional lattices, and hypercubes using Fourier transforms Quantum walks on generic graphs, describing methods to calculate the limiting d...

  12. Deceptiveness and genetic algorithm dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepins, G.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Vose, M.D. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We address deceptiveness, one of at least four reasons genetic algorithms can fail to converge to function optima. We construct fully deceptive functions and other functions of intermediate deceptiveness. For the fully deceptive functions of our construction, we generate linear transformations that induce changes of representation to render the functions fully easy. We further model genetic algorithm selection recombination as the interleaving of linear and quadratic operators. Spectral analysis of the underlying matrices allows us to draw preliminary conclusions about fixed points and their stability. We also obtain an explicit formula relating the nonuniform Walsh transform to the dynamics of genetic search. 21 refs.

  13. The Development and Study of Surface Bound Ruthenium Organometallic Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Geoffrey Reuben

    The focus of this project has been on the use of mono-diimine ruthenium organometallic complexes, of the general structure [H(Ru)(CO)(L)2(L') 2][PF6] (L=PPh3, DPPENE and L'=Bpy, DcBpy, MBpyC, Phen, AminoPhen) bound to surfaces as luminescent probes. Both biological and inorganic/organic hybrid surfaces have been studied. The complexes were characterized both bound and unbound using standard analytical techniques such as NMR, IR and X-ray crystallography, as well as through several photophysical methods as well. Initially the study focused on how the photophyscial properties of the complexes were affected by incorporation into biological membranes. It was found that by conjugating the probes to a more rigid cholesterol moiety that luminescence was conserved, compared to conjugation with a far more flexible lipid moiety, where luminescence was either lost or reduced. Both the cholesterol and lipid conjugates were able to insert into a lipid membrane, and in the more rigid environment some of the lipid conjugates regained some of their luminescence, but often blue shifted and reduced, depending on the conjugation site. Silica Polyamine Composites (SPCs) were a hybrid material developed in the Rosenberg Lab as useful metal separation materials, that could be easily modified, and had several benefits over current commercially available polymers, or inorganic materials. These SPCs also provided an opportunity for the development of a heterogeneous platform for luminescent complexes as either catalysts or sensors. Upon binding of the luminescent Ru complexes to the surface no loss, or major change in luminescence was seen, however, when bound to the rigid surface a significant increase in excited state lifetime was measured. It is likely that through binding and interacting with the surface that the complexes lost non-radiative decay pathways, resulting in the increase in lifetime, however, these interactions do not seem to affect the energy level of the MLCT band in a

  14. Detection of Bundle Branch Block using Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavthi Kora

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The medical practitioners analyze the electrical activity of the human heart so as to predict various ailments by studying the data collected from the Electrocardiogram (ECG. A Bundle Branch Block (BBB is a type of heart disease which occurs when there is an obstruction along the pathway of an electrical impulse. This abnormality makes the heart beat irregular as there is an obstruction in the branches of heart, this results in pulses to travel slower than the usual. Our current study involved is to diagnose this heart problem using Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization (ABFO Algorithm. The Data collected from MIT/BIH arrhythmia BBB database applied to an ABFO Algorithm for obtaining best(important feature from each ECG beat. These features later fed to Levenberg Marquardt Neural Network (LMNN based classifier. The results show the proposed classification using ABFO is better than some recent algorithms reported in the literature.

  15. Hill climbing algorithms and trivium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to solve certain classes of systems of multivariate equations over the binary field and its cryptanalytical applications. We show how heuristic optimization methods such as hill climbing algorithms can be relevant to solving systems of multivariate equations....... A characteristic of equation systems that may be efficiently solvable by the means of such algorithms is provided. As an example, we investigate equation systems induced by the problem of recovering the internal state of the stream cipher Trivium. We propose an improved variant of the simulated annealing method...... that seems to be well-suited for this type of system and provide some experimental results....

  16. Groundwater availability in the Crouch Branch and McQueen Branch aquifers, Chesterfield County, South Carolina, 1900-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce G.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Chesterfield County is located in the northeastern part of South Carolina along the southern border of North Carolina and is primarily underlain by unconsolidated sediments of Late Cretaceous age and younger of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Approximately 20 percent of Chesterfield County is in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, and this area of the county is not included in this study. These Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments compose two productive aquifers: the Crouch Branch aquifer that is present at land surface across most of the county and the deeper, semi-confined McQueen Branch aquifer. Most of the potable water supplied to residents of Chesterfield County is produced from the Crouch Branch and McQueen Branch aquifers by a well field located near McBee, South Carolina, in the southwestern part of the county. Overall, groundwater availability is good to very good in most of Chesterfield County, especially the area around and to the south of McBee, South Carolina. The eastern part of Chesterfield County does not have as abundant groundwater resources but resources are generally adequate for domestic purposes. The primary purpose of this study was to determine groundwater-flow rates, flow directions, and changes in water budgets over time for the Crouch Branch and McQueen Branch aquifers in the Chesterfield County area. This goal was accomplished by using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference MODFLOW groundwater-flow code to construct and calibrate a groundwater-flow model of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Chesterfield County. The model was created with a uniform grid size of 300 by 300 feet to facilitate a more accurate simulation of groundwater-surface-water interactions. The model consists of 617 rows from north to south extending about 35 miles and 884 columns from west to east extending about 50 miles, yielding a total area of about 1,750 square miles. However, the active part of the modeled area, or the part where groundwater flow is simulated

  17. Branching innovation, recombinant innovation, and endogenous technological transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Izquierdo, L.; Zeppini, P.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of technological transitions based on two different types of innovations. Branching innovations refer to technological improvements along a particular path, while recombinant innovations represent fusions of multiple paths. Recombinant innovations create "short-cuts" which reduce

  18. A behavioral characterization of the positive real and bounded real characteristic values in balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, H.L.

    In passivity preserving and bounded realness preserving model reduction by balanced truncation, an important role is played by the so-called positive real (PR) and bounded real (BR) characteristic values. Both for the positive real as well as the bounded real case, these values are defined in terms

  19. New code upper bounds from the Terwilliger algebra and semidefinite programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schrijver (Alexander)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe give a new upper bound on the maximum size $A(n, d)$ of a binary code of word length $n$ and minimum distance at least $d$. It is based on block-diagonalising the Terwilliger algebra of the Hamming cube. The bound strengthens the Delsarte bound, and can be calculated with

  20. Using MOEA with Redistribution and Consensus Branches to Infer Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiaoping; Zhang, Mouzhao; Yuan, Sisi; Ge, Shengxiang; Liu, Xiangrong; Zeng, Xiangxiang; Xia, Ningshao

    2017-12-26

    In recent years, to infer phylogenies, which are NP-hard problems, more and more research has focused on using metaheuristics. Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood are two effective ways to conduct inference. Based on these methods, which can also be considered as the optimal criteria for phylogenies, various kinds of multi-objective metaheuristics have been used to reconstruct phylogenies. However, combining these two time-consuming methods results in those multi-objective metaheuristics being slower than a single objective. Therefore, we propose a novel, multi-objective optimization algorithm, MOEA-RC, to accelerate the processes of rebuilding phylogenies using structural information of elites in current populations. We compare MOEA-RC with two representative multi-objective algorithms, MOEA/D and NAGA-II, and a non-consensus version of MOEA-RC on three real-world datasets. The result is, within a given number of iterations, MOEA-RC achieves better solutions than the other algorithms.

  1. Using MOEA with Redistribution and Consensus Branches to Infer Phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Min

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, to infer phylogenies, which are NP-hard problems, more and more research has focused on using metaheuristics. Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood are two effective ways to conduct inference. Based on these methods, which can also be considered as the optimal criteria for phylogenies, various kinds of multi-objective metaheuristics have been used to reconstruct phylogenies. However, combining these two time-consuming methods results in those multi-objective metaheuristics being slower than a single objective. Therefore, we propose a novel, multi-objective optimization algorithm, MOEA-RC, to accelerate the processes of rebuilding phylogenies using structural information of elites in current populations. We compare MOEA-RC with two representative multi-objective algorithms, MOEA/D and NAGA-II, and a non-consensus version of MOEA-RC on three real-world datasets. The result is, within a given number of iterations, MOEA-RC achieves better solutions than the other algorithms.

  2. Universal bounds on charged states in 2d CFT and 3d gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, Nathan; Dyer, Ethan [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States); Fitzpatrick, A. Liam [Boston University Physics Department, Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215 (United States); Kachru, Shamit [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States)

    2016-08-04

    We derive an explicit bound on the dimension of the lightest charged state in two dimensional conformal field theories with a global abelian symmetry. We find that the bound scales with c and provide examples that parametrically saturate this bound. We also prove that any such theory must contain a state with charge-to-mass ratio above a minimal lower bound. We comment on the implications for charged states in three dimensional theories of gravity.

  3. Bounded Baire functions and the Henstock-Stieltjes integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantrawan, Made; Indrati, Ch. Rini

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we give a sufficient condition for bounded Baire functions to be integrable in the sense of the Henstock-Stieltjes integral. By considering the space of all bounded Baire class α functions (α theorem for two-norm continuous linear functionals defined on bℬα [a, b] in terms of the Henstock-Stieltjes integral.

  4. Algorithms as fetish: Faith and possibility in algorithmic work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are powerful because we invest in them the power to do things. With such promise, they can transform the ordinary, say snapshots along a robotic vacuum cleaner’s route, into something much more, such as a clean home. Echoing David Graeber’s revision of fetishism, we argue that this easy slip from technical capabilities to broader claims betrays not the “magic” of algorithms but rather the dynamics of their exchange. Fetishes are not indicators of false thinking, but social contracts in material form. They mediate emerging distributions of power often too nascent, too slippery or too disconcerting to directly acknowledge. Drawing primarily on 2016 ethnographic research with computer vision professionals, we show how faith in what algorithms can do shapes the social encounters and exchanges of their production. By analyzing algorithms through the lens of fetishism, we can see the social and economic investment in some people’s labor over others. We also see everyday opportunities for social creativity and change. We conclude that what is problematic about algorithms is not their fetishization but instead their stabilization into full-fledged gods and demons – the more deserving objects of critique.

  5. The Domain of Bound and Omission in Rhetorical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh jamali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  The goal of this study is aimed to review, criticism and to show the place of “bound and omission” as an one of the important principle of rhetorical technic. It is also one of the applicable eloquence method for analyzing texts. This subject refers to deep structures of words and covert layers of the speaker's minds and it is one of the firsts books of rhetorical works which is object of attention by eloquence followers. This technic has also been used by various poets, writers and theosophist for several times since now and it dedicated separate and detailed field to itself. Therefore “omission and bound” are the joint application between speaker and his addressee. The speaker for showing his personal ideas and addressee, including researcher or ordinary reader, for analyzing components of the work.

  6. Body posture recognition and turning recording system for the care of bed bound patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Rong-Shue; Mi, Zhenqiang; Yang, Bo-Ru; Kau, Lih-Jen; Bitew, Mekuanint Agegnehu; Li, Tzu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes body posture recognition and turning recording system for assisting the care of bed bound patients in nursing homes. The system continuously detects the patient's body posture and records the length of time for each body posture. If the patient remains in the same body posture long enough to develop pressure ulcers, the system notifies caregivers to change the patient's body posture. The objective of recording is to provide the log of body turning for querying of patients' family members. In order to accurately detect patient's body posture, we developed a novel pressure sensing pad which contains force sensing resistor sensors. Based on the proposed pressure sensing pad, we developed a bed posture recognition module which includes a bed posture recognition algorithm. The algorithm is based on fuzzy theory. The body posture recognition algorithm can detect the patient's bed posture whether it is right lateral decubitus, left lateral decubitus, or supine. The detected information of patient's body posture can be then transmitted to the server of healthcare center by the communication module to perform the functions of recording and notification. Experimental results showed that the average posture recognition accuracy for our proposed module is 92%.

  7. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  8. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. Adaptive protection algorithm and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA

    2009-04-28

    An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

  10. Synthesis and application of new polymer bound catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterly, Brandon Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Nitric acid has been shown to be a weak acid in acetonitrile. It is conceivable that a nitrate salt of a weakly Lewis acidic cation could furnish a ''naked'' nitrate anion as a basic catalyst in a variety of reactions in non-aqueous solvents. Such a nitrate salt could also be bound to a polymeric support via the cation, thereby allowing for reclamation and recycling of the nitrate ion. This subject is dealt with in Chapter 2, wherein my contributions consisted of performing all the reactions with the polymer supported catalyst and carrying out the experiments necessary to shed light on the reaction mechanisms. Chapter 3 contains a description of the structure and catalytic properties of an azidoproazaphosphatrane. This compound is an air-stable versatile catalyst that has proven useful not only homogeneously, but also when bound to a solid support. The synthesis of a polymer bound proazaphosphatrane containing a trivalent phosphorus is presented in Chapter 4. Such a compound has been sought after by our group for a number of years. Not only does the synthesis I have accomplished for it allow for easier separation of proazaphosphatrane catalysts from reaction mixtures, but recycling of the base is made much simpler. Proazaphosphatranes are useful homogeneous catalysts that activate atoms in other reagents, thus enhancing their reactivity. The next chapters deal with two such reactions with aldehydes and ketones, namely silylcyanations with trialkylsilylcyanides (Chapters 5 and 6) and reductions with poly(methylhydrosiloxane), in Chapter 7. In Chapter 5, Zhigang Wang performed the initial optimization and scoping of the reaction, while repetitions of the scoping experiments for reproducibility, determination of diastereomeric ratios, and experiments aimed at elucidating aspects of the mechanism were performed by me. The proazaphosphatrane coordinates to the silicon atom in both cases, thereby allowing the aforementioned reactions to proceed under

  11. Entropy bound of horizons for charged and rotating black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei, E-mail: xuweifuture@gmail.com [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Jia, E-mail: wangjia2010@mail.nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Meng, Xin-he, E-mail: xhm@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Institute of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-06-30

    We revisit the entropy product, entropy sum and other thermodynamic relations of charged and rotating black holes. Based on these relations, we derive the entropy (area) bound for both event horizon and Cauchy horizon. We establish these results for variant class of 4-dimensional charged and rotating black holes in Einstein(–Maxwell) gravity and higher derivative gravity. We also generalize the discussion to black holes with NUT charge. The validity of this formula, which seems to be universal for black holes with two horizons, gives further clue on the crucial role that the thermodynamic relations of multi-horizons play in black hole thermodynamics and understanding the entropy at the microscopic level.

  12. Interactions between macromolecule-bound antioxidants and Trolox during liposome autoxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Ecem Evrim; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Andersen, Mogens Larsen

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between free and macromolecule-bound antioxidants were investigated in order to evaluate their combined effects on the antioxidant environment. Dietary fiber (DF), protein and lipid-bound antioxidants, obtained from whole wheat, soybean and olive oil products, respectively...... of the simple addition effects of Trolox and bound antioxidants with measured values on lipid oxidation revealed synergetic interactions for DF and refined olive oil-bound antioxidants, and antagonistic interactions for protein and extra virgin olive oil-bound antioxidants with Trolox. A generalized version...

  13. Foreign Banks: Internal Control and Audit Weaknesses in U.S. Branches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... Weaknesses in the branch's internal controls, including inadequate segregation of duties in trading and electronic funds transfer activities, had enabled an employee to trade illegally and to hide...

  14. Algorithms and Public Service Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Hutchinson, Jonathon

    2018-01-01

    When Public Service Media (PSM) organisations introduce algorithmic recommender systems to suggest media content to users, fundamental values of PSM are challenged. Beyond being confronted with ubiquitous computer ethics problems of causality and transparency, also the identity of PSM as curator...

  15. Recurrent extensive anterior myocardial infarction with left and right bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hexi; Chang, Qinghua; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Renguang

    2017-10-15

    The diagnosis of myocardial infarction with left bundle branch block is difficult. We report a case of 56-year-old man with old extensive anterior myocardial infarction and left bundle branch block (masked each other). The recurrent myocardial infarction indicated right bundle branch block and first-degree atrioventricular block, making a clear diagnosis of complicated and interesting ECG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Measurement of CP Asymmetries and Branching Fractions in B -> pi pi and B -> K pi decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Hart, A J; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Y; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H; al, et

    2006-01-01

    We present preliminary measurements of the CP asymmetries and branching fractions for B -> pi pi and B -> K pi decays. A total of 347 million BBbar events collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider at SLAC are used for these results. We find Spipi = -0.53 +- 0.14 +- 0.02, Cpipi = -0.16 +- 0.11 +- 0.03, AKpi = -0.108 +- 0.024 +- 0.008, BF(B0 -> pi0 pi0) = (1.48 +- 0.26 +- 0.12) x 10^-6, BF(B+ -> pi+pi0) = (5.12 +- 0.47 +- 0.29) x 10^-6, BF(B+ -> K+pi0) = (13.3 +- 0.56 +- 0.64) x 10^-6, Cpi0pi0 = -0.33 +- 0.36 +- 0.08, Apipi0 = -0.019 +- 0.088 +- 0.014, AKpi0 = 0.016 +- 0.041 +- 0.012. The measured values of Spipi and Cpipi imply that CP conservation in B0 -> pi+ pi- decays is excluded at the 3.6 sigma level. From these results we present bounds on the CKM angle alpha.

  17. N2(+) bound quartet and sextet state potential energy curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, H.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Stallcop, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The N2(+) potential energies have been determined from a complete active space self-consistent field calculation with active 2s and 2p electrons. A (6s 4p 3d 1f) Gaussian basis set was used together with additional higher angular momentum and diffuse functions. The calculated potential energy curves for the states 4Sigma(mu)(+), 4Pi(g), and 6Sigma(g)(+), for which there are no spectroscopic observations, are presented. The corresponding spectroscopic constants have been determined from a polynomial curve fit to the computed energies near the well minima and are shown. The 6Sigma(g)(+) state is found to be significantly bound, with a minimum at 1.72 A.

  18. Probability and algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1992-01-01

    ... on Mathematical Sciences Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1992 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created cannot be files XML f...

  19. Third annual Walker Branch Watershed research symposium. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales that is being integrated through large-scale experiments along with computer modeling and graphical interfaces. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. Regional and global issues addressed by presentations include emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons; deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and mercury; land-use changes; biological diversity; droughts; and water quality. The reports presented in this symposium illustrate a wide range of methods and approaches and focus more on concepts and techniques than on a specific physical site. Sites and projects that have contributed research results to this symposium include Walker Branch Watershed (DOE), the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and LTER site (USFS and NSF), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (research funded by NPS, TVA, and EPRI), Imnavait Creek, Alaska (DOE), the TVA-Norris Whole-tree Facility (TVA and EPRI), and DOE`s Biomass Program.

  20. Long-distance signaling and the control of branching in the rms1 mutant of pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, E; Turnbull, C G; Beveridge, C A

    2001-05-01

    The ramosus (rms) mutation (rms1) of pea (Pisum sativum) causes increased branching through modification of graft-transmissible signal(s) produced in rootstock and shoot. Additional grafting techniques have led us to propose that the novel signal regulated by Rms1 moves acropetally in shoots and acts as a branching inhibitor. Epicotyl interstock grafts showed that wild-type (WT) epicotyls grafted between rms1 scions and rootstocks can revert mutant scions to a WT non-branching phenotype. Mutant scions grafted together with mutant and WT rootstocks did not branch despite a contiguous mutant root-shoot system. The primary action of Rms1 is, therefore, unlikely to be to block transport of a branching stimulus from root to shoot. Rather, Rms1 may influence a long-distance signal that functions, directly or indirectly, as a branching inhibitor. It can be deduced that this signal moves acropetally in shoots because WT rootstocks inhibit branching in rms1 shoots, and although WT scions do not branch when grafted to mutant rootstocks, they do not inhibit branching in rms1 cotyledonary shoots growing from the same rootstocks. The acropetal direction of transport of the Rms1 signal supports previous evidence that the rms1 lesion is not in an auxin biosynthesis or transport pathway. The different branching phenotypes of WT and rms1 shoots growing from the same rms1 rootstock provides further evidence that the shoot has a major role in the regulation of branching and, moreover, that root-exported cytokinin is not the only graft-transmissible signal regulating branching in intact pea plants.

  1. Black-hole bombs and photon-mass bounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro

    2012-09-28

    Generic extensions of the standard model predict the existence of ultralight bosonic degrees of freedom. Several ongoing experiments are aimed at detecting these particles or constraining their mass range. Here we show that massive vector fields around rotating black holes can give rise to a strong superradiant instability, which extracts angular momentum from the hole. The observation of supermassive spinning black holes imposes limits on this mechanism. We show that current supermassive black-hole spin estimates provide the tightest upper limits on the mass of the photon (m(v) is black holes could further lower this bound to m(v) black holes in the slow-rotation regime, that we developed up to second order in rotation, and that can be extended to other spacetime metrics and other theories.

  2. Information-Theoretic Bounds and Approximations in Neural Population Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Zhang, Kechen

    2018-01-17

    While Shannon's mutual information has widespread applications in many disciplines, for practical applications it is often difficult to calculate its value accurately for high-dimensional variables because of the curse of dimensionality. This article focuses on effective approximation methods for evaluating mutual information in the context of neural population coding. For large but finite neural populations, we derive several information-theoretic asymptotic bounds and approximation formulas that remain valid in high-dimensional spaces. We prove that optimizing the population density distribution based on these approximation formulas is a convex optimization problem that allows efficient numerical solutions. Numerical simulation results confirmed that our asymptotic formulas were highly accurate for approximating mutual information for large neural populations. In special cases, the approximation formulas are exactly equal to the true mutual information. We also discuss techniques of variable transformation and dimensionality reduction to facilitate computation of the approximations.

  3. Helical liquids and Majorana bound states in quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreg, Yuval; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2010-10-22

    We show that the combination of spin-orbit coupling with a Zeeman field or strong interactions may lead to the formation of a helical electron liquid in single-channel quantum wires, with spin and velocity perfectly correlated. We argue that zero-energy Majorana bound states are formed in various situations when such wires are situated in proximity to a conventional s-wave superconductor. This occurs when the external magnetic field, the superconducting gap, or, most simply, the chemical potential vary along the wire. These Majorana states do not require the presence of a vortex in the system. Experimental consequences of the helical liquid and the Majorana states are also discussed.

  4. Variant Anatomy of the Nasal and Labial Branches of the Infraorbital Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nderitu, Joseph Munyiri; Butt, Fawzia; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the variations in the branches of the infraorbital nerve (ION) is vital to the prevention of iatrogenic nerve injury and successful ION blockade during orbitozygomatic facial procedures. Only a few studies exist on the variant anatomy of the branching patterns of this nerve. This article provides a detailed description of the variations of the nasal and superior labial branches of the ION. This study was performed on 84 IONs by dissecting 42 formalin-fixed cadavers from the Laboratory of Topographic Anatomy, Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The branches were exposed at their origin and followed to their termination. The findings included variant emergence patterns, anomalous course, and absence as well as extra branches. It was noted that the external nasal nerve was absent in 34.53% cases. There were common trunks between the internal and external nasal nerves and cases of communication between branches of these nerves were also noted. Accessory superior labial nerves were present in 9.52% of the nerves. This detailed study reveals additional variations in the emergence and branching pattern of the ION. Caution is imperative during orbitozygomatic facial surgery to prevent injury to these branches. These variations also underlie the lack of response to surgical treatment for trigeminal neuralgia and also the need for a filtration to achieve full anesthesia after ION block. In addition, the extra branches identified raise the prospects of using these nerves for grafting purposes if their precise patterns are determined.

  5. A branch and cut approach to the multiproduct pipeline scheduling problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito Marques de; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pipelines are known as the most reliable and economical mode of transportation for petroleum and its derivatives, especially when large amounts of products have to be pumped for large distances. We address the short-term schedule of a pipeline system comprising the distribution of several petroleum derivatives from a single oil refinery to several depots, connected to local consumer markets, through a single multi-product pipeline. The major difficulties faced in these operations are related to the satisfaction of product demands by the various consumer markets, and operational constraints such as the maximum sizes of contiguous pumping packs, and the immiscible products. Several researchers have developed models and techniques for this short-term pipeline scheduling problem. Two different methodologies have been proposed in the literature: heuristic search techniques and exact methods. In this paper, we use a branch-and cut algorithm, performed in Xpress-MP{sup T}M, and compare the solutions obtained with that ones obtained before using the Variable Neighborhood Search metaheuristic. The computational results showed a significant improvement of performance in relation to previous algorithm. (author)

  6. Entanglement asymmetry for boosted black branes and the bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rohit; Singh, Harvendra

    2017-06-01

    We study the effects of asymmetry in the entanglement thermodynamics of CFT subsystems. It is found that “boosted” Dp-brane backgrounds give rise to the first law of the entanglement thermodynamics where the CFT pressure asymmetry plays a decisive role in the entanglement. Two different strip like subsystems, one parallel to the boost and the other perpendicular, are studied in the perturbative regime Tthermal ≪ TE. We mainly seek to quantify this entanglement asymmetry as a ratio of the first-order entanglement entropies of the excitations. We discuss the AdS-wave backgrounds at zero temperature having maximum asymmetry from where a bound on entanglement asymmetry is obtained. The entanglement asymmetry reduces as we switch on finite temperature in the CFT while it is maximum at zero temperature.

  7. Volume of a vortex and the Bradlow bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, C.; Speight, J. M.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the geometric volume of a soliton coincides with the thermodynamical volume also for field theories with higher-dimensional vacuum manifolds (e.g., for gauged scalar field theories supporting vortices or monopoles), generalizing the recent results of Ref. [C. Adam, M. Haberichter, and A. Wereszczynski, Phys. Lett. B 754, 18 (2016)., 10.1016/j.physletb.2016.01.009]. We apply this observation to understand Bradlow-type bounds for general Abelian gauge theories supporting vortices, as well as some thermodynamical aspects of said theories. In the case of SDiff Bogomolny-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) models (being examples of perfect fluid models) we show that the base-space independent geometric volume (area) of the vortex is exactly equal to the Bradlow volume (a minimal volume for which BPS soliton solutions exist). This volume can be finite for compactons or infinite for infinitely extended solitons (in flat Minkowski space-time).

  8. Fast search algorithms for computational protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Seydou; Roberts, Kyle E; Allouche, David; Donald, Bruce R; André, Isabelle; Schiex, Thomas; Barbe, Sophie

    2016-05-05

    One of the main challenges in computational protein design (CPD) is the huge size of the protein sequence and conformational space that has to be computationally explored. Recently, we showed that state-of-the-art combinatorial optimization technologies based on Cost Function Network (CFN) processing allow speeding up provable rigid backbone protein design methods by several orders of magnitudes. Building up on this, we improved and injected CFN technology into the well-established CPD package Osprey to allow all Osprey CPD algorithms to benefit from associated speedups. Because Osprey fundamentally relies on the ability of A* to produce conformations in increasing order of energy, we defined new A* strategies combining CFN lower bounds, with new side-chain positioning-based branching scheme. Beyond the speedups obtained in the new A*-CFN combination, this novel branching scheme enables a much faster enumeration of suboptimal sequences, far beyond what is reachable without it. Together with the immediate and important speedups provided by CFN technology, these developments directly benefit to all the algorithms that previously relied on the DEE/ A* combination inside Osprey* and make it possible to solve larger CPD problems with provable algorithms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Interactive video algorithms and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hammoud, Riad

    2006-01-01

    This book covers both algorithms and technologies of interactive videos, so that businesses in IT and data managements, scientists and software engineers in video processing and computer vision, coaches and instructors that use video technology in teaching, and finally end-users will greatly benefit from it. This book contains excellent scientific contributions made by a number of pioneering scientists and experts from around the globe. It consists of five parts. The first part introduces the reader to interactive video and video summarization and presents effective methodologies for automatic abstraction of a single video sequence, a set of video sequences, and a combined audio-video sequence. In the second part, a list of advanced algorithms and methodologies for automatic and semi-automatic analysis and editing of audio-video documents are presented. The third part tackles a more challenging level of automatic video re-structuring, filtering of video stream by extracting of highlights, events, and meaningf...

  10. Identification and distribution of intact polar branched tetraether lipids in peat and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterse, F.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) are membrane lipids of soil bacteria that occur ubiquitously in soil, but their occurrence as intact polar lipids (IPLs) has not been well studied. Here, we report the identification and distribution of IPL-branched GDGTs throughout a

  11. A posteriori estimation of the error in the finite element solution by computation of the guaranteed upper and lower bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaraj, Srihari Kumar

    This dissertation addresses reliable finite element analysis of boundary value problems in engineering computations, where the solution quantities which are of interest to the engineer will be computed together with an estimate of their error. The solution quantities often computed during design and certification phases are the temperature/displacement, flux/stress in a region, flux/stress intensity factor at the crack tip or corner, reaction at a fixed end, etc. The existing finite element analysis software concentrate primarily on obtaining a solution rapidly and do not guarantee the accuracy of these solution quantities. Recent developments in error-estimation and adaptive mesh refinement strategies have led to new algorithms to compute solution quantities of interest within the prescribed tolerance. The drawback of these algorithms is that the quality of the estimate of the error in the solution quantities is not guaranteed, i.e., the estimated error could be greater or smaller than the exact error. Therefore, we have developed a new method of estimation of the error in the quantities of interest---computation of guaranteed upper and lower bounds for the errors in the quantities of interest. The guaranteed upper and lower bounds for the errors in the quantities of interest are based on the capability to compute bounds for the energy norm of the error. The tools for computation of bounds for the energy norm of the error are the solutions of the local residual problems, which are often implemented in finite element programs which have a posteriori error estimation capabilities. The main features of the upper and lower bounds given in this dissertation are: (1) The upper and lower bounds are guaranteed for the exact error in the quantities of interest, unlike the bounds proposed in recent literature which are guaranteed only for the energy norm of the error with respect to an enriched (truth-mesh) finite element solution; (2) The sharpness of the bounds can be

  12. Graphics and visualization principles & algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Theoharis, T; Platis, Nikolaos; Patrikalakis, Nicholas M

    2008-01-01

    Computer and engineering collections strong in applied graphics and analysis of visual data via computer will find Graphics & Visualization: Principles and Algorithms makes an excellent classroom text as well as supplemental reading. It integrates coverage of computer graphics and other visualization topics, from shadow geneeration and particle tracing to spatial subdivision and vector data visualization, and it provides a thorough review of literature from multiple experts, making for a comprehensive review essential to any advanced computer study.-California Bookw

  13. Statistical mechanics algorithms and computations

    CERN Document Server

    Krauth, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the computational approach in modern statistical physics in a clear and accessible way and demonstrates its close relation to other approaches in theoretical physics. Individual chapters focus on subjects as diverse as the hard sphere liquid, classical spin models, single quantum particles and Bose-Einstein condensation. Contained within the chapters are in-depth discussions of algorithms, ranging from basic enumeration methods to modern Monte Carlo techniques. The emphasis is on orientation, with discussion of implementation details kept to a minimum. Illustrations, tables and concise printed algorithms convey key information, making the material very accessible. The book is completely self-contained and graphs and tables can readily be reproduced, requiring minimal computer code. Most sections begin at an elementary level and lead on to the rich and difficult problems of contemporary computational and statistical physics. The book will be of interest to a wide range of students, teachers...

  14. Branched integumental structures in Sinornithosaurus and the origin of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Zhou, Z; Prum, R O

    2001-03-08

    The evolutionary origin of feathers has long been obscured because no morphological antecedents were known to the earliest, structurally modern feathers of Archaeopteryx. It has been proposed that the filamentous integumental appendages on several theropod dinosaurs are primitive feathers; but the homology between these filamentous structures and feathers has been disputed, and two taxa with true feathers (Caudipteryx and Protarchaeopteryx) have been proposed to be flightless birds. Confirmation of the theropod origin of feathers requires documentation of unambiguously feather-like structures in a clearly non-avian theropod. Here we describe our observations of the filamentous integumental appendages of the basal dromaeosaurid dinosaur Sinornithosaurus millenii, which indicate that they are compound structures composed of multiple filaments. Furthermore, these appendages exhibit two types of branching structure that are unique to avian feathers: filaments joined in a basal tuft, and filaments joined at their bases in series along a central filament. Combined with the independent phylogenetic evidence supporting the theropod ancestry of birds, these observations strongly corroborate the hypothesis that the integumental appendages of Sinornithosaurus are homologous with avian feathers. The plesiomorphic feathers of Sinornithosaurus also conform to the predictions of an independent, developmental model of the evolutionary origin of feathers.

  15. Branched Polymer Models and the Mechanism of Multilayer Film Buildup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waduge, Pradeep; Khadka, Dhan; Haynie, Donald

    2012-02-01

    The ``in and out diffusion'' hypothesis does not provide a sufficient explanation of the exponential buildup displayed by some polyelectrolyte multilayer film systems. Here, we report initial tests of an alternative view, on which the completion of each adsorption cycle results in an increase in the number of polymer binding sites on the film surface. Polycationic dendrimeric peptides, which can potentially bind several oppositely-charged peptides each, have been designed, synthesized and utilized in comparative film buildup experiments. Material deposited, internal film structure and film surface morphology have been studied by ultraviolet spectroscopy (UVS), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Polycations tended to contribute more to film buildup than did polyanions on quartz but not on gold. Increasing the number of branches in the dendrimeric peptides from 4 to 8 reproducibly resulted in an increase in the film growth rate on quartz but not on gold. Peptide backbones tended to adopt a β-strand conformation on incorporation into a film. Thicker films had a greater surface roughness than thin films. The data are consistent with film buildup models in which the average number of polymer binding sites will increase with each successive adsorption cycle in the range where exponential growth is displayed.

  16. Clique Relaxations in Biological and Social Network Analysis Foundations and Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Optimization and Discrete Mathematics Mathematics , Information and Life Sciences Air...Balasundaram. A branch-and-bound approach for maxi- mum quasi-cliques. Annals of Operations Research 216 (2014), 145–161. [11] S. Shahinpour and S. Butenko...Goldengorin, V. A. Kalyagin, and P. M. Pardalos. Vol. 59. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. New York: Spinger Science + Business Media

  17. A convex programming framework for optimal and bounded suboptimal well field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Thordarson, Fannar Ørn; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2012-01-01

    are often convex, hence global optimality can be attained by a wealth of algorithms. Among these, the Interior Point methods are extensively employed for practical applications, as they are capable of efficiently solving large-scale problems. Despite this, management models explicitly embedding both systems...... without simplifications are rare, and they usually involve heuristic techniques. The main limitation with heuristics is that neither optimality nor suboptimality bounds can be guarantee. This paper extends the proof of convexity to mixed management models, enabling the use of Interior Point techniques...... to compute globally optimal management solutions. If convexity is not achieved, it is shown how suboptimal solutions can be computed, and how to bind their deviation from the optimality. Experimental results obtained by testing the methodology in a well field located nearby Copenhagen (DK), show...

  18. Estimating the Probabilities of Low-Weight Differential and Linear Approximations on PRESENT-like Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    We use large but sparse correlation and transition-difference-probability submatrices to find the best linear and differential approximations respectively on PRESENT-like ciphers. This outperforms the branch and bound algorithm when the number of low-weight differential and linear characteristics...

  19. Integrability and the conformal field theory of the Higgs branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sax, Olof Ohlsson [Theoretical Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sfondrini, Alessandro [Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, IRIS Gebäude,Zum Grossen Windkanal 6, Berlin, 12489 (Germany); Bogdan, Stefański Jr. [Centre for Mathematical Science, City University London,Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-16

    In the context of the AdS{sub 3}/CFT{sub 2} correspondence, we investigate the Higgs branch CFT{sub 2}. Witten showed that states localised near the small instanton singularity can be described in terms of vector multiplet variables. This theory has a planar, weak-coupling limit, in which anomalous dimensions of single-trace composite operators can be calculated. At one loop, the calculation reduces to finding the spectrum of a spin-chain with nearest-neighbour interactions. This CFT{sub 2} spin-chain matches precisely the one that was previously found as the weak-coupling limit of the integrable system describing the AdS{sub 3} side of the duality. We compute the one-loop dilatation operator in a non-trivial compact subsector and show that it corresponds to an integrable spin-chain Hamiltonian. This provides the first direct evidence of integrability on the CFT{sub 2} side of the correspondence.

  20. A baseline algorithm for face detection and tracking in video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Vasant; Soundararajan, Padmanabhan; Korzhova, Valentina; Boonstra, Matthew; Goldgof, Dmitry; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-10-01

    Establishing benchmark datasets, performance metrics and baseline algorithms have considerable research significance in gauging the progress in any application domain. These primarily allow both users and developers to compare the performance of various algorithms on a common platform. In our earlier works, we focused on developing performance metrics and establishing a substantial dataset with ground truth for object detection and tracking tasks (text and face) in two video domains -- broadcast news and meetings. In this paper, we present the results of a face detection and tracking algorithm on broadcast news videos with the objective of establishing a baseline performance for this task-domain pair. The detection algorithm uses a statistical approach that was originally developed by Viola and Jones and later extended by Lienhart. The algorithm uses a feature set that is Haar-like and a cascade of boosted decision tree classifiers as a statistical model. In this work, we used the Intel Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) implementation of the Haar face detection algorithm. The optimal values for the tunable parameters of this implementation were found through an experimental design strategy commonly used in statistical analyses of industrial processes. Tracking was accomplished as continuous detection with the detected objects in two frames mapped using a greedy algorithm based on the distances between the centroids of bounding boxes. Results on the evaluation set containing 50 sequences (~ 2.5 mins.) using the developed performance metrics show good performance of the algorithm reflecting the state-of-the-art which makes it an appropriate choice as the baseline algorithm for the problem.