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Sample records for bran oil structured

  1. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  2. Development of rice bran oil blends for quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Monika; Grover, Kiran; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2015-04-15

    Six rice bran oil (RBO) blends were prepared in two ratios i.e., 80:20 and 70:30 and analysed for physicochemical properties, and antioxidants and fatty acid composition. Among all the RBO blends, rice bran oil+groundnut oil (70:30) had the highest smoke point (204 °C) and rice bran oil+olive oil (70:30) was the most stable blend in terms of chemical parameters. The highest value of total antioxidants was observed in rice bran oil+sunflower oil (70:30) (2568.7 mg/kg). Fatty acid composition (SFA:MUFA:PUFA) (1:1.5:2) of rice bran oil+palm oil (80:20), and products prepared using this RBO blend, were close to the recommended intake. Boiling with sautéing was a better cooking method in terms of maintaining fatty acid ratios.

  3. Antioxidant properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is relatively rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds thought to co...

  4. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra, R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO: sunflower oil (SnF and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil.

    Se analizaron diversos parámetros físico-químicos para la evaluación de mezclas de aceites en diferentes proporciones que incluyen: aceite de salvado de arroz físícamente refinado (PRBO: aceite de girasol (SNF y las mezclas PRBO: aceite de cártamo (SAF en diferentes proporciones. La cuantificación de la presencia del aceite de salvado de arroz en las mezclas se llevó a cabo por diferentes métodos, como cromatografía de gases (GC, cromatografía líquida (HPLC, ultrasonidos y métodos basados en otros parámetros f

  5. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil.

  6. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Rice Bran Oil -the Technology, Manufacture, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookwong, Phumon; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya

    2017-06-01

    Rice bran is a good source of nutrients that have large amounts of phytochemicals and antioxidants. Conventional rice bran oil production requires many processes that may deteriorate and degrade these valuable substances. Supercritical CO2 extraction is a green alternative method for producing rice bran oil. This work reviews production of rice bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. In addition, the usefulness and advantages of SC-CO2 extracted rice bran oil for edible oil and health purpose is also described.

  7. Antioxidant and sensory properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds that confer health benef...

  8. Potential of wheat bran to promote indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yali; Wang, Qinghong; Chen, Chunmao; Kim, Jung Bong; Zhang, Hongdan; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X

    2017-06-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an emerging oil extraction technology that utilizes microorganisms to facilitate recovery of crude oil in depleted petroleum reservoirs. In the present study, effects of wheat bran utilization were investigated on stimulation of indigenous MEOR. Biostimulation conditions were optimized with the response surface methodology. The co-application of wheat bran with KNO3 and NH4H2PO4 significantly promoted indigenous MEOR (IMEOR) and exhibited sequential aerobic (O-), facultative (An-) and anaerobic (A0-) metabolic stages. The surface tension of fermented broth decreased by approximately 35%, and the crude oil was highly emulsified. Microbial community structure varied largely among and in different IMEOR metabolic stages. Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., and uncultured Burkholderia sp. dominated the O-, An- and early A0-stages. Bacillus sp., Achromobacter sp., Rhizobiales sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Clostridium sp. dominated the later A0-stage. This study illustrated occurrences of microbial community succession driven by wheat bran stimulation and its industrial potential.

  9. Biodiesel production from rice bran oil and supercritical methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Novy Srihartati; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Gunawan, Setiyo; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2009-04-01

    In this study, production of biodiesel from low cost raw materials, such as rice bran and dewaxed-degummed rice bran oil (DDRBO), under supercritical condition was carried out. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was employed as co-solvent to decrease the supercritical temperature and pressure of methanol. The effects of different raw materials on the yield of biodiesel production were investigated. In situ transesterification of rice bran with supercritical methanol at 30MPa and 300 degrees C for 5 min was not a promising way to produce biodiesel because the purity and yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained were 52.52% and 51.28%, respectively. When DDRBO was reacted, the purity and yield were 89.25% and 94.84%, respectively. Trans-FAMEs, which constituted about 16% of biodiesel, were found. They were identified as methyl elaidate [trans-9], methyl linoleaidate [trans-9, trans-12], methyl linoleaidate [cis-9, trans-12], and methyl linoleaidate [trans-9, cis-12]. Hydrocarbons, which constituted about 3% of the reaction product, were also detected.

  10. Characteristics of esterified rice bran oil converted by enzymatic esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Roh, Myong-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Uk; Cheon, Eun Jin; Moon, Woi-Sook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, esterified rice bran oil (ERBO) was characterized using enzymatic esterification to improve stability, prevent acidification, enhance health-promoting biological activity and generate ω-3 PUFA-rich rice bran oil (RBO). Esterification reactions using RBO and ethanol were performed at 50°C under 200 bar with 3% lipozyme TL-IM (Thermomuces lanuginosa immobilized on silica gel) or RM-IM (Rhizomucor miehei immobilized on ion exchange resin) for 3 hr under supercritical CO2. The molar ratios of ethanol to RBO were 3, 6, 9 and 12, respectively. Total lipid contents and acid values decreased (maximum 83.75%),but γ-oryzanol content increased (maximum 41.33%) in esterified RBO (ERBO) prepared using TL-IM or RM-IM. In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activity of ERBO prepared by RM-IM atan ethanol to RBO molar ratio of 3 was 0.02 µg µl(-1), which was 63-fold higher than that of α-tocopherol (IC50 =1.25 µg µl(-1)). The anti-inflammatory effect of RM-IM 1:3 hydrolysate of RBO was verified showing its suppressive effect towards iNOS and Cox-2mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, ERBO is a promising source of functional food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  11. Hydrolysis of rice bran oil using an immobilized lipase from Candida rugosa in isooctane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, V Ramachandra; Bhat, Jayadev; Muniswaran, P K A

    2004-04-01

    The kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran oil in isooctane by immobilized Candida rugosa lipase in a batch reactor showed competitive inhibition by isooctane with a dissociation constant, K1, of 0.92 M. Continuous hydrolysis of rice bran oil was performed in recycling, packed bed reactor with 4352 U of immobilized lipase; the optimum recycle ratio was 9 and the operational half-life was 360 h without isooctane but 288 h with 25% (v/v) isooctane in rice bran oil.

  12. An alkali catalyzed trans-esterification of rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Faheem H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, biodiesel production by trans-esterification of three raw materials including virgin and used edible oil and non edible oil has been presented. A two step method following acidic and alkali catalyst was used for non edible oil due to the unsuitability of using the straight alkaline-catalyzed trans-esterification of high FFA present in rice bran oil. The acid value after processing for rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil was found to be 0.95, 0.12 and 0.87 respectively. The influence of three variables on percentage yield i.e., methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied at this stage. Cottonseed oil, waste cooking oil and rice bran oil showed a maximum yield of 91.7%, 84.1% and 87.1% under optimum conditions. Fuel properties of the three biodiesel satisfied standard biodiesel fuel results.

  13. Effect of frying conditions on the physico-chemical properties of rice bran oil and its blended oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, H K

    2014-06-01

    The changes occurring in rice bran oil and its blend with sunflower oil during repeated frying cycles of dried and moist potato chips were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Colour, Refractive Index, SpecificGravity, Oryzanol Value, Free fatty acid, Iodine Value, Peroxide value, anisidine value, Saponification Value, trans fats and fatty acid composition. No significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the refractive index and specific gravity of rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blend. The colour of blended oil was lesser than RBO and the intensity of color increased after each frying cycle during the deep fat frying of moistened and dried potato chips. The oryzanol content and iodine value decreased with the frying cycles. The decrease in oryzanol value during the frying operation was more prominent in rice bran oil as compared to the blended oils. The increase in p-anisidine value was more in rice bran oil as compared to blended oil. No significant changes (Poil and blended oils samples. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually during repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the oils. The trans fat increased with repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran and blended oils, when used to fry moistened and dried potato chips. Both the oil samples showed greater formation of trans fatty acids when the moistened potato chips were used during frying.

  14. Parametric optimization of rice bran oil extraction using response surface methodology

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    Ahmad Syed W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of bran oil in various edible and nonedible industries is very common. In this research work, efficient and optimized methodology for the recovery of rice bran oil has been investigated. The present statistical study includes parametric optimization, based on experimental results of rice bran oil extraction. In this study, three solvents, acetone, ethanol and solvent mixture (SM [acetone: ethanol (1:1 v/v] were employed in extraction investigations. Response surface methodology (RSM, an optimization technique, was exploited for this purpose. A five level central composite design (CCD consisting four operating parameter, like temperature, stirring rate, solvent-bran ratio and contact time were examined to optimize rice bran oil extraction. Experimental results showed that oil recovery can be enhanced from 71% to 82% when temperature, solvent-bran ratio, stirring rate and contact time were kept at 55°C, 6:1, 180 rpm and 45 minutes, respectively while fixing the pH of the mixture at 7.1.

  15. Biobutanol production from rice bran and de-oiled rice bran by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2012-06-01

    Rice bran (RB) and de-oiled rice bran (DRB) have been treated and used as the carbon source in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. The results showed that pretreated DRB produced more ABE than pretreated RB. Dilute sulfuric acid was the most suitable treatment method among the various pretreatment methods that were applied. The highest ABE obtained was 12.13 g/L, including 7.72 g/L of biobutanol, from sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysate of DRB (ESADRB), when treated with XAD-4 resin, resulted in an ABE productivity and yield of 0.1 g/L h and 0.44 g/g, respectively. The results also showed that the choice of pretreatment method for RB and DRB is an important factor in butanol production.

  16. The effect of oil pulling with rice bran oil, sesame oil, and chlorhexidine mouth rinsing on halitosis among pregnant women: A comparative interventional study

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    Faisal S Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Rice bran oil when used in oil pulling was effective in reducing halitosis. It performed comparably and marginally superior to other agents tested in the study when change in halitosis postintervention was considered.

  17. Oil Extraction from “Morelos Rice” Bran: Kinetics and Raw Oil Stability

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    J. Zúñiga-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Morelos rice” is a variety of rice with certificate of denomination of origin. It is a large grain of opaque appearance and extra large size that is grown exclusively in Morelos state (Mexico. Thus, the quality and characteristics of its rice bran may affect the kinetic of the extraction process of its oil as well as its stability. Therefore, this work is oriented to determine the extraction kinetics of its oil and its oxidative stability. The latter one is obtained through the proposal of a method based on open-circuit potential measurements. The results showed that the rice bran has 21.44% of raw oil, with a chemical composition (based on fatty acids of 48.48% oleic acid, 35.26% linoleic acid, and 14.54% palmitic acid, as well as a free fatty acid content of 8.15%. A high percentage of its oil content can be recovered in a short time at room temperature, and its extraction kinetics is a function of both the washing and the diffusion of its oil. Under storage conditions the raw oil has a high stability, at least 8 months, and its oxidative stability was of 24, 9, and 7 hours at 50°C, 80°C, and 110°C, respectively.

  18. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

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    Prachi Srivastava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Refined rice bran oil (RBO was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO, MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV, p-Anisidine value (p-AV, Total polar component (TPC and oil stability index (OSI for the RBO and its blends. In general, frying stability of RBO was improved by the blending, the Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio of the blend of RPM and RSM was in the recommended range (1:5-10, and in both cases it was observed to be 1:6. The OSI of RBO deteriorates 66% and it improved by blending with POO and it decline only 53% and 54% for the blend RP and RPM respectively. It was concluded that the blend having more than two oils (RBO+PO+MO was better in oxidative stability, nutritional value and also contain sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid than that of the RBO and its other blends.

  19. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  20. Thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends during deep fat frying

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    Singh, Charanjiv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shall be deleted offer some advantages like better nutritional quality, lower cost and greater storage stability than pure oils. Model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO and sunflower oil (SFO were examined for change in their physico-chemical parameters (acid value, iodine value, color value, peroxide value and fatty acids. Repeated deep fat frying processes were carried out using dried potato chips in pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends, in order to study the thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil showed good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although all the blended oils used in the study showed good thermal stability during repeated deep fat frying cycles, model blends consisting of 60%RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils.La mezclas de aceites pueden ofrecer algunas ventajas sobre los aceites puros las como mejor calidad nutricional, coste inferior o mayor estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. En este estudio, aceite de salvado de arroz (RBO, aceite de girasol (SFO y mezclas de ambos, se sometieron al proceso de fritura de patatas y se evaluaron los principales cambios físico-químicos en los aceites puros y en sus mezclas (acidez, índice de yodo, color, índice de peróxidos y composición de ácidos grasos. Aunque todas las muestras mostraron buena estabilidad a elevada temperatura, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la mezcla que contenía 60% de RBO y 40% de SFO.

  1. Comparative Studies between Conventional and Microwave Assisted Extraction for Rice Bran Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Himanshu S; Pratap, Amit

    2017-09-01

    The present work deals with comparison of microwave assisted extraction to that of conventional solvent extraction for the extraction of rice bran oil (RBO); focusing on extraction yield and oil composition. Microwave assisted extraction act as a green process over other method and proved that it is effective method for extraction of oil. The investigation also focuses on the study of functional group and component present in oil. Natural antioxidant component; its activity was confirmed by DPPH assay. The oryzanol content was also determined by measuring the optical density of the sample at 315 nm in n-heptane using UV visible spectrophotometer.

  2. Effect of saponification on composition of unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil.

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    Afinisha Deepam, L S; Arumughan, C

    2012-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil contains a variety of Unsaponifiable Constituents (USC) that are presumed to contribute to the high value of Unsaponifable Matter (USM). The objectives of the present study were to identify and quantify the constituents in USM. The changes that the unsaponifiables undergo during saponification were also quantitatively investigated. While analyzing the percentage of all constituents, the percentage of sterol get increased from 22.46 to 23.77 in USM of crude rice bran oil (CRBO) and 33.42 to 36.79 in USM of refined rice bran oil (RRBO). Oryzanol that comprised 34% of the unsaponifiable in the crude oil by direct estimation was almost eliminated in USM and same in refined oil. The results also revealed the presence of four additional classes of compounds that were quantified in USM (policosanol, fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols). Among the four classes of compounds, policosanol contributed high percentage in USM, (43.39% in CRBO and 28.46% in RRBO). Fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols together contributed 27.68% and 25.13% of USM from CRBO and RRBO respectively. The HPTLC method employed here thus, accounted for 96.75% by wt of the USM of CRBO and 92.00% by wt of the USM of RRBO.

  3. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils

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    Farooq Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.

  4. Effect of low calorie diet with rice bran oil on cardiovascular risk factors in hyperlipidemic patients

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    Rosa Zavoshy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, on lipid profiles, in hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a parallel groups′ randomized clinical trial with a pre- and post-test design. Fifty hyperlipidemic patients of both sexes and age range of 25 - 65 years had participated. The patients received a low-calorie diet based on 1400 kcal energy, 17% protein, 26% fat, and 57% carbohydrate per day for four weeks. The treatment group received a low-calorie diet including rice bran oil (30 g / day. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight (12 hours fasting period before the study and on the last day of the intervention period. Anthropometric indices and levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were measured before and after the intervention. Results: In both groups, weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumferences were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 after four weeks. In comparison with the control group, the results of treatment with rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, showed that at the end of the fourth week, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and atherogenic ratio of total cholesterol / high-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results confirm that rice bran oil, when consumed as part of a healthy diet, is effective in improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  5. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

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    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  6. Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil with hydrogenated cottonseed oil to produce trans free fat.

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    Neeharika, T S V R; Rallabandi, Ramya; Ragini, Y; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rani, K N Prasanna; Prasad, R B N

    2015-08-01

    Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCSO) was carried out for producing a low trans free fat. The interesterification reaction was performed by varying parameters such as weight proportions of RBO and HCSO, reaction temperatures, time period and lipase concentration. Both non specific and specific lipases namely Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM were employed for this study. Based on the data generated, the optimum reaction conditions were found to be: weight proportion of RBO and HCSO, 80:20; lipase concentration, 5 % (w/w) of substrates; reaction temperature, 60 °C; reaction time, 4 h for Lipozyme TL IM and 5 h for Novozym 435. The degree of interesterification, calculated based on the results of solid fat characteristics was used for comparing the catalytic activity of Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM. It was observed that the degree of interesterification (DI) reached a near 100 % at the 4th hour for reaction employing Lipozyme TL IM with a rate constant of 0.191 h(-1) while Novozym 435 catalyzed reaction reached a near 100 % degree of interesterification at the 5th hour with a rate constant of 0.187 h(-1), suggesting that Lipozyme TL IM has a faster catalytic activity.

  7. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments

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    Rocha-Filho Pedro A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoemulsions have practical application in a multitude of commercial areas, such as the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cosmetic industries use rice bran oil in sunscreen formulations, anti ageing products and in treatments for skin diseases. The aim of this study was to create rice bran oil nanoemulsions using low energy emulsification methods and to evaluate their physical stability, irritation potential and moisturising activity on volunteers with normal and diseased skin types. Results The nanoemulsion developed by this phase diagram method was composed of 10% rice bran oil, 10% surfactants sorbitan oleate/PEG-30 castor oil, 0.05% antioxidant and 0.50% preservatives formulated in distilled water. The nanoemulsion was stable over the time course of this study. In vitro assays showed that this formulation has a low irritation potential, and when applied to human skin during in vivo studies, the nanoemulsion improved the skin's moisture and maintained normal skin pH values. Conclusion The results of irritation potential studies and in vivo assessments indicate that this nanoemulsion has potential to be a useful tool to treat skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  8. Kinetic Study on Rice Bran Oil Extraction%米糠油的萃取动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志慧; 李志凯; 赵思明

    2011-01-01

    为了解米糠油萃取的过程,采用球形模型建立动力学方程,研究温度,米糠/溶剂比对米糠油萃取特性的影响,为米糠油浸出工艺设计及浸出操作条件的选择提供理论依据.结果表明,随着米糠/溶剂比的减小,米糠油的萃取率逐渐升高,在温度为50℃、米糠/溶剂比为1:6时,米糠油的萃取率为16.8%,扩散系数升高,平衡浓度降低;而随着温度的升高,米糠油的萃取率逐渐升高,扩散系数升高,平衡浓度升高;扩散能随米糠/溶剂比的减小而升高,当米糠/溶剂比为1:8时,扩散能达到1 776J/moL.%To understand the process of rice bran oil extraction,we used the spherical model to erect a kinetic equation to study the influence of temperature and rice bran/solvent ratio on the extraction properties of rice bran oil to provide a theoretical basis for the design and operation conditions of leaching of rice bran oil.The results showed that,as the rice bran/solvent ratio decreased, the rice bran oil extraction ratio increased gradually.Besides, when the temperature was 50℃ ,rice bran/solvent ratio was 1:6,the rice bran oil extraction rate was 16.8% ,diffusion coefficient rose and balanced concentration decreased.As the temperature rose, the rice bran oil extraction ratio, diffusion coefficient and equilibrium concentration increased.At the same time, diffusion energy increased with the decrease of the rice bran/solvent ratio.And the diffusion energy could reach 1 776 J/moL when the rice bran/solvent ratio was 1:8.

  9. Effect of microwave and air drying of parboiled rice on stabilization of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizk, Laila F.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Giza 175 (short grain and Giza 181 (long grain were partDoiled by soaking the grains at room temperature for 20 hours and steaming for 15 min then dried either at room temperature or by microwave. The results indicated that air and microwave drying significantly increased oil extraction in both rice bran varieties. Parboiling followed by air or microwave drying produced a slight change on protein, fiber and ash content of rice bran and reduced the development of free fatty acids (F.F.A. In oil bran. Microwave samples have less F.F.A. content than the corresponding samples air dried. Oils from the cold stored rice bran presented lower F.F.A. than the corresponding oil bran stored at room temperature. The ratio between total unsaturated fatty acids and total saturated ones (Tu/Ts decreased after air and microwave drying. Results also show that air drying increased the ratio of total hydrocarbons and total sterols (Tu/Ts in both varieties while microwave decreased it.

    Dos variedades de arroz, Giza 175 (grano corto y Giza 181 (grano largo se precocieron mediante la puesta en remojo de los granos a temperatura ambiente durante 20 horas y cocimiento al vapor durante 15 minutos, luego se secaron a temperatura ambiente o por microondas. Los resultados indicaron que el secado al aire y en microondas aumentó significativamente la extracción del aceite en ambas variedades de salvado de arroz. El precocido seguido del secado al aire o en microondas produjo un cambio pequeño en el contenido en proteína, fibra y ceniza y redujo el desarrollo de ácidos grasos libres (F.F.A. en el aceite de salvado. Las muestras secadas en microondas tuvieron un menor contenido en F.F.A. que las muestras correspondientes al secado en aire. Aceites de salvado de arroz almacenado en frió presentaron menor F.F.A. que los almacenados a temperatura ambiente. La relación entre ácidos grasos insaturados totales y los saturados totales (Tu/Ts disminuy

  10. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

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    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products.

  11. Ultrafiltration-based degumming of crude rice bran oil using a polymer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehn, G.A.R.; GonCalves, L.A.G.; Ming, C.C.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane technology has been gaining momentum in industrial processes, especially in food technology. It is believed to simplify processes, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollutants. The objective was to study the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) polymeric membranes in the degumming of the miscella of crude rice bran oil by using a bench-scale tangential filtration module. In addition, oil miscella filtration techniques using hexane and anhydrous ethyl alcohol solvents were compared. All membranes showed the retention of phospholipids and high flow rates. However, the best performance was observed using the 50-kDa PVDF membrane in miscella hexane solvent, with a 95.5% retention of the phosphorus concentration (by a factor of 1.4), resulting in a permeate with 29 mg·kg−1 of phosphorus and an average flow rate of 48.1 L·m−2·h−1. This technology can be used as a low-pollution, economical alternative for the de-gumming of crude rice bran oil, being effective in the removal of hydratable and non-hydratable phospholipids, resulting in oils with a low phosphorus content. (Author)

  12. Lipase-catalyzed modification of rice bran oil to incorporate capric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B H; Akoh, C C

    2000-09-01

    Capric acid (C10:0) was incorporated into rice bran oil with an immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei as the biocatalyst. Effects of incubation time, substrate mole ratio, enzyme load, and water addition on mole percent incorporation of C10:0 were studied. Transesterification was performed in an organic solvent, hexane, and under solvent-free condition. Pancreatic lipase-catalyzed sn-2 positional analysis and tocopherol analysis were performed before and after enzymatic modification. Products were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) for fatty acid composition. After 24 h of incubation in hexane, there was an average of 26.5 +/- 1.8 mol % incorporation of C10:0 into rice bran oil. The solvent-free reaction produced an average of 24.5 +/- 3.7 mol % capric acid. In general, as the enzyme load, substrate mole ratio, and incubation time increased, the mole percent of capric acid incorporation also increased. Time course reaction indicated C10:0 incorporation increased up to 27.0 mol % at 72 h, for the reaction in hexane, and up to 29.6 mol % at 12 h, for the solvent-free reaction. The highest C10:0 incorporations (53.1 and 43.2 mol %) for the mole ratio experiment occurred at a mole ratio of 1:8 for solvent and solvent-free reactions, respectively. The highest C10:0 incorporation (27.9 mol %) for the reaction in hexane occurred at 10% enzyme load, and the highest incorporation (34.4 mol %) for the solvent-free reaction occurred at 20% enzyme load. Incorporation of C10:0 into rice bran oil declined with the addition of increasing amounts of water after reaching 30.3 mol % at 2% water addition in hexane, and in the solvent-free reaction after reaching 35.9 mol %.

  13. Rice Bran Oil Compared to Atorvastatin for Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Shakib

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The use of rice bran oil together with dietary modifications may have implications in lowering fasting and postprandial blood glucose, suppressing serum lipid levels, reduce the TC/HDL-C ratio and therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, RBO exerts a hypouricemic action and anti-inflammatory effects. The findings obtained from the current study reinforce the use of RBO as an alternative natural potent hypolipidemic agent safer than atorvastatin drug that may induce side effects in some cases in patients intolerant to statins.

  14. Rice bran oil prevents neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in rats: Possible antioxidant mechanisms

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    Noreen Samad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tardive dyskinesia (TD is one of the serious side effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment. Chronic treatment with neuroleptic leads to the development of abnormal oral movements called vacuous chewing movements (VCMs. The oxidative stress hypothesis of TD is one of the possible pathophysiologic models for TD. Preclinical and clinical studies of this hypothesis indicate that neurotoxic free radical production is likely to be a consequence of antipsychotic medication and is related to occurrence of TD. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of TD. Rats chronically treated with haloperidol orally at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs, which increased in a time-dependent manner as the treatment continued for 5 weeks. Motor coordination impairment started after the 1st week and was maximally impaired after 3 weeks and gradually returned to the 1st week value. Motor activity in an open field or home cage (activity box not altered. Administration of rice bran oil (antioxidant by oral tubes at a dose of 0.4 mL/day prevented the induction of haloperidol-elicited VCMs as well impairment of motor coordination. The results are discussed in the context of a protective role of antioxidant of rice bran oil in the prevention of haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.

  15. Deacidification of high free fatty acid-containing rice bran oil by non-conventional reesterification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sibban; Singh, R P

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran (Oryza sativa) oil is known for containing higher amount of free fatty acid (FFA) generated by hydrolytic enzyme. This FFA causes heavy neutral oil losses due to saponification and emulsification since it produces large amount of soap in the conventional alkali refining process. In the present study the FFA of degummed rice bran oil (RBO) was significantly reduced by reesterifying it with glycerol. The reesterification process was carried out by varying the temperature and amount of excess glycerol using 0.2% catalyst (SnCl(2)). The maximum efficiency of the process could be attained at 200 degrees C using 70% excess glycerol and the maximum reduction in acid value (from 24.3 to 3.0) of RBO was observed within 4 h. The reesterified RBO was used to prepare stand oil and varnish and their performance characteristics were compared with those of the products obtained from dehydrated castor oil (DCO).

  16. Antioxidative effects of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran methanolic extracts on the stability of rice bran oil under accelerated conditions

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    Adam Mariod, Abdalbasit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the antioxidant activity against the synthetic 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and β-carotene–linoleic acid assay of the methanolic extracts of defatted rice bran from stabilized and unstabilized rice bran. The effects of the extracts (0.1 and 0.25% w/w on the oxidative stability of refined-bleached rice bran oil were determined and compared with those of BHA (synthetic antioxidant. The study was carried out over a 168 hr period at 70°C and the progression of oxidation was measured by peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. The relative % of residual α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol of the rice bran oil containing methanolic extracts of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran during storage at 70°C were studied.

    La presente investigación evalúa la actividad antioxidante mediante el radical sintético 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil y el ensayo β-caroteno–ácido linoleico de extractos metanólicos de salvado de arroz desengrasado procedente de salvado de arroz estabilizado y no-estabilizado. El efecto de los extractos (0.1 y 0.25% w/w sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite refinado de salvado de arroz fue determinado y comparado con el del BHA (antioxidante sintético. El estudio fue llevado a cabo durante un periodo de 168 hr a 70°C y la progresión de la oxidación fue medida mediante el valor de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidine y substancias reactivas del ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. El porcentaje relativo del α-tocoferol y γ-orizanol residual en el aceite de germen de arroz conteniendo extracto metanólico de germen de arroz desengrasado estabilizado y no estabilizado durante el almacenamiento a 70°C fueron estudiados.

  17. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-02-01

    To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  18. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apirak Sakunpak; Jirapornchai Suksaeree; Chaowalit Monton; Pathamaporn Pathompak; Krisana Kraisintu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis ofγ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.Methods:TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test.Results:Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. Conclusions: The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  19. Production of trans-free margarine stock by enzymatic interesterification of rice bran oil, palm stearin and coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prakash; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Jeung-Hee; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Akoh, Casimir C; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2010-03-15

    Trans-free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a spreadable margarine stock. Rice bran oil, palm stearin and coconut oil were used as substrates for lipase-catalyzed reaction. After interesterification, 137-150 g kg(-1) medium-chain fatty acid was incorporated into the triacylglycerol (TAG) of the interesterified fats. Solid fat contents at 25 degrees C were 15.5-34.2%, and slip melting point ranged from 27.5 to 34.3 degrees C. POP and PPP (beta-tending TAG) in palm stearin decreased after interesterification. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the interesterified fats contained mostly beta' polymorphic forms, which is a desirable property for margarines. The interesterified fats showed desirable physical properties and suitable crystal form (beta' polymorph) for possible use as a spreadable margarine stock. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans fatty acid could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat.

  20. A blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil lowers blood pressure and improves the lipid profile in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Sankar; Singh, Ravinder; Chatterjee, Biprabuddha; Zhang, Bo; Ali, Amanat

    2016-01-01

    Sesame oil and rice bran oil are known for their unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants contents and have been reported to reduce the cardiovascular risk. To determine the effect of a blend of 20% unrefined cold-pressed lignans-rich sesame oil and 80% physically refined γ-oryzanol-rich rice bran oil (Vivo) as cooking oil in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. In this prospective, open-label dietary approach, 300 hypertensive patients and 100 normotensives were divided into groups as: (1) normotensives treated with sesame oil blend, (2) hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend, (3) hypertensives treated with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (20 mg/d), and (4) hypertensives receiving the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (20 mg/d). Sesame oil blend was supplied to respective groups, and they were instructed to use it as the only cooking oil for 60 days. Resting blood pressure was measured at days 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60, whereas the fasting lipid profile was measured at days 0 and 60. Significant reduction in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial) from days 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 were observed in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone (P sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P Sesame oil blend with nifedipine-treated group showed greatest reduction in blood pressure. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels reduced, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly only in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone and the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P sesame oil and rice bran oil as cooking oil showed a significant antihypertensive and lipid-lowering action and had noteworthy additive effect with antihypertensive medication. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of rice bran oil on the intestinal microbiota and metabolism of isoflavones in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Hori, Sachiko; Hoshi, Chigusa; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Dietary RBO affects intestinal cholesterol absorption. Intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. We hypothesized that dietary RBO changes the metabolism of isoflavonoids and intestinal microbiota in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 10% RBO diet (RO group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 10% lard control diet (LO group) for 30 days. Urinary amounts of daidzein and dihydrodaidzein were significantly lower in the RO group than in the LO group. The ratio of equol/daidzein was significantly higher in the RO group (p microbiota differed between the RO and LO groups. The occupation ratios of Lactobacillales were significantly higher in the RO group (p intestinal microbiota.

  2. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  3. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  4. 芡实的营养价值及保健功能%Research Progress on Processing Technology of Rice Bran Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军明

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran oil is a kind of nutrient-rich and high-quality edible oil which contains a variety of nutrients and has great potential and utilized value.This paper reviewed rice bran oil's preparation technologies and refining techniques and summaried its application prospect.%阐述了芡实营养成分以及对人体的保健功能。

  5. Wheat bran extracts: a potent source of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of wheat (var. Inqalab 91 bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays using canola oil as the oxidation substrate. The bran samples were extracted with 80% and 100% methanol and acetone. A preliminary assessment of the antioxidant activity of the 80 and 100% acetone and methanolic extracts of wheat bran was done by the measurement of % inhibition of peroxidation in a linoleic acid system, total phenolic contents (TPC and bleachability of β-carotene in the linoleic acid system. Additionally, the canola oil samples were stabilized with crude concentrated extracts and subjected to ambient aging (6 months. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, and trienes- values. The results of ambient stored samples revealed a significant improvement in these oxidation parameters. The overall order of antioxidant activity of the extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was determined to be; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extracts . 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that extracts of the wheat bran indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for commercial and neutraceutical applications.

    En el presente trabajo la actividad antioxidante de diferentes extractos obtenidos con disolventes del salvado de trigo (var. Inqalab 91 fue evaluada mediante diferentes ensayos antioxidantes y aceite de canola como substrato de oxidación. Las muestras de salvado fueron extraídas con metanol y acetona al 80% y al 100%. La evaluación preliminar de la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de metanol y de acetona al 80% y 100% fue hecha mediante la medida del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en un sistema con ácido linoleico, el contenido total de fenoles

  6. Efficient Degumming of Rice Bran Oil by Immobilized PLA1 from Thermomyces lanuginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Singhania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A1 (PLA1 immobilized in calcium alginate can effectively overcome the mass transfer resistance at the lipid-water interface making more room for the enzyme to separate itself from the products of reaction and to bind with the next available molecule at the interface. The reaction of an immobilized PLA1 hydrolase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was comparatively faster than of its free form. The rate of phospholipid hydrolysis by PLA1 was studied in calcium-rich and calcium-depleted environments; and the extent of phosphorus removed from the crude rice bran oil as well as the amount of free fatty acids produced during the reaction were used as indices for analysing the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis under standard conditions of pH, temperature, time of incubation and agitation. The immobilized PLA1 was found to be superior in removing phosphorus in the presencem of 10 mM bivalent calcium ions in a solution. As compared to a maximum of 72.52 % phosphorus removed by 0.01 kg of free enzyme per kg of oil, the same amount of immobilized PLA1 removed phosphorus from oil by 94.12 % under the same experimental conditions (pH=6, 60 °C, 1-hour incubation. Both the free PLA1 and its immobilized form had shown extended rates of hydrolysis in a calcium-rich environment. The mass fractions of free fatty acids produced by the free enzyme and by its immobilized form were 14.9 and 14.16 %, respectively, under the above experimental conditions. The removal of phosphorusfrom oil was accompanied by a signifi cant reduction in colour and restoration of iodine value to the desired level.

  7. Effects of corn oil and wheat brans on bile acid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, D D; Franz, P M

    1990-11-01

    High concentrations of colonic bile acids may promote tumor formation. Some studies have found that high levels of dietary fat increase fecal bile acid excretion, whereas others report no effect. Wheat bran appears to reduce fecal bile acid concentration. This study was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary fat levels and types of wheat bran on bile acid metabolism. Rats were fed diets containing either no fiber, 2% cholestyramine (CHO) or brans of hard red spring, soft white winter or durum wheat--at both a 5 or 20% fat level. Animals were fed for 7 wk, and feces were collected in the last week. Wheat bran (all types) significantly increased fecal mass approximately fourfold, and CHO significantly increased fecal mass twofold compared to the fiber-free diet. Increasing the fat level did not increase fecal bile acid excretion, nor did the addition of wheat bran. Addition of CHO, however, more than doubled it. CHO increased fecal bile acid concentration, all wheat brans decreased it and fat level had no effect. Bile acid pool size was increased slightly by fat level and cholestyramine feeding but not by wheat brans. These results indicate that fat level slightly alters bile acid metabolism but that wheat brans do not.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets.

  9. Rheology of Structured Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbaliev, G. I.; Rasulov, S. R.; Rzaev, A. G.; Mustafaeva, G. R.

    2017-07-01

    Rheological models of structured oils are proposed and compared with available experimental data on oils from different deposits. It is shown that structured oils can possess properties of Bingham and power-law non-Newtonian fluids.

  10. A two-step acid-catalyzed process for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullaikah, S.; Lai, Chao Chin; Vali, S.R.; Ju, Yi Hsu [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of temperature, moisture and storage time on the accumulation of free fatty acid in the rice bran. Rice bran stored at room temperature showed that most triacylglyceride was hydrolyzed and free fatty acid (FFA) content was raised up to 76% in six months. A two-step acid-catalyzed methanolysis process was employed for the efficient conversion of rice bran oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The first step was carried out at 60 {sup o}C. Depending on the initial FFA content of oil, 55-90% FAME content in the reaction product was obtained. More than 98% FFA and less than 35% of TG were reacted in 2 h. The organic phase of the first step reaction product was used as the substrate for a second acid-catalyzed methanolysis at 100 {sup o}C. By this two-step methanolysis reaction, more than 98% FAME in the product can be obtained in less than 8 h. Distillation of reaction product gave 99.8% FAME (biodiesel) with recovery of more than 96%. The residue contains enriched nutraceuticals such as {gamma}-oryzanol (16-18%), mixture of phytosterol, tocol and steryl ester (19-21%). (author)

  11. Genotoxicity of rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Tae-Uk; Moon, Woi-Sook; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2014-01-01

    Rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction (RB-SCE) reportedly exhibits pharmacological activities such as antioxidant and in vivo hair growth-inducing effects. Such activities raise the possibility of the development of novel hair growth-inducing agents using RB-SCE. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential genotoxic effects of RB-SCE in three short-term mutagenicity assays (bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus assay). RB-SCE showed no genotoxicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay up to 5000 mg/plate and in the in vivo micronucleus test up to 600 mg/kg body weight. However, at 120 µg/mL with S9 mix and 200 µg/mL without S9 mix RB-SCE showed significantly different genotoxicity than the negative control in the in vitro chromosome aberration test. The induction of chromosomal aberrations under the present conditions may have no biological significance. We have herein demonstrated that RB-SCE can be regarded as a non-genotoxic material based on the available in vivo and in vitro results.

  12. Sensory optimization of a mayonnaise-type spread made with rice bran oil and soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Karen; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Corredor, Jose Andres Herrera; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-08-01

    The optimum formulation for mayonnaise-type spreads containing rice bran oil (RBO) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) was determined based on sensory acceptability. RBO and SPC were used due to their health benefit claims such as lowering risk of heart disease. The effects of the proportions of high-impact ingredients (RBO, SPC, and water) on sensory acceptability of the spreads were determined. The 10 spread formulations, prepared following a 3-component constrained simplex lattice mixture design, were subjected to a consumer acceptance test to identify sensory attributes driving consumer acceptance and purchase intent. Predictive regression models were used to plot mixture response surfaces of the critical sensory attributes (taste, mouthfeel, and overall liking) that influenced purchase intent. Areas within the contour plots of these critical sensory attributes, having acceptability scores > or = 68 ("moderately like" on the 100-mm bidirectional labeled affective magnitude scale) were chosen and superimposed to obtain a predicted optimum formulation range (37% to 43% RBO, 4% to 7% SPC, and 52% to 57% water). The formulation containing 37% RBO, 6% SPC, and 57% water, which was located within the optimum region, was selected as a base for further developing flavored (sour cream & onion, cheddar & sour cream, or Monterrey Jack dried cheese) products. All flavored spreads were significantly more acceptable than the plain formulation. Purchase intent of all flavored products also significantly increased once consumers had been given the information about potential health benefits associated with RBO and SPC in the spreads.

  13. Microencapsulation of menhaden fish oil containing soluble rice bran fiber using spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuting; Bankston, Joseph David; Bechtel, Peter J; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-05-01

    Emulsion (EFMO) containing purified menhaden oil (PMO) and soluble rice bran fiber (SRBF) was dried in a pilot scale spray dryer and produced microencapsulated PMO with SRBF (MFMO). EFMO had well isolated spherical droplets with the size of 1 to 10 μm and showed pseudoplastic fluid and viscoelastic characteristics. EFMO had lower lipid oxidation than the emulsion containing PMO without SRBF when both emulsions were stored at 20 and 40 °C for 88 h, which indicated that the SRBF reduced the lipid oxidation in the EFMO. The estimated MFMO production rate (3.45 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s) was higher than the actual production rate (2.31 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s). The energy required to spray dry the EFMO was 12232 kJ/kg of emulsion. EPA and DHA contents of MFMO were 11.52% and 4.51%, respectively. The particle size of 90% MFMO ranged from 8 to 62 μm, and the volume-length diameter of MFMO was 28.5 μm.

  14. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Asnaashari, Maryam; Sayyad, Ruhollah

    2015-10-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μg α-tocopherol/ mL extract) indicated the highest antioxidant activity (80.36 % radical scavenging and 62.69 % β-carotene-linoleic bleaching) and thermal stability (4.95 h) at 120 °C in canola oil. Being high in antioxidant and antiradical potential and high content of phenolic and tocopherol compounds of ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic extract caused to evaluate its thermal stability at 180 °C in canola oil during frying process. So, different concentrations of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract (100, 800, and 1200 ppm) were added to canola oil. TBHQ at 100 ppm served as standard besides the control. Free fatty acids (FFAs), Peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability index (OSI) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract in stabilization of canola oil. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting that 800 ppm of the extract could act better than 100 ppm TBHQ in inhibition of lipid oxidation in canola oil during frying process and can be used as predominant alternative of synthetic antioxidants.

  15. Ultrafiltration-based degumming of crude rice bran oil using a polymer membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehn, G. A.R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology has been gaining momentum in industrial processes, especially in food technology. It is believed to simplify processes, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollutants. The objective was to study the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF and polyethersulfone (PES polymeric membranes in the degumming of the miscella of crude rice bran oil by using a bench-scale tangential filtration module. In addition, oil miscella filtration techniques using hexane and anhydrous ethyl alcohol solvents were compared. All membranes showed the retention of phospholipids and high flow rates. However, the best performance was observed using the 50-kDa PVDF membrane in miscella hexane solvent, with a 95.5% retention of the phosphorus concentration (by a factor of 1.4, resulting in a permeate with 29 mg·kg−1 of phosphorus and an average flow rate of 48.1 L·m−2·h−1. This technology can be used as a low-pollution, economical alternative for the de-gumming of crude rice bran oil, being effective in the removal of hydratable and non-hydratable phospholipids, resulting in oils with a low phosphorus content.La tecnología de membrana ha ido ganando impulso en los procesos industriales, especialmente en tecnología de los alimentos. Se piensa que simplifica los procesos, reduce el consumo de energía, y elimina contaminantes. El objetivo fué estudiar el rendimiento de las membranas poliméricas de fluoruro de polivinilo (PVDF y poliétersulfona (PES en el desgomado de miscelas de aceite de salvado de arroz crudo, mediante el uso de un módulo de filtración de escalado tangencial. Además, se compararon las técnicas de filtración de miscelas de aceite, utilizando como disolventes hexano y alcohol etílico anhidro. Todas las membranas mostraron retención de los fosfolípidos y altas tasas de flujo. Sin embargo, se observó un mejor rendimiento usando la membrana de PVDF de 50-kDa con hexano como disolvente, con una retención del 95

  16. Thermal oxidation of rice bran oil during oven test and microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, Harish K; Sarkar, Bhavesh C; Singh, Charanjiv

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stability of physically refined rice bran oil (RBO) under oven heating at 63 °C and microwave heating conditions by absorptivity. Oil samples with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) (100 ppm and 200 ppm), citric acid (CA), butylhydroxyanisole/butylhydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT) and in other combination, BHA/BHT+CA were submitted to oven test for 6 days, and the linear coefficient of correlation between peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was determined. The gradual increase in peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was observed in all the RBO samples, control and antioxidant added. RBO samples added with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) had shown the least peroxide value and absorptivity as 6.10 and 5.8 respectively, when added at a concentration of 200 ppm whereas; the control RBO samples had shown the maximum values. The peroxide values obtained from the correlations during the oven test were found closely correlated with the peroxide values obtained during the microwave oven heating experimentally. The effect of microwave heating on the oryzanol content and p-anisidine value was also observed and the correlation to the oven test was established. The oryzanol content and p-anisidine values obtained after oven heating when correlated to the microwave heating data showed the oryzanol content 13,371, 13,267 and 13,188 ppm after 1 day, 4 days and 5 days respectively which were closely correlated with the experimental value.

  17. Protective effect of oryzanol isolated from crude rice bran oil in experimental model of diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuvra B. Ghatak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the involvement of poor glycemic control and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the development of diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication affecting more than 50% of diabetic patients. However, lack of understanding of the underlying etiology, development of tolerance, inadequate relief and possible toxicity associated with classical analgesics warrant the investigation of the novel agents. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oryzanol (OZ, a commercially-important potent antioxidant component isolated from from crude rice bran oil (cRBO, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. After eight weeks, diabetic rats developed neuropathy which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia and increased nociceptive behavior during the formalin test. This was accompanied by decreased motor coordination based on the evaluation of neuromuscular strength. Na+ K+ ATPase, a biochemical marker associated with the development of diabetic neuropathy, was significantly inhibited in the sciatic nerve of diabetic animals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly elevated in diabetic rats, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. Chronic treatment with oryzanol (OZ (50 and 100 mg/kg per oral (p.o. and standard drug glibenclamide (Gl (10 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the behavioral as well as biochemical changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. The findings provide experimental evidence to the protective effects of OZ on hyperglycemia-induced thermal hyperalgesia and oxidative stress which might be responsible for diabetes induced nerve damage.

  18. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  19. Brans-Dicke Theory with Λ>0: Black Holes and Large Scale Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F; Romano, Antonio Enea; Tomaras, Theodore N

    2015-10-30

    A step-by-step approach is followed to study cosmic structures in the context of Brans-Dicke theory with positive cosmological constant Λ and parameter ω. First, it is shown that regular stationary black-hole solutions not only have constant Brans-Dicke field ϕ, but can exist only for ω=∞, which forces the theory to coincide with the general relativity. Generalizations of the theory in order to evade this black-hole no-hair theorem are presented. It is also shown that in the absence of a stationary cosmological event horizon in the asymptotic region, a stationary black-hole horizon can support a nontrivial Brans-Dicke hair. Even more importantly, it is shown next that the presence of a stationary cosmological event horizon rules out any regular stationary solution, appropriate for the description of a star. Thus, to describe a star one has to assume that there is no such stationary horizon in the faraway asymptotic region. Under this implicit assumption generic spherical cosmic structures are studied perturbatively and it is shown that only for ω>0 or ω≲-5 their predicted maximum sizes are consistent with observations. We also point out how, many of the conclusions of this work differ qualitatively from the Λ=0 spacetimes.

  20. Optimization and evaluation of foxtail millet (Setaria italica bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A Box-Behnken central composite design combined with the response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the parameters of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of foxtail millet bran oil (FMBO. Results showed that a maximum oil yield of 7.97% was achieved under the optimal conditions with an extracting pressure of 30.03MPa, extracting temperature of 47.93 °C; and an extraction time of 2.3 h. The quality of the oil obtained from SFE and solvent extraction (SE was evaluated by proximate analysis to include physicochemical properties, fatty acids and sterol compounds. The FBMO obtained from SFE showed a much lower phospholipid (0.188 mg/g content and a preferable color compared to the oil from SE, while it contained a higher content of total sterols, 1.55%. The thermal gravimetric analysis results showed one major regime of weight loss over a temperature range of 300–500 °C. The results show that FBMO obtained by SFE can be a promising nutritional source for food fortification and is understood to have more potentially healthy biological properties.Un diseño Box-Behnken combinado con la metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM se usó para optimizar los parámetros de extracción mediante fluido supercrítico (SFE de aceite de salvado de mijo (FMBO. Los resultados mostraron que un rendimiento máximo de extracción de aceite del 7,97% se logró en las condiciones óptimas correspondientes a una presión de 30.03MPa, una temperatura 47.93 °C y un tiempo 2,3H. Además, se evaluó la calidad del aceite obtenido por SFE y mediante extracción con disolvente (SE a partir de un análisis proximal que incluye propiedades fisicoquímicas, ácidos grasos y esteroles. El aceite de FBMO obtenido mediante SFE mostró un contenido mucho menor de fosfolípidos (0.188 mg/g y un color mas aceptable que el aceite de la SE, mientras que contenía un mayor contenido de esteroles totales: 1,55%. El resultado del análisis térmico gravimétrico mostr

  1. Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

    2009-07-15

    Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased

  2. 米糠毛油掺伪食用植物油的低场核磁共振检测%Discrimination of Edible Vegetable Oil Adulterated with Rice Bran Crude Oil by Low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凝; 刘宝林; 王欣; 汪宏志; 杨培强; 周航

    2011-01-01

    应用低场核磁共振方法分别测定了米糠毛油和3种食用植物油(花生油、橄榄油和葵花籽油)的弛豫图谱,发现在10 ms左右米糠毛油弛豫图谱中出现了-明显特征峰,而其他3种纯油品均未检出,且随着米糠毛油掺入量的增多,该峰面积的比例也随之增大.结果表明,通过测定该特征峰面积比例可定量测出米糠毛油掺伪量.%The relaxation maps of three edible vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower seed oil and sunflower seed oil) and rice bran crude oil were detected by low - field nuclear magnetic resonance technology (NMR). An obvious characteristic peak has been determined in the relaxation maps of rice bran crude oil at 10ms, which can not be detected in the other three kinds of pure edible oil. And the area proportion increased with the increase of rice bran crude oil content. Therefore, the detecting of the characteristic peak area can judge the vegetable oil adulterated with rice bran crude oil.

  3. Synthesis and surface active properties of cationic surface active agents from crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Dougdoug, W. I. A.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic surfactants of 2-hidroxy-3-(2- alkylamidopolyethyl amino propane-1-triethylammonium hydroxides (ix-xuia-d were prepared from fatty acids (ia-d [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic acid] and mixed fatty acids of crude rice bran oil ie [RBO]. The reaction of these acids with ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine andletraethylenepentamine (iia-d produced (iii-viia-d. The produced amidopolyethylamine (iii-viia-d reacted with 2-epoxypropylenetriethylammonium chloride (viii to give the cationic surfactants (ix-xiiia-d . The produced derivatives were purified and characterized by microanalysis, molecular weight determination, infra-red (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties and inhibition efficiency of the prepared cationic surfactants were determined.

    Se han preparado tensioactivos catiónicos de hidróxidos de! 2-hidroxi-3-(2-alquilamidopolietilamino propano-1;trietilamonio (ix-xiiia-d a partir de los ácidos grasos (ia-d [ácido palmítico, esteárico, oleico y linoleico] y mezclas de ácidos grasos de aceite de germen de arroz crudo ie [RBO]. La reacción de estos ácidos con etilenodiamina, dietilenotriamina, trietilenotetramina y tetraetilenopentamina (iia-d produjo los compuestos (iv-viia-d . Los amidopolietilaminos producidos (iii-viia-d reaccionaron con el cloruro de 2-epoxipropilenotrietilamonio (viii para dar los tensioactivos catiónicos (ix-xiiia-d. Los derivados producidos se purificaron y caracterizaron por microanálisis, determinación del peso molecular, espectros de infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear de protón (1H NMR. Se determinaron las propiedades tensioactivas y la eficacia de inhibición de los tensioactivos cati

  4. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, Akanksha; Balasubramanian, Sundar; Lima, Marybeth; Boldor, Dorin

    2011-09-01

    Transesterification of vegetable oils (from soybeans and rice bran) into methyl and ethyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A critical comparison between the two alcohols was performed in terms of yields, quality, and reaction kinetics. Parameters tested were temperature (60, 70 and 80°C) and time (5, 10, 15 and 20 min). At all tested conditions, more than 96% conversion rates were obtained for both ethanol and methanol. Use of microwave technology to assist the transesterification process resulted in faster reaction times and reduced catalyst requirement (about ten-fold decrease). Methanol required lower alcohol:oil ratios than normally used in conventional heating, whereas ethanol required higher molar ratios. All esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Methanol performed better in terms of performance and costs, while ethanol may have some environmental and safety benefits.

  5. Optimisation of the acidulation process of soapstock from the neutralisation of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, Daniela

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Soapstock from the neutralisation of rice bran oil was characterised through the most important parameters with direct influence on the acidulation process. A central composite rotational experimental design of two levels was used. The responses of the trials were γ -oryzanol concentration in the acid oil and process time necessary for total hydrolysis of the soaps present. The optimal process conditions were determined using the response surface methodology. Adjustments were made to second order mathematical models and validity was verified by analysis of variance using the STATISTICA program. The process variables studied were: molar ratio - sulphuric acid/soaps (0.55-0.95 and process temperature (70- 100 °C . The results indicated that the process temperature does not significantly interfere in the concentration of γ -oryzanol of the acid oil, but it does affect process time. In the different concentrations of sulphuric acid added, represented by the molar ratio of sulphuric acid/soaps, the concentration of γ -oryzanol varied between 3.13 and 3.74 %. Through the superposition of the areas of the response surface contour curves the optimal process parameters were determined: process temperature of 95 °C and molar ratio of sulphuric acid/soaps of 0.74, resulting in a γ -oryzanol concentration of 3.64 % and a process time of 90 minutes.La borra de neutralización de aceite de salvado de arroz se caracterizó por los parámetros más importantes con influencia directa sobre el proceso de acidulación. Se utilizó un diseño estadístico experimental compuesto rotacional central con dos niveles. Los resultados de los ensayos fueron la concentración de γ -orizanol en el aceite ácido y el tiempo de proceso necesario para la hidrólisis total de los jabones presentes. Se determinaron las condiciones óptimas del proceso utilizando la metodología de superficie de respuesta. Los ajustes se hicieron a modelos matemáticos de

  6. Minor Constituents in Rice Bran Oil and Sesame Oil Play a Significant Role in Modulating Lipid Homeostasis and Inflammatory Markers in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalagala, Poorna C R; Sugasini, Dhavamani; Ramaprasad, Talahalli Ravichandra; Lokesh, Belur Ramaswamy

    2017-07-01

    The effects of feeding rats with groundnut oil (GNO), rice bran oil (RBO), and sesame oil (SESO) on serum lipids, liver lipids, and inflammatory markers were evaluated in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10 wt% of GNO, RBO, and SESO in the form of native (N) and minor constituent-removed (MCR) oils. Rats given RBO and SESO showed significant reduction in serum and liver lipids, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, cytokines in liver, and eicosanoids in leukocytes as compared with the rats given GNO and MCR oils. The rats fed with native oils of RBO and SESO showed an upregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and downregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65. These effects of native oil were significantly compromised when rats were given MCR oils. In conclusion, the minor constituents significantly support the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory properties of RBO and SESO.

  7. Lipase-catalyzed preparation of diacylglycerol-enriched oil from high-acid rice bran oil in solvent-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhihua; Liu, Yuanfa; Jin, Qingzhe; Li, Lei; Wang, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhua; Liu, Ruijie

    2012-09-01

    The ability of immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) to catalyze the reaction of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) and monoglyceride (MG) for diacylglycerol-enriched rice bran oil (RBO-DG) preparation was investigated. The effects of substrate ratio, reaction temperature, time, and enzyme load on the respective content of free fatty acid (FFA) and DG in the final RBO-DG products was investigated. Enzyme screening on the reaction was also investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of the reaction temperature (50-70 °C), the enzyme load (2-6 %; relative to the weight of total substrates), and the reaction time (4-8 h) on the respective content of FFA and DG. Validation of the RSM model was verified by the good agreement between the experimental and the predicted values. The optimum preparation conditions were as follows: MG/RBO, 0.25; temperature, 56 °C; enzyme load, 4.77 %; and reaction time, 5.75 h. Under the suggested conditions, the respective content of FFA and DG was 0.28 and 27.98 %, respectively. Repeated reaction tests indicated that Lipozyme RM IM could be used nine times under the optimum conditions with 90 % of its original catalytic activity still retained.

  8. 响应面法优化米糠调和油配比的研究%Response surface methodology ratio of rice bran cooking oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 马哲

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran blend is made by using mathematical model, on this basis by induction time for response values, the proportion of the blend oil of rice bran oil, reanut oil and wheat germ oil was studied by response surface methodology. It has the better oxidation stability and unsaturated fatty acid composition is more reasonable. Experimental data were analyzed by design Minitab software. The results showed that when the mass fraction of rice bran oil, reanut oil and wheat germ oil was 49.6970%, 10.4545% and 40.8485%, the blend oil had the better oxidation stability, and the induction time was 6.31620 h. Compared with unoptimized proportion of the blend oil, it increased by 29.85%.%利用数学模型制备米糠调和油,在此基础上以诱导时间为响应值,采用响应面分析法优化米糠油、花生油和小麦胚芽油的配比,使调和后的油脂不饱和脂肪酸组成更合理且氧化稳定性更好。实验结果表明当米糠油、小麦胚茅油、花生油的质量分数分别为49.6970%、10.4545%、40.8485%时,诱导时间最大,为6.31620h。与优化前相比提高了29.85%。

  9. Structure stabilization in starch-quinoa bran doughs: The role of water availability and gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föste, Maike; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    Bran is a promising ingredient for nutritional fortification in starch-based dough systems. However its incorporation is a technological challenge favoring a shift in dough functionality. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of bran on baking performance independent of dough firmness and start of gelatinization. Therefore, corn starch was replaced by quinoa bran (10% to 50%) and water addition (80-110g/100g flour) was standardized on a fixed complex shear modulus (G*) and start of gelatinization (TOnset) based on a corn starch reference dough. A destabilizing effect by bran particles was counteracted in corn starch dough by adjusting the water content up to 110 g/100g flour. Moreover, a negative correlation between TOnset and loaf volume was determined (r=- 0.9042), thus an early TOnset should be aspired in order to prevent gas release and to stabilize corn starch- quinoa bran dough. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Rice Bran Oil Rich in Oryzanol on Pentobarbital- Induced Sleeping Behaviors in Partial Sleep-Deprived Mice Through Modulation of Monoamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang YANG; Gui CHEN; Cui-hong ZHU; Xiao-lin LUO; Bi-xia HUANG; Hui-lian ZHU

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate whether rice bran oil rich in oryzanol has effects on pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors and locomotor activities in partial sleep-deprived mice.Methods Sixty mice were randomly divided into five groups (12 for each). Control and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) model groups were fed basic rodent chow with 8% soy-bean oil (oryzanol free). PSD-low oryzanol (PSD-lOZ), PSD-medium oryzanol (PSD-mOZ) and PSD-high oryzanol (PSD-hOZ) groups were fed basic rodent chow with 8% rice bran oil, containing 3000, 7000 and 15000 mg/kg of oryzanol, respectively for 25 d. The locomotor activities after PSD and the latency and duration of sleep induced by pentobarbital were determined. The contents of monoamines, as norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were measured by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.Results Immediately after PSD, the locomotor activities in PSD model group were decreased compared with the control group (P< 0.05). The PSD-mOZ and PSD-hOZ groups had higher locomotor activities than the PSD model group (bothP< 0.05). The latency of sleep in the PSD-mOZ group and PSD-hOZ group were both decreased when compared with the PSD model group (bothP< 0.05). Linear regression showed that the duration of sleep time increased in dose dependent manner with the contents of oryzanol in rice bran oil (P=0.05). The PSD model group had lower level of NE, DA and 5-HT when compared with the control group (allP<0.05). Supplementation of high contents of oryzanol in rice bran oil may prevent the decline in monoamines (NE, DA, 5-HT) induced by PSD (allP<0.05).Conclusion Rice bran oil rich in oryzanol may alleviate fatigue and improve sleep in mice with PSD through modulation of monoamines (NE, DA, 5-HT).

  11. 米糠油氧化稳定性研究及货架期预测%Oxidation Stability and Shelf-life of Rice Bran Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丹; 吴雪辉; 杨公明; 陈小龙

    2012-01-01

    以精炼米糠油为原料,通过分析其理化指标与脂肪酸组成,探讨贮藏条件对米糠油氧化稳定性的影响,建立氧化反应动力学方程,预测米糠油的货架期.结果表明,米糠油脂肪酸中不饱和脂肪酸含量为77.45%,主要有棕榈酸17.77%、油酸46.74%、亚油酸29.34%.米糠油的氧化稳定性受光照、温度和氧气含量的影响,空气中氧气的存在会加速米糠油氧化,温度越高,氧化速度越快;不同光照条件下的稳定性依次为:避光>紫外光>自然光>日光灯.米糠油氧化遵循一级化学反应,其动力学模型为k=0.3564e 796.36/RT,通过外推法得出米糠油20℃、25℃和30℃的货架期分别为1068 d、410d、206 d.%Physical and chemical indexes were analyzed to study the oxidation stability, oxidation kinetics and shelf-life of refined rice bran oil. The results showed that the percentage of unsaturated acid was 77.45%, including 17.77% palmitic acid, 46.74% oleic acid, and 29.34% linoleic acid. Light conditions, temperature and oxygen significantly affected the oxidation stability of rice bran oil. The stability of rice bran oil significantly decreased with increasing storage temperature. The stability of different light conditions was as follows: dark>UV-light>natural light> fluorescent light. The oxidation of rice bran oil followed first-oeder dynamic model shelif-life of rice bran oil at 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 "C were 1068 days, 410 days and 206 days, repestively.

  12. Preparation and characterization of foxtail millet bran oil using subcritical propane and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Yuzhong; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ruitin; Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2015-01-01

    ...), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and subcritical propane extraction (SPE) and analyzed the yield, physicochemical property, fatty acid profile, tocopherol composition, oil oxidative stability in this study...

  13. Effect of ionizing radiation on the protein and lipid quality characteristics of mutton kheema treated with rice bran oil and sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalarama Reddy, K.; Jayathilakan, K.; Pandey, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Effect of rice bran oil (RBO) and irradiation (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy) on lipid and protein quality of ready-to-eat mutton kheema were established during refrigerated storage (4±1 °C). Total carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), non-heme iron and total volatiles in irradiated RBO samples were significantly lower (psunflower oil (SFO) treated samples initially and during storage. Product with RBO and Flaxseed oil (FSO) at the optimized level yielded a designer meat product having an SFA:MUFA:PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio of 1:1.3:1.3 and 3.6:1 respectively. Degradation in PUFA levels in SFO samples were significantly higher (p<0.05) and an increase of 31% in metmyoglobin after 50 days was noticed in comparison with RBO samples. Non-linear correlation analysis of chemical markers established polynomial fit equations. 2 kGy radiation processing with RBO yielded a product having 50 days of shelf stability in terms of its chemical characteristics.

  14. Thermo-acidophillic biohydrogen production from rice bran de-oiled wastewater by Selectively enriched mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishna, D.; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad-500 085 (India); Narasu, M. Lakshmi [Centre for Biotechnology, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad-500 085 (India)

    2010-07-01

    The present study focuses on the biohydrogen production in an anaerobic batch reactor operated at thermophillic (570C) and acidophilic conditions (pH 6) with rice bran de-oiled wastewater (RBOW) as substrate. The hydrogen generating mixed microflora was enriched from slaughter house sludge (SHS) through acid treatment (pH 3-4, for 24h) coupled with heat treatment (1h at 1000C) to eliminate non-spore forming bacteria and to inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria (MB) prior to inoculation in the reactor. The hydrogen production rate was maximum at 570C (1861 +- 14ml/L-WW/d) compared to 370C (651 +- 30ml/L-ww/d). The Hydrogen yield increased with temperature from 1.1 to 2.2 molH2/mol of substrate respectively. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was observed in between 5.5 to 6. Acid-forming pathway with butyric acid as a major metabolite dominated the metabolic flow during the hydrogen production.

  15. BBD Optimization of K-ZnO Catalyst Modification Process for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Rice Bran Oil to Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabo, K. S.; Yacob, A. R.; Bakar, W. A. W. A.; Buang, N. A.; Bello, A. M.; Ruskam, A.

    2016-07-01

    Environmentally benign zinc oxide (ZnO) was modified with 0-15% (wt.) potassium through wet impregnation and used in transesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) to form biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), its basic sites determined by back titration and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize the modification process variables on the basic sites of the catalyst. The transesterification product, biodiesel was analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result reveals K-modified ZnO with highly increased basic sites. Quadratic model with high regression R2 = 0.9995 was obtained from the ANOVA of modification process, optimization at maximum basic sites criterion gave optimum modification conditions of K-loading = 8.5% (wt.), calcination temperature = 480 oC and time = 4 hours with response and basic sites = 8.14 mmol/g which is in close agreement with the experimental value of 7.64 mmol/g. The catalyst was used and a value of 95.53% biodiesel conversion was obtained and effect of potassium leaching was not significant in the process

  16. Thermo-acidophillic biohydrogen production from rice bran de-oiled wastewater by Selectively enriched mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Sivaramakrishna, D.Sreekanth, V.Himabindu, M.Lakshmi Narasu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the biohydrogen production in an anaerobic batch reactor operated at thermophillic (570C and acidophilic conditions (pH 6 with rice bran de-oiled wastewater (RBOW as substrate. The hydrogen generating mixed microflora was enriched from slaughter house sludge (SHS through acid treatment (pH 3-4, for 24h coupled with heat treatment (1h at 1000C to eliminate non-spore forming bacteria and to inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria (MB prior to inoculation in the reactor. The hydrogen production rate was maximum at 570C (1861±14ml/L-WW/d compared to 370C (651±30ml/L-ww/d. The Hydrogen yield increased with temperature from 1.1 to 2.2 molH2/mol of substrate respectively. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was observed in between 5.5 to 6. Acid-forming pathway with butyric acid as a major metabolite dominated the metabolic flow during the hydrogen production.

  17. Sesame Oil and Rice Bran Oil Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats: Distinguishing the Role of Minor Components and Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Nayana Venugopal; Sadashivaiah; Ramaiyan, Breetha; Acharya, Pooja; Belur, Lokesh; Talahalli, Ramaprasad Ravichandra

    2016-12-01

    Though present in small amounts, the minor constituents of dietary oils may supplement the dietary therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hence, in the present study, we assessed the effect of minor constituents from sesame oil (SO) and rice bran oil (RBO) and their fatty acids on the severity of adjuvant-induced arthritis in experimental rats. Rats were gavaged with 1 mL of SO or RBO or groundnut oil (GNO, control) with or without its minor components for a period 15 days before and 15 days after the induction of arthritis. Oxidative stress, markers of RA, eicosanoids, cytokines, paw swelling and joint integrity were measured in experimental and control rats. Results demonstrated that native SO and RBO but not SO and RBO stripped of their minor components decreased severity of paw inflammation, oxidative stress (lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, nitric oxide), RA markers (RF and CRP), inflammatory eicosanoids (PGE2, LTB4 and LTC4) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α) compared to control rats. Native SO and RBO inhibited hydrolytic enzymes (collagenase, elastase and hyaluronidase) in the synovial tissue compared to SO and RBO without minor components. The arthritic scores assessed based on the digital and X-ray images indicated that native oils but not those without their minor components reduced the paw swelling and bone loss. Our results indicated that minor components of SO and RBO possess a significant degree of an anti-arthritic effect and are responsible for down regulating inflammation in the experimentally induced arthritis in rats.

  18. Stability of rice bran oil extracted by SFE and soxhlet methods during accelerated shelf-life storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariod, A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid high oryzanol (SFE HO and supercritical fluid low oryzanol (SFE LO rice bran oils were obtained and compared with that extracted by the Soxhlet (SOX method. Their composition and stability during storage were determined. The amount of unsaponifiable matter and gamma oryzanol of SFE samples were significantly (p -1 was higher than that reported in SFE HO and SFE LO, at 3.2 and 2.6 mg·g-1, respectively. After storage for 42 days at 70 °C the PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine values of SOX were higher than those of SFE HO, and SFE LO. The SFE samples showed better stability than SOX under successive heating and the addition of BHA decreased PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine levels in all samples.Se realizaron extracciones mediante fluido supercrítico de salvado de arroz con alto (SFE HO y bajo (SFE LO contenido en orizanol y se comparó con los extraídos mediante Soxhlet (SOX. Se determinó la composición y la estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. La materia insaponificable y el gamma orizanol de las muestras SFE fueron significativamente más altas (p -1 fue mayor que lo encontrado para SFE HO y SFE LO, 3,2 y 2,6 mg·g-1 respectivamente. Después de 42 días de almacenamiento a 70 °C los valores de PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y p-anisidina de SOX fueron mayores que los de SFE HO, y SFE LO. Las muestras SFE mostraron mejor estabilidad que SOX bajo calentamiento y la adición de BHA disminuyó el PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y los niveles de p-anisidina en todas las muestras.

  19. One-step production of biodiesel from rice bran oil catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia via simultaneous esterification and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Due to the high content (25-50%) of free fatty acid (FFA), crude rice bran oil usually requires a two steps conversion or one step conversion with very harsh condition for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In this study, chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia (HClSO3-ZrO2) with strong acidity and durability is prepared and it shows excellent catalytic activity toward simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Under a relative low reaction temperature of 120 °C, HClSO3-ZrO2 catalyzes a complete conversion of simulated crude rice bran oil (refined oil with 40 wt% FFA) into biodiesel and the conversion yield keep at above 92% for at least three cycles. Further investigation on the tolerance towards FFA and water reveals that it maintains high activity even with the presence of 40 wt% FFA and 3 wt% water. It shows that HClSO3-ZrO2 is a robust and durable catalyst which shows high potential to be commercial catalyst for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock.

  20. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mixed hydrogenated palm kernel oil and cold-pressed rice bran oil as ingredients in non-dairy creamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunakorn Katsri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and microbiological properties of hydrogenated palm kernel oil (PKO and cold-pressed rice bran oil (RBOas ingredients in the production of liquid and powdered non-dairy creamer (coffee whitener were studied. The mixing ratios between hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO were statistically designed as of 100:0, 90:10,80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100.The color, absorbanceand viscosity of the mixtures were investigated. As the ratio of cold-pressed RBO increased, the color became darker (L*of 93.06 to 86.25 and the absorbance significantly increased, while the viscosity of the mixtures of 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100 (54 cp. were the highest amongst the ratios tested.The hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO mixtures were further chemically tested for fatty acids, -oryzanol, -tocopherol, trans-fat contents andantioxidant activity. There were 10 fatty acids present in hydrogenated PKO with saturated fatty acid being the most predominant. Comparatively, there were only 5 fatty acids found in cold-pressed RBO with monounsaturated fatty acid being the major fatty acid. -Oryzanol and -tocopherol contents were higher with increasingcold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (0 to 1,155.00 mg/100g oil and 0.09 to 30.82 mg/100g oil, respectively. Antioxidant activity was increased with increasing cold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (9.26 to 94.24%.The pure hydrogenated PKO contained higher trans-fat content than that of the 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures (2.73, 1.93 and 1.85mg/100g oil,respectively while other samples had no trans-fat. No microorganisms were present in any of the samples.Therefore, substitution of hydrogenated PKO by cold-pressed RBO from 30-100% would offer more nutritional values and better chemical and physical properties of non-dairy creamer.

  1. Preparation and surface active properties of a-acyloxysuccinic acid derivatives from malic acid and fatty acids of crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface active compounds were prepared from malic acid by esterification with acyl chloride (IIa-d, of [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and mixed fatty acids of rice bran oil (RBO (IIe], in the presence of pyridine as catalyst, forming (IIIa-e ,  which are  converted to anionic disodium salt (IVa-e . The prepared a-acyl-oxysuccinic acid derivatives (IIIa-e was oxypropenoxylated with various moles of propylene oxide (n= 2, 4, 6 and 8 to give (V-IXa-d . These compounds were converted to nonionic surfactants with two terminal amide oxime groups  (XV-XIXa-d as molecular aggregations and surface active agents in aqueous media. The structures were confirmed by micro analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties of the prepared compounds revealed excellent results.Se han preparado compuestos de tensión superficial a partir de ácido málico por esterificación con cloruro de acilo (IIa-d de [palmítico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y ácidos grasos mezclados de aceite de gérmen de arroz (RBO (IIe], en presencia de piridina como catalizador, formando (IIIa-e, los cuales son convertidos a sales disódicas aniónicas (IVa-e. El derivado del ácido a-acil-oxisuccínico preparado (IIIa-e fue oxipropenoxilado con varios moles de óxido de propileno (n=2, 4, 6 y 8 para dar (V-IXa-d. Estos compuestos fueron convertidos en tensioactivos no iónicos con dos grupos amida oxima terminal (XV-XIXa-d como agregaciones moleculares y agentes tensioactivos en medio acuoso. Las estructuras se confirmaron por microanálisis, IR y espectros de 1H NMR. Las propiedades tensioactivas de los compuestos preparados revelaron excelentes resultados.

  2. Enzymatic production of trans-free hard fat stock from fractionated rice bran oil, fully hydrogenated soybean oil, and conjugated linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, P; Shin, J-A; Lee, J-H; Hu, J-N; Hwang, K T; Lee, K-T

    2009-03-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) was fractionated into 2 phases, solid (S-RBO) and liquid (L-RBO), using acetone at -18 degrees C and the weight yield of each S-RBO and L-RBO was 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Then, trans-free hard fat was synthesized from trans-free substrate of S-RBO and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) at different molar ratios (S-RBO : FHSBO; 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, 1 : 2, and 1 : 3) with Lipozyme TL IM lipase (10% of total substrate). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 20% of total substrate) was used as functional fatty acids for the production of trans-free hard fat. After fatty acid analysis, CLA (12.2% to 14.2%) was found on the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone of the interesterified products along with stearic (37.6% to 49%), palmitic (15% to 17.9%), and oleic acids (13.3% to 19.2%). The interesterified product contained higher level of saturated fatty acid (62.6% to 70.1%) at sn-2 position. Total tocopherols (alpha-, gamma-, and delta-; 1.4 to 2.6 mg/100 g) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol; 220.5 to 362.7 mg/100 g) were found in the interesterified products. From DSC results, solid fat contents of the interesterified products (S-RBO : FHSBO 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, 1 : 2, and 1 : 3) at 25 degrees C were 23.1%, 27%, 30.1%, and 44.9%. The interesterified products consisted mostly of beta' form crystal with a small portion of beta form. The interesterified product (S-RBO : FHSBO 1 : 1.5) was softer than the physical blend but slightly harder than commercial shortenings as measured by texture analyzer. Thus, trans-free hard fat stock, which may have a potential functionality could be produced with various physical properties.

  3. A simple method for purification of deodorizer distillate from Indian rice (Oryza Sativa bran oil and preparation of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Rajan, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rice bran oil deodorizer distillates (RBO DOD-1 and RBO DOD-2 were studied for their physicochemical characteristics. The samples were semisolid and had a dark color. The free fatty acid values were 59.2% and 86.0%, the unsaponifiable matter was 18.7% and 7.75% and the phytosterol contents were 8.71% and 4.22%, respectively for the deodorizer distillates studied. A simple method of silica gel percolation was developed to purify DOD to obtain phytosterol concentrate fractions (PCF and a brown color and bad odor fraction (BCBOF. The color values were reduced by 72.8% and 73.0% of lovibond units in the PCF for DOD-1 and DOD-2 respectively, had no bad odor and were increased in the phytosterol concentration to 12.4% and 5.9%. The PCF was further processed to prepare high purity phytosterols. An HPLC analysis of the phytosterol mixture showed it to be formed by β-sitosterol (38.2%, stigmasterol (34.9%, campesterol (9.5% and other sterols (17.4%.Se estudiaron las características físico-químicas de muestras de destilados de desodorización de aceites de salvado de arroz (RBO DOD-1 y RBO DOD-2. Las muestras eran semi-sólidas y tenían un color oscuro. Los valores de ácidos grasos libres fueron 59,2% y 86,0%, materia insaponificable 18,7% y 7,75% y contenido de fitoesteroles de 8,71% y 4,22%, respectivamente, para los destilados de desodorización estudiados. Se desarrolló un método simple de filtración mediante sílica gel para purificar DOD y obtener concentrados de fitosteroles (PCF y una fracción de color marrón y olor desagradable (BCBOF. Los valores de color se redujeron en un 72,8% y el 73,0% de unidades Lovibond en el PCF para DOD-1 y DOD-2, respectivamente, no tenían mal olor y aumentaron su concentración en fitoesteroles al 12,4% y 5,9%. El PCF se procesó adicionalmente para preparar fitosteroles de alta pureza. El análisis por HPLC mostró que la mezcla de fitosteroles estaba formada por β-sitosterol (38

  4. Brans-Dicke geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R

    2008-01-01

    We reveal the non-metric geometry underlying omega-->0 Brans-Dicke theory by unifying the metric and scalar field into a single geometric structure. Taking this structure seriously as the geometry to which matter universally couples, we show that the theory is fully consistent with solar system tests. This is in striking constrast with the standard metric coupling, which grossly violates post-Newtonian experimental constraints.

  5. Brans-Dicke geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Raffaele [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: raffaele.punzi@desy.de; Schuller, Frederic P. [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14467 Potsdam (Germany)], E-mail: fps@aei.mpg.de; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R. [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: mattias.wohlfarth@desy.de

    2008-12-11

    We reveal the non-metric geometry underlying {omega}{yields}0 Brans-Dicke theory by unifying the metric and scalar field into a single geometric structure. Taking this structure seriously as the geometry to which matter universally couples, we show that the theory is fully consistent with solar system tests. This is in striking contrast with the standard metric coupling, which grossly violates post-Newtonian experimental constraints.

  6. Extraction and Fatty Acids Analysis of Bran Oil in Oat%燕麦麸油的萃取及脂肪酸成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠兰英; 黄梓平; 赵启文

    2012-01-01

    采用超临界CO2法从燕麦(Avena sativa)品种青海444中萃取麸油,设计正交试验优化萃取工艺.结果表明,萃取压力对燕麦麸油的萃取率有极显著影响(P<0.01),萃取时间和萃取温度对萃取率有显著影响(P<0.05).优化的萃取工艺条件为萃取压力25 MPa、萃取温度40℃、萃取时间2.5 h,此条件下燕麦麸油的萃取率为8.572%.GC-MS分析表明青海444燕麦麸油中主要含有5种脂肪酸,其中总不饱和脂肪酸含量达85.366%,油酸和亚油酸的含量分别为41.175%和40.558%.%Supercritical CO2 method was adopted to extract brand oil from oat (Avena saliva) variety Qinghai 444; and orthogonal design was applied to optimize the extraction. The results showed that extraction pressure had very significant effect on the yield of bran oil (P<0.01); while extraction temperature and extraction time had significant effect (P<0.05). The optimum extraction conditions were, extraction pressure, 25 Mpa; extraction temperature, 40 t; and extraction time, 2.5 hours; the yield of oat bran oil was 8.572% under these conditions. According to GC—MS analysis, there were 5 components in oat bran oil, among which the content of total unsaturated fatty acid was 85.366% ; and the content of oleic acid and linoleic acid was 41.175% and 40.558%, respectively.

  7. "Brans-Dicke" with $\\Lambda>0$: Black holes and large scale structures

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Romano, Antonio E; Tomaras, Theodore N

    2015-01-01

    The no-hair theorem is generalized to stationary axisymmetric black-holes in scalar tensor theories of the Brans-Dicke type with positive cosmological constant, general $\\omega(\\phi)$ and potential $V(\\phi)$. For finite constant $\\omega$ the Brans-Dicke field $\\phi$ is shown to blow-up logarithmically at the horizons. Perturbative solutions of the theory are analyzed relevant to astrophysical applications, where either one or both horizons are "hidden". It is shown that when the stationary cosmological horizon is hidden, the black hole horizon supports non-trivial "$\\phi-$hair". On the other hand, when the black hole horizon is hidden, the presence of the cosmological one leads to an upper bound on $\\omega$.

  8. Preparation of Diacylglycerol-enriched Rice Bran Oil by Lipase-catalyzed Deacidification in Packed-bed Reactors by Continuous Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongyun; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Han, Wang; Jiang, Yuanrong; Jin, Qiangzhe; Li, Li; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol-enriched rice bran oil (RBO-DAG) was produced by deacidification of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) with glycerol (Gly) using Lipozyme RM IM by continuous dehydration by combination of two enzyme columns (column 1 and 3, used for deacidification) with one molecular sieves column (column 2, used for dehydration). The conditions for three columns were respectively optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions of column 1. The content of DAG and conversion of free fatty acid (FFA) were used as indicators and the effects of the enzyme load (8-12 g), flow rate (0.3-0.6 mL/min), substrate molar ratio (4-6) and reaction temperature (55-75°C) were investigated. The content of DAG and conversion of FFA were significantly correlated to the flow rate and substrate molar ratio. Most desirable conditions of the reaction with respect to the maximal DAG content and FFA conversion was attained under the residence time of 40 min, substrate molar ratio of 5.52 (Gly: RBO) and temperature of 66°C. The conditions for column 2 were investigated by varying molecular sieves load and flow rate, and the maximal dehydration rate of 85.22% was obtained under the optimal conditions. For column 3, the optimum conditions were obtained as: flow rate, 0.2mL/min; temperature, 65°C, and the content of DAG and FFA were 38.99% and 3.04%, respectively under these conditions. The catalytic activity of the lipase was stable in twelve continuous operations with 83.22% of its original ability, demonstrating its potential in the continuous packed-bed reactors (PBRs) system. These results showed that packed-bed reactors combined with continuous deacidification and dehydration in one system had great value in industrial production for high-acid RBO with the improved conversion rate.

  9. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μ...

  10. Studies on Rice Bran and its benefits- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sharma,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran, a by-product of rice milling industry is rich in micronutrients like oryzanols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and dietary fibers. The high nutritional profile of rice bran has not been utilized due to problems associated with lipase enzyme, which reduces the quality of rice bran and makes it unfit for human consumption. After the stabilization of lipase enzyme, it is possible to derive highly nutritious value-added products of rice bran. Due to the presence of antioxidants, it helps in lowering plasma cholesterol, decreasing serum cholesterol, decreasing cholesterol absorption and decreasing platelet aggregation. It has also been used to cure hyperlipidemia, menopause disorders and to increase the muscle mass. The most widely accepted product of rice bran is its oil that has exceptional properties as compared to other vegetable oils. This review paper describes the distinct properties of rice bran as well as its health benefits.

  11. 乙醇萃取米糠油脱酸脱蜡工艺研究%Study on Technical Process of Deacidifying and Dewaxing Rice Bran Oil through Ethanol Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓军; 李群; 许光映; 高忠东

    2013-01-01

    In order to search the process of deacidifying and dewaxing rice bran oil with high acid value,this study uses edible ethanol as extractant and extracts the rice bran oil to deacidify and dewax it.The study shows the optimized process is to extract crude rice bran oil with 95 % ethanol consecutively twice according to the proportion of 2.5∶1 (V/W).The result shows that rice bran oil output ratio is 87.59%,the acid value of the oil is 1.21 mg KOH/g,oryzanol retention rate is 87.10%,the weight of recycled free fatty acid is 8.93% of the weight of rice bran oil,the weight of wax is 3.48% of the weight of rice bran oil,the recycling rate of ethanol is 90.05%,and the ratio of oil loss and acid value is 0.56.Compared with chemical deacidifying and physical deacidifying process,the abovementioned process of deacidifying and dewaxing rice bran oil through ethanol extraction needs less equipment investment,realizes higher oryzanol retention rate and higher oil output ratio,and reclaims free fatty acid and wax as by-products.Its shortcomings are high ethanol consumption and the acid value of product can not reach the standard of the first grade oil.%为探索高酸值米糠油的脱酸、脱蜡方法,以食用乙醇为萃取剂,对米糠油采用萃取的方法达到脱酸、脱蜡的目的.研究表明其优化工艺是:用95%的乙醇与米糠毛油按2.5∶1体积质量比、连续萃取2次,结果是:米糠油得率为87.59%,产品的酸值为1.21 mgKOH/g,谷维素保留率为87.10%,得到米糠毛油重8.93%的游离脂肪酸和3.48%的蜡,乙醇回收率为90.05%,溶耗酸值比为0.56.用乙醇萃取米糠油脱酸脱蜡工艺相比化学脱酸和物理脱酸工艺,设备投资少,谷维素保留率高,米糠油得率较高,回收了副产品游离脂肪酸和蜡.不足之处是消耗的乙醇较多,产品的酸值达不到一级油标准.

  12. Preparation of millet bran oil rich in sterol%富含甾醇小米谷糠油提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵陈勇; 王常青; 许洁; 王菲; 樊迎

    2011-01-01

    比较了相同提取条件下正己烷与异丙醇提取小米谷糠油的得率.结果发现:异丙醇提取的小米谷糠油得率比正己烷高4.83百分点,可以达到25.32%.异丙醇在不同提取条件下提取小米谷糠的正交试验表明:当提取温度70℃,提取时间4 h,提取4次时,小米谷糠油得率最高,为25.61%;当提取温度60℃,提取时间4 h,提取3次时,小米谷糠油中甾醇含量为1.394%,油得率为24.75%.%The oil yields of millet bran extracted with hexane and isopropanol in the same conditions were compared.The results showed that the oil yield of isopropanol extraction was 25.32%, which was 4.83% more than that of hexane.The orthogonal test showed that the highest oil yield was 25.61% under extraction conditions of 70 ℃, 4 h and extraction 4 times; and under extraction conditions of 60 ℃, 4 h and extraction 3 times, the sterol content and the oil yield reached 1.394% and 24.75% ,respectively.

  13. Antioxidative effect of Assam Tea (Camellia sinesis Var. Assamica) extract on rice bran oil and its application in breakfast cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama-Ang, Niramon; Phawatwiangnak, Kamonyanun; Naruenartwongsakul, Srisuwan; Samakradhamrongthai, Rajnibhas

    2017-04-15

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the antioxidant effect of Assam tea extract (ATE) and whether it is fit to utilise ATE by fortification in rice bran breakfast cereal (RBC). The increasing ATE powder from 0.1 to 0.3mg/g affected to be decreased. The ATE powder at 0.3mg/g was proved to have decreased the hexanal content (0.21μg/ml) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (2.56μg/g) within 28days, and provided the highest antioxidant ability (EC50) (2481.44mg/kg). The fortified 0.3mg/g of ATE powder showed that increasing ATE significantly increased the total phenolic content and decreased TBARS and EC50 of breakfast cereal (ppurchase intention at 98.0% and 89.0%, respectively.

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  15. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent production of rice bran oil in Asia and the U.S. has resulted in large quantities of defatted rice bran as a low-value byproduct. Peptides from soy, milk, and other foods have been shown to have the potential hypocholesterolemic property and rice bran protein (RBP) may also contain bioact...

  16. 不同煎炸食材对米糠油煎炸品质影响的研究%Effect of different food materials on the frying quality of rice bran oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹辉; 刘玉兰; 田瑜; 杨书平

    2014-01-01

    The effects of four typical frying food materials on the frying quality of rice bran oil during the intermittent frying were studied by determing the quality indexes of fring rice bran oil. The four frying ma-terials were starch-base food material ( potato chips) , high moisture content food material ( bean curd) , meat food material ( chicken wing ) and flour-base food material ( dough sticks ) , and the parameters used to assess the quality of frying rice bran oil were color, acid value, carbonyl value, fatty acid compo-sition, contents of trans fatty acids and vitamin E. The results showed that different frying food materials presented different levels of influences on the deterioration of frying rice bran oil because of different main components in the food materials. The increase sequences of acid value, carbonyl value and total content of trans fatty acids of frying rice bran oil were bean curd>chicken wing>dough sticks>potato chips, dough sticks>potato chips>bean curd>chicken wing and dough sticks>chicken wing>potato chips=bean curd respectively, while the decrease extent of vitamin E content was potato chips>dough sticks>chicken wing>bean curd.%利用米糠油对不同煎炸食材进行间歇性煎炸,通过对煎炸油色泽、酸值、羰基值、脂肪酸组成、反式脂肪酸含量、维生素E含量的检测分析,对比研究植物淀粉基食材(薯条)、高含水量食材(豆腐)、肉类食材(鸡翅)、面粉基食材(油条)4种代表性煎炸食材对煎炸油品质的影响。结果表明:不同煎炸食材因所含主要组分的不同,对煎炸油品质劣变呈现出不同程度的影响;煎炸油酸值增大程度依次为豆腐>鸡翅>油条>薯条;羰基值增大程度依次为油条>薯条>豆腐>鸡翅;总反式脂肪酸增大程度依次为油条>鸡翅>薯条=豆腐;维生素E含量降低程度依次为薯条>油条>鸡翅>豆腐。

  17. 脂肪酶催化米糠油水解反应的研究%Study of rice bran oil hydrolysis catalyzed by lipase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄甫; 王萌; 聂开立; 邓利; 王芳; 谭天伟

    2012-01-01

    研究了Candida sp.99-125脂肪酶催化米糠油水解反应,考察了米糠油水解反应过程中水油比、酶用量和反应温度对酶促油脂水解的影响,并且研究了添加剂Ca(OH)2对酶促油脂水解反应的影响.结果表明,最适合水解条件为水油比1.2、酶用量0.3%和反应温度40℃,反应48h后的水解率为90.6%.酶促油脂水解反应中添加油重2.6%的Ca(OH)2,反应24 h后的水解率为93.3%,反应产物中脂层成份单甘脂(MAG)、二甘酯(DAG)和三甘酯(TAG)的质量分数分别为0.7%、1.4%和4.6%,添加Ca(OH)2缩短了酶促水解反应时间,提高了酶促水解反应速率和水解率.%The enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran oil catalyzed by Candida sp. 99-125 lipase has been investigated. The effect of the ratio of water to oil, enzyme amount ( mass fraction to oil) and reaction temperature on the hydrolysis was studied. The optimal reaction conditions were found to be; ratio of water to oil of 1. 2, a lipase amount of 0. 3% ( mass fraction to oil) , and a reaction temperature of 40 ℃. A hydrolysis degree of 90. 6% was obtained under the optimal reaction conditions after 48 h. When 2. 6% Ca(0H)2(mass fraction to oil) was added, a hydrolysis degree of 93. 3% was obtained after 24 h. The glyceride components were found to be monoglyceride 0. 7% , diglyceride 1.4% and triglyceride 4. 6% . When Ca( OH)2 was added to the hydrolysis reaction, the reaction time was reduced and higher hydrolysis rates were obtained.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms for the Modulation of Selected Inflammatory Markers by Dietary Rice Bran Oil in Rats Fed Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Kumar, P Pavan; Lokesh, B R

    2016-04-01

    Industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) contains trans fatty acids (TFA) mostly comprising elaidic acid (EA, 18:1∆9t). Though, the harmful effects of TFA on health have been repeatedly publicized, the fat containing TFA have been continued to be used as a cooking medium in many regions of the world. The adverse effects of PHVF on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and the possible ameliorative action of rice bran oil (RBO) on these markers were evaluated. Weaning rats were fed a AIN-93 purified diet supplemented with the following lipids: groundnut oil (GNO, 10 wt%), PHVF (10 wt%), RBO (10 wt%), PHVF blended with RBO at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt% levels. The final concentration of the lipids in the diet was maintained at 10 wt%. Rats were fed these diets for 60 days. They were sacrificed and analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. The rats fed PHVF showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation and hepatic antioxidant enzymes. The rats fed PHVF-containing diets showed enhanced levels of interleukin-1β, C-reactive proteins and also showed enhanced levels of paw inflammation when injected with carrageenan as compared to rats given GNO, RBO or PHVF blended with incremental amounts of RBO. The macrophages from rats fed diet containing PHVF showed up-regulation in the expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), nuclear factor-κB p65, toll like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4 and down-regulation in the expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR)γ, adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR-2 when compared to rats fed diet containing GNO, RBO and PHVF blended with RBO. It was concluded that dietary PHVF enhance pro-inflammatory markers which can be reduced by judiciously blending PHVF with RBO.

  19. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics to discriminate between cold pressed rice bran oils produced from two different cultivars of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tossaton CHAROONRATANA; Thanapat SONGSAK; Apirak SAKUNPAK; Pathamaporn PATHOMPAK; Laksana CHAROENCHAI

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed liquid chromatography⁃mass spectrometry ( LC⁃MS) method for the analysis of cold pressed rice bran oil ( RBO) was established and used to discriminate between RBOs produced from two different cultivars of major Thai fragrant rice species. The cold pressed RBO was prepared using the screw com⁃pression method. The LC⁃MS data were preprocessed with MZmine 2�10 program before evaluating with princi⁃pal component analysis using SIMCA 13 software. The LC⁃MS method was able to detect and quantify several kinds of valuable constituents such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and γ⁃oryzanol. The chromatographic condition was feasible;short time for analysis and simple method were achieved. From score plot and loading plot of principle component analysis ( PCA) , two rice cultivar samples were clearly separated, and it was revealed that Khao⁃Hom⁃Pathum was more suitable than Khao⁃Hom⁃Mali for cold pressed RBO production since it contained high total γ⁃oryzanol and less saturated free fatty acids. As with the fixed price of all the rice brans, this infor⁃mation can be used in order to, if possible, preserve the price of rice brans from different cultivars.

  20. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Basavanta Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  1. 自动电位滴定法测定米糠油酸值的研究%Detection of acid value of rice bran oil by automatic potentiometric titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛斌; 曹文明; 包杰; 陈纯; 金俊

    2014-01-01

    为了克服传统的人工指示剂滴定法在测定米糠油酸值过程中,米糠油本身的颜色和高含量的γ-谷维素对测定结果的严重干扰,采用自动电位滴定法,根据经典的酸碱滴定理论,采用二次作图法,在滴定的同时由联机电脑实时同步绘制酸碱滴定的pH-滴定体积曲线及其相应的一阶微分曲线,以这些曲线上游离脂肪酸发生中和反应引起的“pH突跃”为滴定终点的判定依据,建立米糠油酸值测定的自动电位滴定法。结果发现,自动电位滴定法能够准确区分游离脂肪酸和γ-谷维素各自的滴定终点,从而排除γ-谷维素对米糠油酸值测定的干扰。对比实验发现,除了米糠油外,自动电位滴定法对各类食用植物油酸值的测定结果与传统的人工指示剂滴定法的测定结果十分接近;但对于米糠油,人工指示剂滴定法的酸值(KOH)测定结果一般偏高0.3~1.0 mg/g。表明自动电位滴定法更能准确地测定米糠油的酸值。%In order to overcome the severe interferences of color and high contentγ-oryzanol in the de-tection of acid value of rice bran oil by traditional manual indicator titration method, according to the classical theory of acid base titration, using methods of automatic potentiometric titration and “second graph”, a detection method of the acid value of rice bran oil was established. Using this method, the pH-titration volume curve and corresponding first -order difference curve of acid base titration were drawn by computer real-timely and synchronously, then the “pH jump” in these curves, which was caused by the neutralization of free fatty acids, was taken as the foundation for judgment of titration end point. The results showed that the titration end points of free fatty acids and γ-oryzanol could be distin-guished correctly by automatic potentiometric titration method, therefore the interference of γ-oryzanol in the detection

  2. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  3. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time.

  4. The Peroxidase/H2O2 System as a Free Radical-Generating Agent for Gelling Maize Bran Arabinoxylans: Rheological and Structural Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Salas-Muñoz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative gelation of maize bran arabinoxylans (MBAX using a peroxidase/H2O2 system as a free radical-generating agent was investigated. The peroxidase/H2O2 system led to the formation of dimers and trimer of ferulic acid as covalent cross-link structures in the MBAX network. MBAX gels at 4% (w/v presented a storage modulus of 180 Pa. The structural parameters of MBAX gels were calculated from swelling experiments. MBAX gels presented a molecular weight between two cross-links (Mc, a cross-linking density (ρc and a mesh size (x of 49 × 103 g/mol, 30 × 10−6 mol/cm3 and 193 nm, respectively.

  5. Relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch of selected soft wheats grown in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate differences among chosen wheat varieties in their bran starch (the starch adherent to bran particles after a dry milling process) quantity, bran particle size, and milled bran thickness, and to investigate the relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch content. The neutral saccharide profile of the wheat bran was dominated by arabinose, xylose, and glucose, whereas mannose and galactose were present in small amounts. Bran thickness was found to have a positive correlation with bran starch content. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio showed positive correlations with percent large bran particles, and negative correlations with bran starch content. Bran characteristics can explain the variation seen in bran starch content and percent large bran particles of various wheat varieties. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio and bran thickness could both play roles in the mechanical properties of bran, and therefore change the percent of large bran particles produced during milling.

  6. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  7. Mass Inflation in Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pina-Avelino, P; Herdeiro, C A R

    2009-01-01

    A detailed non-linear analysis of the internal structure of spherical, charged black holes that are accreting scalar matter is performed in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We choose the lowest value of the Brans-Dicke parameter that is compatible with observational constraints. First, the homogeneous approximation is used. It indicates that mass inflation occurs and that the variations of the Brans-Dicke scalar inside the black hole, which could in principle be large in the absence of mass inflation, become small when mass inflation does occur. Then, a full non-linear numerical study of the black hole interior perturbed by a self-gravitating massless uncharged scalar-field is performed. We use an algorithm with adaptive mesh refinement capabilities. In this way, the changes in the internal structure of the black hole caused by mass inflation are determined, as well as the induced variations of the Brans-Dicke scalar, confirming, qualitatively, the indications given by the homogeneous appro...

  8. Structural differences among alkali-soluble arabinoxylans from maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) brans influence human fecal fermentation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Patterson, John A; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2010-01-13

    Human fecal fermentation profiles of maize, rice, and wheat bran and their dietary fiber fractions released by alkaline-hydrogen peroxide treatment (principally arabinoxylan) were obtained with the aim of identifying and characterizing fractions associated with high production of short chain fatty acids and a linear fermentation profile for possible application as a slowly fermentable dietary fiber. The alkali-soluble fraction from maize bran resulted in the highest short chain fatty acid production among all samples tested, and was linear over the 24 h fermentation period. Size-exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR suggested that higher molecular weight and uniquely substituted arabinose side chains may contribute to these properties. Monosaccharide disappearance data suggest that maize and rice bran arabinoxylans are fermented by a debranching mechanism, while wheat bran arabinoxylans likely contain large unsubstituted xylose regions that are fermented preferentially, followed by poor fermentation of the remaining, highly branched oligosaccharides.

  9. Structuring oil by protein building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Auke

    2017-01-01

    Over the recent years, structuring of oil into ‘organogels’ or ‘oleogels’ has gained much attention amongst colloid-, material,- and food scientists. Potentially, these oleogels could be used as an alternative for saturated- and trans fats in food products. To develop oleogel

  10. Bran: may irritate irritable bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M J; Whorwell, P J

    1998-05-01

    The irritable gut is known to be hypersensitive, and it is reasonable to suspect that patients with the disorder might be hyperreactive to agents that stimulate or irritate it. This appears to be a possible explanation for the adverse effects of bran on hospital patients with this disorder, but we do not yet know how this product affects community IBS sufferers. We cannot ignore the fact that fiber and bran have major beneficial effects in other areas, not least in the reduction of colonic carcinoma. In conclusion, it is probably best to recommend that patients with IBS be left to judge for themselves whether bran helps or exacerbates their symptoms, but there is enough evidence to suggest that the current dogma of routinely treating all IBS sufferers with bran should be challenged. Proprietary sources of fiber, such as ispaghula, may be more appropriate for those IBS subjects (for example, constipated) for whom fiber supplementation is believed justified.

  11. Study on Dietary Fiber Extraction from Wheat Bran and Properties of Wheat Bran by Extrusion%挤压小麦麦麸提取膳食纤维工艺及性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓光; 张宁; 高辰; 陈野

    2013-01-01

    With wheat bran as raw material, the extruding technic had been used to increase the content of soluble dietary fiber and improve the property of wheat bran. The greatest parameters of the extruding technic was:extrusion temperature of 140℃, rotating speed of 150 r/min, water content of 20%. The soluble dietary fiber content of wheat bran increased from 9.82 % to 16.72 %. After been extruded, the water-solubility, expansion and oil holding capability of extruded wheat bran were significantly improved. Its structure remained stability below 200℃. At the same time, the dense structure degraded to loose structure through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM).%以小麦麦麸为原材料,挤压处理麦麸,提高麦麸中可溶性膳食纤维的含量。同时使其物性得到明显改善。挤压处理麦麸的最优工艺参数为:挤压温度140℃、挤压转速150 r/min和物料水分20%。挤压处理后,小麦麦麸可溶性膳食纤维含量由9.82%提高到16.72%。挤压处理麦麸后,其持水性、吸油性、膨胀性显著提高。同时挤压后的麦麸在200℃之内具有良好的热稳定性。通过SEM观察发现挤压后麦麸原来致密的结构变的疏松。

  12. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  13. Seed structure characteristics to form ultrahigh oil content in rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding.

  14. Structures, Mixed Types - Oil & Gas Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Oil and Gas Location is a DEP primary facility type related to the Oil & Gas Program. The sub-facility types related to Oil and Gas that are included in this...

  15. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  16. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  17. Refino de óleo de farelo de arroz (Oryza sativa L. em condições brandas para preservação do γ-orizanol Refining of rice bran oil (Oryza sativa L. to preserve γ-orizanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Paucar-Menacho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O γ-orizanol é um antioxidante presente no óleo de farelo de arroz, mas ausente em outros óleos vegetais, ao qual têm sido atribuídos efeitos antioxidante e hipocolesterolêmico. O conteúdo de γ-orizanol no óleo de farelo de arroz bruto varia entre 1-2%, mas durante a etapa de neutralização do refino químico, este composto fica retido na borra. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo propor uma técnica alternativa de refino físico em condições brandas para o óleo de farelo de arroz com a finalidade de preservar o γ-orizanol. Utilizou-se farelo de arroz inativado e extrusado obtido a partir do processo de produção do arroz parboilizado, sendo o óleo bruto (Oryza sativa extraído pelo método de expeller. O processo de refino do óleo bruto consistiu nas etapas de degomagem ácida (com H3PO4 85%, centrifugação, clarificação, desodorização a 180 ºC e winterização. Foram realizadas análises para caracterização e comparação do óleo bruto e refinado, seguindo metodologias oficiais da AOCS. Concluiu-se que o processo de refino físico preservou 97% do γ-orizanol, o qual potencializou a estabilidade oxidativa do óleo refinado pelo método alternativo, que apresentou uma melhoria de 33% (13,3 horas a 110 ºC do período de indução da oxidação em relação ao óleo comercial.γ-orizanol is an antioxidant present in rice bran oil, but absent in other vegetable oils, which were attributed to antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effects. The content of γ-orizanol in crude rice bran oil varies between 1-2%, but during neutralization in chemical refining this substance is transferred to soapstock. The aim of this research is to study an alternative technique of physical refining in light conditions with the purpose of preserving γ-orizanol. Inativacted and extrused rice bran obtained by the production of parboilizated rice was used to extract crude rice bran oil (Oryza sativa by the expeller method. The process of

  18. Impact of Enzymatic and Microbial Bioprocessing on Protein Modification and Nutritional Properties of Wheat Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arte, Elisa; Rizzello, Carlo G; Verni, Michela; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana

    2015-10-07

    Besides providing dietary fiber, wheat bran is a recognized source of protein and is considered a very valuable substitute for other protein-rich sources in the food and feed industry. Nonetheless, several factors affect protein bioavailability, including bran's layered structure. This study showed the influence on the release and protein modification of wheat bran of different bioprocessing methods involving the activation of endogenous enzymes of bran, the addition of an enzyme mixture having carbohydrase activity, and microbial fermentation. Bioprocessing in acidic conditions significantly enhanced the solubilization of protein from wheat bran, reaching the highest value in the treatment where the sole endogenous protease activity was activated. Bioprocessing through controlled fermentation allowed a more intense proteolysis and strongly impacted the in vitro digestibility of proteins. The combined use of starter cultures and cell-wall-degrading enzymes was characterized by the highest increase of phytase activity and total phenols.

  19. Structure-modification and oil pick-up ability of PHBV as oil sorbent materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuwen He; Dayi Qian; Bing Wu; Tong Wang

    2003-01-01

    The PHBV (β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-hydroxyvalerate) foams as oil sorbent materials, which were prepared by salting out method based on PHBV and chloroform additive and their oil pick-up abilities were investigated. And the oil pick-up abilities of different PHBV foams as oil sorbent materials were compared. The results show that with the amount of chloroform additive and sodium chloride increasing, the oil pick-up rates, the oil-keeping rates and the second oil pick-up rates of PHBV foams can increase to different extent. When the amount of sodium chloride was 92%, the ratio of PHBV to chloroform was 1 (g): 14 (mL), the oil pick-up ability of the PHBV foam was optimal. And their oil pick-up ratios can reach 25.51 (26℃) and 27.51 g/g (17℃) in raw oil, which were 4-5 times more than those of PHBV powder. In addition, the structure-modified PHBV as oil sorbent materials also has some advantages, such as three-dimension structure, bio-degradability and good oil pick-up ability, so this kind of green oil sorbent materials will have great perspective in the future.

  20. Is oil consumption constrained by industrial structure? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y. Q.; Duan, H. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines whether oil consumption is constrained by output value, applying a cointegration test and an ECM to the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors in China during 1985-2013. The empirical results indicate that oil consumption in China is constrained by the industrial structure both in the short run and in the long run. Regardless of the time horizon considered, the oil consumption constraint is the lowest for the primary sector as well as the highest for the tertiary sector. This is because the long-term industrial structure formation and the technological level of each sector underlines the existence of long run equilibrium and short run fluctuations of output value and oil consumption, with the latter being constrained by adjustments in industrial structure. In order to decrease the constraining effect of output value on oil consumption, the government should take some measures to improve the utilization rate, reducing the intensity of oil consumption, and secure the supply of oil.

  1. Lovelock-Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, David Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    According to Lovelock's theorem, the Hilbert-Einstein and the Lovelock actions are indistinguishable from their field equations. However, they have different scalar-tensor counterparts, which correspond to the Brans-Dicke and the \\emph{Lovelock-Brans-Dicke} (LBD) gravities, respectively. In this paper the LBD model of alternative gravity with the Lagrangian density $\\mathscr{L}_{\\text{LBD}}=\\frac{1}{16\\pi}\\left[\\phi\\left(R+\\frac{a}{\\sqrt{-g}}{}^*RR + b\\mathcal{G}\\right)-\\frac{\\omega_{\\text L}}{\\phi}\

  2. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-10-01

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  3. Optimization of silica gel column chromatography extraction process of oryzanol from rice bran oil soap stock by response surface methodology%响应面法优化柱层析工艺提取米糠油皂脚中的谷维素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鸿; 张培培; 庞敏; 姜绍通

    2016-01-01

    以米糠油加工所得的副产物皂脚为原料,用乙酸乙酯索氏抽提得到皂脚浸提物,采用硅胶柱层析的方法对皂脚浸提物分离纯化谷维素,采用单因素和响应面方法进行优化,确定浸提液的谷维素浓度为4.00%,上样量为8.70 g,硅胶用量为60.00 g。结果表明,此工艺得到的谷维素纯度88.5%,皂脚中谷维素的总提取率达到58.7%。%Soapstock,the byproduct of rice bran oil procossing,was used as raw material. Oryzanol was extracted with ethyl acetate from rice bran oil soap stock and purified by silica gel column chromatography methods. Based on single factor experiments and response surface methodology,the optimum conditions were as follows:oryzanol concentration of sample forsilica gelcolumn chromatography was 4.00%,the sample volume was 8.70 g,the amount of silica gel was 60 g. The results showed that the total extraction rate of oryzanol could reached 58.7% while oryzanol purity was 88.5%.

  4. Effect of Different Extrusion Parameters on Dietary Fiber in Wheat Bran and Rye Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzen, J T; Huang, A H

    1992-04-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid

  6. Do structural oil-market shocks affect stock prices?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, 80 Karaoli and Dimitriou Str, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Miller, Stephen M. [Department of Economics, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates how explicit structural shocks that characterize the endogenous character of oil price changes affect stock-market returns in a sample of eight countries - Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. For each country, the analysis proceeds in two steps. First, modifying the procedure of Kilian [Not All Oil Price Shocks are Alike: Disentangling Demand and Supply Shocks in the Crude Oil Market. American Economic Review.], we employ a vector error-correction or vector autoregressive model to decompose oil-price changes into three components: oil-supply shocks, global aggregate-demand shocks, and global oil-demand shocks. The last component relates to specific idiosyncratic features of the oil market, such as changes in the precautionary demand concerning the uncertainty about the availability of future oil supplies. Second, recovering the oil-supply shocks, global aggregate-demand shocks, and global oil-demand shocks from the first analysis, we then employ a vector autoregressive model to determine the effects of these structural shocks on the stock market returns in our sample of eight countries. We find that international stock market returns do not respond in a large way to oil market shocks. That is, the significant effects that exist prove small in magnitude. (author)

  7. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  8. Enzymatic process development for the extraction of ferulic from wheat bran [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blecker, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The agro-industries generate thousands of tons of by-products, such as cereal bran or sugar beet pulps, each year. For instance, in the Walloon Region, wheat transformation industry produces about 200,000 t of bran annually. Most of those by-products are, at best, used for cattle feeding. Through biocracking, this biomass may however constitute a renewable source for various value-added molecules of interest. These include dietary fiber, proteins, antioxidants, etc. The Feruzyme project focuses on ferulic acid, a major example of the hydroxycinnamic acids. These phenolic compounds show excellent antioxidant ability, and are found in relative abundance in cereal bran (about 6.6 mg.g-1, dry basis, in wheat bran. Ferulic acid (along with other hydroxycinnamic acids is in majority (usually about 80% ester-linked to other constitutive elements of the cell wall, namely arabinoxylans. Its enzymatic release depends mainly on the breaking of its ester linkage by Ferulic Acid Esterases (FAE, EC 3.1.1.73, which works in synergy with arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes (hemicellulase, including xylanase. Cellulase and even protease may also help by "unweaving" further the complex, cross-linked structure of bran cell-wall. The aim of our project is to design a process, starting from raw wheat bran to obtain purified ferulic acid, either crystallized or in concentrated solution. Furthermore, this process should be feasible at pilot scale, as it is meant to commercial application. Bran pre-treatment may impact the efficiency of the enzymatic action, by facilitating the access of the enzymes to their substrate (grinding, micronisation, or by modifying cell-wall structure (extrusion, steam-explosion, etc. processes involving non-enzymatic hydrolysis. The composition of the bran may also be altered, for instance by destarching, but also by pearling, this process being able to separate richer layers within the bran. Simpler process, like fine sieving of ground bran, is

  9. Structuring edible oil with lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pernetti, M.; Malssen, van K.; Kalnin, D.J.E.; Flöter, E.

    2007-01-01

    The gelation of edible oil by a mixture of lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate (STS) was studied. The two components individually in oil do not give structure at concentrations between 6% and 20% w/w: viscous, pourable solutions are obtained. A synergetic effect is observed with their mixture, at

  10. Structuring edible oil with lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pernetti, M.; Malssen, van K.; Kalnin, D.J.E.; Flöter, E.

    2007-01-01

    The gelation of edible oil by a mixture of lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate (STS) was studied. The two components individually in oil do not give structure at concentrations between 6% and 20% w/w: viscous, pourable solutions are obtained. A synergetic effect is observed with their mixture, at spe

  11. Certain investigation in a compression ignition engine using rice bran methyl ester fuel blends with ethanol additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study and analysis, the physical properties such as calorific value, viscosity, flash, and fire point temperatures of rice bran oil methyl ester were found. The rice bran oil biodiesel has been prepared by transesterification process from pure rice bran oil in the presence of methanol and NaOH. Moreover, property enhancement of rice bran oil methyl ester was also made by adding different additives such as ethanol in various proportions. Rice bran oil methyl ester with 1, 3, and 5% ethanol were analyzed for its fuel properties. The effects of diesel-B20ROME blends with ethanol additive of 1, 3, and 5% on a compression ignition engine were examined considering its emissions. It is found that the increase in biodiesel concentration in the fuel blend influences CO2 and NOx emissions. On the other hand CO and HC emissions are reduced. It is interesting to observe the emission as ethanol-B20ROME blends, reduces CO2 and NOx which are the major contributors to global warming. As the NOx and CO2 can be reduced drastically by the proposed blends, the global warming can be reduced considerably.

  12. Intestinal absorption of chromium as affected by wheat bran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, K.S.; Holloway, C.L.; Hegsted, M.

    1986-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary fiber, as found in wheat bran, on the absorption of chromium. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups of 10. The control was fed a semi-purified diet containing casein, methionine, cornstarch, sucrose, corn oil, mineral and vitamin mix, and choline bitartrate. The experimental group was fed the same diet but with soft red winter wheat bran added to a level of 35% of the diet at the expense of sucrose. To determine chromium absorption and uptake by selected tissues, rats were fasted for 24 hr, fed 5 g of the respective diet, 2 hr later intubated with 100..mu..Ci of Cr-51of sacrificed 24 hr later. The rats wee housed in metabolic cages after the Cr-51 intubation. The addition of wheat brand to the diet did not significantly affect chromium absorption as measured by percent dose of Cr-51 in the 24 hr urine. The percent dose in the control group was 0.68 +/- 0.20% (mean +/- SEM) and in the experimental group 0.63 +/- 0.24% (mean +/-SEM) (N.S.). The cr-51 uptake of liver, spleen, jejunum, and blood was not statistically different between groups. These results indicate that dietary fiber as found in wheat bran does not impair intestinal absorption of chromium.

  13. Wormholes in vacuum Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bhadra, A; Bhadra, Arunava; Sarkar, Kabita

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that among the different classes of claimed static wormhole solutions of the vacuum Brans-Dicke theory only Brans Class I solution with coupling constant $\\omega$ less than -1.5 (excluding the point $\\omega =2$) gives rise to physically viable traversable wormhole geometry. Usability of this wormhole geometry for interstellar travel has been examined.

  14. Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2006-06-29

    Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines.

  15. Brans-Dicke brane cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, L E; Mendes, Luis E.; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2001-01-01

    A five dimensional brane cosmology with non-minimally coupled scalar field to gravity has been considered in a Jordan-Brans-Dicke frame. We derive an effective four dimensional field equations on a 3+1 dimensional brane where the fifth dimension has been assumed to have an orbifold symmetry. We have noticed that the evolution equation for the matter component stuck to the brane is non-trivially coupled to the scalar field living on the brane and the bulk. Finally we discuss some cosmological consequences of this set-up.

  16. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  17. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Letícia Adélia MIOTTo; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  18. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  19. Edible oil structuring: an overview and recent updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Dewettinck, Koen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, research dealing with edible oil structuring has received considerable interest from scientific community working in the area of food formulation. Much of this interest is linked to the possibility of using structured oil in development of newer product formats with improved nutritional profile (trans fat-free, low in saturated fats and high in mono and/or poly unsaturated fatty acids). In addition to the obvious industrial need of finding the alternative formulation approach, the interesting properties of structured systems (particularly, oleogels) also makes them a fascinating subject for fundamental studies. In this paper, we attempt to give a comprehensive and concise overview of the field of oil structuring with special emphasis on the updates from recent years. Specifically, several categories of food-grade oleogelators and their potential food applications are summarized with typical examples along with a discussion on the general principles and unresolved challenges related to this emerging area.

  20. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    with cardiovascular diseases and renal insufficiency. According to the chosen efficient method of adding buckwheat bran flour in the dough for no-salt bread, we have found out that the method when enricher is added in the sponge provides the best physical and chemical, and structure mechanical properties of the bakery product and can be recommended for baking bread for mass production at the bakery plant.

  1. Effect of cocoa butter structure on oil migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleky, Fatemeh; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2012-03-01

    Oil migration from a high oil content filling into adjacent chocolate causes changes in product quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the oil migration from a cream filling system into cocoa butter, which provided a model for the behavior of chocolate-enrobed confectionery products with a soft, creamy center. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor spatial and temporal changes of liquid lipid content. A multislice spin echo pulse sequence was used to acquire images with a 7.8 ms echo time and a 200 ms repetition time using a 1.03 T Aspect Imaging MRI spectrometer. Samples were prepared as a 2-layer model system of cocoa butter and model cream filling. Three methods were used to prepare the cocoa butter: static, seeded, and sheared. Samples were stored at 25 °C for a time frame of 56 d. The rate of oil migration was quantified by a kinetic expression based on the linear dependence of oil uptake by cocoa butter and the square root of the time. Samples showed distinctly different rates of oil migration, as evidenced by quantitative differences in the kinetic rate constant. Practical Application:  This work will be helpful to elucidate the influence of crystallization process and structural properties such as crystal nanostructure and crystal habit on the migration of oil through a crystalline fat matrix.

  2. Hydrolysis of wheat bran, rice bran and jute powder by immobilized enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P K; Roy, U; Vora, V C

    1993-03-01

    The stability of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina improved on immobilization and was 1.5 to 2-fold more active against pre-treated wheat bran, rice bran or jute powder. The hydrolysis efficiency of the catalyst increased with a decrease in its particle size. About 80% (w/v) of the sugar obtained from wheat bran was assimilated by Saccharomyces sp., whereas the corresponding values for rice bran and jute powder were about 70 and 50% (w/v), respectively.

  3. Impact of oil on bacterial community structure in bioturbated sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalie Stauffert

    Full Text Available Oil spills threaten coastlines where biological processes supply essential ecosystem services. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how oil influences the microbial communities in sediments that play key roles in ecosystem functioning. Ecosystems such as sediments are characterized by intensive bioturbation due to burrowing macrofauna that may modify the microbial metabolisms. It is thus essential to consider the bioturbation when determining the impact of oil on microbial communities. In this study, an experimental laboratory device maintaining pristine collected mudflat sediments in microcosms closer to true environmental conditions--with tidal cycles and natural seawater--was used to simulate an oil spill under bioturbation conditions. Different conditions were applied to the microcosms including an addition of: standardized oil (Blend Arabian Light crude oil, 25.6 mg.g⁻¹ wet sediment, the common burrowing organism Hediste (Nereis diversicolor and both the oil and H. diversicolor. The addition of H. diversicolor and its associated bioturbation did not affect the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons. After 270 days, 60% of hydrocarbons had been removed in all microcosms irrespective of the H. diversicolor addition. However, 16S-rRNA gene and 16S-cDNA T-RFLP and RT-PCR-amplicon libraries analysis showed an effect of the condition on the bacterial community structure, composition, and dynamics, supported by PerMANOVA analysis. The 16S-cDNA libraries from microcosms where H. diversicolor was added (oiled and un-oiled showed a marked dominance of sequences related to Gammaproteobacteria. However, in the oiled-library sequences associated to Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were also highly represented. The 16S-cDNA libraries from oiled-microcosms (with and without H. diversicolor addition revealed two distinct microbial communities characterized by different phylotypes associated to known hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and dominated by

  4. Formulation Optimization of Gluten-Free Functional Spaghetti Based on Maize Flour and Oat Bran Enriched in b-Glucans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Sepielli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work concerns the manufacturing process of gluten-free functional spaghetti based on maize flour and oat bran, enriched with b-glucans (22%. More specifically, the goal of the study was to obtain oat bran-loaded maize spaghetti with sensory properties close to unloaded pasta. To this aim, the study has been organized in two subsequent trials. In the first one, the oat bran amount added to spaghetti was continuously increased until the overall sensory quality of pasta reached the set sensory threshold (oat bran concentration = 20%. The second experimental step was aimed to improve the overall sensory quality of oat bran loaded maize spaghetti. In particular, an attempt was made to increase the sensory quality of spaghetti added with 20% oat bran by means of structuring agents. To this aim, the effects of different kinds of some hydrocolloids and egg white powder on the rheological properties of dough, as well as on quality attributes of pasta were examined. The rheological analysis showed that the addition of hydrocolloids and white egg to the dough enriched with 20% oat bran did not cause any substantial difference in the viscoelastic properties, compared to samples without any structuring agents. The best overall quality for both fresh and dry spaghetti was obtained by the addition of carboxymethylcellulose and chitosan at a concentration of 2%.

  5. State and trends of oil crops production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tiankui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a full picture of current situation and future trends of Chinese oil crop production. The total oil crop production remained broadly constant during 2011–2014. The top three oil crops are soybean, peanut and rapeseed, together accounting for more than 70% of total oil crop production. The area under cultivation and the production of peanuts will keep steadily increasing because most Chinese like its pleasant roasted flavor. Because of their high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the natural minor functional components in their oils, more attention is being paid to sunflower seed and rice bran. The diminishing availability of arable land and concern over the security of edible oil supplies is driving both a change in cultivation structure of crops and improvements in the efficiency of oilseed production in China.

  6. Structural Study of Asphaltenes from Iranian Heavy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davarpanah L.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, asphaltene precipitation from Iranian heavy crude oil (Persian Gulf off-shore was performed using n-pentane (n-C5 and n-heptane (n-C7 as light alkane precipitants. Several analytical techniques, each following different principles, were then used to structurally characterize the precipitated asphaltenes. The yield of asphaltene obtained using n-pentane precipitant was higher than asphaltene precipitated with the use of n-heptane. The asphaltene removal affected the n-C5 and n-C7 maltene fractions at temperatures below 204°C, as shown by the data obtained through the simulated distillation technique. Viscosity of heavy oil is influenced by the asphaltene content and behavior. The viscosity dependence of the test heavy oil on the shear rate applied was determined and the flow was low at y. above 25 s-1 . The reconstituted heavy oil samples were prepared by adding different amounts of asphaltenes to the maltenes (deasphalted heavy oil and asphaltene effects were more pronounced at the low temperature of 25°C as compared with those at the higher temperatures. According to the power law model used in this study the flowability of the test heavy oil exhibited a pseudoplastic character. Structural results obtained from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of the different functional groups in the precipitated asphaltenes. For instance, the presence of different hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and alicyclic based on their characteristics in the FTIR spectra was confirmed. Resins are effective dispersants, and removal of this fraction from the crude oil is disturbing to the colloidal nature of heavy oil; asphaltene flocculation and precipitation eventually occur. Appearance of pores in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images was used as an indicator of the resin detachment. With the use of 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy, two important structural parameters of the

  7. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  8. Conformal classes of Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Quirós, I

    1999-01-01

    A classification of Brans-Dicke theories of gravitation, based on the behaviour of the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant, is given. It is noted that the discussion takes place in the current literature, about which of the two distinguished conformal frames in which scalar-tensor theories of gravity can be formulated: the Jordan frame and the Einstein frame, is the physical one, may, in most cases, be meaningless for both frames may belong to the same conformal class. It is also noted that the Jordan frame formulation of Brans-Dicke gravity with ordinary matter nonminimally coupled is scale-invariant, unlike the situation with the Jordan frame formulation of Brans-Dicke gravity with matter minimally coupled (the original formulation of Brans-Dicke theory), where the presence of nonzero mass ordinary matter breaks the scale-invariance of the theory.

  9. Quintessence Problem and Brans-Dicke Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Subenoy; Chakraborty, N. C.; Debnath, Ujjal

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that Brans-Dicke (BD) theory in anisotropic cosmological model can alone solve the quintessence problem and we have accelerated expanding universe without any quintessence matter. Also the flatness problem has been discussed in this context.

  10. Fermions in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Samojeden, L L; Kremer, G M

    2010-01-01

    Using the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation we put under investigation a hypothetical universe filled with a fermionic field (with a self interaction potential) and a matter constituent ruled by a barotropic equation of state. It is shown that the fermionic field (in combination with the Brans-Dicke scalar field could be responsible for a final accelerated era, after an initial matter dominated period.

  11. Approaches of Russian oil companies to optimal capital structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishuk, T.; Ulyanova, O.; Savchitz, V.

    2015-11-01

    Oil companies play a vital role in Russian economy. Demand for hydrocarbon products will be increasing for the nearest decades simultaneously with the population growth and social needs. Change of raw-material orientation of Russian economy and the transition to the innovative way of the development do not exclude the development of oil industry in future. Moreover, society believes that this sector must bring the Russian economy on to the road of innovative development due to neo-industrialization. To achieve this, the government power as well as capital management of companies are required. To make their optimal capital structure, it is necessary to minimize the capital cost, decrease definite risks under existing limits, and maximize profitability. The capital structure analysis of Russian and foreign oil companies shows different approaches, reasons, as well as conditions and, consequently, equity capital and debt capital relationship and their cost, which demands the effective capital management strategy.

  12. Rooted structuring as key for Southern Apennine oil exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, Anna del; Finetti, Icilio [Trieste Univ. (Italy). EGG

    1999-07-01

    It is Authors' opinion that a key point for the evaluation of the prospect in Southern Apennine, having as target the top of the Apulian Platform, is constituted by the type of the structure involved. That is, if the explored feature is formed by a block rooted with its own basement and practically not or not much displaced, in that case the preservation of the integrity of the reservoir and its oil trapping is possible. But when the explored structure consists of thrust-blocks, disrooted from their basement and prominently displaced, than the resulting reservoir/cover conditions do not allow oil trapping or preservation of oil accumulation. Examples of both types of features are examined. (author)

  13. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  14. 小麦麸皮结构层中抗氧化物质的研究%Research on antioxidant substance extracted from different wheat bran structure layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中伟; 廉文蕾; 吴保承; 杨春霞; 王莉; 陈正行

    2012-01-01

    The mixed enzymatic and chemical methods were used to degrade pericarp layer,the intermediate layer and aleurone layer of wheat bran in order to release phenolic acids.The composition and content of the extract phenolic acids were determined by HPLC.Moreover,total phenols and the ability of removing free radicals from the extraction were analyzed.The results showed that: the content of ferulic acid dehydrotrimer and dimer were the highest in pericarp layer, up to 4.34mg/g.However,the content of ferulic acid in the aleurone layer was the highest in the three layers, up to 5.90mg/g.After being hydroiyzed by enzymes, the contents of ferulic acid dehydrotrimer and dimer from the pericarp layer,the intermediate layer and aleurone layer took up 21.0% ,52.6% and 51.1% of that in the hydrolysate by sodium hydroxide.While the release content of ferulic acid was 46.9% ,51.0% and 56.3% of that in the extraction of alkaline hydrolysis. Total phenolic content in the hydrolysate and their antioxidant capabilities were related to the release of phenolic acids directly.%采用酶法与化学法,分别对麦麸的外皮层、中间层及糊粉层进行水解,对提取物中酚酸的种类和含量进行了测定。对比了酶解与碱解所得提取物中总酚的含量和清除自由基的能力。结果表明:碱解处理后,外皮层申阿魏酸脱氢聚体含量最高,达4.34mg/g,而糊粉层中阿魏酸单体的含量最高,达5.90mg/g;酶解后,外皮层、中间层和糊粉层的水解液中阿魏酸脱氢聚体含量分别为碱解释放量的71.0%、52.6%和51.1%,而阿魏酸单体的释放量为碱解释放量的46.9%、51.0%和56.3%。同时,碱解和酶解提取物中的总酚含量和抗氧化能力与酚酸含量直接相关。

  15. Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: Relationships to composition and antioxidative activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of three brown, purple, and red rice brans isolated from different rice varieties using HPLC-PDA with the aid of 27 standards of known structure and by matching unknown peaks to a spectral library of known compounds. DPPH and ORA...

  16. Food web structure in oil sands reclaimed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, K E; Ciborowski, J J H; Daly, C; Dixon, D G; Farwell, A J; Foote, A L; Frederick, K R; Costa, J M Gardner; Kennedy, K; Liber, K; Roy, M C; Slama, C A; Smits, J E G

    2013-07-01

    Boreal wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance. However, their ecosystem function is threatened by direct anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Oil sands surface mining in the boreal regions of Western Canada denudes tracts of land of organic materials, leaves large areas in need of reclamation, and generates considerable quantities of extraction process-affected materials. Knowledge and validation of reclamation techniques that lead to self-sustaining wetlands has lagged behind development of protocols for reclaiming terrestrial systems. It is important to know whether wetlands reclaimed with oil sands process materials can be restored to levels equivalent to their original ecosystem function. We approached this question by assessing carbon flows and food web structure in naturally formed and oil sands-affected wetlands constructed in 1970-2004 in the postmining landscape. We evaluated whether a prescribed reclamation strategy, involving organic matter amendment, accelerated reclaimed wetland development, leading to wetlands that were more similar to their natural marsh counterparts than wetlands that were not supplemented with organic matter. We measured compartment standing stocks for bacterioplankton, microbial biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, and zoobenthos; concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and residual naphthenic acids; and microbial production, gas fluxes, and aquatic-terrestrial exports (i.e., aquatic insect emergence). The total biomass of several biotic compartments differed significantly between oil sands and reference wetlands. Submerged macrophyte biomass, macroinvertebrate trophic diversity, and predator biomass and richness were lower in oil sands-affected wetlands than in reference wetlands. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that wetland age and wetland amendment with peat-mineral mix mitigate effects of oil sands waste materials on the fully aquatic biota. Although high variability was observed within

  17. THE EFFECT OF HEATING ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE BRAND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dewi Indrasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran oil has a potential in lowering blood cholesterol. The oil content extracted from rice bran isa influenced by several factors such as raw material and processing method. This research was conducted to study the effect of heating on the physicochemical characteristics of rice bran oil. The study was carried out at the Food Technology and Nutrition Laboratory and Biotechnological Science Laboratory of the Inter University Center, Bogor Agricultural University, from February to MAy 1997. Bran used was from IR64 rice variety obtained from a local milling rice in Tambak Dahan, Binong-Subang, West Java. Rice bran was subjected to different period of heating (0, 15 and 30 minutes at 121oC by using an autoclave, then the oil was extraxted by using hexane solvent followed by standard processing at room temperature (28-30oC and 40oC for two hours. The parameters observed were oil content and its quality such as saponification, iodine, acid, peroxide, tiobarbituric acid, and triglyceric acid values as well as oil color. The results showed that oil extracted from rice bran was high, ranging from 9.65 to 11.02%. Heating (sterilizing of the rice bran for 15 and 30 minutes at 120oC proir to extraction increased the oil content. The Quality of rice bran oil extracted met the standard of AOAC.

  18. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice (Oryza sativa bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice bran in order to evaluate the effect of solid state fermentation on these properties. The process was performed with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 in tray reactors at 30 °C for 120 hours. Samples of fermented rice bran were collected every 24 hours. Antioxidant property was evaluated by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method and through the inhibition of enzymatic oxidation and lipid peroxidation of olive oil. The methanol extract of the biomass obtained at 96 hours of fermentation inactivated 50% of free radical in 15 minutes. The same extract reduced the peroxide value in the olive oil by 57% after 30 days of storage. The aqueous extract of the biomass obtained at 120 hours was the most efficient inhibitor of the darkening reaction catalyzed by peroxidase.

  19. Composite vacuum Brans-Dicke wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Sushkov, Sergey V

    2011-01-01

    We construct a new static spherically symmetric configuration composed of interior and exterior Brans-Dicke vacua matched at a thin matter shell. Both vacua correspond to the same Brans-Dicke coupling parameter $\\omega$, however they are described by the Brans class I solution with different sets of parameters of integration. In particular, the exterior vacuum solution has $C_{ext}(\\omega)\\equiv 0$. In this case the Brans class I solution for any $\\omega$ reduces to the Schwarzschild one being consistent with restrictions on the post-Newtonian parameters following from recent Cassini data. The interior region possesses a strong gravitational field, and so the interior vacuum solution has $C_{int}(\\omega)=-1/(\\omega+2)$. In this case the Brans class I solution describes a wormhole spacetime provided $\\omega$ lies in the narrow interval $-2-\\frac{\\sqrt{3}}{3}<\\omega<-2$. The interior and exterior regions are matched at a thin shell made from an ordinary perfect fluid with positive energy density and press...

  20. Optimization of Rice bran biodiesel blends on CI engine and investigating its effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprabakar, J.; Dey, Biraj; Dey, Krishanu; Hareesh, Batchu; Anish, M.

    2017-05-01

    Bio-diesel can be produced from various plant oils like soybean, sunflower or rice bran. Here the focus is on converting the rice bran oil into bio-diesel which is produced by transesterifying the rice bran oil with a low molecular weight alcohol (methanol) and a non-conventional catalyst (lipase). Using a lipase based catalyst brings down the cost of bio diesel production significantly by reducing the number of washing cycles and its ability to be reused further. Four different blends of B10, B20, B30, B40 and straight diesel are tested in a single cylinder, fourstroke, vertical air cooled Kirloskar Diesel Engine having ignition timing of 23° before Top Dead Centre (TDC). As compared to straight diesel the Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) value for all the blends are higher. The Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) values for most of the blends are less as compared to diesel. Emissions of CO, CO2 and HC for all the blends decreased quite significantly. As a summary, the blend B20 records better performance as well as emission characteristics as compared to diesel.

  1. Effects of bran pre-hydration on functional characteristics and bread baking quality of bran and flour blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of bran pre-hydration on the composition and bread baking quality was determined using bran and flour of two wheat varieties. Bran was hydrated in sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.3) to 50% moisture at 25 or 55°C for 1.5 or 12 h. The soluble sugar content in bran increased with pre-hydr...

  2. Optimization of durum wheat bread from a selenium-rich cultivar fortified with bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Maria Assunta; Mastromatteo, Marcella; Conte, Amalia; De Vita, Pasquale; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    In this work the effect of bran addition (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %) on sensory, nutritional and mechanical properties of bread made from a durum wheat semolina enriched with selenium (cultivar PR22D89) was addressed; traditional and whole-meal bread from the same cultivar PR22D89, without any further bran addition, were also investigated for comparative purpose. In order to improve the durum wheat functional bread, different structuring agents (agar agar, gellan gum, guar seed flour, hydroxy-propyl-cellulose, modified food starch-CAPSUL® and tapioca starch) were firstly screened and then optimized. Sensory, textural and nutritional properties of bread were studied in each step. Results showed that bread from PR22D89 cultivar with addition of bran up to 30 % was completely accepted from the textural, nutritional and sensory points of view with proper utilization of guar seed flour or modified food-starch (2 %).

  3. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe Arildsen; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall;

    2014-01-01

    Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat...... and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were...... also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than...

  4. The complete Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kofinas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The most general completion of Brans-Dicke gravity is found when energy is exchanged in a uniquely defined way between the scalar field and ordinary matter. The theory contains a new parameter (integration constant from the integration procedure) and when this is switched off, Brans-Dicke theory emerges. As usually, the vacuum theory can be defined from the complete Brans-Dicke theory when the matter energy-momentum tensor vanishes. However, additionally, the complete family of vacuum theories is found, consistent with the free wave equation for the scalar field. The subclass of this family with identically covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor is identified and, thus, can be supplemented by any equation of motion for the scalar field.

  5. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemery, Y.M.; Anson, N.M.; Havenaar, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Noort, M.W.J.; Rouau, X.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of using ultra-fine grinding and electrostatic separation of wheat bran as methods to improve the bioaccessibility of para-coumaric acid (pCA), sinapic acid (SA) and ferulic acid (FA) from bran-rich breads. Bran fractions were produced and used to bake white bread,

  6. Rye bran as fermentation matrix boosts in situ dextran production by Weissella confusa compared to wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Mäkelä, Jari; Coda, Rossana; Shukla, Shraddha; Shi, Qiao; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Juvonen, Riikka; Ekholm, Päivi; Goyal, Arun; Tenkanen, Maija; Katina, Kati

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of fiber-rich foods such as cereal bran is highly recommended due to its beneficial health effects. Pre-fermentation of bran with lactic acid bacteria can be used to improve the otherwise impaired flavor and textural qualities of bran-rich products. These positive effects are attributed to enzymatic modification of bran components and the production of functional metabolites like organic acids and exopolysaccharides such as dextrans. The aim of this study was to investigate dextran production in wheat and rye bran by fermentation with two Weissella confusa strains. Bran raw materials were analyzed for their chemical compositions and mineral content. Microbial growth and acidification kinetics were determined from the fermentations. Both strains produced more dextran in rye bran in which the fermentation-induced acidification was slower and the acidification lag phase longer than in wheat bran. Higher dextran production in rye bran is expected to be due to the longer period of optimal pH for dextran synthesis during fermentation. The starch content of wheat bran was higher, which may promote isomaltooligosaccharide formation at the expense of dextran production. W. confusa Cab3 produced slightly higher amounts of dextran than W. confusa VTT E-90392 in all raw materials. Fermentation with W. confusa Cab3 also resulted in lower residual fructose content which has technological relevance. The results indicate that wheat and particularly rye bran are promising matrices for producing technologically significant amounts of dextran, which facilitates the use of nutritionally valuable raw bran in food applications.

  7. Massive motion in Brans-Dicke geometry and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R

    2009-01-01

    Gravity theories that can be viewed as dynamics for area metric manifolds, for which Brans-Dicke theory presents a recently studied example, require for their physical interpretation the identification of the distinguished curves that serve as the trajectories of light and massive matter. Complementing previous results on the propagation of light, we study effective massive point particle motion. We show that the relevant geometrical structure is a special Finsler norm determined by the area metric, and that massive point particles follow Finsler geodesics.

  8. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  9. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications.

  10. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  11. Multi Response Optimization of NOx Emission of a Stationary Diesel Engine Fuelled with Crude Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester Optimisation à réponses multiples de l’émission de NOx d’un moteur Diesel stationnaire alimenté par de l’ester méthylique d’huile de riz brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt was made to reduce the NOx emission of crude rice bran oil methyl ester without any considerable increase in smoke density, when used as a fuel in a stationary CI engine. Three factors namely, fuel injection timing, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR and fuel injection pressure were chosen and their combined effect in controlling the NOx emission of a stationary Diesel engine fuelled with crude rice bran oil methyl ester was investigated. Three levels were chosen in each factor and NOx emission, smoke density and brake thermal efficiency were taken as the response variables. Experiments were designed by employing design of experiments method and Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array was used to conduct the engine tests with different levels of the chosen factors. Multi Response Signal-to-Noise ratio (MRSN was calculated for the response variables and the optimum combination level of factors was obtained simultaneously using Taguchi’s parametric design. Confirmation experiment was conducted for the obtained optimum combination level of factors and the results were compared with normal operating conditions and significant improvement was observed in the response variables. Dans la présente étude, il a été tenté de réduire les émissions de NOx de l'ester méthylique d'huile de riz brut sans accroissement considérable de la densité de fumée lorsqu'il est utilisé comme carburant dans un moteur stationnaire à allumage par compression. Trois facteurs, à savoir le calage d'injection de carburant, le pourcentage de recirculation des gaz d'échappement (EGR ; Exhaust Gas Recirculation et la pression d'injection de carburant ont été choisis, et leur effet combiné a été examiné en matière de maîtrise des émissions de NOx d'un moteur Diesel stationnaire alimenté avec de l'ester méthylique d'huile de riz brut. Trois niveaux ont été choisis pour chaque facteur et les émissions de NOx, la densité de fum

  12. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien [Department of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University (China); Hu, Hsu-Ning [Department of Money, Banking and Finance, TamKang University (China); Chiou, Jer-Shiou [Department of Finance and Banking, Shih Chien University, 70 Ta-Chih Street, Taipei 104 (China)

    2010-03-15

    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  13. Structured Analysis and Supervision Applied on Heavy Fuel Oil Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKHOUA Mohamed Najeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the need for structured analysis and real time (SA-RT method of controlcommand applications in a thermal power plant (TPP using a supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA. Then, the architecture of a SCADA system in a TPP is presented. A significant example of a control-command application is presented. It is about the heavy fuel oil tanks of a TPP. Then an application of a structured analysis method, generally used in industry, on the basis of the SA-RT formalism is presented. In fact, different modules are represented and described: Context Diagram, Data Flows Diagram, Control Flows Diagram, State Transition Diagram, Timing Specifications and Requirements Dictionary. Finally, this functional and operational analysis allows us to assist the different steps of the specification, the programming and the configuration of a new tabular in a SCADA system.

  14. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike;

    2004-01-01

    Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured...

  15. Generalized Mattig's relation in Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salako, Ines G; Jawad, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The Geodesic Deviation Equation is being studied in Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity. We briefly discuss the Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity and then construct GDE for FLRW metric. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity. Eventually, we solve numerically the null vector GDE to obtain from Mattig relation, the deviation vector $\\eta(z)$ and observer area distance $r_0(z)$ and compare the results with $\\Lambda$CDM model.

  16. Third Quantization of Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, Luis O.; Mora, Cesar

    2001-01-01

    We study the third quantization of a Brans-Dicke toy model, we calculate the number density of the universes created from nothing and found that it has a Planckian form. Also, we calculated the uncertainty relation for this model by means of functional Schr"odinger equation and we found that fluctuations of the third-quantized universe field tends to a finite limit in the course of cosmic expansion.

  17. Glyceride structure and sterol composition of SOS-7 halophyte oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyceride structure of SOS-7 halophyte oil was studied using the lipase hydrolysis technique. This halophyte sample was obtained from 1988 harvest planted in Ghardaka, on the border of the Red Sea, Egypt. The oilseed was ground and extracted for its oil using commercial hexane in Soxhlet extractor. The unsaturated fatty acids were found centralized in the 2-position of triglycerides, whereas oleic and linolenic acids showed more preference for this position. It was found that P3 was the major component of GS3, whereas P2L and PStL; PL2, POL and StL2 are predominating among GS2U and GSU3 respectively. L3 manifested itself as the principal constituent of GU3 type. Sterol composition of the halophyte oil was determined by GLC as TMS derivative. It was found that the oil contains campsterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and 7-stigmasterol of which 7-stigmasterol is the major sterol and constitute 52.4%.

    Se ha estudiado usando la técnica de hidrólisis mediante lipasa la estructura glicerídica de aceite de halofito SOS-7. Esta muestra de halofito fue obtenida a partir de una cosecha de 1988 plantada en Ghardaka, en la orilla del Mar Rojo, Egipto. Para la extracción del aceite de la semilla molida se utilizó hexano comercial en extractor Soxhlet. Los ácidos grasos insaturados se encontraron centralizados en la posición 2 de los triglicéridos, siendo los ácidos oleico y linolénico los que mostraron mayor preferencia por esta posición. Se encontró que P3 fue el componente mayoritario de GS3, mientras que P2L y PStL; PL2 POL y StL2 son los predominantes para GS2U y GSU3 respectivamente. L3 se manifestó como el principal constituyente de los GU3. La composición esterólica del aceite de halofito se determinó por GLC como derivados del

  18. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J. Krager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3 and γ-tocotrienol (GT3 have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR. However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source.

  19. Metal soaps in oil paint : Structure, mechanisms and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, oil paintings are not stable objects. Visually, changes in the appearance of an oil painting might be very slow, but over the course of centuries, chemical reactions and physical processes do affect the colour, texture and integrity of oil paint layers. This thesis aim

  20. Metal soaps in oil paint : Structure, mechanisms and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, oil paintings are not stable objects. Visually, changes in the appearance of an oil painting might be very slow, but over the course of centuries, chemical reactions and physical processes do affect the colour, texture and integrity of oil paint layers. This thesis

  1. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of rice bran extracts using different antioxidant assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Bajwa, Jawad -ur-

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the antioxidant activity of different solvent (100% methanol, 80% methanol, 100% acetone, 80% acetone extracts of rice bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays and using sunflower oil as oxidation substrate. The rice bran extracts were evaluated from the estimate of % inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, total phenolics content (TPC and loss of β-carotene in a linoleic acid system. Additionally, crude concentrated rice bran extracts were added into the sunflower oil samples and stored under ambient conditions. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated diene-, and triene- values. The general order of antioxidant efficacy of rice bran extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic  extract > 80% acetone extract > 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that rice bran extracts of the Super Kernel variety indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.Se evalúa la actividad antioxidante diferentes extractos (100% metanol, 80% metanol, 100% acetona and 80% acetona de salvado de arroz -var. Super Kernel- mediante diferentes ensayos y utilizando aceite de girasol como substrato. Los ensayos utilizados fueron la estimación del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en sistemas con ácido linoleico, el contenido total en compuestos fenólicos y la pérdida de β-caroteno en sistemas con ácido linoleico. Adicionalmente, los concentrados de extractos de salvado de arroz se añadieron a aceite de girasol y las muestras se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente. La extensión de la oxidación se evaluó mediante el índice de peróxidos, el índice de p-anisidina, así como la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados. El orden de la eficacia antioxidante

  2. Composite spherically symmetric configurations in Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, S

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a study of the scalar field shells in relativistic spherically symmetric configurations has been performed. We construct the composite solution of Jordan-Brans-Dicke field equation by matching the conformal Brans solutions at each junction surfaces. This approach allows us to associate rigorously with all solutions as a single glued "space", which is a unique differentiable manifold M^4.

  3. Euclidean non-vacuum wormholes in Brans-Dicke theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hui-Qing; Ji Pei-Yong; Pan Peng-Peng

    2004-01-01

    The Brans-Dicke theory is investigated in which the Pauli metric is identified to be a physical spacetime metric.The solutions of a wormhole are obtained in Brans-Dicke theory with a relativistic radiation field for ω> -3/2.However, it is found that one cannot construct a wormhole in the presence of a 3-form axion field.

  4. PEMANFAATAN BAHAN TUMBUHAN SEBAGAI BIOKATALISATOR DALAM PRODUKSI MINYAK SAWIT KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 [Using of Plant Biocatalisator for Omega-3 PUFA -Rich Palm Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Elisabeth1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Incorporaton of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA into red palm oil was investigated by using acidolysis process. Rice bran and Carica papaya latex (CPL were used as biocatalyst. Acidolysis between red palm oil and n-3 PUFA concentrate in free fatty acid form was conducted without solvent, with weight ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to palm oil being 1:1. The n-3 PUFA concentrate was prepared from tuna oil by crystallization method. The study has demonstrated that rice bran lipase showed higher activity to incorporate n-3 PUFA into red palm oil than CPL. The extent of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 and DHA (docosahexaeboic acid, C22:6 incorporation were 3.4% and 12.7% with the rice bran lipase, and 1.7% and 3.2% with the CPL. Furthermore, rice bran from several varities of paddy (Mamberamo, IR-64, Merah Munte , and Cirata produced equal incorporation of EPA and DHA into red palm oil. Rice bran from germinated seed of paddy did not increase the n-3 PUFA incorporation into red palm oil. It means that rice bran in its natural form could be used and act as immobilized lipase. It is easier to remove the rice bran from reaction mixture and reuse the bran for 14 times without decreasing its enzyme activity

  5. In Situ Burning Restores the Ecological Function and Structure of an Oil-Impacted Coastal Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.

  6. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2011-01-01

    The addition of fish oil to industrial food products is appealing both to the food industry and consumers for reasons such as health benefits and the extra commercial value. Fish oil is rich in long chain omega-3 fatty acids, which contain a large number of double bonds. This feature causes...... such strategy is to add the oil as an emulsion rather than as neat oil. Studies so far have indicated that emulsification of the fish oil changes the oxidative stability of the product but whether emulsification is an advantage seems to be dependent on the food matrix to which the emulsion is added [1, 2...... can be stabilized by food grade emulsifiers such as proteins and phospholipids from milk. The main objective of this study is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, size distribution, and ultimately to view the thickness, structure and morphology of the interface...

  7. Comparison of Two Methods for the Extraction of Fractionated Rice Bran Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different methods for extracting fractionated rice bran protein (FRBP from defatted rice bran were investigated according to the solubility of protein in different extraction solvents. The yields of the obtained proteins and their purity were first compared. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry, protein surface hydrophobicity, and protein secondary molecular structure analyses were subsequently applied to identify and compare the compositional, structural, and functional characteristics of the obtained proteins. The highest yield (13.8%, w/w and purity (45–47% of FRBP products were obtained using 0.4 M NaCl, 80% ethanol, and 0.01 M NaOH as extraction solvents to fractionate albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin. Several good properties were exhibited, including good functionality, specific denaturation temperature, and enthalpy values, for FRBP products prepared by the above method.

  8. The BRAN luminosity detectors for the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, H. S.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, A.; Turner, W. C.; Bravin, E.; Miyamoto, R.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the several phases which led, from the conceptual design, prototyping, construction and tests with beam, to the installation and operation of the BRAN (Beam RAte of Neutrals) relative luminosity monitors for the LHC. The detectors have been operating since 2009 to contribute, optimize and maintain the accelerator performance in the two high luminosity interaction regions (IR), the IR1 (ATLAS) and the IR5 (CMS). The devices are gas ionization chambers installed inside a neutral particle absorber 140 m away from the Interaction Points in IR1 and IR5 and monitor the energy deposited by electromagnetic showers produced by high-energy neutral particles from the collisions. The detectors have the capability to resolve the bunch-by-bunch luminosity at the 40 MHz bunch rate, as well as to survive the extreme level of radiation during the nominal LHC operation. The devices have operated since the early commissioning phase of the accelerator over a broad range of luminosities reaching 1.4×1034 cm-2 s-1 with a peak pileup of 45 events per bunch crossing. Even though the nominal design luminosity of the LHC has been exceeded, the BRAN is operating well. After describing how the BRAN can be used to monitor the luminosity of the collider, we discuss the technical choices that led to its construction and the different tests performed prior to the installation in two IRs of the LHC. Performance simulations are presented together with operational results obtained during p-p operations, including runs at 40 MHz bunch rate, Pb-Pb operations and p-Pb operations.

  9. Dynamical symmetries in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Papagiannopoulos, G; Basilakos, S; Giacomini, A; Paliathanasis, A

    2016-01-01

    In the context of generalised Brans-Dicke cosmology we use the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to determine the unspecified potential of a scalar-tensor gravity theory. Specifically, based on the existence of contact symmetries of the field equations, we find four types of potentials which provide exactly integrable dynamical systems. We investigate the dynamical properties of these potentials by using a critical point analysis and we find solutions which lead to cosmic acceleration and under specific conditions we can have de-Sitter points as stable late-time attractors.

  10. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  11. Environmental Drivers of Differences in Microbial Community Structure in Crude Oil Reservoirs across a Methanogenic Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Jenna L.; Akob, Denise M.; Jennifer C McIntosh; Noah Fierer; Spear, John R.; Warwick, Peter D.; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, a...

  12. THE STUDY OF THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL AND THE SOUTH -INZYREYSKOGO USINSK DEPOSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiryaeva R.N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of IR-spectrometry general structural fragments of high-viscous oils resins and asphaltenes isolated from oils are stadied. It was determined that differ significantly on content alkil, hydroxide and carbonil groups. Developed reagent OKN allows to improve significantly reological deseription of South- Inzyreyskoy and Usinsk oil and may be recommended for use in oil industry

  13. Structural Lightweight Concrete Production by Using Oil Palm Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rahman Sobuz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional building materials are widely used in a developing country like Malaysia. This type of material is costly. Oil palm shell (OPS is a type of farming solid waste in the tropical region. This paper aims to investigate strength characteristics and cost analysis of concrete produced using the gradation of OPS 0–50% on conventional coarse aggregate with the mix proportions 1 : 1.65 : 2.45, 1 : 2.5 : 3.3, and 1 : 3.3 : 4.2 by the weight of ordinary Portland cement, river sand, crushed stone, and OPS as a substitution for coarse aggregate. The corresponding w/c ratios were used: 0.45, 0.6, and 0.75, respectively, for the defined mix proportions. Test results indicate that compressive strength of concrete decreased as the percentage of the OPS increased in each mix ratio. Other properties of OPS concrete, namely, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, splitting tensile strength, and density, were also determined and compared to the corresponding properties of conventional concrete. Economic analysis also indicates possible cost reduction of up to 15% due to the use of OPS as coarse aggregate. Finally, it is concluded that the use of OPS has great potential in the production of structural lightweight concrete.

  14. On the Chameleon Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bisabr, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    We consider a generalized Brans-Dicke model in which the scalar field has a potential function and is also allowed to couple non-minimally with the matter sector. We assume a power law form for the potential and the coupling functions as the inputs of the model and show that acceleration of the universe can be realized for a constrained range of exponent of the potential function. We also argue that this accelerating phase is consistent with a large and positive Brans-Dicke parameter. In our analysis, the potential plays a more important role with respect to the coupling function in dynamics of the universe as the latter does not contribute to any of the relations characterizing evolution of scale factor of the universe and the scalar field. However, we will show that the coupling function is closely related to magnitude and direction of the energy transfer between matter and the scale field. We use this fact and some thermodynamic aspects of the model to put some constraints on the coupling function. In part...

  15. Static and rotating electrically charged black holes in three-dimensional Brans-Dicke gravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, O J C; Dias, Oscar J. C.; Lemos, Jose' P. S.

    2001-01-01

    We obtain static and rotating electrically charged black holes of a Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory of the Brans-Dicke type in (2+1)-dimensions. The theory is specified by three fields, the dilaton, the graviton and the electromagnetic field, and two parameters, the cosmological constant and the Brans-Dicke parameter. It contains eight different cases, of which one distinguishes as special cases, string theory, general relativity and a theory equivalent to four dimensional general relativity with one Killing vector. We find the ADM mass, angular momentum, electric charge and dilaton charge and compute the Hawking temperature of the solutions. Causal structure and geodesic motion of null and timelike particles in the black hole geometries are studied in detail.

  16. Critical behavior in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, T; Chiba, Takeshi; Soda, Jiro

    1996-01-01

    The collapse of a massless scalar field in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation is studied in the analysis of both analytical solution and numerical one. By conformally transforming the Roberts's solution into the Brans-Dicke frame, we find for \\omega > -3/2 that a continuous self-similarity continues and that the critical exponent does depend on \\omega. By conformally transforming the Choptuik's solution into the Brans-Dicke frame, we find for \\omega > -3/2 that at the critical solution shows discrete self-similarity, however, the critical exponent depends strongly on \\omega while the echoing parameter weakly on it.

  17. Study on structure and wetting characteristic of cattail fibers as natural materials for oil sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shengbin; Dong, Ting; Xu, Guangbiao; Wang, Fumei

    2016-12-01

    Cattail fiber is considered as one of the biomasses for oil sorption purposes. In this work, the unique structure and wetting characteristic, as well as the basic mechanisms governing oil uptake of cattail fibers were investigated. Cattail fibers grow in tufts with down-like structure consisting of root, stem, seed and several fibers. A single cattail fiber was bamboo-shaped exhibiting 4-dimensional open spaces with fineness varying between 10 and 17.5 μm, average length at 7.9 ± 1.2 mm. The skeleton of the fiber consists of lignocellulose coated by a hydrophobic wax coating with 45.41% of crystallinity. The exceptional chemical, physical and microstructural properties enable the cattail fiber to be highly hydrophobic and oleophilic. The water droplets could stand on the fibers' surfaces with the contact angles more than 130°, while oil droplets disappear quickly from the fibers' surfaces within several seconds. When used as the sorbent for oil, cattail fibers were found to absorb about 12 g of oil per gram of fibers and retained over 88% of absorbed oil even after 24 h dripping. The unique structure of cattail fibers played an important role in oil sorption. The result proposed that cattail fibers are a promising natural source for the production of oil absorbents.

  18. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  19. Probing structural changes of proteins incorporated into water-in-oil emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Lene; van de Weert, Marco; Vermehren, Charlotte;

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of different techniques, that is, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, for probing the structural changes of proteins in the water-in-oil emulsions are investigated using nondefatted bovine...

  20. Study on the structures and illumination characteristics of Chinese ancient oil lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Qingxuan

    2006-01-01

    Chinese ancient firelight lighting had a long history in which developed technologies were applied. The paper concerns itself with a study of Chinese ancient firelight lighting lamps, including the structures and illuminating characteristics of ancient oil lamps.

  1. the structure of labour market and demand for hired labour for oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    Keywords: structure of labour, hired labour, oil palm production, demand elasticities. INTRODUCTION .... theory of the firm, where the farmer seeks to maximize output subject ... signs of the parameters and significance of the student t-statistics ...

  2. An assessment of the geotemperature conditions of Bazhenov oil generation (Koltogor mezodepression and its framing structures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotskiy, V. V.; Isaev, V. I.; Fomin, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The thermal history of oil source rocks of Bazhenov deposits was reconstructed in 8 cross-sections of representative wells of Koltogor mezodepression and the structures framing it. The tectonic history and geotemperature were reconstructed for well profiles, some located in the depression zone and others in the positive structures. A comparative analysis of the geotemperature conditions accompanying the generation of Bazhenov oils was performed.

  3. Effect of the porous structure of polymer foams on the remediation of oil spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Javier; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2016-04-01

    Current approaches for the remediation of oil spills propose the utilization of functionalized polymeric foams as efficient oil absorbents. However, for the majority of the materials employed, the studies are focused on sophisticated surface treatments while the significant role of the morphological parameters of the porous structure of the pristine foams remains unexplored. Herein, we prove that the structural parameters of the pores of the polymeric foams play a fundamental role for the efficient removal of oil from water. The presented experimental and theoretical study shows that pristine polyurethane foams with highly interconnected open porous structures, and pore sizes below 500 μm are able to reach oil absorption capacities as high as 30 gr of oil per gr of polyurethane. Chemical functionalization of the porous structure does not increase further the oil absorption efficiency but it significantly contributes to the increase of the selectivity of the process. The current findings demonstrate the importance of the right choice of the pristine foams for the fabrication of cost-effective absorbents with high water-oil separation performance.

  4. Change and recovery of coastal mesozooplankton community structure during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassou, L.; Hernandez, F. J.; Graham, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mesozooplankton community structure to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico was investigated using data from a long-term plankton survey off the coast of Alabama (USA). Environmental conditions observed in the study area during the oil spill (2010) were compared to historical observations (2005-2009), to support the contention that variations observed in zooplankton assemblage structure may be attributed to the oil spill, as opposed to natural climatic or environmental variations. Zooplankton assemblage structure observed during the oil spill period (May-August) in 2010 was then compared to historical observations from the same period (2005-2009). Significant variations were detected in assemblage structure in May and June 2010, but these changes were no longer significant by July 2010. The density of ostracods, cladocerans and echinoderm larvae were responsible for most of the differences observed, but patterns differed depending on taxa and months. Many taxa had higher densities during the oil spill year, including calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, ostracods, bivalve larvae and cladocerans, among others. Although this result is somewhat surprising, it is possible that increased microbial activity related to the infusion of oil carbon may have stimulated secondary production through microbial-zooplankton trophic linkages. Overall, results suggest that, although changes in zooplankton community composition were observed during the oil spill, variations were weak and recovery was rapid.

  5. Microstructure and structural transition in coconut oil microemulsion using semidifferential electroanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chunsheng; Li, Xiaoge

    2007-08-15

    The microemulsification in coconut oil/octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide/iso-pentanol/water system is investigated. The effect of iso-pentanol concentrations on the size of single-phase microemulsion region is discussed. It is found that the maximum microemulsion domain is obtained when cosurfactant (iso-pentanol)-to-surfactant (octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) mass ratio is 1.5. The diffusion coefficients of ferrocene (electroactive probe) in microemulsion microenvironment are measured by semidifferential electroanalysis. The microstructure and structural transition from water-in-oil to oil-in-water microemulsions through a bicontinuous structure is examined. The results are found to be in agreement with that of conductivity measurements.

  6. Generalized Brans-Dicke inflation with a quartic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Tahmasebzadeh, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of Brans-Dicke gravity, we investigate inflation with a quartic potential, $\\lambda\\varphi^4/4$, in the presence of generalized Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega_{\\rm GBD}(\\varphi)$. We obtain the inflationary observables containing the scalar spectral index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, the running of the scalar spectral index and the equilateral non-Gaussianity parameter in terms of general form of the potential $U(\\varphi)$ and $\\omega_{\\rm GBD}(\\varphi)$. For the quartic potential, our results show that the predictions of the model are in well agreement with the Planck 2015 data for the generalized Brans-Dicke parameters $\\omega_{\\rm GBD}(\\varphi)=\\omega_0\\varphi^{n}$ and $\\omega_0e^{b\\varphi}$. This is in contrast with both the Einstein and standard Brans-Dicke gravity, in which the result of quartic potential is disfavored by the Planck data.

  7. Structure Changes of Macrobenthic Community on Rocky Shores After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hwan Jung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, more than 300 oil spill accidents occur every year. Despite the frequency, only a small pool of data is available on the initial effect of oil spill on macrobenthic fauna inhabiting rocky shores. The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of macrobenthic fauna composition and community structure on rocky shores, and understand the impact of oil on rocky shore organisms after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Field surveys were carried out in five regions dose to the wreck site in January, April and September 2008. Polluted sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill showed that biological index consistently decreased for 9 months limited to breeding and recruitment of organisms by spilled oil. Macrobenthic community was subdivided into 3 groups by species elimination and differences between density of major dominant species: enriched biota community under a relatively stable environment, the second with relatively low ecological index and the last with poor community. In this study, species number did not clearly reflect the effect of oil on the rare and mobile species. However, mean density, biomass and community structure showed the effect of oil by considering breeding activity, decline in recruitment and variation pattern with time.

  8. Oil prices and current account: A structural analysis for the Turkish economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozlale, Umit, E-mail: ozlale@etu.edu.t [TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Department of Economics, Soeguetoezue, 06533, Ankara (Turkey); Pekkurnaz, Didem [Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Although there has been an increasing number of studies about the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic performances, the literature on the interaction between oil prices and current account is limited, especially for oil importing developing countries. This paper analyzes the impact of oil prices on the current account balances for the Turkish economy using a structural vector autoregression model. Our model allows us to identify the net effect of oil prices on current account balances after controlling for other factors such as output gap and exchange rate misalignment. The results show that the response of current account ratio to oil price shock increases gradually up to the first three months and then starts to decrease, which indicates a significant effect of oil price shocks in the short-run. Moreover, when the obtained structural shocks are employed in a simple regression analysis, the parameter regarding the oil price shocks is found to be negative and statistically significant. The final section discusses the policy implications of the results.

  9. Oil prices and current account. A structural analysis for the Turkish economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezlale, Uemit [TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Department of Economics, Soeguetoezue, 06533, Ankara (Turkey); Pekkurnaz, Didem [Department of Economics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Although there has been an increasing number of studies about the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic performances, the literature on the interaction between oil prices and current account is limited, especially for oil importing developing countries. This paper analyzes the impact of oil prices on the current account balances for the Turkish economy using a structural vector autoregression model. Our model allows us to identify the net effect of oil prices on current account balances after controlling for other factors such as output gap and exchange rate misalignment. The results show that the response of current account ratio to oil price shock increases gradually up to the first three months and then starts to decrease, which indicates a significant effect of oil price shocks in the short-run. Moreover, when the obtained structural shocks are employed in a simple regression analysis, the parameter regarding the oil price shocks is found to be negative and statistically significant. The final section discusses the policy implications of the results. (author)

  10. Jordan-Brans-Dicke stochastic inflation

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J

    1994-01-01

    We study stochastic inflation in the presence of a dynamical gravitational constant. We describe the Arnowitt--Deser--Misner formalism for Jordan--Brans--Dicke theory of gravity with an inflaton field. The inflaton and dilaton scalar fields can be separated into coarse-grained background fields and quantum fluctuations. We compute the amplitude of the perturbations generated by those quantum fluctuations in JBD theory with an arbitrary potential for the inflaton field. The effect of the quantum fluctuations on the background fields is equivalent to a Brownian motion of the scalar fields, which can be described with the use of a Fokker--Planck diffusion equation. The probability to find a given value of the fields in the comoving frame can be written as a Gaussian distribution centered on their classical trajectory, with decreasing dispersion along both field directions. We also calculate the condition for the Universe to enter a self-regenerating inflationary phase. The probability distribution in the physica...

  11. Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessyca dos Reis Celestino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta, for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335 UI/L using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385 IU/g in solid state fermentation (SSF.

  12. Systematically structural identification of nitric compounds in crude oil with chemometric resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; ZHANG Tai-ming; LIANG Yi-zeng; CUI Hui

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at the problem of classification of non-hydrocarbons of crude oil, the theoretical standpoint that the polarity of a compound depends on the whole structure and composition of molecule instead of a kind of heteroatom or its functional group was presented. A method was established for the systematically structural identification of nitric compounds in crude oil. The pre-fractionation of a crude oil sample into 7 fractions was performed by djadsorption column chromatography with neutral aluminum oxide and silica gel. Subsequently, the individual components were obtained by using capillary column gas chromatography, and the types of compounds were detected by a mass spectrometer. In combination with a chemometric resolution, the compounds of fraction were further identified. This method can relieve the difficulty of classical analysis in identifying those species with very low contents or without being completely separated. The structures of 168 nitric compounds in a crude oil sample were determined by this method.

  13. On the interaction between structure and oil film of a guide shoe bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vølund, Anders

    2001-01-01

    A solution procedure for the determination of the oil film thickness of a guide shoe bearing for a large two stroke marine diesel engine is presented. Based on a previous study considering oil film thickness of a guide shoe bearing with rigid structural parts a model for the interaction between s...... of the structure is a 3D finite element model and the oil film description is made using a 2D finite difference mesh....... structure and oil film is implemented. The model takes into account the elastic deformation of the bearing parts. An iterative procedure for determining pressure, deformation and squeeze velocity is applied. The results are compared to a traditional calculation of rigid components. The model...

  14. Application of roasted rice bran in cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using microwave-roasted rice bran as an ingredient in high-fiber cereal bars to obtain a product with good acceptability. The influence of the rice flakes, corn flakes, and roasted rice bran levels on the physical and chemical characteristics of the cereal bars was studied. The overall acceptability of three selected formulations was also evaluated. An increase in the roasted rice bran level in the formulation reduced the force of rupture and water activity, resulted in intermediate density, and caused darkening of the bars. The contents of lipid and total dietary fiber were higher in the formulation with the highest rice bran content, which was therefore classified as functional food. The formulation containing 0.34; 0.32; and 0.34 roasted rice bran, rice flakes, and corn flakes, respectively, seemed to be the best outcome. Cereal bars with roasted rice bran levels between 10 and 20% were accepted by consumers.

  15. The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripoli, Elisa; Giammanco, Marco; Tabacchi, Garden; Di Majo, Danila; Giammanco, Santo; La Guardia, Maurizio

    2005-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, cereals, fruit, fish, milk, wine and olive oil and has salutary biological functions. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain kinds of cancer in the Mediterranean area. Olive oil is the main source of fat, and the Mediterranean diet's healthy effects can in particular be attributed not only to the high relationship between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in olive oil but also to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, which give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, have powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present review focuses on recent works analysing the relationship between the structure of olive oil polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. These compounds' possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity.

  16. Effect of oils and structural materials on the formation of high-temperature deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutenev, B.S.; Poroikov, N.P.; Bakunin, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the study was to establish a relationship between the amount of deposits formed on the hot surfaces of gas turbine engine components, oil composition, and the nature of the structural materials in contact with the oil. A method and a test apparatus are described which make it possible to evaluate the effect of various structural materials on the formation of deposits. It is shown that copper, lead, and brass have a particularly strong catalytic effect on the formation of high-temperature deposits in the presence of oils. Various synthetic oils are evaluated with respect to their tendency to form deposits, and the mechanisms responsible for the formation of high-temperature deposits are briefly examined. 7 references.

  17. Controlling silicate meso-structures using sucupira oil as a new swelling agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, J.N.M.; Faria, E.H. de; Calefi, P.S.; Ciuffi, K.J.; Nassar, E.J.; Cunha, W.R. [University of Franca - UNIFRAN - CP 82, Franca, SP 14404-600 (Brazil); Caiut, J.M.A. [Department of Chemistry - FFCLRP-USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Rocha, L.A., E-mail: lucasrocha@unifran.br [University of Franca - UNIFRAN - CP 82, Franca, SP 14404-600 (Brazil)

    2012-04-01

    Ordered mesoporous SiO{sub 2} particles have been synthesized by incorporation of natural oil as swelling agent from solutions containing deionized water, ammonium hydroxide, tetraethylorthosilicate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. The present work shows that the 'sucupira oil' is an effective expander agent to enlarge the pore size and even allows obtaining different structural rearrangements of mesoporous materials. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The results obtained show a highly ordered hexagonal, cubic and lamellar mesostructure depending of oil concentration. Furthermore, the increase of pore diameter in function of oil concentration was clearly observed by nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis.

  18. Structure of microprocessor-based automation system of oil pumping station “Alexndrovskaya”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyenko Margarita A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure of microprocessed-based automation system (MBAS of oil pumping station (OPS «Alexandrovskaya», located on the territory of Tomsk region and forming part of the Oil Transporting Joint Stock Company «Transneft», developed in accordance with the requirements of the guidance document «Complex of the typical design choices automation of OPSs and crude storages on the basis of modern standard solutions and components».

  19. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin; Mohd Ali Hassan,; Umi Kalsom Md Shah; Norhani Abdullah; Mitsunori Tokura; Hisashi Yasueda; Yoshihito Shirai; Kenji Sakai; Azhari Samsu Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content fro...

  20. 2PN/RM gauge invariance in Brans-Dicke-like scalar-tensor theories

    CERN Document Server

    Minazzoli, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    In this note we study the 2PN/RM gauge invariance structure of a \\textit{Brans-Dicke-like} Scalar-Tensor Theories (STT) without potential. Since the spherical isotropic metric plays an important role in the literature, its 2PN/RM STT version is deduced from the general equations given in \\cite{moiCQG11}, by using the invariance structure properties. It is found that the second order Eddington parameter $\\epsilon$ can be written in terms of the usual post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ and $\\beta$ as $ \\epsilon=4/3 \\gamma^2 + 4/3 \\beta - 1/6 \\gamma -3/2$

  1. Porous structure and specific surface of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopachenok, L.V.; Belyanin, Yu.I.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    The total oil shale pore volume, measured by mercury porometry and benzene picnometry, was 0.157 cu m/g (0.225 cc/cc), with 62% of it made up of 200 to 600 angstrom pores and 3.2% of pores below 31.4 angstroms. The oil shale and kerogen specific surface, measured by low-temperature adsorption of radioactive krypton, decreased from 8.7 to 4.1 sq m/g with increase in the organic matter content from 29 to 97.16%. Crushing in a ball mill changed only the particle external surface and thus did not increase adsorptivity relative to flotation concentration reagents.

  2. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  3. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental Drivers of Differences in Microbial Community Structure in Crude Oil Reservoirs across a Methanogenic Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; Akob, Denise M.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Fierer, Noah; Spear, John R.; Warwick, Peter D.; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total Archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil) geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow, up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells. Also, the 17 down-dip wells

  5. Environmental Drivers of Differences in Microbial Community Structure in Crude Oil Reservoirs across a Methanogenic Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L; Akob, Denise M; McIntosh, Jennifer C; Fierer, Noah; Spear, John R; Warwick, Peter D; McCray, John E

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total Archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil) geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow, up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells. Also, the 17 down-dip wells

  6. Environmental drivers of differences in microbial community structure in crude oil reservoirs across a methanogenic gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; Akob, Denise M.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Fierer, Noah; Spear, John R.; Warwick, Peter D.; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total Archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil) geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow, up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells. Also, the 17 down-dip wells

  7. Environmental drivers of differences in microbial community structure in crude oil reservoirs across a methanogenic gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna L Shelton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells, and that

  8. Controlling Agglomeration of Protein Aggregates for Structure Formation in Liquid Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Auke; Lopez Gomez, Yuly; Jansen, Bas; Linden, van der Erik; Scholten, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are known to be effective building blocks when it comes to structure formation in aqueous environments. Recently, we have shown that submicron colloidal protein particles can also be used to provide structure to liquid oil and form so-called oleogels (de Vries, A. J. Colloid Interface

  9. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies.

  10. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies. PMID:23568850

  11. Quantized Brans Dicke Theory: Phase Transition and Strong Coupling Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sridip

    2016-01-01

    We show that Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry with flat spatial section in quantized (Wheeler deWitt quantization) Brans Dicke (BD) theory reveals a rich phase structure owing to anomalous breaking of a classical symmetry, which maps the scale factor $a\\mapsto\\lambda a$ for some constant $\\lambda$. In the weak coupling ($\\omega$) limit, the theory goes from a symmetry preserving phase to a broken phase. The existence of phase boundary is an obstruction to another classical symmetry [arXiv:gr-qc/9902083] (which relates two BD theory with different coupling) admitted by BD theory with scale invariant matter content i.e $T^{\\mu}{}_{\\mu}=0$. Classically, this prohibits the BD theory to reduce to General Relativity (GR) for scale invariant matter content. We show that strong coupling limit of BD and GR both preserves the symmetry involving scale factor. We also show that with a scale invariant matter content (radiation i.e $P=\\frac{1}{3}\\rho$), the quantized BD theory does reduce to GR as $\\omega\\rightarr...

  12. Cosmological constraint on Brans-Dicke Model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ji-Xia; Li, Yi-Chao; Gong, Yan; Chen, Xue-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We combine new Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from Planck with Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data to constrain the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory, in which the gravitational constant $G$ evolves with time. Observations of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) provide another important set of cosmological data, as they may be regarded as standard candles after some empirical corrections. However, in theories that include modified gravity like the BD theory, there is some risk and complication when using the SNIa data because their luminosity may depend on $G$. In this paper, we assume a power law relation between the SNIa luminosity and $G$, but treat the power index as a free parameter. We then test whether the difference in distances measured with SNIa data and BAO data can be reduced in such a model. We also constrain the BD theory and cosmological parameters by making a global fit with the CMB, BAO and SNIa data set. For the CMB+BAO+SNIa data set, we find $0.08\\times10^{-2} < \\zeta <0.33\\times10^{-2} $ at ...

  13. Conformal relativity versus Brans-Dicke and superstring theories

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, D; Blaschke, David; Dabrowski, Mariusz P

    2004-01-01

    Conformal relativity theory which is also known as Hoyle-Narlikar theory has recently been given some new interest. It is an extended relativity theory which is invariant with respect to conformal transformations of the metric. In this paper we show how conformal relativity is related to the Brans-Dicke theory and to the low-energy-effective superstring theory. We show that conformal relativity action is equaivalent to a transformed Brans-Dicke action for Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -3/2$ in contrast to a reduced (graviton-dilaton) low-energy-effective superstring action which corresponds to a Brans-Dicke action with Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -1$. We also present basic cosmological solutions of conformal relativity in both Einstein and string frames. The Eintein limit for flat conformal cosmology solutions is unique and it is flat Minkowski space. This requires the scalar field/mass evolution instead of the scale factor evolution in order to explain cosmological redshift. It is interesting that like...

  14. Numerical simulation and structural optimization of the inclined oil/water separator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Chen

    Full Text Available Improving the separation efficiency of the inclined oil/water separator, a new type of gravity separation equipment, is of great importance. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the internal flow field of the separation process of oil and water within this separator, a numerical simulation based on Euler multiphase flow analysis and the realizable k-ε two equation turbulence model was executed using Fluent software. The optimal value ranges of the separator's various structural parameters used in the numerical simulation were selected through orthogonal array experiments. A field experiment on the separator was conducted with optimized structural parameters in order to validate the reliability of the numerical simulation results. The research results indicated that the horizontal position of the dispenser, the hole number, and the diameter had significant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency, and that the longitudinal position of the dispenser and the position of the weir plate had insignificant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency. The optimal structural parameters obtained through the orthogonal array experiments resulted in an oil/water separation efficiency of up to 95%, which was 4.996% greater than that realized by the original structural parameters.

  15. Numerical simulation and structural optimization of the inclined oil/water separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liqiong; Wu, Shijuan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Zhao, Lijie

    2015-01-01

    Improving the separation efficiency of the inclined oil/water separator, a new type of gravity separation equipment, is of great importance. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the internal flow field of the separation process of oil and water within this separator, a numerical simulation based on Euler multiphase flow analysis and the realizable k-ε two equation turbulence model was executed using Fluent software. The optimal value ranges of the separator's various structural parameters used in the numerical simulation were selected through orthogonal array experiments. A field experiment on the separator was conducted with optimized structural parameters in order to validate the reliability of the numerical simulation results. The research results indicated that the horizontal position of the dispenser, the hole number, and the diameter had significant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency, and that the longitudinal position of the dispenser and the position of the weir plate had insignificant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency. The optimal structural parameters obtained through the orthogonal array experiments resulted in an oil/water separation efficiency of up to 95%, which was 4.996% greater than that realized by the original structural parameters.

  16. Effect of corn bran particle size on rheology and pasting characteristics of flour gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and nutrition. Corn bran substitution has shown to affect batter viscosity, and volume, crumb grain, color, and texture of cakes. Purified food-grade corn bran was milled to pass through 80, 100 and 120 mesh sieve, resu...

  17. Rice varietal differences in bioactive bran components for inhibition of colorectal cancer cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies support that the bran fraction of rice contains bioactive compounds capable of inhibiting the formation of colonic tumors. Screening bran extracts from diverse rice varieties represents a novel approach to assessing the colon cancer chemopreventive properties of rice bran. We analyzed a pane...

  18. In vitro fermentation patterns of rice bran components by human gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran is a rich source of bioactive components that can promote gastrointestinal health. However, bran is removed during polishing. Among those, feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and rice bran polyphenolics (RBPP) are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota ...

  19. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe Arildsen; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2014-01-01

    and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were...

  20. Wheat bran stabilization and its use in the preparation of high-fiber pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M L; Ramasarma, P R; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2011-02-01

    Wheat bran was explored as a source of fiber in the preparation of high-fiber pasta. Ground raw wheat bran having an ash content 5.99%, crude protein 15.1% and fat content 5.83% was subjected to moist heat treatment (steam heat-treated bran) and dry heat treatment (dry heat-treated bran), wherein the lipase activity was reduced by 50%. Treated bran samples were stable for 3 months without developing any rancid flavor and bitterness. Pasta samples were prepared by substituting semolina with 40% and 50% of bran samples. There was no further significant inactivation of lipase activity upon extrusion followed by drying of pasta, irrespective of the type and the amount of bran sample used. The cooked weights of the pasta were in the range 257-268 g/100 g, whereas the cooking loss decreased from 12.8% to 9.3% for treated bran-incorporated pasta. Sensory scores for pasta containing treated bran samples were higher. The total dietary fiber increased by 5.2 times upon replacement of semolina by 40% of treated wheat bran. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies showed faint bands in treated bran samples as well as treated bran-incorporated pasta samples.

  1. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Selinheimo, E.; Havenaar, R.; Aura, A.-M.; Mattila, I.; Lehtinen, P.; Bast, A.; Poutanen, K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed ai

  2. Microorganisms form exocellular structures, trophosomes, to facilitate biodegradation of oil in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Vladimir V; Crowley, David; Rogachevsky, Vadim V; Negri, Cristina Maria; Rusakova, Tatiana G; Kolesnikova, Svetlana A; Akhmetov, Lenar I

    2011-02-01

    Cytochemical staining and microscopy were used to study the trophic structures and cellular morphotypes that are produced during the colonization of oil-water interfaces by oil-degrading yeasts and bacteria. Among the microorganisms studied here, the yeasts (Schwanniomyces occidentalis, Torulopsis candida, Candida tropicalis, Candida lipolytica, Candida maltosa, Candida paralipolytica) and two representative bacteria (Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas putida) produced exocellular structures composed of biopolymers during growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Four of the yeasts including S. occidentalis, T. candida, C. tropicalis and C. maltosa excreted polymers through modified sites in their cell wall ('canals'), whereas C. lipolytica and C. paralipolytica and the two bacterial species secreted polymers over the entire cell surface. These polymers took the form of fibrils and films that clogged pores and cavities on the surfaces of the oil droplets. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the cavities using serial thin sections showed that the exopolymer films isolated the ambient aqueous medium together with microbial cells and oil to form both closed and open granules that contained pools of oxidative enzymes utilized for the degradation of the oil hydrocarbons. The formation of such granules, or 'trophosomes,' appears to be a fundamental process that facilitates the efficient degradation of oil in aqueous media.

  3. Micelle structural studies on oil solubilization by a small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Science Division, HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 1045 Daedok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia)], E-mail: giri@batan.go.id; Seong, Baek Seok [Neutron Science Division, HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 1045 Daedok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ikram, Abarrul [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia)

    2009-02-21

    A small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique was applied to reveal the micelle structural changes. The micelle structural changes of 0.3 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration by addition of various oil, i.e. n-hexane, n-octane, and n-decane up to 60% (v/v) have been investigated. It was found that the size, aggregation number and the structures of the micelles changed exhibiting that the effective charge on the micelle decreases with an addition of oil. There was a small increase in minor axis of micelle while the correlation peak shifted to a lower momentum transfer Q and then to higher Q by a further oil addition.

  4. Structure and dynamics of water molecules confined in triglyceride oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Carien C M; Velikov, Krassimir P; Bakker, Huib J

    2016-10-26

    Though it is commonly known that a small amount of water can be present in triglyceride oil, a molecular picture of how water molecules organize in the oil phase is lacking. We investigate the hydrogen-bond configuration and dynamics of water in triacetin, tributyrin and trioctanoin using linear infrared and time-resolved two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy of the water hydroxyl stretch vibration. We identify water molecules with a single strong hydrogen bond to the triglyceride, water molecules with two weaker hydrogen bonds to the triglycerides, and water clusters. These species do not interconvert on the 20 ps timescale of the experiment, as evidenced by the absence of cross-peaks in the 2DIR spectrum. The vibrational response of water molecules with a single strong hydrogen bond to the triglyceride depends strongly on the excitation frequency, revealing the presence of different subspecies of singly-bound water molecules that correspond to different hydrogen-bond locations. In contrast, the water molecules with two weaker hydrogen bonds to the triglyceride correspond to a single, specific hydrogen-bond configuration; these molecules likely bridge the carbonyl groups of adjacent triglyceride molecules, which can have considerable influence on liquid triglyceride properties.

  5. Aspects of a supersymmetric Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, R.

    2006-11-15

    We consider a locally supersymmetric theory where the Planck mass is replaced by a dynamical superfield. This model can be thought of as the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Brans-Dicke theory (MSBD). The motivation that underlies this analysis is the research of possible connections between Dark Energy models based on Brans-Dicke-like theories and supersymmetric Dark Matter scenarios. We find that the phenomenology associated with the MSBD model is very different compared to the one of the original Brans-Dicke theory: the new scalar and fermionic degrees of freedom do not couple to matter in a universal metric way, i.e. they can not be removed from the matter sector by a Weyl rescaling of the metric. This feature could make the minimal supersymmetric extension of the BD idea phenomenologically inconsistent. (orig.)

  6. On Stationary Axially Symmetric Solutions in Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kirezli, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Stationary axially symmetric Brans-Dicke-Maxwell solutions are re-examined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory. We see that, employing a particular parametrization of the standard axially symmetric metric simplifies the procedure of obtaining the Ernst equations for axially symmetric electro-vacuum space-times for this theory. This analysis also permit us to construct a two parameter extension in both Jordan and Einstein frames of an old solution generating technique frequently used to construct axially symmetric solutions for Brans-Dicke theory from a seed solution of General Relativity. As applications of this technique, several known and new solutions are constructed including a general axially symmetric BD-Maxwell solution of Plebanski-Demianski with vanishing cosmological constant, i.e. the Kinnersley solution and general magnetized Kerr-Newman type solutions. Some physical properties and circular motion of test particles for a particular subclass of Kinnersley solution, i.e. Kerr-Newman-NUT type ...

  7. New views on classical and quantum Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fabris, Júlio C; Rodrigues, Davi C; Almeida, Carla R; Piattella, Oliver F

    2016-01-01

    The Brans-Dicke action is one of the most natural extensions of the Einstein-Hilbert action. It is based on the introduction of a fundamental scalar field that effectively incorporates a dynamics to the gravitational coupling $G$. In spite of the diverse motivations and the rich phenomenology that comes from its solutions, Solar System tests impose strong constraints on the Brans-Dicke theory, rendering it indistinguishable from General Relativity. In the present text, new perspectives for the Brans-Dicke theory are presented, based on the possibility that the scalar field presented in the BD theory can be external, as well as on the applications to black hole physics and the primordial universe.

  8. Oxidative stability and shelf-life evaluation of selected culinary oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, S Parkash; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-01-01

    Four out of eight 'healthier' oils-namely, almond oil, avocado oil, hazelnut oil and macadamia nut oil-studied were rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids like olive oil. Grape seed oil, rice barn oil (marketed recently), toasted sesame oil and walnut oil contained high levels of essential fatty acids. The order of oxidative stability determined by Rancimat measuring of the induction period at four temperatures (90 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 110 degrees C, and 120 degrees C) was found to be macadamia oil > rice bran oil approximately toasted sesame oil > avocado oil > almond oil > hazelnut oil > grape seed oil > walnut oil. High-level monounsaturated fatty acid oils gave a linear relationship between 100 times the reciprocal of the induction period against the total unsaturated fatty acid content obtained as %C18:2 + 0.08 x C18:1 + 2.08 x %C18:3, while the polyunsaturated fatty acid oils gave an exponential relationship. In the case of rice bran and hazelnut oils, shelf-life prediction from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots and the Q(10) factors was compared well with that of storage time given by the oil producers. In the cases of the other oils (with an exception of macadamia nut oil), the predicted shelf-lives were significantly lower than that of the storage times; especially, walnut oil (very prone to oxidation) gave 15-20 times lower shelf-life than the best-before storage life.

  9. Evidence-based gene models for structural and functional annotations of the oil palm genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kuang-Lim; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Rosli, Rozana; Amiruddin, Nadzirah; Azizi, Norazah; Halim, Mohd Amin Ab; Sanusi, Nik Shazana Nik Mohd; Jayanthi, Nagappan; Ponomarenko, Petr; Triska, Martin; Solovyev, Victor; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Murphy, Denis; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie

    2017-09-08

    Oil palm is an important source of edible oil. The importance of the crop, as well as its long breeding cycle (10-12 years) has led to the sequencing of its genome in 2013 to pave the way for genomics-guided breeding. Nevertheless, the first set of gene predictions, although useful, had many fragmented genes. Classification and characterization of genes associated with traits of interest, such as those for fatty acid biosynthesis and disease resistance, were also limited. Lipid-, especially fatty acid (FA)-related genes are of particular interest for the oil palm as they specify oil yields and quality. This paper presents the characterization of the oil palm genome using different gene prediction methods and comparative genomics analysis, identification of FA biosynthesis and disease resistance genes, and the development of an annotation database and bioinformatics tools. Using two independent gene-prediction pipelines, Fgenesh++ and Seqping, 26,059 oil palm genes with transcriptome and RefSeq support were identified from the oil palm genome. These coding regions of the genome have a characteristic broad distribution of GC3 (fraction of cytosine and guanine in the third position of a codon) with over half the GC3-rich genes (GC3 ≥ 0.75286) being intronless. In comparison, only one-seventh of the oil palm genes identified are intronless. Using comparative genomics analysis, characterization of conserved domains and active sites, and expression analysis, 42 key genes involved in FA biosynthesis in oil palm were identified. For three of them, namely EgFABF, EgFABH and EgFAD3, segmental duplication events were detected. Our analysis also identified 210 candidate resistance genes in six classes, grouped by their protein domain structures. We present an accurate and comprehensive annotation of the oil palm genome, focusing on analysis of important categories of genes (GC3-rich and intronless), as well as those associated with important functions, such as FA

  10. INFLUENCE OF WHEAT BRAN ADDITION AND OF THERMOPLASTIC EXTRUSION PROCESS PARAMETERS ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CORN-BASED EXPANDED EXTRUDED SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Eduardo FERREIRA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn-based expanded extruded snacks containing wheat bran as dietary fiber source were evaluated with respect to instrumental hardness, expansion index and color (L* - lightness. Internal cell structure was observed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Snacks were produced following a 23 complete factorial design, in a single screw extruder (model GNF 1014/2, BRABENDER, Germany. The three independent variables studied were: moisture (from 16.3 to 29.7%; temperature of the 2nd and 3rd extruder zones (from 104.8 to 155.2ºC; and wheat bran content (from 0 to 24.6%. An increase in temperature resulted in lower extrudate hardness values, which varied from 1.6 to 4.8kgf. Higher moisture and lower wheat bran contents resulted in snacks with greater hardness. Expansion index, that varied from 1.7 to 3.7, was mainly influenced by moisture and temperature, being that higher moisture values combined to higher temperatures resulted in lower expansion indexes. The snacks presented lightness (L* values between 42.77 and 64.41, being the temperature the variable that most influenced the values, because higher values of temperature resulted in higher L* values. Observing the snacks through Scanning Electron Microscopy, the influence of wheat bran could be observed, as higher contents of wheat bran contributed to the formation of cells with reduced sizes. During the sensory analysis, snacks with and without wheat bran, optimum and control, respectively, produced under the same temperature (130°C and moisture (23% were compared. Snacks were evaluated by 40 judges through an acceptance test, using a 9-point hedonic scale (mixed structured, in relation to color, appearance, texture (hardness, taste and global evaluation. Optimum and control snacks differed significantly at 95% significance, with the best acceptance for all attributes being obtained for the control.

  11. Holographic Principle of Black Holes in Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Y; Chen, Chi-Yi; Shen, You-Gen

    2003-01-01

    We consider the general situation of type-I stationary solutions of black holes in Brans-Dicke theory and investigate their statistical entropies by using the brick wall model. Compare with a generalized entropy formula derived from their thermodynamical evolution by Kang, We get the ultimate scenario of black holes entropies in Brans-Dicke theory. For further considering the bound of holographic principle, we obtain a new constraint on parameters in this type solution read as $2Q-\\chi=2$, which corresponds to $\\omega=-{3/2}$.

  12. Purifioation and identifioation of r -oryzanol from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Yuansheng; Yao Huiyuan

    2001-01-01

    A physiological active factor - γ-oryzanol in rice bran was studied. The γ-oryzanol was separated and identified by thin layer chromatograghy(TLC), reverse-phase HPLC, semipreparative HPLC and electrospray ionization/mass speotrometry(ESI/MS). Its individual components, cycloartenol ferulate and 24- methylene cycloartenol ferulate were obtained. An effective method to purify and separate the γ-oryzanol is provided. Which is useful for further research on the fucttional claracteristies of γ-oryzanol and for the development of new rice bran products.

  13. Inflation and dark energy from the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artymowski, Michał [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian UniversityŁojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsawul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-06-17

    We consider the Brans-Dicke theory motivated by the f(R)=R+αR{sup n}−βR{sup 2−n} model to obtain a stable minimum of the Einstein frame scalar potential of the Brans-Dicke field. As a result we have obtained an inflationary scalar potential with non-zero value of residual vacuum energy, which may be a source of dark energy. In addition we discuss the probability of quantum tunnelling from the minimum of the potential. Our results can be easily consistent with PLANCK or BICEP2 data for appropriate choices of the value of n and ω.

  14. Ultra structure of oil-in-water emulsions a comparison of different microscopy- and preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Loussert, C.; Humbel, B.M.

    We compare chemical fixation/ room temperature embedding in resin, cryofixation/ freeze substitution, and cryofixation/cryo imaging (freeze-fracture cryo-SEM) on several oil-in-water food emulsions. This is for visualization of the structure and thickness of the emulsifying layers consisting...... of the samples while ensuring at the same time that the samples are stabilized so they do not collapse when the water is removed.These protocols give an interesting view of the emulsions and the organisation of the interface layer surrounding the oil droplets. With cryofixation we could image more details...... of combining different microscopic approaches to access the ultra structure of the oil-in-water emulsions due to their complexity and instability....

  15. Controlling silicate meso-structures using sucupira oil as a new swelling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, J. N. M.; de Faria, E. H.; Calefi, P. S.; Ciuffi, K. J.; Nassar, E. J.; Cunha, W. R.; Caiut, J. M. A.; Rocha, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    Ordered mesoporous SiO2 particles have been synthesized by incorporation of natural oil as swelling agent from solutions containing deionized water, ammonium hydroxide, tetraethylorthosilicate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. The present work shows that the “sucupira oil” is an effective expander agent to enlarge the pore size and even allows obtaining different structural rearrangements of mesoporous materials. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The results obtained show a highly ordered hexagonal, cubic and lamellar mesostructure depending of oil concentration. Furthermore, the increase of pore diameter in function of oil concentration was clearly observed by nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis.

  16. The Effect of Buffer Bow Structures on Collision Damages of Oil Tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of buffer bow structures on prevention of oil spills in tanker collisions, probabilistic collision damage analyses were performed using a newly developed Simplified Ship Collision Analysis Tool (SSCAT). Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) was carried out using...... the striking ships use conventional bulbous bows. The probability of oil spill from the VLCC, given a collision, is estimated and the risk reducing effect of introducing buffer bow structures is discussed....... SSCAT for collision scenarios where striking ships at various speeds, sizes and bulb shapes collide perpendicularly with a VLCC in fully loaded condition. The probability of oil spill from the struck VLCC in cases where all the striking ships use buffer bulbous bows was compared with the case where all...

  17. Fabrication of polystyrene fibers with tunable co-axial hollow tubing structure for oil spill cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minxin; Chen, Jiafu; Chen, Bingjing; Cao, Jingjing; Hong, Min; Zhou, Chenxu; Xu, Qun

    2016-03-01

    Hollow tubing polystyrene (PS) fibers (HFs) with porous shell were successfully fabricated through co-axial electrospinning and selectively dissolving and removing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) core of the co-axial PS/PVP fibers using C2H5OH at room temperature. The size of co-axial hollow tubing structure (CHTS) and the thickness of shell can be controlled by varying the feed rate ratio of the core solution to the shell solution. The oil-sorption results show that the oil-sorption capacity increases with the increasing of the size of CHTS in the HFs, and the HFs have higher oil-sorption capacities than the porous PS fibers (PFs) without CHTS. It is noticeable that the diesel sorption capacity (66 g/g) of the HFs is approximately 1.74 times as much as that (38 g/g) of the PFs. The motor oil sorption capacity (147 g/g) of the HFs is approximately 1.55 times as much as that (95 g/g) of the PFs. It is suggested that the HFs have a better oil-sorption performance than the PFs, especially for the low viscosity oil, which is contributed to large CHTS and high porosity.

  18. Enhancing antioxidant activity and antiproliferation of wheat bran through steam flash explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zhang, Ruiting; Liu, Chong; Zheng, Xueling; Liu, Benguo

    2016-07-01

    The effect of steam flash explosion (SFE), a green processing technology, on the phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and antiproliferation to HepG2 of wheat bran was investigated. Moderate SFE treatment significantly enhanced the total soluble phenolic content of wheat bran. After SFE pretreatment, the free and conjugated ferulic acid content in the wheat bran were significantly increased. Antioxidant activities of SFE treated wheat bran were higher than those untreated wheat bran. The cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of SFE treated wheat bran were also significantly ameliorated. It was suggested that SFE pretreatment could be applied to release the bound phenolic compounds and enhance the antioxidant activities and antiproliferative activities of wheat bran.

  19. Hydrophobic modification of chitin whisker and its potential application in structuring oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yao; He, Meng; Lu, Ang; Zhou, Weizheng; Stoyanov, S.D.; Pelan, E.G.; Zhang, Lina

    2015-01-01

    A facile approach was developed to modify chitin whiskers by reacting them with bromohexadecane, and the potential application of modified whiskers in structuring oil was evaluated. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis,

  20. Structures of mobilization and resistance: Confronting the oil and gas industries in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierk, Simone; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the problematic relationship between the oil industry and local communities in the Republic of Komi, we develop a case study of environmental grassroots mobilization in northwest Russia. Using a qualitative methodology comprising semi-structured interviews and

  1. Structures of mobilization and resistance: Confronting the oil and gas industries in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierk, Simone; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the problematic relationship between the oil industry and local communities in the Republic of Komi, we develop a case study of environmental grassroots mobilization in northwest Russia. Using a qualitative methodology comprising semi-structured interviews and parti

  2. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage......Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...

  3. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties....... Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor...... gallate and lactoferrin did not exert any antioxidative effect in the SL mayonnaise...

  4. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  5. Vacuum less global monopole in Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, F; Kalam, M; Mukherjee, R; Roy, T

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the gravitational field of a vacuum less global monopole has been investigated in Brans-Dicke theory under weak field assumption of the field equations. It has been shown that the vacuum less global monopole exerts attractive gravitational effects on a test particle. It is dissimilar to the case studied in general relativity.

  6. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  7. Rice bran phytochemicals and dietary colon chemoprevention teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence supports that dietary rice bran exhibits gastrointestinal cancer control and prevention activity using carcinogen induced animal models and human colon cancer cell lines. Our laboratory has recently reported metabolomic differences in rice from globally and genetically dis...

  8. Cosmological Evolution of Black Holes in Brans-Dicke Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, N; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Barrow, John D.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a modified ``Swiss cheese'' model in Brans-Dicke theory, and use it to discuss the evolution of black holes in an expanding universe. We define the black hole radius by the Misner-Sharp mass and find their exact time evolutions for dust and vacuum universes of all curvatures.

  9. Evolution of Black Holes in Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, N; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Barrow, John D.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a modified ``Swiss cheese'' model in the Brans-Dicke theory, and discuss the evolution of black holes in the expanding universe. We define the black hole radius by the Misner-Sharp mass and find the time evolution for dust and vacuum universes.

  10. Cosmological evolution of black holes in Brans-Dicke gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nobuyuki; Barrow, John D.

    2001-11-01

    We consider a modified 'Swiss cheese' model in the Brans-Dicke theory and use it to discuss the evolution of black holes in an expanding universe. We define the black hole radius by the Misner-Sharp mass and find the exact time evolutions for dust and vacuum universes of all curvatures.

  11. Static Generalized Brans-Dicke Universe and Gravitational Waves Amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    We find a static solution for the scale-factor in a Brans-Dicke generalized theory where the scalar field and the coupling constant vary with time. We find also that in the early Universe there may be amplification of gravitational waves.

  12. Inflationary Phase in a Generalized Brans-Dicke Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2009-07-01

    We find a solution for exponential inflation in a Brans-Dicke generalized model, where the coupling “constant” is variable. While in General Relativity the equation of state is p=- ρ, here we find p= α ρ, where α<-2/3. The negativity of cosmic pressure implies acceleration of the expansion, even with Λ<0.

  13. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in bran from three rice cultivars according to microwave roasting time. This study analyzed three rice cultivars, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P, and IRGA 417 (I determining the color parameters (L*, a*, and b * at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 minutes of roasting time. After applying the difference from control test, the rice brans with different characteristics aroma and flavor were selected: S and P roasted for 9 and 15 minutes and IRGA 417 roasted for 9, 12, and 15 minutes. These samples were characterized by Free-Choice Profile descriptive sensory analysis, and their chemical composition was also determined. The longer the roasting process, the higher the roasted flavor intensity and aroma. The IRG 417 cultivar roasted for 12 minutes showed a sweeter flavor and aroma. After roasting, the brans remained rich in protein and lipid and presented higher fiber content and lower reducing sugar and phytic acid content. Microwave roasting for 12 minutes can be a viable option for improving the sensory functional and nutritional characteristics of the rice bran considering its use in food products.

  14. Physico-chemical characterization of fermented rice bran biomass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliveira, M. dos S; Feddern, V; Kupski, L; Cipolatti, E. P; Badiale-Furlong, E; de Souza-Soares, L. A

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the fermentation effect with Rhizopus oryzae in the composition of whole rice bran, which was used as substratum for the fermentative procedure in tray bioreactors at 30 °C for 120 h...

  15. Rice bran water extract attenuates pancreatic abnormalities in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective potential of rice bran water extract (RBE) from Khao Dawk Mali ... regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2), .... standard chow (13 % energy as fat) based on a.

  16. General class of vacuum Brans-Dicke wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, Francisco S N

    2010-01-01

    Recently, traversable wormhole geometries were constructed in the context of f(R) gravity. The latter is equivalent to a Brans-Dicke theory with a coupling parameter w=0, which is apparently excluded from the narrow interval, -3/2Brans-Dicke theory. However, this latter interval is only valid for a specific choice of an integration constant of the field equations derived on the basis of a post-Newtonian weak field approximation, and there is no reason for it to hold in the presence of compact objects with strong gravitational fields. In this context, we construct a general class of vacuum Brans-Dicke wormholes that include the value of w=0. Furthermore, we present the general condition for the existence of vacuum Brans-Dicke wormhole geometries, and show that the presence of effective negative energy densities is a generic feature of these vacuum solutions.

  17. Bran as a source of dietary fiber in oatmeal cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vratanina, D; Zabik, M E

    1980-07-01

    A panel of 1,542 Michigan consumers found oatmeal cookies in which 50 per cent of the flour was replaced with ground red or white wheat bran and a control cookie similarly acceptable. Cookie buying habits, consumer awareness of dietary fiber, and their methods of increasing it were cross-tabulated with demographic data.

  18. Structure of pre-Caspian depression and major oil and gas fields of the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, N.A. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Avrov, V.P. (Igirgi, Moscow (USSR)); Lisovsky, N.N.

    1991-03-01

    As a single unified depression, the pre-Caspian basin has been formed from Paleozoic to Cenozoic time. The basin is superimposed on two large pre-Permian depressions. On the Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk zone of uplifts between them is found sharply reduced Carboniferous and Devonian sections. Modern structural plan clearly displays two major structural stages: Subsalt (Paleozoic) and post (post-Kungurian). The post-salt stage is characterized by wide development of salt dome tectonics. It corresponds with its own petroliferous stage containing numerous, mostly small oil accumulations in terrigenous Mesozoic reservoirs. Large recent discoveries-Astrakhan condensate, Karachaganak and Kanazhol-Sinelnikov oil/condensate, Tengiz oil, and other fields-are associated with the Subsalt Paleozoic complex ranging from Lower Permian to the top of Upper Devonian. The Subsalt stage has its own regularities in hydrocarbon phase differentiation; large reserves concentration; dominantly productive carbonates with various reservoirs; and presence of structural, depositional, and erosional factors controlling formation of oil and gas traps. The paper describes major distributional features of the various arc-and-type Permian and Carboniferous formations, which in conjunction with Subsalt paleotemperature data and geochemistry of organic matter represents a basis for the forecast of new discoveries.

  19. Monitoring of the molecular structure of lubricant oil using a FT-Raman spectrometer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The determination of the physical state of the lubricant materials in complex mechanical systems is highly critical from different points of view: operative, economical, environmental, etc. Furthermore, there are several parameters that a lubricant oil must meet for a proper performance inside a machine. The monitoring of these lubricants can represent a serious issue depending on the analytical approach applied. The molecular change of aging lubricant oils have been analyzed using an all-standard-components and self-designed FT-Raman spectrometer. This analytical tool allows the direct and clean study of the vibrational changes in the molecular structure of the oils without having direct contact with the samples and without extracting the sample from the machine in operation. The FT-Raman spectrometer prototype used in the analysis of the oil samples consist of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter cooled down on a Peltier element arrangement. The light coupling has been accomplished by using a conventional 62.5/125μm multi-mode fiber coupler. The FT-Raman arrangement has been able to extract high resolution and frequency precise Raman spectra, comparable to those obtained with commercial FT-Raman systems, from the lubricant oil samples analyzed. The spectral information has helped to determine certain molecular changes in the initial phases of wearing of the oil samples. The proposed instrument prototype has no additional complex hardware components or costly software modules. The mechanical and thermal irregularities influencing the FT-Raman spectrometer have been removed mathematically by accurately evaluating the optical path difference of the Michelson interferometer. This has been achieved by producing an additional interference pattern signal with a λ= 632.8 nm helium-neon laser, which differs from the conventional zero-crossing sampling (also known as Connes advantage) commonly used by FT-devices. It enables the FT-Raman system to

  20. Stress, seismicity and structure of shallow oil reservoirs of Clinton County, Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton-Smith, T. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-12

    Between 1993 and 1995 geophysicists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in a project funded by the US Department of Energy, conducted extensive microseismic monitoring of oil production in the recently discovered High Bridge pools of Clinton County and were able to acquire abundant, high-quality data in the northern of the two pools. This investigation provided both three-dimensional spatial and kinetic data relating to the High Bridge fracture system that previously had not been available. Funded in part by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kentucky Geological Survey committed to develop a geological interpretation of these geophysical results, that would be of practical benefit to future oils exploration. This publication is a summary of the results of that project. Contents include the following: introduction; discovery and development; regional geology; fractured reservoir geology; oil migration and entrapment; subsurface stress; induced seismicity; structural geology; references; and appendices.

  1. Investigation of morphology, structure and composition of biomass-oil soot particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Xianguo; Liu, Tianxia; Liu, Yiming; Song, Ruhong; Chen, Yazhou

    2013-04-01

    Biomass-oil soot (BS) particles were characterized by a range of analytical techniques. A comparative analysis with commercial carbon black (CB), a surrogate for diesel soot particles, was carried out. The experimental results showed that the morphologies of BS and CB particles were both spherical, with average diameters of 50 and 40 nm, respectively. There were only a few differences between the elemental composition of BS and CB. The groups (Cdbnd O, Osbnd Csbnd O and Csbnd Osbnd C) were presented on the surfaces of CB and BS. Moreover, it was also found that Csbnd OH group was appeared on the surface of BS. BS contained more acidic and basic sites than CB, which was ascribed to the complex mixtures of biomass oil. Both BS and CB had virtually indistinguishable perturbed graphitic or turbostratic internal structures. Thus, CB can be a potential alternative to evaluate the aggregation and tribological behavior of BS in lubricating oils.

  2. Co2 injection into oil reservoir associated with structural deformation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the problem of structural deformation with two-phase flow of carbon sequestration is presented. A model to simulate miscible CO2 injection with structural deformation in the aqueous phase is established. In the first part of this paper, we developed analytical solution for the problem under consideration with certain types of boundary conditions, namely, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The second part concerns to numerical simulation using IMPDES scheme. A simulator based on cell-centered finite difference method is used to solve this equations system. Distributions of CO2 saturation, and horizontal and vertical displacements have been introduced.

  3. Production of vegetable oil blends and structured lipids and their effect on wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Neves Rodrigues Ract

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two oil blends (sunflower/canola oils 85/15 (BL1 and canola/linseed oils 70/30 (BL2, were prepared and enzymatically interesterified to be applied to surgically-induced wounds in rats. Following surgery, the animals were submitted to the Treatment with Physiological Saline (TPS (control group, Blends (TBL, and Structured Lipids (TSL. The control group (TPS received physiological saline solution for 15 days. In TBL, BL1 was administered during the inflammation phase (days 0-3 and BL2 in the tissue formation and remodeling phase (days 4-15. In TSL, Structured Lipid 1 (SL1 and Structured Lipid 2 (SL2 were used instead of BL1 and BL2, respectively. The aim of this study was to compare wound closure evolution among rats treated with the blends or structured lipids versus control rats treated with physiological saline. The wound healing process was evaluated by measuring the wound areas along the treatments and the concentrations of cytokines. An increase in the areas of wounds treated with the blends and structured lipids in the inflammatory phase was observed, followed by a steeper closure curve compared to wounds treated with physiological saline. The changes observed during the inflammatory phase suggest a potential therapeutic application in cutaneous wound healing which should be further investigated.

  4. Continuous structural monitoring of oil rig sub-sea structures for flooded member detection using underwater ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijarez, R. [Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas; Gaydecki, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Burdekin, M. [Fatigue Monitoring Bureau, Macclesfield (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    An underwater ultrasound system for detecting flooding in the hollow sub-sea structures of offshore steel oil-rigs is presented. A sensor, attached to a subsea structure and powered by seawater, transmits underwater ultrasound chirpencoded signals to a real-time digital signal processing monitoring system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure 1 ton in weight, with dimensions of 7 m x 0.5 m x 16 mm, completely immersed in seawater showed excellent performance using a central excitation frequency of 38 kHz, over distances of 100 m. (orig.)

  5. Differences in the intramolecular structure of structured oils do not affect pancreatic lipase activity in vitro or the absorption by rats of (n-3) fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Xu, Xuebing; Göttsche, Jesper; Mu, Huiling

    2005-07-01

    The fatty acid composition and intramolecular structure of dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) influence their absorption. We compared the in vitro pancreatic lipase activity and the lymphatic transport in rats of fish oil and 2 enzymatically interesterified oils containing 10:0 and (n-3) PUFAs of marine origin to investigate whether the positional distribution of fatty acids influenced the overall bioavailability of (n-3) PUFAs in the body. The structured oils had the (n-3) PUFA either mainly at the sn-1,3 position (LML, M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid) or mainly at the sn-2 position (MLM). Oils were administered to lymph-cannulated rats and lymph was collected for 24 h. The fatty acid composition as well as the lipid class distribution of lymph samples was determined. In vitro pancreatic lipase activity was greater when fish oil was the substrate than when the structured oils were the substrates (P fish oil compared with the 2 structured oils (P lipase activity did not differ. This indicates that the absorption rate is highly influenced by the lipase activity, which in turn is affected by the fatty acid composition and intramolecular structure. The lipid class distribution in lymph collected from the 3 groups of rats did not differ. In conclusion, the intramolecular structure did not affect the overall absorption of (n-3) PUFAs.

  6. Sperathe effects of solid-state fermentation in the functional properties of defatted rice bran and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Moreira da Silveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of fermented bran produced by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp. in a solid-state fermentation system were determined, with an aim to evaluate their application in food formulation. The defatted rice bran and wheat bran were inoculated with the spores of the cultures and incubated at 30º C for 72 h. Samples were withdrawn at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Protein content, protein solubility, in-vitro digestibility, gelation and water holding capacity were determined in bran with or without fermentation. Rhizopus sp. increased significantly the protein content (69.0 and 56.0%, respectively, for defatted rice bran and wheat bran; protein solubility (28.5 and 36.2 and water holding capacity (11.4% for wheat bran. When A. oryzae was used all these properties were modified significantly after fermentation.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar as propriedades funcionais de farelo de arroz desengordurado e farelo de trigo, submetidos à fermentação em estado sólido pelos fungos Aspergillus oryzae e Rhizopus sp., para avaliar seu potencial de aplicação em formulações alimentícias. O farelo de arroz desengordurado e o farelo de trigo foram inoculados com esporos de Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus oryzae (4x10(6 esporos/grama de meio e incubados durante 72 horas a 30º C. Amostras foram coletadas em 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas de fermentação. Foram determinados o conteúdo protéico, a solubilidade protéica, a digestibilidade in-vitro, a capacidade de formação de gel e a capacidade de retenção de água nos farelos fermentados. Quando Rhizopus sp. foi utilizado, as seguintes propriedades aumentaram significativamente: o conteúdo protéico 69,0 e 56,0%, respectivamente, para farelo de arroz e farelo de trigo, a solubilidade protéica (28,5 e 36,2% e a capacidade de retenção de água (11,4% para farelo de trigo. Quando Aspergillus oryzae foi empregado, as propriedades não foram modificadas de maneira significativa pelo processo

  7. Biodiesel production from rice bran by a two-step in-situ process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Pei-Jing; Gunawan, Setiyo; Hsieh, Wen-Hao; Kasim, Novy S; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2010-02-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by a two-step in-situ transesterification from two kinds of rice bran was investigated in this study. The method included an in-situ acid-catalyzed esterification followed by an in-situ base-catalyzed transesterification. Free fatty acids (FFAs) level was reduced to less than 1% for both rice bran A (initial FFAs content=3%) and rice bran B (initial FFAs content=30%) in the first step under the following conditions: 10 g rice bran, methanol to rice bran ratio 15 mL/g, H(2)SO(4) to rice bran mass ratio 0.18, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 600 rpm stirring rate, 15 min reaction time. The organic phase of the first step product was collected and subjected to a second step reaction by adding 8 mL of 5N NaOH solution and allowing to react for 60 and 30 min for rice bran A and rice bran B, respectively. FAMEs yields of 96.8% and 97.4% were obtained for rice bran A and rice bran B, respectively, after this two-step in-situ reaction.

  8. How to Adjust XPCC’s Planting Structure of Grain,Cotton,Oil and Sugar?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; ZHANG; Gang; WANG; Guodong; WANG; Fei; LIANG

    2015-01-01

    XPCC has long shouldered the mission of exploitation of virgin land in border area,but the special geographic distribution leads to regional segmentation and administrative division in the planting structure of grain,cotton,oil and sugar for XPCC. Since 1980,XPCC’s total planting area of grain,cotton,oil and sugar has increased steadily year by year. The yield levels show a unimodal trend; the total yield of cotton has been showing a geometric growth trend; the total yield of oil crops and sugar beet shows a fluctuating growth trend,but the total yield of grain crops shows a bimodal growth trend. XPCC’s grain crops are mainly in the farms of Division 4 in Ili Valley and Division 6 in Changji;cotton production in South and North Xinjiang is basically the same,and the yield in South Xinjiang is slightly higher than in North Xinjiang,but cotton can not be planted in most farms of Division 9 and Division 10; oil crops are grown mainly in cold regions; sugar beet is mainly in the farms of Division 2,Division 4,Division 7 and Division 9. Some factors are limiting XPCC’s farming development such as unreasonable agricultural structure,quite different regional production levels and great grain crop yield fluctuations. Therefore,it is recommended to optimize regional distribution,increase efforts to promote new technologies,and strengthen brand building to help XPCC to give play to the agricultural resource advantages.

  9. Essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: secretory structures, antibacterial and antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andrade Santiago

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and to determine its secretory structures. The essential oil was extracted through the hydrodistillation technique using a modified Clevenger apparatus (2 hours and chemically characterized by GC/MS and GC-FID. The antioxidant activity was determined by monitoring the reduction of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and by the oxidation of the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. The evaluation of antibacterial activity was performed by the agar cavity diffusion technique using the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Cholerasuis. The characterization of trichomes was accomplished by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and histochemical tests with Nadi and Sudan IV reagents. The antioxidant activity demonstrated by the β-carotene/acid linoleic test, with IC50 = 455.7 µg mL-1. This oil also presented antibacterial activity for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration ranged 62.5 to 250 µL mL-1. The presence of terpenes in the glandular trichomes was observed, suggesting that the essential oil is secreted by these structures.

  10. The Russian oil industry re-structuration: towards the emergence of western type enterprises?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    1999-01-01

    The Russian oil industry has undergone fundamental changes since the collapse of the Soviet Empire and its bureaucratic administrative structure, dominated by its various Branch Ministries. The monopoly in the Soviet oil industry has now been replaced by a number of ''oil companies'', some of which are very powerful, the best known of them being Lukoil. These ''joint stock companies'' are the product of a reform aimed essentially at implanting, out of all the numerous organisational arrangements developed in the West, the model of the vertically integrated private firm. Beyond the legal reforms in the Russian oil industry sector, however, the nature of the organisational model that has actually emerged in Russia begs several questions. Many entities, which are complex and highly diversified, are involved in this industry. There are, of course, the many private structures in which the banks sometimes carry a considerable amount of weight. There are also some vertically integrated organisations, but the degree of integration is variable and their method of centralization is based on a specific form of economic logic. It should not be considered, however, that these actors are similar to capitalist-type private enterprises, whose behaviour is regulated by the demands of international competition. Reform of property rights has not been sufficient to create true private enterprise in Russia. (author)

  11. Manufacturing of vegetable oils-based epoxy and composites for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongpeng

    Epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) is one of the largest industrial applications of vegetable oils (VOs) and is widely used as a plasticizer and as a synthetic intermediate for polyol or unsaturated polyester. However, the utility of EVO as monomer for high performance epoxy thermoset polymer is limited by its reactivity and by the resulting physical properties. Herein, VO-based epoxy monomers, i.e., glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) or linseed oil (EGL), have been synthesized and were benchmarked against commercial available diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and also epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) controls. EGS and EGL possessed higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), provided better compatibility with DGEBA as a reactive diluent, and yielded thermally and mechanically stronger polymers than polymers obtained using ESO. Glass transition temperatures (T g) of the VO-based epoxy thermoset polymers were mostly a function of monomer oxirane content with some added structural influences of epoxy reactivity, and presence of a pendant chain. Organo-modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and long glass fiber reinforced composites (FRC) were efficiently manufactured using anhydride cured EGS as matrices. The OMMT nanocomposites showed higher mechanical and thermal strength than the neat polymers but were also dependent on the dispersion techniques and the clay concentration. Surprisingly, the neat EGS-anhydride matrix FRC showed comparable properties, such as flexural and impact strengths and slightly lower Tg, versus DGEBA based counterparts. These high performance monomers, polymers, and composites have potential to replace petroleum-based epoxy as value-added products from VOs compared to EVOs.

  12. Comparative evaluation of structured oil systems: Shellac oleogel, HPMC oleogel, and HIPE gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-01-01

    In lipid-based food products, fat crystals are used as building blocks for creating a crystalline network that can trap liquid oil into a 3D gel-like structure which in turn is responsible for the desirable mouth feel and texture properties of the food products. However, the recent ban on the use of trans-fat in the US, coupled with the increasing concerns about the negative health effects of saturated fat consumption, has resulted in an increased interest in the area of identifying alternative ways of structuring edible oils using non-fat-based building blocks. In this paper, we give a brief account of three alternative approaches where oil structuring was carried out using wax crystals (shellac), polymer strands (hydrophilic cellulose derivative), and emulsion droplets as structurants. These building blocks resulted in three different types of oleogels that showed distinct rheological properties and temperature functionalities. The three approaches are compared in terms of the preparation process (ease of processing), properties of the formed systems (microstructure, rheological gel strength, temperature response, effect of water incorporation, and thixotropic recovery), functionality, and associated limitations of the structured systems. The comparative evaluation is made such that the new researchers starting their work in the area of oil structuring can use this discussion as a general guideline. Practical applications Various aspects of oil binding for three different building blocks were studied in this work. The practical significance of this study includes (i) information on the preparation process and the concentrations of structuring agents required for efficient gelation and (ii) information on the behavior of oleogels to temperature, applied shear, and presence of water. This information can be very useful for selecting the type of structuring agents keeping the final applications in mind. For detailed information on the actual edible applications

  13. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  14. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg/kg) or lactof...

  15. Observational constraints of the gravitational waves in the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Rodolfo Camargo de; Goncalves, Sergio Vitorino de Borba [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), ES (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Grupo de Gravitacao e Cosmologia

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The cosmic inflation, which is the hypotheses that the early Universe has passed by a period of exponential expansion, is currently the most accepted and studied theory to explain the early fluctuations which evolved to the large scales structures which we observe today. The gravitational waves, when detected, can give us important information about inflation. In this work we investigate the quantum origin of the primordial cosmological gravitational waves in the Brans-Dicke theory. We compute the number of gravitons N{sub k} produced during the extended inflation and the three observables: the power spectrum P{sub T}, the spectral index n{sub T} and the energy density of the gravitational waves {Omega}{sub k}. By comparison with general relativity we see that the results for both theories are the same for the case of the particles number N{sub k} and for the case of the power spectrum P{sub T} and the energy density {Omega}{sub k} only when the Brans-Dicke coupling parameter {omega} has a value less than 10. For the spectral index n{sub T} we found that when {omega} is bigger than unity the spectral index approximates the expression found in the General Relativity. This may awake us to the possibility that {omega} varies with the cosmological scale. (author)

  16. Varying alpha and cosmic acceleration in Brans-Dicke-BSBM theory: stability analysis and observational tests

    CERN Document Server

    Farajollahi, H

    2012-01-01

    By integration of generalized BSBM and Brans-Dicke cosmological models, in this article, we investigate the theoretical framework of fine structure constant variation and current cosmic acceleration. We first develop a mathematical formalism to analyze the stability of the model. By employing observational data to constrain the model parameters, phase space description is performed and the attractor solutions of the model are detected. We then examine the model against observational data such as Hubble parameter dataset and quasar absorption spectra. The results confirms current universe acceleration and also predicts fine structure constant variation. Furthermore, extrapolation of the best fitted model in high redshift ($z> 15$) shows a significantly larger variation of fine structure constant in earlier epoch of the universe.

  17. Effect of emulsifier on oxidation properties of fish oil-based structured lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomuso, Lydia B; Corredig, Milena; Akoh, Casimir C

    2002-05-08

    The effects of the emulsifiers lecithin, Tween 20, whey protein isolate, mono-/diacylglycerols, and sucrose fatty acid ester on oxidation stability of a model oil-in-water emulsion prepared with enzymatically synthesized menhaden oil-caprylic acid structured lipid were evaluated. Oxidation was monitored by measuring lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and the ratio of combined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents to palmitic acid in the emulsion. After high-pressure homogenization, all emulsions, except those prepared with lecithin, had similar droplet size distributions. All structured lipid emulsions, except for the lecithin-stabilized emulsions, were stable to creaming over the 48-day period studied. Emulsifier type and concentration affected oxidation rate, with 0.25% emulsifier concentration generally having a higher oxidation rate than 1% emulsifier concentration. Overall, oxidation did not progress significantly enough in 48 days of storage to affect DHA and EPA levels in the emulsion.

  18. Efficiency of Barley Bran and Oat Bran in Ameliorating Blood Lipid Profile and the Adverse Histological Changes in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of oat bran and barley bran in lowering the induced hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in blood of male Albino rats (Rattus rattus was studied. Twenty rats were divided into four groups each consisted of five rats and fed the specified test diets for eight weeks. The first group (G1 is the negative group which was fed basal diet, the second group (G2 was fed 1.0% cholesterol, was the third group (G3 fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% oats bran, and the fourth group (G4 was fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% barley bran. Feeding rats on 1% cholesterol significantly increased serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride and decreased serum high density lipoprotein. Furthermore, enzyme activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase was increased, and lipid peroxide was increased, whereas catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were decreased. Kidney functions parameters in the cholesterol supplemented group were elevated compared with the negative control. In addition, histological alteration in kidney, liver, heart, and testes was observed, compared with the negative control. Hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with oat bran and barley bran showed significant decrease in lipid parameters, significant increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, improved antioxidant enzyme, and improved histopathology of kidney, liver, heart, and testes. In conclusion, both oat bran and barley bran had protective effects against induced hyperlipidemia and improved histological alterations. Oat bran appeared more efficient than barley bran in lowering the lipid profile levels in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  19. Effect of traditional Chinese cooking methods on fatty acid profiles of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yamin; Hao, Pengfei; Liu, Bingjie; Meng, Xianghong

    2017-10-15

    The effect of four frying processes (vegetable salad, stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying) on fatty acid composition of ten vegetable oils (peanut oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower seed oil, rice bran oil, olive oil, sesame oil, linseed oil, and peony seed oil) was investigated using GC-MS. The result showed that trans-fatty acid (TFA) was produced during all processes. Rapeseed oil had the highest TFA content in vegetable salad oil with 2.88% of total fatty acid. The TFA content of sunflower seed oil was 0.00% in vegetable salad oil, however, after stir frying and pan frying, it increased to 1.53% and 1.29%, respectively. Peanut oil had the lowest TFA content after deep frying for 12h with 0.74mg/g. It was concluded that a healthy cooking process could be acquired by a scientific collocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural Characteristics of Paleozoic and Geological Significance of Oil and Gas of Dongpu Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世刚

    2003-01-01

    The Dongpu depression has experienced a complicated evolution of structure since Mesozoic. The Paleozoic carbonate rock has been strongly reformed and the buried hills with different characteristics of structure are developed in the depression. There exist lots of groups of fault structures with strikes of NNE(or NE),NW, near NS and EW etc., of which the faults with strikes of NNE and NW play an important controlling role on present-day structural framework of the depression. The faults with near NS-striking and EW-striking deeply affect the establishment of structural framework of basement of the depression. Although most of the fractures are filled by calcite and other minerals, under the action of later structural stress, the earlier fractures could change their features into tensional ones. Therefore, much attention should be paid to the exploration and exploitation of Paleozoic oil and gas in Dongpu depression.

  1. Structural Classification of Marshes with Polarimetric SAR Highlighting the Temporal Mapping of Marshes Exposed to Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Ramsey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical relationships between field-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI and Leaf Angle Distribution (LAD and polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR based biophysical indicators were created and applied to map S. alterniflora marsh canopy structure. PolSAR and field data were collected near concurrently in the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 in coastal marshes, and PolSAR data alone were acquired in 2009. Regression analyses showed that LAI correspondence with the PolSAR biophysical indicator variables equaled or exceeded those of vegetation water content (VWC correspondences. In the final six regressor model, the ratio HV/VV explained 49% of the total 77% explained LAI variance, and the HH-VV coherence and phase information accounted for the remainder. HV/HH dominated the two regressor LAD relationship, and spatial heterogeneity and backscatter mechanism followed by coherence information dominated the final three regressor model that explained 74% of the LAD variance. Regression results applied to 2009 through 2012 PolSAR images showed substantial changes in marsh LAI and LAD. Although the direct cause was not substantiated, following a release of freshwater in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the fairly uniform interior marsh structure of 2009 was more vertical and dense shortly after the oil spill cessation. After 2010, marsh structure generally progressed back toward the 2009 uniformity; however, the trend was more disjointed in oil impact marshes.

  2. Production of Clavulanic Acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus in Batch Cultures with Using Wheat Bran as the Source of Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Hosseini Khayat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Microbial biotechnology is considered as one of the most important and profitable branches of industry. In this approach, by using the generator microorganisms, We are able to produce biotechnological products, with higher efficiency. Clavulanic acid is being used in combination with commonly used beta-lactam antibiotics in order to fight against bacterial infections that are resistant to such antibiotics and this product plays a major role in pharmaceutical industry especially in producing Co-Amoxiclav. The fermentation stage plays a major role in producing secondary products. The compositions of fermentation media plays an important role in the titer and productivity of secondary metabolites and the cost of raw materials. Carbon substrate is one of the most important and expensive component of media in this stage. The present research seeks to study the effect of various densities of wheat bran as the natural source of carbon and the cost in producing clavulanic acid. In this research, we used wheat bran, instead of corn oil, as a suitable carbon and energy resource in formulation of fermentation process. The final product was cultivated for a period of 9 days in the temperature of 28 °C and the pH value, biomass, clavulanic acid concentrations (by HPLC and Spectrophotometry and morphology of the strain were studied. The results showed that the clavulanic acid production increased about 12 percent compared to the control medium. Clavulanic acid production was obtained in the fermentation medium containing 17 g/L wheat bran which is 180 mg/L

  3. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  4. Unified dark fluid in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sunil K. [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Dhenkanal, Odisha (India); Behera, Dipanjali [Government College of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kalahandi, Odisha (India); Mishra, Bivudutta [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Hyderabad (India)

    2015-04-01

    Anisotropic dark energy cosmological models are constructed in the frame work of generalised Brans-Dicke theory with a self-interacting potential. A unified dark fluid characterised by a linear equation of state is considered as the source of dark energy. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar simulating an anisotropic relationship among the directional expansion rates. The dynamics of the universe in the presence of a unified dark fluid in anisotropic background have been discussed. The presence of an evolving scalar field makes it possible to get an accelerating phase of expansion even for a linear relationship among the directional Hubble rates. It is found that the anisotropy in expansion rates does not affect the scalar field, the self-interacting potential, but it controls the non-evolving part of the Brans-Dicke parameter. (orig.)

  5. Flash thermal conditioning of olive pastes during the olive oil mechanical extraction process: impact on the structural modifications of pastes and oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposto, Sonia; Veneziani, Gianluca; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Minnocci, Antonio; Sebastiani, Luca; Servili, Maurizio

    2013-05-22

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is strictly related to the concentrations of phenolic and volatile compounds, which are strongly affected by the operative conditions of the VOO mechanical extraction process. The aim of this work is to study the impact of a new technology such as flash thermal conditioning (FTC) on olive paste structural modification and on VOO quality. The evaluation of olive paste structure modification by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) showed that the application of FTC after crushing produces significant differences in terms of the breaking of the parenchyma cells and aggregation of oil droplets in comparison to the crushed pastes. The virgin olive oil flash thermal conditioning (VOO-FTC) featured a higher concentration of volatile compounds compared to that in the control, particularly of all saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and esters, whereas the phenolic concentration was higher in VOO obtained from the traditional process (VOO-C).

  6. Brans-Dicke theory of gravity with torsion: A possible solution of $\\omega$-problem

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yu-Huei

    2012-01-01

    We study Brans-Dicke theory of gravity in Riemann-Cartan space-times, and obtain general torsion solutions, which are completely determined by Brans-Dicke scalar field $\\Phi$, in the false vacuum energy dominated epoch. The substitution of the torsion solutions back to our action gives the original Brans-Dicke action with $\\Phi$-dependent Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega(\\Phi)$. The evolution of $\\omega(\\Phi)$ during inflation is studied and it yields that $\\omega$ approaches to infinity at the end of inflation. It may solve the $\\omega$-problem in the extended inflation model.

  7. The Analysis of a Vibrator Oil-stirring Phnomenon and Study on a New Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bing-bing; ZHANG Gong-xue

    2012-01-01

    The deep vibrator is an important equipment of foundation improvement. It works through eccentric masses with high-speed. But the traditional eccentric structure will stir the oil around it, and it will result in the loss of motor power. The paper analyzed the stirring phenomenon, and got the level and specific data of stirring and swirling through fluent software. After principle analysis, a new type of anti-churning eccentric structure was put forward, which can effectively avoid stirring phenomenon. Otherwise, the new structure will also not produce irregular vibration because of swirling, then it can work with a better performance. In addition, the contrast of dynamic performance between a traditional and new structure was carried out in the paper and proved that the new structure has a better working performance. Modeling data in the paper is from surveying and mapping, so the conclusion can be taken as guidance for vibrator designing.

  8. Antigravity in F( R) and Brans-Dicke theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, V. K.; Karagiannakis, N.

    2014-12-01

    We study antigravity in F( R)-theory originating scalar-tensor theories and also in Brans-Dicke models without cosmological constant. For the F( R) theory case, we obtain the Jordan frame antigravity scalar-tensor theory by using a variant of the Lagrange multipliers method and we numerically study the time dependent effective gravitational constant. As we shall demonstrate in detail by using some viable F( R) models, although the initial F( R) models have no antigravity, their scalar-tensor counterpart theories might or not have antigravity, a fact mainly depending on the parameter that characterizes antigravity. Similar results hold true in the Brans-Dicke model, which we also studied numerically. In addition, regarding the Brans-Dicke model we also found some analytic cosmological solutions. Since antigravity is an unwanted feature in gravitational theories, our findings suggest that in the case of F( R) theories, antigravity does not occur in the real world described by the F( R) theory, but might occur in the Jordan frame scalar-tensor counterpart of the F( R) theory, and this happens under certain circumstances. The central goal of our study is to present all different cases in which antigravity might occur in modified gravity models.

  9. Exact Cosmological Solutions in Modified Brans--Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rasouli, S M M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain exact cosmological vacuum solutions for an extended FLRW homogenous and isotropic Brans-Dicke (BD) universe in five dimensions for all values of the curvature index. Then, by employing the equations associated to a modified Brans-Dicke theory (MBDT) [1], we construct the physics on a four-dimensional hypersurface. We show that the induced matter obeys the equation of state of a fluid of a barotropic type. We discuss the properties of such an induced matter for some values of the equation of state parameter and analyze in detail their corresponding solutions. To illustrate the cosmological behaviors of the solutions, we contrast our solutions with those present the standard Brans-Dicke theory. We retrieve that, in MBDT scenario, it is impossible to find a physically acceptable solution associated to the negative curvature for both the dust-dominated and radiation-dominated universes. However, for a spatially flat and closed universes, we argue that our obtained solutions are more gener...

  10. Brans-Dicke Galileon and the Variational Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Quiros, Israel; Gonzalez, Tame; Horta-Rangel, F Antonio; Saavedra, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed at a (mostly) pedagogical exposition of the derivation of the motion equations of certain modifications of general relativity. Here we derive in all detail the motion equations in the Brans-Dicke theory with the cubic self-interaction. This is a modification of the Brans-dicke theory by the addition of a term in the Lagrangian which is non-linear in the derivatives of the scalar field: it contains second-order derivatives. This is the basis of the so-called Brans-Dicke Galileon. We pay special attention to the variational principle and to the algebraic details of the derivation. It is shown how higher order derivatives of the fields appearing in the intermediate computations cancel out leading to second order motion equations. The reader will find useful tips for the derivation of the field equations of modifications of general relativity such as the scalar-tensor theories and $f(R)$ theories, by means of the (stationary action) variational principle. The content of this paper is specially...

  11. Impact of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill on population size and genetic structure of horse flies in Louisiana marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R; Foil, Lane D

    2016-01-12

    The greenhead horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart, is frequently found in coastal marshes of the Eastern United States. The greenhead horse fly larvae are top predators in the marsh and thus vulnerable to changes in the environment, and the adults potentially are attracted to polarized surfaces like oil. Therefore, horse fly populations could serve as bioindicators of marsh health and toxic effects of oil intrusion. In this study, we describe the impact of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on tabanid population abundance and genetics as well as mating structure. Horse fly populations were sampled biweekly from oiled and unaffected locations immediately after the oil spill in June 2010 until October 2011. Horse fly abundance estimates showed severe crashes of tabanid populations in oiled areas. Microsatellite genotyping of six pristine and seven oiled populations at ten polymorphic loci detected genetic bottlenecks in six of the oiled populations in association with fewer breeding parents, reduced effective population size, lower number of family clusters and fewer migrants among populations. This is the first study assessing the impact of oil contamination at the level of a top arthropod predator of the invertebrate community in salt marshes.

  12. Biocidal Compounds from Mentha sp. Essential Oils and Their Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, Maria Fe; Vidali, Veroniki P; Polissiou, Moschos G; Santana-Méridas, Omar

    2017-03-01

    Essential oils from Greek Mentha species showed different chemical compositions for two populations of M. pulegium, characterized by piperitone and pulegone. Mentha spicata essential oil was characterized by endocyclic piperitenone epoxide, piperitone epoxide, and carvone. The bioactivities of these essential oils and their components have been tested against insect pests (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Spodoptera littoralis and Myzus persicae), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne, Solanum lycopersicum). The structure-activity relationships of these compounds have been studied including semi-synthetic endocyclic trans-carvone epoxide, exocyclic carvone epoxide, a new exocyclic piperitenone epoxide and trans-pulegone epoxide. Leptinotarsa decemlineata feeding was affected by piperitenone and piperitone epoxide. Spodoptera littoralis was affected by piperitone epoxide and pulegone. The strongest nematicidal agent was piperitenone epoxide, followed by piperitone epoxide, piperitenone and carvone. Germination of S. lycopersicum and L. perenne was significantly affected by piperitenone epoxide. This compound and carvone epoxide inhibited L. perenne root and leaf growth. Piperitenone epoxide also inhibited the root growth of S. lycopersicum. The presence of a C(1) epoxide resulted in strong antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic compounds regardless of the C(4) substituent. New natural crop protectants could be developed through appropriate structural modifications in the p-menthane skeleton. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Novel bio-based thermoset resins based on epoxidized vegetable oils for structural adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Shivshankar

    Conventional engineered wood composites are bonded for the most part through formaldehyde-based structural adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and resorcinol formaldehyde (RF). Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen; the occupational exposure and emission after manufacturing of these binders is raising more and more concern. With increasing emphasis on environmental issues, there is clear incentive to replace these hazardous conventional formaldehyde-based binders with cco-friendly resins having similar properties but derived from renewable sources, bearing in mind the economics of the structural wood composite industry. In this thesis, the curing reaction of bio-derived epoxy thermosets with inexpensive, low-toxicity precursors, including polyimines and amino acids was investigated. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were successfully crosslinked with both branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and triethylenetetramine (fETA). Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) was crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI), having different molecular weights. Curing conditions were optimized through solvent uptake and soluble fraction analysis. Finally, the mechanical properties of the optimized compositions of rigid bioepoxies were evaluated using dynamic mechanical rheological testing (DMRT). While not as stiff as conventional materials, optimized materials have sufficient room temperature moduli to show promise for coatings and as binders in engineered wood products.

  14. Biobased Fat Mimicking Molecular Structuring Agents for Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and Other Edible Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Julian R; John, George

    2015-12-01

    To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0.25 wt %, in numerous organic solvents, as well as in a range of natural edible oils, specifically a relatively unstudied group of liquids: natural medium-chain triglyceride oils, notably coconut oil. Spectroscopic analysis details the gelator structure as well as the intermolecular noncovalent interactions, which allow for gelation. X-ray diffraction studies indicate fatty acid chain packing of gelators is similar to that of natural fats, signifying the crystalline nature may lead to desirable textural properties and mouthfeel.

  15. Study of oil sorption behavior of filled and structured fiber assemblies made from polypropylene, kapok and milkweed fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, R S; Das, Dipayan; Karan, C Praba

    2011-02-15

    This article reports on oil sorption behavior of fiber assemblies made up of single natural and synthetic fibers as well as blend of natural and synthetic fibers when tested with high density oil and diesel oil. A series of filled fiber assemblies were prepared from 100% polypropylene, kapok, and milkweed fibers and another series of bonded structured fiber assemblies were prepared from a 70/30 blend of kapok and polypropylene fibers and a 70/30 blend of milkweed and polypropylene fibers. It was observed that the porosity of the fiber assemblies played a very important role in determining its oil sorption capacity. The polypropylene fiber assembly exhibited the highest sorption capacity (g/g) followed by the kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies at porosity milkweed fibers have intra fiber porosities of 0.81 and 0.83, respectively. All the fiber assemblies showed higher oil sorption capacity with the high density oil as compared to the diesel oil. As the kapok and milkweed fiber have low cellulose content, hence their slow degradation is an advantage in fresh and marine water applications. The good sorption capacity of kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies along with their bio-degradable nature offer great scope for structuring them into fiber assemblies with large porosity and uniform pores to have efficient oil sorbents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure and Stability of Fish Oil Organogels Prepared with Sunflower Wax and Monoglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öǧütcü, Mustafa; Temizkan, Riza; Arifoǧlu, Nazan; Yılmaz, Emin

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop fish oil (FO) organogels with sunflower wax (SW) and monoglyceride (MG), and compare them with a commercial margarine (CM). The organogels were stored at 4 and 20°C for 90 days and their storage stability was investigated. The color values, oil binding capacity, crystal formation time, solid fat content, thermal properties and crystal structures of the organogels were measured. During storage, their textural properties and peroxide values were monitored. The melting temperature of the MG organogels was found similar to that of the CM sample. Otherwise, the melting points of the MG gels were lower than those of the SW gels. Crystal morphology of the CM sample was found similar to MG gels by X-ray measurements. The firmness values of the SW organogels were higher than those of the MG gels. The peroxide values of all gels were within the legal limits.

  17. Composition and structure of agents responsible for development of water repellency in soils following oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvina, Marina; Todoruk, Tiona R; Langford, Cooper H

    2003-07-01

    Soil from the Ellerslie site of experimental oil contamination in Alberta developed water repellency some years after initial remediation. The water-repellent soils were compared to clean soils and contaminated but wettable soils by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The effects of extraction with CH2Cl2 (for petroleum hydrocarbons), NaOH (for natural organic matter), and 2-propanol/ammonia (IPA/NH3) on wettability were evaluated by the molarity of the ethanol droplet (MED) test. Soil extracts and whole soils, after extraction, were examined using NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). On the basis of the structure--MED correlations, a model of a thin-layer natural organic matter--petroleum products complex formed under strong drying conditions is proposed to account for the development of water repellency. Studies of two similar soils from accidental oil spills are supportive.

  18. Modeling porous structure of oil-pressboard interface and its effect on electric field distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马文霞; 姜赤龙; 毛文奇; 唐信

    2015-01-01

    The oil−pressboard insulation is a typical composite insulation system widely used in the design and manufactory of large power apparatus. The implement of oil−pressboard insulation may lead to surface electrification and discharge at the interface under certain condition. It is of significant importance to take an insight into the phenomenon occurring at the interface. Through experiment, the pressboard is found as a porous material. The interface changes abruptly from bulk pressboard to the bulk oil as a result of the porous structure. A new model is proposed which divides the interface into bulk oil region, transition region, and bulk pressboard region. The width of the transition region is decided according to the microtome figure. The effective permittivity of the transition region is calculated using a new model based on fractal theory. The model is validated and compared with previous calculation model. The effect of the existence of transition region on the electric field distribution is discussed.

  19. Use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in broiler chicken diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa, E; Codony, R; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils in broiler chicken diets. For this purpose, 144 one-d-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 48 cages. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with 6% of native palm oil ( PN: ), acid palm oil ( PA: ), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- ( MAG: ) and diacylglycerols ( DAG: ) ( PEL: ), re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG ( PEH: ), native soybean oil ( SN: ), acid soybean oil ( SA: ), re-esterified soybean oil low in MAG and DAG ( SEL: ), or re-esterified soybean oil high in MAG and DAG ( SEH: ), which resulted in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. Digestibility balances showed that the degree of saturation of fat generally exerted a greater impact than did the fat molecular structure. The dietary utilization of S sources was higher than that of P sources. However, the increased sn-2 saturated fatty acid ( SFA: ) content of EL oils in the starter period and the increased MAG and DAG content of EH oils in the grower-finisher period yielded favorable effects on the SFA apparent absorption, especially in those birds fed re-esterified palm oils. The excreta acylglycerol and free fatty acid composition was mainly composed of free fatty acids, and their amount almost paralleled the results observed for SFA apparent absorption. For growth performance, birds fed S exhibited better feed conversion ratios and lower abdominal fat-pad weights than did those fed P. The fatty acid composition of abdominal adipose tissue was also mainly affected by the degree of saturation of dietary fat sources. We concluded that re-esterified oils, mainly from P sources, can be used in broiler chicken diets as alternative fat sources since they show similar or even higher total fatty acid apparent absorption than do their corresponding native and acid oils, with

  20. Development of mineral oil free offset printing ink using vegetable oil esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ananda Sankar; Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Mondal, Rabindranath; Ghosh, Santinath

    2007-01-01

    Until the middle of this century, fats and oils are the major raw material source for paints, coating and lubricating applications. These markets are completely taken over by petroleum based stocks due to their abundance and versatility. However, recent public awareness to use environmentally acceptable products that minimize pollution, are compatible to human health and readily biodegradable created opportunities for vegetable oils for application in paints and printing inks. The formulation of vegetable oil methyl ester based 'green' offset printing ink that reduces the volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been discussed in the present study. Methyl esters of rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil have been prepared and their physical properties have been measured and compared with standard petroleum feed stock. Varnishes were prepared with these esters and their properties are also compared with that of the petroleum based products. Rheological properties of the inks are also evaluated and compared with standard printing ink using petroleum based solvent. In general performance of the ester-based printing inks are comparable with that of the mineral oil based product. On the basis of tack stability and gloss, ester based inks are much superior than the mineral oil based products. In conclusion, a new non-volatile diluent for printing ink has been developed. The diluent is made from common vegetable oils like rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil, a renewable source that is environmental friendly. Vegetable oil esters offer a cost effective solution for mineral oil based printing ink to meet VOCs regulations.

  1. Sectoral Structure Change Modeling of European Oil and Gas Producing Country’S Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepelkin Viacheslav Alexandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider identifying features of sectoral structuring within the national economy that has definite foreign trade product specialization. Examination of the sector-specific division methodology enabled identification of its strong association with certain sector dominance in the economy. It is against this background that we offer an explanation for the delay in transferring from the post-Soviet to the applicable international classification of economic structure elements in Russia and Belarus. We perform analysis of the three-component P-S-T model (primary, secondary, tertiary sector using statistical and econometric methods and define properties of the sectoral shares dynamics in national economies of oil and gas producing countries. Analysis of the Russian and Norwegian economies’ intersectoral changes suggests that it is necessary for the government to develop and implement selective structural policy to overcome the existing structural disproportions.

  2. Directed weighted network structure analysis of complex impedance measurements for characterizing oil-in-water bubbly flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Dang, Wei-Dong; Xue, Le; Zhang, Shan-Shan

    2017-03-01

    Characterizing the flow structure underlying the evolution of oil-in-water bubbly flow remains a contemporary challenge of great interests and complexity. In particular, the oil droplets dispersing in a water continuum with diverse size make the study of oil-in-water bubbly flow really difficult. To study this issue, we first design a novel complex impedance sensor and systematically conduct vertical oil-water flow experiments. Based on the multivariate complex impedance measurements, we define modalities associated with the spatial transient flow structures and construct modality transition-based network for each flow condition to study the evolution of flow structures. In order to reveal the unique flow structures underlying the oil-in-water bubbly flow, we filter the inferred modality transition-based network by removing the edges with small weight and resulting isolated nodes. Then, the weighted clustering coefficient entropy and weighted average path length are employed for quantitatively assessing the original network and filtered network. The differences in network measures enable to efficiently characterize the evolution of the oil-in-water bubbly flow structures.

  3. A Review of Structural Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber in Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mahjoub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to environmental concerns and financial problems, natural fibers have become interesting and fascinating nowadays to be used as an industrial material and structural material for rehabilitating of structures. Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPF is a natural fiber which is found a lot in tropical areas. Scientists have used OPF fiber with many types of resins such as epoxy, polypropylene, polyester, and phenol formaldehyde. Therefore, this paper focused on the properties of OPF fiber and gathered mechanical properties of OPF composites (OPF as reinforcement of polymer reported by other researchers in terms of tensile and flexural properties. Furthermore, the chemical surface modification methods to solve the interfacial bonding of fiber and polymer were mentioned. In addition, the results of hybrid composites of OPF were also discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the results of composites were compared to pure resin properties and also the stress-strain diagram and internal strain energy of composites were considered. Besides, the effects of adding OPF to other composites to make a new hybrid composite were indicated. Finally, it is clear that the use of oil palm fiber composites for structural elements for bearing loads is not recommended but the usage of OPF composites for secondary structural elements may be recommended due to future researches.

  4. Structure and viscosity of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnak, M.; Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Paulovicova, K.; Tothova, J.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Cimbala, R.; Avdeev, M. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Feoktystov, A.

    2017-06-01

    Various structural changes of ferrofluids have been intensively studied under external magnetic fields. In this work we present an experimental evidence of similar changes induced by an electric field. In the context of the electric field effect on ferrofluids structure, we studied a simple ferrofluid consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and dispersed in transformer oil. The structural changes have been observed both on macroscopic and microscopic scale. We also demonstrate a remarkable impact of the electric field on the ferrofluid viscosity in relation to the reported structural changes. It was found that the electric field induced viscosity changes are analogous to the magnetoviscous effect. These changes and the electroviscous effect are believed to stem from the dielectric permittivity contrast between the iron oxide nanoparticles and transformer oil, giving rise to the effective electric polarization of the nanoparticles. It is highlighted that this electrorheological effect should be considered in studies of ferrofluids for high voltage engineering applications, as it can have impact on the thermomagnetic convection or the dielectric breakdown performance.

  5. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 1; Long-term effects on the physical structure of the mangrove fringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrity, S.D.; Levings, S.C. (Coastal Zone Analysis, Sopchoppy, FL (United States)); Burns, K.A. (Bermuda Biological Station, Ferry Reach (Bermuda))

    1994-04-01

    In April 1986, more than 75 000 barrels (1.5 x 10[sup 7] l) of medium-weight crude oil spilled into Bahia las Minas on the central Caribbean coast of Panama. Changes in the physical structure of the mangrove fringe after oiling were documented over time. These included defoliation, limb loss and eventual collapse of dead trees. By 5 years after the spill, the length of shore fringed by mangroves was reduced at oiled sites relative to unoiled sites. Surviving trees at oiled sites had fewer and shorter submerged prop roots and a higher proportion of dead roots than trees at unoiled sites. These changes reduced the surface area of submerged prop roots by 33% on oiled open coast, 38% in channels and 74% in streams. (author)

  6. The influence of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 on structural design and economics of oil tankers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Yousif Ibrahim

    Scope and method of study. Since the discovery of oil in 1859, the transportation of oil and oil products has always been associated with accidents and groundings of the tanker carriers. During the past 25 years, the United States and other nations have become increasingly concerned about oil spills associated with waterborne transportation of oil. Legislative initiatives aimed at reducing oil spills have evolved slowly in direct response to tanker accidents that took place over the years. For the most part, legislation prior to 1990 had been developed under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization. However, the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA90) was a major departure from the international effort to address the shortcomings in tanker design and operation. In mandating a requirement to change from single-hull to double-hull designs, the United States acted unilaterally. Section 4115 of OPA90 excludes single-hull tankers of 5000 gross tons or more from U.S. waters after the period 2010--2015. This study reviewed and analyzed the history of oil spills and the effectiveness of oil spill regulations. Findings and conclusions. An economic analysis which included costs, risks, and benefits of double-hull technology has proved that the increase in capital and operational costs of double-hull tankers is higher than the expected benefits of reducing oil spills if an accident were to occur. OPA90 and Regulations 13F and 13G, which may be viewed as political mandates, have forced the shipbuilding industry to drastically change its standard for the design of oil tankers from single- to double-hull tankers without giving the industry any clear design guidelines or proven standards. It is a prime example of political expediency taking over the economic and technical factors needed for any new design to be successful and economically feasible. As a general rule of thumb, any new design takes from 15 to 20 years to become mature, error-free, and ready to be

  7. Fate of biopolymers during rapeseed meal and wheat bran composting as studied by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in combination with multiple fluorescence labeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Shen, Qi-Rong; Yu, Guang-Hui; Ran, Wei; Xu, Yang-Chun

    2012-02-01

    Detailed knowledge of the molecular events during composting is important in improving the efficiency of this process. By combining two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) correlation spectroscopy and multiple fluorescent labeling, it was possible to study the degradation of biopolymers during rapeseed meal and wheat bran composting. Two-dimensional FTIR correlation spectroscopy provided structural information and was used to deconvolute overlapping bands found in the compost FTIR spectra. The degradation of biopolymers in rapeseed meal and wheat bran composts followed the sequence: cellulose, heteropolysaccharides, and proteins. Fluorescent labeling suggested that cellulose formed an intact network-like structure and the other biopolymers were embedded in the core of this structure. The sequence of degradation of biopolymers during composting was related to their distribution patterns.

  8. Structural health monitoring of localized internal corrosion in high temperature piping for oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Thomas J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lozev, Mark G.

    2015-03-01

    Crude oil is becoming more corrosive with higher sulfur concentration, chloride concentration, and acidity. The increasing presence of naphthenic acids in oils with various environmental conditions at temperatures between 150°C and 400°C can lead to different internal degradation morphologies in refineries that are uniform, non-uniform, or localized pitting. Improved corrosion measurement technology is needed to better quantify the integrity risk associated with refining crude oils of higher acid concentration. This paper first reports a consolidated review of corrosion inspection technology to establish the foundation for structural health monitoring of localized internal corrosion in high temperature piping. An approach under investigation is to employ flexible ultrasonic thin-film piezoelectric transducer arrays fabricated by the sol-gel manufacturing process for monitoring localized internal corrosion at temperatures up to 400°C. A statistical analysis of sol-gel transducer measurement accuracy using various time of flight thickness calculation algorithms on a flat calibration block is demonstrated.

  9. Alteration of biomass composition in response to changing substrate particle size and the consequences for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn bran is a by-product from corn starch processing. This work examined the effects of changing substrate particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of both raw and pretreated destarched corn bran. The biomass composition of the corn bran varied between particle size fractions: The largest particles...

  10. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  11. The effect of particle size of wheat bran fractions on bread quality - Evidence for fibre-protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Haaster, D. van; Hemery, Y.; Schols, H.A.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the adverse effects of wheat bran fractions on bread-making quality was studied. Two fractions of bran, representing different tissue layers and having different compositions, were used. The particle size of the bran fractions was varied by various milling techniques. All fractions wer

  12. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  13. Secondary structure of oleosins in oil bodies isolated from seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, D J; Wellner, N; Beaudoin, F; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R

    1998-09-01

    Oil bodies were isolated from mature seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Oil body preparations containing only oleosin proteins could be obtained from safflower seeds by salt-washing followed by centrifugation on discontinuous sucrose density gradients. However, it was necessary to treat sunflower oil bodies with urea to obtain preparations of similar purity. Incubation of the oil bodies with proteinases gave two fragments with molecular masses of 6 and 8 kDa which were protected from digestion. These fragments represented the hydrophobic domain of the oleosins, as determined by N-terminal sequencing. Intact and proteinase-treated oil bodies of both species were analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, as dry films and in aqueous medium, the spectra being compared with those obtained for pure oil samples in order to identify the bands resulting from the oleosin proteins and protected peptides. This investigation showed that the hydrophobic domain of the oleosins in intact oil bodies is predominantly alpha-helical in structure and that the conformation was not greatly affected by washing the oil bodies with urea during preparation.

  14. Structure-activity relations of water-in-oil vaccine formulations and induced antigen-specific antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2005-01-11

    Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are known as most effective adjuvants to generate high and durable antibody responses to vaccine antigens following a single immunization. However, their structural requirements remain poorly understood. Here we addressed the significance of certain pharmaceutical characteristics including water/oil ratios--ranging from 60/40 to 30/70 (w/w(%))--droplet size and type of oil, i.e. non-metabolizable (mineral oil) versus metabolizable (Miglyol 840). Stability of emulsions was accomplished by the use of a polymeric emulsifier. Distinct W/O emulsions were formulated with inactivated (i) infectious bronchitis virus (iIBV) and Newcastle disease virus (iNDV), and evaluated in immunized chickens for magnitude and duration of in vivo antiviral antibody formation and local reactions. A high mineral oil content proved most effective for antibody response formation. In general, a larger droplet size evoked higher antibody responses for both oil types. Inoculum residues proved lower using biodegradable Miglyol, when compared to mineral oil, for all emulsion variants. Especially water-to-oil ratio and droplet size may provide useful parameters for improving (antiviral) antibody production by W/O emulsions.

  15. Role of the Brans-Dicke scalar in the holographic description of dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H L; Myung, Y S; Kim, Hungsoo

    2005-01-01

    We study cosmological application of the holographic energy density in the Brans-Dicke theory. Considering the holographic energy density as a dynamical cosmological constant, it is more natural to study it in the Brans-Dicke theory than in general relativity. Solving the Friedmann and Brans-Dicke field equations numerically, we clarify the role of Brans-Dicke field during evolution of the universe. When the Hubble horizon is taken as the IR cutoff, the equation of state ($w_{\\Lmd}$) for the holographic energy density is determined to be 5/3 when the Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omg$ goes infinity. This means that the Brans-Dicke field plays a crucial role in determining the equation of state. For the particle horizon IR cutoff, the Brans-Dicke scalar mediates a transition from $w_{\\Lmd} = -1/3$ (past) to $w_{\\Lmd} = 1/3$ (future). If a dust matter is present, it determines future equation of state. In the case of future event horizon cutoff, the role of the Brans-Dicke scalar and dust matter are turned out to be ...

  16. Bioactive compounds in pigmented rice bran inhibit growth of human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran contains both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Our previous studies have shown that pigmented rice cultivars contained several-fold higher total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant capacities than non-pigmented cultivars. We investigated three rice brans (purple, red and light-...

  17. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal-Eldin, A; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies show inverse relationship between intake of wholegrain cereals and several chronic diseases. Components and mechanisms behind possible protective effects of wholegrain cereals are poorly understood. Objective: To characterise commercial rye bran preparations, c...... variation in the chemical composition of industrially produced rye brans calls for the need of standardisation of this commodity, especially when used as a functional ingredient in foods....

  18. Effect of rice bran on the quality of vermicompost produced from food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Pourzamani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that composting and vermicomposting process can be used as a potential tool for bio convert rice bran and food waste. However, it is suggested that the rice bran can be amended with food waste to ensure better quality of vermicompost.

  19. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.001. Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P<0.01, while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.05. The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.01. Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P<0.01. The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  20. Protective effects of black rice bran against chemically-induced inflammation of mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of black rice (cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1) bran against 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema and 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in inflammatory mouse models. We also determined the effects of the bran...

  1. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  2. Dietary rice bran supplementation prevents salmonella colonization differentially across varieties and by priming intestinal immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global burden of enteric dysfunction and diarrhoeal disease remains a formidable problem that requires novel interventions. This study investigated the immune-modulatory capacity of bran across rice varieties with phytochemical differences. 129SvEvTac mice were fed a 10% rice bran or control die...

  3. Peculiarities of convection and oil maturation in 3D porous medium structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurie Khachay, Professor; Mindubaev, Mansur

    2017-04-01

    An important estimation of oil source thickness productivity is to study the thermal influences of magmatic intrusions on the maturation of the organic matter. The heterogeneity of permeability distribution of the reservoir rock and respectively the convection structure provide temperature heterogeneity and different degree of maturity for the oil source material. A numerical algorithm for solving the problem of developed convection in two-dimensional and three-dimensional models of the porous medium, which consists of a system of Darcy equations, heat conduction with convection term and the continuity equation, is developed. Because of the effective values of the coefficients of thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity and permeability of the medium depend from the temperature; the system of equations is nonlinear. For solution we used the dimensionless system of coordinates. For numerical solution we used the longitudinal cross-implicit scheme. The coordinates step for the 3D model had been used constant and equal to H/20, where H=1- dimensionless thickness of porous medium layer. As it is shown from the variants of numerical solution, by the stationary regime of developed convection because of the temperature heterogeneous distribution in the sedimentary reservoir the formation of oil source matter different degree of maturity is possible. That result is very significant for estimation of reservoirs oil-bearing The work was fulfilled by supporting of the Fund of UB RAS, project 1518532. Reference 1. Yurie Khachay and Mansur Mindubaev, 2016, Effect of convective transport in porous media on the conductions of organic matter maturation and generation of hydrocarbons in trap rocks complexes, Energy Procedia. 74 pp.79-83.

  4. Use of re-esterified palm oils, differing in their acylglycerol structure, in weaning-piglet diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa, E; Barroeta, A C; Tres, A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2015-08-01

    Re-esterified oils are new fat sources obtained from chemical esterification of acid oils with glycerol (both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively). The different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution and acylglycerol composition of re-esterified oils may enhance the apparent absorption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and, thus, their overall nutritive value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified palm oils, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils, and also with an unsaturated fat source in weaning-piglet diets. The parameters assessed were: FA apparent absorption, acylglycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) composition of feces, and growth performance. One-hundred and twenty weaning piglets (average weight of 8.50±1.778 kg) were blocked by initial BW (six blocks) and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, resulting in four piglets per pen and six replicates per treatment. Dietary treatments were a basal diet supplemented with 10% (as-fed basis) of native soybean oil (SN), native palm oil (PN), acid palm oil (PA), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- (MAG) and diacylglycerols (DAG) (PEL), or re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG (PEH). Results from the digestibility balance showed that SN reached the greatest total FA apparent absorption, and statistically different from PN, PA and PEL (P0.05), but PEH achieved the greatest total FA apparent absorption. Animals fed PEL, despite the fact that PEL oil contained more sn-2 SFA, did not show an improved absorption of SFA (P>0.05). Animals fed PA and PN showed similar apparent absorption coefficients (P>0.05), despite the high FFA content of PA oil. The acylglycerol and FFA composition of feces was mainly composed of FFA. There were no significant differences in growth performance (P>0.05). Results of the present study suggest that, despite the different acylglycerol structure of re

  5. Coal Liquefaction characteristics and chemical structure of product oil; Sekitan ekika hanno tokusei to seiseibutsu no kagaku kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, H.; Sato, M.; Chiba, T.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Sasaki, M. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Through the hydrogenolysis of Wandoan coal and Tanito Harum coal which are used for the NEDOL process, differences of liquefaction characteristics between them were found. The purpose of this study is to grasp these differences as differences of chemical structures of oil fractions. The compound type analysis was conducted for oil fractions obtained at varied reaction temperature for varied reaction time. Coal liquefaction characteristics of these coals were discussed by relating oil yields and chemical structures. For Tanito Harum coal, yields of gas and oil were considered to be lower than those for Wandoan coal, which reflected that the contents of partially hydrogenated hydroaromatics in oil fraction from the former were lower than those from the latter, and that the remarkable change of composition did not occur with the progress of the reaction. For both the coals, the remarkable changes in the average molecular weight of oil fraction were not observed with the progress of the reaction. While, the content of methane gradually increased with the progress of the reaction, which suggested that oil was gradually dealkylated. 5 figs.

  6. Enhancing Jatropha oil extraction yield from the kernels assisted by a xylan-degrading bacterium to preserve protein structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Valorisation of Plant Production Chains; RijksUniv. Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Jakarta (Indonesia); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group; Moeis, Maelita R. [Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia). School of Life Sciences and Technology; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Valorisation of Plant Production Chains

    2011-06-15

    We investigated the use of bacterial cells isolated from paddy crab for the extraction of oil from Jatropha seed kernels in aqueous media while simultaneously preserving the protein structures of this protein-rich endosperm. A bacterial strain - which was marked as MB4 and identified by means of 16S rDNA sequencing and physiological characterization as either Bacillus pumilus or Bacillus altitudinis - enhanced the extraction yield of Jatropha oil. The incubation of an MB4 starter culture with preheated kernel slurry in aqueous media with the initial pH of 5.5 at 37 C for 6 h liberated 73% w/w of the Jatropha oil. Since MB4 produces xylanases, it is suggested that strain MB4 facilitates oil liberation via degradation of hemicelluloses which form the oil-containing cell wall structure of the kernel. After MB4 assisted oil extraction, SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the majority of Jatropha proteins were preserved in the solid phase of the extraction residues. The advantages offered by this process are: protein in the residue can be further processed for other applications, no purified enzyme preparation is needed, and the resulting oil can be used for biodiesel production. (orig.)

  7. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    . Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  8. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg/kg) or lactof......The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg....../kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could...

  9. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  10. Chemical composition and effects of micronized corn bran on iron bioavailability in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Irineu de Oliveira Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The degermination of corn grains by dry milling generates 5% of a fibrous residue. After segregation and micronization, corn bran becomes a potential source of dietary fiber consumption. However, its effect on iron bioavailability has not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition of corn bran and its effects on iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: cellulose (control and corn bran (experimental. The bran had high content of total dietary fiber, especially the insoluble fraction, and low phytate content. Hemoglobin uptake did not differ between groups at the end of repletion period, and the iron relative bioavailability value of the corn bran diet was 104% in comparison to that of the control group. The product evaluated proved to be a potential source of dietary fiber and it showed no negative effects on iron bioavailability.

  11. Discrimination of red and white rice bran from Indonesia using HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Aryani; Rafi, Mohamad; Darusman, Latifah K

    2017-04-15

    HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics was developed to discriminate between the red and the white rice bran grown in Indonesia. The major component in rice bran is γ-oryzanol which consisted of 4 main compounds, namely cycloartenol ferulate, cyclobranol ferulate, campesterol ferulate and β-sitosterol ferulate. Separation of these four compounds along with other compounds was performed using C18 and methanol-acetonitrile with gradient elution system. By using these intensity variations, principal component and discriminant analysis were performed to discriminate the two samples. Discriminant analysis was successfully discriminated the red from the white rice bran with predictive ability of the model showed a satisfactory classification for the test samples. The results of this study indicated that the developed method was suitable as quality control method for rice bran in terms of identification and discrimination of the red and the white rice bran.

  12. Structural Control of Sand Bodies and Deep Exploration for Oil and Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Rihui; Lin Changsong; Zheng Herong

    2002-01-01

    The structural styles can be used to analyses and predict developments and distributions of sand bodies in a rift basin. The dynamic process of faulting and sedimentation can be expressed as follow: the basin topography controlled by fault activity can control water dynamics; which in turn affect the transport and sedimentation of sediments. The corresponding analysis between structural styles and sand depositional types includes the following aspects: (1) in section, the corresponding between development of fault terraces and sand depositional types; (2) in plane, the relationship between faults' association and distributions of sand bodies. There are four types of terrace styles to be identified. They are Steep Slope Single Fault Terrace (SSSFT), Steep Slope Multiple Fault Terrace (SSMFT), Gentle Slope (GS) and Gentle Slope Multiple Fault Terrace (GSMFT), which also can be divided into six subtypes by the timing of the faults activities and the directions of their activity migrations (basinward and landward or marginward). They correspond to the following sand depositions such as alluvial fan, fan delta and turbidite fan etc.. The analysis of structure-sedimentation is a discussion on the rank Ⅲ sequence evolution under the condition of pulsing or episodic fault activities. It has been recognized four plane fault associations such as the comb, the broom, the fork and the fault-fold association as well as the corresponding sand distributions. Structural-sedimentary models above mentioned are significant for the deep oil and gas exploration when lacking of the drill data. It may reduce multiple resolutions in the interpretation of seismic-sedimentary facies and promote sand predictions through the constraints of the structural styles of the basin units. The structural-sedimentary pattern can be used as a geological model in oil and gas exploration in the rift basins.

  13. TRAVERSABLE WORMHOLES IN BRANS-DICKE AND f(R) GRAVITATIONAL THEORIES%Brans-Dicke理论和f(R)理论中的可穿越虫洞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕璐峰; 刘文彪

    2012-01-01

    Brans-Dicke理论和f(R)理论均为不同于Einstein广义相对论的修正引力理论,并且在Brans-Dicke理论参数ω=0时能够回到f(R)理论.人们在Brans-Dicke理论框架下研究得出只有-3/2〈ω〈-4/3才存在可穿越虫洞,ω=0时没有;然而,f(R)理论中已经证明确实也存在可穿越虫洞.为了解决上述所谓的矛盾,有文献修改了Brans-Dicke理论中的某些函数,从而改变ω的取值范围.仔细分析发现,文献中探讨的是对应不同Φ(r),b(r)的可穿越虫洞,自然会给出不一致的结论.本文对2种修正引力理论中的可穿越虫洞问题进行了澄清,明确了各自虫洞解的讨论前提条件.%Brans-Dicke theory and f(R) theory are two types of modified gravitational theories.Brans-Dicke theory under ω=0 is consistent with f(R) theory.Due to the traversable wormhole solution,Brans-Dicke theory under ω=0 should also be consistent with f(R) theory.However,the traversable wormhole solution in Brans-Dicke theory is limited under-3/2〈ω〈-4/3,excluding ω=0.Meanwhile,a traversable wormhole solution is given in f(R) theory.The C(ω) function in Brans-Dicke wormhole solution has been modified to extend the range of ω to 0.In fact,the traversable wormholes in Brans-Dicke theory and f(R) theory correspond to different functions of Φ(r) and b(r).It is not necessary to modify the range of ω in Brans-Dicke solutions.

  14. Closed Pore Structured NiCo2O4-Coated Nickel Foams for Stable and Effective Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Xi; Yan, Zhanheng; Tian, Dongliang; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaofang; Jiang, Lei

    2017-08-30

    To solve the serious problem caused by oily wastewater pollution, unique interface designs, for example, membranes with superwetting properties such as superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity and superhydrophilicity/underwater superoleophobicity, provide a good way to achieve oil/water separation. Here, inspired by the liquid storage property of the honeycomb structure, we propose a strategy to fabricate NiCo2O4-coated nickel foams for stable and efficient oil/water separation. NiCo2O4 with a closed-pore structure was formed by assembling nanoflakes with a micro/nanoscale hierarchical structure. Compared with nickel foam coated by NiCo2O4 with an open-pore structure (NiCo2O4 nanowires), the enclosed nanostructure of NiCo2O4 nanoflakes can firmly hold water for a more stable superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic interface. As a consequence, the NiCo2O4-nanoflake-coated nickel foam has a larger oil breakthrough pressure than the NiCo2O4-nanowire-coated nickel foam because of a slightly larger oil advancing angle and a lower underwater oil adhesion force, which makes it more stable and efficient for oil/water separation. Moreover, the NiCo2O4-coated nickel foams have excellent chemical and mechanical stability, and they are reusable for oil-water separation. This work will be beneficial for the design and development of stable underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning materials and related device applications, such as oil/water separation.

  15. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  16. Stellar filaments in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Manzoor, Rubab [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-05-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the cylindrically symmetric stellar filaments in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity. For this purpose, we construct polytropic filamentary models through a generalized Lane-Emden equation in the Newtonian regime. The resulting models depend upon the values of the cosmological constant (due to the scalar field) along with the polytropic index and represent a generalization of the corresponding models in general relativity. We also investigate the fragmentation of the filaments by exploring the radial oscillations through a stability analysis. This stability criterion depends only upon the adiabatic index. (orig.)

  17. Brans-Dicke corrections to the gravitational Sagnac effect

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, K K; Evans, J C; Nayak, T B

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the Brans-Dicke scalar field on the gravitational corrections to the Sagnac effect has been computed for the first time in the Jordan and Einstein frames. The calculations suggest the possibility that the presence of the scalar field can be detected directly from the basic Sagnac effect in the case of geodesic motions. A second order correction of roughly 0.1 fringe shift for visible light is introduced by the scalar field in the case of polar orbits of the source/observer. It is also demonstrated how the final results in the two frames differ.

  18. Cosmic Wave Functions with the Brans-Dicke Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zong-Hong

    2000-01-01

    Using the standard Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method, the Wheeler-De Witt equation for the Brans-Dicke theory is solved under three kinds of boundary conditions (proposed by Hattie-Hawking, Vilenkin and Linde, respectively). It is found that, although the gravitational and cosmological"constants" are dynamical and timedependent in the classical models, they will acquire constant values when the universe comes from the quantum creation, and that in particular, the amplitude of the resulting wave function under Linde or Vilenkin boundary conditions reaches its maximum if the cosmological constant is the minimum.

  19. Purification and identification of ,y-Oryzanol from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GongYansheng

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: A physiological active factor - r-oryzanol in rice bran was studied.The r-oryzanol was separated and identified by thin layer chromatograghy(TLC),reverse-phase HPLC, semipreparative HPLC and electrospray ionization/massspectrometry(ESI/MS). Its individual components, cycloartenol ferulate and 24-methylene cycloartenol ferulate were obtained. An effective method to purify andseparate the r-oryzanol is provided. Which is useful for further research on thefuctional claracteristies of r-oryzanol and for the development of new rice branproducts.

  20. Stellar Filaments in Self-Interacting Brans-Dicke Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to study cylindrically symmetric stellar filaments in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity. For this purpose, we construct polytropic filamentary models through generalized Lane-Emden equation in Newtonian regime. The resulting models depend upon the values of cosmological constant (due to scalar field) along with polytropic index and represent a generalization of the corresponding models in general relativity. We also investigate fragmentation of filaments by exploring the radial oscillations through stability analysis. This stability criteria depends only upon the adiabatic index.

  1. Application of seismic attributes in structural study and fracture analysis of DQ oil field, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahoo Maleki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the most unstable areas in oil fields is critical for addressing engineering problems of wellbore and sand production as well as geologic problems such as understanding dynamic constraints on hydrocarbon migration and fracture permeability. In this research work, coherency seismic attribute has been used for the determination of the most critical areas in terms of drilling stabilities in the DQ oil field, Iran. The results obtained have shown that the (1 predominant features are the SSE–NNW and N–S trends (2 the central part of the DQ structure shows the highest concentration of segment bundles, (3 the segment bundles seem to be aligned along some lineaments oriented SE–NW and SSE–NNW, and (4 on the eastern and western margins of the map there is an anomalous concentration of segments oriented E–W. It can be concluded that coherency attribute is a valuable tool for structural analysis highlighting those areas containing unstable features.

  2. Fabrication of Magnetite Nanoparticles Dispersed in Olive Oil and Their Structural and Magnetic Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq, A.; Saputro, R. E.; Sunaryono; Hidayat, N.; Hidayat, A.; Mufti, N.; Diantoro, M.; Patriati, A.; Mujamilah; Putra, E. G. R.; Nur, H.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the iron sand taken from Wedi Ireng Beach in Banyuwangi, Indonesia, was employed as the main precursor in fabricating magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite nanoparticles were then functionalized in preparing magnetic fluids coated by oleic acid as a surfactant and dispersed in olive oil as a liquid carrier. The phase purity, crystallite size and crystal structure of the dried magnetic fluids were characterized by using X-Ray Diffractometer. Meanwhile, the functional groups of the magnetic fluids were investigated by means of Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The particle size and morphology of the magnetite particles were also investigated by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The magnetic behaviors of the magnetic fluids were determined by using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Based on the XRD data analysis, the magnetite particles crystallized in the spinel structure without the presence of any other phases. The FTIR spectra showed that the functional groups of the magnetic fluids were referring to the magnetite, oleic acid, and olive oil. The TEM image presented that the magnetite particle was formed in a nanometric size. Finally, the saturation magnetization of the magnetic fluids varied in the mass composition and particle size of the magnetite nanoparticles.

  3. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB and palm oil mill effluent (POME anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content from 44% to 27% towards the end of the 40-day composting period were observed. The C/N ratio also decreased. A drastic change in the bacterial community structure and diversity throughout the composting process was clearly observed using PCR-DGGE banding patterns. The bacterial community drastically shifted between the thermophilic and maturing stages. 16s rRNA clones belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Desemzia, and Planococcus were the dominant groups throughout composting. The species closely related to Solibacillus silvestris were found to be major contributors to changes in the lignocellulosic component. Clones identified as Thermobacillus xylanilyticus, Brachybacterium faecium, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Cellulomonas sp., and Thermobifida fusca, which are known to be lignocellulosic-degrading bacteria, were also detected and are believed to support the lignocellulose degradation.

  4. Pyrolysis of hazelnut shells in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. Yields and structural analysis of bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puetuen, A.E.; Oezcan, A.; Puetuen, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yunusemre Campus, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of hazelnut shells to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstocks. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and well-sweep gas atmosphere (N{sub 2}) on the pyrolysis yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 23.1 wt.% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 500C and heating rate of 7 K min{sup -1}. The pyrolysis products were characterised by elemental analysis and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques and also compared with currently utilised transport fuels by simulated distillation. Bio-oil was then fractionated into pentane soluble and insoluble compounds (asphaltenes). Pentane soluble was then solvent fractionated into pentane, toluene, ether and methanol subfractions by fractionated column chromatography. The aliphatic and low-molecular-weight aromatic subfractions of the bio-oil were then analyzed by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography and GC/MS. Further structural analysis of bio-oil and aromatic and polar subfractions FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR spectra were obtained. The chemical characterization has shown that the bio-oil obtained from hazelnut shells was quite similar to the crude oil and shale oil

  5. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes.

  6. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  7. Fish oil prevents colon cancer by modulation of structure and function of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Navneet; Sharma, Gayatri; Rani, Isha; Renuka; Bhatnagar, Archana

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cells are more susceptible to metabolic perturbations due to impaired electron transport chain (ETC) that promote uncontrolled proliferation. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in bioenergetics and apoptosis, hence are considered as a promising target in tumor cell eradication. Therefore, the present study is designed to elucidate chemopreventive action of fish oil (FO) in combination with corn oil (CO) on mitochondria in colorectal cancer (CRC). Male Wistar rats were divided into groups depending on dietary regimen-Control group, FO+CO(1:1) and FO+CO(2.5:1). These groups were further subdivided depending on whether these received a weekly intraperitoneal injection of ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) or N,N-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) for a period of 4 weeks. The animals sacrificed 48h and 16 weeks after EDTA/DMH treatment constituted initiation and post-initiation phase respectively. The structural and functional alterations in mitochondria were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by assaying electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes. Mitochondrial lipid composition and cholesterol levels were also assessed. DMH treatment led to mitochondrial degeneration, disrupted cristae and a significant decrease in ETC complexes suggestive of metabolic reprogramming. Moreover, an increase in cholesterol and cardiolipin (CL) levels in post-initiation phase led to evasion of apoptosis. FO in both the ratios resulted in stabilization and increase in number of mitochondria, however, FO+CO(2.5:1)+DMH group also exhibited mitophagy and crystolysis alongwith altered dynamics in ETC which facilitated apoptosis. It also decreased cholesterol and CL levels to increase apoptosis. Fish oil targets mitochondria in a dose dependent manner that augments apoptosis and hence attenuates carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A Nonsingular Brans Wormhole: An Analogue to Naked Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Amrita; Laserra, Ettore; Nandi, Kamal K

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper, we showed the Jordan frame vacuum Brans Class I solution provided a wormhole analogue to Horowitz-Ross naked black hole in the wormhole range -3/2<{\\omega}<-4/3. Thereafter, the solution has been criticized by some authors that, because of the presence of singularity in that solution within this range, a wormhole interpretation of it is untenable. While the criticism is correct, we show here that (i) a singularity-free wormhole can actually be obtained from Class I solution by performing a kind of Wick rotation on it, resulting into what Brans listed as his independent Class II solution (ii) the Class II solution has all the necessary properties of a regular wormhole in a revised range -2<{\\omega}<-3/2 and finally, (iii) naked black holes, as described by Horowitz and Ross, are spacetimes where the tidal forces attain their maxima above the black hole horizon. We show that in the non-singular Class II spacetime this maxima is attained above the throat and thus can be treated as ...

  9. Nucleation of vacuum bubbles in Brans-Dicke type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hongsu; Lee, Wonwoo; Lee, Young Jae; Yeom, Dong-han

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study nucleation of vacuum bubbles in the Brans-Dicke type theory of gravity. In the Euclidean signatures, we calculate field combinations of vacuum bubbles as solutions of Einstein and field equations as well as their probabilities by integrating the Euclidean action. We illustrate three possible ways to obtain vacuum bubbles: true vacuum bubbles for $\\omega$ > -3/2, false vacuum bubbles for $\\omega$ -3/2 when the vacuum energy of the false vacuum in the potential of the Einstein frame is less than that of the true vacuum. After the bubble is nucleated at the t = 0 surface, we can smoothly connect and match the field combinations to some solutions of the Lorentzian signatures and consistently continue their subsequent evolutions. Therefore, we conclude that, in general scalar-tensor theories or Brans-Dicke type theories, which include some models of string theory, vacuum bubbles are allowed not only in the form of true vacuum bubbles but also false vacuum bubbles, as long as a special cond...

  10. On the action of the complete Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofinas, Georgios [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Karlovassi, Samos (Greece); Tsoukalas, Minas [Bogazici University, Physics Department, Istanbul (Turkey); National Technical University of Athens, Physics Division, Athens (Greece)

    2016-12-15

    Recently the most general completion of Brans-Dicke theory has appeared with energy exchanged between the scalar field and ordinary matter, given that the equation of motion for the scalar field keeps the simple wave form of Brans-Dicke. This class of theories contain undetermined functions, but there exist only three theories which are unambiguously determined from consistency. Here, for the first such theory, the action of the vacuum theory is found, which arises as the limit of the full matter theory. A symmetry transformation of this vacuum action in the Jordan frame is found which consists of a conformal transformation of the metric together with a redefinition of the scalar field. Since the general family of vacuum theories is parametrized by an arbitrary function of the scalar field, the action of this family is also found. As for the full theory with matter the action of the system is only found when the matter Lagrangian vanishes on-shell, as for example for pressureless dust. Due to the interaction, the matter Lagrangian is non-minimally coupled either in the Jordan or the Einstein frame. (orig.)

  11. Anisotropic Cosmological Model in Modified Brans--Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rasouli, S M M; Sepangi, Hamid R

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that four dimensional Brans-Dicke theory with effective matter field and self interacting potential can be achieved from vacuum 5D BD field equations, where we refer to as modified Brans-Dicke theory (MBDT). We investigate a generalized Bianchi type I anisotropic cosmology in 5D BD theory, and by employing obtained formalism, we derive induced-matter on any 4D hypersurface in context of the MBDT. We illustrate that if the usual spatial scale factors are functions of time while scale factor of extra dimension is constant, and scalar field depends on time and fifth coordinate, then in general, one will encounter inconsistencies in field equations. Then, we assume the scale factors and scalar field depend on time and extra coordinate as separated variables in power law forms. Hence, we find a few classes of solutions in 5D spacetime through which, we probe the one which leads to a generalized Kasner relations among Kasner parameters. The induced scalar potential is found to be in power law or i...

  12. Estimated glycemic index and dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Pérez, Faviola; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Romero-Baranzini, Ana Lourdes; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín

    2013-03-01

    The increasing demand for high-fiber products has favored the design of numerous bakery products rich in fiber such as bread, cookies, and cakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber and estimated glycemic index of cookies containing extruded wheat bran. Wheat bran was subjected to extrusion process under three temperature profiles: TP1;(60, 75, 85 and 100 °C), TP2;(60, 80, 100 and 120 °C), and TP3;(60, 80, 110 and 140 °C) and three moisture contents: (15, 23, and 31 %). Cookies were elaborated using extruded wheat bran (30 %), separated into two fractions (coarse and fine). The dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran was higher than the controls; C0 (100 % wheat flour) and C1 (30 % of no extruded bran coarse fraction) and C2 (30 % of no extruded bran fine fraction). The higher values of dietary fiber were observed on cookies from treatments 5 (TP1, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction) and 11 (TP2, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction). The estimated glycemic index of cookies ranged from 68.54 to 80.16. The dietary fiber content of cookies was increased and the lowest glycemic index corresponded to the cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran. Cookie made with the treatment 11 had a better dietary fiber content and lower estimated glycemic index.

  13. Bioactive compounds and antioxidative activity of colored rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The profiles of bioactive compounds (including phenolics and flavonoids in free and bound fractions, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol of outer and inner rice bran from six colored rice samples collected from local markets were investigated. Proanthocyanidins could only be detected in red rice bran but not in black rice bran. The free fraction of the extracts dominated the total phenolics (72–92% and the total flavonoids (72–96% of colored rice bran. Most of the phenolic acids (83–97% in colored rice bran were present in the bound form. Protocatechualdehyde was identified for the first time in the bound fraction of red rice bran by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The antioxidative activities of the free fraction of the colored rice bran were attributed to the proanthocyanidins in red colored rice and anthocyanins in black rice, while that of the bound fraction was mainly due to the phenolic acids.

  14. Comparison of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria for implementation of fermented wheat bran in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prückler, Michael; Lorenz, Cindy; Endo, Akihito; Kraler, Manuel; Dürrschmid, Klaus; Hendriks, Karel; Soares da Silva, Francisco; Auterith, Eric; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Michlmayr, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    Despite its potential health benefits, the integration of wheat bran into the food sector is difficult due to several adverse technological and sensory properties such as bitterness and grittiness. Sourdough fermentation is a promising strategy to improve the sensory quality of bran without inducing severe changes to the bran matrix. Therefore, identification of species/strains with potential for industrial sourdough fermentations is important. We compared the effects of different representatives of species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on wheat bran. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Fructobacillus fructosus produced highly individual fermentation patterns as judged from carbohydrate consumption and organic acid production. Interestingly, fructose was released during all bran fermentations and possibly influenced the fermentation profiles of obligately heterofermentative species to varying degrees. Except for the reduction of ferulic acid by L. plantarum and L. pentosus, analyses of phenolic compounds and alkylresorcinols suggested that only minor changes thereof were induced by the LAB metabolism. Sensory analysis of breads baked with fermented bran did not reveal significant differences regarding perceived bitterness and aftertaste. We conclude that in addition to more traditionally used sourdough species such as L. sanfranciscensis and L. brevis, also facultatively heterofermentative species such as L. plantarum and L. pentosus possess potential for industrial wheat bran fermentations and should be considered in further investigations.

  15. Shiitake (lentinula edodes production on a sterilized bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Ivan Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed to evaluate the biological efficiency (BE, mean mushroom weight (MMW, mean number of mushroom (MNM and mushroom quality of Shiitake [ Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler] when grown on a sterilized substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses. The proportions of rice bran were 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse; and the concentrations of sugarcane molasses were 0, 30 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran. Four flushes were obtained during the production cycle, providing 3 accumulated productions which were used for production analysis. The substrate supplemented with 25 and 30% rice bran yielded the highest BE (98.42 and 99.84%, respectively, about 230 days after spawning and MNM and initially produced a lower MMW than the substrates supplemented with 15 and 20% rice bran. Any amount of rice bran added to the sugarcane bagasse improved mushroom quality, with the best production of marketable mushrooms obtained by the addition of 15% rice bran. The largest amount of sugarcane molasses (60 g/kg increased BE (90.3 and 23.6%, on first and second accumulated productions, respectively and MNM and no quantity affected mushroom quality.

  16. Dietary rice bran promotes resistance to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ajay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary rice bran consists of many bioactive components with disease fighting properties; including the capacity to modulate the gut microbiota. Studies point to the important roles of the gut microbiota and the mucosal epithelium in the establishment of protection against enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella. The ability of rice bran to reduce the susceptibility of mice to a Salmonella infection has not been previously investigated. Therefore, we hypothesized that the incorporation of rice bran into the diet would inhibit the colonization of Salmonella in mice through the induction of protective mucosal responses. Results Mice were fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% rice bran for one week prior to being orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that mice consuming the 10 and 20% rice bran diets exhibited a reduction in Salmonella fecal shedding for up to nine days post-infection as compared to control diet fed animals (p Lactobacillus spp. in rice bran fed mice (p Salmonella entry into mouse small intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusions Increasing rice bran consumption represents a novel dietary means for reducing susceptibility to enteric infection with Salmonella and potentially via induction of native Lactobacillus spp.

  17. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA.

  18. Extraction of rice bran polysaccharides by enzyme combined with ultrasound and its antioxidant activity%酶法协同超声波提取米糠多糖及其抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明; 王晨; 杨超英; 钱森和

    2015-01-01

    The effect of enzyme combined with ultrasound treatments on the extraction of polysaccharides from rice bran was investigated. The extraction conditions of polysaccharides from rice bran were opti-mized by response surface methodology, and antioxidant activity of rice bran polysaccharides was researched. The results showed that both ultrasound and compound enzymes ( mass ratio of cellulase to neutral protease 1∶1) treatments could improve the extraction of rice bran polysaccharides. The optimal extraction conditions of rice bran polysaccharides were obtained as follows:dosage of compound enzymes 3. 1 mg/mL, enzymolysis time 2 h, ultrasonic power 198 W, ultrasonic time 20 min, ratio of material to liquid 1∶30, extraction time 3. 2 h, extraction temperature 60℃. Under these conditions, the yield of rice bran polysaccharides reached 5 . 3%. The rice bran polysaccharides had strong reducing power and certain antioxidant capability on oil and its scavenging effects on DPPH· and ·OH were significant.%研究了酶法协同超声波处理对米糠多糖提取的影响,利用响应面法对米糠多糖提取工艺进行了优化,并探讨了米糠多糖的抗氧化活性。结果表明,纤维素酶与中性蛋白酶复配使用(质量比1∶1)以及超声波处理有利于米糠多糖的提取。提取米糠多糖的最佳条件为:复合酶加量3.1 mg/mL,酶解时间2 h,超声功率198 W,超声时间20 min,料液比1∶30,提取时间3.2 h,提取温度60℃;在此条件下米糠多糖得率达到5.3%。米糠多糖具有较强的还原力和一定的抗油脂氧化活性,对DPPH自由基、羟基自由基均表现出较好的清除能力。

  19. Structural style and reservoir development in the west Netherlands oil province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racero-Baena, A. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Drake, S. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Schiedam (Netherlands))

    1993-09-01

    The area of the Rijswijk concession largely coincides with the onshore extent of the west Netherlands basin. To date, oil has been produced from a total of 15 fields within the Rijswijk concession, which have a total STOIIP of about 210 x 10[sup 6]m[sup 3] (1.3 x 10[sup 9] bbl). Reservoirs generally comprise continental and shallow marine clastics of the Upper Jurassic of Lower Cretaceous deposited in synrift and postrift settings. The west netherlands basin was created during a phase of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous rifting, characterized by divergent oblique-slip faulting. This resulted in a northwest-southeast-trending block-faulted depression between the London-Brabant Massif to the south, and the Zandvoort Ridge to the north. In the subsequent postrift stage, shallow marine clastics and marls were deposited in a wide basin, with only mild synsedimentary faulting. At the end of the Cretaceous, regional uplift and convergent oblique-slip faulting resulted in basin inversion and the reverse reactivation of preexisting normal faults. Due to the transpressional nature of the basin inversion, narrow asymmetric anticlines were formed, often bounded by upward diverging reverse faults, in the hanging-wall blocks of the former normal faults. These type of structures constitute the general trap geometry of the Cretaceous oil fields in this basin. The acquisition of three-dimensional seismic data has resulted in significantly enhanced structural definition and has lead to the development of new structural and depositional models, which improve the prediction of reservoir distribution and risk assessment.

  20. Reduced particle size wheat bran is butyrogenic and lowers Salmonella colonization, when added to poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, K; Verspreet, J; Courtin, C M; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2017-01-01

    Feed additives, including prebiotics, are commonly used alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters to improve gut health and performance in broilers. Wheat bran is a highly concentrated source of (in)soluble fiber which is partly degraded by the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of wheat bran as such to reduce colonization of the cecum and shedding of Salmonella bacteria in vivo. Also, the effect of particle size was evaluated. Bran with an average reduced particle size of 280μm decreased levels of cecal Salmonella colonization and shedding shortly after infection when compared to control groups and groups receiving bran with larger particle sizes. In vitro fermentation experiments revealed that bran with smaller particle size was fermented more efficiently, with a significantly higher production of butyric and propionic acid, compared to the control fermentation and fermentation of a larger fraction. Fermentation products derived from bran with an average particle size of 280μm downregulated the expression of hilA, an important invasion-related gene of Salmonella. This downregulation was reflected in an actual lowered invasive potential when Salmonella bacteria were pretreated with the fermentation products derived from the smaller bran fraction. These data suggest that wheat bran with reduced particle size can be a suitable feed additive to help control Salmonella infections in broilers. The mechanism of action most probably relies on a more efficient fermentation of this bran fraction and the consequent increased production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Among these SCFA, butyric and propionic acid are known to reduce the invasion potential of Salmonella bacteria.

  1. Structural and electrical properties of an Au film system deposited on silicone oil surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Bo; Jin Jin Sheng; Ye Quan Lin; Lao Yan Feng; Jiao Zheng Kuan; Ye Gao Xiang

    2002-01-01

    An Au thin film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by the thermal deposition method, has been fabricated and its structure as well as electrical properties has been studied. A web-shaped characteristic surface morphology of the films is observed. The dc sheet resistance R of the metal films on the liquid surfaces is measured during and after deposition in situ by the four-probe method. The time dependence of the sheet resistance can be explained in terms of the film growth mechanism on the oil surface. The anomalous I-V characteristics of the film system can be interpreted as a competition among the local Joule heating, hopping and tunnelling effects. It is found that the dc third-harmonic coefficient B sub 0 and the zero-power resistance R sub 0 satisfy the power-law relation B sub 0 propor to R sub 0 sup 2 sup + sup w and the exponent w is close to zero. This result indicates that the hopping and tunnelling effects in the samples are much stronger than those of the other film systems. We also find I...

  2. Structural characterization of glass-forming oil/water microemulsions by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Simionesco, C.; Teixeira, J.; Angell, C. A.

    1989-07-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to establish the dispersed droplet character of a class of pseudo-three-component oil/water (o/w) microemulsions which can be cooled continuously into the glassy state without either crystallization or microemulsion destabilization. SANS of toluene microemulsions at low volume fractions (˜0.5%) of toluene indicate a droplet radius of 270±10 Å. At normal concentrations (˜33 vol % oil), the droplet size cannot be determined precisely but the presence of a droplet state of small polydispersity is established for toluene, p-xylene, benzene, CS2, and CCl4 by the presence of a sharp peak in the scattered neutron intensity vs Q plots. Average interdroplet separations range from 200 to 300 Å, implying average radii of ˜125 Å. Such radii are consistent with freeze-fracture electron microscope studies of the same or similar systems. Variable temperature studies on toluene microemulsions during both cooling and warming cycles in the temperature range ambient to 100 K, show only minor (˜10%) changes in the interdroplet separation down to 220 K at which temperature diffusion through the viscous matrix phase becomes too slow to permit further emulsion structure changes on the time scale of the cooling experiment. The origin, and some possible exploitations, of this unusual stability against temperature change are discussed.

  3. Profiling of The Lemongrass Oil Aroma and Their Structure-Odor Relationship: In Silico Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udrika Lailatul Qodri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Structure-odor relationship (SOR has previously studied by semantic numerically in different Fragrance. We hypothesise that in silico method such as molecular dynamics, together with docking of the interaction between human olfactory receptor (OR1G1 and ligands, can offer extremely valuable tools of modelling SOR. Hence, the present study was carried out to express the SOR of citronellal oil fraction compare with reference smelling of floral, musk, green, wood, and fruit by employing docking and multiple discriminant analysis (MDA. Our study reveals that the number dissociation constant (Kd, bond distance, HOMO-LUMO (AE, dipole moment, kind of amino acids, Log P, surface area and hydropathy as the variable SOR from in silico anaysis. Our result has shown ligands and OR1G1 interacted with Van Der Waals and electrostatic model. MDA analysis shown molecule reference floral and fraction of lemongrass oil have similar correlation based on variable SOR with linier regression of all variable SOR to Kd value for every reference odor is R2 = 1.

  4. Comparative study of performance and emissions of a CI engine using biodiesel of microalgae, macroalgae and rice bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprabakar, J.; Karthikeyan, A.; Saikiran, K.; Beemkumar, N.; Joy, Nivin

    2017-05-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and safe fuel to replace conventional petroleum diesel. With high-lubricity and clean-burning ability the biodiesel can be a better fuel component for use in existing diesel engines without any modifications. The aim of this Research was to study the potential use of Macro algae oil, Micro algae oil, Rice Bran oil methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel in diesel engine. B10 and B20 blends of these three types of fuels are prepared by transesterification process. The blends on volume basis were used to test them in a four stroke single cylinder diesel engine to study the performance and emission characteristics of these fuels and compared with neat diesel fuel. Also, the property testing of these biofuels were carried out. The biodiesel blends in this study substantially reduces the emission of unburnt hydro carbons and smoke opacity and increases the emission of NOx emission in exhaust gases. These biodiesel blends were consumed more by the engine during testing than Diesel and the brake thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency for the blends was identical with the Diesel.

  5. Relationship between deep structure and oil-gas in the eastern Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changqing; Qu, Chen; Han, Jianguang

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim Basin is a large composite superimposed basin which developed in the Presinian continental basement. It is an important area for oil and gas replacement in China. In the eastern part of Tarim Basin, the exploration and research degree is very low and less system, especially in the study of tectonic evolution and physical property change. Basing on the study of geophysics, drilling and regional geological data in this area, analysis of comprehensive geophysical, geological and geophysical analysis comparison are lunched by new methods and new technology of geophysical exploration. Fault, tectonic evolution and change of deep character in the eastern Tarim Basin are analyzed in system. Through in-depth study and understanding of the deep structure and physical changes of the eastern region, we obtain the fault characteristics in the study area and the deep structure and physical change maps to better guide the oil and gas exploration in this area. The east area is located in the eastern Tarim Basin, west from the Garr Man depression, Well Kunan 1 - Well Gucheng 4 line to the East, north to Kuruketage uplift group near Qunke 1 wells, south to Cherchen fault zone, east to Lop Nor depression, an area of about 9 * 104 square kilometres, Including the East of Garr Man sag, Yingjisu depression, Kongquehe slope, Tadong low uplift and the Lop Nor uplift, five two grade tectonic units. The east area of Tarim is belonging to Tarim plate. It changes with the evolution of the Tarim plate. The Tarim plate is closely related to the collision between the Yining - the Junggar plate, the Siberia plate and the southern Qiangtang - the central Kunlun plate. Therefore, it creates a complex tectonic pattern in the eastern Tarim basin. Earth electromagnetic, gravity, deep seismic and other geophysical data are processed by a new generation of geophysical information theory and method, including multi-scale inversion of potential field inversion (Hou and Yang, 2011), 3D

  6. The Effect of Substrat Ratio Fish Oil and Milk Fat on Synthesis of Structured Lipid by Enzimatic Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Subroto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured lipid with saturated fatty acid (SFA at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at sn-2 position has good dietary and stabilized characteristics. In this research structured lipids was synthesized by enzymatic transesterification between fish oil and milk fat. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase from Candida antartica that has randomized specificity to inter esterification. The factor substrat ratio of fish oil and milk fat were studied. Reaction operated at 40 oC for 4 hours, and the enzim concentration was 10 % by substrat. Composition of fatty acid, regiospecificity position of fatty acid, and glyceride profile were determinate. The results showed that the substrat ratio of fish oil: milk fat affect the composition of structured lipid. The more of milk fat added showed that composition saturated fatty acids on structured lipid was increased but the unsaturated fatty acids wasdecreased. The regiospecificity of structured lipid showed that saturated fatty acid has tendency at outer position and unsaturatedfatty acid at sn-2 position and optimum at ratio fish oil: milk fat was 1 : 3 (w/w. In the ratio fish-oil: milk fat 1:3 produced structured lipids in which the sn-2 incorporated by unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, EPA, and DHA was 22.9; 3.3, and 2.2% respectively. While in position sn-1, 3 incorporated mostly medium chain and saturated fatty acids such as capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acid 5.0; 7.0; 16.6; 31.7, and 9.9 % respectively. The ratio substrate did not affect the profil of glyceride on structured lipid. Triglyceride tend to decreased, and the diglyceride and monogliceride was increased with an increase of milk fat on substrate but not significantly. Structured lipid showed the characteristic like milk fat but high nutrition because rich of PUFA at sn-2 position, so this product may can applied on milk fortification.

  7. Cosmological implications of a supersymmetric extension of the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, R.

    2007-09-15

    In the Brans-Dicke theory the Planck mass is replaced by a dynamical scalar field. We consider here the supersymmetric analogous of this mechanism replacing in the supergravity Lagrangian the Planck mass with a chiral superfield. This analysis is motivated by the research of possible connections between supersymmetric Dark Matter scenarios and Dark Energy models based on Brans-Dicke-like theories. We find that, contrary to the original Brans-Dicke theory, in its supersymmetric analogous the gravitational sector does not couple to the matter sector in a universal metric way. As a result, violations of the weak equivalence principle could be present in such a scenario. (orig.)

  8. New Black Hole Solutions in Brans-Dicke Theory of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H

    1999-01-01

    Existence check of non-trivial, stationary axisymmetric black hole solutions in Brans-Dicke theory of gravity in different direction from those of Penrose, Thorne and Dykla, and Hawking is performed. Namely, working directly with the known explicit spacetime solutions in Brans-Dicke theory, it is found that non-trivial Kerr-Newman-type black hole solutions different from general relativistic solutions could occur for the generic Brans-Dicke parameter values -5/2\\leq ømega <-3/2. Finally, issues like whether these black holes can really arise in nature are discussed carefully.

  9. Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats

    OpenAIRE

    Jacianelly Karla da Silva; Juliana Silva Oliveira; Ariosvalo Nunes de Medeiros; Edson Mauro Santos; Tamires da Silva Magalhães; Alenice Ozino Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4) Latin square design.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS), elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS), elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB), and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bra...

  10. Generalized Sparling-Thirring form in the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykal, Ahmet [Nigde University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Bor Yolu, Nigde (Turkey); Delice, Oezguer [Marmara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-02-01

    The definition of the Sparling-Thirring form is extended to Brans-Dicke theory. By writing the Brans-Dicke field equations in a formally Maxwell-like form, a superpotential and a corresponding pseudo-energy-momentum form are defined. The general energy expression provided by the superpotential in the Jordan frame is discussed in relation to the corresponding expression in the Einstein frame. In order to substantiate its formal definition, the generalized Sparling-Thirring form is used to calculate the energy for the spherically symmetric vacuum solution in Brans-Dicke theory. (orig.)

  11. 小麦麸皮结构层干法分离的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Dry-Process Separation of Different Wheat Bran Structral Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中伟; 王莉; 杨春霞; 吴保承; 田燕宁; 陈正行

    2013-01-01

    研究了干法分离麦麸结构层.首先对小麦麸皮进行微粉碎,通过粒径分析出麦麸粉体的粒径分散性最好的粉碎时间,利用旋振筛对此时的麦麸进行筛分,得到粒径不同的4种麦麸粉体,然后对各个麦麸粉体进行荧光定性和生化标示物定量研究.结果表明,筛分后,外皮层和中间层集中在200目筛上物的麦麸中,约占78.9%,麦麸糊粉层的细胞壁主要集中在200目筛下物和325目筛上物中,比例达41.7%,而小颗粒的麦麸糊粉层细胞内容物则集中在325目筛下物.研究初步表明,通过微粉碎和筛分的方法可以对不同麦麸结构层进行富集,为麦麸的深加工提供了一种简单的干法分离途径.%In this paper, we studied the dry - process separation of different wheat bran structural layers. After crushing wheat bran into powders, we analyzed the crushing time for the best particle size dispersibility of the powders. After sieving the wheat bran with vibrating sieves we obtained four kinds of wheat bran powders of different particle sizes and then conducted fluorescent qualitative study and quantitative research of biochemical marker composition for various wheat bran powders. As the results showed, after the sieving, the exodermis and intermediate layers were concentrated in the wheat bran powders on the sieve of 200 mesh with an occupied proportion of 78. 9% , aleu-rone layer cell wall between the sieve of. 200 mesh and 325 mesh with the proportion of up to 41. 7% , and short grained aleurone layer cellular contents under the sieve of 325 mesh. This study premilinarily indicated that the different layers of wheat bran could be enriched through the methods of crushing and sieving, which provided a simple dry - process sepatation method for wheat bran deep processing.

  12. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) oil absorbent with a three-dimensionally interconnected porous structure and swellable skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aijuan; Chen, Mingjie; Du, Can; Guo, Huizhang; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2013-10-23

    Cleanup of oil spills is a worldwide challenge to prevent serious environmental pollution. A new kind of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oil absorbent with high absorption capacity and excellent reusability was prepared and used for oil/water separation. The preparation process of PDMS oil absorbents involves direct curing of a PDMS prepolymer in a p-xylene solution in the presence of commercial sugar particles, which is simple and economic. PDMS oil absorbents have interconnected pores and a swellable skeleton, combining the advantages of porous materials and gels. Absorption capacities of PDMS oil absorbents are 4-34 g/g for various oils and organic solvents, which are 3 times that reported previously. Owing to their hydrophobicity and oleophilicity, the as-obtained PDMS oil absorbents can selectively collect oils or organic solvents from water. The absorption process can be finished within tens of seconds. Furthermore, the absorbed oils or organic solvents can be recovered by compressing the oil absorbents, and after 20 absorbing/recovering cycles, PDMS oil absorbents show little loss of their absorption capacities and own weights.

  13. Composite gels structured by a gelatin protein matrix filled with oil bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirimlidou, Miro; Matsakidou, Anthia; Scholten, Elke; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    Oil body extracts from sesame seeds and hazelnuts were subjected to centrifugation to recover oil body concentrated creams, which were then suitably diluted with gelatin solutions to prepare mixtures of 25.0. wt% of oil and 2.0-6.0. wt% of gelatin. The gelling behaviour of the mixtures was followed

  14. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of the Terpene "[beta]"-Thujone from Cedar Leaf Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    Western red cedar leaf affords an essential oil characterized by high thujone content. Students in an advanced organic chemistry lab course isolate a single thujone diastereoisomer from commercially available cedar leaf oil. Treatment of crude oil, containing roughly 70% thujone, predominately as [alpha]-thujone (6.5:1), with ethanolic sodium…

  15. Study of the crystallization and polymorphic structures formed in oleogels from avocado oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pérez-Monterroza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of monodiglycerides, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (SMS on the thermal behavior of oleogels prepared from avocado oil, as well as the effect of the cooling rate on the onset temperature (Tonset and the crystallization temperature (Tc, were evaluated by DSC and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the structuring agents have a significant effect (P<0.05 on the Tc and Tonset, which demonstrated their ability to form solid lipids. Moreover, it was found that the presence of SMS decreased the Tc and Tonset, possibly due to their cocrystallization process. It was found only in the presence of the polymorphic form β’ in the oleogels prepared. The Tc varied between 1.6 and 51.4 °C and Tonset between 3.9 and 53.8 °C.

  16. Bio-Inspired Design and Fabrication of Micro/Nano-Brush Dual Structural Surfaces for Switchable Oil Adhesion and Antifouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tao; Ma, Shuanhong; Pei, Xiaowei; Wang, Shutao; Zhou, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The underwater superoleophobic surfaces play a significant role in anti-oil contamination, marine antifouling, etc. Inspired by the Gecko's feet and its self-cleaning property, a hierarchical structure composed of poly (acrylic acid) gel micro-brushes is designed by the liquid-infused method. This surface exhibits underwater superoleophobicity with very low oil adhesion. It is then modified with stimuli-responsive polymer nano-brushes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization from the embedded initiator. The micro/nano-brush dual structural surfaces can switch the underwater oil adhesion between low and high while keeping the superoleophobicity. The antifouling properties against algae attachment under different mediums are also investigated to show a strong link between oleophobicity and antibiofouling property. The model surface will be very useful in directing the design of marine self-cleaning coatings to both living and non-living species.

  17. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oil treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Peleggi, Francesco

    2016-12-24

    Essential oils have recognized antimicrobial and antifungal properties which allow their utilization in agriculture like an alternative to pesticides, but their utilization requires the knowledge of all the potential structural changes and damages produced by the interaction with the vegetal organisms. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two essential oils, the tea tree oil (TTO) and the mixture of clove and rosemary oils (C + R), on the molecular structure of Vicia faba roots by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier near infrared transform (FTNIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy showed structural modifications of the absorption bands related to DNA (1100 and 1050 cm(-1), carbohydrate backbones, and nucleotide bands within 900 and 850 cm(-1)), proteins (1700 and 1600 cm(-1) amide I band, 1580 and 1520 cm(-1) amide II band), and lipids (methylene group of aliphatic chains between 2950 and 2800 cm(-1)). The changes in the secondary structures of proteins consisted of a denaturation depending on increased presence of random coil structures. In addition, in the samples treated with TTO oils, we observed the presence of protein oxidation, an effect negligible instead for the C + R-treated samples. The modified shapes of the infrared methyl bands of aliphatic chains suggested an increased lipid disorder which could also determine lipid peroxidation. The changes observed for the DNA structures at the highest concentration of the above essential oils can be related to the genotoxic effect of eugenol, an important constituent of both TTO and C + R mixture oils. FTNIR spectroscopy showed the modified shape of the second overtone bands belonging to methyl and methylene groups, between 8500 and 8000 cm(-1). This confirmed the increased lipid disorders already observed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results obtained on the probe organism V. faba show that FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy can become a useful support to the conventional cytogenetic tests used

  18. Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles with oat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawladda Tiangpook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Instant fried noodles have become one of the food products regularly consumed among people of all socioeconomic levels in both urban and rural areas. Oat bran is rich in β-glucan, a soluble fiber in oat. The objective of this study was to utilize oat bran, produced from dehulled oats by dry milling and cooking extrusion to improve the nutritional quality of wheat noodle and to evaluate the noodle quality. Three types of oat bran concentrate (OBC: OBCXF, OBCXEF, OBC native were used to replace wheat flour in noodle production, each type at the levels of 5, 10, and 15% (w/w. The experimental design was 3×3 factorial randomized complete block design. The flours and products were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, β- glucan, RVA and color. The texture of the products was determined using texture analyzer and sensory test. Protein contents of OBCXF, XEF, native and wheat flour were 22.05, 23.21, 22.00 and 13.16%, respectively. OBC β-glucan content was 16-17%. Increasing the amount of various OBC in the mixes caused the increase in protein content and β-glucan in the products. The texture of the noodles with 5% replacement with OBC was not significantly different from that of wheat noodle. The tensile force was in the range of 17.10-17.96 g. The sensory acceptability of the noodles replaced with 5-10% OBC was not significantly different from wheat noodle (p<0.05. Noodle with 10% OBC-XEF had the highest scores in texture, elasticity and accept- ability. Thus, instant fried noodle having its wheat partially replaced with 10-15% OBC contained β-glucan in the range of 0.80-1.27 g/serving (50 g, which met the FDA approved health claim which requires 0.75 g/ serving, and contained dietary fiber in the range of 3.0-4.5 g/serving. By using 10-15% OBC in the formulation, it was possible to satisfactorily make instant fried noodles.

  19. Sensitivity to fuel diesel oil and cell wall structure of some Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Tukaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of three Scenedesmus strains exposed to aqueous fuel-oil extract (AFOE is strongly strain-dependent S. quadricauda is the most resistant, S. armatus moderately tolerant whereas the most sensitive appears to be S. microspina. The sensitivity of tested species increases parallel with decreasing of cell size and cell number in coenobium. The values of the cell surface/cell volumes ratios only partly explain the above relationships. Electron microscope investigations reveal that the sensitivity may depend on cell wall structure of the strains. Cell wall of all here investigated strains is built of two layers: the inner so-called cellulosic layer and the outer one showing a three-laminar structure (TLS. The latter contains an acetolysis-resistant biopolymer (ARB. These two layers are similar in thickness in the three strains tested, but the surface of Scenedesmus is covered with various epistructures that are characteristic of strains. Some of them as the tightly fitting warty layer of S. armatus and especially the loosely fitting reticulate layer of S. quadricauda may contribute to lower permeability of cell wall. The structure of the rosettes also appears to be correlated with the sensitivity of strains. Presence of invaginations of plasmalemma in areas under rosettes indicates their role in transport processes inside/outside the cells.

  20. Structural Characterisation of Asphaltenes during Residue Hydrotreatment with Light Cycle Oil as an Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several atmospheric residues (AR of Kuwaiti crude, in the absence, or in the presence, of light cycle oil (LCO as an aromatic additive, were hydrotreated in an experimental plant. Asphaltenes (precipitated from Kuwaiti AR, a hydrotreated AR, and a hydrotreated blend of AR and LCO were characterised by chemical structure and changes during residue hydrotreatment. The average structural parameters of these asphaltenes, obtained from a combined method of element analysis, average molecular weight, X-ray diffraction, and NMR, demonstrate that, after hydrotreatment, the aromatic cores of the asphaltenes become more compact and smaller whereas the peripheral alkyl branches are decreased in number and shortened. The influence of LCO on residue hydrotreating is also studied in terms of structural changes in the asphaltenes. The findings imply that LCO added to AR during hydrotreating improves the degree of aromatic substitution, the total hydrogen/carbon atomic ratio per average molecule, the distance between aromatic sheets and aliphatic chains, and so forth, by modifying the colloidal nature and microstructure of asphaltene: this is beneficial for the further hydroprocessing of AR. Three hypothetical average molecules are proposed to represent the changes undergone by such asphaltenes during hydrotreatment as well as the effects of additive LCO.

  1. Enhancing Jatropha oil extraction yield from the kernels assisted by a xylan-degrading bacterium to preserve protein structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Moeis, Maelita R.; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the use of bacterial cells isolated from paddy crab for the extraction of oil from Jatropha seed kernels in aqueous media while simultaneously preserving the protein structures of this protein-rich endosperm. A bacterial strain-which was marked as MB4 and identified by means of 16S r

  2. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: structural effects and synergism with tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180 ºC, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra ami...

  3. Enhancing Jatropha oil extraction yield from the kernels assisted by a xylan-degrading bacterium to preserve protein structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.; Moeis, M.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the use of bacterial cells isolated from paddy crab for the extraction of oil from Jatropha seed kernels in aqueous media while simultaneously preserving the protein structures of this protein-rich endosperm. A bacterial strain—which was marked as MB4 and identified by means of 16S

  4. Enhancing Jatropha oil extraction yield from the kernels assisted by a xylan-degrading bacterium to preserve protein structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Moeis, Maelita R.; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    We investigated the use of bacterial cells isolated from paddy crab for the extraction of oil from Jatropha seed kernels in aqueous media while simultaneously preserving the protein structures of this protein-rich endosperm. A bacterial strain-which was marked as MB4 and identified by means of 16S

  5. Reliability-Based Planning of Inspection, Operation and Maintenance for Offshore Oil & Gas Structures and Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Reliability-based cost-optimal planning of inspection, maintenance and operation has many applications. In this paper applications for planning of inspections for oil & gas jacket structures and of operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines are described and illustrated by examples....

  6. Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30% of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.

  7. pH catalyzed pretreatment of corn bran for enhanced enzymatic arabinoxylan degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Corn bran is mainly made up of the pericarp of corn kernels and is a byproduct stream resulting from the wet milling step in corn starch processing. Through statistic modeling this study examined the optimization of pretreatment of corn bran for enzymatic hydrolysis. A low pH pretreatment (pH 2......, 150°C, 65min) boosted the enzymatic release of xylose and glucose and maximized biomass solubilization. With more acidic pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis the total xylose release was maximized (at pH 1.3) reaching ∼50% by weight of the original amount present in destarched corn bran......, but the enzyme catalyzed xylose release was maximal after pretreatment at approx. pH 2. The total glucose release peaked after pretreatment of approx. pH 1.5 with an enzymatic release of approx. 68% by weight of the original amounts present in destarched corn bran. For arabinose the enzymatic release...

  8. Can Brans-Dicke Scalar Field Account for Dark Energy and Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M.; Çalik, M. C.

    By using a linearized non-vacuum late time solution in Brans-Dicke cosmology, we account for the 75% dark energy contribution but not for approximately 23% dark matter contribution to the present day energy density of the universe.

  9. Brans--Dicke cosmology does not have the $\\Lambda$CDM phase as an universal attractor

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, Ricardo; Quiros, Israel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we seek for relevant information on the asymptotic cosmological dynamics of the Brans--Dicke theory of gravity for several self-interaction potentials. By means of the simplest tools of the dynamical systems theory, it is shown that the general relativity de Sitter solution is an attractor of the Jordan frame (dilatonic) Brans--Dicke theory only for the exponential potential $U(\\vphi)\\propto\\exp\\vphi$, which corresponds to the quadratic potential $V(\\phi)\\propto\\phi^2$ in terms of the original Brans--Dicke field $\\phi=\\exp\\vphi$, or for potentials which asymptote to $\\exp\\vphi$. At the stable de Sitter critical point, as well as at the stiff-matter equilibrium configurations, the dilaton is necessarily massless. We find bounds on the Brans--Dicke coupling constant $\\omega_\\textsc{bd}$, which are consistent with well-known results.

  10. Amplification of Gravitational Waves During Inflation in Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    We show that Gravitational Waves are exponetially amplified in the inflationary phase in Brans-Dicke theory, so that it would be possible to detect them and in this way verify several features of physical reality.

  11. Release of feruloylated oligosaccharides from wheat bran through submerged fermentation by edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Wu, Zhiyan; Guo, Hongzhen; Gu, Zhenxin

    2014-07-01

    Wheat bran, a by-product of the flour industry, is believed to be a raw material for the production of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) because of its high content of conjiont ferulic acid (FA). Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release FOs from wheat bran. All the six tested mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Hericium erinaceum, Auricularia auricula, Cordyceps militaris, Agrocybe chaxingu, and Ganoderma lucium) were found to release FOs, and Agrocybe chaxingu had the highest yield, reaching 35.4 µM in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection showed that these species secreted extracellular enzymes during fermentation, including cellulase and xylanase. Agrocybe chaxingu secreted the significant amount of xylanase (180 mU ml(-1) ), which was responsible for the release of FOs from wheat bran, while Hericium erinaceum secreted FA esterase which could disassemble FOs.

  12. Effect of replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus plus urea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... wheat bran, becomes costly for animal production. ... to keep up with accelerated demand for growing and finishing animals, since droughts and changes in global climate affect the grain harvest and increase prices in the ...

  13. Evolution of the Brans-Dicke Parameter in Generalized Chameleon Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubasher Jami; D.Momeni

    2011-01-01

    @@ Motivated by an earlier study of Sahoo and Singh[Mod.Phys.Lett.A 17(2002)2409],we investigate the time dependence of the Brans-Dicke parameter ω(t)for an expanding Universe in the generalized Brans-Dicke Chameleon cosmology,and obtain an explicit dependence of ω(t)in different expansion phases of the Universe.Also,we discuss how the observed accelerated expansion of the observable Universe can be accommodated in the present formalism.%Motivated by an earlier study of Sahoo and Singh [Mod. Phys. Lett. A 17(2002)2409], we investigate the time dependence of the Brans-Dicke parameter ui(t) for an expanding Universe in the generalized Brans-Dicke Chameleon cosmology, and obtain an explicit dependence of uj(t) in different expansion phases of the Universe. Also, we discuss how the observed accelerated expansion of the observable Universe can be accommodated in the present formalism.

  14. Naked singularity formation in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaie, Amir Hadi; Atazadeh, Khedmat [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Yaser, E-mail: am.ziaie@mail.sbu.ac.i, E-mail: k-atazadeh@sbu.ac.i, E-mail: tavakoli@ubi.p [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marques d' Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilha (Portugal)

    2010-04-07

    Gravitational collapse of the Brans-Dicke scalar field with non-zero potential in the presence of matter fluid obeying the barotropic equation of state, p = wrho, is studied. Utilizing the concept of the expansion parameter, it is seen that the cosmic censorship conjecture may be violated for w=-1/3 and w=-2/3 which correspond to the cosmic string and domain wall, respectively. We have shown that physically, it is the rate of collapse that governs the formation of a black hole or a naked singularity as the final fate of dynamical evolution and only for these two cases can the singularity be naked as the collapse end state. Also the weak energy condition is satisfied by the collapsing configuration.

  15. Generalized ghost dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sheykhi, A; Yosefi, Y

    2013-01-01

    It was argued that the vacuum energy of the Veneziano ghost field of QCD, in a time-dependent background, can be written in the general form, $H + O(H^2)$, where $H$ is the Hubble parameter. Based on this, a phenomenological dark energy model whose energy density is of the form $\\rho=\\alpha H+\\beta H^{2}$ was recently proposed to explain the dark energy dominated universe. In this paper, we investigate this generalized ghost dark energy model in the setup of Brans-Dicke cosmology. We study the cosmological implications of this model. In particular, we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of this dark energy model. It is shown that the equation of state parameter of the new ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line ($w_D=-1$) provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably.

  16. The momentum four-vector in Brans-Dicke wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Pirinccioglu, N; Salti, M; Acikgoz, Irfan; Pirinccioglu, Nurettin; Salti, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    In this work, in order to compute energy and momentum distributions (due to matter plus fields including gravitation) associated with the Brans-Dicke wormhole solutions we consider Moller's energy-momentum complexes both in general relativity and the teleparallel gravity, and the Einstein energy-momentum formulation in general relativity. We find exactly the same energy and momentum in three of the formulations. The results obtained in teleparallel gravity is also independent of the teleparallel dimensionless coupling parameter, which means that it is valid not only in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, but also in any teleparallel model. Furthermore, our results also sustains (a) the importance of the energy-momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution of a given spacetime and (b) the viewpoint of Lessner that the M{\\o}ller energy-momentum complex is a powerful concept of energy and momentum. (c) The results calculated supports the hypothesis by Cooperstock that the energ...

  17. Cosmological solutions of Brans-Dicke equations with cosmological constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmadi-Azar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper, the analytical solutions of Brans-Dicke (B-D equations with cosmological constant are presented, in which the equation of state of the universe is P=mÙ° ρ , under the assumption φRn=c between the B-D field and the scale factor of the universe. The flat (K=0 Robertson- Walker metric has been considered for the metric of the universe. These solutions are rich in the sense that they include dust B-D theory with cosmological constant, Nariai Ù=° solutions, vacuum solutions of Ohanlen-Tupper and inflationary  Ù=° solutions.

  18. Parboiled rice whole bran in laying diets for Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bezerra Quevedo Filho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of parboiled rice whole bran (PRWB inclusion in laying diets for Japanese quails, on their performance, egg quality, and economic viability. A total of 448 17-week-old quails were weighed and distributed in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and eight replicates of eight birds each. A control diet (no PRWB and six diets, containing 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% of PRWB, were tested. The increasing levels of PRWB did not affected nutrient digestibility coefficient, dietary energy use, feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the economic viability indices. However, there was a linear decrease in egg shell percentage, specific weight, and yolk color. The inclusion of up to 30% PRWB in the diet allows nutrient utilization and performance similar to those obtained by the control group, and it is economically viable.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  20. Degradability of mulberry (Morus alba and rice bran in the rumen of sheep fed different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate degradation of dry matter (DM and protein of mulberry and rice bran when incubated in nylon bag in the rumen at different incubation times and different rumen environments of rumen-cannulated adult sheep. Three different rumen conditions were created by feeding the three rumen-cannulated sheep with urea-treated rice straw as basal diet and offered with three supplemental treatment diets on different source of energy and nitrogen. Mulberry, urea and rice bran were used as source of fermentable energy and protein. Treatments consisted of control diet mulberry and molasses (T0; 50% mulberry was replaced by rice bran and urea (T1; and 100% of mulberry was replaced with rice bran and urea (T2. The diets were formulated in iso protein and iso energy. Supplemental diets were offered at 1.2% BW. The study was conducted in three periods. For each period, the sheep was offered with one of three supplemental treatment diets. The nylon bags each, contains sample of either mulberrry or rice bran were incubated in the rumen of sheep at different incubation times in reverse order (48, 24, 12, 9, 6, and 3h. Degradation characteristic data were obtained by analyzing degradability data with the equation of p = a+b(1-e-ct using Neway computer package. Data of degradation characteristic, degradability of DM and CP, DMI, rumen NH3-N and pH were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using a SAS software package. The results showed that the dry matter intake (DMI and rumen pH were not significantly different between diets. The rumen ammonia concentration of T1 and T2 was significantly higher than that of T0. However, the rumen ammonia concentration was higher than that of critical value for rumen microbial synthesis (>5mg/100ml. The rate (c value of DM degradability of mulberry and rice bran was affected by diet treaments, where T2 diet resulted in lower c of mulberry and rice bran. Only CP degradability of mulberry on

  1. Production of surfactin by bacillus subtilis mtcc 2423 from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedaraman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the obstacles in the way of wide scale industrial application of biosurfactants is the high production cost coupled with a low production rate. In order to lower the production cost surfactin production by Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423 was studied in submerged batch cultivation using waste frying oils. It was observed that the decrease in surface tension was 56.32%, 48.5% and 46.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Biomass formation was 4.36 g/L, 3.67 g/L and 4.67 g/L for glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Product yield (g product/g substrate was 2.1%, 1.49% and 1.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil as substrates. This process facilitates safe disposal of waste frying oil, as well reducing the production cost of surfactin.

  2. Testing Brans-Dicke gravity using the Einstein telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Yu, Jiming; Liu, Tan; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Anzhong

    2017-06-01

    Gravitational radiation is an excellent field for testing theories of gravity in strong gravitational fields. The current observations on the gravitational-wave (GW) bursts by LIGO have already placed various constraints on the alternative theories of gravity. In this paper, we investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on the Brans-Dicke gravity using GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries with the proposed Einstein Telescope, a third-generation GW detector. We first calculate in detail the waveforms of gravitational radiation in the lowest post-Newtonian approximation, including the tensor and scalar fields, which can be divided into the three polarization modes, i.e., "plus mode," "cross mode," and "breathing mode." Applying the stationary phase approximation, we obtain their Fourier transforms, and derive the correction terms in amplitude, phase, and polarization of GWs, relative to the corresponding results in general relativity. Imposing the noise level of the Einstein Telescope, we find that the GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries, composed of a neutron star and a black hole, can place stringent constraints on the Brans-Dicke gravity. The bound on the coupling constant ωBD depends on the mass, sky position, inclination angle, polarization angle, luminosity distance, redshift distribution, and total observed number NGW of the binary systems. Taking into account all the burst events up to redshift z =5 , we find that the bound could be ωBD≳1 06×(NGW/1 04)1/2. Even for the conservative estimation with 1 04 observed events, the bound is still more than one order tighter than the current limit from Solar System experiments. So, we conclude that the Einstein Telescope will provide a powerful platform to test alternative theories of gravity.

  3. Responses of the Brans-Dicke field due to gravitational collapses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: enotsae@gmail.co, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-21

    We study responses of the Brans-Dicke field due to gravitational collapses of scalar field pulses using numerical simulations. Double-null formalism is employed to implement the numerical simulations. If we supply a scalar field pulse, it will asymptotically form a black hole via dynamical interactions of the Brans-Dicke field. Hence, we can observe the responses of the Brans-Dicke field by two different regions. First, we observe the late time behaviors after the gravitational collapse, which include formations of a singularity and an apparent horizon. Second, we observe the fully dynamical behaviors during the gravitational collapse and view the energy-momentum tensor components. For the late time behaviors, if the Brans-Dicke coupling is greater (or smaller) than -1.5, the Brans-Dicke field decreases (or increases) during the gravitational collapse. Since the Brans-Dicke field should be relaxed to the asymptotic value with the elapse of time, the final apparent horizon becomes time-like (or space-like). For the dynamical behaviors, we observed the energy-momentum tensors around {omega} {approx} -1.5. If the Brans-Dicke coupling is greater than -1.5, the T{sub uu} component can be negative at the outside of the black hole. This can allow an instantaneous inflating region during the gravitational collapse. If the Brans-Dicke coupling is less than -1.5, the oscillation of the T{sub vv} component allows the apparent horizon to shrink. This allows a combination that violates weak cosmic censorship. Finally, we discuss the implications of the violation of the null energy condition and weak cosmic censorship.

  4. Enzymatic process development for the extraction of ferulic from wheat bran [abstract

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The agro-industries generate thousands of tons of by-products, such as cereal bran or sugar beet pulps, each year. For instance, in the Walloon Region, wheat transformation industry produces about 200,000 t of bran annually. Most of those by-products are, at best, used for cattle feeding. Through biocracking, this biomass may however constitute a renewable source for various value-added molecules of interest. These include dietary fiber, proteins, antioxidants, etc. The Feruzyme project focus...

  5. Chemical composition and effects of micronized corn bran on iron bioavailability in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Irineu de Oliveira Junior; Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa; Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino; Maria Cristina Dias Paes

    2014-01-01

    The degermination of corn grains by dry milling generates 5% of a fibrous residue. After segregation and micronization, corn bran becomes a potential source of dietary fiber consumption. However, its effect on iron bioavailability has not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition of corn bran and its effects on iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method in rats. The animals were divided into two g...

  6. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Malekian; Margarita Khachaturyan; Sebhatu Gebrelul; Henson, James F.

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concent...

  7. Self-Assembly of Rice Bran Globulin Fibrils in Electrostatic Screening: Nanostructure and Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various ionic strengths and protein concentrations on the fibrils structure and gel properties of rice bran globulin (RBG at pH 2.0 were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM, rheometer, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. AFM images showed the morphology of assembling RBG fibrils from strand beads to becoming branch clustered, when electrostatic repulsive forces attenuated gradually with increasing ionic strength. NaCl seems to accelerate the kinetics of fibrils formation, resulting in a significant increase in Th T fluorescence intensity. The increased ionic strengths promote particle size increasing and zeta potential decreasing synchronously. The percolation model G'~C-Cpn be used to calculate theoretical RBG gels concentration at various ionic strengths (0–500 mM, which decreased from 15.17 ± 0.63 to 2.26 ± 0.27 wt%. SEM images exhibited a granular mesh-like gel structure. A more homogenous structure occurred in low ionic strength. This study elucidates properties of RBG fibrils and gels as a bioactive material.

  8. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0

  9. A review on rice bran protein: its properties and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Cynthia; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran protein has been found to be of high quality and of importance for food and pharmaceutical applications. It is a plant protein that can be derived from rice bran, an abundant and cheap agricultural byproduct. The protein content in rice bran is about 10-15% and it consists of 37% water-soluble, 31% salt-soluble, 2% alcohol-soluble, and 27% alkali-soluble storage proteins. Its unique property as being hypoallergenic and having anti-cancer activity makes it a superior cereal protein that may find a wide range of applications. There were already reports on the extraction of rice bran protein several decades ago. However, as of now, commercial rice bran protein is still unavailable in the market. This review is aimed at providing valuable discussions on rice bran protein, that is, storage protein, its various properties, and extraction methods for the development of an effective processing scheme. Also, an update on the current processing methods is also included.

  10. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  11. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddomada, Barbara; Caretto, Sofia; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-08-28

    Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  12. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment.

  13. Potential use of avocado oil on structured lipids MLM-type production catalysed by commercial immobilised lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Eduardo; Soto, Carmen; Olivares, Araceli; Altamirano, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Structured Lipids are generally constituents of functional foods. Growing demands for SL are based on a fuller understanding of nutritional requirements, lipid metabolism, and improved methods to produce them. Specifically, this work was aimed to add value to avocado oil by producing dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) containing medium-chain fatty acids (M) at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L) at position sn-2. These MLM-type structured lipids (SL) were produced by interesterification of caprylic acid (CA) (C8:0) and avocado oil (content of C18:1). The regiospecific sn-1,3 commercial lipases Lipozyme RM IM and TL IM were used as biocatalysts to probe the potential of avocado oil to produce SL. Reactions were performed at 30-50°C for 24 h in solvent-free media with a substrate molar ratio of 1∶2 (TAG:CA) and 4-10% w/w enzyme content. The lowest incorporation of CA (1.1% mol) resulted from Lipozyme RM IM that was incubated at 50°C. The maximum incorporation of CA into sn-1,3 positions of TAG was 29.2% mol. This result was obtained at 30°C with 10% w/w Lipozyme TL IM, which is the highest values obtained in solvent-free medium until now for structured lipids of low-calories. This strategy opens a new market to added value products based on avocado oil.

  14. Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB’s cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.

  15. Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2012-12-17

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB's cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.

  16. NASTRAN Structural Model for the Large 64-meter Antenna Pedestal. Part 3: Applications to Hydrostatic Bearing Oil Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, C. T.; Schonfeld, D.

    1984-01-01

    Investigations are conducted on the 64-meter antenna hydrostatic bearing oil film thickness under a variety of loads and elastic moduli. These parametric studies use a NASTRAN pedestal structural model to determine the deflections under the hydrostatic bearing pad. The deflections form the input for a computer program to determine the hydrostatic bearing oil film thickness. For the future 64-meter to 70-meter antenna extension and for the 2.2-meter (86-in.) haunch concrete replacement cases, safe oil film thickness (greater than 0.13 mm (0.005 in.) at the corners of the pad) are predicted. The effects of varying moduli of elasticity for different sections of the pedestal and the film height under distressed runner conditions are also studied.

  17. Macrobenthic community structure in the northern Saudi waters of the Gulf, 14years after the 1991 oil spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2012-02-01

    The 1991 Gulf oil spill heavily impacted the coastal areas of the Saudi waters of the Arabian Gulf and recent studies have indicated that even 15. years after the incident, macrobenthos had not completely recovered in the sheltered bays in the affected region such as, Manifa Bay. This study investigates the community conditions of macrobenthos in the open waters in one of the impacted areas, Al-Khafji waters, about 14. years after the spill. Diversity measures and community structure analyses indicate a healthy status of polychaete communities. The BOPA index reveals that oil sensitive amphipods were recolonized in the study area. This confirms that the benthic communities of the oil spill impacted area had taken only <14 years to recover in the open waters of the impacted areas. The study also reveals the existence of three distinct polychaete communities along the depth and sediment gradients. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Characterization of structural stability of palm oil esters-based nanocosmeceuticals loaded with tocotrienol

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Sook Han; Woi, Pei Meng; Basri, Mahiran; Ismail, Zahariah

    2013-01-01

    Background Palm oil esters (POEs) are esters derived from palm oil and oleyl alcohol have great potential in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries due to the excellent wetting behavior of the esters without the oily feel. The role of oil-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with tocotrienol sedimentation behavior was studied. LUMiFuge® 116 particle separation analyzer was used to investigate the sedimentation behavior of POEs/tocotrienol/xanthan gum nanoemulsion system during centrifugation. An...

  19. Parigi, Quai Branly. Il dialogo delle nature e delle culture Quai Branly, Paris: The dialogue between natures and cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Pezzini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quai Branly (Museo Nazionale delle Arti e Civilt dAfrica, dAsia, dOceania e delle Americhe a Parigi, inaugurato nel 2006, analizzato da un punto di vista semiotico come un grande dispositivo di riconoscimento e di comunicazione culturale, nelle sue diverse componenti: architettonica, paesaggistica, di allestimento. Si tratta di uno spazio che si vuole fortemente innovativo, e che investe nellintegrazione fra la collezione e le nuove tecnologie della comunicazione. Il museo vuole affermare il valore della diversit delle culture, e costruire uno spazio di possibile dialogo fra di loro, oltre che di esposizione esemplare di artefatti eccezionali. Non solo museo ma anche centro per linsegnamento e la ricerca, nonch spazio a disposizione di diversi pubblici potenziali, compreso quello alla ricerca di intrattenimento: dunque un nuovo museo nel pieno senso del termine.Quai Branly (Africa, Asia, Oceania and Americas Arts and Civilization National Museum in Paris, opened in 2006 is analyzed from a semiotic point of view as a great device for cultural recognition and communication in its different components - architectural, landscape and exhibitions display. Its about a space that builds itself as innovative and that invests on the integration among collections and new communication technologies. The museum aims to state the value of cultures diversity and build a space for possible dialogues among them - besides the exhibition of exceptional artifacts copies. Not only the museum - but also a center for teaching and researching, - the space is available for several potential audiences, including that one that searches for entertainment: therefore, a new museum on its definitions strict sense.

  20. Market structure and exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas and crude oil in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czastkiewicz, Carolina

    Using a dataset of natural gas and crude oil production in the state of California, evidence shows overextraction incentives among market participants that shared a common pool. Due to these incentives the supply of gas and crude oil extraction tends to become more inelastic as the number of firms in the pool increases. Using an instrumental variables estimation of the supply function, the results show that the common pool externality caused an average overproduction rate of 11% and 4% over the 1977--2001 period, in natural gas and crude oil, respectively. These figures imply 1 year and 4 years of additional production for natural gas and crude oil, respectively.

  1. Oil spill simulation system : structure and verification for the Sea of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlamov, S.M. [RISSHO Univ., Kumagaya, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The oil spill from the Nakhodka tanker in the Sea of Japan in January 1997 caused extensive damage to the coastal environment of Japan and provided the impetus to develop an oil spill simulation system. The newly developed system presented here consists of a meteorological data processing subsystem, an ocean circulation model, and an oil spill model. The spill model makes use of the particles tracking method and includes the simulation of the physical properties of oil, allowing the particle properties of the oil (such as density, size, viscosity and water content) to be modified as the spill evolves. The system was tested with the sea currents information provided by the three-dimensional modular ocean model and with a more simplified nonlinear model of sea currents. This paper also presented a test of the simulation system using information from the oil spill incident in the Sea of Japan in April 1997 involving the Osung No 3 Korean tanker. This incident involved about 229 kilolitres of heavy Bunker C type oil spilled into an area characterized by strong Tsushima currents and by strong tidal currents. The oil spill simulation system was found to be in good agreement with the actual observations of the oil spill. 31 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  2. Assessment of irradiated rice bran as iron source.; Avaliacao do farelo de arroz irradiado como fonte de ferro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Heden Katsue

    2002-07-01

    Rice is the largest cereal crop in Brazil. To obtain the polish grain, its external peel is extracted after abrasive process. As a result, rice bran is obtained. It has low cost and high nutritional level, which has been include into malnourished children feeding. There is a considerable controversy related to the rice bran effect on the prevention and control of undernutrition and iron deficiency. The aim os this study was to assess the availability of in vitro iron of in natura and treated rice brans, after different levels of irradiation were applied. Both sorts of bran had their composition analyzed emphasizing the iron and phytate contents. The microbiological quality of the rice bran was also assessed. The pathogenic microorganisms were destroyed only in the in natura rice bran. As the irradiation level applied on the stabilized bran increased, its lipidic fraction reduced an the progressive destruction of the phytates occurred. The high iron content follow its availability in the rice bran, despite of the irradiation level applied, on the rice bran products and its dietetic preparations. (author)

  3. Shear-free axial model in massive Brans-Dicke gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Manzoor, Rubab

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the influences of dark energy on the shear-free axially symmetric evolution by considering self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity as a dark energy candidate. We describe energy source of the model and derive all the effective dynamical variables as well as effective structure scalars. It is found that scalar field is one of the sources of anisotropy and dissipation. The resulting effective structure scalars help to study the dynamics associated with dark energy in any axial configuration. In order to investigate shear-free evolution, we formulate a set of governing equations along with heat transport equation. We discuss consequences of shear-free condition upon different SBD fluid models like dissipative non-geodesic and geodesic models. For dissipative non-geodesic case, the rotational distribution turns out to be the necessary and sufficient condition for radiating model. The dissipation depends upon inhomogeneous expansion. The geodesic model is found to be irrotational and non-radiating. The non-dissipative geodesic model leads to FRW model for positive values of the expansion parameter.

  4. Quantized Brans-Dicke theory: Phase transition, strong coupling limit, and general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sridip

    2016-10-01

    We show that Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry with a flat spatial section in quantized (Wheeler deWitt quantization) Brans-Dicke (BD) theory reveals a rich phase structure owing to anomalous breaking of a classical symmetry, which maps the scale factor a ↦λ a for some constant λ . In the weak coupling (ω ) limit, the theory goes from a symmetry preserving phase to a broken phase. The existence of a phase boundary is an obstruction to another classical symmetry [see V. Faraoni, Phys. Rev. D 59, 084021 (1999).] (which relates two BD theories with different couplings) admitted by BD theory with scale invariant matter content, i.e., Tμμ=0 . Classically, this prohibits the BD theory from reducing to general relativity (GR) for scale invariant matter content. We show that a strong coupling limit of both BD and GR preserves the symmetry involving the scale factor. We also show that with scale invariant matter content (radiation, i.e., P =1/3 ρ ), the quantized BD theory does reduce to GR as ω →∞ , which is in sharp contrast to classical behavior. This is a first known illustration of a scenario where quantized BD theory provides an example of anomalous symmetry breaking and resulting binary phase structure. We make a conjecture regarding the strong coupling limit of the BD theory in a generic scenario.

  5. Enhancing oxidative stability in heated oils using core/shell structures of collagen and α-tocopherol complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Seo Yeong; Hong, Seungmi; Kim, Jisu; Kwon, YongJun; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, GeunHyung; Lee, JaeHwan

    2017-11-15

    In this study, collagen mesh structure was prepared by carrying α-tocopherol in the form of core/shell complex. Antioxidant properties of α-tocopherol loaded carriers were tested in moisture added bulk oils at 140°C. From one gram of collagen core/shell complex, 138mg α-tocopherol was released in medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT). α-Tocopherol was substantially protected against heat treatment when α-tocopherol was complexed in collagen core/shell. Oxidative stability in bulk oil was significantly enhanced by added collagen mesh structure or collagen core/shell complex with α-tocopherol compared to that in control bulk oils (pcore/shell with α-tocopherol (p>0.05). Results of DPPH loss in methanol demonstrated that collagen core/shell with α-tocopherol had significantly (pcore/shell complex is a promising way to enhance the stability of α-tocopherol and oxidative stability in oil-rich foods prepared at high temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Edible fat structures at high solid fat concentrations: Evidence for the existence of oil-filled nanospaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyronel, Fernanda; Quinn, Bonnie; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Pink, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the surfaces of grain boundaries in edible oils with high solid fat content by combining ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) with theoretical modelling and computer simulation. Our results will lead to understand the solid structures formed at the time of manufacturing fats like confectionery fats as well as pave the way for the engineering of innovative fat products. Edible fats are complex semi-solid materials where a solid structure entraps liquid oil. It was not until USAXS combined with modelling was used that the nano- to meso-structures for systems with less than 20% solids were understood. The interpretation of those results utilized models of crystalline nanoplatelets represented by rigid close-packed flat aggregates made of spheres and was allowed to aggregate using the Metropolis Monte Carlo technique. Here, we report on systems containing between 50% and 90% solids. We modelled the solid phase as being formed from seeds onto which solids condensed thereby giving rise to oil-filled nanospaces. The models predicted that the system (a) exhibits structures with fractal dimensions approximately 2, (b) a broad peak somewhat masking that slope, and (c) for smaller values of q, indications that the structures with fractal dimension approximately 2 are uniformly distributed in space. The interpretation of the experimental data was completely driven by these results. The computer simulation predictions were used in conjunction with the USAXS observations to conclude that the systems studied scattered from oil-cavities with sizes between ˜800 and ˜16 000 Å and possessed rough 2-dimensional walls.

  7. Rice bran inclusion in the fruit and vegetable waste-based diets for fryer rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prawirodigdo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of rice bran inclusion in the fruit and vegetable waste (FVW-based diets on the growth performance of fryer rabbits. Thirty-six growing rabbits (New Zealand x Flemish Giant of about 1070.8 g initial body-weight were housed individually in the wire mesh cages and assigned to either one of a FVW-based diet containing 20% rice bran (RB 20%, 10% rice bran (RB 10% or zero rice bran (RB 0%. Thus, each treatment consists of 12 replicates. Data were collected for 28 days. Results showed that inclusion of rice bran in the diet significantly decreased (P<0.05 dry matter intake (2888, 2830 and 3095 g, for Diets RB 20%, RB 10%, and RB 0%, respectively. Average daily weight gain of the rabbits consuming RB 20% (23 g, RB 10% (25 g and RB 0% (33 g was significantly different (P<0.05. Inclusion of rice bran in the FVW-based diet significantly (P<0.05 affected the feed conversion ratio of the diets (3.4 versus 4.4 and 4.1, for RB 0% versus RB 20% and RB 10%, respectively. Consistently, the average carcass weight of rabbits consuming RB 0% (1140g was superior (P<0.05 to the carcass weight of rabbits fed RB 20% (1022 g or RB 10% (1046 g. Overall, inclusion of rice bran in the FVW based diet is not necessary. Simultaneously, use of FVW for rabbit is promising to avoid the accumulated fermenting FVW problem and produce healthy meat instantly for food.

  8. Effect of cocoa bran on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and fecal bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W; Vuksan, V; Vidgen, E; Wong, E; Augustin, L S; Fulgoni, V

    Legumes have reported benefits in terms of reduced risk for coronary heart disease and of colonic health. A novel legume fiber, cocoa bran, also may have favorable health effects on serum lipid levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, and fecal bulk. Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic subjects (13 men and 12 women) (mean +/- SEM age, 37 +/- 2 years; mean +/- SEM body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], 24.6 +/- 0.7) ate cocoa-bran and chocolate-flavored low-fiber breakfast cereals for 2-week periods, with 2-week washout, in a double-blind crossover study. The cocoa-bran cereal provided 25.0 g/d of total dietary fiber (TDF). The low-fiber cereal (5.6 g/d TDF) was of similar appearance and energy value. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the start and end of each period, and 4-day fecal collections were made from days 11 through 14. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was higher (7.6% +/- 2.9%; P =.02) and the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was lower (6.7% +/- 2.3%; P =.007) for cocoa-bran compared with low-fiber cereal at 2 weeks. No effect was seen on LDL cholesterol oxidation. Mean fecal output was significantly higher for cocoa-bran than for low-fiber cereal (56 +/- 14 g/d; Pchocolate-flavored cocoa-bran cereal increased fecal bulk similarly to wheat bran and was associated with a reduction in the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. In view of the low-fat, high-fiber nature of the material, these results suggest a possible role for this novel fiber source in the diets of normal, hyperlipidemic, and constipated subjects.

  9. Structure elucidation of C80, C81 and C82 isoprenoid tetraacids responsible for naphthenate deposition in crude oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnaes, Bjart F; Krane, Jostein; Smith, Ben E; Rowland, Steven J

    2007-06-21

    A series of C(80) isoprenoid 20-bis-16,16'-biphytanyl tetraacids has previously been found to be responsible for calcium naphthenate scaling in crude oil processing. This paper describes the structure elucidation by high-field NMR spectroscopy of the structures of the series of homologous C(80) tetraacids containing 4-8 five-membered rings. In addition, the structures of methyl-substituted C(81) and C(82) analogues containing 7 and 8 five-membered rings have been determined for the first time. The biosynthetic implications are discussed.

  10. Nutritional composition of rice bran submitted to different stabilization procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida dos Santos Conceição Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to inactivate enzymatic deterioration, whole rice bran samples were subjected to two stabilization methods. Changes in nutritional value in terms of, concerning chemical composition, minerals and fatty acid content, were evaluated to supplement existing data and promote the utilization of rice bran in the human diet. The following homemade heat treatments were applied: roasting on a conventional stove or heating in a microwave oven. Based on the results, the different heating methods affected sample composition, since the levels of some nutrients of treated samples showed significant changes (pA fim de inativar a deterioração enzimática, as amostras de farelo de arroz foram submetidas a dois métodos de estabilização. As mudanças do valor nutricional, no que se refere a composição química, os minerais e o conteúdo de ácidos graxos, foram avaliadas para adicionar mais informações aos dados existentes e promover a utilização de farelo de arroz na dieta humana. Os seguintes tratamentos caseiros por calor foram aplicados: torra em forno convencional ou de aquecimento em forno de micro-ondas. Com base nos resultados, os diferentes métodos de aquecimento afetaram a composição das amostras, já que os níveis de alguns nutrientes mostraram alterações significativas (p <0,05, comparado com as amostras cruas correspondentes. O farelo de arroz tratado em fogão convencional forneceu produtos com menos umidade (5,14 ± 0,10 g/100 g e nutrientes, tais como: de sódio 11,8%; ácido palmítico 9,9% e ácido esteárico 8,1%. O procedimento de forno de micro-ondas resultou em melhor preservação dos nutrientes, com teor de umidade um pouco maior (6,28 ± 0,10 g/100 g, o que parece ser uma ferramenta prática e rápida no tratamento térmico caseiro para o farelo de arroz.

  11. A Theoretical Investigation of the Structure and Reactivity of the Molecular Constituents of Oil Sand and Oil Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, Carol A. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We used a variety of small organic models of asphaltenes to investigate the molecular mechanism for the high temperature decomposition that would take place as part of the oil refinery process. We determined that the decomposition is initiated via four different types of hydrogen migration reactions. According to the energetics of the reactions, the dominant 1,2-H shift mechanism involves two competitive product channels, namely, C2H2 + CH2CS and CS + CH3CCH. The minor channels include the formation of CS + CH2CCH2, H2S + C4H2, HCS + CH2CCH, CS + CH2CHCH, H + C4H3S, and HS + C4H3. We also investigated the alkyl substitution effect by exploring the decomposition pathways of models with alkyl arms. The energetics of such systems were very similar to that for unsubstituted model compounds, which suggests that asphaltene alkylation may not play a significant role in the decomposition of asphaltene compounds. This work was published in the Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2011, 115, 2882-2891. A MECHANISTIC STUDY OF THE 2-THIENYLMETHYL + HO2 RADICAL RECOMBINATION REACTION Radicals are molecules which contain single electrons. They are very reactive. Radical recombination reactions are important in the combustion of fuel oils. Shale oil contains radicals. We used quantum mechanics to explore the reactivity of shale oil model radical compounds. Seventeen product channels corresponding to either addition/elimination or direct hydrogen abstraction were characterized. Direct hydrogen abstraction proceeds via a weakly bonded complex, which leads to 2-methylthiophene, 2-methylene-2,3-dihydrothiophene or 2-methylene-2,5-dihydrothiophene depending upon the 2-thienylmethyl radical reaction site. The addition pathway for the two radical reactants is barrierless with the formation of three adducts, as distinguished by HO

  12. The Structure and Fundamental Problems of Vegetable Oil Industry in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Azabagaoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 167 oil factories in Turkey, with a capacity not only to meet Turkey's domestic demand but also for export purpose. Of these, 8 are concerned with the production and the marketing of margarine, while the others process unrefined and refined oil. In Turkey, the vegetable oil industry has a capacity about 6 million tons of seed grounding and 3 million tons of unrefined oil capacity. In addition, there is also a 950 thousand tons capacity for margarine production. However, the insufficiency of unrefined material has resulted low level capacity usage. For example, the capacity usage was realized as 50% for seed grounding, 47% for unrefined oil production and 40% for margarine production. In this research, the various problems such as quality of unrefined material, finance, storage, etc faced by the vegetable oil industry, from the supliance of unrefined material to domestic and international marketing have been investigated. This study was carried out thoroughly in Turkey for aiming to identify measurements in order to vegetable oil industry could operate near to full capacity.

  13. Effect of ionic surfactants on the phase behavior and structure of sucrose ester/water/oil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carlos; Acharya, Durga P; Hinata, Shigeki; Ishitobi, Masahiko; Kunieda, Hironobu

    2003-06-15

    The phase behavior and structure of sucrose ester/water/oil systems in the presence of long-chain cosurfactant (monolaurin) and small amounts of ionic surfactants was investigated by phase study and small angle X-ray scattering. In a water/sucrose ester/monolaurin/decane system at 27 degrees C, instead of a three-phase microemulsion, lamellar liquid crystals are formed in the dilute region. Unlike other systems in the presence of alcohol as cosurfactant, the HLB composition does not change with dilution, since monolaurin adsorbs almost completely in the interface. The addition of small amounts of ionic surfactant, regardless of the counterion, increases the solubilization of water in W/O microemulsions. The solubilization on oil in O/W microemulsions is not much affected, but structuring is induced and a viscous isotropic phase is formed. At high ionic surfactant concentrations, the single-phase microemulsion disappears and liquid crystals are favored.

  14. Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated structured lipids by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangde; Zhu, Sha; Bi, Yanlan

    2014-09-01

    A novel enzymatic route of feruloylated structured lipids synthesis by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with castor oil, in solvent-free system, was investigated. The transesterification reactions were catalysed by Novozym 435, Lipozyme RMIM, and Lipozyme TLIM, among which Novozym 435 showed the best catalysis performance. Effects of feruloyl donors, reaction variables, and ethanol removal on the transesterification were also studied. High EF conversion (∼100%) was obtained under the following conditions: enzyme load 20% (w/w, relative to the weight of substrates), reaction temperature 90 °C, substrate molar ratio 1:1 (EF/castor oil), 72 h, vacuum pressure 10 mmHg, and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the transesterification product consisted of 62.6% lipophilic feruloylated structured lipids and 37.3% hydrophilic feruloylated lipids.

  15. Inhibition of the compound action potentials of frog sciatic nerves by aroma oil compounds having various chemical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Matsushita, Akitomo; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2015-03-01

    Plant-derived chemicals including aroma oil compounds have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction and modulate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although applying aroma oils to the skin produces a local anesthetic effect, this has not been yet examined throughly. The aim of the present study was to know how nerve conduction inhibitions by aroma oil compounds are related to their chemical structures and whether these activities are mediated by TRP activation. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Citral (aldehyde), which activates various types of TRP channels, attenuated the peak amplitude of CAP with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.46 mmol/L. Another aldehyde (citronellal), alcohol (citronellol, geraniol, (±)-linalool, (-)-linalool, (+)-borneol, (-)-borneol, α-terpineol), ester (geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate), and oxide (rose oxide) compounds also reduced CAP peak amplitudes (IC50: 0.50, 0.35, 0.53, 1.7, 2.0, 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, 0.51, 0.71, 0.44, and 2.6 mmol/L, respectively). On the other hand, the amplitudes were reduced by a small extent by hydrocarbons (myrcene and p-cymene) and ketone (camphor) at high concentrations (2-5 mmol/L). The activities of citral and other TRP agonists ((+)-borneol and camphor) were resistant to TRP antagonist ruthenium red. An efficacy sequence for the CAP inhibitions was generally aldehydes ≥ esters ≥ alcohols > oxides > hydrocarbons. The CAP inhibition by the aroma oil compound was not related to its octanol-water partition coefficient. It is suggested that aroma oil compounds inhibit nerve conduction in a manner specific to their chemical structures without TRP activation.

  16. A model of basement structure from magnetic anomalies of the Bombay High oil-field west of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    -122 111 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam A model of basement structure from magnetic anomalies of the Bombay High Oil-Field west of India D. Gopala Rao National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India (Revision accepted....5 kin LOWER MIOCENE LIMESTONE REFLECTOR (FROM SEISMIC DATA) ~',r V,,- v • - ~'¥¥YYYVV . ..... \\[~~'vvwvwyvvvvWvvvv " ":" ":'wv ..... I"'T .... L CLAY/CLAYSTONE ~ OBSERVED MAGNETIC ANOMALIES SHALE ~ THEORETICAL MAOHETIC ANOMALIES LIMESTONE...

  17. Antiglycemic Effect of Water Extractable Arabinoxylan from Wheat Aleurone and Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovemore Nkhata Malunga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the effects of arabinoxylan (AX polysaccharides on postprandial glucose response have resulted in contrasting results owing to the diversity in AX structures. Four water extractable AX (WEAX extracts obtained from wheat aleurone and bran were used to investigate (a the effect of AX on activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, (b influence of AX chemical composition on their inhibition potency, and (c kinetics of enzyme inhibition. α-Amylase activity was not significantly affected by the presence WEAX fractions regardless of type or concentration. WEAX inhibited α-glucosidase activity only when maltose was used as a substrate but not sucrose. The IC50 values of WEAX (4.88±0.3–10.14±0.5 mg/mL were highly correlated to ferulic acid content (R=-0.89, arabinose to xylose ratio (R=-0.67, and relative proportions of xylose being unsubstituted (R=0.69, disubstituted (R=-0.63, and monosubstituted (R=-0.76. The Lineweaver–Burk plot suggested an uncompetitive enzyme inhibition mode. Thus, our results suggest that antiglycemic properties of WEAX may be derived from direct inhibition of α-glucosidase activity.

  18. Characterization and functionalities study of hemicellulose and cellulose components isolated from sorghum bran, bagasse and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuang; Yadav, Madhav P; Yin, Lijun

    2017-09-01

    This study was undertaken to isolate and characterize three carbohydrate-rich fractions: Hemicellulose A (Hemi. A), Hemicellulose B (Hemi. B) and cellulose-rich residue (CRF) from sorghum bran (SBR), sorghum bagasse (SBA) and sorghum biomass (SBI). The monosaccharide composition of the Hemi. A and Hemi. B fractions was determined, indicating that SBR has a highly branched structure. The analysis of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) showed that TDF and IDF contents in original sorghum materials were in the following order: SBA˃SBI˃SBR. CRF from SBA was rich in IDF. Hemi. B fractions were completely soluble in water and so they were rich in SDF. CRFs from all sorghum sources show high water holding capacity (22.76 to 35.27g water/g CRF). The emulsion stability study showed that the Hemi. B from all sorghum sources had a better emulsion stability than the well-studied corn fiber gum (CFG). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Stability of gluten free sweet biscuit elaborated with rice bran, broken rice and okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Oliveira TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge to the food sector has been the development of new products incorporating co-products from the food processing industry with minimal impact on their pre-determined structures and adding nutritional quality. In order to add value and develop alternatives for the use of co-products generated during the agroindustrial processing, this work aimed to study the stability of gluten-free sweet biscuits developed with soybean okara, rice bran and broken rice. The formulations were elaborated with increasing percentages of these ingredients and compared with the standard (commercial sweet biscuit for ten months. The analyses were: weight, diameters (internal and external, thickness, specific volume, instrumental parameters of color, texture, scanning electron microscopy, water activity, proximal composition and isoflavones. The experimental sweet biscuits had characteristics of color, weight, volume and diameters (internal and external very similar to the commercial, whereas texture, lipids and energy value decreased, and aw, moisture and protein increased during storage. The sweet biscuits showed the same stability when compared to the standard, and the

  20. Comparative effects in rats of intact wheat bran and two wheat bran fractions on the disposition of the mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R., E-mail: l.ferguson@auckland.ac.nz [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Harris, Philip J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Kestell, Philip [Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Zhu, Shuotun [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Munday, Rex; Munday, Christine M. [Agresearch, Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2011-11-01

    Wheat bran protects against mutations and cancer, but contains different plant cell types that are likely to have different protective effects. We previously described the production and chemical characterisation of an aleurone-rich fraction (ARF) and a pericarp-rich fraction (PRF) from wheat grain. We compared these with whole bran (WB), fed to rats as 10% of a high fat AIN-76 diet. All bran-supplemented diets increased faecal bulk, in the order PRF > WB > ARF. PRF increased the activity of NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase only in the forestomach, whereas ARF and WB enhanced levels of glutathione S-transferase in the duodenum. ARF but not PRF was digested and fermented, and also encouraged bacterial growth. Rats were gavaged with the radioactive mutagen {sup 14}C-labelled IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), and effects of the brans on plasma radioactivity measured. Compared with the control diet, all bran-supplemented diets reduced the concentration of radioactivity in plasma, in the order ARF > PRF > WB. All brans increased faecal elimination of radioactivity, but only ARF and PRF enhanced urinary radioactivity. These data suggest that wheat bran may reduce mutation and cancers through direct adsorption and enhanced elimination of a dietary mutagen and/or its metabolites, and that wheat bran enriched in pericarp or aleurone cell walls may exert protective effects through different mechanisms.

  1. Beads-on-String Structured Nanofibers for Smart and Reversible Oil/Water Separation with Outstanding Antifouling Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Lai, Chuilin; Wang, Xiaowen; Liu, Yang; Hu, Huawen; Guo, Yujuan; Ma, Kaikai; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-09-28

    It is challenging to explore a unified solution for the treatment of oily wastewater from complex sources. Thus, membrane materials with flexible separation schemes are highly desired. Herein, we fabricated a smart membrane by electrospinning TiO2 doped polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers. The as-formed beads-on-string structure and hierarchical roughness of the nanofibers contribute to its superwetting/resisting property to liquids, which is desirable in oil/water separation. Switched simply by UV (or sunlight) irradiation and heating treatment, the smart membrane can realize reversible separation of oil/water mixtures by selectively allowing water or oil to pass through alone. Most importantly, the as-prepared nanofiber membrane possesses outstanding antifouling and self-cleaning performance resulting from the photocatalytic property of TiO2, which has practical significance in saving solvents and recycling materials. This work provides a route for fabricating cost-effective, easily scaled up, and recyclable membranes for on-demand oil/water separation in versatile situations, which can be of great usage in the new green separation technology.

  2. Microbial communities in bulk fluids and biofilms of an oil facility have similar composition but different structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S; Drilling, Heather S; Lawson, Paul A; Duncan, Kathleen E; Parisi, Victoria A; Suflita, Joseph M

    2011-04-01

    The oil-water-gas environments of oil production facilities harbour abundant and diverse microbial communities that can participate in deleterious processes such as biocorrosion. Several molecular methods, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA libraries, were used to characterize the microbial communities from an oil production facility on the Alaskan North Slope. The communities in produced water and a sample from a 'pig envelope' were compared in order to identify specific populations or communities associated with biocorrosion. The 'pigs' are used for physical mitigation of pipeline corrosion and fouling and the samples are enriched in surface-associated solids (i.e. paraffins, minerals and biofilm) and coincidentally, microorganisms (over 10(5) -fold). Throughout the oil production facility, bacteria were more abundant (10- to 150-fold) than archaea, with thermophilic members of the phyla Firmicutes (Thermoanaerobacter and Thermacetogenium) and Synergistes (Thermovirga) dominating the community. However, the structure (relative abundances of taxa) of the microbial community in the pig envelope was distinct due to the increased relative abundances of the genera Thermacetogenium and Thermovirga. The data presented here suggest that bulk fluid is representative of the biofilm communities associated with biocorrosion but that certain populations are more abundant in biofilms, which should be the focus of monitoring and mitigation strategies.

  3. Dark Energy From Fifth Dimensional Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrehbakhsh, Amir F; Vakili, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Following the approach of the induced-matter theory, we investigate the cosmological implications of a five-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory, and propose to explain the acceleration of the universe. After inducing in a four-dimensional hypersurface, we classify the energy-momentum tensor into two parts in a way that, one part represents all kind of the matter (the baryonic and dark) and the other one contains every extra terms emerging from the scale factor of the fifth dimension and the scalar field, which we consider as the energy-momentum tensor of dark energy. We also separate the energy-momentum conservation equation into two conservation equations, one for matter and the other for dark energy. We perform this procedure for different cases, without interacting term and with two particular (suitable) interacting terms between the two parts. By assuming the parameter of the state equation for dark energy to be constant, the equations of the model admit the power-law solutions. Though, the non-interacting cas...

  4. Structural effect of lignans and sesamol on polymerization of soybean oil at frying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipolymerization activities of lignans including nordihydroguaiaretic acid, (+)-pinoresinol, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, enterodiol, two sesame lignans (sesamol, sesamin), and four model compounds were investigated for soybean oil at frying temperature (180 °C). The heated samples were analyzed by G...

  5. Structural characteristics and oil-removal mechanisms of the adsorbents made from petrochemical sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-bin; SANG Yi-ming; TAN Wen-jie; HE Xu-wen; LI Fa-sheng

    2004-01-01

    A new type of carbon-inorganic absorbent with good oil-removing performance is prepared by sintering and activating petrochemical sludge. Of the absorbents prepared by three different methods (non-activated, vapor /840 ℃/6 h, CO2/1 000 ℃/2 h), the one prepared by the second method is the best in oil-removing, which can remove 60% of oil from petrochemical wastewater with a concentration of 76.42 mg/L. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the constituents of the adsorbents are basically similar to those of inorganic granulating materials, such as SiO2, Al2O3, orthoclase feldspar, iron ore, etc. Composition analysis reveals that the activated absorbent has a large specific surface area with a high carbon content in activated compositions and a good oil-removing capability.

  6. Precooked bran-enriched wheat flour using extrusion: dietary fiber profile and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajula, H; Alavi, S; Adhikari, K; Herald, T

    2008-05-01

    The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran, total dietary fiber (TDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5% to 2.4%, respectively. Precooking by extrusion significantly increased SDF in flours (by 22% to 73%); although in most cases it also led to a significant decrease in TDF. Cookies and tortillas produced from uncooked and precooked flours with 0% and 20% substituted bran were evaluated for consumer acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. With a few exceptions, all cookies had scores ranging from 6 to 7 ("like slightly" to "like moderately") for each attribute, including overall acceptability, appearance, texture, crumbliness, and flavor. Tortillas were rated for the same attributes except for crumbliness, which was replaced with chewiness. In most cases, tortilla scores ranged from 5 to 7 ("neither like nor dislike" to "like moderately"). Consumer acceptability scores of cookies from uncooked flour did not change significantly with increase in bran substitution from 0% to 20%. However, consumer scores for tortillas did decrease significantly with increase in bran level. Extrusion precooking of the flours did not improve the consumer acceptability of cookies and tortillas; however, it did improve their dietary fiber profile by increasing the SDF significantly.

  7. Effect of cereal brans on Lentinula edodes growth and enzyme activities during cultivation on forestry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E M; Machuca, A; Milagres, A M F

    2005-01-01

    To develop strategies for increasing the growth of Lentinula edodes in eucalyptus residues. To this end, we have examined the effects of cereal brans additions on production of mycelial biomass and enzymes. Three isolates of the mushroom shiitake, L. edodes (Berk. Pegler), were evaluated for enzyme and ergosterol production on eucalyptus residue supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% (w/w) of soya, wheat or rice brans. Nitrogen imput on eucalyptus residues accelerated mycelial growth by supplying the L. edodes with this limiting nutrient. High levels of enzymes activities were produced in eucalyptus residues supplemented by soya bran. Comparison of cellulose and xylanase production with manganese peroxidase (MnP) at 20% soya bran indicated that hydrolytic enzymes, but oxidative enzymes were reduced. Mycelial growth measurements revealed that eucalyptus residues supplemented with cereal brans supported fast growth of L. edodes, indicating that mycelium extension is related to the bioavailability of nitrogen. The type and concentration of nutrient supplement has a considerable effect both on substrate colonization and on the type of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes produced. These characteristics may be useful for mushroom growing. Lentinula edodes is commercially important for edible mushroom production and supplements which enhance growth and enzymes production might also be beneficial for mushroom yields.

  8. New agegraphic dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory with logarithmic form of scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    In a very recent paper, the current authors (arXiv:gr-qc/1609.01477) have proposed and analyzed in detail the logarithmic form of Brans-Dicke scalar field $\\phi$ as $\\phi \\propto ln(\\alpha+\\beta a)$, where $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ are positive constants, to alleviate the problems of interacting holographic dark energy models in Brans-Dicke theory. In this paper, the cosmological evolution of a new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) model within the framework of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe is analyzed with the same form of scalar field in Brans-Dicke theory. We derive the equation of state parameter $w_D$ and deceleration parameter $q$ of NADE model. It is observed that $w_D\\rightarrow -1$ when $a\\rightarrow \\infty$, i.e., the NADE mimics cosmological constant in the late time evolution. Indeed, due to the assumption of logarithmic form of Brans-Dicke scalar field the NADE in Brans-Dicke theory behaves like NADE in general relativity in the late time evolution. The NADE model shows a phase transition from matte...

  9. A Study on Triacylglycerol Composition and the Structure of High-Oleic Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Guan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of fatty acids in triacylglycerides (TAGs and their position on the glycerol backbone determine the nutritional value of vegetable oil. In this study, gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS were used to analyze the composition and distribution of fatty acids in TAGs of different rapeseed oils. Our results show the content of oleic acid in high-oleic-acid rapeseed oil to be about 80%. In terms of the number of acyl carbon atoms (CN, TAGs with CN52–C54 were most abundant, with a maximum concentration at CN54 (80%. The main type of TAG was oleic-oleic-oleic (OOO, accounting for 71.75%, while oleic-oleic-linoleic (OOL accounted for 7.56%, oleic-oleic-linolenic (OOLn accounted for 4.81%, and stearic-oleic-oleic (SOO accounted for 4.74%. Oleic acid in high-oleic-acid rapeseed oil was distributed in the following order of preference: sn-2 > sn-1/3. In high-erucic-acid rapeseed oil, however, oleic acid was enriched at the sn-1/3. These data show that the content of oleic acid can be as high as about 80% in high-oleic-acid material. This finding suggests that high-oleic-acid rapeseed oil has high nutritional value.

  10. Technical aspects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Janahiraman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a promising substitute as an alternative fuel has gained significant attention due to the finite nature of fossil energy sources and does not produce sulfur oxides and minimize the soot particulate in comparison with the existing one from petroleum diesel. The utilization of liquid fuels such as biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification process represents one of the most promising options for the use of conventional fossil fuels. In the first step of this experimental research, edible rice bran oil used as test material and converted into methyl ester and non-edible jatropha vegetable oil is converted into jatropha oil methyl ester, which are known as biodiesel and they are prepared in the presence of homogeneous acid catalyst and optimized their operating parameters like reaction temperature, quantity of alcohol and the catalyst requirement, stirring rate and time of esterification. In the second step, the physical properties such as density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, and pour point were found out for the above vegetable oils and their methyl esters. The same characteristics study was also carried out for the diesel fuel for obtaining the baseline data for analysis. The values obtained from the rice bran oil methyl ester and jatropha oil methyl ester are closely matched with the values of conventional diesel and it can be used in the existing diesel engine without any hardware modification. In the third step the storage characteristics of biodiesel are also studied. .

  11. Higgs potential from extended Brans-Dicke theory and the time-evolution of the fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Sola, Joan; Khodam-Mohammadi, A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous significance of the Higgs potential in the context of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and in Grand Unified Theories, its ultimate origin is fundamentally unknown and must be introduced by hand in accordance with the underlying gauge symmetry and the requirement of renormalizability. Here we propose a more physical motivation for the structure of the Higgs potential, which we link to gravity, and more specifically to an extended Brans-Dicke (BD) theory containing two interacting scalar fields. One of these fields is coupled to curvature as in the BD formulation, whereas the other is coupled to gravity both derivatively and non-derivatively through the curvature scalar and the Ricci tensor. By requiring that the cosmological solutions of the model are consistent with observations, we show that the effective scalar field potential adopts the Higgs potential form with a mildly time-evolving vacuum expectation value. Such residual vacuum dynamics could be responsible for the pos...

  12. Melting properties of some structured lipids native to high stearic acid soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn, R. O.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of structured lipids native to high stearic acid soybean oil were synthesized and their physical properties were determined by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, Mettler dropping point and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. 1,3 Distearo-2-olein (SOS, 1,3 distearo-2-linolein (SLS and1,3 distearo-2-linolenin (SlnS were synthesized from pure 1,3 diacylglycerols and the appropriate fatty acid. Pulsed NMR determinations over the temperature range 10-50 ºC showed that the symmetrical triacylglycerols (SUS: where S = stearic, U = oleic, linoleic or linolenic are high and sharply melting materials, all showing substantial amounts of solids at temperatures up to 33.3 ºC, yet are completely melted at only a few degrees higher. Mettler dropping points for SOS, SLS and SlnS were 44.1, 37.9 and 36.5 ºC respectively. The heats of fusion for the structured triacylglycerols were determined by DSC and shown to be of the order 29-32 cal/gm compared to 45 cal/gm for SSS. The heats of fusion were also calculated from Mettler dropping point determinations as admixtures with soybean oil and showed consistent agreement with the DSC data.Se sintetizaron algunos lípidos estructurados procedentes del aceite de soja con alto contenido en ácido esteárico y sus propiedades físicas se determinaron por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (NMR, punto de goteo Mettler y calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. Se sintetizaron 1,3 diestearo-2-oleina (SOS, 1,3 diestearo-2-linoleina (SLS y 1,3 diestearo-2-linolenina (SlnS a partir de 1,3 diacilgliceroles y de los ácidos grasos adecuados puros. Las determinaciones de NMR pulsada en el rango de temperaturas 10- 50 ºC mostraron que los triacilgliceroles simétricos (SUS: donde S = esteárico, U = oleico, linoleico o linolénico funden a mayor temperatura y más bruscamente, todos presentan altos contenidos en sólidos a todas las temperaturas hasta los 33.3 ºC, estando completamente fundidos

  13. A sub-canopy structure for simulating oil palm in the Community Land Model: phenology, allocation and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land surface modelling has been widely used to characterize the two-way interactions between climate and human activities in terrestrial ecosystems such as deforestation, agricultural expansion, and urbanization. Towards an effort to quantify the effects of forests to oil palm conversion occurring in the tropics on land–atmosphere carbon, water and energy fluxes, we introduce a new perennial crop plant functional type (PFT for oil palm. Due to the modular and sequential nature of oil palm growth (around 40 stacked phytomers and yield (fruit bunches axillated on each phytomer, we developed a specific sub-canopy structure for simulating palm's growth and yield within the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5. In this structure each phytomer has its own prognostic leaf growth and fruit yield capacity like a PFT but with shared stem and root components among all phytomers. Phenology and carbon and nitrogen allocation operate on the different phytomers in parallel but at unsynchronized steps, so that multiple fruit yields per annum are enabled in terms of carbon and nitrogen outputs. An important phenological phase is identified for the palm PFT – the storage growth period of bud and "spear" leaves which are photosynthetically inactive before expansion. Agricultural practices such as transplanting, fertilization, and leaf pruning are represented. Parameters introduced for the new PFT were calibrated and validated with field measurements of leaf area index (LAI and yield from Sumatra, Indonesia. In calibration with a mature oil palm plantation, the cumulative yields from 2005 to 2014 matched perfectly between simulation and observation (mean percentage error = 4 %. Simulated inter-annual dynamics of PFT-level and phytomer-level LAI were both within the range of field measurements. Validation from eight independent oil palm sites shows the ability of the model to adequately predict the average leaf growth and fruit yield across sites but

  14. A sub-canopy structure for simulating oil palm in the Community Land Model: phenology, allocation and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Bernoux, M.; Le Maire, G.; Panferov, O.; Kotowska, M. M.; Knohl, A.

    2015-06-01

    Land surface modelling has been widely used to characterize the two-way interactions between climate and human activities in terrestrial ecosystems such as deforestation, agricultural expansion, and urbanization. Towards an effort to quantify the effects of forests to oil palm conversion occurring in the tropics on land-atmosphere carbon, water and energy fluxes, we introduce a new perennial crop plant functional type (PFT) for oil palm. Due to the modular and sequential nature of oil palm growth (around 40 stacked phytomers) and yield (fruit bunches axillated on each phytomer), we developed a specific sub-canopy structure for simulating palm's growth and yield within the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). In this structure each phytomer has its own prognostic leaf growth and fruit yield capacity like a PFT but with shared stem and root components among all phytomers. Phenology and carbon and nitrogen allocation operate on the different phytomers in parallel but at unsynchronized steps, so that multiple fruit yields per annum are enabled in terms of carbon and nitrogen outputs. An important phenological phase is identified for the palm PFT - the storage growth period of bud and "spear" leaves which are photosynthetically inactive before expansion. Agricultural practices such as transplanting, fertilization, and leaf pruning are represented. Parameters introduced for the new PFT were calibrated and validated with field measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and yield from Sumatra, Indonesia. In calibration with a mature oil palm plantation, the cumulative yields from 2005 to 2014 matched perfectly between simulation and observation (mean percentage error = 4 %). Simulated inter-annual dynamics of PFT-level and phytomer-level LAI were both within the range of field measurements. Validation from eight independent oil palm sites shows the ability of the model to adequately predict the average leaf growth and fruit yield across sites but also indicates that

  15. Effect of Bioprocessing on the In Vitro Colonic Microbial Metabolism of Phenolic Acids from Rye Bran Fortified Breads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koistinen, Ville M; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati

    2017-01-01

    Cereal bran is an important source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids. We aimed to study the phenolic acid metabolism of native and bioprocessed rye bran fortified refined wheat bread and to elucidate the microbial metabolic route of phenolic acids. After incubation ...

  16. Impact of the substitution of rice bran on rheological properties of dough and in the new product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran is a nutrient-rich co-product of the rice milling industries. The impact of adding 2-20% rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological behavior of the dough was investigated using the instruments, Farinograph, Consistograph, and Alveograph. The changes in physico-chemical properties were fo...

  17. Potential use of avocado oil on structured lipids MLM-type production catalysed by commercial immobilised lipases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caballero

    Full Text Available Structured Lipids are generally constituents of functional foods. Growing demands for SL are based on a fuller understanding of nutritional requirements, lipid metabolism, and improved methods to produce them. Specifically, this work was aimed to add value to avocado oil by producing dietary triacylglycerols (TAG containing medium-chain fatty acids (M at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L at position sn-2. These MLM-type structured lipids (SL were produced by interesterification of caprylic acid (CA (C8:0 and avocado oil (content of C18:1. The regiospecific sn-1,3 commercial lipases Lipozyme RM IM and TL IM were used as biocatalysts to probe the potential of avocado oil to produce SL. Reactions were performed at 30-50°C for 24 h in solvent-free media with a substrate molar ratio of 1∶2 (TAG:CA and 4-10% w/w enzyme content. The lowest incorporation of CA (1.1% mol resulted from Lipozyme RM IM that was incubated at 50°C. The maximum incorporation of CA into sn-1,3 positions of TAG was 29.2% mol. This result was obtained at 30°C with 10% w/w Lipozyme TL IM, which is the highest values obtained in solvent-free medium until now for structured lipids of low-calories. This strategy opens a new market to added value products based on avocado oil.

  18. Effect of source/sink ratios on yield components, growth dynamics and structural characteristics of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Benoît; Mialet-Serra, Isabelle; Rouan, Lauriane; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Source/sink ratios are known to be one of the main determinants of oil palm growth and development. A long-term experiment (9 years) was conducted in Indonesia on mature oil palms subjected to continuous bunch ablation and partial defoliation treatments to artificially modify source/sink ratios. During the experiment, all harvested bunches were dissected and phenological measurements were carried out to analyse the effect of source/sink ratios on yield components explaining variations in bunch number, the number of fruits per bunch and oil dry weight per fruit. An integrative variable (supply/demand ratio) describing the ratio between the assimilate supply from sources and the growing organ demand for carbohydrate was computed for each plant on a daily basis from observations of the number of developing organs and their sink strength, and of climate variables. Defoliation and bunch ablation affected the bunch number and the fruit number per bunch. Variations in bunch number per month were mainly due to variations in the fraction of aborted inflorescence and in the ratio between female and male inflorescences. Under fluctuating trophic conditions, variations in fruit number per bunch resulted both from changes in fruit-set and in the number of branches (rachillae) per inflorescence. For defoliated plants, the decrease in the number of developing reproductive sinks appeared to be sufficient to maintain fruit weight and oil concentration at the control level, without any major decrease in the concentration of non-structural carbohydrate reserves. Computation of the supply/demand ratio revealed that each yield component had a specific phase of sensitivity to supply/demand ratios during inflorescence development. Establishing quantitative relationships between supply/demand ratios, competition and yield components is the first step towards a functional model for oil palm.

  19. The Effects of Wheat Bran Composition on the Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Penicillium decumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

    The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production.

  20. Simultaneous intake of oat bran and atorvastatin reduces their efficacy to lower lipid levels and atherosclerosis in LDLr-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone R B M; Rompelberg, Cathy J M; Andersson, Kristina E; Klungel, Olaf H; Hellstrand, Per; Oste, Rickard; van Kranen, Henk; Garssen, Johan

    2011-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of separate and simultaneous dietary intake of atorvastatin (ATO) and the soluble fiber oat bran on serum and hepatic lipid levels and the degree of atherosclerosis. Ninety female LDL-receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice were fed a Western-type diet containing either low dose (0.0025%), high dose (0.01%) or no ATO, with or without oat bran (27%) (n=15 per group) for 16 weeks. Both ATO and oat bran were effective in reducing serum total cholesterol levels (low ATO: -5.48, high ATO: -9.12, oat bran: -3.82 mmol/l, compared to control (no ATO/no oat bran), all pdietary fiber, and on the relative timing of intake of the statin and the dietary fiber. Future studies should focus on these aspects to provide further insight into the exact mechanism of this food-drug interaction.

  1. Numerical and Experimental Study of the Flow Field Structure Evolution in the Circular Recess of Oil Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The laminar radial flow in the oil cavity of heavy-duty computer numerical control (CNC machines is very complicated and has not been fully explored. Navier-Stokes equations have been applied through the whole flow region using finite volume approach to explore this complicated flow phenomenon, including the influences of the clearance height (h, inlet nozzle Reynolds number (Re, and geometrical aspect ratio (e on flow behaviors. A fluid dynamic experiment has been conducted to study the flow structure by using particle image velocimetry (PIV. Numerical simulation results have been compared with the experimental results, finding a good agreement with the studied cases. The results suggest that there are complex vortices in the oil cavity. Flow field structure of the oil cavity largely depends on h, Re, and e. Re and e have a great influence on the size and amount of vortices, and h has slight effects on the size of the vortices. The lengths of primary, secondary, and tertiary isolated vortices have a linear relationship with h. The lengths of the primary and secondary isolated vortices increase linearly with ascending e as e is small. But when Re and e are large enough, the size of the three vortices decreases.

  2. Rapid near infrared spectroscopy for prediction of enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran after various pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    step is to increase the responsivity of the substrate to enzymatic attack and the type of pretreatment affects the enzymatic conversion efficiency. Destarched corn bran is a fibrous, heteroxylan-rich side-stream from the starch industry which may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production...... or as a source of xylose for other purposes. In the present study we demonstrate the use of diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as a rapid and non-destructive analytical tool for evaluation of pretreatment effects on destarched corn bran. NIR was used to achieve classification between 43...... differently pretreated corn bran samples using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchal clustering algorithms. Quantification of the enzymatically released monosaccharides by HPLC was used to design multivariate calibration models (biPLS) on the NIR spectra. The models could predict the enzymatic...

  3. Holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke cosmology with chameleon scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.i [Department of Science of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, Mubasher, E-mail: mjamil@camp.edu.p [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi 46000 (Pakistan)

    2010-06-07

    We study a cosmological implication of holographic dark energy in the Brans-Dicke gravity. We employ the holographic model of dark energy to obtain the equation of state for the holographic energy density in non-flat (closed) universe enclosed by the event horizon measured from the sphere of horizon named L. Our analysis shows that one can obtain the phantom crossing scenario if the model parameter {alpha} (of order unity) is tuned accordingly. Moreover, this behavior is achieved by treating the Brans-Dicke scalar field as a Chameleon scalar field and taking a non-minimal coupling of the scalar field with matter. Hence one can generate phantom-like equation of state from a holographic dark energy model in non-flat universe in the Brans-Dicke cosmology framework.

  4. Phase-plane analysis of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies in Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, D J; Holden, Damien J.; Wands, David

    1998-01-01

    We present an autonomous phase-plane describing the evolution of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models containing a perfect fluid (with barotropic index gamma) in Brans-Dicke gravity (with Brans-Dicke parameter omega). We find self-similar fixed points corresponding to Nariai's power-law solutions for spatially flat models and curvature-scaling solutions for curved models. At infinite values of the phase-plane variables we recover O'Hanlon and Tupper's vacuum solutions for spatially flat models and the Milne universe for negative spatial curvature. We find conditions for the existence and stability of these critical points and describe the qualitative evolution in all regions of the (omega,gamma) parameter space for 0-3/2. We show that the condition for inflation in Brans-Dicke gravity is always stronger than the general relativistic condition, gamma<2/3.

  5. Late time cosmic acceleration from vacuum Brans-Dicke theory in 5D

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, J Ponce

    2009-01-01

    We show that the scalar-vacuum Brans-Dicke equations in 5D are equivalent to Brans-Dicke theory in 4D with a self interacting potential and an effective matter field. The cosmological implication, in the context of FRW models, is that the observed accelerated expansion of the universe comes naturally from the condition that the scalar field is not a ghost, i.e., $\\omega > - 3/2$. We find an effective matter-dominated 4D universe which shows accelerated expansion if $- 3/2 < \\omega < - 1$. We study the question of whether accelerated expansion can be made compatible with large values of $\\omega$, within the framework of a 5D scalar-vacuum Brans-Dicke theory with variable, instead of constant, parameter $\\omega$. In this framework, and based on a general class of solutions of the field equations, we demonstrate that accelerated expansion is incompatible with large values of $\\omega$.

  6. Nonlinearly charged dilatonic black holes and their Brans-Dicke counterpart: energy dependent spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Talezadeh, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Regarding the wide applications of dilaton gravity in the presence of electrodynamics, we introduce a suitable Lagrangian for the coupling of dilaton with gauge field. There are various Lagrangians which show the coupling between scalar fields and electrodynamics with correct special situations. In this paper, taking into account conformal transformation of Brans-Dicke theory with an electrodynamics Lagrangian, we show that how scalar field should couple with electrodynamics in dilaton gravity. In other words, in order to introduce a correct Lagrangian of dilaton gravity, one should check at least two requirements: compatibility with Brans-Dicke theory and appropriate special situations. Finally, we apply the mentioned method to obtain analytical solutions of dilaton-Born-Infeld and Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld theories with energy dependent spacetime.

  7. Nonlinearly charged dilatonic black holes and their Brans-Dicke counterpart: Energy dependent spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Hendi, S H

    2016-01-01

    Regarding the wide applications of dilaton gravity in the presence of electrodynamics, we introduce a suitable Lagrangian for the coupling of dilaton with gauge field. There are various Lagrangians which show the coupling between scalar fields and electrodynamics with correct special situations. In this paper, taking into account conformal transformation of Brans-Dick theory with an electrodynamics Lagrangian, we show that how the scalar field should couple with electrodynamics in dilaton gravity. In other words, in order to introduce a correct Lagrangian of dilaton gravity, one should check at least two requirements: compatibility with Brans-Dick theory and appropriate special situations. Finally, we apply the mentioned method to obtain analytical solutions of dilaton-Born-Infeld and Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld theories with energy dependent spacetime.

  8. Magnetic point sources in three dimensional Brans-Dicke gravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, O J C; Dias, Oscar J. C.; Lemos, Jose' P. S.

    2002-01-01

    We obtain geodesically complete spacetimes generated by static and rotating magnetic point sources in an Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory of the Brans-Dicke type in three dimensions (3D). The theory is specified by three fields, the dilaton, the graviton and the electromagnetic field, and two parameters, the cosmological constant and the Brans-Dicke parameter, w. When the Brans-Dicke parameter is infinity, our solution reduces to the magnetic counterpart of the BTZ solution, while the w=0 case is equivalent to 4D general relativity with one Killing vector. The source for the magnetic field can be interpreted as composed by a system of two symmetric and superposed electric charges. One of the electric charges is at rest and the other is spinning.

  9. Mussel-inspired one-step copolymerization to engineer hierarchically structured surface with superhydrophobic properties for removing oil from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shouying

    2014-10-08

    In the present study, a superhydrophobic polyurethane (PU) sponge with hierarchically structured surface, which exhibits excellent performance in absorbing oils/organic solvents, was fabricated for the first time through mussel-inspired one-step copolymerization approach. Specifically, dopamine (a small molecular bioadhesive) and n-dodecylthiol were copolymerized in an alkaline aqueous solution to generate polydopamine (PDA) nanoaggregates with n-dodecylthiol motifs on the surface of the PU sponge skeletons. Then, the superhydrophobic sponge that comprised a hierarchical structured surface similar to the chemical/topological structures of lotus leaf was fabricated. The topological structures, surface wettability, and mechanical property of the sponge were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle experiments, and compression test. Just as a result of the highly porous structure, superhydrophobic property and strong mechanical stability, this sponge exhibited desirable absorption capability of oils/organic solvents (weight gains ranging from 2494% to 8670%), suggesting a promising sorbents for the removal of oily pollutants from water. Furthermore, thanks to the nonutilization of the complicated processes or sophisticated equipment, the fabrication of the superhydrophobic sponge seemed to be quite easy to scale up. All these merits make the sponge a competitive candidate when compared to the conventional absorbents, for example, nonwoven polypropylene fabric.

  10. Facile synthesis of a two-tier hierarchical structured superhydrophobic-superoleophilic melamine sponge for rapid and efficient oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiucun; You, Hui; Xu, Liqun; Li, Tianhao; Jiang, Xianquan; Li, Chang Ming

    2017-11-15

    Oil leakages often cause fatal disasters for environmental pollution but an efficient treatment of the oil spills is still very challenging. Sponge-substrates with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity have been attracted much attention for oil/water separation. In this study, an inexpensive commercial melamine sponge was chemically modified for the uses of oil spills treatment by oil/water separation. Inspiring from the superhydrophobic property of lotus leaf, pyrrole was polymerized by a simple vapor-phase deposition to encapsulate the raw melamine-formaldehyde (MF) sponge. The as-formed thin polypyrrole walls were utilized as reducing reagent to generate Ag nanoparticles on the capsuled sponge. Accordingly, a superhydrophobic melamine sponge with a two-tier hierarchical structure was achieved after fluorination, and this material was applied to absorb oil from water. The absorption capacity, absorption rate and recyclability were investigated. This superhydrophobic sponge exhibited an efficient and fast oil/water separation performance in complicated environment and could be applied in industrial production because of its low cost and simple fabrication procedure. This study presents a facile strategy for the fabrication of efficient oil sorbents based on a two-tier hierarchical structure, providing a novel means for the upgrading of engineered sorption materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability.

  12. In-situ biodiesel and sugar production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Rahkadima, Yulia Tri

    2015-12-01

    An integrated method of producing biodiesel and sugar using subcritical water and methanol has been employed as a potential way to reduce the high cost of single biofuel production from rice bran. The effects of temperature, methanol to water ratio and reaction time on the biodiesel yield and purity, and the concentration of sugar in hydrolysate were investigated systematically. Biodiesel with yield and purity of 65.21%and 73.53%, respectively, was obtained from rice bran with initial free fatty acid (FFA) content of 37.64% under the following conditions: T= 200 oC, P= 4.0 MPa (using CO2 as pressurizing gas), ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/2/6 (g/mL/mL), and 3 h of reaction time. FFAs level was reduced to 10.00% with crude biodiesel recovery of 88.69%. However, the highest biodiesel yield (67.39%) and crude biodiesel recovery (100.00%) were obtained by decreasing the amount of methanol so that the ratio of rice bran/water/methanol became 1/4/4, g/mL/mL. In addition, the highest sugar concentration of 0.98 g/L was obtained at 180 oC and 4.0 MPa with ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/4/4 (g/mL/mL) and reaction time of 3 h. Since no catalyst was employed and the biodiesel and reducing sugar were produced directly from rice bran with high water and FFA contents, the process was simple and environmentally friendly, which would make the production of biofuel more economical and sustainable.

  13. Thermodynamics of charged rotating solutions in Brans-Dicke gravity with Born-Infeld field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, J.; Takook, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    We derive new exact charged rotating solutions of (n+1)-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory in the presence of Born-Infeld field and investigated their properties. Because of the coupling between scalar field and curvature, the field equations cannot to be solved directly. Using a new conformal transformation, which transforms the Einstein-dilaton-Born-Infeld gravity Lagrangian to the Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld gravity one, the field equations are solved. We also compute temperature, charge, mass, electric potential, and entropy; entropy, however, does not obey the area law. These quantities are invariant under conformal transformation and satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.

  14. Preparation of rice bran bread%米糠营养面包的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 蒋作明; 徐学万; 张萍

    2001-01-01

    The processing technique of rice bran bread is introduced, the effect of rice bran on the rhological propetries of the dough and the baking quality of bread were studied, and the proportion of bread amendment is analyzed in detail.%介绍了米糠营养面包的制作工艺,研究了米糠对面团流变学特性和面包烘焙品质的影响,并对面包改良剂各组分的配比进行了分析探讨。

  15. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration.

  16. Matrix structure selection in the microparticles of essential oil oregano produced by spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Joyce Maria Gomes; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Hijo, Ariel Antonio Campos Toledo; Silva, Eric Keven; Marques, Gerson Reginaldo; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; de Azevedo, Viviane Machado

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to select the best combination of encapsulants for the microencapsulation of oregano essential oil by spray dryer with the addition of Arabic gum (AG), modified starch (MS) and maltodextrin (MA). The simplex-centroid method was used to obtain an optimal objective function with three variables. Analytical methods for carvacrol quantification, water activity, moisture content, wettability, solubility, encapsulation efficiency (ME) and oil retention (RT) were used to evaluate the best combination of encapsulants. The use of AG as a single wall material increased ME up to 93%. Carvacrol is the major phenolic compound existent in the oregano essential oil. Carvacrol exhibits a maximum concentration of 57.8% in the microparticle with the use of 62.5% AG and 37.5% MA. A greater RT (77.39%) was obtained when 74.5% AG; MS 12.7% and 12.7% MA were applied, and ME (93%) was improved with 100% of gum.

  17. A Spoonful of Bran Helps the Blood Sugar Go Down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne; Rostler; 许宫献

    2000-01-01

    国人在形容生活的贫困时,曾经有一句流行语:糠莱半年粮。糠者,从稻、 麦等谷物上脱下的皮、壳也。国人还有“糠包”一说,其含义是“草包,没有本领的人”。糠(bran),在人们心目中的地位,由此可见一斑。然而,本文却有意要为“糠”平反。当今世界,糖尿病已经成为一种时疫(epidemic)。此消息便格外引人注目。昔有An apple a day keeps the doctor away之民谚,今有A spoonful of brana day keeps the diabetes away之新说! 食不厌精的国人应该从本文的一些观点中获取教益。如: Refined grains result in more than double the amount of sugar in the blood andcause more insulin(胰岛素)to be secreted(分泌)than whole grain products.What’s more,whole grains contain vitamins and nutrients that may be importantin modifying the risk of the disease. 句中出现了两次的whole grain是相对refined grains而言的。上句是否可译为: 精加工的谷物和粗加工的谷物相比,前者导致血糖增加一倍以上,并会导致更多的胰岛素分泌。另外,粗加工的谷物含有降低此种疾病的风险的维生素和营养物。

  18. Characterization of nephelium mutabile blume-like structure of carbon nanotubes prepared from palm oil by CVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam, M.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Rusop, M.

    2017-09-01

    A new structure of carbon nanotube was produced from the Single furnace Aerosol-assisted Catalytic CVD (SFAACVD) method using Palm Oil (PO) as the precursor and Ferrocene (Fe) as the catalyst. A nephelium mutabile blume (rambutan)-like structure of CNTs was found from the black substance collected from the Alumina boat substrate placed inside the furnace. Temperature of furnace which was heated at 600 °C - 800 °C plays an important role in determining the formation of structure. The formation rambutan-like structure of CNTs was optimized at 700 °C and the samples collected were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) to obtain the surface morphologies. Raman Spectroscopy (RS) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were then used to further study the Raman Spectra and purity of samples.

  19. STRUCTURAL BREAKS, COINTEGRATION, AND CAUSALITY BY VECM ANALYSIS OF CRUDE OIL AND FOOD PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This papers investigated form of the linkage beetwen crude oil price index and food price index, using Johansen Cointegration test, and Granger Causality by VECM. Empirical results for monthly data from 1990:01 to 2011:08 indicated that evidence for breaks after 2008:08 and 2008:11. We find a clear long-run relationship between these series for the full and sub sample. Cointegration regression coefficient is negative at the 1990:01-2008:08 time period, but adversely positive at the 2008:11-2011:08 time period. This results represent that relation between crude oil and food price chanced.

  20. Superhydrophobic hierarchical structure carbon mesh films for oil/water separation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaoxia; Huang, Xing; Wang, Lisheng

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we showed that a superoleophobic mesh with the self-cleaning ability could be readily prepared by a facile spray-coating method on stainless steel mesh. Poly(methyl methacrylate) was employed to provide a stable strength between carbon nanotubes and steel mesh surface. The effect of opening size of these steel meshes on surface wetting has been investigated. The dynamics of liquid droplets was investigated as well. The as-prepared meshes exhibited both superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity and could effectively separate water from the oil and water mixture. The present study contributes to the development of oil and water separation materials for marine industrial application.