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Sample records for bran oil diet

  1. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

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    C. Basavanta Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  2. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

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    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  3. Development of rice bran oil blends for quality improvement.

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    Choudhary, Monika; Grover, Kiran; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2015-04-15

    Six rice bran oil (RBO) blends were prepared in two ratios i.e., 80:20 and 70:30 and analysed for physicochemical properties, and antioxidants and fatty acid composition. Among all the RBO blends, rice bran oil+groundnut oil (70:30) had the highest smoke point (204 °C) and rice bran oil+olive oil (70:30) was the most stable blend in terms of chemical parameters. The highest value of total antioxidants was observed in rice bran oil+sunflower oil (70:30) (2568.7 mg/kg). Fatty acid composition (SFA:MUFA:PUFA) (1:1.5:2) of rice bran oil+palm oil (80:20), and products prepared using this RBO blend, were close to the recommended intake. Boiling with sautéing was a better cooking method in terms of maintaining fatty acid ratios.

  4. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

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    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  5. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

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    Mishra, R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO: sunflower oil (SnF and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil.

    Se analizaron diversos parámetros físico-químicos para la evaluación de mezclas de aceites en diferentes proporciones que incluyen: aceite de salvado de arroz físícamente refinado (PRBO: aceite de girasol (SNF y las mezclas PRBO: aceite de cártamo (SAF en diferentes proporciones. La cuantificación de la presencia del aceite de salvado de arroz en las mezclas se llevó a cabo por diferentes métodos, como cromatografía de gases (GC, cromatografía líquida (HPLC, ultrasonidos y métodos basados en otros parámetros f

  6. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

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    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil.

  7. Parboiled rice whole bran in laying diets for Japanese quails

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    Ivan Bezerra Quevedo Filho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of parboiled rice whole bran (PRWB inclusion in laying diets for Japanese quails, on their performance, egg quality, and economic viability. A total of 448 17-week-old quails were weighed and distributed in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and eight replicates of eight birds each. A control diet (no PRWB and six diets, containing 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% of PRWB, were tested. The increasing levels of PRWB did not affected nutrient digestibility coefficient, dietary energy use, feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the economic viability indices. However, there was a linear decrease in egg shell percentage, specific weight, and yolk color. The inclusion of up to 30% PRWB in the diet allows nutrient utilization and performance similar to those obtained by the control group, and it is economically viable.

  8. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

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    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  9. Degradability of mulberry (Morus alba and rice bran in the rumen of sheep fed different diets

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    Dwi Yulistiani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate degradation of dry matter (DM and protein of mulberry and rice bran when incubated in nylon bag in the rumen at different incubation times and different rumen environments of rumen-cannulated adult sheep. Three different rumen conditions were created by feeding the three rumen-cannulated sheep with urea-treated rice straw as basal diet and offered with three supplemental treatment diets on different source of energy and nitrogen. Mulberry, urea and rice bran were used as source of fermentable energy and protein. Treatments consisted of control diet mulberry and molasses (T0; 50% mulberry was replaced by rice bran and urea (T1; and 100% of mulberry was replaced with rice bran and urea (T2. The diets were formulated in iso protein and iso energy. Supplemental diets were offered at 1.2% BW. The study was conducted in three periods. For each period, the sheep was offered with one of three supplemental treatment diets. The nylon bags each, contains sample of either mulberrry or rice bran were incubated in the rumen of sheep at different incubation times in reverse order (48, 24, 12, 9, 6, and 3h. Degradation characteristic data were obtained by analyzing degradability data with the equation of p = a+b(1-e-ct using Neway computer package. Data of degradation characteristic, degradability of DM and CP, DMI, rumen NH3-N and pH were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using a SAS software package. The results showed that the dry matter intake (DMI and rumen pH were not significantly different between diets. The rumen ammonia concentration of T1 and T2 was significantly higher than that of T0. However, the rumen ammonia concentration was higher than that of critical value for rumen microbial synthesis (>5mg/100ml. The rate (c value of DM degradability of mulberry and rice bran was affected by diet treaments, where T2 diet resulted in lower c of mulberry and rice bran. Only CP degradability of mulberry on

  10. Effect of corn bran and steep inclusion in finishing diets on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance.

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    Sayer, K M; Buckner, C D; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Macken, C N; Loy, T W

    2013-08-01

    One metabolism trial and 2 finishing trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding corn bran and steep liquor (steep) in replacement of dry-rolled corn (DRC) on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance in open feedlot pens. The metabolism trial (Exp. 1) used 8 ruminally cannulated heifers in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and the 2 finishing trials used 128 steer calves fed for 167 d (Exp. 2) and 256 yearling steers fed for 126 d (Exp. 3). Dietary treatments for all trials included a DRC-based control (CON), 30% corn bran (30/0), 30% corn bran plus 15% steep (30/15), and 45% corn bran plus 15% steep (45/15), in which by-products replaced DRC and molasses in the diet (DM basis). Diets were not isonitrogenous or isoenergetic. In the metabolism trial, feeding the by-product diets produced greater rumen pH (5.95) than CON (5.76; P diets (P diet than the by-product diets (2.36 vs. 2.84 and 0.72 vs. 1.66, respectively). In the performance trials, steers fed the by-product diets consumed more DM (P = 0.06) and G:F was either similar for all diets in Exp. 2 (P = 0.56) or less for cattle fed 30/0 than the other diets in Exp. 3 (P = 0.05). Percent N loss was reduced in Exp. 2 by including corn bran in diets compared with CON (P diet digestibility, it was beneficial in maintaining cattle performance in the feedlot studies. Feeding corn bran in combination with steep increased manure N removed and N in compost, but decreased percent N lost during the winter months only.

  11. Characteristics of esterified rice bran oil converted by enzymatic esterification.

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    Choi, Jae-Suk; Roh, Myong-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Uk; Cheon, Eun Jin; Moon, Woi-Sook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, esterified rice bran oil (ERBO) was characterized using enzymatic esterification to improve stability, prevent acidification, enhance health-promoting biological activity and generate ω-3 PUFA-rich rice bran oil (RBO). Esterification reactions using RBO and ethanol were performed at 50°C under 200 bar with 3% lipozyme TL-IM (Thermomuces lanuginosa immobilized on silica gel) or RM-IM (Rhizomucor miehei immobilized on ion exchange resin) for 3 hr under supercritical CO2. The molar ratios of ethanol to RBO were 3, 6, 9 and 12, respectively. Total lipid contents and acid values decreased (maximum 83.75%),but γ-oryzanol content increased (maximum 41.33%) in esterified RBO (ERBO) prepared using TL-IM or RM-IM. In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activity of ERBO prepared by RM-IM atan ethanol to RBO molar ratio of 3 was 0.02 µg µl(-1), which was 63-fold higher than that of α-tocopherol (IC50 =1.25 µg µl(-1)). The anti-inflammatory effect of RM-IM 1:3 hydrolysate of RBO was verified showing its suppressive effect towards iNOS and Cox-2mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, ERBO is a promising source of functional food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  12. Effects of rice bran oil on the intestinal microbiota and metabolism of isoflavones in adult mice.

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    Tamura, Motoi; Hori, Sachiko; Hoshi, Chigusa; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Dietary RBO affects intestinal cholesterol absorption. Intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. We hypothesized that dietary RBO changes the metabolism of isoflavonoids and intestinal microbiota in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 10% RBO diet (RO group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 10% lard control diet (LO group) for 30 days. Urinary amounts of daidzein and dihydrodaidzein were significantly lower in the RO group than in the LO group. The ratio of equol/daidzein was significantly higher in the RO group (p microbiota differed between the RO and LO groups. The occupation ratios of Lactobacillales were significantly higher in the RO group (p intestinal microbiota.

  13. Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats

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    Jacianelly Karla da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4 Latin square design.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS, elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS, elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB, and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bran (EGS+20% WB. There was no difference in dry matter (DM intake between diets EGS and CS in g d−1. However, the animals fed EGS+10%WB had lower DM and organic matter (OM intakes than the animals fed CS in g kg−1 d−1 of body weight. There were lower non-fiber carbohydrate and metabolize energy intakes by animals fed diets based on elephant-grass silages than those fed CS. The EGS+20%WB diet provided lower digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and digestible nutrients of the diet than the diet with CS. The NDF digestibility coefficient with diet EGS was greater than that obtained with diet CS. The diets with corn and elephant-grass silages provided similar milk yield levels. However, the animals fed diets based on EGS+20% WB produced less total-solids-corrected milk than the animals fed CS. No difference was found in the milk physicochemical properties and ingestive behavior of goats in this study. Corn silage can be replaced by elephant-grass silage harvested at 50 days of regrowth and elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran without influencing goat performance, behavioral variables, physiological variables, milk yield or the milk physicochemical properties.

  14. Hydrolysis of rice bran oil using an immobilized lipase from Candida rugosa in isooctane.

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    Murty, V Ramachandra; Bhat, Jayadev; Muniswaran, P K A

    2004-04-01

    The kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran oil in isooctane by immobilized Candida rugosa lipase in a batch reactor showed competitive inhibition by isooctane with a dissociation constant, K1, of 0.92 M. Continuous hydrolysis of rice bran oil was performed in recycling, packed bed reactor with 4352 U of immobilized lipase; the optimum recycle ratio was 9 and the operational half-life was 360 h without isooctane but 288 h with 25% (v/v) isooctane in rice bran oil.

  15. An alkali catalyzed trans-esterification of rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil

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    Akhtar Faheem H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, biodiesel production by trans-esterification of three raw materials including virgin and used edible oil and non edible oil has been presented. A two step method following acidic and alkali catalyst was used for non edible oil due to the unsuitability of using the straight alkaline-catalyzed trans-esterification of high FFA present in rice bran oil. The acid value after processing for rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil was found to be 0.95, 0.12 and 0.87 respectively. The influence of three variables on percentage yield i.e., methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied at this stage. Cottonseed oil, waste cooking oil and rice bran oil showed a maximum yield of 91.7%, 84.1% and 87.1% under optimum conditions. Fuel properties of the three biodiesel satisfied standard biodiesel fuel results.

  16. Methodical characterization of rice ( Oryza sativa bran oil from Pakistan

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    Mahmood, Zahid

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The hexane-extracted oil content of four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa viz. Super Kernel, 386, 385 and Basmati, bran was ranged 14.70-19.10 %. Other physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oils were as follow: Iodine value 112.40, 109.80, 105.1 and 103.70; refractive index ( 40 °C 1.4650, 1.4680, 1.4657 and 1.4660; density ( 40 °C 0.919, 0.913, 0.909 and 0.911; saponification value 183, 177, 186 and 190; unsaponifiable matter 6.15, 5.60, 4.98 and 5.40 % respectively. Tocopherols ( α, γ and δ in the oils were: 284.00, 175.12, 180.42, 300.06; 83.40, 98.70, 120.70, 90.60; 75.16, 57.20, 39.32, 83.00 mg/kg respectively. The contents of tocotrienols ( α, γ and δ in the oils were: 120.30, 106.00, 95.20, 135.74; 196.00, 125.00, 210.0, 276.41; 72.50, 20.00, 39.30, 64.00 mg/kg respectively. The amount of γ - Oryzanol in the investigated oils was ranged 415.12-802.05 The induction periods (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 °C of the crude oils were 6.81, 5.99, 6.39 and 7.40 h respectively. The major sterol fractions of the oils consisted of campesterol ranged (10.10-19.20%, stigmasterol (14.00-19.28 %, b -sitosterol (49.30-58.20 %, and D5 ,avenasterol (8.14-13.05 %. The investigated varieties ( Super Kernel, 386, 385 and Basmati of rice bran oil were found to contain high levels of oleic acid 42.67, 38.59, 40.68 and 36.78 % followed by linoleic and palmitic acids 31.58, 33.80, 28.70, 30.51 and 17.00, 14.88, 19.63, 20.00 % respectively. The contents of myristic, stearic and arachidic acids was 1.50, 2.02, 4.28, 1.00; 2.64, 2.87, 4.02, 7.48; and 1.28, 3.00, 1.00, 1.00 % respectively. A number of parameters of the investigated rice bran oils indigenous to Pakistan were comparable to those of typical rice bran and some other vegetable oils, reported in the literature. The results of the present analysis as compared with those of different vegetable oils demonstrated rice bran to be a potential oil source and thus could be useful

  17. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

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    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets.

  18. Effects of corn oil and wheat brans on bile acid metabolism in rats.

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    Gallaher, D D; Franz, P M

    1990-11-01

    High concentrations of colonic bile acids may promote tumor formation. Some studies have found that high levels of dietary fat increase fecal bile acid excretion, whereas others report no effect. Wheat bran appears to reduce fecal bile acid concentration. This study was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary fat levels and types of wheat bran on bile acid metabolism. Rats were fed diets containing either no fiber, 2% cholestyramine (CHO) or brans of hard red spring, soft white winter or durum wheat--at both a 5 or 20% fat level. Animals were fed for 7 wk, and feces were collected in the last week. Wheat bran (all types) significantly increased fecal mass approximately fourfold, and CHO significantly increased fecal mass twofold compared to the fiber-free diet. Increasing the fat level did not increase fecal bile acid excretion, nor did the addition of wheat bran. Addition of CHO, however, more than doubled it. CHO increased fecal bile acid concentration, all wheat brans decreased it and fat level had no effect. Bile acid pool size was increased slightly by fat level and cholestyramine feeding but not by wheat brans. These results indicate that fat level slightly alters bile acid metabolism but that wheat brans do not.

  19. Impact of novel sorghum bran diets on DSS-induced colitis

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    Background. Repeated bouts of inflammation are known to promote colon cancer. We have reported that polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets decrease formation of colon aberrant crypt foci, however, little is known regarding their effect during colonic inflammation. Objective. We hypothesized that sorgh...

  20. Effect of frying conditions on the physico-chemical properties of rice bran oil and its blended oil.

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    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, H K

    2014-06-01

    The changes occurring in rice bran oil and its blend with sunflower oil during repeated frying cycles of dried and moist potato chips were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Colour, Refractive Index, SpecificGravity, Oryzanol Value, Free fatty acid, Iodine Value, Peroxide value, anisidine value, Saponification Value, trans fats and fatty acid composition. No significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the refractive index and specific gravity of rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blend. The colour of blended oil was lesser than RBO and the intensity of color increased after each frying cycle during the deep fat frying of moistened and dried potato chips. The oryzanol content and iodine value decreased with the frying cycles. The decrease in oryzanol value during the frying operation was more prominent in rice bran oil as compared to the blended oils. The increase in p-anisidine value was more in rice bran oil as compared to blended oil. No significant changes (Poil and blended oils samples. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually during repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the oils. The trans fat increased with repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran and blended oils, when used to fry moistened and dried potato chips. Both the oil samples showed greater formation of trans fatty acids when the moistened potato chips were used during frying.

  1. Biobutanol production from rice bran and de-oiled rice bran by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

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    Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2012-06-01

    Rice bran (RB) and de-oiled rice bran (DRB) have been treated and used as the carbon source in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. The results showed that pretreated DRB produced more ABE than pretreated RB. Dilute sulfuric acid was the most suitable treatment method among the various pretreatment methods that were applied. The highest ABE obtained was 12.13 g/L, including 7.72 g/L of biobutanol, from sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysate of DRB (ESADRB), when treated with XAD-4 resin, resulted in an ABE productivity and yield of 0.1 g/L h and 0.44 g/g, respectively. The results also showed that the choice of pretreatment method for RB and DRB is an important factor in butanol production.

  2. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

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    Prachi Srivastava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Refined rice bran oil (RBO was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO, MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV, p-Anisidine value (p-AV, Total polar component (TPC and oil stability index (OSI for the RBO and its blends. In general, frying stability of RBO was improved by the blending, the Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio of the blend of RPM and RSM was in the recommended range (1:5-10, and in both cases it was observed to be 1:6. The OSI of RBO deteriorates 66% and it improved by blending with POO and it decline only 53% and 54% for the blend RP and RPM respectively. It was concluded that the blend having more than two oils (RBO+PO+MO was better in oxidative stability, nutritional value and also contain sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid than that of the RBO and its other blends.

  3. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

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    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and /sup 14/C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6.

  4. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  5. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. III. The addition of inorganic phosphorus and a phytase to duck diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D J; Martin, E A

    1998-12-01

    1. In the first of 2 experiments ducklings grown from 2 to 19 d were given diets with 0, 200 or 400 g rice bran, with or without a phytase and with 1 or 3 g inorganic phosphorus (Pi) per kg for rice bran-based diets only. In the 2nd experiment rice bran concentrations were 0, 300 or 600 g rice bran per kg with or without a phytase and 1 g Pi/kg. Ducks were grown from 19 to 40 d of age. 2. In experiment 1, a response to phytase was observed for weight gain and food intake on most diets except those with 200 g rice bran (3 g Pi) and 4.00 g rice bran (1 g P)i/kg. Main effects showed that 400 g rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR); increasing Pi depressed food intake, while food phytase increased food intake and growth rate over 2 to 19 d. There were several interactions. Dry matter and P retention were reduced but N digestibility improved when rice bran was increased from 200 g to 400 g/kg at 2 to 10 d of age; apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and calcium retentions were improved, similar results being seen at 10 to 19 d of age. Calcium and P retentions increased with the addition of food phytase and, at 10 to 19 d of age, phytase increased dry matter digestibility. Increasing Pi improved calcium and P retention, but only at 2 to 10 d of age. 3. Tibia ash (g or g/kg) content of bone was lowest on the diet without rice bran and without phytase; Pi concentration had no effect but phytase increased tibia ash on diets with 0 and 200 g rice bran and 1 g Pi/kg. Retention of several minerals in tibia ash declined at the highest rice bran inclusion rate; Pi level and phytase both increased Mg retention. 4. In experiment 2, food intake and growth rate of ducks, but not FCR, declined as rice bran inclusion increased from 0 to 600 g/kg. Phytase improved growth rate but not food intake and FCR on all 3 diets. Dry matter digestibility declined with increasing rice bran inclusion, but AME increased; retention of P and Mg declined but those of Ca and Fe

  6. Thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends during deep fat frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, Charanjiv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shall be deleted offer some advantages like better nutritional quality, lower cost and greater storage stability than pure oils. Model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO and sunflower oil (SFO were examined for change in their physico-chemical parameters (acid value, iodine value, color value, peroxide value and fatty acids. Repeated deep fat frying processes were carried out using dried potato chips in pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends, in order to study the thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil showed good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although all the blended oils used in the study showed good thermal stability during repeated deep fat frying cycles, model blends consisting of 60%RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils.La mezclas de aceites pueden ofrecer algunas ventajas sobre los aceites puros las como mejor calidad nutricional, coste inferior o mayor estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. En este estudio, aceite de salvado de arroz (RBO, aceite de girasol (SFO y mezclas de ambos, se sometieron al proceso de fritura de patatas y se evaluaron los principales cambios físico-químicos en los aceites puros y en sus mezclas (acidez, índice de yodo, color, índice de peróxidos y composición de ácidos grasos. Aunque todas las muestras mostraron buena estabilidad a elevada temperatura, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la mezcla que contenía 60% de RBO y 40% de SFO.

  7. Effect of saponification on composition of unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afinisha Deepam, L S; Arumughan, C

    2012-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil contains a variety of Unsaponifiable Constituents (USC) that are presumed to contribute to the high value of Unsaponifable Matter (USM). The objectives of the present study were to identify and quantify the constituents in USM. The changes that the unsaponifiables undergo during saponification were also quantitatively investigated. While analyzing the percentage of all constituents, the percentage of sterol get increased from 22.46 to 23.77 in USM of crude rice bran oil (CRBO) and 33.42 to 36.79 in USM of refined rice bran oil (RRBO). Oryzanol that comprised 34% of the unsaponifiable in the crude oil by direct estimation was almost eliminated in USM and same in refined oil. The results also revealed the presence of four additional classes of compounds that were quantified in USM (policosanol, fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols). Among the four classes of compounds, policosanol contributed high percentage in USM, (43.39% in CRBO and 28.46% in RRBO). Fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols together contributed 27.68% and 25.13% of USM from CRBO and RRBO respectively. The HPTLC method employed here thus, accounted for 96.75% by wt of the USM of CRBO and 92.00% by wt of the USM of RRBO.

  8. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  9. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.

  10. Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil with hydrogenated cottonseed oil to produce trans free fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeharika, T S V R; Rallabandi, Ramya; Ragini, Y; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rani, K N Prasanna; Prasad, R B N

    2015-08-01

    Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCSO) was carried out for producing a low trans free fat. The interesterification reaction was performed by varying parameters such as weight proportions of RBO and HCSO, reaction temperatures, time period and lipase concentration. Both non specific and specific lipases namely Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM were employed for this study. Based on the data generated, the optimum reaction conditions were found to be: weight proportion of RBO and HCSO, 80:20; lipase concentration, 5 % (w/w) of substrates; reaction temperature, 60 °C; reaction time, 4 h for Lipozyme TL IM and 5 h for Novozym 435. The degree of interesterification, calculated based on the results of solid fat characteristics was used for comparing the catalytic activity of Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM. It was observed that the degree of interesterification (DI) reached a near 100 % at the 4th hour for reaction employing Lipozyme TL IM with a rate constant of 0.191 h(-1) while Novozym 435 catalyzed reaction reached a near 100 % degree of interesterification at the 5th hour with a rate constant of 0.187 h(-1), suggesting that Lipozyme TL IM has a faster catalytic activity.

  11. Efeito hipolipidêmico da dieta contendo farelo de arroz Hypolipidemic effect of rice bran diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Schmidt

    2012-08-01

    rice bran diet offered to the offspring of rats after weaning was investigated regarding their growth and development, as well as concentration of glucose and total and fractionated cholesterol. Materials and Methods: This study examined four different types of diets in 21-day-old Wistar rats, containing rice bran with or without lysine and with the addition of soybean protein, all diets compared with the standard diet. Blood levels were analyzed chemically for total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glucose, protein and albumin. It was also measured the body and liver weights, as well as quantified the liver protein and DNA. Results: Animals receiving rice bran diet with and without lysine had decreased plasma cholesterol (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01, respectively, when compared to the commercial standard. When soybeans were added to diets, there was a reduction in LDL cholesterol levels (p≤0.05 and soybeans with lysine led to a major reduction (p≤0.01. The blood glucose concentration was significantly lower only in the diet with rice bran without lysine (p≤0.01. Conclusions: From this study we could conclude that the consumption of a diet with rice bran containing or not lysine had a hypocholesterolemic effect, but it was observed that the diet without addition of lysine affected the rats growth and development.

  12. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects on DE, ME, and NE for growing pigs of adding 15 or 30% wheat bran to a corn-soybean meal diet and to compare values for DE, ME, and NE calculated using the difference procedure with values obtained using linear regression. Eighteen barrows (54.4 ± 4.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates. The experiment had 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. The control diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 15 or 30% wheat bran with 85 or 70% of the control diet, respectively. The experimental period lasted 15 d. During the initial 7 d, pigs were adapted to their experimental diets and housed in metabolism crates and fed 573 kcal ME/kg BW per day. On d 8, metabolism crates with the pigs were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of O consumption and CO and CH production. The feeding level was the same as in the adaptation period, and feces and urine were collected during this period. On d 13 and 14, pigs were fed 225 kcal ME/kg BW per day, and pigs were then fasted for 24 h to obtain fasting heat production. Results of the experiment indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, crude fiber, ADF, and NDF linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased in the diets. The daily O consumption and CO and CH production by pigs fed increasing concentrations of wheat bran linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05), resulting in a linear decrease ( ≤ 0.05) in heat production. The DE (3,454, 3,257, and 3,161 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), ME (3,400, 3,209, and 3,091 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), and NE (1,808, 1,575, and 1,458 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively) of diets decreased (linear, ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased

  13. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Filho Pedro A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoemulsions have practical application in a multitude of commercial areas, such as the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cosmetic industries use rice bran oil in sunscreen formulations, anti ageing products and in treatments for skin diseases. The aim of this study was to create rice bran oil nanoemulsions using low energy emulsification methods and to evaluate their physical stability, irritation potential and moisturising activity on volunteers with normal and diseased skin types. Results The nanoemulsion developed by this phase diagram method was composed of 10% rice bran oil, 10% surfactants sorbitan oleate/PEG-30 castor oil, 0.05% antioxidant and 0.50% preservatives formulated in distilled water. The nanoemulsion was stable over the time course of this study. In vitro assays showed that this formulation has a low irritation potential, and when applied to human skin during in vivo studies, the nanoemulsion improved the skin's moisture and maintained normal skin pH values. Conclusion The results of irritation potential studies and in vivo assessments indicate that this nanoemulsion has potential to be a useful tool to treat skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  14. Kinetic Study on Rice Bran Oil Extraction%米糠油的萃取动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志慧; 李志凯; 赵思明

    2011-01-01

    为了解米糠油萃取的过程,采用球形模型建立动力学方程,研究温度,米糠/溶剂比对米糠油萃取特性的影响,为米糠油浸出工艺设计及浸出操作条件的选择提供理论依据.结果表明,随着米糠/溶剂比的减小,米糠油的萃取率逐渐升高,在温度为50℃、米糠/溶剂比为1:6时,米糠油的萃取率为16.8%,扩散系数升高,平衡浓度降低;而随着温度的升高,米糠油的萃取率逐渐升高,扩散系数升高,平衡浓度升高;扩散能随米糠/溶剂比的减小而升高,当米糠/溶剂比为1:8时,扩散能达到1 776J/moL.%To understand the process of rice bran oil extraction,we used the spherical model to erect a kinetic equation to study the influence of temperature and rice bran/solvent ratio on the extraction properties of rice bran oil to provide a theoretical basis for the design and operation conditions of leaching of rice bran oil.The results showed that,as the rice bran/solvent ratio decreased, the rice bran oil extraction ratio increased gradually.Besides, when the temperature was 50℃ ,rice bran/solvent ratio was 1:6,the rice bran oil extraction rate was 16.8% ,diffusion coefficient rose and balanced concentration decreased.As the temperature rose, the rice bran oil extraction ratio, diffusion coefficient and equilibrium concentration increased.At the same time, diffusion energy increased with the decrease of the rice bran/solvent ratio.And the diffusion energy could reach 1 776 J/moL when the rice bran/solvent ratio was 1:8.

  15. Effect of microwave and air drying of parboiled rice on stabilization of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizk, Laila F.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Giza 175 (short grain and Giza 181 (long grain were partDoiled by soaking the grains at room temperature for 20 hours and steaming for 15 min then dried either at room temperature or by microwave. The results indicated that air and microwave drying significantly increased oil extraction in both rice bran varieties. Parboiling followed by air or microwave drying produced a slight change on protein, fiber and ash content of rice bran and reduced the development of free fatty acids (F.F.A. In oil bran. Microwave samples have less F.F.A. content than the corresponding samples air dried. Oils from the cold stored rice bran presented lower F.F.A. than the corresponding oil bran stored at room temperature. The ratio between total unsaturated fatty acids and total saturated ones (Tu/Ts decreased after air and microwave drying. Results also show that air drying increased the ratio of total hydrocarbons and total sterols (Tu/Ts in both varieties while microwave decreased it.

    Dos variedades de arroz, Giza 175 (grano corto y Giza 181 (grano largo se precocieron mediante la puesta en remojo de los granos a temperatura ambiente durante 20 horas y cocimiento al vapor durante 15 minutos, luego se secaron a temperatura ambiente o por microondas. Los resultados indicaron que el secado al aire y en microondas aumentó significativamente la extracción del aceite en ambas variedades de salvado de arroz. El precocido seguido del secado al aire o en microondas produjo un cambio pequeño en el contenido en proteína, fibra y ceniza y redujo el desarrollo de ácidos grasos libres (F.F.A. en el aceite de salvado. Las muestras secadas en microondas tuvieron un menor contenido en F.F.A. que las muestras correspondientes al secado en aire. Aceites de salvado de arroz almacenado en frió presentaron menor F.F.A. que los almacenados a temperatura ambiente. La relación entre ácidos grasos insaturados totales y los saturados totales (Tu/Ts disminuy

  16. Enzyme use in kibble diets formulated with wheat bran for dogs: effects on processing and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, F C; Vasconcellos, R S; Brunetto, M A; Filho, F O R; Gomes, M O S; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there is an interest in technologies that favour the use of coproducts for animal nutrition. The effect of adding two enzyme mixtures in diets for dogs formulated with wheat bran (WB) was evaluated. Two foods with similar compositions were formulated: negative control (NC; without WB) and test diet (25% of WB). The test diet was divided into four treatments: without enzyme (positive control), enzyme mixture 1 (ENZ1; added before extrusion β-glucanase, xylanase, cellulase, glucoamylase, phytase); enzyme mixture 2 (ENZ2; added before extrusion the ENZ1 more α-amylase); enzyme mixture 2 added after the extrusion (ENZ2ex). ENZ1 and ENZ2 were used to evaluate the enzyme effect on extruder pre-conditioner (processing additive) and ENZ2ex to evaluate the effect of enzyme supplementation for the animal. Digestibility was measured through total collection of faeces and urine. The experiment followed a randomized block design with five treatments (diets) and six dogs per diet, totalling 30 dogs (7.0 ± 1.2 years old and 11.0 ± 2.2 kg of body weight). Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey's test and orthogonal contrasts (p < 0.05). Reducing sugars showed an important reduction after extrusion, suggesting the formation of carbohydrate complexes. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid-hydrolysed fat and energy was higher in NC than in diets with WB (p < 0.001), without effects of enzyme additions. WB diets resulted in higher faecal production and concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and reduced pH and ammonia concentration (p < 0.01), with no effect of enzyme addition. The enzyme addition did not result in improved digestibility of a diet high in non-starch polysaccharides; however, only ATTD was measured and nutrient fermentation in the large intestine may have interfered with the results obtained. WB modified fermentation product formation in the colon of dogs.

  17. Rice Bran Oil Compared to Atorvastatin for Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Shakib

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The use of rice bran oil together with dietary modifications may have implications in lowering fasting and postprandial blood glucose, suppressing serum lipid levels, reduce the TC/HDL-C ratio and therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, RBO exerts a hypouricemic action and anti-inflammatory effects. The findings obtained from the current study reinforce the use of RBO as an alternative natural potent hypolipidemic agent safer than atorvastatin drug that may induce side effects in some cases in patients intolerant to statins.

  18. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tocotrienol rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Beg, Zafarul H; Iqbal, Jahangir

    2005-05-01

    We investigated a dose-dependent hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) isolated from rice bran oil on experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Feeding of atherogenic diet (5% hydrogenated fat, 0.5% cholic acid and 1% cholesterol) for three weeks resulted in a significant increase in plasma triglyceride (3.3-fold) and total cholesterol (2.4-fold) levels. There was a 5-fold increase in the level of LDL cholesterol with only a small increase in HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, HMG-CoA reductase activity was significantly reduced in these animals. The formation of TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (86%) and conjugated dienes (78%) were also significantly higher in these rats compared to normals. After the induction of hyperlipidemia for three weeks, rats were supplemented with different doses of TRF for one week. TRF supplementation decreased the lipid parameters in a dose-dependent manner with an optimum effect at a dose of 8 mg TRF/kg/day. HMG-CoA reductase activity, which was increased after the withdrawal of atherogenic diet, remained significantly decreased during the TRF treatment. Feeding of TRF also decreased TBARS and conjugated dienes significantly. These results suggest that TRF supplementation has significant health benefits through the modulation of physiological functions that include various atherogenic lipid profiles and antioxidants in hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Rice bran oil prevents neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in rats: Possible antioxidant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Samad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tardive dyskinesia (TD is one of the serious side effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment. Chronic treatment with neuroleptic leads to the development of abnormal oral movements called vacuous chewing movements (VCMs. The oxidative stress hypothesis of TD is one of the possible pathophysiologic models for TD. Preclinical and clinical studies of this hypothesis indicate that neurotoxic free radical production is likely to be a consequence of antipsychotic medication and is related to occurrence of TD. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of TD. Rats chronically treated with haloperidol orally at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs, which increased in a time-dependent manner as the treatment continued for 5 weeks. Motor coordination impairment started after the 1st week and was maximally impaired after 3 weeks and gradually returned to the 1st week value. Motor activity in an open field or home cage (activity box not altered. Administration of rice bran oil (antioxidant by oral tubes at a dose of 0.4 mL/day prevented the induction of haloperidol-elicited VCMs as well impairment of motor coordination. The results are discussed in the context of a protective role of antioxidant of rice bran oil in the prevention of haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.

  20. Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats

    OpenAIRE

    Jacianelly Karla da Silva; Juliana Silva Oliveira; Ariosvalo Nunes de Medeiros; Edson Mauro Santos; Tamires da Silva Magalhães; Alenice Ozino Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4) Latin square design.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS), elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS), elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB), and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bra...

  1. Deacidification of high free fatty acid-containing rice bran oil by non-conventional reesterification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sibban; Singh, R P

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran (Oryza sativa) oil is known for containing higher amount of free fatty acid (FFA) generated by hydrolytic enzyme. This FFA causes heavy neutral oil losses due to saponification and emulsification since it produces large amount of soap in the conventional alkali refining process. In the present study the FFA of degummed rice bran oil (RBO) was significantly reduced by reesterifying it with glycerol. The reesterification process was carried out by varying the temperature and amount of excess glycerol using 0.2% catalyst (SnCl(2)). The maximum efficiency of the process could be attained at 200 degrees C using 70% excess glycerol and the maximum reduction in acid value (from 24.3 to 3.0) of RBO was observed within 4 h. The reesterified RBO was used to prepare stand oil and varnish and their performance characteristics were compared with those of the products obtained from dehydrated castor oil (DCO).

  2. Antioxidative effects of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran methanolic extracts on the stability of rice bran oil under accelerated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mariod, Abdalbasit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the antioxidant activity against the synthetic 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and β-carotene–linoleic acid assay of the methanolic extracts of defatted rice bran from stabilized and unstabilized rice bran. The effects of the extracts (0.1 and 0.25% w/w on the oxidative stability of refined-bleached rice bran oil were determined and compared with those of BHA (synthetic antioxidant. The study was carried out over a 168 hr period at 70°C and the progression of oxidation was measured by peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. The relative % of residual α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol of the rice bran oil containing methanolic extracts of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran during storage at 70°C were studied.

    La presente investigación evalúa la actividad antioxidante mediante el radical sintético 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil y el ensayo β-caroteno–ácido linoleico de extractos metanólicos de salvado de arroz desengrasado procedente de salvado de arroz estabilizado y no-estabilizado. El efecto de los extractos (0.1 y 0.25% w/w sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite refinado de salvado de arroz fue determinado y comparado con el del BHA (antioxidante sintético. El estudio fue llevado a cabo durante un periodo de 168 hr a 70°C y la progresión de la oxidación fue medida mediante el valor de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidine y substancias reactivas del ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. El porcentaje relativo del α-tocoferol y γ-orizanol residual en el aceite de germen de arroz conteniendo extracto metanólico de germen de arroz desengrasado estabilizado y no estabilizado durante el almacenamiento a 70°C fueron estudiados.

  3. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apirak Sakunpak; Jirapornchai Suksaeree; Chaowalit Monton; Pathamaporn Pathompak; Krisana Kraisintu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis ofγ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.Methods:TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test.Results:Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. Conclusions: The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  4. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  5. Wheat bran extracts: a potent source of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of wheat (var. Inqalab 91 bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays using canola oil as the oxidation substrate. The bran samples were extracted with 80% and 100% methanol and acetone. A preliminary assessment of the antioxidant activity of the 80 and 100% acetone and methanolic extracts of wheat bran was done by the measurement of % inhibition of peroxidation in a linoleic acid system, total phenolic contents (TPC and bleachability of β-carotene in the linoleic acid system. Additionally, the canola oil samples were stabilized with crude concentrated extracts and subjected to ambient aging (6 months. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, and trienes- values. The results of ambient stored samples revealed a significant improvement in these oxidation parameters. The overall order of antioxidant activity of the extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was determined to be; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extracts . 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that extracts of the wheat bran indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for commercial and neutraceutical applications.

    En el presente trabajo la actividad antioxidante de diferentes extractos obtenidos con disolventes del salvado de trigo (var. Inqalab 91 fue evaluada mediante diferentes ensayos antioxidantes y aceite de canola como substrato de oxidación. Las muestras de salvado fueron extraídas con metanol y acetona al 80% y al 100%. La evaluación preliminar de la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de metanol y de acetona al 80% y 100% fue hecha mediante la medida del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en un sistema con ácido linoleico, el contenido total de fenoles

  6. Molecular Mechanisms for the Modulation of Selected Inflammatory Markers by Dietary Rice Bran Oil in Rats Fed Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Kumar, P Pavan; Lokesh, B R

    2016-04-01

    Industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) contains trans fatty acids (TFA) mostly comprising elaidic acid (EA, 18:1∆9t). Though, the harmful effects of TFA on health have been repeatedly publicized, the fat containing TFA have been continued to be used as a cooking medium in many regions of the world. The adverse effects of PHVF on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and the possible ameliorative action of rice bran oil (RBO) on these markers were evaluated. Weaning rats were fed a AIN-93 purified diet supplemented with the following lipids: groundnut oil (GNO, 10 wt%), PHVF (10 wt%), RBO (10 wt%), PHVF blended with RBO at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt% levels. The final concentration of the lipids in the diet was maintained at 10 wt%. Rats were fed these diets for 60 days. They were sacrificed and analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. The rats fed PHVF showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation and hepatic antioxidant enzymes. The rats fed PHVF-containing diets showed enhanced levels of interleukin-1β, C-reactive proteins and also showed enhanced levels of paw inflammation when injected with carrageenan as compared to rats given GNO, RBO or PHVF blended with incremental amounts of RBO. The macrophages from rats fed diet containing PHVF showed up-regulation in the expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), nuclear factor-κB p65, toll like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4 and down-regulation in the expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR)γ, adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR-2 when compared to rats fed diet containing GNO, RBO and PHVF blended with RBO. It was concluded that dietary PHVF enhance pro-inflammatory markers which can be reduced by judiciously blending PHVF with RBO.

  7. Immunomodulatory properties of two wheat bran fractions - aleurone-enriched and crude fractions - in obese mice fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; De Backer, Fabienne; Cani, Patrice D; Bindels, Laure B; Stroobants, Aurore; Portetelle, Daniel; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2008-10-01

    Several data suggest that fermentable dietary fibers could play a role in the control of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. In mice, dietary fructans, which are extensively fermented in caeco-colon by bifidobacteria, decrease fat mass development and modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in the control of food intake (namely glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two cereal bran fractions isolated from wheat - aleurone-enriched and crude fractions - in a nutritional model of obesity. In a first experiment, we confirmed that 2 weeks of treatment with a high fat (HF) diet is sufficient to exhibit glucose intolerance and to increase adiposity in mice. In the second experiment, mice were fed a HF or a HF diet enriched with 10% wheat bran fractions during 3 weeks. None of the wheat bran fractions modified body weight, adipose tissue mass, glucose or lipid homeostasis. Wheat bran fractions increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the caecal content without any effect on caecal enlargement and on GLP-1 precursor expression in the colon. Furthermore, wheat bran fractions decreased circulating interleukin 6 (IL-6) and CD68 mRNA in the visceral adipose tissue, suggesting a decrease in recruited-tissue macrophages. We propose that specific and early immunomodulatory properties of cereal products with prebiotic properties, may occur in obese mice independently of extensive gut fermentation.

  8. Effects of cell wall degrading enzymes on carbohydrate fractions and metabolites in stomach and ileum of pigs fed wheat bran based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Inborr, J.; Bakker, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Pigs were fed diets containing 40 heat bran incubated with a water:acetic acid mixture (control, C) and a cellulase (Cel-i) or xylanase (Xyl-i) preparation or with addition of the cellulase (Cel-a) or xylanase (Xyl-a) preparation immediately before feeding. Stomach and ileal samples were analysed fo

  9. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  10. Genotoxicity of rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Tae-Uk; Moon, Woi-Sook; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2014-01-01

    Rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction (RB-SCE) reportedly exhibits pharmacological activities such as antioxidant and in vivo hair growth-inducing effects. Such activities raise the possibility of the development of novel hair growth-inducing agents using RB-SCE. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential genotoxic effects of RB-SCE in three short-term mutagenicity assays (bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus assay). RB-SCE showed no genotoxicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay up to 5000 mg/plate and in the in vivo micronucleus test up to 600 mg/kg body weight. However, at 120 µg/mL with S9 mix and 200 µg/mL without S9 mix RB-SCE showed significantly different genotoxicity than the negative control in the in vitro chromosome aberration test. The induction of chromosomal aberrations under the present conditions may have no biological significance. We have herein demonstrated that RB-SCE can be regarded as a non-genotoxic material based on the available in vivo and in vitro results.

  11. Microencapsulation of menhaden fish oil containing soluble rice bran fiber using spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuting; Bankston, Joseph David; Bechtel, Peter J; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-05-01

    Emulsion (EFMO) containing purified menhaden oil (PMO) and soluble rice bran fiber (SRBF) was dried in a pilot scale spray dryer and produced microencapsulated PMO with SRBF (MFMO). EFMO had well isolated spherical droplets with the size of 1 to 10 μm and showed pseudoplastic fluid and viscoelastic characteristics. EFMO had lower lipid oxidation than the emulsion containing PMO without SRBF when both emulsions were stored at 20 and 40 °C for 88 h, which indicated that the SRBF reduced the lipid oxidation in the EFMO. The estimated MFMO production rate (3.45 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s) was higher than the actual production rate (2.31 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s). The energy required to spray dry the EFMO was 12232 kJ/kg of emulsion. EPA and DHA contents of MFMO were 11.52% and 4.51%, respectively. The particle size of 90% MFMO ranged from 8 to 62 μm, and the volume-length diameter of MFMO was 28.5 μm.

  12. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Asnaashari, Maryam; Sayyad, Ruhollah

    2015-10-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μg α-tocopherol/ mL extract) indicated the highest antioxidant activity (80.36 % radical scavenging and 62.69 % β-carotene-linoleic bleaching) and thermal stability (4.95 h) at 120 °C in canola oil. Being high in antioxidant and antiradical potential and high content of phenolic and tocopherol compounds of ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic extract caused to evaluate its thermal stability at 180 °C in canola oil during frying process. So, different concentrations of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract (100, 800, and 1200 ppm) were added to canola oil. TBHQ at 100 ppm served as standard besides the control. Free fatty acids (FFAs), Peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability index (OSI) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract in stabilization of canola oil. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting that 800 ppm of the extract could act better than 100 ppm TBHQ in inhibition of lipid oxidation in canola oil during frying process and can be used as predominant alternative of synthetic antioxidants.

  13. Ultrafiltration-based degumming of crude rice bran oil using a polymer membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehn, G. A.R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology has been gaining momentum in industrial processes, especially in food technology. It is believed to simplify processes, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollutants. The objective was to study the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF and polyethersulfone (PES polymeric membranes in the degumming of the miscella of crude rice bran oil by using a bench-scale tangential filtration module. In addition, oil miscella filtration techniques using hexane and anhydrous ethyl alcohol solvents were compared. All membranes showed the retention of phospholipids and high flow rates. However, the best performance was observed using the 50-kDa PVDF membrane in miscella hexane solvent, with a 95.5% retention of the phosphorus concentration (by a factor of 1.4, resulting in a permeate with 29 mg·kg−1 of phosphorus and an average flow rate of 48.1 L·m−2·h−1. This technology can be used as a low-pollution, economical alternative for the de-gumming of crude rice bran oil, being effective in the removal of hydratable and non-hydratable phospholipids, resulting in oils with a low phosphorus content.La tecnología de membrana ha ido ganando impulso en los procesos industriales, especialmente en tecnología de los alimentos. Se piensa que simplifica los procesos, reduce el consumo de energía, y elimina contaminantes. El objetivo fué estudiar el rendimiento de las membranas poliméricas de fluoruro de polivinilo (PVDF y poliétersulfona (PES en el desgomado de miscelas de aceite de salvado de arroz crudo, mediante el uso de un módulo de filtración de escalado tangencial. Además, se compararon las técnicas de filtración de miscelas de aceite, utilizando como disolventes hexano y alcohol etílico anhidro. Todas las membranas mostraron retención de los fosfolípidos y altas tasas de flujo. Sin embargo, se observó un mejor rendimiento usando la membrana de PVDF de 50-kDa con hexano como disolvente, con una retención del 95

  14. Thermal oxidation of rice bran oil during oven test and microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, Harish K; Sarkar, Bhavesh C; Singh, Charanjiv

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stability of physically refined rice bran oil (RBO) under oven heating at 63 °C and microwave heating conditions by absorptivity. Oil samples with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) (100 ppm and 200 ppm), citric acid (CA), butylhydroxyanisole/butylhydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT) and in other combination, BHA/BHT+CA were submitted to oven test for 6 days, and the linear coefficient of correlation between peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was determined. The gradual increase in peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was observed in all the RBO samples, control and antioxidant added. RBO samples added with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) had shown the least peroxide value and absorptivity as 6.10 and 5.8 respectively, when added at a concentration of 200 ppm whereas; the control RBO samples had shown the maximum values. The peroxide values obtained from the correlations during the oven test were found closely correlated with the peroxide values obtained during the microwave oven heating experimentally. The effect of microwave heating on the oryzanol content and p-anisidine value was also observed and the correlation to the oven test was established. The oryzanol content and p-anisidine values obtained after oven heating when correlated to the microwave heating data showed the oryzanol content 13,371, 13,267 and 13,188 ppm after 1 day, 4 days and 5 days respectively which were closely correlated with the experimental value.

  15. Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163557.html Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health? It enhances protective ... HealthDay News) -- A Mediterranean diet high in virgin olive oil may boost the protective effects of "good" cholesterol, ...

  16. Cottonseed oil in diets for growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia de Sousa Lima Aguiar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three levels of crude cottonseed oil on performance, organ weights, and blood parameters of growing broilers. Carcass and cut yields after 33 and 42 days of age and the economic viability of the diets were also evaluated. Male broilers of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (0, 2, 4, and 6% inclusion of cottonseed oil, with and without ferrous sulfate with five replicates. In the period from 22 to 33 days, quadratic and increasing linear effects were observed on feed intake and weight gain, respectively. Feed conversion during the same period was better with the addition of ferrous sulfate. The addition of ferrous sulfate caused a reduction in heart weight. From 22 to 42 days, carcass and cuts yield, organ weight, and intestine length were not influenced by the levels of oil or by the addition of ferrous sulfate. Supplementation with iron salts provided a lower red blood cell count and increased mean cell volume. Balanced diets formulated with up to 6% of crude cottonseed oil for broilers from 22-33 and 22-42 days of age do not affect their performance or the weight of their organs. Supplementation with ferrous sulfate improved feed conversion up to 33 days. Diets formulated with 4% cottonseed oil supplemented with ferrous sulfate are economically viable in the period from 22 to 42 days.

  17. Protective effect of oryzanol isolated from crude rice bran oil in experimental model of diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuvra B. Ghatak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the involvement of poor glycemic control and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the development of diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication affecting more than 50% of diabetic patients. However, lack of understanding of the underlying etiology, development of tolerance, inadequate relief and possible toxicity associated with classical analgesics warrant the investigation of the novel agents. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oryzanol (OZ, a commercially-important potent antioxidant component isolated from from crude rice bran oil (cRBO, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. After eight weeks, diabetic rats developed neuropathy which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia and increased nociceptive behavior during the formalin test. This was accompanied by decreased motor coordination based on the evaluation of neuromuscular strength. Na+ K+ ATPase, a biochemical marker associated with the development of diabetic neuropathy, was significantly inhibited in the sciatic nerve of diabetic animals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly elevated in diabetic rats, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. Chronic treatment with oryzanol (OZ (50 and 100 mg/kg per oral (p.o. and standard drug glibenclamide (Gl (10 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the behavioral as well as biochemical changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. The findings provide experimental evidence to the protective effects of OZ on hyperglycemia-induced thermal hyperalgesia and oxidative stress which might be responsible for diabetes induced nerve damage.

  18. Optimization and evaluation of foxtail millet (Setaria italica bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A Box-Behnken central composite design combined with the response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the parameters of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of foxtail millet bran oil (FMBO. Results showed that a maximum oil yield of 7.97% was achieved under the optimal conditions with an extracting pressure of 30.03MPa, extracting temperature of 47.93 °C; and an extraction time of 2.3 h. The quality of the oil obtained from SFE and solvent extraction (SE was evaluated by proximate analysis to include physicochemical properties, fatty acids and sterol compounds. The FBMO obtained from SFE showed a much lower phospholipid (0.188 mg/g content and a preferable color compared to the oil from SE, while it contained a higher content of total sterols, 1.55%. The thermal gravimetric analysis results showed one major regime of weight loss over a temperature range of 300–500 °C. The results show that FBMO obtained by SFE can be a promising nutritional source for food fortification and is understood to have more potentially healthy biological properties.Un diseño Box-Behnken combinado con la metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM se usó para optimizar los parámetros de extracción mediante fluido supercrítico (SFE de aceite de salvado de mijo (FMBO. Los resultados mostraron que un rendimiento máximo de extracción de aceite del 7,97% se logró en las condiciones óptimas correspondientes a una presión de 30.03MPa, una temperatura 47.93 °C y un tiempo 2,3H. Además, se evaluó la calidad del aceite obtenido por SFE y mediante extracción con disolvente (SE a partir de un análisis proximal que incluye propiedades fisicoquímicas, ácidos grasos y esteroles. El aceite de FBMO obtenido mediante SFE mostró un contenido mucho menor de fosfolípidos (0.188 mg/g y un color mas aceptable que el aceite de la SE, mientras que contenía un mayor contenido de esteroles totales: 1,55%. El resultado del análisis térmico gravimétrico mostr

  19. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, Akanksha; Balasubramanian, Sundar; Lima, Marybeth; Boldor, Dorin

    2011-09-01

    Transesterification of vegetable oils (from soybeans and rice bran) into methyl and ethyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A critical comparison between the two alcohols was performed in terms of yields, quality, and reaction kinetics. Parameters tested were temperature (60, 70 and 80°C) and time (5, 10, 15 and 20 min). At all tested conditions, more than 96% conversion rates were obtained for both ethanol and methanol. Use of microwave technology to assist the transesterification process resulted in faster reaction times and reduced catalyst requirement (about ten-fold decrease). Methanol required lower alcohol:oil ratios than normally used in conventional heating, whereas ethanol required higher molar ratios. All esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Methanol performed better in terms of performance and costs, while ethanol may have some environmental and safety benefits.

  20. 米糠毛油掺伪食用植物油的低场核磁共振检测%Discrimination of Edible Vegetable Oil Adulterated with Rice Bran Crude Oil by Low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凝; 刘宝林; 王欣; 汪宏志; 杨培强; 周航

    2011-01-01

    应用低场核磁共振方法分别测定了米糠毛油和3种食用植物油(花生油、橄榄油和葵花籽油)的弛豫图谱,发现在10 ms左右米糠毛油弛豫图谱中出现了-明显特征峰,而其他3种纯油品均未检出,且随着米糠毛油掺入量的增多,该峰面积的比例也随之增大.结果表明,通过测定该特征峰面积比例可定量测出米糠毛油掺伪量.%The relaxation maps of three edible vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower seed oil and sunflower seed oil) and rice bran crude oil were detected by low - field nuclear magnetic resonance technology (NMR). An obvious characteristic peak has been determined in the relaxation maps of rice bran crude oil at 10ms, which can not be detected in the other three kinds of pure edible oil. And the area proportion increased with the increase of rice bran crude oil content. Therefore, the detecting of the characteristic peak area can judge the vegetable oil adulterated with rice bran crude oil.

  1. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  2. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets.

  3. Maltodextrin and oils in the diet of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hauptli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of piglets fed two sources of oil (soybean and palm oil combined with maltodextrin and a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin, as well as the apparent digestibility coefficients of these diets. A total of 162 piglets weaned at 21 days, with a mean initial weight of 5.42 ± 0.55 kg, were allocated in a randomized block design consisting of three treatments and 18 replicates of three animals each. The following treatments were evaluated: T1: diet containing soybean oil [3.03% in the pre-initial (I and initial (II diets] and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T2: diet containing palm oil (3.03% in I and II and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T3: diet containing a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin (10.0% in I and II and maltodextrin added to the blend (4.07% in I so that the percentage of maltodextrin would be identical in the diets of the three treatments. The performance and digestibility data were submitted to analysis of variance using the MIXED and GLM procedures, respectively, of the SAS package and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05 in DFI, ADG or FC were observed between piglets submitted to the different treatments. The ADC of dry matter was 4.25% lower (P<0.05 for the diet containing palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin compared to the soybean oil diet. The ADC of ether extract was 54% higher (P<0.05 in the soybean oil diet compared to the palm oil diet, which negatively affected the ether extract digestibility coefficient. In conclusion, palm oil microencapsulated or not with maltodextrin can replace soybean oil in the diets of weaned piglets without compromising their performance.

  4. Lipase-catalyzed preparation of diacylglycerol-enriched oil from high-acid rice bran oil in solvent-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhihua; Liu, Yuanfa; Jin, Qingzhe; Li, Lei; Wang, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhua; Liu, Ruijie

    2012-09-01

    The ability of immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) to catalyze the reaction of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) and monoglyceride (MG) for diacylglycerol-enriched rice bran oil (RBO-DG) preparation was investigated. The effects of substrate ratio, reaction temperature, time, and enzyme load on the respective content of free fatty acid (FFA) and DG in the final RBO-DG products was investigated. Enzyme screening on the reaction was also investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of the reaction temperature (50-70 °C), the enzyme load (2-6 %; relative to the weight of total substrates), and the reaction time (4-8 h) on the respective content of FFA and DG. Validation of the RSM model was verified by the good agreement between the experimental and the predicted values. The optimum preparation conditions were as follows: MG/RBO, 0.25; temperature, 56 °C; enzyme load, 4.77 %; and reaction time, 5.75 h. Under the suggested conditions, the respective content of FFA and DG was 0.28 and 27.98 %, respectively. Repeated reaction tests indicated that Lipozyme RM IM could be used nine times under the optimum conditions with 90 % of its original catalytic activity still retained.

  5. An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, A; Baumstark, M W; Marckmann, P; Gylling, H; Sandström, B

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the effect of olive oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil on blood lipids and lipoproteins including number and lipid composition of lipoprotein subclasses. Eighteen young, healthy men participated in a double-blinded randomized cross-over study (3-week intervention period) with 50 g of oil per 10 MJ incorporated into a constant diet. Plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were 10;-20% higher after consumption of the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P sunflower oil diets (ANOVA, P sunflower oil (ANOVA, P sunflower oil had more favorable effects on blood lipids and plasma apolipoproteins as well as on the number and lipid content of LDL subfractions compared with olive oil. Some of the differences may be attributed to differences in the squalene and phytosterol contents of the oils.

  6. 响应面法优化米糠调和油配比的研究%Response surface methodology ratio of rice bran cooking oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 马哲

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran blend is made by using mathematical model, on this basis by induction time for response values, the proportion of the blend oil of rice bran oil, reanut oil and wheat germ oil was studied by response surface methodology. It has the better oxidation stability and unsaturated fatty acid composition is more reasonable. Experimental data were analyzed by design Minitab software. The results showed that when the mass fraction of rice bran oil, reanut oil and wheat germ oil was 49.6970%, 10.4545% and 40.8485%, the blend oil had the better oxidation stability, and the induction time was 6.31620 h. Compared with unoptimized proportion of the blend oil, it increased by 29.85%.%利用数学模型制备米糠调和油,在此基础上以诱导时间为响应值,采用响应面分析法优化米糠油、花生油和小麦胚芽油的配比,使调和后的油脂不饱和脂肪酸组成更合理且氧化稳定性更好。实验结果表明当米糠油、小麦胚茅油、花生油的质量分数分别为49.6970%、10.4545%、40.8485%时,诱导时间最大,为6.31620h。与优化前相比提高了29.85%。

  7. Intestinal absorption of chromium as affected by wheat bran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, K.S.; Holloway, C.L.; Hegsted, M.

    1986-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary fiber, as found in wheat bran, on the absorption of chromium. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups of 10. The control was fed a semi-purified diet containing casein, methionine, cornstarch, sucrose, corn oil, mineral and vitamin mix, and choline bitartrate. The experimental group was fed the same diet but with soft red winter wheat bran added to a level of 35% of the diet at the expense of sucrose. To determine chromium absorption and uptake by selected tissues, rats were fasted for 24 hr, fed 5 g of the respective diet, 2 hr later intubated with 100..mu..Ci of Cr-51of sacrificed 24 hr later. The rats wee housed in metabolic cages after the Cr-51 intubation. The addition of wheat brand to the diet did not significantly affect chromium absorption as measured by percent dose of Cr-51 in the 24 hr urine. The percent dose in the control group was 0.68 +/- 0.20% (mean +/- SEM) and in the experimental group 0.63 +/- 0.24% (mean +/-SEM) (N.S.). The cr-51 uptake of liver, spleen, jejunum, and blood was not statistically different between groups. These results indicate that dietary fiber as found in wheat bran does not impair intestinal absorption of chromium.

  8. Enzyme-treated wheat bran alters gut microbiota and liver metabolome in mice fed a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber that has been shown to decrease body fat and modify the gut microbiome. However, it is not clear how these microbiome changes impact peripheral tissue metabolism. We hypothesized that supplementation with ETWB would change gut-derived...

  9. Growth responses of native chicken Sentul G-3 on diet containing high rice-bran supplemented with phytase enzyme and ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase enzymes and ZnO supplementation on the performance of native chicken Sentul-G3 fed high rice-bran diet. Two hundred and seventy day old chicks (DOC native chicken Sentul-G3 from three different hatcheries were used in this study. Factorial randomized block design (3 x 3 was applied in this study. The first factor was the enzyme phytase supplementation levels (0; 1000; 2000 U/kg, the second factor was the level of supplementation of ZnO (0; 1.5; 3.2 g/kg, so that there are nine treatment given, namely R1 = 50% commercial diet : 50% rice bran; R2 = R1 + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R3 = R1 + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R4 = R1 + phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg; R5 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R6 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R7 = R1 + phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg; R8 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R9 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg. Each experimental unit consisted of 6 head unsexed native chicken Sentul-G3. The experimental diet was fed for 10 weeks. The variables measured were body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, mineral deposition of Ca, P, Zn in the tibia bone, alkaline phosfatase enzyme activity in serum. Results showed that there was significant interaction (P 0.05 between phytase enzyme and ZnO supplementation on feed intake, mortality, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in serum, and deposition of calcium and phosphorus in the tibia bone. It was concluded that supplementation of phytase enzyme and ZnO were not able to increase the growth of native chicken Sentul-G3 on fed diet containing high rice bran.

  10. Effects of Rice Bran Oil Rich in Oryzanol on Pentobarbital- Induced Sleeping Behaviors in Partial Sleep-Deprived Mice Through Modulation of Monoamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang YANG; Gui CHEN; Cui-hong ZHU; Xiao-lin LUO; Bi-xia HUANG; Hui-lian ZHU

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate whether rice bran oil rich in oryzanol has effects on pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors and locomotor activities in partial sleep-deprived mice.Methods Sixty mice were randomly divided into five groups (12 for each). Control and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) model groups were fed basic rodent chow with 8% soy-bean oil (oryzanol free). PSD-low oryzanol (PSD-lOZ), PSD-medium oryzanol (PSD-mOZ) and PSD-high oryzanol (PSD-hOZ) groups were fed basic rodent chow with 8% rice bran oil, containing 3000, 7000 and 15000 mg/kg of oryzanol, respectively for 25 d. The locomotor activities after PSD and the latency and duration of sleep induced by pentobarbital were determined. The contents of monoamines, as norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were measured by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.Results Immediately after PSD, the locomotor activities in PSD model group were decreased compared with the control group (P< 0.05). The PSD-mOZ and PSD-hOZ groups had higher locomotor activities than the PSD model group (bothP< 0.05). The latency of sleep in the PSD-mOZ group and PSD-hOZ group were both decreased when compared with the PSD model group (bothP< 0.05). Linear regression showed that the duration of sleep time increased in dose dependent manner with the contents of oryzanol in rice bran oil (P=0.05). The PSD model group had lower level of NE, DA and 5-HT when compared with the control group (allP<0.05). Supplementation of high contents of oryzanol in rice bran oil may prevent the decline in monoamines (NE, DA, 5-HT) induced by PSD (allP<0.05).Conclusion Rice bran oil rich in oryzanol may alleviate fatigue and improve sleep in mice with PSD through modulation of monoamines (NE, DA, 5-HT).

  11. 米糠油氧化稳定性研究及货架期预测%Oxidation Stability and Shelf-life of Rice Bran Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丹; 吴雪辉; 杨公明; 陈小龙

    2012-01-01

    以精炼米糠油为原料,通过分析其理化指标与脂肪酸组成,探讨贮藏条件对米糠油氧化稳定性的影响,建立氧化反应动力学方程,预测米糠油的货架期.结果表明,米糠油脂肪酸中不饱和脂肪酸含量为77.45%,主要有棕榈酸17.77%、油酸46.74%、亚油酸29.34%.米糠油的氧化稳定性受光照、温度和氧气含量的影响,空气中氧气的存在会加速米糠油氧化,温度越高,氧化速度越快;不同光照条件下的稳定性依次为:避光>紫外光>自然光>日光灯.米糠油氧化遵循一级化学反应,其动力学模型为k=0.3564e 796.36/RT,通过外推法得出米糠油20℃、25℃和30℃的货架期分别为1068 d、410d、206 d.%Physical and chemical indexes were analyzed to study the oxidation stability, oxidation kinetics and shelf-life of refined rice bran oil. The results showed that the percentage of unsaturated acid was 77.45%, including 17.77% palmitic acid, 46.74% oleic acid, and 29.34% linoleic acid. Light conditions, temperature and oxygen significantly affected the oxidation stability of rice bran oil. The stability of rice bran oil significantly decreased with increasing storage temperature. The stability of different light conditions was as follows: dark>UV-light>natural light> fluorescent light. The oxidation of rice bran oil followed first-oeder dynamic model shelif-life of rice bran oil at 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 "C were 1068 days, 410 days and 206 days, repestively.

  12. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  13. BBD Optimization of K-ZnO Catalyst Modification Process for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Rice Bran Oil to Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabo, K. S.; Yacob, A. R.; Bakar, W. A. W. A.; Buang, N. A.; Bello, A. M.; Ruskam, A.

    2016-07-01

    Environmentally benign zinc oxide (ZnO) was modified with 0-15% (wt.) potassium through wet impregnation and used in transesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) to form biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), its basic sites determined by back titration and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize the modification process variables on the basic sites of the catalyst. The transesterification product, biodiesel was analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result reveals K-modified ZnO with highly increased basic sites. Quadratic model with high regression R2 = 0.9995 was obtained from the ANOVA of modification process, optimization at maximum basic sites criterion gave optimum modification conditions of K-loading = 8.5% (wt.), calcination temperature = 480 oC and time = 4 hours with response and basic sites = 8.14 mmol/g which is in close agreement with the experimental value of 7.64 mmol/g. The catalyst was used and a value of 95.53% biodiesel conversion was obtained and effect of potassium leaching was not significant in the process

  14. Thermo-acidophillic biohydrogen production from rice bran de-oiled wastewater by Selectively enriched mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishna, D.; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad-500 085 (India); Narasu, M. Lakshmi [Centre for Biotechnology, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad-500 085 (India)

    2010-07-01

    The present study focuses on the biohydrogen production in an anaerobic batch reactor operated at thermophillic (570C) and acidophilic conditions (pH 6) with rice bran de-oiled wastewater (RBOW) as substrate. The hydrogen generating mixed microflora was enriched from slaughter house sludge (SHS) through acid treatment (pH 3-4, for 24h) coupled with heat treatment (1h at 1000C) to eliminate non-spore forming bacteria and to inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria (MB) prior to inoculation in the reactor. The hydrogen production rate was maximum at 570C (1861 +- 14ml/L-WW/d) compared to 370C (651 +- 30ml/L-ww/d). The Hydrogen yield increased with temperature from 1.1 to 2.2 molH2/mol of substrate respectively. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was observed in between 5.5 to 6. Acid-forming pathway with butyric acid as a major metabolite dominated the metabolic flow during the hydrogen production.

  15. Thermo-acidophillic biohydrogen production from rice bran de-oiled wastewater by Selectively enriched mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Sivaramakrishna, D.Sreekanth, V.Himabindu, M.Lakshmi Narasu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the biohydrogen production in an anaerobic batch reactor operated at thermophillic (570C and acidophilic conditions (pH 6 with rice bran de-oiled wastewater (RBOW as substrate. The hydrogen generating mixed microflora was enriched from slaughter house sludge (SHS through acid treatment (pH 3-4, for 24h coupled with heat treatment (1h at 1000C to eliminate non-spore forming bacteria and to inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria (MB prior to inoculation in the reactor. The hydrogen production rate was maximum at 570C (1861±14ml/L-WW/d compared to 370C (651±30ml/L-ww/d. The Hydrogen yield increased with temperature from 1.1 to 2.2 molH2/mol of substrate respectively. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was observed in between 5.5 to 6. Acid-forming pathway with butyric acid as a major metabolite dominated the metabolic flow during the hydrogen production.

  16. Nutrition & health implications of palm oil in Indian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorunissa

    1995-11-01

    To boost the edible oil production and attain self-sufficiency, one of the long-term strategies undertaken by the Indian government is promotion of palm oil production through oil palm cultivation. Compared to other traditional oils (except coconut oil) used in India, palm oil and palmolein have high saturated fatty acids and low linoleic acid levels. Studies conducted to evaluate the nutritional and health implications of substituting other oils with palmolein show that despite having low linoleic acid, the use of palm oil may not adversely affect the linoleic acid status of Indian population. Substitution of groundnut oil with palmolein in cereal based lactovegetarian diets providing about 30 per cent total fat calories, doubles the saturated fatty acids and reduces by half the linoleic acid content. The effects of this substitution in volunteers from the middle income group did not raise serum cholesterol and aggregability of platelets indicating that palm oil may not produce the deleterious effects associated with saturated fatty acids. The tocols present in palm oil are natural biological antioxidants and can therefore augment the antioxidant potential of Indian diets. Red palm oil is the richest natural source of carotenes which are powerful biological antioxidants. The major carotene in red palm oil is beta-carotene. Therefore, red palm oil can be used to prevent vitamin A deficiency which is widespread in India.

  17. Effect of ionizing radiation on the protein and lipid quality characteristics of mutton kheema treated with rice bran oil and sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalarama Reddy, K.; Jayathilakan, K.; Pandey, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Effect of rice bran oil (RBO) and irradiation (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy) on lipid and protein quality of ready-to-eat mutton kheema were established during refrigerated storage (4±1 °C). Total carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), non-heme iron and total volatiles in irradiated RBO samples were significantly lower (psunflower oil (SFO) treated samples initially and during storage. Product with RBO and Flaxseed oil (FSO) at the optimized level yielded a designer meat product having an SFA:MUFA:PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio of 1:1.3:1.3 and 3.6:1 respectively. Degradation in PUFA levels in SFO samples were significantly higher (p<0.05) and an increase of 31% in metmyoglobin after 50 days was noticed in comparison with RBO samples. Non-linear correlation analysis of chemical markers established polynomial fit equations. 2 kGy radiation processing with RBO yielded a product having 50 days of shelf stability in terms of its chemical characteristics.

  18. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic? Diets enriched with olive, rapeseed, or sunflower oil affect postprandial factor VII differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  19. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  20. Stability of rice bran oil extracted by SFE and soxhlet methods during accelerated shelf-life storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariod, A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid high oryzanol (SFE HO and supercritical fluid low oryzanol (SFE LO rice bran oils were obtained and compared with that extracted by the Soxhlet (SOX method. Their composition and stability during storage were determined. The amount of unsaponifiable matter and gamma oryzanol of SFE samples were significantly (p -1 was higher than that reported in SFE HO and SFE LO, at 3.2 and 2.6 mg·g-1, respectively. After storage for 42 days at 70 °C the PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine values of SOX were higher than those of SFE HO, and SFE LO. The SFE samples showed better stability than SOX under successive heating and the addition of BHA decreased PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine levels in all samples.Se realizaron extracciones mediante fluido supercrítico de salvado de arroz con alto (SFE HO y bajo (SFE LO contenido en orizanol y se comparó con los extraídos mediante Soxhlet (SOX. Se determinó la composición y la estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. La materia insaponificable y el gamma orizanol de las muestras SFE fueron significativamente más altas (p -1 fue mayor que lo encontrado para SFE HO y SFE LO, 3,2 y 2,6 mg·g-1 respectivamente. Después de 42 días de almacenamiento a 70 °C los valores de PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y p-anisidina de SOX fueron mayores que los de SFE HO, y SFE LO. Las muestras SFE mostraron mejor estabilidad que SOX bajo calentamiento y la adición de BHA disminuyó el PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y los niveles de p-anisidina en todas las muestras.

  1. One-step production of biodiesel from rice bran oil catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia via simultaneous esterification and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Due to the high content (25-50%) of free fatty acid (FFA), crude rice bran oil usually requires a two steps conversion or one step conversion with very harsh condition for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In this study, chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia (HClSO3-ZrO2) with strong acidity and durability is prepared and it shows excellent catalytic activity toward simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Under a relative low reaction temperature of 120 °C, HClSO3-ZrO2 catalyzes a complete conversion of simulated crude rice bran oil (refined oil with 40 wt% FFA) into biodiesel and the conversion yield keep at above 92% for at least three cycles. Further investigation on the tolerance towards FFA and water reveals that it maintains high activity even with the presence of 40 wt% FFA and 3 wt% water. It shows that HClSO3-ZrO2 is a robust and durable catalyst which shows high potential to be commercial catalyst for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock.

  2. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  3. Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

    2009-07-15

    Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased

  4. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mixed hydrogenated palm kernel oil and cold-pressed rice bran oil as ingredients in non-dairy creamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunakorn Katsri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and microbiological properties of hydrogenated palm kernel oil (PKO and cold-pressed rice bran oil (RBOas ingredients in the production of liquid and powdered non-dairy creamer (coffee whitener were studied. The mixing ratios between hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO were statistically designed as of 100:0, 90:10,80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100.The color, absorbanceand viscosity of the mixtures were investigated. As the ratio of cold-pressed RBO increased, the color became darker (L*of 93.06 to 86.25 and the absorbance significantly increased, while the viscosity of the mixtures of 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100 (54 cp. were the highest amongst the ratios tested.The hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO mixtures were further chemically tested for fatty acids, -oryzanol, -tocopherol, trans-fat contents andantioxidant activity. There were 10 fatty acids present in hydrogenated PKO with saturated fatty acid being the most predominant. Comparatively, there were only 5 fatty acids found in cold-pressed RBO with monounsaturated fatty acid being the major fatty acid. -Oryzanol and -tocopherol contents were higher with increasingcold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (0 to 1,155.00 mg/100g oil and 0.09 to 30.82 mg/100g oil, respectively. Antioxidant activity was increased with increasing cold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (9.26 to 94.24%.The pure hydrogenated PKO contained higher trans-fat content than that of the 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures (2.73, 1.93 and 1.85mg/100g oil,respectively while other samples had no trans-fat. No microorganisms were present in any of the samples.Therefore, substitution of hydrogenated PKO by cold-pressed RBO from 30-100% would offer more nutritional values and better chemical and physical properties of non-dairy creamer.

  5. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC. Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD. The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC (p < 0.05. Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  6. A simple method for purification of deodorizer distillate from Indian rice (Oryza Sativa bran oil and preparation of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Rajan, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rice bran oil deodorizer distillates (RBO DOD-1 and RBO DOD-2 were studied for their physicochemical characteristics. The samples were semisolid and had a dark color. The free fatty acid values were 59.2% and 86.0%, the unsaponifiable matter was 18.7% and 7.75% and the phytosterol contents were 8.71% and 4.22%, respectively for the deodorizer distillates studied. A simple method of silica gel percolation was developed to purify DOD to obtain phytosterol concentrate fractions (PCF and a brown color and bad odor fraction (BCBOF. The color values were reduced by 72.8% and 73.0% of lovibond units in the PCF for DOD-1 and DOD-2 respectively, had no bad odor and were increased in the phytosterol concentration to 12.4% and 5.9%. The PCF was further processed to prepare high purity phytosterols. An HPLC analysis of the phytosterol mixture showed it to be formed by β-sitosterol (38.2%, stigmasterol (34.9%, campesterol (9.5% and other sterols (17.4%.Se estudiaron las características físico-químicas de muestras de destilados de desodorización de aceites de salvado de arroz (RBO DOD-1 y RBO DOD-2. Las muestras eran semi-sólidas y tenían un color oscuro. Los valores de ácidos grasos libres fueron 59,2% y 86,0%, materia insaponificable 18,7% y 7,75% y contenido de fitoesteroles de 8,71% y 4,22%, respectivamente, para los destilados de desodorización estudiados. Se desarrolló un método simple de filtración mediante sílica gel para purificar DOD y obtener concentrados de fitosteroles (PCF y una fracción de color marrón y olor desagradable (BCBOF. Los valores de color se redujeron en un 72,8% y el 73,0% de unidades Lovibond en el PCF para DOD-1 y DOD-2, respectivamente, no tenían mal olor y aumentaron su concentración en fitoesteroles al 12,4% y 5,9%. El PCF se procesó adicionalmente para preparar fitosteroles de alta pureza. El análisis por HPLC mostró que la mezcla de fitosteroles estaba formada por β-sitosterol (38

  7. Phytase enzyme in diets containing defatted rice bran for growing swine Enzima fitase dietas com farelo de arroz desengordurado para suínos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Moreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic phosphorus is poorly utilized by monogastric animals because they lack phytase, the enzyme that cleaves the ortho-phosphate groups from the phytate molecule. Diets fed to pigs are supplemented with inorganic P, and this can increase environmental pollution and diet costs. Sixty mixed sex, half-breed pigs, were used to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary levels of phytase (253, 759, 1265 and 1748 PU kg-1 feed on animal performance as compared to a control without phytase but supplemented with dicalcium phosphate. Enzyme levels did not affect daily feed intake, food conversion, average daily weight gain, plasma P and Ca, calcium and phosphorus in bone ash, and the calcium/phosphorus ratio in the plasma and bones. A quadratic relationship between phytase levels and the percentages of P and Ca in bone ash was observed, reaching a maximum at the 880 and 879 PU levels, respectively. Animals fed diets containing phytase presented low plasma P values when compared to the control, but no effects were observed for the regression analysis. Using 759 PU phytase in rations containing corn, soybean bran and defatted rice bran for growing pigs can eliminate the use of traditional sources of P.Os animais monogástricos não aproveitam eficientemente o P orgânico das dietas, pois não sintetizam a enzima fitase, sendo necessária a suplementação das rações com P inorgânico, podendo elevar o custo das dietas e a poluição ambiental. Foram utilizados 60 leitões mestiços (machos castrados e fêmeas para avaliar a eficácia dos níveis dietéticos crescentes da enzima fitase (253, 759, 1265 e 1748 UF kg-1 de ração sobre os parâmetros de desempenho e comparar com o tratamento testemunha que diferia dos demais por não conter fitase e por conter fosfato bicálcico. Os níveis da enzima fitase não afetaram o consumo diário de ração, conversão alimentar, ganho diário de peso, P e Ca no plasma, cinzas no osso e relação cálcio e f

  8. Extraction and Fatty Acids Analysis of Bran Oil in Oat%燕麦麸油的萃取及脂肪酸成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠兰英; 黄梓平; 赵启文

    2012-01-01

    采用超临界CO2法从燕麦(Avena sativa)品种青海444中萃取麸油,设计正交试验优化萃取工艺.结果表明,萃取压力对燕麦麸油的萃取率有极显著影响(P<0.01),萃取时间和萃取温度对萃取率有显著影响(P<0.05).优化的萃取工艺条件为萃取压力25 MPa、萃取温度40℃、萃取时间2.5 h,此条件下燕麦麸油的萃取率为8.572%.GC-MS分析表明青海444燕麦麸油中主要含有5种脂肪酸,其中总不饱和脂肪酸含量达85.366%,油酸和亚油酸的含量分别为41.175%和40.558%.%Supercritical CO2 method was adopted to extract brand oil from oat (Avena saliva) variety Qinghai 444; and orthogonal design was applied to optimize the extraction. The results showed that extraction pressure had very significant effect on the yield of bran oil (P<0.01); while extraction temperature and extraction time had significant effect (P<0.05). The optimum extraction conditions were, extraction pressure, 25 Mpa; extraction temperature, 40 t; and extraction time, 2.5 hours; the yield of oat bran oil was 8.572% under these conditions. According to GC—MS analysis, there were 5 components in oat bran oil, among which the content of total unsaturated fatty acid was 85.366% ; and the content of oleic acid and linoleic acid was 41.175% and 40.558%, respectively.

  9. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisah, Yusof; Ang, Shu-Min; Othman, Faizah; Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2016-10-01

    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

  10. EFFECTS OF FISH OIL, DHA OIL AND LECITHIN IN MICROPARTICULATE DIETS ON STRESS TOLERANCE OF LARVAL GILTHEAD SEABREAM (SPARUS AURATA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘镜恪; 王文琪; 李岿然; 雷霁霖

    2002-01-01

    The effects of natural fish oil, DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were investigated after 15 days feeding trials. The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air ( lack of dissolved oxygen), changes in water temperature (low) and salinity ( high) were determined. This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for increasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses, and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid (16:0) was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.

  11. Preparation of Diacylglycerol-enriched Rice Bran Oil by Lipase-catalyzed Deacidification in Packed-bed Reactors by Continuous Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongyun; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Han, Wang; Jiang, Yuanrong; Jin, Qiangzhe; Li, Li; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol-enriched rice bran oil (RBO-DAG) was produced by deacidification of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) with glycerol (Gly) using Lipozyme RM IM by continuous dehydration by combination of two enzyme columns (column 1 and 3, used for deacidification) with one molecular sieves column (column 2, used for dehydration). The conditions for three columns were respectively optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions of column 1. The content of DAG and conversion of free fatty acid (FFA) were used as indicators and the effects of the enzyme load (8-12 g), flow rate (0.3-0.6 mL/min), substrate molar ratio (4-6) and reaction temperature (55-75°C) were investigated. The content of DAG and conversion of FFA were significantly correlated to the flow rate and substrate molar ratio. Most desirable conditions of the reaction with respect to the maximal DAG content and FFA conversion was attained under the residence time of 40 min, substrate molar ratio of 5.52 (Gly: RBO) and temperature of 66°C. The conditions for column 2 were investigated by varying molecular sieves load and flow rate, and the maximal dehydration rate of 85.22% was obtained under the optimal conditions. For column 3, the optimum conditions were obtained as: flow rate, 0.2mL/min; temperature, 65°C, and the content of DAG and FFA were 38.99% and 3.04%, respectively under these conditions. The catalytic activity of the lipase was stable in twelve continuous operations with 83.22% of its original ability, demonstrating its potential in the continuous packed-bed reactors (PBRs) system. These results showed that packed-bed reactors combined with continuous deacidification and dehydration in one system had great value in industrial production for high-acid RBO with the improved conversion rate.

  12. Replacement of fish oil with thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L oil in Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2007-10-01

    Replacing fish oil with that from a docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3, DHA) rich single cell micro-organism, thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L, in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was investigated. Four experimental diets containing 100% thraustochytrid oil (TO), 100% palm oil (PO) and a 4:1 palm and thraustochytrid oil mixture (MX) were compared to a fish oil (FO) diet over 9 weeks. A saltwater transfer challenge occurred at the end of the trial for 14 days to test the diet treatments on the ability of salmon to smolt. There were no significant differences in the feed consumption of the diets or the digestibility of the omega3 or omega6 PUFA, indicating no differences in the digestibility of fatty acids between diets. No significant differences were noted between the growth of fish on the four diet treatments. Significant differences were noted in the fatty acid profiles of the fish muscle tissues between all diets. Fish on the TO diet had a significantly greater percentage of DHA in muscle tissue compared with fish on all other diets. Blood osmolarity, which is inversely related to the ability of salmon to smolt, from the TO and FO fed fish was significantly lower than that of fish on the PO diet. This study showed that thraustochytrid oil can be used to replace fish oil in Atlantic salmon diets without detriment to the growth of parr. Including thraustochytrid oil in fish diets significantly increases the amount of DHA in Atlantic salmon muscle and therefore is a candidate for use in oil blends for salmon diets. Thraustochytrid oil provides a renewable source of essential fatty acids, in particular DHA, for aquafeeds.

  13. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μ...

  14. Studies on Rice Bran and its benefits- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sharma,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran, a by-product of rice milling industry is rich in micronutrients like oryzanols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and dietary fibers. The high nutritional profile of rice bran has not been utilized due to problems associated with lipase enzyme, which reduces the quality of rice bran and makes it unfit for human consumption. After the stabilization of lipase enzyme, it is possible to derive highly nutritious value-added products of rice bran. Due to the presence of antioxidants, it helps in lowering plasma cholesterol, decreasing serum cholesterol, decreasing cholesterol absorption and decreasing platelet aggregation. It has also been used to cure hyperlipidemia, menopause disorders and to increase the muscle mass. The most widely accepted product of rice bran is its oil that has exceptional properties as compared to other vegetable oils. This review paper describes the distinct properties of rice bran as well as its health benefits.

  15. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  16. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. I. The addition of food enzymes to target the non-starch polysaccharide fractions in diets of chickens and ducks gave no response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D J; Martin, E A

    1998-09-01

    1. Three experiments were undertaken to test the efficacy of 2 enzymes targeting mainly the non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in rice bran. 2. In experiment one, 400 g rice bran/kg depressed chick performance and there was a significant decline in growth rate and food intake with increasing inclusion of rice bran (0, 200, 400 g). Neither enzyme had any benefit. 3. In experiment two, rice bran (inclusion 200 and 400 g/kg), did not alter growth rate, food intake or food conversion ratio of duckling (3 to 17 d of age). Again enzyme addition gave no response. 4. In experiment three, 300 g rice bran/kg stimulated duck (19 to 35 d of age) growth while 600 g rice bran/kg depressed growth but not food intake. Enzymes gave no response. 5. Relative gut viscosity declined with increasing rice bran inclusion as did dry matter in ileal digesta. There were differences between ducklings and chickens. 6. It was concluded that NSPs were not a significant factor in altering the nutritive value of rice bran and the enzymes used were therefore unlikely to be of benefit.

  17. Echium oil and linseed oil as alternatives for fish oil in the maternal diet: Blood fatty acid profiles and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; De Smet, S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (source of stearidonic acid) and linseed oil (source of α-linolenic acid) were evaluated as alternatives for fish oil in the diet of sows to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of the offspring. The hypothesis was that echium oil would be more efficient than linseed oil to increase the DHA concentration, as it bypasses the enzyme Δ6-desaturase. In addition, it was determined whether adding PUFA to the diet affected the plasma oxidative status. Sows were fed either a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed oil, echium oil, or fish oil from d 73 of gestation and during lactation (n = 16 per dietary treatment). Total oil concentrations in the diets were similar among dietary treatments. Blood samples were taken for fatty acid analysis and oxidative status of sows on d 73 and 93 of gestation and at parturition and the lightest and heaviest piglet per litter at birth and weaning. Colostrum was also sampled. No effect of diet was observed on total number of piglets born (13.7 ± 0.4), number of weaned piglets (10.8 ± 0.4), and gestation length (114.8 ± 0.2 d). Piglets from sows fed fish oil had lighter birth weights (1.41 ± 0.03 kg) than piglets from the linseed oil diet (1.54 ± 0.03 kg; P = 0.006), with no difference between the palm oil (1.45 ± 0.03 kg) and echium oil diet (1.49 ± 0.03 kg). Daily BW gain until weaning was less for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet (214 ± 5 g) compared with piglets from sows fed the echium oil (240 ± 5 g; P oil diet (234 ± 5 g; P = 0.02). Compared with the palm oil diet, echium and linseed oil in the maternal diet increased the DHA concentration in the colostrum and the sow and piglet plasma to the same extent (1.1 to 1.4-fold; P oil diet, 20.7-fold, 10-fold, and 2.4-fold increases in DHA in colostrum, sow, and piglet plasma, respectively, were observed (P oil had, thus, no benefit over linseed oil and resulted in a twofold less DHA concentration in the plasma of piglets compared with fish

  18. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  19. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  20. 乙醇萃取米糠油脱酸脱蜡工艺研究%Study on Technical Process of Deacidifying and Dewaxing Rice Bran Oil through Ethanol Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓军; 李群; 许光映; 高忠东

    2013-01-01

    In order to search the process of deacidifying and dewaxing rice bran oil with high acid value,this study uses edible ethanol as extractant and extracts the rice bran oil to deacidify and dewax it.The study shows the optimized process is to extract crude rice bran oil with 95 % ethanol consecutively twice according to the proportion of 2.5∶1 (V/W).The result shows that rice bran oil output ratio is 87.59%,the acid value of the oil is 1.21 mg KOH/g,oryzanol retention rate is 87.10%,the weight of recycled free fatty acid is 8.93% of the weight of rice bran oil,the weight of wax is 3.48% of the weight of rice bran oil,the recycling rate of ethanol is 90.05%,and the ratio of oil loss and acid value is 0.56.Compared with chemical deacidifying and physical deacidifying process,the abovementioned process of deacidifying and dewaxing rice bran oil through ethanol extraction needs less equipment investment,realizes higher oryzanol retention rate and higher oil output ratio,and reclaims free fatty acid and wax as by-products.Its shortcomings are high ethanol consumption and the acid value of product can not reach the standard of the first grade oil.%为探索高酸值米糠油的脱酸、脱蜡方法,以食用乙醇为萃取剂,对米糠油采用萃取的方法达到脱酸、脱蜡的目的.研究表明其优化工艺是:用95%的乙醇与米糠毛油按2.5∶1体积质量比、连续萃取2次,结果是:米糠油得率为87.59%,产品的酸值为1.21 mgKOH/g,谷维素保留率为87.10%,得到米糠毛油重8.93%的游离脂肪酸和3.48%的蜡,乙醇回收率为90.05%,溶耗酸值比为0.56.用乙醇萃取米糠油脱酸脱蜡工艺相比化学脱酸和物理脱酸工艺,设备投资少,谷维素保留率高,米糠油得率较高,回收了副产品游离脂肪酸和蜡.不足之处是消耗的乙醇较多,产品的酸值达不到一级油标准.

  1. Is chronic rapeseed oil diet more neuroprotective than chronic corn/sunflower diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Nicole

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and specifically omega3 have been shown to exert a potent protecting effect on both cardiac and neuronal functions. Rapeseed oil contains 9% of alphalinolenic acid (18-3n-3, ALA, whereas corn and sunflower oils (18:2n-6, linoleic acid rich do not. The aim of the present study was to compare in mice the putative protective effects of ALA, by testing two chronic diets containing either rapeseed oil (ALA rich or a corn/sunflower blend (devoided of ALA using an epilepsy model, allowing the detection of neurotoxic or neuroprotective activities: the MDDAS test (Magnesium Deficiency-Dependent Audiogenic Seizure test. After a 30 day-Mg-deprivation period, neuronal hyperexcitability appeared only in the corn/sunflower fed group, suggesting a protecting effect of the rapeseed oil. The number of convulsive mice was twice reduced in the rapeseed group and all of them recovered whereas in the corn/sunflower group all the mice had seizures and 43% died. The pattern of seizures with the rapeseed diet showed an increase in the first two step durations (latency and wild running, and a non significant slight decrease in the third (convulsions and the fourth (recovery ones. These results suggest a GABAergic-like effect. The increases in the first 2 phases were also indicative of a likely effect on Na+ channels, which was also observed using the maximum electroshock seizure test. These preliminary results indicate that adapted chronic dietary intake of rapeseed oil, an ALA rich monounsaturated oil, could help to control neuronal disorders as here shown in our model of magnesium-deficient mice.

  2. Effects of a monounsaturated rapeseed oil and a polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet on lipoprotein levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsta, L M; Jauhiainen, M; Aro, A; Katan, M B; Mutanen, M

    1992-01-01

    The effects of high oleic acid rapeseed oil compared with polyunsaturated fats on serum lipoprotein levels are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed 30 women and 29 men a baseline diet rich in saturated fat, which was followed by a diet rich in high oleic and low erucic acid rapeseed oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.4%; monounsaturates, 16%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 6%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 2%) and one rich in sunflower oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.7%; monounsaturates, 10%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 13%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 0%). The oils were incorporated into mixed natural diets that were dispensed in a random order for 3.5 weeks each in a blinded crossover design. The diet composition was confirmed by analysis of duplicate diets. Both test diets reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels from baseline, the monounsaturated rapeseed oil diet more than the polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet (TC: -15% versus -12%, p less than 0.01; LDL cholesterol: -23% versus -17%, p less than 0.01). Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and total, VLDL, and LDL triglyceride levels were lower during the sunflower oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil diet. Total high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels remained unchanged by both diets. The consumption of rapeseed oil resulted in a more favorable HDL2 to LDL cholesterol ratio (0.43 +/- 0.19 versus 0.39 +/- 0.18, p less than 0.01) and an apolipoprotein A-I to B ratio (3.0 +/- 1.4 versus 2.4 +/- 1.6, p less than 0.001) than did the sunflower oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Antioxidative effect of Assam Tea (Camellia sinesis Var. Assamica) extract on rice bran oil and its application in breakfast cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama-Ang, Niramon; Phawatwiangnak, Kamonyanun; Naruenartwongsakul, Srisuwan; Samakradhamrongthai, Rajnibhas

    2017-04-15

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the antioxidant effect of Assam tea extract (ATE) and whether it is fit to utilise ATE by fortification in rice bran breakfast cereal (RBC). The increasing ATE powder from 0.1 to 0.3mg/g affected to be decreased. The ATE powder at 0.3mg/g was proved to have decreased the hexanal content (0.21μg/ml) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (2.56μg/g) within 28days, and provided the highest antioxidant ability (EC50) (2481.44mg/kg). The fortified 0.3mg/g of ATE powder showed that increasing ATE significantly increased the total phenolic content and decreased TBARS and EC50 of breakfast cereal (ppurchase intention at 98.0% and 89.0%, respectively.

  4. Preparation of millet bran oil rich in sterol%富含甾醇小米谷糠油提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵陈勇; 王常青; 许洁; 王菲; 樊迎

    2011-01-01

    比较了相同提取条件下正己烷与异丙醇提取小米谷糠油的得率.结果发现:异丙醇提取的小米谷糠油得率比正己烷高4.83百分点,可以达到25.32%.异丙醇在不同提取条件下提取小米谷糠的正交试验表明:当提取温度70℃,提取时间4 h,提取4次时,小米谷糠油得率最高,为25.61%;当提取温度60℃,提取时间4 h,提取3次时,小米谷糠油中甾醇含量为1.394%,油得率为24.75%.%The oil yields of millet bran extracted with hexane and isopropanol in the same conditions were compared.The results showed that the oil yield of isopropanol extraction was 25.32%, which was 4.83% more than that of hexane.The orthogonal test showed that the highest oil yield was 25.61% under extraction conditions of 70 ℃, 4 h and extraction 4 times; and under extraction conditions of 60 ℃, 4 h and extraction 3 times, the sterol content and the oil yield reached 1.394% and 24.75% ,respectively.

  5. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent production of rice bran oil in Asia and the U.S. has resulted in large quantities of defatted rice bran as a low-value byproduct. Peptides from soy, milk, and other foods have been shown to have the potential hypocholesterolemic property and rice bran protein (RBP) may also contain bioact...

  6. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  7. Coconut oil on biochemical and morphological parameters in rats submitted to normolipidic and hyperlipidic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Oliveira Schumacher

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of replacing soybean oil with extra virgin coconut oil in normolipidic and hyperlipidic diets, on the lipid metabolism of Wistar rats. In the first stage of the experiment (30 days, 36 rats were divided into 2 groups and fed with a control or a hyperlipidic diet. Six animals from each group were then killed, and the remaining rats were redistributed into 4 new groups: 2 groups remained on the control and hyperlipidic diets, and in the diets of the other 2 groups, the soybean oil was replaced with coconut oil (30 days. At the end of the assay, the biological models were decapitated for blood collection and removal of organs and peritoneal fat. Although the diet intake differed among groups during both stages of the experiment, no differences were noted with regard to weight gain and peritoneal fat. Replacing soybean oil with coconut oil in the rat diet lowered triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein serum concentrations in both groups. Liver parameters, namely, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols, increased with the substitution of soybean oil by coconut oil in the normolipidic diet and decreased in the hyperlipidic diet. Thus, replacing soybean oil by coconut oil may improve serum and liver lipid levels in Wistar rats.

  8. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Kjetil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-β were determined by a Luminex™ assay system. Results Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1α and IL-13. Conclusions The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis.

  9. 不同煎炸食材对米糠油煎炸品质影响的研究%Effect of different food materials on the frying quality of rice bran oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹辉; 刘玉兰; 田瑜; 杨书平

    2014-01-01

    The effects of four typical frying food materials on the frying quality of rice bran oil during the intermittent frying were studied by determing the quality indexes of fring rice bran oil. The four frying ma-terials were starch-base food material ( potato chips) , high moisture content food material ( bean curd) , meat food material ( chicken wing ) and flour-base food material ( dough sticks ) , and the parameters used to assess the quality of frying rice bran oil were color, acid value, carbonyl value, fatty acid compo-sition, contents of trans fatty acids and vitamin E. The results showed that different frying food materials presented different levels of influences on the deterioration of frying rice bran oil because of different main components in the food materials. The increase sequences of acid value, carbonyl value and total content of trans fatty acids of frying rice bran oil were bean curd>chicken wing>dough sticks>potato chips, dough sticks>potato chips>bean curd>chicken wing and dough sticks>chicken wing>potato chips=bean curd respectively, while the decrease extent of vitamin E content was potato chips>dough sticks>chicken wing>bean curd.%利用米糠油对不同煎炸食材进行间歇性煎炸,通过对煎炸油色泽、酸值、羰基值、脂肪酸组成、反式脂肪酸含量、维生素E含量的检测分析,对比研究植物淀粉基食材(薯条)、高含水量食材(豆腐)、肉类食材(鸡翅)、面粉基食材(油条)4种代表性煎炸食材对煎炸油品质的影响。结果表明:不同煎炸食材因所含主要组分的不同,对煎炸油品质劣变呈现出不同程度的影响;煎炸油酸值增大程度依次为豆腐>鸡翅>油条>薯条;羰基值增大程度依次为油条>薯条>豆腐>鸡翅;总反式脂肪酸增大程度依次为油条>鸡翅>薯条=豆腐;维生素E含量降低程度依次为薯条>油条>鸡翅>豆腐。

  10. 脂肪酶催化米糠油水解反应的研究%Study of rice bran oil hydrolysis catalyzed by lipase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄甫; 王萌; 聂开立; 邓利; 王芳; 谭天伟

    2012-01-01

    研究了Candida sp.99-125脂肪酶催化米糠油水解反应,考察了米糠油水解反应过程中水油比、酶用量和反应温度对酶促油脂水解的影响,并且研究了添加剂Ca(OH)2对酶促油脂水解反应的影响.结果表明,最适合水解条件为水油比1.2、酶用量0.3%和反应温度40℃,反应48h后的水解率为90.6%.酶促油脂水解反应中添加油重2.6%的Ca(OH)2,反应24 h后的水解率为93.3%,反应产物中脂层成份单甘脂(MAG)、二甘酯(DAG)和三甘酯(TAG)的质量分数分别为0.7%、1.4%和4.6%,添加Ca(OH)2缩短了酶促水解反应时间,提高了酶促水解反应速率和水解率.%The enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran oil catalyzed by Candida sp. 99-125 lipase has been investigated. The effect of the ratio of water to oil, enzyme amount ( mass fraction to oil) and reaction temperature on the hydrolysis was studied. The optimal reaction conditions were found to be; ratio of water to oil of 1. 2, a lipase amount of 0. 3% ( mass fraction to oil) , and a reaction temperature of 40 ℃. A hydrolysis degree of 90. 6% was obtained under the optimal reaction conditions after 48 h. When 2. 6% Ca(0H)2(mass fraction to oil) was added, a hydrolysis degree of 93. 3% was obtained after 24 h. The glyceride components were found to be monoglyceride 0. 7% , diglyceride 1.4% and triglyceride 4. 6% . When Ca( OH)2 was added to the hydrolysis reaction, the reaction time was reduced and higher hydrolysis rates were obtained.

  11. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  12. Can rapeseed oil replace olive oil as part of a Mediterranean-style diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2014-12-14

    The present narrative review compares evidence from experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies of the health benefits of rapeseed oil (RO) (known as canola oil) and olive oil (OO) in order to assess whether rapeseed oil is suitable as a sustainable alternative to OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet in countries where olive trees do not grow. From epidemiological studies, the evidence for cardiovascular protection afforded by extra-virgin OO is 'convincing', and for cancers 'limited-suggestive', especially oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, but more studies are required in relation to cognitive impairment. Evidence for RO is limited to short-term studies on the biomarkers of risk factors for CVD. Any benefits of RO are likely to be due to α-linolenic acid; however, it is prone to oxidation during frying. We conclude that due to a lack of evidence from observational or intervention studies indicating that RO has comparable health benefits to extra-virgin OO, RO cannot currently be recommended as a suitable substitute for extra-virgin OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet.

  13. Nutritive value of linseed oil in poultry diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roveda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy content of the diets is the major factor that affect feed intake in poultry. Fats and oils are the most concentrated sources of energy, but also those from which the availability and, therefore, the metabolizable energy content show the greatest variation (Blanch et al., 1996. This variation is influenced by several factors as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ratio (Vilà et al., 1996a, Castrovilli et al., 1994 and percentage of free fatty acids (Vilà et al., 1996b. Another source of variation is the animal’s age:Wiseman and Salvador (1989 reported an improvement in the utilisation of dietary fats by broilers to adult birds...

  14. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  15. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics to discriminate between cold pressed rice bran oils produced from two different cultivars of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tossaton CHAROONRATANA; Thanapat SONGSAK; Apirak SAKUNPAK; Pathamaporn PATHOMPAK; Laksana CHAROENCHAI

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed liquid chromatography⁃mass spectrometry ( LC⁃MS) method for the analysis of cold pressed rice bran oil ( RBO) was established and used to discriminate between RBOs produced from two different cultivars of major Thai fragrant rice species. The cold pressed RBO was prepared using the screw com⁃pression method. The LC⁃MS data were preprocessed with MZmine 2�10 program before evaluating with princi⁃pal component analysis using SIMCA 13 software. The LC⁃MS method was able to detect and quantify several kinds of valuable constituents such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and γ⁃oryzanol. The chromatographic condition was feasible;short time for analysis and simple method were achieved. From score plot and loading plot of principle component analysis ( PCA) , two rice cultivar samples were clearly separated, and it was revealed that Khao⁃Hom⁃Pathum was more suitable than Khao⁃Hom⁃Mali for cold pressed RBO production since it contained high total γ⁃oryzanol and less saturated free fatty acids. As with the fixed price of all the rice brans, this infor⁃mation can be used in order to, if possible, preserve the price of rice brans from different cultivars.

  16. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  17. Preparation and surface active properties of a-acyloxysuccinic acid derivatives from malic acid and fatty acids of crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface active compounds were prepared from malic acid by esterification with acyl chloride (IIa-d, of [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and mixed fatty acids of rice bran oil (RBO (IIe], in the presence of pyridine as catalyst, forming (IIIa-e ,  which are  converted to anionic disodium salt (IVa-e . The prepared a-acyl-oxysuccinic acid derivatives (IIIa-e was oxypropenoxylated with various moles of propylene oxide (n= 2, 4, 6 and 8 to give (V-IXa-d . These compounds were converted to nonionic surfactants with two terminal amide oxime groups  (XV-XIXa-d as molecular aggregations and surface active agents in aqueous media. The structures were confirmed by micro analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties of the prepared compounds revealed excellent results.Se han preparado compuestos de tensión superficial a partir de ácido málico por esterificación con cloruro de acilo (IIa-d de [palmítico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y ácidos grasos mezclados de aceite de gérmen de arroz (RBO (IIe], en presencia de piridina como catalizador, formando (IIIa-e, los cuales son convertidos a sales disódicas aniónicas (IVa-e. El derivado del ácido a-acil-oxisuccínico preparado (IIIa-e fue oxipropenoxilado con varios moles de óxido de propileno (n=2, 4, 6 y 8 para dar (V-IXa-d. Estos compuestos fueron convertidos en tensioactivos no iónicos con dos grupos amida oxima terminal (XV-XIXa-d como agregaciones moleculares y agentes tensioactivos en medio acuoso. Las estructuras se confirmaron por microanálisis, IR y espectros de 1H NMR. Las propiedades tensioactivas de los compuestos preparados revelaron excelentes resultados.

  18. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  19. Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VB Fascina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO and tallow (T combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P<0.01, as SBO participation in the mixture increased. In experiment II, the different lipid ratios quadratically influenced (P<0.01 body weight and weight gain at 21 days of age, increasing up to the ratio of 65.87:34.13. Serum lipids linearly decreased (P<0.05 as SOB inclusion in the diet increased. It was concluded that AME and AMEn of SBO and T at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 were 7.882 and 7.542, 8.384 and 8.076, 8.701 and 8.385, 8.801 and 8.727, and 9.478 and 9.271 kcal/kg, respectively. The best performance with no detrimental effect on carcass yield was obtained with the mixture of 75% SBO with 25% T. The highest dietary soybean oil level reduced serum lipid levels of 21-day-old broilers.

  20. 自动电位滴定法测定米糠油酸值的研究%Detection of acid value of rice bran oil by automatic potentiometric titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛斌; 曹文明; 包杰; 陈纯; 金俊

    2014-01-01

    为了克服传统的人工指示剂滴定法在测定米糠油酸值过程中,米糠油本身的颜色和高含量的γ-谷维素对测定结果的严重干扰,采用自动电位滴定法,根据经典的酸碱滴定理论,采用二次作图法,在滴定的同时由联机电脑实时同步绘制酸碱滴定的pH-滴定体积曲线及其相应的一阶微分曲线,以这些曲线上游离脂肪酸发生中和反应引起的“pH突跃”为滴定终点的判定依据,建立米糠油酸值测定的自动电位滴定法。结果发现,自动电位滴定法能够准确区分游离脂肪酸和γ-谷维素各自的滴定终点,从而排除γ-谷维素对米糠油酸值测定的干扰。对比实验发现,除了米糠油外,自动电位滴定法对各类食用植物油酸值的测定结果与传统的人工指示剂滴定法的测定结果十分接近;但对于米糠油,人工指示剂滴定法的酸值(KOH)测定结果一般偏高0.3~1.0 mg/g。表明自动电位滴定法更能准确地测定米糠油的酸值。%In order to overcome the severe interferences of color and high contentγ-oryzanol in the de-tection of acid value of rice bran oil by traditional manual indicator titration method, according to the classical theory of acid base titration, using methods of automatic potentiometric titration and “second graph”, a detection method of the acid value of rice bran oil was established. Using this method, the pH-titration volume curve and corresponding first -order difference curve of acid base titration were drawn by computer real-timely and synchronously, then the “pH jump” in these curves, which was caused by the neutralization of free fatty acids, was taken as the foundation for judgment of titration end point. The results showed that the titration end points of free fatty acids and γ-oryzanol could be distin-guished correctly by automatic potentiometric titration method, therefore the interference of γ-oryzanol in the detection

  1. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  2. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  3. Camellia Oil-Enriched Diet Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2016-09-01

    Camellia oil is commonly used as an adjuvant in medicine. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine effects of camellia oil consumption on oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation, and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The study design was a randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Women with hypercholesterolemia (n = 50) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 25) was provided camellia oil-enriched diets and the control group (n = 25) was provided diets cooked with soybean oil three meals (45 mL oil) a day for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed before and the after intervention. Camellia oil consumption significantly decreased malondialdehyde (11.2%; P oil group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in oxidized LDL-C (8.7%; P oil consumption significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (12.3%; P oil-enriched diet could decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic women. Therefore, camellia oil consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  4. Effects of high-fat diets composed of different oils on adipokine production in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil are shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines. In this study, we compared high-fat diets composed of different dietary oils with various le...

  5. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  6. Implementing a ketogenic diet based on medium-chain triglyceride oil in pediatric patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebeling, L C; Lerner, E

    1995-06-01

    Traditionally, a ketogenic diet is given to drug-resistant children with epilepsy to improve seizure control. Inducing a ketogenic state in patients with cancer may be a useful adjunct to cancer treatment by affecting tumor glucose metabolism and growth while maintaining the patient's nutritional status. A ketogenic diet consisting of 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil, 20% protein, 10% carbohydrate, and 10% other dietary fats was provided to a select group of pediatric patients with advanced-stage cancer to test the effects of dietary-induced ketosis on tumor glucose metabolism. Issues of tolerance and compliance for patients consuming an oral diet (consisting of normal table foods and daily MCT oil "shakes") and for patients receiving an enteral formula are reviewed. Preliminary use of the MCT oil-based diet suggests a potential in pediatric patients with cancer.

  7. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( tallow, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  8. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oi

  9. The replacement of fish oil with refined coconut oil in the diet of large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Maxia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred rainbow trout (242.9 ± 6.9 g were randomly assigned to 12 fibreglass tanks (25 fish/tank. The fish were fed, for 231 days (feeding level: 0.74 % average bw, four experimental diets, containing increasing levels of coconut oil: diet A 0 %, diet B 6 %; diet C 12 % and diet D 13 %, as replacements of herring oil and cod liver oil. Weight gains of fish were > 3 g d-1 and FCR lower than 1.5, for all treatments. No significant difference was observed in the main car- cass traits and whole body composition, but whole fish energy content significantly increased in fish fed diet D (10.68 KJ g-1. Different dietary fatty acid profiles had significant effects on the rainbow trout muscle contents of C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, total n-3, and the main ratios: SFA/USFA; DHA/EPA; DHA/AA, n-3/n-6, but not on total fatty acids content of the muscle.

  10. Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil and obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; García-Ríos, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José

    2011-01-01

    After decades of epidemiological, clinical and experimental research, it has become clear that consumption of Mediterranean dietary patterns rich in olive oil has a profound influence on health outcomes, including obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus. Traditionally, many beneficial properties associated with this oil have been ascribed to its high oleic acid content. Olive oil, however, is a functional food that, besides having high-monounsaturated (MUFA) content, contains other minor components with biological properties. In this line, phenolic compounds have shown antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, prevent lipoperoxidation, induce favorable changes of lipid profile, improve endothelial function, and disclose antithrombotic properties. Research into the pharmacological properties of the minor components of olive oil is very active and could lead to the formulation of functional food and nutraceuticals. Although more data are mandatory the Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil does not contribute to obesity and appears to be a useful tool in the lifestyle management of the MetS. Moreover there is good scientific support for MUFA diets, especially those based on olive oil, as an alternative approach to low-fat diets for the medical nutritional therapy in diabetes. The objective of this review is to present evidence illustrating the relationship between Mediterranean diet, olive oil and metabolic diseases, including obesity, MetS and diabetes mellitus and to discuss potential mechanisms by which this food can help in disease prevention and treatment.

  11. Effect of low glycemic load diet with and without wheat bran on glucose control in gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A low-glycemic index diet is effective in blood glucose control of diabetic subjects, reduces insulin requirement in women with gestation diabetes mellitus (GDM and improves pregnancy outcomes when used from beginning of the second trimester. However there are limited reports to examine the effect of low glycemic load (LGL diet and fiber on blood glucose control and insulin requirement of women with GDM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of low glycemic load diet with and without fiber on reducing the number of women with GDM requiring insulin. Materials and Methods: All GDM women (n = 31 were randomly allocated to consume either a LGL diet with Fiber or LGL diet. Results: We found that 7 (38.9% of 18 women with GDM in Fiber group and 10 (76.9% in "Without Fiber" group required insulin treatment. Conclusion: The LGL diet with added fiber for women with GDM dramatically reduced the number needing for insulin treatment.

  12. Relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch of selected soft wheats grown in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate differences among chosen wheat varieties in their bran starch (the starch adherent to bran particles after a dry milling process) quantity, bran particle size, and milled bran thickness, and to investigate the relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch content. The neutral saccharide profile of the wheat bran was dominated by arabinose, xylose, and glucose, whereas mannose and galactose were present in small amounts. Bran thickness was found to have a positive correlation with bran starch content. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio showed positive correlations with percent large bran particles, and negative correlations with bran starch content. Bran characteristics can explain the variation seen in bran starch content and percent large bran particles of various wheat varieties. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio and bran thickness could both play roles in the mechanical properties of bran, and therefore change the percent of large bran particles produced during milling.

  13. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time.

  14. Millet and corn oil in sorghum-based diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.

  15. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  16. Supplementing oregano essential oil to boar diet with strengthened fish oil: Effects on semen antioxidant status and semen quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Duan, R J; Zhou, Y F; Wei, H K; Peng, J; Li, J L

    2017-02-22

    Previous research has shown benefits of dietary fish oil supplementation on semen quality of boars. However, little is known about how antioxidant protects lipid peroxidation on spermatozoa from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) addition. This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) supplementation on semen antioxidant status and semen quality in boars fed a diet enriched with fish oil. Thirty-four mature boars of proven fertility, received daily 2.5 kg basal diet top-dressed with 45 g soybean oil and 15 g fish oil to meet the n-3 PUFA requirement of spermatozoa, randomly allocated to one of four groups supplemented with 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) (control), or 250 or 500 or 750 mg OEO kg(-1) for 16 weeks. Semen was collected at weeks 0, 8, 12 and 16 for measurements of sperm production, motion characteristics, sperm α-tocopherol content, antioxidant enzyme activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and seminal total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Sperm production and motion characteristics were similar (p > .05) among groups throughout the experimental week 16, but increased (p oil has a positive effect on antioxidant capacity in boar when used fish oil.

  17. Avaliação nutricional de dietas contendo farelo de coco fornecido a coelhos destinados ao abate = Nutritional evaluation of diets containing coconut bran supplied to slaughter rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Aurea Vasconcelos de Haponik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a utilização do farelo de coco (FC na alimentação de coelhos destinados ao abate. No ensaio de desempenho utilizaram-se 60 coelhos com 43 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco tratamentos, sendo 12 repetições por tratamento e duração de 42 dias, com inclusão de FC nos níveis de 0; 6,25; 12,5; 18,75 e 25%. Para o ensaio de digestibilidade das dietas usou-se o DIC com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, tendo a duração de cinco dias. Observou-se, entre os tratamentos estudados, excluindo-se o nível zero, que não houve efeito significativo (p > 0,05, sobre as características de ganho de peso e ganho de peso diário. Houve efeito quadrático (p This work evaluated the use of coconut bran (CB in the feeding of slaughter rabbits. For the performance trial, 60 rabbits with 43 days of age were used, distributed in a CRD with 5 treatments, with 12 replications per treatment, lasting 42 days, with the inclusion of CB in the levels of 0, 6.25, 12.5, 18.75 and 25%. To test the digestibility of the diets used o CRD with five treatments and three replications during five days. In the performance test, there was no significant effect (p > 0.05 for the characteristics of weight gain, daily weight gain among the treatments, excluding the zero level. There was a quadratic effect (p < 0.05, among the treatments, excluding the zero level, for daily average intake and feed conversion. The average feed intake was different from the control (diets without CB in the levels of 18.75 and 25%. The CB showed high values for digestibility coefficients (DC of gross energy, crude protein and ether extract, an can be indicated in the diet until the 25% level in relation to food conversion and diets with increasing levels of CB. It has the benefit of improved DE; however, it presents reduction in the CDCP.

  18. Long-term consumption of fish oil-enriched diet impairs serotonin hypophagia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Regina L H; Andrade, Iracema S; Telles, Mônica M; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Casarini, Dulce E; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2010-10-01

    Hypothalamic serotonin inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure. High-fat feeding is obesogenic, but the role of polyunsaturated fats is not well understood. This study examined the influence of different high-PUFA diets on serotonin-induced hypophagia, hypothalamic serotonin turnover, and hypothalamic protein levels of serotonin transporter (ST), and SR-1B and SR-2C receptors. Male Wistar rats received for 9 weeks from weaning a diet high in either soy oil or fish oil or low fat (control diet). Throughout 9 weeks, daily intake of fat diets decreased such that energy intake was similar to that of the control diet. However, the fish group developed heavier retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots. After 12 h of either 200 or 300 μg intracerebroventricular serotonin, food intake was significantly inhibited in control group (21-25%) and soy group (37-39%) but not in the fish group. Serotonin turnover was significantly lower in the fish group than in both the control group (-13%) and the soy group (-18%). SR-2C levels of fish group were lower than those of control group (50%, P = 0.02) and soy group (37%, P = 0.09). ST levels tended to decrease in the fish group in comparison to the control group (16%, P = 0.339) and the soy group (21%, P = 0.161). Thus, unlike the soy-oil diet, the fish-oil diet decreased hypothalamic serotonin turnover and SR-2C levels and abolished serotonin-induced hypophagia. Fish-diet rats were potentially hypophagic, suggesting that, at least up to this point in its course, the serotonergic impairment was either compensated by other factors or not of a sufficient extent to affect feeding. That fat pad weight increased in the absence of hyperphagia indicates that energy expenditure was affected by the serotonergic hypofunction.

  19. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W; Wirth, M; Rennert, B

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one-summer-old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn-germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in the basal diet to 31.9% in the test diets, whereas the gross energy level increased from 16.3 to 18.9 MJ/kg. The diets were fed over a period of 84 feeding days and water temperature was 23 degrees C. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein utilization were superior in all groups of carp which received the fat-enriched high energy diets. Considering the gain in % of the initial weight, the control fish reached less than 400% whereas all carp in the test groups, which consumed the oil-enriched diets, reached 455 to 485%. A significant influence of the kind of lipid on growth and feed conversion could not be recognized. The lipid-enriched diets with higher energy content resulted in increased fat levels of the carp. Fatty acid composition of the carp reflected that of the diets. In the control group and the fish oil group the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were especially high corresponding to the fatty acid profile of the diets. In carp fed the diets supplied with corn-germ oil and sunflower oil linoleic acid was dominant whereas the carp fed the rapeseed diet were characterized by a high level of oleic acid.

  20. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsdottir, I.; Tomasson, H.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Gisladottir, E.; Kiely, M.; Parra, M.D.; Bandarra, N.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Martinez, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were randomi

  1. Obese Mice Fed a Diet Supplemented with Enzyme-Treated Wheat Bran Display Marked Shifts in the Liver Metabolome Concurrent with Altered Gut Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    ) associated with specific microbes may be involved. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize ETWB-driven shifts in the cecal microbiome and to identify correlates between microbial changes and diet-related differences in liver metabolism in diet-induced obese mice that typically display...... acid; and increased liver and plasma I3-hydroxybutyrate. Liver transcriptomics revealed key metabolic pathways affected by ETWB, especially those related to lipid metabolism and some fed- or fasting-regulated genes. Conclusions: Together, these changes indicate that dietary fibers such as ETWB regulate...... hepatic metabolism concurrently with specific gut bacteria community shifts in C57BL/6J mice. It is proposed that these changes may elicit gut-derived signals that reach the liver via enterohepatic circulation, ultimately affecting host liver metabolism in a manner that mimics, in part, the fasting state....

  2. Dietary rice bran promotes resistance to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ajay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary rice bran consists of many bioactive components with disease fighting properties; including the capacity to modulate the gut microbiota. Studies point to the important roles of the gut microbiota and the mucosal epithelium in the establishment of protection against enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella. The ability of rice bran to reduce the susceptibility of mice to a Salmonella infection has not been previously investigated. Therefore, we hypothesized that the incorporation of rice bran into the diet would inhibit the colonization of Salmonella in mice through the induction of protective mucosal responses. Results Mice were fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% rice bran for one week prior to being orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that mice consuming the 10 and 20% rice bran diets exhibited a reduction in Salmonella fecal shedding for up to nine days post-infection as compared to control diet fed animals (p Lactobacillus spp. in rice bran fed mice (p Salmonella entry into mouse small intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusions Increasing rice bran consumption represents a novel dietary means for reducing susceptibility to enteric infection with Salmonella and potentially via induction of native Lactobacillus spp.

  3. Consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets alters biochemical indices in rats

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    Ayodeji Osmund Falade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is thermally oxidized to increase its palatability and this has been a usual practice in most homes. This study sought to assess the biochemical responses of rats to thermally oxidized palm oil diets. Therefore, Wistar strain albino rats (Rattus norveigicus were fed with fresh palm oil (control and thermally oxidized palm oil (test groups diets and water ad libitum for 30 days. Then, the malondialdehyde (MDA contents and total protein of the plasma and liver were determined. Subsequently, the plasma liver function markers [alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB and total bilirubin (TBIL ] and the lipid profile [triglyceride (TRIG, total cholesterol (T-CHOL, high density lipoprotein (HDL-CHOL and low density lipoprotein (LDL-CHOL ] were assayed. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the plasma and liver total protein, ALB, TRIG and HDL-CHOL of the test groups when compared with the control. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05 in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP, TBIL, T-CHOL, LDL-CHOL and plasma/liver MDA of the test groups when compared with the control. These effects were most pronounced in rats fed with 20 min-thermally oxidized palm oil diet. Hence, consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets had deleterious effects on biochemical indices in rats. Therefore, cooking with and/or consumption of palm oil subjected to heat treatment for several long periods of time should be discouraged in our homes as this might have deleterious effects on human health.

  4. Efficiency of Barley Bran and Oat Bran in Ameliorating Blood Lipid Profile and the Adverse Histological Changes in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

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    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of oat bran and barley bran in lowering the induced hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in blood of male Albino rats (Rattus rattus was studied. Twenty rats were divided into four groups each consisted of five rats and fed the specified test diets for eight weeks. The first group (G1 is the negative group which was fed basal diet, the second group (G2 was fed 1.0% cholesterol, was the third group (G3 fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% oats bran, and the fourth group (G4 was fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% barley bran. Feeding rats on 1% cholesterol significantly increased serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride and decreased serum high density lipoprotein. Furthermore, enzyme activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase was increased, and lipid peroxide was increased, whereas catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were decreased. Kidney functions parameters in the cholesterol supplemented group were elevated compared with the negative control. In addition, histological alteration in kidney, liver, heart, and testes was observed, compared with the negative control. Hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with oat bran and barley bran showed significant decrease in lipid parameters, significant increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, improved antioxidant enzyme, and improved histopathology of kidney, liver, heart, and testes. In conclusion, both oat bran and barley bran had protective effects against induced hyperlipidemia and improved histological alterations. Oat bran appeared more efficient than barley bran in lowering the lipid profile levels in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  5. Hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of jam enriched with microencapsulated fish oil decreases insulin resistance

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    Anna Paula Soares de Oliveira Carvalho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is related to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil help in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and are natural bindings of PPARy2. Objective: To evaluate the impact of hypocaloric diet associated with microencapsulated fish oil supplementation in women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial with adult women who presented metabolic syndrome (n = 30 for 90 days. The volunteers were divided into two groups: placebo group (n = 15 and microencapsulated fish oil group (n = 15 (3 g/day of microencapsulated fish oil containing 0.41 g/day of eico-sapentaenoic acid and decosahexaneoic acid. Anthropometric, body composition, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. We considered p < 0.05 as significant values. Results: The comparison between groups revealed a significant reduction of blood glucose, insulinemia and the homeostasis model assessment in the microencapsulated fish oil group after 90 days, as opposed to the placebo group. We also observed reduction of the systolic arterial pressure in the microencapsulated fish oil group. Conclusion: A hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of microencapsulated fish oil was effective in reducing blood glucose, insulinemia and insulin resistance in women with MS.

  6. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Fat Metabolites of Broilers Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

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    Mohammad EL-QUB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.

  7. Soybean oil and beef tallow in dry extruded diets for adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Fábio Ritter; Trevizan, Luciano; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Kessler, Alexandre de Mello

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of two different fat sources (soybean oil (SO) and beef tallow (BT)) in dry extruded dog diets on the intake of food and metabolizable energy (ME), on faecal characteristics and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy. Ten adult dogs of different breeds were used in a Latin square design. Five experimental diets were designed from a basal diet. A Control diet was coated with 1% SO and four other diets were obtained by coating the basal diet with 6.5% and 13% of SO or BT. The Control, 6.5% and 13% coated diets contained approximately 8.5%, 15% and 20% fat, respectively. The dogs had similar dry matter (DM) intakes and, consequently, higher ME intakes with an increased fat content for both sources (p < 0.05). Fat digestibility was highest for Diet SO13% (p < 0.05). The ATTD of DM and organic matter was highest (p < 0.05) for Diets SO13% and BT13%. Fat coating improved the faecal score, especially for Diet BT13%. The dietary ratios of protein:fat:carbohydrate [% of ME] were close to AAFCO's estimates. For SO a higher ATTD (99.1%) and ME content (38.88 MJ/kg) was estimated than for BT (ATTD 92.9% and 36.37 MJ ME/kg). Both SO and BT can comprise up to 13% of the diet. However, SO was more susceptible to leaking from the kibbles with the coating method applied.

  8. Effect of sunflower-seed oil or linseed oil on milk fatty acid secretion and lipogenic gene expression in goats fed hay-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Leroux, Christine; Faulconnier, Yannick; Durand, Denys; Shingfield, Kevin J; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-05-01

    Plant oils in the diet are known to alter milk fat composition owing to changes in the supply of fatty acid precursors and/or activity of lipogenic enzymes in the mammary gland. Thirteen mid-lactating Alpine goats were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods to evaluate possible mechanisms regulating milk fat synthesis and fatty acid composition on grass hay-based diets containing none (H) or 55 g/kg diet dry matter of sunflower-seed oil (HSO) or linseed oil (HLO). Inclusion of oils in the diet had no effect on milk yield but enhanced (Pdiet enhance milk fat synthesis, alter milk fatty acid composition and specifically inhibit mammary SCD activity in the goat. Furthermore, the results suggest that the regulation of mammary lipogenesis in response to plant oils appears related to factors other than altered mammary gene expression or potential lipogenic enzyme activity.

  9. Brans-Dicke geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R

    2008-01-01

    We reveal the non-metric geometry underlying omega-->0 Brans-Dicke theory by unifying the metric and scalar field into a single geometric structure. Taking this structure seriously as the geometry to which matter universally couples, we show that the theory is fully consistent with solar system tests. This is in striking constrast with the standard metric coupling, which grossly violates post-Newtonian experimental constraints.

  10. Brans-Dicke geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Raffaele [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: raffaele.punzi@desy.de; Schuller, Frederic P. [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14467 Potsdam (Germany)], E-mail: fps@aei.mpg.de; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R. [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: mattias.wohlfarth@desy.de

    2008-12-11

    We reveal the non-metric geometry underlying {omega}{yields}0 Brans-Dicke theory by unifying the metric and scalar field into a single geometric structure. Taking this structure seriously as the geometry to which matter universally couples, we show that the theory is fully consistent with solar system tests. This is in striking contrast with the standard metric coupling, which grossly violates post-Newtonian experimental constraints.

  11. The effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats receiving a diet containing coconut oil or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M

    1994-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats that received either a diet with coconut oil and safflower oil (86:14, w/w) or a diet with fish oil and safflower oil (91:9, w/w) was investigated. Zinc deficiency caused in the rats fed both types of dietary fat an increase in the amounts of total phospholipids and individual phospholipid classes in erythrocyte membranes. In the rats fed the coconut oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) in phosphatidylcholine (PC), diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and in total erythrocyte membrane fatty acids. In contrast, in the rats fed the fish oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid only in PC, but not in the other phospholipids. However, in these rats, changes in the ratio between eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) and the n-3 fatty acids with 20 and 22 carbon atoms were observed in PC, diacyl PE and plasmalogen PE. The most pronounced changes in fatty acid composition due to zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of fat occurred in PC. There was a relationship between the changes in the composition of plasma total fatty acids and the changes in fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane PC caused by zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of dietary fat. The amount of cholesterol was similar in all treatment groups. However, zinc-deficient rats fed the coconut oil diet-but not those fed the fish oil diet-had an increased ratio between total phospholipids and cholesterol. Thus, the study shows that the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids is to some degree similar for rats fed a coconut oil diet and rats fed a fish oil diet, and to some degree different.

  12. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

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    Rasha Hammamieh

    Full Text Available The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD and standard lab diet (SD were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40% encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the

  14. Comparative effects in rats of intact wheat bran and two wheat bran fractions on the disposition of the mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R., E-mail: l.ferguson@auckland.ac.nz [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Harris, Philip J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Kestell, Philip [Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Zhu, Shuotun [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Munday, Rex; Munday, Christine M. [Agresearch, Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2011-11-01

    Wheat bran protects against mutations and cancer, but contains different plant cell types that are likely to have different protective effects. We previously described the production and chemical characterisation of an aleurone-rich fraction (ARF) and a pericarp-rich fraction (PRF) from wheat grain. We compared these with whole bran (WB), fed to rats as 10% of a high fat AIN-76 diet. All bran-supplemented diets increased faecal bulk, in the order PRF > WB > ARF. PRF increased the activity of NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase only in the forestomach, whereas ARF and WB enhanced levels of glutathione S-transferase in the duodenum. ARF but not PRF was digested and fermented, and also encouraged bacterial growth. Rats were gavaged with the radioactive mutagen {sup 14}C-labelled IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), and effects of the brans on plasma radioactivity measured. Compared with the control diet, all bran-supplemented diets reduced the concentration of radioactivity in plasma, in the order ARF > PRF > WB. All brans increased faecal elimination of radioactivity, but only ARF and PRF enhanced urinary radioactivity. These data suggest that wheat bran may reduce mutation and cancers through direct adsorption and enhanced elimination of a dietary mutagen and/or its metabolites, and that wheat bran enriched in pericarp or aleurone cell walls may exert protective effects through different mechanisms.

  15. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  16. Effect of linseed oil and macadamia oil on metabolic changes induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Helenton C; Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Cararra, Marcia A; Marques, Any de Castro R; Schamber, Christiano R; Curi, Rui; Bazotte, Roberto B

    2014-06-01

    The effects of linseed oil (LO) and macadamia oil (MO) on the metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acid were investigated. For the purpose of this study, the vegetable oil present in the HFD, i.e. soybean oil (SO) was replaced with LO (HFD-LO) or MO (HFD-MO). For comparative purposes, a group was included, which received a normal fat diet (NFD). Male Swiss mice (6-week old) were used. After 14 days under the dietary conditions, the mice were fasted for 18 h, and experiments were then performed. The HFD-SO, HFD-LO and HFD-MO groups showed higher glycaemia (p fat weights were higher (p < 0.05) in the HFD-SO and HFD-MO groups as compared with the NFD group. However, there was no significant difference in these parameters between the NFD and HFD-LO groups. Thus, the protective role of LO on lipid accumulation induced by an HFD rich in saturated fatty acid is potentially mediated by the high content of ɷ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in LO.

  17. Zinc deficiency and the activities of lipoprotein lipase in plasma and tissues of rats force-fed diets with coconut oil or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, S I; Eder, K; Kettler, A; Kirchgessner, M

    2000-03-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of zinc deficiency on the activities of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and tissues of rats fed diets containing either coconut oil or fish oil as dietary fat, using a bifactorial experimental design. To ensure an adequate food intake, all the rats were force-fed by gastric tube. Experimental diets contained either 0.8 mg zinc/kg (zinc-deficient diets) or 40 mg zinc/kg (zinc-adequate diets). The effects of zinc deficiency on the activities of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and postprandial triglyceride concentrations and distribution of apolipoproteins in serum lipoproteins depended on the type of dietary fat. Zinc-deficient rats fed the coconut oil diet exhibited a reduced activity of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and adipose tissue, markedly increased concentrations of triglycerides in serum, and a markedly reduced content of apolipoprotein C in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins compared with zinc-adequate rats fed coconut oil. By contrast, zinc-deficient rats fed the fish oil diet did not exhibit reduced activities of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and adipose tissue and increased concentrations of serum lipids compared with zinc-adequate rats fed the fish oil diet. This study suggests that a reduced activity of lipoprotein lipase might contribute to increased postprandial concentrations of serum triglycerides observed in zinc-deficient animals. However, it also demonstrates that the effects of zinc deficiency on lipoprotein metabolism are influenced by dietary fatty acids.

  18. Chemical composition and effects of micronized corn bran on iron bioavailability in rats

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    Gilson Irineu de Oliveira Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The degermination of corn grains by dry milling generates 5% of a fibrous residue. After segregation and micronization, corn bran becomes a potential source of dietary fiber consumption. However, its effect on iron bioavailability has not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition of corn bran and its effects on iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: cellulose (control and corn bran (experimental. The bran had high content of total dietary fiber, especially the insoluble fraction, and low phytate content. Hemoglobin uptake did not differ between groups at the end of repletion period, and the iron relative bioavailability value of the corn bran diet was 104% in comparison to that of the control group. The product evaluated proved to be a potential source of dietary fiber and it showed no negative effects on iron bioavailability.

  19. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis.

  20. Glycerin and essential oils in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance and apparent digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrayny Galoro da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the effect of partial replacing corn by glycerin and essential oils addition in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot on feed intake, animal performance and three markers were assessed to estimate apparent digestibility. Thirty bulls with average weight 400 ± 34.1 kg and 22 ± 2 months old were housed in collective pens (10 x 20 m2 for 63 days. The bulls were randomly assigned to 3 diets (10 bulls per treatment: CON – Control (without glycerin or Essential® oils; GLY – Glycerin (15% on dry matter - DM; and GEO – Glycerin (15% on DM and Essential® oils (3 g animal day-1. Three different markers were used to estimate apparent digestibility in the diets: indigestible dry matter –iDM; indigestible neutral detergent fiber – iNDF; and purified lignin – LIPE®. Feed efficiency and animal performance were not affected by the corn partial replacing by glycerin. No effects were found in partial corn replacing by glycerin and Essential® oils addition in the diets on the fecal output, crude protein and ether extract digestibility among the diets. The DM and OM apparent digestibility were higher for bulls fed with glycerin and Essential® oils. The CHO digestibility was higher for CON diet. The markers iDM, iNDF and LIPE® were similarly to estimate apparent digestibility to all nutrients in the diets.

  1. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Alink, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of r

  2. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carrión

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes.

  3. Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige

    2002-01-01

    The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.

  4. Fatty Acid Profile of Cheese from Dairy Goats Fed a Diet Enriched with Castor, Sesame and Faveleira Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertha Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor, the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p ≥ 0.05 but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA - expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  5. Fatty Acid Digestion and Deposition in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Either Native or Randomized Palm Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Lobee, H.W.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that randomization of palm oil would increase its digestibility, especially that of its palmitic acid (C16:0) component, with subsequent changes in the fatty acid composition in body tissues. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing either native or randomized palm oil. D

  6. Effect of plant oils in the diet on performance and milk fatty acid composition in goats fed diets based on grass hay or maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Shingfield, Kevin J; Rouel, Jacques; Ferlay, Anne; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Based on the potential benefits to long-term human health there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant milk. The impact of plant oil supplements to diets containing different forages on caprine milk fatty acid composition was examined in two experiments using twenty-seven Alpine goats in replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares with 28 d experimental periods. Treatments comprised of no oil (control) or 130 g/d of sunflower-seed oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) supplements added to diets based on grass hay (H; experiment 1) or maize silage (M; experiment 2). Milk fat content was enhanced (Pdiets, resulting in 17, 15 and 14% increases in milk fat secretion, respectively. For both experiments, plant oils decreased (Pdiet. In conclusion, plant oils represent an effective strategy for altering the fatty acid composition of caprine milk, with evidence that the basal diet is an important determinant of ruminal unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in the goat.

  7. Effects of feeding fish oil on the properties of lipoproteins isolated from rhesus monkeys consuming an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, P A; Mazzone, T; Wissler, R W; Vahed, S; Rangnekar, V; Lukens, J; Vesselinovitch, D; Getz, G S

    1989-04-01

    This study examined plasma lipids and lipoproteins of rhesus monkeys fed fish oil incorporated into a highly atherogenic diet containing saturated fat and cholesterol. The animals were fed diets containing 2% cholesterol and either 25% coconut oil (group I), 25% fish oil/coconut oil (1:1; group II), or 25% fish oil/coconut oil (3:1; group III) for 12 months (n = 8/group). Adding menhaden fish oil to the diet increased plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and decreased plasma linoleic acid in animals fed the fish oil containing diets. Plasma concentrations of all lipoprotein fractions were decreased in the fish oil groups. VLDL isolated from group I animals exhibited beta-mobility on agarose gels but the VLDL from groups II and III animals did not. The group I VLDL was more highly enriched in cholesteryl ester than was VLDL from groups II and III. Group I LDL had a small but significant increase in cholesteryl ester content compared to group III LDL. No differences in HDL composition were observed in the 3 groups. At least 6 times less apo E was recovered in VLDL, IDL, and LDL from group III animals than from group I animals. Assuming 1 molecule of apo B per lipoprotein particle, there were 50% fewer VLDL, IDL, and LDL particles in group III than in group I animals. Group III also had significantly lower molar ratios of apo E/apo B in VLDL, IDL, and LDL than did group I animals. When VLDL from all 3 groups were incubated with J774 macrophages at equal protein concentrations, only the VLDL from the group I animals stimulated cholesterol esterification. Thus, introducing fish oil into an atherogenic diet reduced the number of VLDL, IDL and LDL particles in plasma by as much as 50%, reduced the cholesteryl ester content of the circulating lipoprotein, and reduced the ability of the VLDL to stimulate cholesterol esterification in macrophages.

  8. DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  9. Peripheral nerve metabolism and zinc levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Effect of diets high in fish and corn oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R. (Pennsylvania College of Podiatric Medicine, Philadelphia (United States))

    1991-03-15

    This study was designed to assess the effects of diets high in fish and corn oil on peripheral nerve metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A type I diabetic state was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of STZ. Animals were divided into three dietary groups; normal rat chow, high corn oil diet and high fish oil diet. After 4 weeks animals were analyzed for nerve conduction velocity, bled and then sacrificed. Sciatic nerves were removed, processed and several biochemical parameters determined. Plasma zinc levels were elevated in the STZ normal chow group compared to non-diabetic controls. Both corn oil and fish oil diets tended to eliminate the rise in plasma zinc. Differences in subcellular distribution of zinc in sciatic nerves were also observed. Normal chow STZ animals displayed a 20% decrease in nerve conduction velocity compared to control. Dietary supplementation with either fish or corn oil seemed to ameliorate these effects. Biochemical analysis of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase and protein kinase C revealed a decrease in activity in normal chow animals compared to control groups. Again, dietary intervention with either fish or corn oil seemed to return these activities back to normal. The results suggest a link between zinc metabolism and peripheral nerve metabolism which can be modified by dietary intervention.

  10. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  11. Effects of Fish Oil Diet and Age on the Fatty Acid Composition and the Endogenous Lipase Activity in Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Jin, Z; Wada, O

    2000-01-01

    The influences of a fish oil diet and aging on the fatty acid composition in mouse brain, and the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from brain membranes by endogenous lipase were studied. The changes in brain fatty acid composition with aging were determined in 5-weeks, 5-months and 19-months old mice fed on a commercial chow. Mice of different ages were also fed a fish oil or lard diet for 30 days, and the influence of the diets on brain fatty acid composition and endogenous lipase activity was analyzed. In aged mice fed on a commercial chow brain arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (%) decreased significantly, whereas blood arachidonic acid (%) increased and docosahexaenoic acid (%) did not change. The percentages of brain docosahexaenoic acid were significantly higher but those of arachidonic acid were lower in the fish oil diet group than in the lard diet group. However, there were no significant differences in the endogenous lipase activity between the different age or dietary groups. The release of arachidonic acid showed a tendency to decrease and docosahexaenoic acid to increase in mice fed on the fish oil diet. These results suggest that dietary lipids affect the percentages of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids which are released by the endogenous lipase in brain although the decreases in brain polyunsaturated fatty acid content with aging are not due to the enzyme activation, and dietary lipids do not influence the enzyme activity.

  12. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    - high fat diet that is thought to contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome - a condition that is strongly associated with diabetes, obesity and heart failure. Fish oil and TTA are known to have beneficial effects for the fatty acid metabolism and have been shown to alleviate some...... of the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. To date very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these beneficial effects and the potential pitfalls of the consumption of those two compounds. Only studies of each compound separately and using only small scale molecular biology approaches have been...... carried out. The results of this work provide an excellent starting point for further studies that will help to understand the metabolic effects of fish oil and TTA and will hopefully help to design dietary programs directed towards reduction of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated diseases....

  13. Enriching the diet with menhaden oil improves peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Obrosov, Alexander; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease and other morbidities. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of supplementing their diet with 25% menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Both prevention and intervention protocols were used. Endpoints included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal and mechanical sensitivity, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and hindpaw. Diabetic neuropathy as evaluated by the stated endpoints was found to be progressive. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels. Diabetic rats at 16-wk duration were thermal hypoalgesic and had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and skin were impaired. These endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil treatment following the prevention or intervention protocol. We found that supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil improved a variety of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy. These results suggest that enriching the diet with n-3 fatty acids may be a good treatment strategy for diabetic neuropathy.

  14. Effect of an avocado oil-enhanced diet (Persea americana on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Del Toro-Equihua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However, there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups. Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group: the control group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference was considered when p < 0.05. Rats that were given diets with 10% and 20% avocado oil showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively. Similar insulin resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p = 0.85. Addition of 5–30% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 5–20% avocado oil.

  15. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  16. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Thomas R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4 signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Results Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005, epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005, fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P Conclusion Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice.

  17. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahim Abubakr

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1 control diet (CD, (2 80% decanter cake diet (DCD, (3 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD and (4 CD plus 5% palm oil (PO supplemented diet (CPOD. After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD, infraspinatus (IS and biceps femoris (BF were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05 concentration of lauric acid (C12:0 than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0 and stearic acid (C18:0 were lower (P<0.05 and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6 was higher (P<0.05 in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat.

  18. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat.

  19. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  20. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  1. Simultaneous intake of oat bran and atorvastatin reduces their efficacy to lower lipid levels and atherosclerosis in LDLr-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone R B M; Rompelberg, Cathy J M; Andersson, Kristina E; Klungel, Olaf H; Hellstrand, Per; Oste, Rickard; van Kranen, Henk; Garssen, Johan

    2011-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of separate and simultaneous dietary intake of atorvastatin (ATO) and the soluble fiber oat bran on serum and hepatic lipid levels and the degree of atherosclerosis. Ninety female LDL-receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice were fed a Western-type diet containing either low dose (0.0025%), high dose (0.01%) or no ATO, with or without oat bran (27%) (n=15 per group) for 16 weeks. Both ATO and oat bran were effective in reducing serum total cholesterol levels (low ATO: -5.48, high ATO: -9.12, oat bran: -3.82 mmol/l, compared to control (no ATO/no oat bran), all pdietary fiber, and on the relative timing of intake of the statin and the dietary fiber. Future studies should focus on these aspects to provide further insight into the exact mechanism of this food-drug interaction.

  2. A high-fish-oil diet prevents adiposity and modulates white adipose tissue inflammation pathways in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Fish oil improves obesity and its comorbidities, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We evaluate the effects of a diet rich in fish oil in white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation pathways, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). To achieve our aims, four groups of male C57BL/6 mice were fed different diets: standard chow diet (SC; 10% energy from fat), SC+fish oil diet (SC-FO; 10% energy from fat), high-fat lard diet (HF-L; 50% energy from lard) and HF fish oil diet (HF-FO; 50% energy from fish oil). We evaluated body mass, epididymal fat pad mass, food intake and glucose tolerance. In WAT, we assessed adipocyte hypertrophy, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 immunofluorescence, and gene and protein expression of insulin signaling, inflammation, MAPKs, RAS, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In relation to the results, the HF-L group, as expected, showed elevated body mass and adiposity, glucose intolerance and hypertrophied adipocytes. In WAT, we found a defect in insulin signaling, infiltration of macrophages and inflammatory markers with the associated activation of MAPKs and local RAS. On the contrary, the HF-FO group did not present increased body mass, adiposity or glucose intolerance. In this group, insulin signaling, macrophage infiltration and inflammation were reduced in WAT in comparison with the HF-L group. We also observed decreases of MAPKs and local RAS and elevation of PPAR and AMPK. In summary, fish oil activates PPAR (the three isoforms) and AMPK, decreases WAT insulin resistance and inflammation, and inhibits MAPK and RAS pathways activation.

  3. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, E.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jascolka, T.L. [Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peluzio, M.C.G. [Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Alvarez-Leite, J.I. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-05-11

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr{sup −/−}, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  4. High-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil affect differently pancreas function of young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, C A S; Carlos, A S; de Sousa Dos Santos, A; de Moura, E G; Nascimento-Saba, C C A

    2013-09-01

    The excessive fat intake generally might induce obesity and metabolic disturbances. Thus, the goal of the study was to assess the role of high-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil on intra-abdominal adiposity and pancreatic morphology and function of young rats. After weaning, rats were fed with a control diet (7S) or a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old, when they were sacrificed. Food intake (g/day), body mass and length, retroperitoneal and epididymal fat mass, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and area of pancreatic islets were assessed. The results were considered different with a significant level of pfat mass. The 19C group showed higher HOMA-IR (+43% and +78%) and HOMA-β (+40% and +59%) than 19S and 7S groups, respectively. Both 19S and 19C groups showed lower pancreatic islets area in relation to 7S group. Meantime, 19C presented lower percentage of pancreatic islets area in comparison to 19S (-41%) and 7S group (-70%, poil, the high fat diet promoted development of the obesity. Comparing 19C and 19S groups, the higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, present in the canola oil were worse than higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, present in the soybean oil.

  5. Steatosis recovery after treatment with a balanced sunflower or olive oil-based diet: Involvement of perisinusoidal stellate cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raquel Hernández; Esther Martínez-Lara; Ana Ca(n)uelo; Ma Luisa del Moral; Santos Blanco; Eva Siles; Ana Jiménez; Juan (A)ngel Pedrosa; Ma (A)ngeles Peinado

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the relationship between perisinusoidal stellate cell (PSC) activation and the dietary fat quantity and composition in the treatment of hepatic steatosis.METHODS: Using an experimental rat model of steatosis based on the intake of a hyperlipidic diet (14% fat as olive oil or sunflower oil, HL-O and HL-S, respectively), we analyzed the liver's capability of recovery after the treatment with a normal-lipidic diet (5% fat as olive oil or sunflower oil, NL-O and NL-S, respectively) by immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in PSCs, collagen quantification and serum aminotransferase determination.RESULTS: The fatty infiltration in the steatotic livers decreased after the treatment with both NL diets, indicating liver recovery. This decrease was accompanied with a lower collagen deposition and aminotransferase level as well as changes in the PSC population that increased the GFAP expression. The above-mentioned effects were more pronounced in animals fed on NL-O based diet. CONCLUSION: Treatment with a balanced dietenriched in olive oil contributes to the liver recovery from a stea totic process. The PSC phenotype is a marker of this hepatic-recovery model.

  6. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.

  7. Lovelock-Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, David Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    According to Lovelock's theorem, the Hilbert-Einstein and the Lovelock actions are indistinguishable from their field equations. However, they have different scalar-tensor counterparts, which correspond to the Brans-Dicke and the \\emph{Lovelock-Brans-Dicke} (LBD) gravities, respectively. In this paper the LBD model of alternative gravity with the Lagrangian density $\\mathscr{L}_{\\text{LBD}}=\\frac{1}{16\\pi}\\left[\\phi\\left(R+\\frac{a}{\\sqrt{-g}}{}^*RR + b\\mathcal{G}\\right)-\\frac{\\omega_{\\text L}}{\\phi}\

  8. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-10-01

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  9. Refino de óleo de farelo de arroz (Oryza sativa L. em condições brandas para preservação do γ-orizanol Refining of rice bran oil (Oryza sativa L. to preserve γ-orizanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Paucar-Menacho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O γ-orizanol é um antioxidante presente no óleo de farelo de arroz, mas ausente em outros óleos vegetais, ao qual têm sido atribuídos efeitos antioxidante e hipocolesterolêmico. O conteúdo de γ-orizanol no óleo de farelo de arroz bruto varia entre 1-2%, mas durante a etapa de neutralização do refino químico, este composto fica retido na borra. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo propor uma técnica alternativa de refino físico em condições brandas para o óleo de farelo de arroz com a finalidade de preservar o γ-orizanol. Utilizou-se farelo de arroz inativado e extrusado obtido a partir do processo de produção do arroz parboilizado, sendo o óleo bruto (Oryza sativa extraído pelo método de expeller. O processo de refino do óleo bruto consistiu nas etapas de degomagem ácida (com H3PO4 85%, centrifugação, clarificação, desodorização a 180 ºC e winterização. Foram realizadas análises para caracterização e comparação do óleo bruto e refinado, seguindo metodologias oficiais da AOCS. Concluiu-se que o processo de refino físico preservou 97% do γ-orizanol, o qual potencializou a estabilidade oxidativa do óleo refinado pelo método alternativo, que apresentou uma melhoria de 33% (13,3 horas a 110 ºC do período de indução da oxidação em relação ao óleo comercial.γ-orizanol is an antioxidant present in rice bran oil, but absent in other vegetable oils, which were attributed to antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effects. The content of γ-orizanol in crude rice bran oil varies between 1-2%, but during neutralization in chemical refining this substance is transferred to soapstock. The aim of this research is to study an alternative technique of physical refining in light conditions with the purpose of preserving γ-orizanol. Inativacted and extrused rice bran obtained by the production of parboilizated rice was used to extract crude rice bran oil (Oryza sativa by the expeller method. The process of

  10. Effects of Maternal Isocaloric Diet Containing Different Amounts of Soy Oil and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Weight, Serum Glucose, and Lipid Profile of Female Mice Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Izadi, Pantea; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Shafieineek, Leila; Tohidinik, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health status of offspring is programmed by maternal diet throughout gestation and lactation. The present study investigates the lasting effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of soy oil or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on weight and biochemical parameters during gestation and lactation of female mice offspring. Methods: Eight weeks old female C57BL/6 mice (n=40) were assigned through simple randomization into four isocaloric dietary groups (16% of calories as soy oil (LSO) or EVOO (LOO) and 45% of calories as soy oil (HSO) or EVOO (HOO)) during three weeks of gestation and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks), all offspring received a diet containing 16% of calories as soy oil and were sacrificed at 6 weeks. Two-way ANOVA was used to adjust for confounding variables and repeated measures test for weight gain trend. Statistical analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS package. Results: At birth and adolescence, the weight of offspring was significantly higher in the soy oil than the olive oil groups (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Adolescence weight was significantly higher in the offspring born to mothers fed with 16% oil than those with 45% oil (P=0.001). Serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the LSO than LOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001), LSO than HSO (P<0.001, P=0.03 and P<0.001), and LOO than HOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001) dietary groups, respectively. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of HSO than HOO fed mothers (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A maternal diet containing EVOO has better effects on birth weight, as well as weight and serum biochemical parameters in offspring at adolescence. PMID:28360442

  11. Early development of essential fatty acid deficiency in rats: Fat-free vs. hydrogenated coconut oil diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pei-Ra; De Leon, Charlotte E.; Le, Hau; Puder, Mark; Bistrian, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of feeding an essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) diet either without fat or with added hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) on fatty acid profiles in rats. Both diets induced equivalent biochemical evidence of EFAD reflected by the triene/tetraene ratio in plasma phospholipids within 2 weeks. However, the HCO diet led to larger increases of 16:1n7 and 18:1n9 in muscle but smaller increases in fat tissue and plasma triglycerides than the fat-free diet, suggesting greater increases in hepatic de novo lipogenesis with the latter. In addition, the HCO diet led to larger decreases of some 18:3n3 metabolites, particularly 22:6n3, in muscle, fat and brain tissues than the fat-free diet, presumably related to lesser stimulation of elongation and desaturation. Thus, these secondary effects of an EFAD diet on fatty acid metabolism can be modified by the saturated fat in the diet while the primary impact of both diets on development of EFAD is unaffected. PMID:20675109

  12. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs-independent functions of fish oil on glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese mice

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    Wakutsu Masaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish oil is known to improve lifestyle-related diseases. These effects occur partly via activation of PPARs by the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids included abundantly in fish oil. We investigated fish oil functions on glucose and lipid metabolism that are both dependent on and independent of PPARs pathway. Methods Mice were fed a diet containing 30 en% beef tallow (B diet for twelve weeks to induce obesity. The mice were then divided into two groups which were fed either a B diet or a diet containing 30 en% fish oil (F diet. Each group was further divided into two groups which were administered PPARα and γ antagonists or vehicle once a day for three weeks. Results The F diet groups showed lower triglyceride levels in plasma and liver than the B diet groups, but PPARs antagonists did not affect the triglyceride levels in either diet groups. The F diet groups also showed improvement of glucose tolerance compared with the B diet groups. However, PPARs antagonists made glucose tolerance worse in the F diet group but improved it in the B diet group. Therefore, by the administration of antagonists, glucose tolerance was inversely regulated between the B and F diets, and hypolipidemic action in the plasma and liver of the F diet group was not affected. Conclusion These results suggest that fish oil decreases lipid levels in plasma and liver via PPARs pathway-independent mechanism, and that glucose tolerance is inversely regulated by PPARs antagonists under diets containing different oils.

  14. Use of re-esterified palm oils, differing in their acylglycerol structure, in weaning-piglet diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa, E; Barroeta, A C; Tres, A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2015-08-01

    Re-esterified oils are new fat sources obtained from chemical esterification of acid oils with glycerol (both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively). The different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution and acylglycerol composition of re-esterified oils may enhance the apparent absorption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and, thus, their overall nutritive value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified palm oils, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils, and also with an unsaturated fat source in weaning-piglet diets. The parameters assessed were: FA apparent absorption, acylglycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) composition of feces, and growth performance. One-hundred and twenty weaning piglets (average weight of 8.50±1.778 kg) were blocked by initial BW (six blocks) and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, resulting in four piglets per pen and six replicates per treatment. Dietary treatments were a basal diet supplemented with 10% (as-fed basis) of native soybean oil (SN), native palm oil (PN), acid palm oil (PA), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- (MAG) and diacylglycerols (DAG) (PEL), or re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG (PEH). Results from the digestibility balance showed that SN reached the greatest total FA apparent absorption, and statistically different from PN, PA and PEL (P0.05), but PEH achieved the greatest total FA apparent absorption. Animals fed PEL, despite the fact that PEL oil contained more sn-2 SFA, did not show an improved absorption of SFA (P>0.05). Animals fed PA and PN showed similar apparent absorption coefficients (P>0.05), despite the high FFA content of PA oil. The acylglycerol and FFA composition of feces was mainly composed of FFA. There were no significant differences in growth performance (P>0.05). Results of the present study suggest that, despite the different acylglycerol structure of re

  15. Use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in broiler chicken diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa, E; Codony, R; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils in broiler chicken diets. For this purpose, 144 one-d-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 48 cages. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with 6% of native palm oil ( PN: ), acid palm oil ( PA: ), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- ( MAG: ) and diacylglycerols ( DAG: ) ( PEL: ), re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG ( PEH: ), native soybean oil ( SN: ), acid soybean oil ( SA: ), re-esterified soybean oil low in MAG and DAG ( SEL: ), or re-esterified soybean oil high in MAG and DAG ( SEH: ), which resulted in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. Digestibility balances showed that the degree of saturation of fat generally exerted a greater impact than did the fat molecular structure. The dietary utilization of S sources was higher than that of P sources. However, the increased sn-2 saturated fatty acid ( SFA: ) content of EL oils in the starter period and the increased MAG and DAG content of EH oils in the grower-finisher period yielded favorable effects on the SFA apparent absorption, especially in those birds fed re-esterified palm oils. The excreta acylglycerol and free fatty acid composition was mainly composed of free fatty acids, and their amount almost paralleled the results observed for SFA apparent absorption. For growth performance, birds fed S exhibited better feed conversion ratios and lower abdominal fat-pad weights than did those fed P. The fatty acid composition of abdominal adipose tissue was also mainly affected by the degree of saturation of dietary fat sources. We concluded that re-esterified oils, mainly from P sources, can be used in broiler chicken diets as alternative fat sources since they show similar or even higher total fatty acid apparent absorption than do their corresponding native and acid oils, with

  16. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  17. Optimization of silica gel column chromatography extraction process of oryzanol from rice bran oil soap stock by response surface methodology%响应面法优化柱层析工艺提取米糠油皂脚中的谷维素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鸿; 张培培; 庞敏; 姜绍通

    2016-01-01

    以米糠油加工所得的副产物皂脚为原料,用乙酸乙酯索氏抽提得到皂脚浸提物,采用硅胶柱层析的方法对皂脚浸提物分离纯化谷维素,采用单因素和响应面方法进行优化,确定浸提液的谷维素浓度为4.00%,上样量为8.70 g,硅胶用量为60.00 g。结果表明,此工艺得到的谷维素纯度88.5%,皂脚中谷维素的总提取率达到58.7%。%Soapstock,the byproduct of rice bran oil procossing,was used as raw material. Oryzanol was extracted with ethyl acetate from rice bran oil soap stock and purified by silica gel column chromatography methods. Based on single factor experiments and response surface methodology,the optimum conditions were as follows:oryzanol concentration of sample forsilica gelcolumn chromatography was 4.00%,the sample volume was 8.70 g,the amount of silica gel was 60 g. The results showed that the total extraction rate of oryzanol could reached 58.7% while oryzanol purity was 88.5%.

  18. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, A O; Okorie, A U

    2009-04-01

    A 4-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal on the performance of broiler finishers. Castor oil bean seeds were dehulled and detoxified by cooking in two stages at 100 degrees C for 50 min per cooking. Sixty 6-week-old broiler birds (Anak strain) were randomly divided into four groups of 15 birds each. The groups were fed four isocaloric (2.90 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg) and isonitrogenous (21% crude protein) diets containing 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% dehulled and cooked castor oil bean meal (CBM) for 4 weeks. Results showed that there were significant (p 0.05) different from the ADWG of birds on 10% CBM diet. Birds fed diets containing10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and non-significant (p > 0.05) ADWG. Birds fed 20% CBM diet had the least (p 0.05) PCV values. Birds fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and significantly (p < 0.05) lower heamoglobin than birds fed 20% CBM diets. There were also significant (p < 0.05) differences among treatments in dry matter (DM), nitrogen, ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) retention. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE than birds on 10%, 15% and 20% CBM diets. Birds fed 10% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher DM, nitrogen and NFE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE was recorded at the 20% CBM inclusion level. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher EE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest EE retention was observed at the 20% CBM inclusion level. The results of the study indicate that up to 10% dehulled and cooked CBM can be included in broiler finisher rations for optimum performance.

  19. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  20. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    Full Text Available Krill oil (KO is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  1. [Effect of wheat bran fiber on vitamin status of weaning rats with alimentary polyhypovitaminosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V; Baturina, V A

    2014-01-01

    Effect of wheat bran on the vitamin status of rats adequately provided with vitamins or insufficiently supplied with vitamins has been investigated. 32 male Wistar weaning rats (initial body mass--49-67g) were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed with complete semi-synthetic diet, containing 100 or 20% of vitamin mixture with or without addition of wheat bran (5% of diet mass) for 35 days. The animals of the control group received 100% of vitamin mixture without adding of wheat bran; 2 group--received those diet with wheat bran; 3 deficient group--20% of vitamin mixture with full exclusion of vitamins E, B1 and B2; 4 group--20% of vitamin mixture and wheat bran. The inclusion of wheat bran in full semi-synthetic diet has been accompanied by significant decrease of alpha-tocopherol liver content on 17% (p = 0.006), significant increase of vitamin B1 liver level on the 16% (p = 0.027) and blood plasma vitamin D elevation on 19% (p = 0.017), as well as a tendency (p = 0.059) to increase the liver level of vitamin B2. Indicators of vitamin A status as well as plasma vitamin E concentration, liver and blood plasma MDA levels were not changed in this group rats. The 5-fold reduction of the vitamin mixture quota and the exclusion of vitamins E, B1 and B2 resulted in a significant (p vitamin deficiency. Young animals were more sensitive than adult animals to a lack of vitamins in the diet. Vitamin A (retinol palmitate) liver content in rats from this group was 25.1-fold reduced, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)--2.1-fold, vitamins B1 and B2--by 57 and 38% compared with animals received a complete control diet (p vitamins A, E, D was 19-34% decreased. Adding of bran in vitamin deficit diet led to increased consumption of vitamin B--on 40%, vitamins B2 and E--21%, both due to their natural content in the bran, and as a result of increased eatability of the feed by 16% relative to deficient group due to improved taste of the diet. Enrichment of vitamin scarce diet with wheat

  2. Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results: After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal β-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions: Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet.

  3. Utilization of palm oilsludge in poultry diet: 3. Inclusion of fresh or dried fermented palm oil sludge in broiler’s diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying proces, especially with heating often affects the nutritive values of feed ingredients. Therefore, this experiment was designed to study the responses of broiler chickens when fed with ration containing fresh or dried fermented palm oil sludge(FPOS. Experimental diets with different levels of fresh or dried FPOS (5, 10, and 15% equally to dried FPOS were formulated with similar nutrient contents. A control diet with no FPOS was also included. Each diet was fed to 30 broiler chickens (5 replicates of 6 birds for 5 weeks. Performances (body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, and mortalities of chickens were recorded. Carcass percentage and abdominal fat content was also measured at the end of feeding trial. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design and different between means were tested by orthogonal contrast procedures. Results of the experiment showed that body weight gain (BWG of control birds was not significantlydifferent with BWG of birds fed with FPOS. Birds fed with dried FLS gain more weight than those fed with fresh FPOS (1048 vs 981 g/bird. Increasing of dietary FPOS levels decreased BWG, but 10% inclusion was still tolerable. Feed consumption of control diet was significantly (P0.05. Conversion of feed dry matter to body weight gain of control diet was not significantly (P>0.05 different with those diets with FPOS. However, dry matter conversion of dried FPOS was significantly better than the fresh FPOS. Increasing levels of FLS from 5 to 15 significantly worsen the feed dry matter conversion but not with inclusion of 10% FPOS. Therefore, it is concluded that there is no superior advantage of feeding fresh FPOS as compared with dried FPOS. Inclusion of 10% dried or fresh FPOS in the diets did not affect growth performances of broiler chickens.

  4. Diets with corn oil and/or low protein increase acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity compared to diets with beef tallow in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinah

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that dietary polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We tested the hypothesis that diets rich in linoleic acid (18:2n-6) would affect acute liver injury after acetaminophen injection and that protein restriction might exacerbate the liver injury. We examined effects of feeding diets with either 15% (wt/wt) corn oil or 14% beef tallow and 1% corn oil for six weeks with either 6 or 20 g/100 g protein on acute hepatotoxicity. After the feeding period, liver injury was induced by injecting either with 600 mg/kg body weight acetaminophen suspended in gum arabic-based vehicle, or with vehicle alone during fasting status. Samples of liver and plasma were taken for analyses of hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels and liver-specific enzymes [(Glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT)], respectively. Whereas GSH level was significantly lower in only group fed 15% corn oil with 6 g/100 g protein among acetaminophen-treated groups, activities of GPT and GOT were significantly elevated in all groups except the one fed beef tallow with 20 g/100 g protein, suggesting low protein might exacerbate drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The feeding regimens changed the ratio of 18:2n-6 to oleic acid (18:1n-9) in total liver lipids approximately five-fold, and produced modest changes in arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). We conclude that diets with high 18:2n-6 promote acetaminophen-induced liver injury compared to diets with more saturated fatty acids (SFA). In addition, protein restriction appeared to exacerbate the liver injury.

  5. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  6. Wheat bran and the induction of intestinal benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase by dietary benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, S K; Visek, W J

    1989-03-01

    The mucosa of the intestine responds to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with the rapid induction of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (BPH). Studies were conducted to determine if dietary fiber would reduce exposure of the intestine to dietary benzo(a)pyrene (BP) as indicated by intestinal BPH activity. In all studies, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a fiber-free purified diet for 7 d, whereupon they were switched to experimental diets for 48 h. After 48 h their small intestinal mucosa was assayed for BPH activity. Diets for the initial study contained 0, 100, 400, 800, or 1200 mg BP/kg diet, each with and without 10% soft white wheat bran. Enzyme induction with 100 and 400 mg BP/kg diet was partially inhibited by bran, but with higher concentrations of BP there was no protective effect. The inhibition in BP-induced intestinal BPH activity was observed with 10% wheat bran but not with 3.3 or 6.6%. Subsequent studies showed no significant inhibition in BPH induction with cellulose or lignin, whereas all forms of wheat bran (hard red, soft white, or finely ground soft white) caused significant inhibition. In the final study, a diet containing charcoal-broiled beef, a known source of PAH, was compared with diets containing raw beef or soybean protein, each with and without 10% soft white wheat bran. BPH activity remained low with raw beef and soybean protein whether or not fiber was added. However, intestinal BPH activity was raised ninefold by charcoal-broiled beef. The addition of bran reduced BPH activity to 65% of that observed with the fiber-free, charcoal-broiled beef diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  8. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  9. Feeding value of supplemental curcas crude oil in finishing diets for feedlot lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Bernal, J A; Estrada-Angulo, A; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Castro-Pérez, B I; Landeros-López, H; López-Soto, M A; Barreras, A; Zinn, R A; Plascencia, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the feeding value of a mechanically extracted nontoxic variety of oil (JCO) as source of energy for feedlot lambs. Twenty Pelibuey × Katahdin lambs were individually fed a dry-rolled-corn-based finishing diet supplemented with 0%, 2%, 4%, or 6% JCO (diet dry matter basis). Supplemental JCO replaced dry rolled corn in the basal diet. Fatty acid composition of JCO was C16:0, 14.0%; C18:0, 8.2%; C18:1, 26.0%; C18:2, 50.3%, and C18:3, 0.4%. Daily intakes of JCO averaged 24.7, 51.1, and 77.3 g/day or 0.57, 1.08, and 1.62 g/kg LW for the 2%, 4%, and 6% levels of supplementation, respectively. Supplemental JCO did not affect ( = 0.33) dry matter intake (DMI), but tended to increase (linear effect, = 0.06) average daily gain, efficiency of gain (linear effect, JCO corresponds closely (0.99) to the NE value assigned by current standards (), and this NE value decreased linearly as the inclusion level of JCO increased. There were not treatment effects on plasma metabolites. Across treatments, the concentrations of hemoglobin (11.64 ± 1.08 g/dL), hematocrit (39.15 ± 3.67%), glucose (85.2 ± 17.64 mg/dL), creatinine (1.43 ± 0.28 mg/dL), and urea (20.70 ± 4.35 mg/dL) were within normal (9-15 g/dL, 27%-40%, 50-90 mg/dL, 1.0-1.8 mg/dL, and 15-50 mg/dL, for hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, creatinine, and urea, respectively) ranges for healthy lambs. Based on DMI, performance and plasma metabolites observed in this study, nontoxic JCO is a suitable source of energy in finishing diets for lambs.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  11. Fatty acid and energy metabolism in broiler chickens fed diets containing either beef tallow or an oil blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsuthavas, S; Yuangklang, C; Vasupen, K; Mitchaothai, J; Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C

    2011-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis. To put the hypothesis to the test, broiler chickens were fed diets containing either beef tallow as source of SFA or an oil blend as source of n-6 PUFA. The broilers either had free access to their diet or were fed a restricted amount. Seven-day-old, male broiler chickens were used; they were kept individually in cages from 1 to 4 weeks of age. In the birds fed ad libitum, the n-6 PUFA diet reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI), but did not significantly affect average daily weight gain (ADG) and the feed:conversion ratio (FCR). The lower ADFI on the n-6 PUFA diet was associated with a higher apparent digestibility of total fatty acids. The ratio of deposition in the body to intake of digestible total PUFA, which reflected n-6 PUFA, was significantly decreased by the n-6 PUFA diet, pointing at preferentially increased n-6 PUFA oxidation on the n-6 PUFA diet. The ratio for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than 1.0, which agrees with net de novo synthesis, but the n-6 PUFA diet induced a lower value than did the SFA diet. Feeding either the n-6 PUFA or SFA diet did not influence energy expenditure expressed as percentage of energy intake. This study supports the idea that dietary n-6 PUFA instead of SFA are preferentially oxidized, but no proof was obtained for enhanced energy expenditure and contrary to the hypothesis put forward, the n-6 PUFA diet depressed de-novo fatty acid synthesis.

  12. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol in finishing diets could not be confirmed.

  13. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Pdiet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Pdiet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (Pdiet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (Pdiet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems.

  14. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2013-09-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) extracted by wet processing is popular among the scientific field and society nowadays. The present study was carried out to examine the comparative effect of VCO with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO) and sunflower oil (SFO) on endogenous antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with the synthetic diet. Results revealed that dietary VCO improved the antioxidant status compared to other three oil fed groups (P oil fed groups (P oil fed rats (P oil) and tocopherols (33.12 μg per 100 g oil) etc. compared to other oils (P < 0.05). From these observations, it is concluded that VCO has a beneficial role in improving antioxidant status and hence preventing lipid and protein oxidation.

  15. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats. METHODS/FINDINGS: Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. CONCLUSIONS: The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  16. PEMBERIAN VIRGIN COCONUT OIL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN JUMLAH DAN MOTILITAS SPERMATOZOA: STUDI PADA TIKUS WISTAR DENGAN DIET TINGGI LEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarita Jasda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObesity is one of several causes of infertility in men, this accurs because off changes lifestyle, accurring in the diet. Consuming foods high in cholesterol and fatty foods can trigger obesity. High-fat diet can increase the production of free radicals that have a negative impact on the quality and amount of sperm motility. Virgin Coconut Oil contains lauric acid and polyphenols, which can capture free radicals. Objective of this study was to prove that Virgin Coconut Oil administration might increase the number and motility of spermatozoa in Wistar rats with high-fat diet (HFD. The study using Randomized Posttest Only Control Group Design. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 2 months and weighing 150-200 grams were divided into 5 groups: negative control (normal diet, positive control (HFD, first treatment group (HFD with VCO 1 ml/day, second treatment group (HFD with VCO 1.2 ml /day, and third treatment group (HFD with VCO 2 ml/day. The mean number of sperm in three treatment groups increase compared to the positive control group (375 million/ml, P1 (566.67 million/ml, P2 (510 million/ml and P3 (500 million/ml, however statistically was went significant (p = 0.1. The mean percentage of sperm motility in the 3 treatment groups increase compared to the positive control group, P1 (43.33%, p2 (36% and P3 (32.50%. however, statistically was not sinificant (p = 0.2. Virgin Coconut Oil cannot increase the number and motility of spermatozoa in male Wistar rats with hig-fat diet (p > 0.05.Keywords: high fat diet, virgin coconut oil, sperm number, sperm motilityABSTRAKSalah satu penyebab infertilitas pada pria adalah obesitas, ini terjadi karena adanya perubahan gaya hidup, terjadi pada pola makan. Mengonsumsi makanan berkolesterol tinggi dan berlemak dapat mencetuskan terjadinya obesitas. Diet tinggi lemak dapat meningkatkan produksi radikal bebas yang dapat berdampak buruk pada kualitas jumlah dan motilitas spermatozoa. Virgin coconut oil (VCO

  17. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  18. Effects of dietary bran and the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine on faecal. beta. -glucuronidase activity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, J.F.; Clapp, N.K.; Henke, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the physiological changes that might provide either mechanistic or prognostic information in colon carcinogenesis, we treated 8-wk-old male BALB/c mice with semisynthetic bran diets containing 20% by weight of either soya bean, winter wheat, or corn bran and gave ten weekly injections (from age 11 to 21 wk) of 20 mg 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)/kg body weight. Appropriate controls were included. Faecal samples were collected 11 to 13 wk after completion of DMH treatment and after 24 to 26 wk of continuous bran diet feeding. Daily faecal ..beta..-glucuronidase activity fluctuations were observed, but these were not statistically significant. Faecal enzyme activity varied depending upon the type of bran diet (control > wheat > soya bean > corn). DMH generally depressed faecal enzyme activity to a statistically significant degree (P < 0.03). These results demonstrate the persistent enzyme alterations produced by DMH and the assay's sensitivity for detecting such change. Further, the effects of diet suggest that dietary brans cause physiological changes that have the potential to modify colon carcinogenesis.

  19. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  20. Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diets: effects on fish performance, biochemical composition, and expression of some glucocorticoid receptor-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Dorta, Vanessa; Caballero, María J; Izquierdo, Marisol; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos; Zamorano, María J; Montero, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    To study the substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in fish diets, juveniles Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) were fed diets (56 % crude protein, 12 % crude lipid) containing either linseed (100LO) or soybean (100SO) oils in comparison with a 100 % fish oil-based diet (100FO) for 90 days. Samples of muscle, liver, and intestine were collected for biochemical analysis and for glucocorticoid receptor-related genes, including GR1 and GR2, and the associated heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90AA, and HSP90AB. Besides, basal levels of plasma cortisol were also determined. After the feeding period, a stress test, consisting on 5 min of net chasing, was applied to a selected population of each dietary group. Total replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils did not induced changes in fish growth and performance, but affected fatty acid profile of muscle, liver, and intestine, reflecting those tissues the characteristic fatty acids of each type of dietary oil. A tendency to conserve the ARA/EPA ratio could be observed in the different tissues, despite of the level of these fatty acids in diet. Chasing stress induced an increase of muscle GR1 and a reduction in intestinal GR2 relative expressions at any of the experimental diets assayed. In liver, chasing stress induced an increase in both GR1 and GR2 gene expression in fish fed fish oil diets. Similarly, chasing stress induced an increase of muscle HSP70 and decrease of HSP90AB in liver at any of the experimental diet assayed. Besides, vegetable oils decreased the expression of HSP70 in intestine, being the relative expression of liver HSP90AA increased by the inclusion of linseed oil in the diet, at any of the experimental conditions assayed.

  1. Concentrations of oxysterols in meat and meat products from pigs fed diets differing in the type of fat (palm oil or soybean oil) and vitamin E concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, K; Müller, G; Kluge, H; Hirche, F; Brandsch, C

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to find out whether concentrations of oxysterols in pig meat are affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. 48 growth-finishing pigs were fed diets with either palm oil or soybean oil and vitamin E concentrations of 15, 40 or 200 mg/kg. Concentrations of oxysterols were analyzed in fresh and heat-processed (180 °C, 20 min) meat (M. longissimus dorsi) and in boiled sausage prepared from meat and back fat of the animals. Concentrations of oxysterols in fresh muscle were below 5 nmol/g dry matter; they were independent of the dietary fat type and vitamin E concentration. Heating caused a large increase of oxysterol concentration (up to 55 nmol/g dry matter). This effect was reduced by increasing dietary vitamin E concentration but was independent of the dietary fat. Sausage from pigs fed soybean oil had higher concentrations of oxysterols than sausage from pigs fed palm oil; vitamin E reduced concentrations of oxysterols in sausage from pigs fed soybean oil, but not in sausage from pigs fed palm oil.

  2. Microalgal Oil Supplementation Has an Anti-Obesity Effect in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Jin-Seon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Park, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of microalgal oil (MO) on body weight management in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity was induced for 8 weeks and animals were orally supplemented with the following for 8 additional weeks: beef tallow (BT), corn oil, fish oil (FO), microalgal oil (MO), or none, as a high fat diet control group (HD). A normal control group was fed with a normal diet. After completing the experiment, the FO and MO groups showed significant decreases in body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weights, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels compared to the HD and BT groups. A lower mRNA expression level of lipid anabolic gene and higher levels of lipid catabolic genes were observed in both FO and MO groups. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were lower in the MO group. These results indicated that microalgal oil has an anti-obesity effect that can combat high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  4. In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Valentini; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Khymenets, Olha; de la Torre, Rafael; Saez, Guillermo; Tormos, Maria del Carmen; Toledo, Estefania; Marti, Amelia; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz Mendez, Maria Victoria; Fito, Montserrat

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether benefits associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) and virgin olive oil (VOO) consumption could be mediated through changes in the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes. A randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial in healthy volunteers (n=90) aged 20 to 50 yr was performed. Three-month intervention groups were as follows: 1) TMD with VOO (TMD+VOO), 2) TMD with washed virgin olive oil (TMD+WOO), and 3) control with participants' habitual diet. WOO was similar to VOO, but with a lower polyphenol content (55 vs. 328 mg/kg, respectively). TMD consumption decreased plasma oxidative and inflammatory status and the gene expression related with both inflammation [INF-gamma (INFgamma), Rho GTPase-activating protein15 (ARHGAP15), and interleukin-7 receptor (IL7R)] and oxidative stress [adrenergic beta(2)-receptor (ADRB2) and polymerase (DNA-directed) kappa (POLK)] in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All effects, with the exception of the decrease in POLK expression, were particularly observed when VOO, rich in polyphenols, was present in the TMD dietary pattern. Our results indicate a significant role of olive oil polyphenols in the down-regulation of proatherogenic genes in the context of a TMD. In addition, the benefits associated with a TMD and olive oil polyphenol consumption on cardiovascular risk can be mediated through nutrigenomic effects.

  5. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  6. A safflower oil-based high fat/high-sucrose diet modulates the gut microbiota and liver phospholipid profiles associated with early glucose intolerance in the absence of tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Andersen, Daniel; Radulescu, Ilinca Daria

    2016-01-01

    n-6 PUFA-rich diets are generally considered obesogenic in rodents. Here we examined how long-term intake of a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet based on safflower oil affected metabolism, inflammation and gut microbiota composition. We fed male C57BL/6J mice a HF/HS diet based on safflower oil ...

  7. Brans-Dicke brane cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, L E; Mendes, Luis E.; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2001-01-01

    A five dimensional brane cosmology with non-minimally coupled scalar field to gravity has been considered in a Jordan-Brans-Dicke frame. We derive an effective four dimensional field equations on a 3+1 dimensional brane where the fifth dimension has been assumed to have an orbifold symmetry. We have noticed that the evolution equation for the matter component stuck to the brane is non-trivially coupled to the scalar field living on the brane and the bulk. Finally we discuss some cosmological consequences of this set-up.

  8. Utilização da fitase em dietas com ou sem farelo de arroz desengordurado para suínos em crescimento/terminação Use of phytase in diets with or without defatted rice bran for growing/finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a eficiência de diferentes níveis de fitase em relação à suplementação de fosfato inorgânico (fosfato bicálcico, quando adicionados em dietas sem e com farelo de arroz desengordurado (FAD. Foram utilizados 128 suínos com peso inicial médio de 21,2 ± 2,4 kg, alojados em baias coletivas, para avaliar o desempenho nas fases de crescimento e terminação. Os suínos foram abatidos com peso médio de 95,4 ± 5,3 kg e coletado o osso metacarpo para determinação do cálcio e do fósforo. Foram usados oito tratamentos, sendo quatro dietas sem FAD (milho e farelo de soja e quatro dietas com 30% de inclusão de FAD, nas quais foram adicionados níveis de 0, 750 ou 1000 UF (Unidades de Fitase/kg. Foi observado que adicionar fitase, tanto em dietas sem FAD quanto em dietas com FAD, melhora a disponibilidade do fósforo orgânico. Com os níveis de 750 e 1000 UF/kg adicionados em ambas as dietas, sem suplementação de fosfato bicálcico, não houve prejuízo sobre o desempenho dos animais. Entretanto, as características ósseas são prejudicadas se as dietas com fitase não forem suplementadas com a fonte de fósforo inorgânico.The objective of this work was to compare the efficiency of different levels of phytase with the use of inorganic phosphate (dicalcium phosphate when added to diets with or without defatted rice bran (DRB. One hundred and twenty eight pigs with average initial weight of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg were housed in collective boxes for the pig performance evaluation in the growing and finishing phase. The pigs were slaughtered with an average weight of 95.42 ± 5.3 kg and the metacarpus bones were collected to determine the calcium and phosphorus content. Eight treatments were used with four diets being formulated without DRB (corn-soybean meal and the other four diets with DRB. The phytase levels added in the diets were 0, 750 or 1000 PU/kg of the diet. It was observed that

  9. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  10. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiéli Caroline Welter

    Full Text Available To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4 kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil, 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis. The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  11. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  12. A high-fat diet rich in corn oil reduces spontaneous locomotor activity and induces insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi Kin; Botta, Amy; Pither, Jason; Dai, Chuanbin; Gibson, William T; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2015-04-01

    Over the last few decades, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially n-6 PUFA, and monounsaturated fatty acid content in 'Western diets' has increased manyfold. Such a dietary shift also parallels rising sedentary behavior and diabetes in the Western world. We queried if a shift in dietary fats could be linked to physical inactivity and insulin insensitivity in mice. Eight-week old female C57/Bl6 mice were fed either high-fat (HF) diets [40% energy corn oil (CO) or isocaloric olive oil (OO) diets] or chow (n=10/group) for 6 weeks, followed by estimation of spontaneous locomotor activity, body composition and in vivo metabolic outcomes. Although lean mass and resting energy expenditure stayed similar in both OO- and CO-fed mice, only CO-fed mice demonstrated reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. Such depressed activity in CO-fed mice was accompanied by a lower respiratory ratio, hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose disposal following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests compared to OO-fed mice. Unlike the liver, where both HF diets increased expression of fat oxidation genes like PPARs, the skeletal muscle of CO-fed mice failed to up-regulate such genes, thereby supporting the metabolic insufficiencies observed in these mice. In summary, this study demonstrates a specific contribution of n-6 PUFA-rich oils like CO to the loss of spontaneous physical activity and insulin sensitivity in mice. If these data hold true for humans, this study could provide a novel link between recent increases in dietary n-6 PUFA to sedentary behavior and the development of insulin resistance in the Western world.

  13. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Girolamo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils, has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC, principal component (PCA and Pearson’s correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%.

  14. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson's correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%).

  15. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Letícia Adélia MIOTTo; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  16. Production of trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid in continuous culture fermenters fed diets containing fish oil and sunflower oil with decreasing levels of forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abughazaleh, A; Jacobson, B N

    2007-06-01

    Previously, feeding fish oil (FO) and sunflower seeds to dairy cows resulted in the greatest increases in the concentrations of vaccenic acid (VA, t11 C18:1) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forage level in diets containing FO and sunflower oil (SFO) on the production of trans C18:1 and CLA by mixed ruminal microbes. A dual-flow continuous culture system consisting of three fermenters was used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design. Treatments consisted of (1) 75:25 forage:concentrate (HF); (2) 50:50 forage:concentrate (MF); and (3) 25:75 forage:concentrate (LF). FO and SFO were added to each diet at 1 and 2 g/100 g dry matter (DM), respectively. The forage source was alfalfa pellets. During 10-day incubations, fermenters were fed treatment diets three times daily (140 g/day, divided equally between three feedings) as TMR diet. Effluents from the last 3 days of incubation were collected and composited for analysis. The concentration of trans C18:1 (17.20, 26.60, and 36.08 mg/g DM overflow for HF, MF, and LF treatments, respectively) increased while CLA (2.53, 2.35, and 0.81 mg/g DM overflow) decreased in a linear manner ( P effluent increased ( P effluent decreased in a linear manner ( P < 0.05) as dietary forage levels decreased. Decreasing dietary forage levels resulted in t10 C18:1 and t10c12 CLA replacing VA and c9t11 CLA, respectively, in fermenters fed FO and SFO.

  17. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration.

  18. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Carum copticum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falaki M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of dietary Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. A total of 240 Cobb broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments, each with four replicates of 12 birds. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of CCEO at 150, 250, 350 mg/kg or antibiotic Virginiamycin at 200 mg/kg. Treatments were fed from 0 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain decreased linearly (P=0.035 with increasing CCEO while Virginiamycin increased body weight gain at 1 to 10 d compared to the control treatment (P 0.05. There were no differences in carcass characteristics among broiler chickens fed the control, CCEO and Virginiamycin diets (P > 0.05. Lactic acid bacteria in the cecum and ileum at 42 d of age were not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05 but there was a linear increase of the log numbers of E. coli in the ileum (P=0.02 with increasing CCEO (P < 0.05. In conclusion, supplementing CCEO to diet at 150 mg/kg improve the growth performance, decrease undesirable intestinal bacteria in broiler chickens and is an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  19. Efeito da fitase e xilanase sobre o desempenho e as características ósseas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de arroz Effect of phytase and xilanase on the performance and bone characteristics of broiler chicks fed diets with rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir José Conte

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso da fitase e xilanase no desempenho e na deposição óssea de minerais em frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo 15% de farelo de arroz, baixo fósforo disponível e sem suplementação de ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês. A fitase utilizada foi da marca comercial Natuphos 5000 e a xilanase, da marca Avizyme 1300. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2+1. A dieta controle foi composta por níveis adequados de nutrientes, sem farelo de arroz e sem enzimas. As dietas dos demais tratamentos foram formuladas com 15% de farelo de arroz, contendo baixo fósforo disponível (40% do recomendado e sem suplementação inorgânica de Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn, com quatro níveis de fitase (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 FTU/kg, com ou sem xilanase (1 kg/t. As variáveis estudadas aos 21 e 42 dias de idade foram desempenho e cinzas, P, Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu na tíbia. O peso vivo e consumo de ração aumentaram de maneira significativa com a adição de fitase, enquanto que a conversão alimentar não foi afetada, tanto aos 21 como aos 42 dias. O melhor nível de fitase foi de 1.105 e 1.023 FTU/kg para melhor desempenho, aos 21 e 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. A xilanase não afetou significativamente o peso vivo e o consumo de ração, porém melhorou significativamente a conversão alimentar nas duas idades avaliadas, em função de menor consumo de ração nas aves que receberam xilanase. Os níveis de fitase promoveram aumento linear nos teores de cinzas e fósforo da tíbia e não afetaram a deposição de Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu, nas duas idades estudadas. A xilanase não afetou os parâmetros avaliados na tíbia.The present work was designed to verify the effect of the use of phytase and xylanase upon the performance and bone deposition of minerals in broiler diets containing 15% of rice bran, low available phosphorus and without supplementation of iron

  20. Aloysia triphylla essential oil as additive in silver catfish diet: Blood response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alessandro C; Sutili, Fernando J; Heinzmann, Berta M; Cunha, Mauro A; Brusque, Isabel C M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Zeppenfeld, Carla C

    2017-03-01

    The essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (EOAT) is a promising product with potential use in aquaculture systems. This study evaluated hematological/biochemical responses and survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed a diet containing EOAT and infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. After 21 days of feeding trial, fish were infected with A. hydrophila following a 10-day period of observation. Blood collection was performed before and after the bacterial challenge. Dietary EOAT by itself seems to affect some blood parameters, decreasing total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts and increasing total protein values. However, 2.0 mL EOAT/kg diet showed a possible potential protective effect after A. hydrophila infection, maintaining the evaluated parameters similar to basal values (from healthy fish before the feeding trial) and promoting survival of silver catfish.

  1. Conformal classes of Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Quirós, I

    1999-01-01

    A classification of Brans-Dicke theories of gravitation, based on the behaviour of the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant, is given. It is noted that the discussion takes place in the current literature, about which of the two distinguished conformal frames in which scalar-tensor theories of gravity can be formulated: the Jordan frame and the Einstein frame, is the physical one, may, in most cases, be meaningless for both frames may belong to the same conformal class. It is also noted that the Jordan frame formulation of Brans-Dicke gravity with ordinary matter nonminimally coupled is scale-invariant, unlike the situation with the Jordan frame formulation of Brans-Dicke gravity with matter minimally coupled (the original formulation of Brans-Dicke theory), where the presence of nonzero mass ordinary matter breaks the scale-invariance of the theory.

  2. Fermions in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Samojeden, L L; Kremer, G M

    2010-01-01

    Using the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation we put under investigation a hypothetical universe filled with a fermionic field (with a self interaction potential) and a matter constituent ruled by a barotropic equation of state. It is shown that the fermionic field (in combination with the Brans-Dicke scalar field could be responsible for a final accelerated era, after an initial matter dominated period.

  3. Effect of feeding thoroughbred horses a high unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet for 6 months following a 10 month fat acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P A; Pagan, J D; Crandell, K G; Davidson, N

    1999-07-01

    This study looked at the effect of feeding diets supplemented with either a predominantly saturated or unsaturated vegetable oil over a prolonged period to exercising horses. Eight Thoroughbred horses were assigned to 2 diet treatments and for 10 months were fed Timothy hay and oats, together with a fortified sweet feed supplemented with either a predominantly unsaturated (Un) or a saturated (S) vegetable oil so that approximately 19% DE (Digestible Energy) came from dietary fat and approximately 12% from either the Un or S source (AC). An increased amount of Un or S fortified sweet feed, replacing the oats, was then fed for a further 6 months (HF) so that approximately 27% DE came from fat and approximately 20% from the Un or S vegetable oil. Standardised incremental treadmill exercise (8-12 m/s) tests (STEP) and duplicate oral glucose tolerance tests (TOL) were carried out after 3, 6 and 9 months of the AC diet and after 3 and 6 months on the HF diet. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment or when the tests were undertaken (time) on the insulin or lactate responses to the STEP tests. Overall there was a significant (P supplemented with either an unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil for 6 months at approximately 20% DE after 10 months at approximately 12% DE were identified and there were no apparent disadvantages of feeding a saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet compared with an unsaturated one.

  4. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  5. Diet enriched with korean pine nut oil improves mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Hoan; Shin, Sunhye; Tu, Thai Hien; Kim, Chu-Sook; Kang, Ji-Hye; Tsuyoshi, Goto; Teruo, Kawada; Han, Sung Nim; Yu, Rina

    2012-12-05

    In this study, we investigated effects of pine nut oil (PNO) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD with 15% energy from lard and 30% energy from either soybean oil (SBO-HFD) or PNO (PNO-HFD) for 12 weeks. The PNO-HFD resulted in less weight gain and intramuscular lipid accumulation than the SBO-HFD and was accompanied by upregulation of transcripts and proteins related to oxidative metabolism and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as molecules selectively expressed in type I and type IIa muscle fibers. In addition, uncoupling protein-1 was upregulated in BAT. These beneficial metabolic effects were partly associated with the dual ligand activity of pinolenic acid, which is abundant in PNO, for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and δ. Our findings suggest that PNO may have potential as a dietary supplement for counteracting obesity and metabolic dysregulation.

  6. (/sup 3/H)forskolin- and (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1988-03-01

    The characteristics of the cardiac adenylate cyclase system were studied in rats fed diets containing fish oil (menhaden oil) and other oils. Adenylate cyclase activity generally was higher in cardiac homogenates and membranes of rats fed diet containing 10% menhaden oil than in the other oils. The increase in enzyme activity, especially in forskolin-stimulated activity, was associated with an increase in the concentration of the (/sup 3/H) forskolin-binding sites in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The beta-adrenergic receptor concentration was not significantly altered although the affinity for (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding was lower in membranes of rats fed menhaden oil than those fed the other oils. omega-3 fatty acids from menhaden oil were incorporated into the cardiac membrane phospholipids. The results suggest that the observed increase in myocardial adenylate cyclase activity of rats fed menhaden oil may be due to an increase in the number of the catalytic subunits of the enzyme or due to a greater availability of the forskolin-binding sites.

  7. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (pdiet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (pDHA) were significantly increased (pDHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or MIX-O.

  8. Assessment of epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) migrating into foods: comparison with ESBO-like epoxy fatty acids in our normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Grob, Koni

    2006-08-01

    Epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) was found to be toxic for rats, but the toxic constituent is unknown. It became an issue as the migration from the gaskets in the lids for jars into oily foods regularly far exceeds the European legal limit (overall migration limit and specific migration limit derived from the tolerable daily intake (TDI)). In the context of risk management it was of interest to determine the epoxidized fatty acids of ESBO in those foods of our normal diet which are expected to contain the highest concentrations, i.e., oxidized edible oils (including degraded frying oils), fried foods, bakery ware and roasted meat. The contribution of epoxy oleic acid from ESBO to our diet turned out to be negligible. If this acid were the toxic component in ESBO, the toxicological assessment would primarily be a warning regarding oxidized fats and oils. The contribution of diepoxy linoleic acid from ESBO might be similar to the exposure from oxidized fats and oils of our diet, whereas the intake of triepoxy linolenic acid from ESBO exceeds that from normal food by around two orders of magnitude. Hence use of an epoxidized edible oil virtually free of linolenic acid would be inconspicuous in our diet.

  9. Responses of Growth Performance and Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression to Fish Oil Supplementation in Lactation Sows’ and/or Weaned Piglets’ Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate whether dietary fish oil could influence growth of piglets via regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. A split-plot experimental design was used with sow diet effect in the main plots and differing piglet diet effect in the subplot. The results showed that suckling piglets from fish oil fed dams grew rapidly (P<0.05 than control. It was also observed that these piglets had higher ADG, feed intake, and final body weight (P<0.05 during postweaning than those piglets from lard fed dams. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P<0.01 in the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, there was a tendency (P<0.10 towards lower ADG and higher feed : gain in weaned piglets receiving fish oil compared with those receiving lard. Meanwhile, splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression was increased (P<0.01 in piglets receiving fish oil during postweaning period. The results suggested that 7% fish oil addition to sows' diets alleviated inflammatory response via decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines expression in skeletal muscle and accelerated piglet growth. However, 7% fish oil addition to weaned piglets' diets might decrease piglet growth via increasing splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression.

  10. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amey Holmes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  11. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  12. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows.

  13. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  14. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Furutani

    Full Text Available The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA, menhaden oil (standard, and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock.

  15. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Akiko; Ikeda, Yuko; Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock.

  16. Influence of high dose of phytase and an emulsifier on performance, apparent metabolisable energy and nitrogen retention in broilers fed on diets containing soy oil or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaefarian, F; Romero, L F; Ravindran, V

    2015-01-01

    The effects of high dose of microbial phytase and an emulsifier on the performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen (N) retention in broilers fed on diets containing different fat sources were examined in a 5-week trial. Two fat sources (soy oil and tallow), two inclusion levels of E. coli phytase (500 or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg diet) and two inclusion levels of lysolecithin emulsifier (0 or 3.5 g/kg of diet) were evaluated in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Throughout the 5-week trial, soy oil supplementation improved weight gain and feed per gain compared with tallow, but had no effect on feed intake. The high dose of phytase increased the weight gain and feed intake and lowered the feed per gain during d 1-21, but had no effect on performance parameters over the whole trial period. An effect of emulsifier was observed for feed intake during d 1-21 and over the whole trial period. Addition of emulsifier increased feed intake compared with diets without emulsifier. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEN) compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, the effect of phytase was significant for AMEN, with the high dose increasing the AMEN. During week 2, AMEN was increased with emulsifier addition. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher fat retention compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. The high dose of phytase improved the retention of fat during week 5 and the addition of emulsifier resulted in higher fat retention during week 1. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, an interaction between fat source × phytase × emulsifier was observed for N retention. In soy oil-based diets, emulsifier plus 1000 FTU/kg phytase increased N retention compared with other groups, while in tallow-based diets, emulsifier addition increased N retention in diets with 500 FTU/kg, but not in 1000 FTU/kg diet. Overall, the

  17. Dietary linseed oil in the maternal diet affects immunoglobulins, tissue fatty acid composition and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X L; Wang, N; Tian, M L; Wang, L; Liu, T; Zhang, X W; Shi, B M; Shan, A S

    2016-11-21

    This experiment investigated the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with linseed oil (LSO) and soya bean oil (SBO) on immunoglobulins, the fatty acid composition and hepatic expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets. Multiparous sows (twenty-four per diet) were fed on diets containing a supplement of either SBO or LSO during last week of gestation and lactation. The results indicated that supplementation of maternal diet with LSO could improve the weaning weight of piglets and average daily gain (ADG) (p plasma, colostrum and milk by the addition of LSO (p plasma IgG, IgA and the tissues n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in piglets (p composition and affects the gene of D5D and D6D expression of piglets.

  18. Effect of sun flower oil addition (Helianthus annuus in diet on nutrient intake, growth performance and characteristics of estrous of pre-mating Garut sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khotijah L

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of ewes at pre-breeding phase is critical for good reproductive process. Thirty-two ewes Garut sheep (initial body weight 22.5±2.21 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of addition of sunflower oil in the diet on nutrient intake, growth performance and characteristics of estrous of pre-mating garut sheep. Ewes were fed grass and supplemented with one of four isonitrogenous high concentrate diets containing four levels of sunflower oil; they were (M0 no addition of sunflower oil; (M1 2% sunflower oil; (M2 4% sunflower oil and (M3 6% sunflower oil addition. Results showed that the addition significantly reduced dry matter intake (p < 0.05, highly significantly reduce crude protein, Ca and P intake (p < 0.01, higly significant increased ether extract intake (p < 0.01 and significantly increased long of estrous (p < 0.05. There was no difference in crude fiber intake, TDN intake, body weight gain, length of estrous onset and response of estrous for ewes fed the four experimental diets. Response on estrous of treatments M0, M1, M2 and M3 were 62.50; 50.00; 75,00 and 62.5% respectively. It is concluded that the addition of sunflower oil up to 6% in the pre-mating ration affects the nutrient intake without interferering the performance, and it tends to improve the charachteristic estrous of Garut ewes.

  19. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung; Shin, Sunhye; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Jae Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-01-21

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower). PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR) and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  20. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean pine nut oil (PNO has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO (PC, SC or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD, for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower. PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  1. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study.

  2. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  3. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Total Bacteria, Cellulolytic Bacteria and Methanogenic Archaea in the Rumen of Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrahim Abubakr; Abdul Razak Alimon; Halimatun Yaakub; Norhani Abdullah; Michael Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: cont...

  4. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    OpenAIRE

    Katiéli Caroline Welter; Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues Martins; André Soligo Vizeu de Palma; Mellory Martinson Martins; Bárbara Roqueto Dos Reis; Bárbara Laís Unglaube Schmidt; Arlindo Saran Netto

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion o...

  5. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  6. The complete Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kofinas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The most general completion of Brans-Dicke gravity is found when energy is exchanged in a uniquely defined way between the scalar field and ordinary matter. The theory contains a new parameter (integration constant from the integration procedure) and when this is switched off, Brans-Dicke theory emerges. As usually, the vacuum theory can be defined from the complete Brans-Dicke theory when the matter energy-momentum tensor vanishes. However, additionally, the complete family of vacuum theories is found, consistent with the free wave equation for the scalar field. The subclass of this family with identically covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor is identified and, thus, can be supplemented by any equation of motion for the scalar field.

  7. NUTRITIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF WATER HYACINTH LEAVES COMBINED WITH WHEAT BRAN AND COTTON SEED CAKE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to evaluate the different levels of water hyacinth plant leaves in the diet of Nile Tilapia and their effect on growth performance so as to eliminate the water hyacinth plant from the Nile and provide a cheap food for fish. In this experiment the dried water hyacinth leaves (Eicchornia crassipse, wheat bran and cotton seed cake were used in different ratio to formulate two experimental diets (A and B. Diet (A contains 70% wheat bran, 20% cotton seed cake and 10% water hyacinth leaves, while diet (B contains 65%, 20% cottons seed cake and 15% water hyacinth leaves. These diets were fed to studied fish with 5% per their body weight for 105 days. The results of this study revealed that the diet (A has higher growth performance on studied fish than those fed on diet (B. The results of food conversion ratio (FCR, 4.04 in diet (A and food conversion ratio (FCR, 5.73 in diet (B, and the increment of growth rate in fish fed with diet (A more efficient on the growth performance of studied fish than diet (B except in the case of protein efficiency rate (PER it's found to be more in diet (A than diet (B. It was concluded that the diet (A had better growth performance than diet (B on the feeding regime of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus.

  8. Review of Antidiabetic Fruits, Vegetables, Beverages, Oils and Spices commonly consumed in the Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-01-01

    for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our aim is to present a review...

  9. Rye bran as fermentation matrix boosts in situ dextran production by Weissella confusa compared to wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Mäkelä, Jari; Coda, Rossana; Shukla, Shraddha; Shi, Qiao; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Juvonen, Riikka; Ekholm, Päivi; Goyal, Arun; Tenkanen, Maija; Katina, Kati

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of fiber-rich foods such as cereal bran is highly recommended due to its beneficial health effects. Pre-fermentation of bran with lactic acid bacteria can be used to improve the otherwise impaired flavor and textural qualities of bran-rich products. These positive effects are attributed to enzymatic modification of bran components and the production of functional metabolites like organic acids and exopolysaccharides such as dextrans. The aim of this study was to investigate dextran production in wheat and rye bran by fermentation with two Weissella confusa strains. Bran raw materials were analyzed for their chemical compositions and mineral content. Microbial growth and acidification kinetics were determined from the fermentations. Both strains produced more dextran in rye bran in which the fermentation-induced acidification was slower and the acidification lag phase longer than in wheat bran. Higher dextran production in rye bran is expected to be due to the longer period of optimal pH for dextran synthesis during fermentation. The starch content of wheat bran was higher, which may promote isomaltooligosaccharide formation at the expense of dextran production. W. confusa Cab3 produced slightly higher amounts of dextran than W. confusa VTT E-90392 in all raw materials. Fermentation with W. confusa Cab3 also resulted in lower residual fructose content which has technological relevance. The results indicate that wheat and particularly rye bran are promising matrices for producing technologically significant amounts of dextran, which facilitates the use of nutritionally valuable raw bran in food applications.

  10. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemery, Y.M.; Anson, N.M.; Havenaar, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Noort, M.W.J.; Rouau, X.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of using ultra-fine grinding and electrostatic separation of wheat bran as methods to improve the bioaccessibility of para-coumaric acid (pCA), sinapic acid (SA) and ferulic acid (FA) from bran-rich breads. Bran fractions were produced and used to bake white bread,

  11. Effect of primrose oil and corn oil diets on eicosanoid synthesis by rat mammary tumor induced by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ela, S.H.A.; Bunce, O.R.

    1986-03-01

    Evening primrose oil (PO) contains 9% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and 75% linoleic acid (LA) each of which are prostaglandin precursors. Corn oil (CO) contains 60% linoleic acid. Fifty day old virgin female rats were given DMBA (5 mg, intragastric). Three weeks post DMBA the rats were separated into two dietary groups of 20% PO and 20% CO, respectively. At 16 weeks post DMBA the rats were killed and mammary tumors analyzed by RIA for PGE/sub 1/, PGE/sub 2/, and 6-keto F/sub 1..cap alpha... PGE/sub 1/ levels in PO fed animals were increased two fold over those fed CO indicating that it is possible to shunt GLA toward monoenoic eicosanoid synthesis. However PGE/sub 2/ and 6 keto F/sub 1..cap alpha../ levels were 5x higher in PO compared to CO. Although this could be attributed to higher cis linoleic acid content of PO, more subtle mechanisms may be responsible.

  12. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.

  13. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  14. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahim Abubakr

    Full Text Available Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO, decanter cake (DC or palm kernel cake (PKC on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD, decanter cake diet (DCD, palm kernel cake diet (PKCD and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0 and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05 DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05 in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  15. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05) in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  16. Consumption of a Diet Rich in Cottonseed Oil (CSO Lowers Total and LDL Cholesterol in Normo-Cholesterolemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E. Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal data indicates that dietary cottonseed oil (CSO may lower cholesterol; however, the effects of a CSO-rich diet have not been evaluated in humans. Thirty-eight healthy adults (aged 18–40; 12 males, 26 females consumed a CSO rich diet (95 g CSO daily for one week. Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and blood was drawn pre- and post-intervention. Serum lipids (total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG, and free fatty acids (FFA were assayed. There was no change in weight or waist circumference among participants. There was no change in HDL (Pre: 1.27 ± 0.4 mmol/L; Post: 1.21 ± 0.3 mmol/L or TG (Pre: 0.91 ± 0.6 mmol/L; Post: 1.06 ± 1.0 mmol/L. Total cholesterol and LDL were reduced (TC Pre: 4.39 ± 0.9 mmol/L; Post: 4.16 ± 0.8 mmol/L; LDL Pre: 2.70 ± 0.8 mmol/L; Post: 2.47 ± 0.6 mmol/L. When data were grouped by sex, total cholesterol was reduced in female participants (Pre: 4.34 ± 0.9 mmol/L; Post: 4.09 ± 0.8 mmol/L. Consumption of a high fat, CSO-rich diet for one week reduced total cholesterol in female participants without reducing HDL.

  17. Effects of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and conjugated linoleic acid concentration in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amitava; Mandal, Guru Prasad; Patra, Amlan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and concentrations of beneficial cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-11 C18:1 fatty acid (FA) in the rumen fluid in an in vitro condition. Materials and Methods: Six vegetable oils including sunflower, soybean, sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were used at three dose levels (0%, 3% and 4% of substrate dry matter [DM] basis) in three replicates for each treatment in a completely randomized design using 6 × 3 factorial arrangement. Rumen fluid for microbial culture was collected from four goats fed on a diet of concentrate mixture and berseem hay at a ratio of 60:40 on DM basis. The in vitro fermentation was performed in 100 ml conical flakes containing 50 ml of culture media and 0.5 g of substrates containing 0%, 3% and 4% vegetable oils. Results: Oils supplementation did not affect (p>0.05) in vitro DM digestibility, and concentrations of total volatile FAs and ammonia-N. Sunflower oil and soybean oil decreased (p0.05) on protozoal numbers. Both trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations were increased (p0.05) increase the trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations as compared to the control. The concentrations of stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were not altered (p>0.05) due to the addition of any vegetable oils. Conclusion: Supplementation of sunflower and soybean oils enhanced beneficial trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations in rumen fluid, while sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were ineffective in this study. PMID:28246442

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    supplied liquids for next five months (,20 weeks). 2.3 Collection of hemibrains and RNA isolation Following the euthanization of the mice by cervical ...with a panel of transcripts investigated by qPCR. Conclusions The biomechanisms exhibited by the fish oil that facilitate neurotrophic regulation are

  19. Extra-virgin olive oil diet and mild physical activity prevent cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis model: an in vivo and in vitro study on lubricin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Loreto, Carla; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean diet includes a relatively high fat consumption mostly from monounsaturated fatty acids mainly provided by olive oil, the principal source of culinary and dressing fat. The beneficial effects of olive oil have been widely studied and could be due to its phytochemicals, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Lubricin is a chondroprotective glycoprotein and it serves as a critical boundary lubricant between opposing cartilage surfaces. A joint injury causes an initial flare of cytokines, which decreases lubricin expression and predisposes to cartilage degeneration such as osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of extra-virgin olive oil diet and physical activity on inflammation and expression of lubricin in articular cartilage of rats after injury. In this study we used histomorphometric, histological, immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, western blot and biochemical analysis for lubricin and interleukin-1 evaluations in the cartilage and in the synovial fluid. We report the beneficial effect of physical activity (treadmill training) and extra-virgin olive oil supplementation, on the articular cartilage. The effects of anterior cruciate ligament transection decrease drastically the expression of lubricin and increase the expression of interleukin-1 in rats, while after physical activity and extra-virgin olive oil supplemented diet, the values return to a normal level compared to the control group. With our results we can confirm the importance of the physical activity in conjunction with extra-virgin olive oil diet in medical therapy to prevent osteoarthritis disease in order to preserve the articular cartilage and then the entire joint.

  20. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rodrigo Barros; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Mendonça, Bianca Gazolla; Santos, Eliziária Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO]) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals' diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins. PMID:27418954

  1. Mass Inflation in Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pina-Avelino, P; Herdeiro, C A R

    2009-01-01

    A detailed non-linear analysis of the internal structure of spherical, charged black holes that are accreting scalar matter is performed in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We choose the lowest value of the Brans-Dicke parameter that is compatible with observational constraints. First, the homogeneous approximation is used. It indicates that mass inflation occurs and that the variations of the Brans-Dicke scalar inside the black hole, which could in principle be large in the absence of mass inflation, become small when mass inflation does occur. Then, a full non-linear numerical study of the black hole interior perturbed by a self-gravitating massless uncharged scalar-field is performed. We use an algorithm with adaptive mesh refinement capabilities. In this way, the changes in the internal structure of the black hole caused by mass inflation are determined, as well as the induced variations of the Brans-Dicke scalar, confirming, qualitatively, the indications given by the homogeneous appro...

  2. Biological activities of thermo-tolerant microbes from fermented rice bran as an alternative microbial feed additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J H; Suh, H J

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the commercial potential of new microbial feed additive, Issatchenkia orientalis Y266 and Bacillus subtilis B266 from commercial fermented rice bran were tested for their tolerance or resistance to pH, bile, oxgall, and temperature. It was found that the strains grew very well up to pH 3.0 and resistant to relatively high concentrations of bile salt and oxgall. I. orientalis and B. subtilis are extremely tolerant in range of 70-90 degrees C in solid medium. B. subtilis B266 also has excellent tolerant property up to 90 degrees C in liquid medium. The health indexes (the microflora in the small intestines and the antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus) of chicks were significantly improved in the fermented rice bran with these strains (0.25% addition to diet) in comparison with the Avilamycin (20 mg/kg diet)-fed group (p fermented rice bran-fed group showed a better microbial flora in the small intestines. Accordingly, it would appear that the fermented rice bran with these strains may be a potential candidate for an alternative microbial feed additive.

  3. Starch and oil in the donor cow diet and starch in substrate differently affect the in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Nicot, M C; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2011-11-01

    Trans isomers of fatty acids exhibit different health properties. Among them, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on milk fat production and can affect human health. A shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of dairy cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with highly unsaturated fat sources. The differences of BH patterns between linoleic acid (LeA) and linolenic acid (LnA) in such ruminal conditions remain unknown; thus, the aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the effects of starch and sunflower oil in the diet of the donor cows and starch level in the incubates on the BH patterns and efficiencies of LeA and LnA. The design was a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 cows, 4 periods, and 4 diets with combinations of 21 or 34% starch and 0 or 5% sunflower oil. The rumen content of each cow during each period was incubated with 4 substrates, combining 2 starch levels and either LeA or LnA addition. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism of incubates showed that dietary starch decreased the diversity of the bacterial community and the high-starch plus oil diet modified its structure. High-starch diets poorly affected isomerization and first reduction of LeA and LnA, but decreased the efficiencies of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and trans C18:1 reduction. Dietary sunflower oil increased the efficiency of LeA isomerization but decreased the efficiency of trans C18:1 reduction. An interaction between dietary starch and dietary oil resulted in the highest trans-10 isomers production in incubates when the donor cow received the high-starch plus oil diet. The partition between trans-10 and trans-11 isomers was also affected by an interaction between starch level and the fatty acid added to the incubates, showing that the trans-10 shift only occurred with LeA, whereas LnA was mainly hydrogenated via the more usual trans-11

  4. APPLICATION OF OAT, WHEAT AND RYE BRAN TO MODIFY NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRUDED CORN SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Makowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cereal products constitute the basis of the diet pyramid. While the consumption of such prod- ucts as bread decreases, the group of food which popularity increase is cereal snacks. Unfortunately, the dietary value of this group of foodstuffs is limited. Thus, different types of cereal bran may be added to the produced snacks to enhance their nutritive value. However, an addition of bran may have an adverse effect on quality attributes of products. Material and methods. Corn grits enriched with 20 and 40% oat, wheat and rye bran was extruded. Basic parameters determining the nutritive value, physical characteristics and sensory attributes of the six produced types of extrudates were measured and compared. Moreover, the effect of additives applied on viscosity of aqueous suspensions of the raw materials and extrudates under controlled conditions was measured using RVA. Results. The dietary value of snacks containing bran depends on the type and quantitative shares of the additives. The content of dietary fibre in produced extrudates ranged from 6.5 to 15.8%, including soluble dietary fibre at 2.1 to 3.7%. With an increase of bran content in extrudates, their expansion decreased, density increased and the colour of extrudates changed (reduced brightness, increased a*, decreased b*. In sensory evaluation the highest acceptability was given to extrudates with a 20% addition of oat bran, while the lowest was given for those with 40% wheat bran. Based on PCA results positive correlations were found between overall desirability and crispiness, porosity, taste, colour and expansion. Negative correlations between desir- ability and hardness and density of extrudates were observed. The additives and their level also had an effect on changes in viscosity of aqueous suspensions measured using RVA. However, no correlation was found between quality features of extrudates and values of attributes measured in the analysis of viscosity. Conclusion

  5. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (pnutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (pnutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (pnutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens.

  6. Lipid Peroxidation in a Stomach Medium Is Affected by Dietary Oils (Olive/Fish) and Antioxidants: The Mediterranean versus Western Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Oren; Shpaizer, Adi; Kanner, Joseph

    2015-08-12

    Red meat is an integral part of the Western diet, and high consumption is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases. Using a system that simulated the human stomach, red meat was interacted with different oils (olive/fish) and lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxides (LOOH). Olive oil decreased meat lipid peroxidation from 121.7 ± 3.1 to 48.2 ± 1.3 μM and from 327.1 ± 9.5 to 77.3 ± 6.0 μM as assessed by MDA and ROOH, respectively. The inhibitory effect of olive oil was attributed to oleic acid rather than its polyphenol content. In contrast, fish oils from tuna or an ω-3 supplement dramatically increased meat lipid peroxidation from 96.2 ± 3.6 to 514.2 ± 6.7 μM MDA. Vitamin E inhibited meat lipid peroxidation in the presence of olive oil but paradoxically increased peroxidation in the presence of fish oil. The inhibitory properties of oleic acid may play a key role in the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

  7. Polyunsaturated fat and fish oil in diets for growing-finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and meat, fat, and sausage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryhni, E A; Kjos, N P; Ofstad, R; Hunt, M

    2002-09-01

    Forty-eight crossbred growing-finishing pigs were used to study the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 31%= low and 50%= high) and fish oil (0, 0.2, and 0.4% capelin) diets on fatty acid composition, chemical traits, and sensory properties of the longissimus muscle, fat, and sausages. High levels of PUFA, independent of the level of fish oil, increased oxidation and rancidity for whole muscle (stored at 1 and 8 months at -23 °C) and sausages (TBARS 0.6-1.3). Fish oil at 0.4% in the diet increased TBA values of loin, but did not affect sensory evaluation scores. An interaction between PUFA and fish oil occurred for TBARS values and rancid odour in sausage, where the 0.4% fish oil and high PUFA level showed highest oxidation (TBARS 1.9). Although fish oil and high PUFA levels might contribute to a more healthy meat, their undesirable affects on palatability would limit their use.

  8. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  9. Effects of decontaminated fish oil or a fish and vegetable oil blend on persistent organic pollutant and fatty acid compositions in diet and flesh of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Matthew; Bendiksen, Eldar A; Dick, James R; Strachan, Fiona; Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Berntssen, Marc H G; Tocher, Douglas R; Bell, John Gordon

    2010-05-01

    The health benefits of seafood are well documented and based on the unique supply of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Aquaculture now contributes about 50 % of food-grade seafood globally and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a rich source of n-3 HUFA. However, salmon and other oily fish can accumulate lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POP), including dioxins (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), derived largely from feed. In the present study, triplicate groups of salmon, of initial weight 0.78 kg, were fed one of three experimental diets for 11 weeks. The diets were coated with either a northern fish oil (FO) with a high POP content (cNFO), the same oil that had been decontaminated (deNFO) or a blend of southern fish oil, rapeseed and soyabean oils (SFO/RO/SO). Dietary PCDD/F+dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB) concentrations were 17.36, 0.45 and 0.53 ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg, respectively. After 11 weeks, the flesh concentrations in fish fed the cNFO, deNFO and SFO/RO/SO diets were 6.42, 0.34 and 0.41 ng TEQ/kg, respectively. There were no differences in flesh EPA and DHA between fish fed the cNFO or deNFO diets although EPA and DHA were reduced by 50 and 30 %, respectively, in fish fed the SFO/RO/SO diet. Thus, decontaminated FO can be used to produce salmon high in n-3 HUFA and low in POP. Salmon produced using deNFO would be of high nutritional value and very low in POP and would utilise valuable fish oils that would otherwise be destroyed due to their high pollutant concentrations.

  10. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (Pbean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  11. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  12. Linseed oil in the maternal diet increases long chain-PUFA status of the foetus and the newborn during the suckling period in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quelen, Francine; Boudry, Gaëlle; Mourot, Jacques

    2010-08-01

    Linseed oil, being rich in 18 : 3n-3, represents an alternative source of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet. However, little is known about the effect of this oil on the long chain n-3 PUFA composition of offspring, which are required for normal growth and maturation of numerous organs. The main objective of the experiment was therefore to investigate fatty acid composition of tissues from sows at the end of gestation and from piglets during the first week of postnatal life in response to maternal dietary linseed oil intake. Sows received either a lard (LAR)-based diet or a linseed oil (LSO)-based diet during gestation and lactation. Fatty acid composition was evaluated in sow plasma, placenta and milk, and in different tissues of piglets on days 0, 3, 7, 21 and 32. The LSO diet increased the proportions of n-3 PUFA and especially 22 : 6n-3 in the placenta. The carcass of LSO piglets at birth contained greater proportions of 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3. The LSO sow milk exhibited greater proportions of 18 : 3n-3 compared with the LAR sow milk. The piglets suckling LSO sows had greater proportions of 18 : 3n-3, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 5n-3 in plasma and carcass. The proportions of 22 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3 were greater in the brain of LSO piglets than in that of LAR piglets during the suckling period. In conclusion, LSO in the maternal diet during gestation and lactation increases 22 : 6n-3 concentrations in the placenta and in the foetus carcass, and it maintains 22 : 6n-3 concentrations in the brain during the first week of postnatal life.

  13. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  14. Growth, carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle in goat kids fed diets with castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study was to determine growth, carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi of crossbred Boer × Saanen kids fed castor oil. Twenty-four kids (12 males and 12 females were assigned in a randomized complete block design with two treatments and twelve replications. Blocks were defined according to weight, gender and initial age of animals for the evaluation of performance. The experimental treatments consisted of two diets containing 900 g concentrate/kg: a control diet (without addition of oil and another containing castor oil at 30 g/kg (on a dry matter basis. After they reached an average body weight of 25 kg, males were slaughtered for the evaluation of carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle. The addition of castor oil in the diet did not affect the intake of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber; the average daily gain; and feed conversion, but increased the ether extract intake. No difference was observed for the carcass characteristics, chemical composition of the meat, concentration of C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 (CLA and total concentration of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relations; however, there was increase in the concentrations of C18:2 trans-10, cis-12 (CLA and C20:4 ω-6. The addition of castor oil to the diet of crossbred Boer × Saanen kids containing a high content of concentrate did not promote benefit to the characteristics evaluated.

  15. Effects of some cereal brans and textured vegetable protein on plasma lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, J M; Sandstead, H H; Jacob, R A; Logan, G M; Reck, S J; Klevay, L M; Dintzis, F R; Inglett, G E; Shuey, W C

    1979-03-01

    The hypothesis that dietary fiber lowers serum cholesterol was tested in 10 healthy men, 19 to 54 years old, who ate a mixed diet similar to the diets of many American adult males, that contained 16% of calories as protein (70% from animal), 40% as fat (P/S = 0.3), 44% as carbohydrate (9% of calories as sucrose) and 3 g of crude fiber. The energy intake ranged from 2700 to 3500 kcal adjusted to their height and weight. Weight and fitness were held constant. After 30 days of equilibration on the basal diet, they ate 26 g of either soft white wheat bran, corn bran (CB), soybean hulls (SH), textured vegetable protein, or hard red spring wheat bran (HRS) for periods of 28 to 30 days each in no particular sequence. Each fiber was fed to four to six subjects. The dietary fiber contents of soft white wheat bran, CB, SH, and HRS were: 44, 92, 87, and 51%, respectively. Mean daily fecal weight increased (P less than or equal to 0.01) from 72.4 to 144, 68 to 128, and 81 to 151 g when CB, SH, and HRS were fed respectively. No effects were noted with soft white wheat bran or textured vegetable protein. Total plasma cholesterol decreased 12% with HRS (P less than or equal to 0.05) and 14.0% with SH (P less than or equal to 0.05). Low density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased 21% with HRS (P less than or equal to 0.05). High density lipoprotein cholesterol did not change with any of the dietary fiber sources nor did the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol. Some triglyceride lowering effect was seen with all sources of dietary fiber (P less than or equal to 0.01). There was a significant direct correlation between the area under the oral glucose tolerance curves and the levels of total cholesterol (r = 0.57, P less than or equal to 0.0001) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.49, P less than or equal to 0.0007), and between fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides (r = 0.32, P less than or equal to 0.03). Results were replicated when

  16. The effect of β-sitosterol on the metabolism of cholesterol and lipids in rats on a diet containing coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, T.; Shorland, F. B.; Dunckley, G. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. Intraperitoneal injection of β-sitosterol (5mg./rat/day for 25 days) into 1-year-old male Wistar rats fed on a low-fat diet supplemented with 10% of coconut oil resulted in a lowering of cholesterol and lipid concentrations in the tissues. 2. β-Sitosterol increased the rate of biosynthesis of cholesterol and lipids in the tissues, but to an even greater extent enhanced their oxidative degradation. 3. The present results are similar to those previously obtained on a low-fat diet, indicating that the presence of fat had no marked effect on the action of β-sitosterol. PMID:5891218

  17. Effects of water temperature and diets containing palm oil on fatty acid desaturation and oxidation in hepatocytes and intestinal enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocher, Douglas R; Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Dick, James R; Ng, Wing-Keong; Bell, J Gordon; Campbell, Patrick J

    2004-01-01

    Food grade fisheries have reached their sustainable limits while aquaculture production has increased to meet consumer demands. However, for growth in aquaculture to continue and utilise sustainable, feeding ingredients, alternatives to fish oil (FO), the predominant lipid component of fish diets, must be developed. Therefore, there is currently considerable interest in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in fish in order to determine strategies for the best use of plant oils in diets for commercially important cultured fish species. Plant oils are characteristically rich in C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but devoid of C20 and C22 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) found in FO. The fatty acyl desaturase enzyme activities involved in the biosynthesis of HUFA from PUFA are known to be under nutritional regulation and can be increased in fish fed diets rich in plant oils. However, fatty acid desaturase activity is also known to be modulated by water temperature in fish. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between water temperature and diet in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in rainbow trout. Trout, acclimatized to 7, 11 or 15 degrees C, were fed for 4 weeks on diets in which the FO was replaced in a graded manner by palm oil. At the end of the trial, fatty acyl desaturation/elongation and beta-oxidation activities were determined in isolated hepatocytes and intestinal enterocytes using [1-14C]18:3n-3 as substrate, and samples of liver were collected for analysis of lipid and fatty acid composition. The most obvious effect of temperature was that fatty acid desaturation/elongation and beta-oxidation were reduced in both hepatocytes and intestinal enterocytes from fish maintained at the highest water temperature (15 degrees C). There were differences between the two tissues with the highest desaturation/elongation and beta-oxidation activities tending to be in fish held at 11 degrees C in the case of hepatocytes, but 7 degrees C

  18. Addition of fish oil to diets for dairy cows. II. Effects on milk fat and gene expression of mammary lipogenic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnadi, Charaf E; Beswick, Naomi; Delbecchi, Louis; Kennelly, John J; Lacasse, Pierre

    2002-11-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used to determine whether alterations of mammary fatty acid metabolism are responsible for the milk fat depression associated with consumption of fish oil. Cows were given a total mixed ration with no added fish oil (control), unprotected fish oil (3.7 % of dry matter), or glutaraldehyde-protected microcapsules of fish oil (1.5% or 3.0% of dry matter) for 4 weeks. Milk samples were taken once a week and a mammary biopsy was taken from a rear quarter at the end of the treatment period. Milk fat content was lower in cows given unprotected fish oil (26.0 g/kg), 1.5% protected fish oil (24.6 g/kg) and 3% protected fish oil (20.4 g/kg) than in cows fed the control diet (36.0 g/kg). This was mainly due to a decrease in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids. Consumption of protected fish oil decreased the abundance of lipogenic enzymes mRNA in the mammary gland. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNAs for cows given 3% protected fish oil averaged only 30%, 25% and 25% of control values, respectively. Dietary addition of unprotected fish oil slightly decreased mRNA abundance of these enzymes but markedly reduced the amount of lipoprotein lipase mRNA. Milk fat content was significantly correlated with gene expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase but not lipoprotein lipase. These results suggest that fish oil reduces milk fat percentage by inhibiting gene expression of mammary lipogenic enzymes.

  19. Absence of effects of dietary wheat bran on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mouse liver and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J C; Lambadarios, J A; Newsholme, E A

    1986-03-01

    1. The effects of a 100 g/kg dietary substitution of wheat bran on the body-weight gain, food consumption and faecal dry weight of mice given a high-sucrose diet and on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue were studied. 2. Wheat bran had no effect on body-weight gain, food consumption or faecal dry weight. 3. Wheat bran had no effect on the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44), malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+) (EC 1.1.1.40), ATP-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). The activity of hepatic 6-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) increased but only when expressed on a body-weight basis. 4. Wheat bran had no effect on the activities of adipose tissue glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+), ATP-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase, hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1), 6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase. 5. These results suggest that unlike guar gum and bagasse, wheat bran does not change the flux through some pathways of lipogenesis in liver and adipose tissue when mice are given high-sucrose diets.

  20. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  1. Rye bran bread intake elevates urinary excretion of ferulic acid in humans, but does not affect the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, H.; Tetens, I.; Let, Mette Bruni;

    2004-01-01

    Background Rye bread contributes an important part of the whole grain intake in the Scandinavian diet. Ferulic acid is the major phenolic compound in rye bran and is an antioxidant in vitro and may, therefore, contribute to cardioprotective effects of whole grain consumption. Aim of study Firstly...

  2. Fatty acid signatures of stomach oil and adipose tissue of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in Alaska: Implications for diet analysis of Procellariiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.W.; Iverson, S.J.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.

    2007-01-01

    Procellariiforms are unique among seabirds in storing dietary lipids in both adipose tissue and stomach oil. Thus, both lipid sources are potentially useful for trophic studies using fatty acid (FA) signatures. However, little is known about the relationship between FA signatures in stomach oil and adipose tissue of individuals or whether these signatures provide similar information about diet and physiology. We compared the FA composition of stomach oil and adipose tissue biopsies of individual northern fulmars (N = 101) breeding at three major colonies in Alaska. Fatty acid signatures differed significantly between the two lipid sources, reflecting differences in dietary time scales, metabolic processing, or both. However, these signatures exhibited a relatively consistent relationship between individuals, such that the two lipid sources provided a similar ability to distinguish foraging differences among individuals and colonies. Our results, including the exclusive presence of dietary wax esters in stomach oil but not adipose tissue, are consistent with the notion that stomach oil FA signatures represent lipids retained from prey consumed during recent foraging and reflect little metabolic processing, whereas adipose tissue FA signatures represent a longer-term integration of dietary intake. Our study illustrates the potential for elucidating short- versus longer-term diet information in Procellariiform birds using different lipid sources. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Multi Response Optimization of NOx Emission of a Stationary Diesel Engine Fuelled with Crude Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester Optimisation à réponses multiples de l’émission de NOx d’un moteur Diesel stationnaire alimenté par de l’ester méthylique d’huile de riz brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt was made to reduce the NOx emission of crude rice bran oil methyl ester without any considerable increase in smoke density, when used as a fuel in a stationary CI engine. Three factors namely, fuel injection timing, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR and fuel injection pressure were chosen and their combined effect in controlling the NOx emission of a stationary Diesel engine fuelled with crude rice bran oil methyl ester was investigated. Three levels were chosen in each factor and NOx emission, smoke density and brake thermal efficiency were taken as the response variables. Experiments were designed by employing design of experiments method and Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array was used to conduct the engine tests with different levels of the chosen factors. Multi Response Signal-to-Noise ratio (MRSN was calculated for the response variables and the optimum combination level of factors was obtained simultaneously using Taguchi’s parametric design. Confirmation experiment was conducted for the obtained optimum combination level of factors and the results were compared with normal operating conditions and significant improvement was observed in the response variables. Dans la présente étude, il a été tenté de réduire les émissions de NOx de l'ester méthylique d'huile de riz brut sans accroissement considérable de la densité de fumée lorsqu'il est utilisé comme carburant dans un moteur stationnaire à allumage par compression. Trois facteurs, à savoir le calage d'injection de carburant, le pourcentage de recirculation des gaz d'échappement (EGR ; Exhaust Gas Recirculation et la pression d'injection de carburant ont été choisis, et leur effet combiné a été examiné en matière de maîtrise des émissions de NOx d'un moteur Diesel stationnaire alimenté avec de l'ester méthylique d'huile de riz brut. Trois niveaux ont été choisis pour chaque facteur et les émissions de NOx, la densité de fum

  4. An arachidonic acid-enriched diet does not result in more colonic inflammation as compared with fish oil- or oleic acid-enriched diets in mice with experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakers, Julian D; Mensink, Ronald P; Verstege, Marleen I; te Velde, Anje A; Plat, Jogchum

    2008-08-01

    Fish oils (FO) - rich in EPA and DHA - may protect against colitis development. Moreover, inflammatory bowel disease patients have elevated colonic arachidonic acid (AA) proportions. So far, effects of dietary AA v. FO on colitis have never been examined. We therefore designed three isoenergetic diets, which were fed to mice for 6 weeks preceding and during 7 d dextran sodium sulfate colitis induction. The control diet was rich in oleic acid (OA). For the other two diets, 1.0 % (w/w) OA was exchanged for EPA+DHA (FO group) or AA. At 7 d after colitis induction, the AA group had gained weight (0.46 (sem 0.54) g), whereas the FO and OA groups had lost weight (- 0.98 (SEM 0.81) g and - 0.79 (SEM 1.05) g, respectively; P diet increased colonic AA content, but did not result in more colonic inflammation as compared with FO- and OA-enriched diets. As we only examined effects after 7 d and because the time point for evaluating effects seems to be important, the present results should be regarded as preliminary. Future studies should further elucidate differential effects of fatty acids on colitis development in time.

  5. Identification of compounds from high-fat and extra virgin olive oil-supplemented diets in whole mouse liver extracts and isolated mitochondria using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Gustavo Aparecido; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; de Oliveira, Vanessa; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Cintra, Dennys Esper Corrêa; Castilho, Roger Frigério; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a fatty liver disorder that could be improved with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) supplementation in diet. We propose the monitoring, in whole mouse liver extracts and in isolated mitochondria, of the absorption of compounds from three different diets: standard (CT), high-fat (HFD) and high-fat supplemented with EVOO (HFSO). Male mice were submitted to one of the following three diets: CT or HFD for 16 weeks or HFD for 8 weeks followed by additional 8 weeks with HFSO. Following this period, liver was extracted for histological evaluation, mitochondria isolation and mass spectrometry analyses. Diets, liver extracts and Percoll-purified mitochondria were analyzed using ESI-MS and the lipidomics approach. Morphological, histological and spectrometric results indicated a decrease in NASH severity with EVOO supplementation in comparison with animals maintained with HFD. Spectrometric data also demonstrated that some compounds presented on the diets are absorbed by the mitochondria. EVOO was shown to be a potential therapeutic alternative in food for NASH. Our results are in accordance with the proposition that the major factor that influences different responses to diets is their composition - and not only calories - especially when it comes to studies on obesity.

  6. Generalized Mattig's relation in Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salako, Ines G; Jawad, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The Geodesic Deviation Equation is being studied in Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity. We briefly discuss the Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity and then construct GDE for FLRW metric. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity. Eventually, we solve numerically the null vector GDE to obtain from Mattig relation, the deviation vector $\\eta(z)$ and observer area distance $r_0(z)$ and compare the results with $\\Lambda$CDM model.

  7. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  8. Digestion and deposition of individual fatty acids in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchaothai, J; Everts, H; Yuangklang, C; Wittayakun, S; Vasupen, K; Wongsuthavas, S; Srenanul, P; Hovenier, R; Beynen, A C

    2008-08-01

    The apparent digestibility and deposition in carcass of individual dietary fatty acids (FA) were determined in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil. The beef tallow was rich in saturated FA (SFA) and the sunflower oil had a high content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). A total of 39 barrows was used. The experimental diets contained 5% (w/w) of the variable fat source and were fed ad libitum. The dietary fat type had no effect (p > 0.05) on growth performance, even though the apparent digestibilities of crude fat and crude protein were higher (p tallow, the deposition:intake ratio was raised for the SFA (p tallow improved apparent digestibility of SFA, MUFA and PUFA, increased the deposition:digestible intake ratio for SFA, but lowered that for MUFA and PUFA.

  9. High-lard and high-fish-oil diets differ in their effects on function and dynamic behaviour of rat hepatic mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillà Lionetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that frequently undergo fission and fusion processes, and imbalances in these processes may be involved in obesity and insulin resistance. AIMS: The present work had the following aims: (a to evaluate whether the mitochondrial dysfunction present in the hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet is associated with changes in mitochondrial dynamics and morphology; (b to evaluate whether effects on the above parameters differ between high-lard and high-fish-oil diets, as it has been suggested that fish oil may have anti-obesity and anti-steatotic effects by stimulating fatty acids utilisation. METHODS: The development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance was monitored in rats fed a high-lard or high-fish-oil diet. Immunohistochemical and electronic microscopic observations were performed on liver sections. In isolated liver mitochondria, assessments of fatty acids oxidation rate, proton conductance and oxidative stress (by measuring H2O2 release and aconitase activity were performed. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the presence of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics (i.e., fusion and fission processes. To investigate the fusion process, mitofusin 2 and autosomal dominant optic atrophy-1 (OPA1 were analysed. To investigate the fission process, the presence of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1 and fission 1 protein (Fis1 was assessed. RESULTS: High-lard feeding elicited greater hepatic lipid accumulation, insulin resistance with associated mitochondrial dysfunction, greater oxidative stress and a shift towards mitochondrial fission processes (versus high-fish-oil feeding, which had an anti-steatotic effect associated with increased mitochondrial fusion processes. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of high-fat diets differ in their effect on mitochondrial function and dynamic behaviour, leading to different cellular adaptations to over-feeding.

  10. Efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de arroz em dietas suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte = Effect of different inclusion levels of rice bran in diets supplemented with phytase for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Robério Vieira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenhozootécnico, rendimento de carcaça e a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas contendo quantidades crescentes de farelo de arroz integral (FAI, suplementados com fitase. Foram utilizados 600 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagemRoss, alojados em boxes de acordo com um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos seguintes tratamentos: T1-ração referência (milho e farelo de soja; T2-ração referência com 750 FTU g-1; T3-ração com 3,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T4-ração com 7,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T5-ração com 10,5% FAI com 750 FTU g-1 e T6-ração com 14% FAIcom 750 FTU g-1. A inclusão de fitase, com a utilização de FAI até o nível de 14% e redução do fósforo inorgânico na formulação da ração, não afetou o desempenho zootécnico e características de carcaça dos frangos de corte, porém reduziu a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia dos ossos.The experiment was carried with the objective of evaluating the productive performance, carcass yield, phosphorus availability and tibia ash in broilers subjected to diets containing increasing amounts of whole rice bran (WRB, supplemented with phytase. Six hundred broilers (Ross, all males, were allocated in boxesaccording to a completely randomized design, being fed the following regimens: T1 standard feed (corn and soybean meal; T2 standard feed with 750 FTU g-1; T3 feed with 3.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1; T4 feed with 7.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1 T5 feed with 10.5% WRB with 750 FTU g-1 and T6 feed with 14% WRB with 750 FTU g-1. The inclusion of phytase with the use of WRB to the level of 14% and the reduction of the inorganic P in the formulation of the feed did not affect the performance and carcass characteristics of the broiler chickens; however, it did decrease the presence of phosphorus and ash in the tibia.

  11. Corn oil versus lard: Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in mice fed obesogenic diets with different fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlisova, Jana; Bardova, Kristina; Stankova, Barbora; Tvrzicka, Eva; Kopecky, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding the level of insulin resistance induced by high-fat diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) when compared to those enriched by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and how metabolic effects of marine PUFA of n-3 series, i.e. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), depend on dietary lipid background. Here we compared two high-fat diets, in which the major lipid constituent was based either on SFA in the form of pork lard (LHF diet) or PUFA of n-6 series (Omega-6) as corn oil (cHF diet). Both cHF and LHF parental diets were also supplemented with EPA+DHA (∼30 g/kg diet) to produce cHF+F and LHF+F diet, respectively. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed the experimental diets for 8 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in mice fed LHF and cHF diets, and then metabolic effects of cHF+F and LHF+F diets were assessed focusing on the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Both LHF and cHF induced comparable weight gain and the level of insulin resistance, however LHF-fed mice showed increased hepatic steatosis associated with elevated activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels when compared to cHF. Despite lowering hepatic SCD1 activity, which was concomitant with reduced hepatic steatosis reaching the level observed in cHF+F mice, LHF+F did not decrease adiposity and the weight of eWAT, and rather further impaired insulin sensitivity relative to cHF+F, that tended to improve it. In conclusion, high-fat diets containing as much as ∼35 weight% as lipids induce similar weight gain and impairment of insulin sensitivity irrespective whether they are based on SFA or Omega-6. Although the SFA-rich diet containing EPA+DHA efficiently reduced hepatic steatosis, it did so without a corresponding improvement in insulin sensitivity and in the absence of effect on adiposity.

  12. Effect of sunflower-seed oil and linseed oil on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression, and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats fed maize silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Bonnet, M; Leroux, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-12-01

    Lipid in the diet is known to enhance milk fat secretion and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats. In the current experiment, the contribution of peripheral tissue and mammary gland lipid metabolism to changes in milk fat composition from plant oils was examined. Fourteen Alpine goats in midlactation were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d experimental periods. Treatments comprised maize silage-based diets containing no additional oil (M), sunflower-seed oil (MSO; 6.1% of diet DM), or linseed oil (MLO; 6.2% of diet DM). Compared with the control, milk yield was greater in goats fed MSO (3.37 and 3.62 kg/d, respectively), whereas MLO enhanced milk fat content (+3.9 g/kg), resulting in a 14% increase in milk fat secretion. Both MSO and MLO increased milk lactose secretion by 12 and 8%, respectively, compared with M. Relative to the control, plant oils decreased C10 to C16 secretion (32 and 24%, respectively, for MSO and MLO) and enhanced C18 output in milk (ca. 110%). Diets MSO and MLO increased cis-9 18:1 secretion in milk by 25 and 31%, respectively, compared with M. The outputs of trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 in milk were increased 8.34- and 6.02-fold for MSO and 5.58- and 3.71-fold for MLO compared with M, and MSO increased trans-10 18:1 and trans-10, cis-12 18:2 secretion. Plant oils decreased milk fat cis-9 14:1/14:0; cis-9 16:1/16:0; cis-9 18:1/18:0; and cis-9, trans-11 18:2/trans-11 18:1 concentration ratios but had no effect on mammary stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA or activity. Furthermore, changes in milk fatty acid secretion were not associated with alterations in mammary acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and activity, abundance of mRNA encoding for lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid synthase, or malic enzyme and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in mammary tissue. Mammary lipoprotein lipase activity was increased with MSO relative to MLO. Treatments had no effect on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme

  13. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  14. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  15. Effect of a low-fat fish oil diet on proinflammatory eicosanoids and cell-cycle progression score in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galet, Colette; Gollapudi, Kiran; Stepanian, Sevan; Byrd, Joshua B; Henning, Susanne M; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Heber, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Aronson, William J

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a 4- to 6-week low-fat fish oil (LFFO) diet did not affect serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (primary outcome) but resulted in lower omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in prostate tissue and lower prostate cancer proliferation (Ki67) as compared with a Western diet. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of the LFFO intervention on serum pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 15-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE], and the cell-cycle progression (CCP) score were investigated. Serum fatty acids and eicosanoids were measured by gas chromatography and ELISA. CCP score was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Associations between serum eicosanoids, Ki67, and CCP score were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. BLT1 (LTB4 receptor) expression was determined in prostate cancer cell lines and prostatectomy specimens. Serum omega-6 fatty acids and 15(S)-HETE levels were significantly reduced, and serum omega-3 levels were increased in the LFFO group relative to the Western diet group, whereas there was no change in LTB4 levels. The CCP score was significantly lower in the LFFO compared with the Western diet group. The 15(S)-HETE change correlated with tissue Ki67 (R = 0.48; P < 0.01) but not with CCP score. The LTB4 change correlated with the CCP score (r = 0.4; P = 0.02) but not with Ki67. The LTB4 receptor BLT1 was detected in prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer specimens. In conclusion, an LFFO diet resulted in decreased 15(S)-HETE levels and lower CCP score relative to a Western diet. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the LFFO diet antiproliferative effects are mediated through the LTB4/BLT1 and 15(S)-HETE pathways.

  16. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of rice bran extracts using different antioxidant assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Bajwa, Jawad -ur-

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the antioxidant activity of different solvent (100% methanol, 80% methanol, 100% acetone, 80% acetone extracts of rice bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays and using sunflower oil as oxidation substrate. The rice bran extracts were evaluated from the estimate of % inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, total phenolics content (TPC and loss of β-carotene in a linoleic acid system. Additionally, crude concentrated rice bran extracts were added into the sunflower oil samples and stored under ambient conditions. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated diene-, and triene- values. The general order of antioxidant efficacy of rice bran extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic  extract > 80% acetone extract > 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that rice bran extracts of the Super Kernel variety indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.Se evalúa la actividad antioxidante diferentes extractos (100% metanol, 80% metanol, 100% acetona and 80% acetona de salvado de arroz -var. Super Kernel- mediante diferentes ensayos y utilizando aceite de girasol como substrato. Los ensayos utilizados fueron la estimación del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en sistemas con ácido linoleico, el contenido total en compuestos fenólicos y la pérdida de β-caroteno en sistemas con ácido linoleico. Adicionalmente, los concentrados de extractos de salvado de arroz se añadieron a aceite de girasol y las muestras se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente. La extensión de la oxidación se evaluó mediante el índice de peróxidos, el índice de p-anisidina, así como la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados. El orden de la eficacia antioxidante

  17. Effect of the supplementation linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut into a high fat diet on the fatty acid profile of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study it was evaluated the effect of the addition of linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut added to a high fat (HF diet on the content of fatty acids (FAs in musculuss longissimus dorsi (MLD of pigs. A 5d with adaptation period was followed by a 70 d experimental period, during which the pigs were fed with a HF basal diet. The HF basal diet which served as a control (group CG was supplemented either with linseed oil (group LG or with inulin and horse chestnut (group IG. All of the pigs were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and samples of MLD were taken for FA analysis. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in MLD of the LG group was 58 % and 61 % higher (P˂0.05 compared to CG and IG groups, respectively. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was 0.03 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 0.07 in LG treatment. These FAs were not detected in CG and IG. The ratio of MUFA and PUFA n-6/n-3 in the MLD was the lowest (P˂0.05 in the LG (8.84 compared to CG (14.07 or IG (14.74 groups, representing a difference of 31.2%. The n-3/saturated FA ratio was highest (P˂0.05 in LG group (0.04 when compared to CG and IG groups (0.02. The supplementation of linseed oil, into the HF diet resulted in a higher concentration of α-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA and lower ratio of n-6/n-3 FA in MLD. Inulin and horse chestnut had no effect on FA profile of MLD.

  18. Euclidean non-vacuum wormholes in Brans-Dicke theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hui-Qing; Ji Pei-Yong; Pan Peng-Peng

    2004-01-01

    The Brans-Dicke theory is investigated in which the Pauli metric is identified to be a physical spacetime metric.The solutions of a wormhole are obtained in Brans-Dicke theory with a relativistic radiation field for ω> -3/2.However, it is found that one cannot construct a wormhole in the presence of a 3-form axion field.

  19. Apparent zinc absorption and zinc status of weanling rats fed moderately zinc-deficient diets enriched with beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, E; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare apparent Zn absorption and Zn status of weanling rats fed diets that differed in Zn level, fat level and fat source. Semi-synthetic diets, which were about isoenergetic and contained 3% soyabean oil, were supplemented with 7 or 100 mg Zn/kg to create a mild Zn deficiency (LZ) or a high Zn supply (HZ) and with 0 (LF), 22% beef tallow (BT) or 22% sunflower oil (SF) according to a 2 × 3 factorial design of treatments. They were fed ad libitum to 6 × 8 rats for 28 days. Energy intake and growth rates were comparable among the HZ groups. Weight gains in the LZ-LF, LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups averaged 5.54, 4.95 and 4.15 g/day, and apparent Zn absorption averaged 79.4, 60.3 and 48.0 μg Zn/day, respectively, whereas faecal Zn excretion was comparable among these groups. Apparent Zn absorption, and plasma and femur Zn concentrations were lower in the high-fat groups than in the LF group, possibly due to the high cellulose content of the BT and SF diets. Plasma Zn concentrations were higher in the animals fed the BT-based than in the SF-based diets, whereas femur and soft tissue Zn concentrations were comparable among these groups. The differences between the LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups in growth rate, Zn absorption rate and Zn status were confirmed in a second experiment. The results indicate that moderately Zn-deficient diets enriched with SF in relation to BT affect Zn metabolism of weanling rats by a yet unknown mechanism.

  20. Evaluation of α-tocopherol acetate, peel and extract pomogrante antioxidative potential in diet contained fish oil on meat quality boiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Salehi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poultry meat enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (PUFA Lc n-3 can make a nutritionally meaningful contribution to Western diets in which consumption of PUFA Lc n-3 is low. Enrichment of poultry meat with this fatty acid is usually achieved by inclusion of fish oil in broiler diet (23, 24. However, meat enriched in this way is susceptible to quality deterioration by lipid oxidation during storage or cooking, leading to reduction in nutritive value and accumulation of lipid oxidation products (10. Oxidation is a very general process affecting lipids, pigments, proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and vitamins (11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary α-tocopherol (α-Toc, pomegranate peel extract (PPE and pomegranate peel (PP on fatty acid profile, aoxidation and phenolic compounds in raw thigh and breast meat during refrigeration. Materials and methods Peels of pomegranate were harvested in October 2011 from pomegranate trees (Ardestani, variety in Khorasan Razavi province (East, Iran. Dried powders of peels (2.5 g were extracted with 40 mL of methanol solvent at room temperature for 6 hours. Three hundred and eighty four 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 8 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds. Eight dietary treatments including control diet without feed additives, control diet mixed with 200 mg/kg α-Toc, control diet mixed with PPE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control diet mixed with PP (1, 2 and 3 g/kg. In all diets 2% fish oil were added to enhance the enrichment of unsaturated n-3 fatty acid in birds. One broiler chick was randomly selected from each pen of 42 d of age. The antioxidative potential and various meat quality characteristics were determined on 0, 7, and 11 days of refrigerated storage. Total phenols content in the aqueous supernatant was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (33. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging

  1. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Garg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions.

  2. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ramandeep; Brennan, Lorraine; Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Strain, J J; Gibney, Mike J; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Garg, Lalit; Welch, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions.

  3. The BRAN luminosity detectors for the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, H. S.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, A.; Turner, W. C.; Bravin, E.; Miyamoto, R.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the several phases which led, from the conceptual design, prototyping, construction and tests with beam, to the installation and operation of the BRAN (Beam RAte of Neutrals) relative luminosity monitors for the LHC. The detectors have been operating since 2009 to contribute, optimize and maintain the accelerator performance in the two high luminosity interaction regions (IR), the IR1 (ATLAS) and the IR5 (CMS). The devices are gas ionization chambers installed inside a neutral particle absorber 140 m away from the Interaction Points in IR1 and IR5 and monitor the energy deposited by electromagnetic showers produced by high-energy neutral particles from the collisions. The detectors have the capability to resolve the bunch-by-bunch luminosity at the 40 MHz bunch rate, as well as to survive the extreme level of radiation during the nominal LHC operation. The devices have operated since the early commissioning phase of the accelerator over a broad range of luminosities reaching 1.4×1034 cm-2 s-1 with a peak pileup of 45 events per bunch crossing. Even though the nominal design luminosity of the LHC has been exceeded, the BRAN is operating well. After describing how the BRAN can be used to monitor the luminosity of the collider, we discuss the technical choices that led to its construction and the different tests performed prior to the installation in two IRs of the LHC. Performance simulations are presented together with operational results obtained during p-p operations, including runs at 40 MHz bunch rate, Pb-Pb operations and p-Pb operations.

  4. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA.

  5. Impact of Korean pine nut oil on weight gain and immune responses in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Sunhye; Han, Sung Nim

    2013-10-01

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to have favorable effects on lipid metabolism and appetite control. We investigated whether PNO consumption could influence weight gain, and whether the PNO-induced effect would result in an improvement of immune function in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets with 10% energy fat from either PNO or soybean oil (SBO), or HFDs with 45% energy fat from 10% PNO or SBO and 35% lard, 20% PNO or SBO and 25% lard, or 30% PNO or SBO and 15% lard for 12 weeks. The proliferative responses of splenocytes upon stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Con A-stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and LPS-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-1β, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by splenocytes were determined. Consumption of HFDs containing PNO resulted in significantly less weight gain (17% less, P PNO consumption resulted in a higher production of IL-1β (P = 0.04). Replacement of SBO with PNO had no effect on the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, or PGE2 in mice fed with either the control diets or HFDs. In conclusion, consumption of PNO reduced weight gain in mice fed with HFD, but this effect did not result in the overall improvement in immune responses.

  6. Dynamical symmetries in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Papagiannopoulos, G; Basilakos, S; Giacomini, A; Paliathanasis, A

    2016-01-01

    In the context of generalised Brans-Dicke cosmology we use the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to determine the unspecified potential of a scalar-tensor gravity theory. Specifically, based on the existence of contact symmetries of the field equations, we find four types of potentials which provide exactly integrable dynamical systems. We investigate the dynamical properties of these potentials by using a critical point analysis and we find solutions which lead to cosmic acceleration and under specific conditions we can have de-Sitter points as stable late-time attractors.

  7. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs.

  8. The hypocholesterolemic effects of beta-glucan in oatmeal and oat bran. A dose-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M H; Dugan, L D; Burns, J H; Bova, J; Story, K; Drennan, K B

    1991-04-10

    Oat cereals rich in the water-soluble fiber beta-glucan have been studied as a dietary therapy for hypercholesterolemia. To determine the hypocholesterolemic response of beta-glucan in the diet, 156 adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels above 4.14 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) or between 3.37 and 4.14 mmol/L (130 and 160 mg/dL) with multiple risk factors were randomized to one of seven groups. Six groups received either oatmeal or oat bran at doses (dry weight) of 28 g (1 oz), 56 g (2 oz), and 84 g (3 oz). A seventh group received 28 g of farina (beta-glucan control). At week 6 of treatment, significant differences were found for both total cholesterol and LDL-C levels among the farina control and the treatment groups who were receiving 84 g of oatmeal, 56 g of oat bran, and 84 g of oat bran, with decreases in LDL-C levels of 10.1%, 15.9%, and 11.5%, respectively. Fifty-six grams of oat bran resulted in significantly greater reductions in LDL-C levels than 56 g of oatmeal. Nutrient analysis shows no difference in dietary fat content between these treatment groups; therefore, the higher beta-glucan content of oat bran most likely explains the significantly greater LDL-C reductions. A dose-dependent reduction in LDL-C levels with oat cereals supports the independent hypocholesterolemic effects of beta-glucan.

  9. Brain development in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, C R; da Camara Boueri, B Ferolla; da Costa, L Rodrigues; Ferreira, M Rocha; Melo, H Saldanha; de Abreu, M Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, L Rozeno; da Silva, P C Alves; Pereira, A D'Avila; Ribeiro, D Cavalcante; de Meneses, J Azevedo; da Costa, C A Soares; Boaventura, G T

    2015-08-01

    The precocious interruption of lactation is a prime factor for developmental plasticity. Here we analyzed whether flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body and brain mass in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from their mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, some of the pups were evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control pups (C60) were fed a control diet. EW pups were divided into those fed a control diet (EWC60), those given flaxseed flour (EWFF60), and those given flaxseed oil (EWFO60) until 60 days. EW21 showed lower body and absolute brain mass and higher relative brain mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 had lower body mass. With regard to relative brain mass, EWC60 was heavier; EWFO60 had lower values compared with EWC60 and higher values compared with C60 and EWFF60. These results indicated that flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to brain development after EW.

  10. Production of TNF-α, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by macrophages from mice with paracoccidioidomycosis that were fed a linseed oil-enriched diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA can modulate the immune system and their primary effect is on macrophage function. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb. Macrophages are the main defence against this pathogen and have microbicidal activity that is dependent on interferon-Γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α. These cytokines stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, leading to the death of the fungus. To study the effect of n-3 PUFA on the host immune response during experimental PCM, macrophages that were obtained from animals infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched by linseed (LIN oil were cultured and challenged with the fungus in vitro. The macrophage function was analysed based on the concentrations of TNF-α, NO and H2O2. LIN oil seems to influence the production of TNF-α during the development of disease. A diet enriched with LIN oil influences the microbicidal activity of the macrophages by inducing the production of cytokines and metabolites such as NO and H2O2, predominantly in the chronic phase of infection.

  11. Nutritional composition of rice bran submitted to different stabilization procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida dos Santos Conceição Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to inactivate enzymatic deterioration, whole rice bran samples were subjected to two stabilization methods. Changes in nutritional value in terms of, concerning chemical composition, minerals and fatty acid content, were evaluated to supplement existing data and promote the utilization of rice bran in the human diet. The following homemade heat treatments were applied: roasting on a conventional stove or heating in a microwave oven. Based on the results, the different heating methods affected sample composition, since the levels of some nutrients of treated samples showed significant changes (pA fim de inativar a deterioração enzimática, as amostras de farelo de arroz foram submetidas a dois métodos de estabilização. As mudanças do valor nutricional, no que se refere a composição química, os minerais e o conteúdo de ácidos graxos, foram avaliadas para adicionar mais informações aos dados existentes e promover a utilização de farelo de arroz na dieta humana. Os seguintes tratamentos caseiros por calor foram aplicados: torra em forno convencional ou de aquecimento em forno de micro-ondas. Com base nos resultados, os diferentes métodos de aquecimento afetaram a composição das amostras, já que os níveis de alguns nutrientes mostraram alterações significativas (p <0,05, comparado com as amostras cruas correspondentes. O farelo de arroz tratado em fogão convencional forneceu produtos com menos umidade (5,14 ± 0,10 g/100 g e nutrientes, tais como: de sódio 11,8%; ácido palmítico 9,9% e ácido esteárico 8,1%. O procedimento de forno de micro-ondas resultou em melhor preservação dos nutrientes, com teor de umidade um pouco maior (6,28 ± 0,10 g/100 g, o que parece ser uma ferramenta prática e rápida no tratamento térmico caseiro para o farelo de arroz.

  12. Diet × genotype interactions in hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in response to replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Sofia; Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Torstensen, Bente E; Taggart, John B; Guy, Derrick R; Bell, J Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R

    2011-11-01

    The present study investigates the effects of genotype on responses to alternative feeds in Atlantic salmon. Microarray analysis of the liver transcriptome of two family groups, lean or fat, fed a diet containing either a fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) blend indicated that pathways of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism might be differentially affected by the diet depending on the genetic background of the fish, and this was further investigated by real-time quantitative PCR, plasma and lipoprotein biochemical analysis. Results indicate a reduction in VLDL and LDL levels, with no changes in HDL, when FO is replaced by VO in the lean family group, whereas in fat fish fed FO, levels of apoB-containing lipoproteins were low and comparable with those fed VO in both family groups. Significantly lower levels of plasma TAG and LDL-TAG were measured in the fat group that was independent of diet, whereas plasma cholesterol was significantly higher in fish fed the FO diet in both groups. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, β-oxidation and lipoprotein metabolism showed relatively subtle changes. A significantly lower expression of genes considered anti-atherogenic in mammals (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, apoAI, scavenger receptor class B type 1, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)b (TC67836) and LPLc (TC84899)) was found in lean fish, compared with fat fish, when fed VO. Furthermore, the lean family group appeared to show a greater response to diet composition in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, mediated by sterol-responsive element-binding protein 2. Finally, the presence of three different transcripts for LPL, with differential patterns of nutritional regulation, was demonstrated.

  13. PEMANFAATAN BAHAN TUMBUHAN SEBAGAI BIOKATALISATOR DALAM PRODUKSI MINYAK SAWIT KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 [Using of Plant Biocatalisator for Omega-3 PUFA -Rich Palm Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Elisabeth1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Incorporaton of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA into red palm oil was investigated by using acidolysis process. Rice bran and Carica papaya latex (CPL were used as biocatalyst. Acidolysis between red palm oil and n-3 PUFA concentrate in free fatty acid form was conducted without solvent, with weight ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to palm oil being 1:1. The n-3 PUFA concentrate was prepared from tuna oil by crystallization method. The study has demonstrated that rice bran lipase showed higher activity to incorporate n-3 PUFA into red palm oil than CPL. The extent of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 and DHA (docosahexaeboic acid, C22:6 incorporation were 3.4% and 12.7% with the rice bran lipase, and 1.7% and 3.2% with the CPL. Furthermore, rice bran from several varities of paddy (Mamberamo, IR-64, Merah Munte , and Cirata produced equal incorporation of EPA and DHA into red palm oil. Rice bran from germinated seed of paddy did not increase the n-3 PUFA incorporation into red palm oil. It means that rice bran in its natural form could be used and act as immobilized lipase. It is easier to remove the rice bran from reaction mixture and reuse the bran for 14 times without decreasing its enzyme activity

  14. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L.; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L.

    2017-01-01

    During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals. PMID:28241421

  15. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  16. Changes in chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of chick low- and high-density lipoproteins induced by supplementation of coconut oil to the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, E M; Zafra, M F; Gil-Villarino, A; Pérez, M I; Alvarez-Pez, J M; García-Peregrín, E

    1997-06-01

    Supplementation of coconut oil to the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in 14-day-old chicks. Changes in plasma fatty acid composition correlated positively with those of diets. In this study, we have shown a different response of low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) fractions to dietary saturated fat (coconut oil) rich in lauric and myristic acids. Although all the components of these particles seemed to increase, the percentages of increases found in total (TC), free (FC) and esterified cholesterol (EC) were higher in LDL than in HDL. TC/phospholipid (PL) ratio, considered as an inverse index of membrane fluidity, also increased with the dietary regimen in LDL, while no significant differences were found in HDL. These results suggest that supplementation of coconut oil to the diet decreased the fluidity of LDL. The EC/triglycerides (TG) ratio was also significantly increased in LDL, corroborating the main atherogenic function of this lipoprotein fraction in response to lauric and myristic acids. We have also estimated the lipidic order parameter, S, from the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)-labelled low- and high-density lipoproteins. In LDL, temperature dependence of S shows two different behaviour zones at about 20 degrees C. In HDL, the plot of S values versus T is linear. DPH anisotropy and S increased in both LDL and HDL from treated chicks. This increase becomes more evident as temperature rises and also with dietary treatment.

  17. Association of Expanded Disability Status Scale and Cytokines after Intervention with Co-supplemented Hemp Seed, Evening Primrose Oils and Hot-natured Diet in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

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    Behzad Baradaran

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. The aim of this study is to examine the correlations between expanded disability status scale (EDSS and cytokines after intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils and hot-natured diet in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. Methods: We studied a group of 23 patients with clinically definite RRMS, with EDSS<6 who received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advising hot-natured diet. Clinically EDSS and immunological factors (plasma cytokines of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Results: Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 days (N=23, 7 Male and 16 Females aged 25.0±7.5 years with disease duration 6.26±3.9 years. After 6 months, significant improvements in extended disability status score were found in the patients in agreement with decrease cytokines of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increase cytokines of IL-4. Clinical and immunological parameters showed improvement in the patients after the intervention. Conclusion: Our study shows that co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with hot-natured diet can have beneficial effects in improving clinical symptoms in relapsing remitting MS patients and significant correlation was found between EDSS and immunological findings.

  18. Should the amazigh diet (regular and moderate argan-oil consumption) have a beneficial impact on human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Virgin argan oil, cosmetic or dietary grade, is prepared by cold-pressing the kernels of argan fruits. Both types of oil, traditionally used by the amazighs (the argan grove traditional dwellers), are now available on the shelves of the most-developed country stores. Argan oil contains a high level of oleic and linoleic acid and is also particularly rich in phenols. Since these metabolites are currently considered as essential to explain some of the protective effects against cancer and coronary heart disease attributed to other oils, similar effects can be expected from argan oil consumption as suggested by the amazigh medicine claims. Interestingly, argan oil content in gamma -tocopherol is much higher than that of any other oils. gamma -Tocopherol has recently been shown to possess strong chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. This indicates that argan oil should readily find a place of choice amid the most profitable oils for human health. Because of its reduced geographical origin, the chemical composition (major as well as minor components) of argan oil is also highly reproducible. Therefore argan oil consumption should confer health benefits in a reliable and efficient manner.

  19. Positional distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols from subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid, corn oil, or beef tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D A; Behrends, J M; Jenschke, B E; Rhoades, R D; Smith, S B

    2004-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary beef tallow, corn oil, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the distribution of fatty acids among positions within triacylglycerols. Crossbred barrows (n=6 per treatment group) received diets containing 1.5% beef tallow, 1.5% corn oil, or 1.5% CLA for 5 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained immediately postmortem. The fatty acid composition was determined for the sn-2 positions of the triacylglycerols by digestion with Rhizopus arrhizus lipase. Fatty acids in the sn-1/3 position were calculated from these data. Feeding CLA increased (Ptallow-fed pigs. These data suggest that dietary CLA increases the melting point of lipids in porcine adipose tissue by increasing the proportion of SFA at the sn-1/3 position of lipids.

  20. Critical behavior in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, T; Chiba, Takeshi; Soda, Jiro

    1996-01-01

    The collapse of a massless scalar field in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation is studied in the analysis of both analytical solution and numerical one. By conformally transforming the Roberts's solution into the Brans-Dicke frame, we find for \\omega > -3/2 that a continuous self-similarity continues and that the critical exponent does depend on \\omega. By conformally transforming the Choptuik's solution into the Brans-Dicke frame, we find for \\omega > -3/2 that at the critical solution shows discrete self-similarity, however, the critical exponent depends strongly on \\omega while the echoing parameter weakly on it.

  1. Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus(L.

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    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35% and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g on the weight gain (WG, food conversion FC, retained protein (PR, retained energy (ER and protein efficiency ratio (PER in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” (Oreochromis niloticus. Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between the experimental diets. In diets with 30% proteins, the increase of digestible energy significantly enhances WG, FC, PR, ER and PER, where the level of 3.7 kcal/g had the best performance. With 35% protein, the increase of digestible energy had not significant influence on the GP, CA, PR, ER and PER, however the growth of sex reversal Nile Tilapia was improved with the level of 3.3 kcal/g. When were compared both diets, were not find significant differences. Considering the protein cost, it can be concluded that best response was obtained with a diet containing 30 % of protein and 3.7 kcal/g of digestible energy and optimum digestible energy/ digestible protein ratio of 13.75 kcal/g protein.

  2. Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol).

  3. Effects of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of α-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxheinrich, Andrea; Stratmann, Bernd; Lee-Barkey, Young Hee; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Wahrburg, Ursel

    2012-08-01

    In therapy of the metabolic syndrome, the optimal dietary approach with regard to its macronutrient composition and metabolically favourable food components, such as the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), is still a matter of debate. We investigated the effects of a hypoenergetic diet with low energy density (ED) enriched in rapeseed oil, resulting in high MUFA content and an ALA intake of 3.5 g/d on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in eighty-one patients with the metabolic syndrome in comparison with an olive oil diet rich in MUFA, but with a low ALA content. After a 6-month dietary intervention, body weight was significantly reduced in the rapeseed oil and olive oil groups ( -7.8 v. -6.0 kg; P rapeseed oil diet, diastolic blood pressure declined more than after the olive oil diet (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). Furthermore, concentrations of serum TAG were significantly reduced after the high ALA intake, but not in the low ALA group (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). In conclusion, our dietary food pattern with a low ED and high intakes of MUFA and ALA may be a practical approach for long-term dietary treatment in patients with the metabolic syndrome, leading to weight reduction and an improvement in the overall cardiovascular risk profile.

  4. Influence of virgin coconut oil-enriched diet on the transcriptional regulation of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in rats - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, Sakunthala; Rajamohan, Thankappan

    2014-05-28

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower-seed oil on the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids and the molecular regulation of fatty acid metabolism in normal rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the test oils at 8 % for 45 d along with a synthetic diet. Dietary supplementation of VCO decreased tissue lipid levels and reduced the activity of the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, namely acyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase (FAS) (P< 0·05). Moreover, VCO significantly (P< 0·05) reduced the de novo synthesis of fatty acids by down-regulating the mRNA expression of FAS and its transcription factor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, compared with the other oils. VCO significantly (P< 0·05) increased the mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, which was evident from the increased activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, acyl CoA oxidase and the enzymes involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation; this was accomplished by up-regulating the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. In conclusion, the present results confirmed that supplementation of VCO has beneficial effects on lipid parameters by reducing lipogenesis and enhancing the rate of fatty acid catabolism; this effect was mediated at least in part via PPARα-dependent pathways. Thus, dietary VCO reduces the risk for CHD by beneficially modulating the synthesis and degradation of fatty acids.

  5. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  6. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  7. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Bonnet, M; Chilliard, Y

    2012-04-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d experimental periods. Treatments were a grass hay-based diet with a high level of forage (F) or a high level of concentrate with either maize grain (CM) or flattened wheat (CW) as source of starch and supplemented with 130 g/d sunflower-seed oil. Milk yield was enhanced (Pdiets compared with the F diet, resulting in similar milk fat secretion. Both high-concentrate diets increased (Pdiet decreased (Pdiets differ between caprine and bovine ruminants.

  8. Jordan-Brans-Dicke stochastic inflation

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J

    1994-01-01

    We study stochastic inflation in the presence of a dynamical gravitational constant. We describe the Arnowitt--Deser--Misner formalism for Jordan--Brans--Dicke theory of gravity with an inflaton field. The inflaton and dilaton scalar fields can be separated into coarse-grained background fields and quantum fluctuations. We compute the amplitude of the perturbations generated by those quantum fluctuations in JBD theory with an arbitrary potential for the inflaton field. The effect of the quantum fluctuations on the background fields is equivalent to a Brownian motion of the scalar fields, which can be described with the use of a Fokker--Planck diffusion equation. The probability to find a given value of the fields in the comoving frame can be written as a Gaussian distribution centered on their classical trajectory, with decreasing dispersion along both field directions. We also calculate the condition for the Universe to enter a self-regenerating inflationary phase. The probability distribution in the physica...

  9. Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessyca dos Reis Celestino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta, for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335 UI/L using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385 IU/g in solid state fermentation (SSF.

  10. Generalized Brans-Dicke inflation with a quartic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Tahmasebzadeh, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of Brans-Dicke gravity, we investigate inflation with a quartic potential, $\\lambda\\varphi^4/4$, in the presence of generalized Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega_{\\rm GBD}(\\varphi)$. We obtain the inflationary observables containing the scalar spectral index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, the running of the scalar spectral index and the equilateral non-Gaussianity parameter in terms of general form of the potential $U(\\varphi)$ and $\\omega_{\\rm GBD}(\\varphi)$. For the quartic potential, our results show that the predictions of the model are in well agreement with the Planck 2015 data for the generalized Brans-Dicke parameters $\\omega_{\\rm GBD}(\\varphi)=\\omega_0\\varphi^{n}$ and $\\omega_0e^{b\\varphi}$. This is in contrast with both the Einstein and standard Brans-Dicke gravity, in which the result of quartic potential is disfavored by the Planck data.

  11. A Combination of Flaxseed Oil and Astaxanthin Improves Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Oxidative Stress in High Fat-Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqu Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO and astaxanthin (ASX on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX. Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks. Substitution of lard with FO + ASX reduced steatosis and reduced hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. The combination of FO and ASX significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression. FO + ASX significantly suppressed fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase but induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. FO + ASX also significantly elevated hepatic SOD, CAT and GPx activity and GSH, and markedly reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Thus, FO and ASX may reduce NAFLD by reversing hepatic steatosis and reducing lipid accumulation and oxidative stress.

  12. Alterations in benzo(A)pyrene metabolism and in vivo binding to hepatic DNA in rats red diets containing menhaden oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, A.E.; Dharwadkar, S.

    1987-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-6 type have been shown to support the mixed function oxidases (MFO) responsible for carcinogen activation and to promote tumorigenesis in laboratory animals. The omega-3 fatty acids contained in menhaden oil (MO) have been shown to enhance MFO activity and increase the binding of Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) metabolites to calf thymus DNA in an in vitro microsomal system. Rats fed two levels of MO (0.5% and 20%) for 11 days received a single i.p. dose of (/sup 3/H)B(a)P (5 m Ci/kg) dissolved in DMSO. At selected time intervals thereafter rats were killed, blood withdrawn, livers removed and DNA extracted. Hepatic microsomes were recovered from control rats on each diet at the time of B(a)P administration to assess MFO activities. Binding of B(a)P to DNA was higher in rats fed the 20% MO diet suggesting an increased rate of B(a)P activation. Blood levels of B(a)P were elevated at 16 and 24 hours post B(a)P, however no differences in urine concentrations were observed. Elevations in concentration of cytochrome P-450, ethoxycoumarin dealkylase, and glutathione S-transferase suggest that omega-3 fatty acids of menhaden fish oil support MFO related reactions not unlike the omega-6 fatty acids.

  13. A Combination of Flaxseed Oil and Astaxanthin Improves Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Oxidative Stress in High Fat-Diet Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqu; Rong, Shuang; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Yang, Wei; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Xiao, Lingyun; Huang, Fenghong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks. Substitution of lard with FO + ASX reduced steatosis and reduced hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. The combination of FO and ASX significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression. FO + ASX significantly suppressed fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase but induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. FO + ASX also significantly elevated hepatic SOD, CAT and GPx activity and GSH, and markedly reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Thus, FO and ASX may reduce NAFLD by reversing hepatic steatosis and reducing lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:28335388

  14. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation of coriander oil, in canola oil diets, on the metabolism of [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 and [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 in rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, K M; Drew, M D; Øverland, M; Østbye, T-K; Bjerke, M; Vogt, G; Ruyter, B

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of petroselinic acid, found in coriander oil, on the ability of rainbow trout hepatocytes to increase the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) from [1-(14)C] α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA) and to reduce the production of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; ARA) from [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6. Addition of coriander oil increased the production of 22:6n-3, from [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3, at the 0.5 and 1.0% inclusion levels and reduced the conversion of [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 to 20:4n-6. β-Oxidation was significantly increased at the 1.5% inclusion level for [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6, however β-oxidation for [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 only showed an increasing trend. Acetate, a main breakdown product of fatty acids (FA) via peroxisomal β-oxidation, decreased three-fold for [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 and nearly doubled for [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 when coriander was added at a 1.5% inclusion level. Acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACO) enzyme activity showed no significant differences between treatments. Relative gene expression of ∆6 desaturase decreased with addition of coriander oil compared to the control. The addition of petroselinic acid via coriander oil to vegetable oil (VO) based diets containing no fishmeal (FM) or fish oil (FO), significantly increased the production of anti-inflammatory precursor 22:6n-3 (P=0.011) and decreased pro-inflammatory precursor 20:4n-6 (P=0.023) in radiolabelled hepatocytes of rainbow trout.

  16. Application of roasted rice bran in cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using microwave-roasted rice bran as an ingredient in high-fiber cereal bars to obtain a product with good acceptability. The influence of the rice flakes, corn flakes, and roasted rice bran levels on the physical and chemical characteristics of the cereal bars was studied. The overall acceptability of three selected formulations was also evaluated. An increase in the roasted rice bran level in the formulation reduced the force of rupture and water activity, resulted in intermediate density, and caused darkening of the bars. The contents of lipid and total dietary fiber were higher in the formulation with the highest rice bran content, which was therefore classified as functional food. The formulation containing 0.34; 0.32; and 0.34 roasted rice bran, rice flakes, and corn flakes, respectively, seemed to be the best outcome. Cereal bars with roasted rice bran levels between 10 and 20% were accepted by consumers.

  17. Effects of milk diets containing beef tallow or coconut oil on the fatty acid metabolism of liver slices from preruminant calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulet, B; Gruffat-Mouty, D; Durand, D; Bauchart, D

    2000-09-01

    Coconut oil (CO) induces a triacylglycerol infiltration in the hepatocytes of preruminant calves when given as the sole source of fat in the milk diet over a long-term period. Metabolic pathways potentially involved in this hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation were studied by in vitro methods on liver slices from preruminant Holstein x Friesian male calves fed a conventional milk diet containing CO (n 5) or beef tallow (BT, n 5) for 19 d. Liver slices were incubated for 12 h in the presence of 0.8 mm-[14C]oleate or -[14C]laurate added to the medium. Fatty acid oxidation was determined by measuring the production of CO2 (total oxidation) and acid-soluble products (partial oxidation). Production of CO2 was 1. 7-3.6-fold lower (P 0.0490) and production of acid-soluble products tended to be lower (P = 0.0625) in liver slices of CO- than BT-fed calves. Fatty acid esterification as neutral lipids was 2.6- to 3. 1-fold higher (P = 0.0088) in liver slices prepared from calves fed the CO diet compared with calves fed the BT diet. By contrast with what occurs in the liver of rats fed CO, the increase in neutral lipid production did not stimulate VLDL secretion by the hepatocytes of calves fed with CO, leading to a triacylglycerol accumulation in the cytosol. It could be explained by the reduction of fatty acid oxidation favouring esterification in the form of triacylglycerols, in association with a limited availability of triacylglycerols and/or apolipoprotein B for VLDL packaging and subsequent secretion.

  18. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus.

  19. Effect of palm olein oil in a moderate-fat diet on low-density lipoprotein composition in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Paul J; Benadé, A J Spinnler

    2002-01-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) can be modulated by the type and amount of fat in the diet. There is, however, a paucity of information on the effect of different types and quantity of dietary fat on the plasma LDL composition in vervets. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sources of dietary fat on the concentrations and composition of circulating plasma LDL in vervets consuming moderate-fat diets containing either animal fat, sunflower oil or palm olein. Fifty adult male vervets, never exposed to a Western-type atherogenic diet, were randomly assigned to two groups. For 6 weeks 30 vervets were fed a moderate-fat (28%E) moderate-cholesterol (26 mg cholesterol/1000 kJ) diet (MFD) with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) of 0.4; 20 vervets were fed a high-fat (34%E) high-cholesterol (98 mg cholesterol/1000 kJ) diet (HFD) with a P/S ratio of 0.6. Fasting blood samples were collected from all 50 vervets for plasma lipid measurements. The 30 vervets receiving the MFD were stratified into three comparable experimental groups of 10 each according to their LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and bodyweight. One group continued with the MFD, in which 11%E was derived from lard (MFD-AF); in the other two groups the lard was substituted isocalorically with either sunflower oil (SO) (MFD-SO) or palm olein oil (PO) (MFD-PO). The three groups were fed the respective experimental diets for 24 months and LDL component concentrations and composition were assessed at 6-monthly intervals. In the long-term study the MFD-AF, MFD-SO and MFD-PO groups showed no significant time-specific group differences at 6, 12, 18 or 24 months with regard to the LDL component concentrations, composition, as well as the LDL molecular weight. As expected, after 6 weeks of dietary exposure the HFD group had significantly higher plasma and

  20. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  1. Rice bran supplementation during nutritional recovery period of malnourished rats improves colon development El suplemento con salvado de arroz durante el periodo de recuperación nutricional de ratas malnutridas mejora con el desarrollo del colon

    OpenAIRE

    M.ª Salete F. Martins; DORES, E. F. G. C.; J. E. Aguilar-Nascimento; L. Missae Oyama; Latorraca, M. Q.; M.ª H. G. Gomes-da-Silva; C. M.ª Oller do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the colon's development in rats subjected to protein energy malnutrition followed bysupplementation with rice bran. Materials and methods: Weaned Wistar male rats (21 days old), weight (40-50 g) were divided into two groups: diet with 17% protein (C; control group) or an aproteic diet (A; aproteic group), for 12 days. After this, 50% of the rats from each group were sacrificed. The remaining rats were further distributed in the three groups for a recovery (21 days): ...

  2. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of enriched egg yolk lipids obtained by modifying hens’ diets with fish oil and flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçyn, Hasan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fish oil and flaxseed in the diets of laying hens on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg lipids were studied. Isa-White laying hens and five experimental diets were used. The first diet was used as the control. Fish oil (1.5%, flaxseed (4.32% and 8.64 or both of them (1.5% fish oil and 4.32% flaxseed were added to the others and hens were fed for 30 and 60 days. The cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined. No significant difference (pSe han estudiado los efectos producidos por la presencia de aceite de pescado y linaza, en la dieta de gallinas ponedoras, sobre la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de los lípidos del huevo. Se han utilizado gallinas ponedoras Isa-White y cinco tipos de dietas experimentales. La primera dieta fue usada como control. Se añadió aceite de pescado (1.5%, linaza (4.32% y 8.64 o ambos (1.5% aceite de pescado y 4.32% linaza a las otras dietas y se alimentó a las gallinas durante 30 y 60 días, determinándose la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de las yemas. No se encontró diferencia significativa (p<0.05 debida a las dietas en el contenido de colesterol de las yemas excepto en la que contenía 8.64% de linaza. El contenido total de ácidos grasos saturados disminuyó en todas las dietas en comparación con la dieta control. El contenido total de ácidos grasos n-3 fue significativamente mayor en todas las dietas. El cambio predominante en las dietas que contenían linaza se encontró en el contenido de ácido linolénico. El contenido de los ácidos eicosapentaenoico, docosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico de todas las dietas fue significativamente mayor.

  3. Effect of palm olein oil in a moderate-fat diet on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic atherosclerosis in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Paul J; Smuts, Cornelius M; Benadé, A Spinnler

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the effect of palm olein oil (PO; palmitic acid content approximately 38%) incorporation into the diet on blood cholesterol concentration. Information on the effect of PO on atherosclerosis is, however, lacking. In vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concen-trations can be modulated by the type and amount of fat in the diet. The vervet is a proven model for both the type and composition of human atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PO in a moderate-fat moderate-cholesterol diet (MFD) on plasma lipoproteins and the progression of atherosclerosis in a non-human primate model after 25.5 months of dietary exposure. Thirty adult male vervets, never exposed to a Western-type atherogenic diet, were stabilised on a MFD (28%E fat; 26 mg cholesterol/1000 kJ) with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio of 0.4 for six weeks. Baseline LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C and bodyweight were used to stratify the vervets into three comparable groups of 10 each. One group continued with the MFD in which 11.0%E was derived from lard (AF). In the other two groups, the AF was substituted isocalorically with either sunflower oil (SO) or PO. Plasma lipids were measured at 6-monthly intervals and atherosclerosis was assessed in the aorta and in five peripheral arteries after 25.5 months of dietary exposure. The frequency of atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries and aortas was low. PO, relative to SO and AF, significantly reduced the risk for developing early lesions in peripheral arteries (P = 0.0277 and P = 0.0038, respectively) and, relative to AF, in aortas (P = 0.0335). The cholesterolaemic effect of MFD-PO was not significantly different from MFD-SO and MFD-AF. However, at 24 months the plasma total cholesterol concentration with MFD-AF was significantly higher than with MFD-SO (P = 0.0256). It is confirmed that a MFD with PO is no different

  4. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans.

  5. Milk fatty acid profile and dairy sheep performance in response to diet supplementation with sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Gómez-Cortés, P; Frutos, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2010-04-01

    In an attempt to develop strategies for enhancing the nutritional value of sheep milk fat, dairy ewe diet was supplemented with 3 incremental levels of marine algae (MA), in combination with sunflower oil, to evaluate the effects of these marine lipids on milk fatty acid (FA) profile and animal performance. Fifty Assaf ewes in mid lactation were distributed in 10 lots of 5 animals each and allocated to 5 treatments (2 lots per treatment): no lipid supplementation (control) or supplementation with 25 g of sunflower oil/kg of DM plus 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of MA (56.7% ether extract)/kg of DM. Milk production and composition, including FA profile, were analyzed on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatment. Neither intake nor milk yield were significantly affected by lipid addition, but all MA supplements decreased milk fat content from d 14 onward, reaching a 30% reduction after 28 d on SOMA(3). This milk fat depression might be related not only to the joint action of some putative fat synthesis inhibitors, such as trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 and probably trans-10 C18:1, but also to the limited ability of the mammary gland to maintain a desirable milk fat fluidity, that would have been caused by the noticeable increase in trans-C18:1 together with the lowered availability of stearic acid for oleic acid synthesis through Delta(9)-desaturase. Furthermore, all lipid supplements, and mainly MA, reduced the secretion of de novo FA (C6:0-C14:0) without increasing the yield of preformed FA (>C16). Supplementation with sunflower oil plus MA resulted in larger increases in cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 than those observed with sunflower oil alone, achieving a mean content as high as 3.22% of total FA and representing a more than 7-fold increase compared with the control. Vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1) was also significantly enhanced (on average +794% in SOMA treatments), as was C22:6 n-3 (DHA) content, although the transfer efficiency of the latter, from the diets

  6. Study on Dietary Fiber Extraction from Wheat Bran and Properties of Wheat Bran by Extrusion%挤压小麦麦麸提取膳食纤维工艺及性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓光; 张宁; 高辰; 陈野

    2013-01-01

    With wheat bran as raw material, the extruding technic had been used to increase the content of soluble dietary fiber and improve the property of wheat bran. The greatest parameters of the extruding technic was:extrusion temperature of 140℃, rotating speed of 150 r/min, water content of 20%. The soluble dietary fiber content of wheat bran increased from 9.82 % to 16.72 %. After been extruded, the water-solubility, expansion and oil holding capability of extruded wheat bran were significantly improved. Its structure remained stability below 200℃. At the same time, the dense structure degraded to loose structure through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM).%以小麦麦麸为原材料,挤压处理麦麸,提高麦麸中可溶性膳食纤维的含量。同时使其物性得到明显改善。挤压处理麦麸的最优工艺参数为:挤压温度140℃、挤压转速150 r/min和物料水分20%。挤压处理后,小麦麦麸可溶性膳食纤维含量由9.82%提高到16.72%。挤压处理麦麸后,其持水性、吸油性、膨胀性显著提高。同时挤压后的麦麸在200℃之内具有良好的热稳定性。通过SEM观察发现挤压后麦麸原来致密的结构变的疏松。

  7. Effect of fish oil enriched enteral diet on inflammatory bowel disease tissues in organ culture: Differential effects on ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doris Meister; Subrata Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of fish oil enriched enteral diet on intestinal tissues taken from Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and non-inflamed non-IBD control patients in vitro.METHODS: Colonoscopic biopsies from patients with active CD (n = 4), active UC (n = 7), and non-inflamed non-IBD control patients (n = 4) were incubated (three dilutions of 1:20, 1:10, and 1:5) with Waymouth's culture medium and enteral elemental diet (EO28, SHS, Liverpool, UK) modified in the fatty acid composition with fish oil (EF) in an organ culture system for 24 h. In each experimental set-up, incubation with Waymouth's medium alone as control was included. Tissue viability was assessed by adding bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to the culture fluid and immunohistochemically staining for BrdU uptake. Cytokine ratio of IL-1ra/IL-1β (low ratio indicative of inflammation) and production of those cytokines as a percentage of medium control were assayed in the culture supernatant. RESULTS: Incubation of CD-affected tissue with EF (1:20, 1:10, and 1:5) modestly and non-significantly increased IL-1ra/IL-1β ratio as compared with medium control (CD 39.1±16.1; 26.5±7.8, 47.1±16.8 vs control 13.0±2.2), but incubation of UC-affected tissues increased IL-1ra/IL-1β ratio significantly in all three dilutions (UC 69.1±32.2, P<0.05; 76.1±36.4, P = 0.05;84.5±37.3, P<0.02; vs control 10.2±3.7). Incubation of non-inflamed non-IBD control tissue did not increase the IL-1ra/IL-1β ratio in any dilution compared to medium control (69.3±47.0, 54.1±30.6, 79.4±34.0 vs control 76.1±37.3). Average percentage production of IL-1β indexed against medium control was significantly less in UC after EF incubation as compared with CD (UC 24.0±4.8 vs CD 51.8±8.1; P<0.05). Average percentage production of IL-1ra was markedly higher in UC (135.9±3.4) than that in control patients (36.5±4.3) (P<0.0001).CONCLUSION: IBD tissues, after incubation with elemental diet modified in its

  8. Cosmological constraint on Brans-Dicke Model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ji-Xia; Li, Yi-Chao; Gong, Yan; Chen, Xue-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We combine new Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from Planck with Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data to constrain the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory, in which the gravitational constant $G$ evolves with time. Observations of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) provide another important set of cosmological data, as they may be regarded as standard candles after some empirical corrections. However, in theories that include modified gravity like the BD theory, there is some risk and complication when using the SNIa data because their luminosity may depend on $G$. In this paper, we assume a power law relation between the SNIa luminosity and $G$, but treat the power index as a free parameter. We then test whether the difference in distances measured with SNIa data and BAO data can be reduced in such a model. We also constrain the BD theory and cosmological parameters by making a global fit with the CMB, BAO and SNIa data set. For the CMB+BAO+SNIa data set, we find $0.08\\times10^{-2} < \\zeta <0.33\\times10^{-2} $ at ...

  9. Milk production, peripartal liver triglyceride concentration and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with calcium soaps or hydrogenated triglycerides of palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcagi, Roland G; Gaál, Tibor; Ribiczey, Piroska; Huszenicza, Gyula; Husvéth, Ferenc

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplements of different chemical forms or containing different unsaturated/saturated (U/S) fatty acid contents on milk production, milk composition and liver and blood metabolic variables of high-yielding dairy cows in the peripartal period. Thirty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into three equal groups and fed a corn silage-based diet, without fat supplementation (control) or supplemented with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS; U/S=61/39) or with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride (HTG; U/S=6/94). Each diet was fed from 25+/-2 d prior to the expected calving to 100+/-5 d post partum. Compared with the control, both CAS and HTG supplementation resulted in an increase of the average milk yield. Milk fat content and fat-corrected milk yield were higher in the HTG group but lower in the CAS group than in the control group. In all groups liver triglyceride concentrations (TGL) increased from 15 d prepartum to 5 d post partum, and then decreased thereafter. At 5 d TGL was lower in the HTG group than control or CAS cows. No significant differences were detected in TGL among dietary treatments at 15 d prepartum and 25 d post partum. Higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were measured in the HTG group than in the control or CAS groups at 5 d or 25 d post partum. Our results show that HTG may provide a better energy supply for high-yielding dairy cows in negative energy balance than CAS around calving.

  10. Conformal relativity versus Brans-Dicke and superstring theories

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, D; Blaschke, David; Dabrowski, Mariusz P

    2004-01-01

    Conformal relativity theory which is also known as Hoyle-Narlikar theory has recently been given some new interest. It is an extended relativity theory which is invariant with respect to conformal transformations of the metric. In this paper we show how conformal relativity is related to the Brans-Dicke theory and to the low-energy-effective superstring theory. We show that conformal relativity action is equaivalent to a transformed Brans-Dicke action for Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -3/2$ in contrast to a reduced (graviton-dilaton) low-energy-effective superstring action which corresponds to a Brans-Dicke action with Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -1$. We also present basic cosmological solutions of conformal relativity in both Einstein and string frames. The Eintein limit for flat conformal cosmology solutions is unique and it is flat Minkowski space. This requires the scalar field/mass evolution instead of the scale factor evolution in order to explain cosmological redshift. It is interesting that like...

  11. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  12. Inhibition of p38 MAPK during cellular activation modulate gene expression of head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed soy bean oil or fish oil based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, E; Winterthun, S; Du, Z-Y; Krøvel, A V

    2011-01-01

    Head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon fed either a diet based on fish oil (FO) or soy bean oil (VO) were used in order to evaluate if different lipid sources could contribute to cellular activation of the salmon innate immune system. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was used to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signalling in the head kidney leukocytes. The results show that LPS up regulate IL-1β, TNF-α, Cox2 expression in leukocytes isolated from fish fed either diet. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, reduced the LPS induced expression of these genes in both dietary groups. In LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from VO fed fish, SB202190 showed a clear dose dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β, TNF-α and Cox2 expression. This effect was also observed for Cox2 in leukocytes isolated from FO fed fish. Furthermore, there was a stronger mean induction of Cox2 in LPS stimulated leucocytes isolated from the VO-group compared to LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from the FO-group. In both dietary groups, LPS stimulation of salmon head kidney leukocytes increased the induction of CD83, a dendrite cell marker, while the inhibitor reduced CD83 expression in the VO fed fish only. The inhibitor also clearly reduced hsp27 expression in VO fed fish. Indicating a p38 MAPK feedback loop, LPS significantly inhibited the expression of p38MAPK itself in both diets, while SB202190 increased p38MAPK expression especially in the VO diet group. hsp70 expression was not affected by any treatment or feed composition. There were also differences in p38MAPK protein phosphorylation comparing treatment groups but no obvious difference comparing the two dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary fatty acids have the ability to modify signalling through p38 MAPK which may have consequences for the fish's ability to handle infections and stress. Signalling through p38MAPK is ligand dependent and affects gene and protein expression differently.

  13. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Selinheimo, E.; Havenaar, R.; Aura, A.-M.; Mattila, I.; Lehtinen, P.; Bast, A.; Poutanen, K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed ai

  14. Rice varietal differences in bioactive bran components for inhibition of colorectal cancer cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies support that the bran fraction of rice contains bioactive compounds capable of inhibiting the formation of colonic tumors. Screening bran extracts from diverse rice varieties represents a novel approach to assessing the colon cancer chemopreventive properties of rice bran. We analyzed a pane...

  15. Effect of corn bran particle size on rheology and pasting characteristics of flour gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and nutrition. Corn bran substitution has shown to affect batter viscosity, and volume, crumb grain, color, and texture of cakes. Purified food-grade corn bran was milled to pass through 80, 100 and 120 mesh sieve, resu...

  16. In vitro fermentation patterns of rice bran components by human gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran is a rich source of bioactive components that can promote gastrointestinal health. However, bran is removed during polishing. Among those, feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and rice bran polyphenolics (RBPP) are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota ...

  17. Wheat bran stabilization and its use in the preparation of high-fiber pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M L; Ramasarma, P R; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2011-02-01

    Wheat bran was explored as a source of fiber in the preparation of high-fiber pasta. Ground raw wheat bran having an ash content 5.99%, crude protein 15.1% and fat content 5.83% was subjected to moist heat treatment (steam heat-treated bran) and dry heat treatment (dry heat-treated bran), wherein the lipase activity was reduced by 50%. Treated bran samples were stable for 3 months without developing any rancid flavor and bitterness. Pasta samples were prepared by substituting semolina with 40% and 50% of bran samples. There was no further significant inactivation of lipase activity upon extrusion followed by drying of pasta, irrespective of the type and the amount of bran sample used. The cooked weights of the pasta were in the range 257-268 g/100 g, whereas the cooking loss decreased from 12.8% to 9.3% for treated bran-incorporated pasta. Sensory scores for pasta containing treated bran samples were higher. The total dietary fiber increased by 5.2 times upon replacement of semolina by 40% of treated wheat bran. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies showed faint bands in treated bran samples as well as treated bran-incorporated pasta samples.

  18. Oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to high-oleic sunflower oil and vitamin E diet supplementation and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Cumella, Fabio; Sardi, Luca; Della Casa, Giacinto; Lercker, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this research work was to evaluate the oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to dietary supplementation with high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and/or α-tocopheryl acetate (VE), as well as the influence of storage conditions. Four different diets (control; HOSO; VE; HOSO+VE), were fed to swines until slaughtering. Meat slices were packed in vessels with transparent shrink film and exposed to white fluorescent light for 3 days at 8 °C. HOSO supplementation increased oleic acid content of pork meat. The highest levels of peroxide value (PV) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were detected in the control group, whereas HOSO-enriched diets displayed the highest thiobarbituric reactive substance (TBARs) content. After storage under light exposure, pork meat slices exhibited a decrease of PV, which resulted in an increasing trend of TBARs and COPs. Feeding enrichment with both HOSO and vitamin E can be, therefore, used as an appropriate supplementation strategy to produce pork meat with a suitable oxidative stability.

  19. Dietary supplementation with fish oil alters the expression levels of proteins governing mitochondrial dynamics and prevents high-fat diet-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruifang; Wang, Xiaoming; Liu, Yan; Xia, Min

    2014-07-28

    Diets supplemented with fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 PUFA, have been shown to modify several key risk factors for CVD. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of FO supplementation on mitochondrial dynamic protein expression in the endothelium and on endothelial cell function. Male apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice (8 weeks old, n 12 per group) were fed a high-fat diet containing 45% fat (HFD group) or a HFD with partial replacement of lard with 10% (w/w) FO (FO group) (total EPA and DHA content 64.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. ApoE-/- mice in the FO group had a greater endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine (Ach) than those in the HFD group. The atherosclerotic lesion volume in the aortic sinus of mice in the FO group was 54% lower than that in the HFD group (Pdiet showed significantly lower levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity (each P< 0.05). Furthermore, FO-fed mice displayed increased NO release and availability and enhanced endothelial NO synthase activity compared with HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which FO protects against endothelial cell dysfunction, which may result in improved mitochondrial dynamics.

  20. Effects of an High-Fat Diet Enriched in Lard or in Fish Oil on the Hypothalamic Amp-Activated Protein Kinase and Inflammatory Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Mollica, Maria Pina; Lionetti, Lillà; Cavaliere, Gina; Trinchese, Giovanna; De Filippo, Chiara; Chieffi, Sergio; Gaita, Marcello; Barletta, Antonio; De Luca, Bruno; Crispino, Marianna; Monda, Marcellino

    2016-01-01

    The high fat diet (HFD) rich in lard induces obesity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and the deregulation of hypothalamic nuclei plays an important role in this mechanism. One important factor involved in the food intake and inflammation is adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase activated by phosphorylation. Omega (ω)3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds known to attenuate the obesity-related diseases, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions in the hypothalamus are not completely understood. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of PUFA may be mediated by AMPK in the hypothalamus. To this aim, rats were fed a control diet (CD), or isocaloric HFD containing either fish oil (FD; rich in ω3-PUFA) or lard for 6 weeks, and the activation of AMPK, inflammatory state (IKKβ, TNF-α) and oxidative stress were analyzed in the hypothalamus. In addition, we also studied serum lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and pro-inflammatory parameters. Our results showed, at the hypothalamic level of LD-fed rats, an increase of AMPK activation, inflammation and oxidative stress, while no modifications were detected in FD-fed animals compared to CD. In addition body weight gain, serum lipid profile, pro-inflammatory parameters and insulin resistance were reduced in FD animals compared to LD. In conclusion, our data indicate that the substitution of saturated by unsaturated fatty acids in the diet has beneficial effects on modulation of hypothalamic inflammation and function in obesity, underlying, at hypothalamic level, the interaction among insulin and/or leptin resistance, AMPK activation and hyperphagia.

  1. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition and CLA concentrations of lambs fed diets supplemented with different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badee, Ghlailat; Hidaka, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    Quality food for human consumption will always be the aim for animal producers. Quantity and composition of fat deposits (fatty acid profile) strongly influences meat quality in ruminants, especially via increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, which is known to have beneficial anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and cholesterol reduction properties for human health. Awassi lambs are one of the main and most consumed meat sources in the Middle East area; however, studies addressing the fat content of CLA and methods to enhance its concentrations in this breed are still rare. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding two different oil sources (soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) at two levels (1.8 and 3%)) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of fat in Awassi lambs. Oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance or carcass characteristics, while fatty acid composition changed according to the site of extraction. CLA concentrations were increased in the tail fat deposit, with 1.8% SBO and in intermuscular fat deposit with 3% SFO. Intermuscular fat is the one most naturally consumed by humans, serving to improve food quality.

  2. On Stationary Axially Symmetric Solutions in Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kirezli, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Stationary axially symmetric Brans-Dicke-Maxwell solutions are re-examined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory. We see that, employing a particular parametrization of the standard axially symmetric metric simplifies the procedure of obtaining the Ernst equations for axially symmetric electro-vacuum space-times for this theory. This analysis also permit us to construct a two parameter extension in both Jordan and Einstein frames of an old solution generating technique frequently used to construct axially symmetric solutions for Brans-Dicke theory from a seed solution of General Relativity. As applications of this technique, several known and new solutions are constructed including a general axially symmetric BD-Maxwell solution of Plebanski-Demianski with vanishing cosmological constant, i.e. the Kinnersley solution and general magnetized Kerr-Newman type solutions. Some physical properties and circular motion of test particles for a particular subclass of Kinnersley solution, i.e. Kerr-Newman-NUT type ...

  3. Aspects of a supersymmetric Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, R.

    2006-11-15

    We consider a locally supersymmetric theory where the Planck mass is replaced by a dynamical superfield. This model can be thought of as the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Brans-Dicke theory (MSBD). The motivation that underlies this analysis is the research of possible connections between Dark Energy models based on Brans-Dicke-like theories and supersymmetric Dark Matter scenarios. We find that the phenomenology associated with the MSBD model is very different compared to the one of the original Brans-Dicke theory: the new scalar and fermionic degrees of freedom do not couple to matter in a universal metric way, i.e. they can not be removed from the matter sector by a Weyl rescaling of the metric. This feature could make the minimal supersymmetric extension of the BD idea phenomenologically inconsistent. (orig.)

  4. New views on classical and quantum Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fabris, Júlio C; Rodrigues, Davi C; Almeida, Carla R; Piattella, Oliver F

    2016-01-01

    The Brans-Dicke action is one of the most natural extensions of the Einstein-Hilbert action. It is based on the introduction of a fundamental scalar field that effectively incorporates a dynamics to the gravitational coupling $G$. In spite of the diverse motivations and the rich phenomenology that comes from its solutions, Solar System tests impose strong constraints on the Brans-Dicke theory, rendering it indistinguishable from General Relativity. In the present text, new perspectives for the Brans-Dicke theory are presented, based on the possibility that the scalar field presented in the BD theory can be external, as well as on the applications to black hole physics and the primordial universe.

  5. Comparison of effects of dietary coconut oil and animal fat blend on lactational performance of Holstein cows fed a high-starch diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, M; Beede, D K

    2012-03-01

    Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (C(8:0) through C(12:0)) are researched for their potential to reduce enteric methane emissions and to increase N utilization efficiency in ruminants. We aimed to 1) compare coconut oil (CNO; ~60% medium-chain fatty acids) with a source of long-chain fatty acids (animal fat blend; AFB) on lactational responses in a high-starch diet and 2) determine the effect of different dietary concentrations of CNO on dry matter intake (DMI). In experiment 1, the control diet (CTRL) contained (dry basis) 40% forage (71% corn silage, and alfalfa hay and haylage), 26% NDF, and 35% starch. Isonitrogenous treatment diets contained 5.0% of AFB (5%-AFB), CNO (5%-CNO), or a 1-to-1 mixture of AFB and CNO (5%-AFB-CNO) and 0.8% corn gluten meal in place of corn grain. Thirty-two multiparous dairy cows (201 ± 46 d postpartum; 42.0 ± 5.5 kg/d 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield) were adapted to CTRL, blocked by milk yield, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment diets for 21 d with samples and data collected from d 15 through 21. Treatment 5%-CNO decreased DMI markedly and precipitously and was discontinued after d 5. In wk 3, 5%-AFB and especially 5%-AFB-CNO lowered total-tract NDF digested vs. CTRL (2.6 vs. 1.8 vs. 3.1 kg/d, respectively), likely because fat treatments reduced DMI and 5%-AFB-CNO impaired total-tract NDF digestibility. Milk fat concentrations were 3.10% (CTRL), 2.51% (5%-AFB), and 1.97% (5%-AFB-CNO) and correlated negatively to concentrations of C(18:2 trans-10,cis-12) in milk fat. Additionally, 5%-AFB and 5%-AFB-CNO tended to lower milk yield and decreased yields of solids-corrected milk and milk protein compared with CTRL. Fat treatments decreased milk lactose concentration, but increased milk citrate concentration. Moreover, cows fed 5%-AFB-CNO produced less solids-corrected milk than did cows fed 5%-AFB. In experiment 2, diets similar to CTRL contained 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0% CNO. Fifteen multiparous cows (219 ± 42 d postpartum; 42.1 ± 7.0 kg

  6. Holographic Principle of Black Holes in Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Y; Chen, Chi-Yi; Shen, You-Gen

    2003-01-01

    We consider the general situation of type-I stationary solutions of black holes in Brans-Dicke theory and investigate their statistical entropies by using the brick wall model. Compare with a generalized entropy formula derived from their thermodynamical evolution by Kang, We get the ultimate scenario of black holes entropies in Brans-Dicke theory. For further considering the bound of holographic principle, we obtain a new constraint on parameters in this type solution read as $2Q-\\chi=2$, which corresponds to $\\omega=-{3/2}$.

  7. Purifioation and identifioation of r -oryzanol from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Yuansheng; Yao Huiyuan

    2001-01-01

    A physiological active factor - γ-oryzanol in rice bran was studied. The γ-oryzanol was separated and identified by thin layer chromatograghy(TLC), reverse-phase HPLC, semipreparative HPLC and electrospray ionization/mass speotrometry(ESI/MS). Its individual components, cycloartenol ferulate and 24- methylene cycloartenol ferulate were obtained. An effective method to purify and separate the γ-oryzanol is provided. Which is useful for further research on the fucttional claracteristies of γ-oryzanol and for the development of new rice bran products.

  8. Inflation and dark energy from the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artymowski, Michał [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian UniversityŁojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsawul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-06-17

    We consider the Brans-Dicke theory motivated by the f(R)=R+αR{sup n}−βR{sup 2−n} model to obtain a stable minimum of the Einstein frame scalar potential of the Brans-Dicke field. As a result we have obtained an inflationary scalar potential with non-zero value of residual vacuum energy, which may be a source of dark energy. In addition we discuss the probability of quantum tunnelling from the minimum of the potential. Our results can be easily consistent with PLANCK or BICEP2 data for appropriate choices of the value of n and ω.

  9. Effects of rice bran on performance, egg quality, oxidative status, yolk fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Fouad, A M; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of rice bran (RB) in laying duck diets on performance, egg quality, oxidation status, egg yolk fatty acid composition, and hepatic expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 19 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted RB for corn and wheat bran and a small reduction of soybean meal. The level of substitution in diets (II to VI) was 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, and 30%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 wks. Average egg weight and daily egg mass decreased linearly as the level of RB inclusion increased (Pegg yolk linearly decreased with increasing RB, and many of the key polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, linearly increased (Pegg yolk cholesterol or triglyceride content (P>0.05). In conclusion, the current study suggests that ducks from 19 to 31 wk could be fed diets with up to about 18% RB without effect on the number of eggs produced, egg quality, and oxidative status. Increasing amounts of RB linearly increased egg yolk concentrations of key fatty acids like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 and decreased the hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP-1 transcripts.

  10. Influences of an essential oil mixture supplementation to corn versus wheat-based practical diets on growth, organ size, intestinal morphology and immune response of male and female broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Coven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn, 2 feed additives (with or without EOM, and gender (male or female. EOM supplementation in the diet decreased body weight in corn-fed male birds at Days 21 and 42, but not in those fed the wheat-based diet, signifying a diet x EOM x gender interaction. Cumulative feed intake was not influenced by either the diet type or EOM. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet type, whereas EOM improved feed conversion ratio over the 42-day growth period. Feeding birds on wheat decreased the carcass yield while it increased relative small intestine and large intestine weight. Relative weights of liver, bursa fabricius and serum infectious bursal disease (IBD and Newcastle disease (ND titers were not affected by any of the variables studied. EOM supplementation and feeding birds on corn increased jejunal villus height at both 21 and 42 days of age, while bird gender showed no effect. In general, EOM positively influenced body weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in broiler chickens. Birds receiving the corn-based diet were more efficient in converting feed to body mass as compared to those fed on the wheat-based diet.

  11. Fish oil diet associated with acute reperfusion related haemorrhage, and with reduced stroke-related sickness behaviours and motor impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Celeste Pascoe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFA. However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviours after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioural effects of PUFA supplementation over a six-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute haemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined six weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviours, acute motor impairment and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behaviour.

  12. Enhancing antioxidant activity and antiproliferation of wheat bran through steam flash explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zhang, Ruiting; Liu, Chong; Zheng, Xueling; Liu, Benguo

    2016-07-01

    The effect of steam flash explosion (SFE), a green processing technology, on the phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and antiproliferation to HepG2 of wheat bran was investigated. Moderate SFE treatment significantly enhanced the total soluble phenolic content of wheat bran. After SFE pretreatment, the free and conjugated ferulic acid content in the wheat bran were significantly increased. Antioxidant activities of SFE treated wheat bran were higher than those untreated wheat bran. The cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of SFE treated wheat bran were also significantly ameliorated. It was suggested that SFE pretreatment could be applied to release the bound phenolic compounds and enhance the antioxidant activities and antiproliferative activities of wheat bran.

  13. Enrichment of dry-cured ham with α-linolenic acid and α-tocopherol by the use of linseed oil and α-tocopheryl acetate in pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C; Hoz, L; Cambero, M I; Cabeza, M C; Ordóñez, J A

    2008-11-01

    The use of α-linolenic acid and α-tocopherol enriched pork on the fatty acids and the sensory characteristics of Spanish dry-cured hams have been studied. Five batches of hams were manufactured using the posterior legs of pigs fed on diets with the same ingredients except for the oil source: sunflower (C), linseed (L) or linseed and olive (1/1, w/w, LO). Two different α-tocopheryl acetate concentrations [20 (C, L and LO) or 220 (LOE and LE)mg/kg diet] were used. Biceps femoris and Semitendinosus/Semimembranosus muscles from hams with low polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6/n-3 ratio (less than 3) were obtained from animals fed on linseed and linseed/olive oil enriched diets. However, hams from animals fed on diets added with linseed and α-tocopheryl acetate (20mg/kg diet) (batch L) were rejected by consumers because of less acceptable sensory characteristics and higher TBARs. The remaining hams had satisfactory sensory and nutritional characteristics.

  14. Effect of rye bran on excretion of bile acids, cholesterol, nitrogen, and fat in human subjects with ileostomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J X; Lundin, E; Hallmans, G; Adlercreutz, H; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I; Aman, P; Stenling, R; Dahlgren, S

    1994-02-01

    The excretion of bile acids, cholesterol, dry matter, nitrogen, fat, and energy in ileostomy effluent, and plasma lipid concentrations were studied in eight subjects with ileostomies. The subjects consumed a wheat bread-based, low-fiber diet (LFD) for 3 wk and a rye bran bread-based, high-fiber diet (HFD) for 3 wk. The ileal excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, fat, and energy was higher during the HFD period. The daily excretion and the percentage of conjugated bile acids were significantly higher and the percentage of free bile acids lower in the ileostomy effluents during the HFD as compared with the LFD period. No significant difference in the excretion of cholesterol, net cholesterol, sterol, or net sterol was noted between the HFD and LFD periods. No significant differences in plasma concentrations of HDL-, LDL-, and total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and B were observed between the two 3-wk dietary periods.

  15. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared.

  16. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED OIL PALM FRONDS IN DIET ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND MEAT QUALITY OF GOAT

    OpenAIRE

    E. Musnandar; A. Hamidah; R. A. Muthalib

    2014-01-01

    The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF) on body weight gain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3 treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%), R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50%) and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0%) and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), weight and percentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goa...

  17. Revisiting the Brans solutions of scalar-tensor gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, V; Belknap-Keet, S D

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by statements in the literature which contradict two general theorems, the static and spherically symmetric Brans solutions of scalar-tensor gravity are analyzed explicitly in both the Jordan and the Einstein conformal frames. Depending on the parameter range, these solutions describe wormholes or naked singularities but not black holes.

  18. Rice bran phytochemicals and dietary colon chemoprevention teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence supports that dietary rice bran exhibits gastrointestinal cancer control and prevention activity using carcinogen induced animal models and human colon cancer cell lines. Our laboratory has recently reported metabolomic differences in rice from globally and genetically dis...

  19. Static Generalized Brans-Dicke Universe and Gravitational Waves Amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    We find a static solution for the scale-factor in a Brans-Dicke generalized theory where the scalar field and the coupling constant vary with time. We find also that in the early Universe there may be amplification of gravitational waves.

  20. Inflationary Phase in a Generalized Brans-Dicke Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2009-07-01

    We find a solution for exponential inflation in a Brans-Dicke generalized model, where the coupling “constant” is variable. While in General Relativity the equation of state is p=- ρ, here we find p= α ρ, where α<-2/3. The negativity of cosmic pressure implies acceleration of the expansion, even with Λ<0.

  1. General class of vacuum Brans-Dicke wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, Francisco S N

    2010-01-01

    Recently, traversable wormhole geometries were constructed in the context of f(R) gravity. The latter is equivalent to a Brans-Dicke theory with a coupling parameter w=0, which is apparently excluded from the narrow interval, -3/2Brans-Dicke theory. However, this latter interval is only valid for a specific choice of an integration constant of the field equations derived on the basis of a post-Newtonian weak field approximation, and there is no reason for it to hold in the presence of compact objects with strong gravitational fields. In this context, we construct a general class of vacuum Brans-Dicke wormholes that include the value of w=0. Furthermore, we present the general condition for the existence of vacuum Brans-Dicke wormhole geometries, and show that the presence of effective negative energy densities is a generic feature of these vacuum solutions.

  2. Cosmological Evolution of Black Holes in Brans-Dicke Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, N; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Barrow, John D.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a modified ``Swiss cheese'' model in Brans-Dicke theory, and use it to discuss the evolution of black holes in an expanding universe. We define the black hole radius by the Misner-Sharp mass and find their exact time evolutions for dust and vacuum universes of all curvatures.

  3. Evolution of Black Holes in Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, N; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Barrow, John D.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a modified ``Swiss cheese'' model in the Brans-Dicke theory, and discuss the evolution of black holes in the expanding universe. We define the black hole radius by the Misner-Sharp mass and find the time evolution for dust and vacuum universes.

  4. Cosmological evolution of black holes in Brans-Dicke gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nobuyuki; Barrow, John D.

    2001-11-01

    We consider a modified 'Swiss cheese' model in the Brans-Dicke theory and use it to discuss the evolution of black holes in an expanding universe. We define the black hole radius by the Misner-Sharp mass and find the exact time evolutions for dust and vacuum universes of all curvatures.

  5. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  6. Vacuum less global monopole in Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, F; Kalam, M; Mukherjee, R; Roy, T

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the gravitational field of a vacuum less global monopole has been investigated in Brans-Dicke theory under weak field assumption of the field equations. It has been shown that the vacuum less global monopole exerts attractive gravitational effects on a test particle. It is dissimilar to the case studied in general relativity.

  7. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in bran from three rice cultivars according to microwave roasting time. This study analyzed three rice cultivars, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P, and IRGA 417 (I determining the color parameters (L*, a*, and b * at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 minutes of roasting time. After applying the difference from control test, the rice brans with different characteristics aroma and flavor were selected: S and P roasted for 9 and 15 minutes and IRGA 417 roasted for 9, 12, and 15 minutes. These samples were characterized by Free-Choice Profile descriptive sensory analysis, and their chemical composition was also determined. The longer the roasting process, the higher the roasted flavor intensity and aroma. The IRG 417 cultivar roasted for 12 minutes showed a sweeter flavor and aroma. After roasting, the brans remained rich in protein and lipid and presented higher fiber content and lower reducing sugar and phytic acid content. Microwave roasting for 12 minutes can be a viable option for improving the sensory functional and nutritional characteristics of the rice bran considering its use in food products.

  8. Bran as a source of dietary fiber in oatmeal cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vratanina, D; Zabik, M E

    1980-07-01

    A panel of 1,542 Michigan consumers found oatmeal cookies in which 50 per cent of the flour was replaced with ground red or white wheat bran and a control cookie similarly acceptable. Cookie buying habits, consumer awareness of dietary fiber, and their methods of increasing it were cross-tabulated with demographic data.

  9. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  10. Effects of olive and fish oil Ca soaps in ewe diets on milk fat and muscle and subcutaneous tissue fatty-acid profiles of suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, B; Gómez-Cortés, P; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; Manso, T; de la Fuente, M A

    2014-07-01

    Enhancing healthy fatty acids (FAs) in ewe milk fat and suckling lamb tissues is an important objective in terms of improving the nutritional value of these foods for the consumer. The present study examined the effects of feeding-protected lipid supplements rich in unsaturated FAs on the lipid composition of ewe milk, and subsequently in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues of lambs suckling such milk. Thirty-six pregnant Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were assigned to one of three experimental diets (forage/concentrate ratio 50 : 50), each supplemented with either 3% Ca soap FAs of palm (Control), olive (OLI) or fish (FO) oil. The lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling for the whole experimental period. When the lambs reached 11 kg BW, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous fat depots. Although milk production was not affected by lipid supplementation, the FO diet decreased fat content (P0.05) and other trans-FAs between Control and FO treatments would indicate that FO treatment does not alter rumen biohydrogenation pathways under the assayed conditions. Changes in dam milk FA composition induced differences in the FA profiles of meat and fat depots of lambs, preferentially incorporated polyunsaturated FAs into the muscle rather than storing them in the adipose tissue. In the intramuscular fat of the FO treatment, all the n-3 FAs reached their highest concentrations: 0.97 (18:3 n-3), 2.72 (20:5 n-3), 2.21 (22:5 n-3) and 1.53% (22:6 n-3). In addition, not only did FO intramuscular fat have the most cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (1.66%) and trans-11 18:1 (3.75%), but also the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (1.80) and saturated FA content were not affected. Therefore, FO exhibited the best FA profile from a nutritional point of view.

  11. Anti-steatotic effects of an n-3 LCPUFA and extra virgin olive oil mixture in the liver of mice subjected to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Espinosa, Alejandra; Llanos, Paola; Hernandez-Rodas, Maria Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Vergara, Daniela; Romero, Nalda; Pérez, Francisco; Ruz, Manuel; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by liver steatosis, oxidative stress, and drastic depletion of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA), which trigger lipolysis stimulation and lipogenesis inhibition. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has important antioxidant effects. This study evaluated the anti-steatotic effects of n-3 LCPUFA plus EVOO in the liver of male C57BL/6J mice subjected to a control diet (CD) (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD) (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrate), without and with supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA (100 mg per kg per day) plus EVOO (100 mg per kg per day) for 12 weeks. HFD induced (i) liver steatosis (increased total fat, triacylglycerols, and free fatty acid total contents), (ii) higher fasting serum glucose and insulin levels and HOMA index, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols and TNF-α and IL-6, (iii) liver and plasma oxidative stress enhancement, (iv) depletion of the n-3 LCPUFA hepatic content, and (v) increment in lipogenic enzyme activity and reduction in lipolytic enzyme activity. These changes were either reduced (p < 0.05) or normalized to control the values in animals subjected to HFD supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA plus EVOO. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA plus EVOO intervention exerts anti-steatotic effects underlying antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, improved insulin sensitivity, and recovery of the lipolytic/lipogenic status of the liver altered by HFD, and supports the potential therapeutic use of n-3 LCPUFA plus EVOO supplementation in the treatment of human liver steatosis induced by nutritional factors or other etiologies.

  12. Mesquite bean and cassava leaf in diets for Nile tilapia in growth=Farelos da vagem da algaroba e da folha da mandioca em rações para tilápia do Nilo em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Batista Costa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the inclusion of mesquite bean bran (Prosopis juliflora and cassava leaf bran (Manihot esculenta in diets for Nile tilapia (85.22 ± 3.13 g. Three hundred and thirty-six fish were distributed in 28 fiberglass tanks (120 L in a 2 × 4 factorial scheme for two sources of oil and four levels of bran (0, 5, 10 and 20% (n = 4. After 60 days, growth performance (feed intake, weight gain, apparent feed conversion and survival rate and fish body composition were evaluated. Heights and density of villi were measured for morphometric analysis of the intestinal mucosa. Animal performance, body composition and villi density were not affected (p > 0.05 by the source and level of inclusion of bran. There was a significant effect of the level of inclusion of bran on villi height, with a linear trend, indicating that the higher the inclusion levels of bran, the lower the height of the villi. The bran studied can be used in diets for Nile tilapia up to 20% without compromising growth performance and body composition change, but the presence of these by-products can result in a deleterious effect on fish villi.Avaliou-se a inclusão dos farelos da vagem da algaroba (Prosopis juliflora e folha da mandioca (Manihot esculenta em rações para tilápia do Nilo (85,22 ± 3,13 g. Foram utilizados 336 peixes, distribuídos em 28 tanques (120 L, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, duas fontes de óleo e quatro níveis de farelo (0, 5, 10 e 20% (n = 4. Ao final de 60 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente e taxa de sobrevivência e a composição da carcaça dos peixes. Para análise da histologia intestinal, foram mensuradas a altura e a densidade das vilosidades. O desempenho zootécnico, a composição da carcaça e a densidade das vilosidades intestinais não foram afetados (p > 0,05 pela fonte e nível de inclusão de farelo. Houve efeito significativo do nível de inclusão dos

  13. Valor do farelo de arroz integral como fonte de gordura na dieta de vacas Jersey na fase inicial de lactação: digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes Value of rice bran as a fat source for Jersey cows in early lactation: apparent digestibility of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Laerte Nörnberg

    2004-12-01

    -fibrous and iso-lipidic diets on the apparent digestibility of nutrients. Four treatments were used: CON concentrate without fat addition; BPF- concentrate with "by pass" fat; RBO- concentrate with rice bran + rice oil; RBT- concentrate with rice bran + tallow. The concentrate was made of corn meal and soybean meal. Corn silage and alfalfa hay in a ratio of 1:1 in dry matter basis were fed ad libitum and kept in a ratio to the concentrate of 55:45%, respectively. Concentrates were fed three times a day. Two 4 x 4 latin squares with 4-wk period were used and the means were compared by the F-test. The apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and nonfibrous carbohydrates was not affected by the fat sources. Rice bran can be used as fat source up to 6% of crude fat in diet for cows in early lactation.

  14. Oxidative stability and shelf-life evaluation of selected culinary oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, S Parkash; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-01-01

    Four out of eight 'healthier' oils-namely, almond oil, avocado oil, hazelnut oil and macadamia nut oil-studied were rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids like olive oil. Grape seed oil, rice barn oil (marketed recently), toasted sesame oil and walnut oil contained high levels of essential fatty acids. The order of oxidative stability determined by Rancimat measuring of the induction period at four temperatures (90 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 110 degrees C, and 120 degrees C) was found to be macadamia oil > rice bran oil approximately toasted sesame oil > avocado oil > almond oil > hazelnut oil > grape seed oil > walnut oil. High-level monounsaturated fatty acid oils gave a linear relationship between 100 times the reciprocal of the induction period against the total unsaturated fatty acid content obtained as %C18:2 + 0.08 x C18:1 + 2.08 x %C18:3, while the polyunsaturated fatty acid oils gave an exponential relationship. In the case of rice bran and hazelnut oils, shelf-life prediction from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots and the Q(10) factors was compared well with that of storage time given by the oil producers. In the cases of the other oils (with an exception of macadamia nut oil), the predicted shelf-lives were significantly lower than that of the storage times; especially, walnut oil (very prone to oxidation) gave 15-20 times lower shelf-life than the best-before storage life.

  15. Uso de óleo na dieta de eqüinos submetidos ao exercício Use of oil in diet of equine under exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mattos

    2006-08-01

    vegetal oil (250 and 500 g/day. Eighteen castrated thoroughbred horses aging from 4 and 8 years old and averaging body weight of 456±2.90 kg were alloted to a split plot approach with repeated measures over time in a completely randomized design, with the collection times in the sub-plots and the soybean oil levels (0, 250 and 500 g per horse per day in the plots. During 30 days, the horses were fed 8.40, 7.95, and 7.30 kg/day of diets with 0, 250 and 500 g of oil, respectively, divided in three daily feeds. At the end of 30 days, the exercise test was performed with all horses, during 2 hours, at large trot. At the beginning and at the end of the exercise, the levels of glucose, lactate, haematocrit, body temperature were estimated. The heart and respiratory rates were taken at the beginning, 1 and 2 hours of exercise and 15 minutes after the end of the exercise. Interaction of collection times ´ dietary oil levels on the levels of glucose, lactate, and haematocrit, body temperature, and heart and respiratory frequencies was observed. The supplementation of 250 and 500 g of oil in the diet of equines under exercise of mid intensity increased haematophysiological performance, that can improve horse athletic performance. The horses daily fed 500 g of oil showed better recovery post-trial, and that is verified by the values of heart rate and of haematocrit.

  16. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  17. Sperathe effects of solid-state fermentation in the functional properties of defatted rice bran and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Moreira da Silveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of fermented bran produced by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp. in a solid-state fermentation system were determined, with an aim to evaluate their application in food formulation. The defatted rice bran and wheat bran were inoculated with the spores of the cultures and incubated at 30º C for 72 h. Samples were withdrawn at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Protein content, protein solubility, in-vitro digestibility, gelation and water holding capacity were determined in bran with or without fermentation. Rhizopus sp. increased significantly the protein content (69.0 and 56.0%, respectively, for defatted rice bran and wheat bran; protein solubility (28.5 and 36.2 and water holding capacity (11.4% for wheat bran. When A. oryzae was used all these properties were modified significantly after fermentation.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar as propriedades funcionais de farelo de arroz desengordurado e farelo de trigo, submetidos à fermentação em estado sólido pelos fungos Aspergillus oryzae e Rhizopus sp., para avaliar seu potencial de aplicação em formulações alimentícias. O farelo de arroz desengordurado e o farelo de trigo foram inoculados com esporos de Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus oryzae (4x10(6 esporos/grama de meio e incubados durante 72 horas a 30º C. Amostras foram coletadas em 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas de fermentação. Foram determinados o conteúdo protéico, a solubilidade protéica, a digestibilidade in-vitro, a capacidade de formação de gel e a capacidade de retenção de água nos farelos fermentados. Quando Rhizopus sp. foi utilizado, as seguintes propriedades aumentaram significativamente: o conteúdo protéico 69,0 e 56,0%, respectivamente, para farelo de arroz e farelo de trigo, a solubilidade protéica (28,5 e 36,2% e a capacidade de retenção de água (11,4% para farelo de trigo. Quando Aspergillus oryzae foi empregado, as propriedades não foram modificadas de maneira significativa pelo processo

  18. Biodiesel production from rice bran by a two-step in-situ process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Pei-Jing; Gunawan, Setiyo; Hsieh, Wen-Hao; Kasim, Novy S; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2010-02-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by a two-step in-situ transesterification from two kinds of rice bran was investigated in this study. The method included an in-situ acid-catalyzed esterification followed by an in-situ base-catalyzed transesterification. Free fatty acids (FFAs) level was reduced to less than 1% for both rice bran A (initial FFAs content=3%) and rice bran B (initial FFAs content=30%) in the first step under the following conditions: 10 g rice bran, methanol to rice bran ratio 15 mL/g, H(2)SO(4) to rice bran mass ratio 0.18, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 600 rpm stirring rate, 15 min reaction time. The organic phase of the first step product was collected and subjected to a second step reaction by adding 8 mL of 5N NaOH solution and allowing to react for 60 and 30 min for rice bran A and rice bran B, respectively. FAMEs yields of 96.8% and 97.4% were obtained for rice bran A and rice bran B, respectively, after this two-step in-situ reaction.

  19. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Sarıca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.

  20. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Kuno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172 was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer.

  1. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows.

  2. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lounaouci-Ouyed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF] or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15% of soybean meal, alfalfa and maize (SBM15 diet; g/kg as fed: 161 CP and 267 NDF and 2 experimental diets based on 26% of field bean (FB26 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 250 NDF or 30% of pea (P30 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 255 NDF as main protein source, and completed with hard wheat bran (34 and 40%, respectively for FB26 and P30 diets partly replacing alfalfa and maize. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 3 groups of 40 mixed-sex growing rabbits of Algerian white population, placed in collective cages (4 rabbits/cage from weaning (28 d, mean weight: 614±112 g until 77 d of age (slaughter. Faecal digestibility was measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 7 rabbits/group. Gross energy and crude protein digestibility coefficients were similar for SBM15 and FB26 diets (78.6 and 86.4%, respectively and lower for P30 diet (75.1 and 83.6%, respectively; P≤0.03. Treatments had no effect (P=0.12 on mortality rate, which was on av. 9.2%. Treatments did not affect growth performance from 28 to 77 d of age (30.8 g/d or feed intake (mean 94.6 g/d, but feed conversion ratio was higher for rabbits fed FB26 and P30 diets compared to those fed SBM15 diet (3.13 vs. 2.94; P=0.006. The dressing out percentages (mean 66.6% and the muscle/bone ratio (6.8 were similar for the 3 groups of rabbits. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran, without methionine supplementation, does not seem to affect

  3. Effect of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal microbiota of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cangyou; Zhang, Shihai; Yang, Qing; Peng, Qian; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the experiment on 180 weaned piglets (8.9 kg body weight) was to investigate the influence of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea incidence and numbers of faecal microbiota. The dietary treatments included a Control diet and five high fibre diets formulated with different fibre sources including wheat bran, soybean hulls, naked oat hulls, palm kernel expeller and bamboo fibre. The high fibre diets averaged 14.6% neutral detergent fibre with different non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) components and were fed ad libitum for 28 d. Faecal samples were collected during the last 3 d of the experiment and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fibre components were determined. Pigs fed the Control and wheat bran diets had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than pigs fed the palm kernel expeller and bamboo meal diets. The reduced ADG for pigs appeared to be related to reductions in the digestibility of gross energy and dry matter, respectively. The feed-to-gain ratio was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the fibre diets. The digestibility of NSP components was different among the treatments. The diarrhoea incidence was not affected by treatments. The abundance of faecal bifidobacteria was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the wheat bran diet than for pigs fed the bamboo meal diet. It was concluded that the diets formulated with different fibre sources when fed to weaned piglets have different effects on pig performance, nutrient digestibility and numbers of faecal microbiota. The wheat bran diet rich in arabinoxylans enabled a better performance than the other tested diets with fibre addition.

  4. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged Diets that have a high content of phytate and other modifiers of mineral absorption are associated with an increased prevalence of rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a real hazard in unsupplemented or unfortified vegan and vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  5. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  6. Pengaruh Penambahan Ampas Virgin Coconut Oil dalam Ransum terhadap Performan dan Produksi Karkas Ayam Broiler (The Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil Waste in the Diet of Broiler Chicken on the Performance and Carcass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Oktaviana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of addition of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO waste on the performance and production of broiler carcass. One hundred and twenty five broiler were divided into 5 treatment groups which were R-O (basal diet, R-0.5 containing (0.5% VCO waste, R-1.0 (1.0% VCO waste, R-1.5 (1.5% VCO waste and R-2.0 (2.0% VCO waste. Each treatments had 5 replications of 5 birds each. The birds were raised for 5 weeks. At the end of experiment, data of production performance such as weight gain, total intake, and feed conversion were taken. The data were analyzed by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with one way analysis. The difference among treatments were tested using Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The statistical analysis result showed that the addition of VCO waste at level up to 2.0 % did not affect the production performance, carcass weight and carcass percentage. The addition of VCO waste up to level 2.0% increased body weight (P<0.05 and affected the weight and percentage of abdominal fat (P<0.05 (Key words: Broiler chicken, VCO waste, Performance, and Carcass production

  7. Unified dark fluid in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sunil K. [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Dhenkanal, Odisha (India); Behera, Dipanjali [Government College of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kalahandi, Odisha (India); Mishra, Bivudutta [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Hyderabad (India)

    2015-04-01

    Anisotropic dark energy cosmological models are constructed in the frame work of generalised Brans-Dicke theory with a self-interacting potential. A unified dark fluid characterised by a linear equation of state is considered as the source of dark energy. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar simulating an anisotropic relationship among the directional expansion rates. The dynamics of the universe in the presence of a unified dark fluid in anisotropic background have been discussed. The presence of an evolving scalar field makes it possible to get an accelerating phase of expansion even for a linear relationship among the directional Hubble rates. It is found that the anisotropy in expansion rates does not affect the scalar field, the self-interacting potential, but it controls the non-evolving part of the Brans-Dicke parameter. (orig.)

  8. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED OIL PALM FRONDS IN DIET ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND MEAT QUALITY OF GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Musnandar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF on body weightgain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%, R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50% and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0%and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG, weight andpercentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goatwas not affected by treatment, but the average daily gain, carcass weight, and percentage of carcass, wasaffected by the differences of percentage of FOPF in the pellet complete feed. The best ration was in theR1 ration (grass 0%: FOPF 100% that significantly different (P<0.05 from the other rations. The feedintake tended to be higher in goat fed R1 (895.87 g/d compared to those in goat with the R2 (854.38g/d and R3 (851.53 g/d. The average daily gain and carcass weight were higher in goat fed R1 rationcompared to those in goat fed R2 and R3. Consequently, the carcass percentage in R1 was higher thanthose in R2 and R3. The carcass percentage was ranged from 38.41-41.38%. The Ribeye area was higherin goat fed R1 (9.73 cm2 than R2 (8.34 cm2 and R3 (7.76 cm2. In this study, the protein content ofgoat meat was ranged from 19.06 to 20.71%, lipid content was ranged from 0.703 to 1.106% and watercontent was range from 72.45% to 74.12%, in which were not different among the treatments. It can beconcluded that the use of FOPF in a complete feed could improve performance and meat quality of goat.

  9. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED OIL PALM FRONDS IN DIET ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND MEAT QUALITY OF GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Musnandar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF on body weight gain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3 treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%, R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50% and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0% and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG, weight and percentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goat was not affected by treatment, but the average daily gain, carcass weight, and percentage of carcass, was affected by the differences of percentage of FOPF in the pellet complete feed. The best ration was in the R1 ration (grass 0%: FOPF 100% that significantly different (P<0.05 from the other rations. The feed intake tended to be higher in goat fed R1 (895.87 g/d compared to those in goat with the R2 (854.38 g/d and R3 (851.53 g/d. The average daily gain and carcass weight were higher in goat fed R1 ration compared to those in goat fed R2 and R3. Consequently, the carcass percentage in R1 was higher than those in R2 and R3. The carcass percentage was ranged from 38.41-41.38%. The Ribeye area was higher in goat fed R1 (9.73 cm2 than R2 (8.34 cm2 and R3 (7.76 cm2. In this study, the protein content of goat meat was ranged from 19.06 to 20.71%, lipid content was ranged from 0.703 to 1.106% and water content was range from 72.45% to 74.12%, in which were not different among the treatments. It can be concluded that the use of FOPF in a complete feed could improve performance and meat quality of goat.

  10. Brans-Dicke theory of gravity with torsion: A possible solution of $\\omega$-problem

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yu-Huei

    2012-01-01

    We study Brans-Dicke theory of gravity in Riemann-Cartan space-times, and obtain general torsion solutions, which are completely determined by Brans-Dicke scalar field $\\Phi$, in the false vacuum energy dominated epoch. The substitution of the torsion solutions back to our action gives the original Brans-Dicke action with $\\Phi$-dependent Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega(\\Phi)$. The evolution of $\\omega(\\Phi)$ during inflation is studied and it yields that $\\omega$ approaches to infinity at the end of inflation. It may solve the $\\omega$-problem in the extended inflation model.

  11. Antigravity in F( R) and Brans-Dicke theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, V. K.; Karagiannakis, N.

    2014-12-01

    We study antigravity in F( R)-theory originating scalar-tensor theories and also in Brans-Dicke models without cosmological constant. For the F( R) theory case, we obtain the Jordan frame antigravity scalar-tensor theory by using a variant of the Lagrange multipliers method and we numerically study the time dependent effective gravitational constant. As we shall demonstrate in detail by using some viable F( R) models, although the initial F( R) models have no antigravity, their scalar-tensor counterpart theories might or not have antigravity, a fact mainly depending on the parameter that characterizes antigravity. Similar results hold true in the Brans-Dicke model, which we also studied numerically. In addition, regarding the Brans-Dicke model we also found some analytic cosmological solutions. Since antigravity is an unwanted feature in gravitational theories, our findings suggest that in the case of F( R) theories, antigravity does not occur in the real world described by the F( R) theory, but might occur in the Jordan frame scalar-tensor counterpart of the F( R) theory, and this happens under certain circumstances. The central goal of our study is to present all different cases in which antigravity might occur in modified gravity models.

  12. Exact Cosmological Solutions in Modified Brans--Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rasouli, S M M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain exact cosmological vacuum solutions for an extended FLRW homogenous and isotropic Brans-Dicke (BD) universe in five dimensions for all values of the curvature index. Then, by employing the equations associated to a modified Brans-Dicke theory (MBDT) [1], we construct the physics on a four-dimensional hypersurface. We show that the induced matter obeys the equation of state of a fluid of a barotropic type. We discuss the properties of such an induced matter for some values of the equation of state parameter and analyze in detail their corresponding solutions. To illustrate the cosmological behaviors of the solutions, we contrast our solutions with those present the standard Brans-Dicke theory. We retrieve that, in MBDT scenario, it is impossible to find a physically acceptable solution associated to the negative curvature for both the dust-dominated and radiation-dominated universes. However, for a spatially flat and closed universes, we argue that our obtained solutions are more gener...

  13. Brans-Dicke Galileon and the Variational Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Quiros, Israel; Gonzalez, Tame; Horta-Rangel, F Antonio; Saavedra, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed at a (mostly) pedagogical exposition of the derivation of the motion equations of certain modifications of general relativity. Here we derive in all detail the motion equations in the Brans-Dicke theory with the cubic self-interaction. This is a modification of the Brans-dicke theory by the addition of a term in the Lagrangian which is non-linear in the derivatives of the scalar field: it contains second-order derivatives. This is the basis of the so-called Brans-Dicke Galileon. We pay special attention to the variational principle and to the algebraic details of the derivation. It is shown how higher order derivatives of the fields appearing in the intermediate computations cancel out leading to second order motion equations. The reader will find useful tips for the derivation of the field equations of modifications of general relativity such as the scalar-tensor theories and $f(R)$ theories, by means of the (stationary action) variational principle. The content of this paper is specially...

  14. Characterization of the fatty acyl elongase (elovl) gene family, and hepatic elovl and delta-6 fatty acyl desaturase transcript expression and fatty acid responses to diets containing camelina oil in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xi; Feng, Charles Y; Hixson, Stefanie M; Johnstone, Kim; Anderson, Derek M; Parrish, Christopher C; Rise, Matthew L

    2014-09-01

    For aquaculture to become sustainable, there is a need to substitute fish oil [FO, rich in ω3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as 20:5ω3 (EPA) and 22:6ω3 (DHA)] in aquafeed with plant oils such as camelina oil [CO, rich in C18 PUFA such as 18:3ω3 (ALA) and 18:2ω6 (LNA)]. The LC-PUFA are essential components in fish diets for maintaining optimal health, physiology and growth. However, most marine fish including Atlantic cod are inefficient at producing LC-PUFA from shorter chain precursors. Since elovl genes encode enzymes that play key roles in fatty acid biosynthesis, we hypothesized that they may be involved in Atlantic cod responses to diets rich in 18:3ω3 and 18:2ω6. Ten members of the cod elovl gene family were characterized at the mRNA level. RT-PCR was used to study constitutive expression of elovl transcripts in fifteen tissues. Some transcripts (e.g. elovl5) were ubiquitously expressed, while others had tissue-specific expression (e.g. elovl4a in brain and eye). Cod fed a CO-containing diet (100% CO replacement of FO and including solvent-extracted fish meal) had significantly lower weight gain, with significant up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6 transcripts in the liver as shown by QPCR analysis, compared with cod on a FO control diet after a 13-week trial. Multivariate statistical analyses (SIMPER and PCA) indicated that high 18:3ω3 and/or low ω3 LC-PUFA levels in the liver were associated with the up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6, which are involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in cod.

  15. Cereal based diets modulate some markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mano Mark

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control. After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1. Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06. Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  16. Effects of different sources of fat (calcium soap of palm oil vs. extruded linseed) in lactating ewes' diet on the fatty acid profile of their suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Gallardo, B; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Manso, T

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing lactating ewe diets with extruded linseed on the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat depots of suckling lambs. Twenty-four pregnant Churra ewes were divided into two groups based on the milk production, age, body weight and parity, and assigned to one of two treatments. Each ewe of the Control treatment was supplemented with 70 g/day of FAs from a calcium soap of palm oil, while the other treatment group (Lin) was supplemented with 128 g/day of extruded linseed. All lambs were reared exclusively on milk and were slaughtered when they reached 11 kg live weight. FA profiles of ewe milk, lamb meat and subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined by GC. Lamb performance was not affected by the treatments. Muscle fat and adipose tissue from the Lin treatment showed higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The percentages of α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3), vaccenic (trans-11 C18:1) and rumenic (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2) acids in both fat depots were higher in Lin than in Control suckling lambs. Furthermore, meat fat from Lin carcasses displayed a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than Control samples. Intramuscular depots clearly showed a greater content of PUFA, including cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than subcutaneous fat. The results from this study demonstrate that dietary extruded linseed supplementation of lactating ewes enhances the nutritional quality of suckling lamb fat depots such as intramuscular and subcutaneous fats.

  17. Perfil de ácidos graxos e conteúdo de ácido linoléico conjugado no leite de vacas alimentadas com a combinação de óleo de soja e fontes de carboidratos na dieta Milk fatty acid profile and milk conjugated linoleic acid content of dairy cows fed diets with different carbohydrate sources with or without soybean oil supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-08-01

    evaluate the effect of different diets on milk fatty acid (FA profile and milk CLA content. Cows were fed concentrate containing corn (CR, wheat bran (WB, or dried citrus pulp (CP supplemented or not with soybean oil. Chromatographic analysis showed a FA recovery greater than 95%. With the exception of milk content of trans-10 C18:1 and proportions of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-11 C18:1 on total milk trans- C18:1, the interaction soybean oil x carbohydrate source was not significant for the remaining measured variables. Overall, carbohydrate source did not affect the milk FA profile or CLA content in this trial. Supplementation with soybean oil increased unsaturated FA by 35% and decreased saturated FA by 14%, mainly short chain FA (9.66 vs. 7.59 g/100 g and medium chain FA (51.80 vs. 40.86 g/100 g. Soybean oil increased long chain FA (32.17 vs. 46.47 g/100 g, mainly C18:0 (9.44 vs. 13.63 g/100 g, C18:1 (20.28 vs. 29.74 g/100 g and C18:2 (2.16 vs. 2.92 g/100 g. Feeding soybean oil increased the concentration of cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 CLA by 230% (0.46 vs. 1.06 g/100 g. In addition, the content of cis and trans-C18:1isomers was also increased. Although the trans-11 C18:1 isomer was the most important, concentration of trans-10 C18:1 increased from 0.28 to 1.11 g/100g in oil supplemented-diets being affected by the carbohydrate source. Milk from cows fed CR, WB, and CP showed similar content of trans-10 C18:1. However, in diets with oil supplementation both CR and WB resulted in greater content of trans-10 C18:1 than CP diet suggesting different biohydrogenation pathways.

  18. Effect of rice bran as a replacement for oat grain in energy and nitrogen balance, methane emissions, and milk performance of Murciano-Granadina goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscioni, P; Fernández, C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting oat grain with rice bran on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emissions, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in late lactation (46.1 ± 3.07 kg) were assigned to 2 treatments in a crossover design, where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group of 5 goats was fed a mixed ration with 379 g of oat grain/kg of dry matter (O diet) and the other group of 5 goats was fed a diet that replaced oat grain with 379 g/kg dry matter of rice bran (RB diet). Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isoproteic, so bypass fat was added to reach the same amount of energy in both diets. The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 d of adaptation, feed intake, total fecal and urine outputs, and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5-d period. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded individually by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was different for both diets [1.83 ± 0.11 vs. 1.61 ± 0.08 (means ± SD), for O and RB, respectively]. Metabolizable energy intake and heat production were not significantly different between diets, with average values of 1,254 [standard error of the mean (SEM) = 110.0] and 640 (SEM = 21.0) kJ/kg of BW(0.75), respectively. Significant differences were found in milk fat content (5.3 and 6.9%, SEM = 0.36; for O and RB, respectively) and milk fatty acids: medium-chain fatty acids (17.17 vs. 12.90 g/100g, SEM = 0.969; for O and RB, respectively) and monounsaturated fatty acids (20.63 vs. 28.29 g/100g, SEM = 1.973; for O and RB, respectively). Enteric CH4 emission was lower for the RB diet (23.2 vs. 30.1g/d, SEM = 2.14; for O and RB, respectively), probably because of the higher lipid content in RB diets than O diets (11.7 vs. 4.1%, respectively). Lactating goats utilized RB without detrimental effects on energy metabolism. Higher milk fat

  19. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, S M; Shoko, A P; Lamtane, H A; Kishe-Machumu, M A; Joram, M C; Mbonde, A S; Mgana, H F; Mgaya, Y D

    2016-01-01

    Unaffordability of commercial feeds to semi-intensive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus farmers has led to reliance on supplemental feeding and fertilization for nutrition of their fish without a scientific basis. This study compared the growth, survival, condition factor and yield performance of O. niloticus fed on mixed ingredients (MI) and rice bran alone (RB) diets reared in fertilized earthen ponds in small scale farmers' ponds. The study also determined phytoplankton composition, biomass and abundance in the experimental ponds. Quadruplicate ponds were stocked with O. niloticus and African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus at a stocking ratio of 1:3. The initial mean weights of O. niloticus and C. gariepinus were 14.62 ± 0.61 and 20.34 ± 1.44 g respectively. The fish were fed on MI and RB diets with protein content of 184.74 and 126.06 g kg(-1) respectively for 270 days. The results showed that growth performance, survival rate and condition factor of O. niloticus were not affected by either feeding with MI or RB diet (p > 0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences obtained in phytoplankton biomass and abundance in O. niloticus ponds fed on the two diets (p > 0.05). Furthermore, feeding O. niloticus either on MI or RB diet did not affect the net and gross fish yields (p > 0.05). The study revealed that the use of either MI or RB diet does not significantly affect the performance of O. niloticus cultured in semi-intensive earthen ponds where natural food organisms are an integral part of the culture system. Rice bran could be used for semi-intensive culture of O. niloticus in fertilized ponds to boost the production based on its availability and low cost.

  20. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo.

  1. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  2. Olive oil-diet improves the simvastatin effects with respect to sunflower oil-diet in men with increased cardiovascular risk: A preliminary study Las dietas conteniendo aceite de oliva mejoran los efectos de simvastatina respecto a dietas con aceite de girasol en hombres con riesgo cardiovascular elevado: Estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Concomitant intake of statins together with certain foods may affect their therapeutic effects. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the modulating effect of two culinary oils on the hypolipemic effect of statins. Subject and Methods: Twenty-five men with severe hypercholesterolemia and high estimate cardiovascular risk (> 20% according to the Adult Treatment Panel III of USA National Institutes of Health, ATP-III were enrolled in an observational follow-up study to test lipoprotein profile changes after ix month 20-mg/d Simvastatin treatment. Thirteen volunteers using sunflower oil as the habitual culinary fat, and 12 using olive oil, were selected by non-probabilistic incidental sampling. Volunteers consent in follow their habitual diets and to maintain diet characteristics throughout the study. Diet was evaluated through the study by three 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire. Results: The energy contribution of fat (P = 0.019 and MUFA (P Introducción y objetivos: La ingesta de algunos alimentos junto con estatinas puede afectar los efectos terapéuticos del fármaco. Este estudio preliminar pretende determinar el efecto modulador de dos tipos de aceites culinarios sobre los efectos hipolipemiantes de las estatinas. Métodos: Mediante muestreo no probabilístico, 25 hombres con hipercolesterolemia severa y alto riesgo cardiovascular (> 20% según el Panel III para tratamiento de adultos de los Institutos de Salud USA, ATP-III participaron en el estudio observacional para ver los cambios en el perfil lipoproteico después de seis meses de tratamiento con 20 mg/día de Simvastatina. 13 voluntarios consumían habitualmente aceite de girasol como principal grasa culinaria y 12 aceite de oliva. Todos los sujetos consintieron en mantener sus hábitos alimentarios durante el estudio. Para evaluar la dieta se usaron 3 recuerdos de 24 horas y una frecuencia de consumo. Resultados: El aporte cal

  3. Pro-apoptotic effect of rice bran inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on HT-29 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Nurul Husna; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Saad, Norazalina; Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-02

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), or phytic acid is a natural dietary ingredient and has been described as a "natural cancer fighter", being an essential component of nutritional diets. The marked anti-cancer effect of IP6 has resulted in our quest for an understanding of its mechanism of action. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for the induction of apoptotic cell death, which may be attributable to the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in favor of apoptosis. In addition, the up-regulation of caspase-3 and -8 expression and activation of both caspases may also contribute to the apoptotic cell death of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells when exposed to IP6. Collectively, this present study has shown that rice bran IP6 induces apoptosis, by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic markers; Bax and Bcl-xl and via the activation of caspase molecules (caspase-3 and -8).

  4. Nutritional evaluation of groundnut oil cake in formulated diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton fingerlings after solid state fermentation with a tannase producing yeast, Pichia kudriavzevii (GU939629 isolated from fish gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Ghosh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available De-oiled groundnut oil cake (GOC was bio-processed through solid state fermentation (SSF for 15 days at 34 ± 1 °C by a tannase producing yeast, Pichia kudriavzevii (GU939629 isolated from the gut of a freshwater carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus. SSF of GOC was effective in significantly (P < 0.05 reducing crude fibre content and antinutritional factors (e.g., tannin, phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor, whereas enhancing crude protein, lipid, ash, total free amino acids and fatty acids. Bio-processing revealed significant increase in the levels of argenine, histidine, isoleusine, lysine, methyonine and threonine in the GOC. Eight isonitrogenous (37.5% and isocaloric (18.8 kJ g−1 experimental diets were prepared incorporating raw (R1–R4 and fermented (F1–F4 GOC at 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels by weight replacing fishmeal and other feed ingredients into a fishmeal-based reference diet (RD and fed to rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings (initial weight 3.24 ± 0.11 g for 80 days. In general, diets with SSF-processed GOC produced significantly better performance than the raw GOC in terms of growth, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility, carcass composition and digestive enzyme activity. Rohu fingerlings fed the diet F3 containing 40% fermented GOC resulted in best performance in terms of weight gain (final weight 7.08 ± 0.06 g, specific growth rate (% day−1, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization. Highest protein (14.93 ± 0.51% and lipid deposition in the carcass were also recorded in the group of fish reared on diet F3. In comparison to the FM based reference diet, the present study explored the possibility of replacing 45–55% of FM through incorporation of 40–50% (w/w SSF-processed GOC in the diets for rohu fingerlings.

  5. Growth, carcass characteristics, muscle conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content, and response to intravenous glucose challenge in high percentage Wagyu, Wagyu x Limousin, and Limousin steers fed sunflower oil-containing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, P S; Mir, Z; Kubert, P S; Gaskins, C T; Martin, E L; Dodson, M V; Calles, J A Elias; Johnson, K A; Busboom, J R; Wood, A J; Pittenger, G J; Reeves, J J

    2002-11-01

    The effect of breed and diet on insulin response to glucose challenge and its relation to intramuscular fat deposition was determined in 36 steers with 12 each of greater than 87% Wagyu (referred to as Wagyu), Wagyu x Limousin, and Limousin breeds. Weaned steers were blocked by weight into heavy, medium, and light calves and placed in six pens with two pens per weight type and with two steers of each breed per pen. Three pens with steers from each weightclass were fed backgrounding and finishing diets for 259 d, while the other three pens were fed the same diets where 6% of the barley grain was replaced with sunflower oil. Prior to initiation of the finishing phase of the study the intravenous glucose tolerance test (VGTIT) was conducted in all steers. Once steers were judged as carrying adequate 12th-rib fat, based on weight and days on feed, they were harvested and graded and samples of the longissimus muscle were procured for determination of fat content and fatty acid composition. Dietary oil improved (P = 0.011; 0.06) ADG and feed conversion efficiency of steers during the latter part of backgrounding and only ADG during early part ofthe finishing period. Generally percent kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was the only adiposity assessment increased (P = 0.003) by dietary oil. The IVGTT results indicated that insulin response to intravenous glucose was lower in Limousin steers than in Wagyu steers. Dietary oil decreased (P = 0.052) fasting plasma insulin concentration in Wagyu steers compared with Limousin steers. The correlation coefficients among the IVGTT measures and intramuscular fat content or marbling score were less than 0.4, and only a negative trend existed between fasting insulin and USDA marbling scores. However, the carcasses of the Wagyu steers graded US Choice, and 66% of the Wagyu carcasses graded US Prime, which were substantially better than the quality grades obtained for the carcasses from the other breed types. Dietary oil did not affect

  6. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  7. Alteration of biomass composition in response to changing substrate particle size and the consequences for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn bran is a by-product from corn starch processing. This work examined the effects of changing substrate particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of both raw and pretreated destarched corn bran. The biomass composition of the corn bran varied between particle size fractions: The largest particles...

  8. The effect of particle size of wheat bran fractions on bread quality - Evidence for fibre-protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Haaster, D. van; Hemery, Y.; Schols, H.A.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the adverse effects of wheat bran fractions on bread-making quality was studied. Two fractions of bran, representing different tissue layers and having different compositions, were used. The particle size of the bran fractions was varied by various milling techniques. All fractions wer

  9. Bioactive compounds in pigmented rice bran inhibit growth of human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran contains both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Our previous studies have shown that pigmented rice cultivars contained several-fold higher total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant capacities than non-pigmented cultivars. We investigated three rice brans (purple, red and light-...

  10. Protective effects of black rice bran against chemically-induced inflammation of mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of black rice (cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1) bran against 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema and 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in inflammatory mouse models. We also determined the effects of the bran...

  11. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  12. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal-Eldin, A; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies show inverse relationship between intake of wholegrain cereals and several chronic diseases. Components and mechanisms behind possible protective effects of wholegrain cereals are poorly understood. Objective: To characterise commercial rye bran preparations, c...... variation in the chemical composition of industrially produced rye brans calls for the need of standardisation of this commodity, especially when used as a functional ingredient in foods....

  13. Role of the Brans-Dicke scalar in the holographic description of dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H L; Myung, Y S; Kim, Hungsoo

    2005-01-01

    We study cosmological application of the holographic energy density in the Brans-Dicke theory. Considering the holographic energy density as a dynamical cosmological constant, it is more natural to study it in the Brans-Dicke theory than in general relativity. Solving the Friedmann and Brans-Dicke field equations numerically, we clarify the role of Brans-Dicke field during evolution of the universe. When the Hubble horizon is taken as the IR cutoff, the equation of state ($w_{\\Lmd}$) for the holographic energy density is determined to be 5/3 when the Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omg$ goes infinity. This means that the Brans-Dicke field plays a crucial role in determining the equation of state. For the particle horizon IR cutoff, the Brans-Dicke scalar mediates a transition from $w_{\\Lmd} = -1/3$ (past) to $w_{\\Lmd} = 1/3$ (future). If a dust matter is present, it determines future equation of state. In the case of future event horizon cutoff, the role of the Brans-Dicke scalar and dust matter are turned out to be ...

  14. Dietary rice bran supplementation prevents salmonella colonization differentially across varieties and by priming intestinal immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global burden of enteric dysfunction and diarrhoeal disease remains a formidable problem that requires novel interventions. This study investigated the immune-modulatory capacity of bran across rice varieties with phytochemical differences. 129SvEvTac mice were fed a 10% rice bran or control die...

  15. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation.

  16. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  17. Substitution of wheat bran by corn gluten feed without steep water in cats feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Geraldi Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat bran (WB by corn gluten feed without steep water (CGF in cats feeds regarding the nutritional value of the diet, stool characteristics, time of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, intestinal gas production and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA in blood and faeces. Twenty eight cats were distributed in a randomized block design with four treatments (0, 2.6, 5.3 or 8.0% CGF, based on dry matter, substituting for WB and seven replicates. Substitution of WB by CGF decreased (P0.05 the digestibility of other nutrients and apparent metabolizable energy. There was also no effect (P>0.05 on faeces moisture, faecal pH and score, food transit time in the GIT, intestinal gas area and SCFA concentrations in faeces, while blood concentrations of propionate were influenced differently by the different feeds and sampling times (P<0.05. Thus replacement of up to 8% of WB by CGF may be done safely in cats feed.

  18. Discrimination of red and white rice bran from Indonesia using HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Aryani; Rafi, Mohamad; Darusman, Latifah K

    2017-04-15

    HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics was developed to discriminate between the red and the white rice bran grown in Indonesia. The major component in rice bran is γ-oryzanol which consisted of 4 main compounds, namely cycloartenol ferulate, cyclobranol ferulate, campesterol ferulate and β-sitosterol ferulate. Separation of these four compounds along with other compounds was performed using C18 and methanol-acetonitrile with gradient elution system. By using these intensity variations, principal component and discriminant analysis were performed to discriminate the two samples. Discriminant analysis was successfully discriminated the red from the white rice bran with predictive ability of the model showed a satisfactory classification for the test samples. The results of this study indicated that the developed method was suitable as quality control method for rice bran in terms of identification and discrimination of the red and the white rice bran.

  19. TRAVERSABLE WORMHOLES IN BRANS-DICKE AND f(R) GRAVITATIONAL THEORIES%Brans-Dicke理论和f(R)理论中的可穿越虫洞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕璐峰; 刘文彪

    2012-01-01

    Brans-Dicke理论和f(R)理论均为不同于Einstein广义相对论的修正引力理论,并且在Brans-Dicke理论参数ω=0时能够回到f(R)理论.人们在Brans-Dicke理论框架下研究得出只有-3/2〈ω〈-4/3才存在可穿越虫洞,ω=0时没有;然而,f(R)理论中已经证明确实也存在可穿越虫洞.为了解决上述所谓的矛盾,有文献修改了Brans-Dicke理论中的某些函数,从而改变ω的取值范围.仔细分析发现,文献中探讨的是对应不同Φ(r),b(r)的可穿越虫洞,自然会给出不一致的结论.本文对2种修正引力理论中的可穿越虫洞问题进行了澄清,明确了各自虫洞解的讨论前提条件.%Brans-Dicke theory and f(R) theory are two types of modified gravitational theories.Brans-Dicke theory under ω=0 is consistent with f(R) theory.Due to the traversable wormhole solution,Brans-Dicke theory under ω=0 should also be consistent with f(R) theory.However,the traversable wormhole solution in Brans-Dicke theory is limited under-3/2〈ω〈-4/3,excluding ω=0.Meanwhile,a traversable wormhole solution is given in f(R) theory.The C(ω) function in Brans-Dicke wormhole solution has been modified to extend the range of ω to 0.In fact,the traversable wormholes in Brans-Dicke theory and f(R) theory correspond to different functions of Φ(r) and b(r).It is not necessary to modify the range of ω in Brans-Dicke solutions.

  20. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with E