WorldWideScience

Sample records for bran oil diet

  1. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  2. Growth Performance of Lambs Fed Diet Supplemented with Rice Bran Oil as Such or as Calcium Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Bhatt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty two Malpura lambs (21 d old were divided into three groups of 14 each consisting of 8 females and 6 males. Lambs were allowed to suckle their respective dams twice daily up to weaning (13 wks and offered free choice concentrate and roughage in a cafeteria system. The lambs in control group were fed conventional concentrate mixture, in RBO group concentrate mixture fortified with 4% industrial grade rice bran oil and in Ca-soap rice bran oil (as in RBO group was supplemented in the form of calcium soap. The concentrate intake decreased(p≤0.05 in RBO group as a result total dry matter, crude protein and metabolizable energy intake decreased compared to control whereas Ca-soap prepared from the same rice bran oil stimulated the concentrate intake leading to higher total dry matter, crude protein and energy intakes. The digestibility of dry matter (p≤0.05, organic matter (p≤0.05 and crude protein (p≤0.05 was higher in RBO group followed by Ca-soap and control whereas no effect was observed for ether extract digestibility. Higher cholesterol (p≤0.05 content was recorded in serum of oil supplemented groups (RBO and Ca-soap while no effect was recorded for other blood parameters. Rice bran oil as such adversely affected and reduced the body weight gain (p≤0.001 of lambs in comparison to control whereas the Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency in lambs. Fat supplementation decreased total volatile fatty acids (p≤0.05 and individual volatile fatty acid concentration which increased at 4 h post feeding. Fat supplementation also reduced (p≤0.05 total protozoa count. Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved pre slaughter weight (p≤0.05 and hot carcass weight (p≤0.05. It is concluded from the study that rice bran oil in the form of calcium soap at 40 g/kg of concentrate improved growth, feed conversion efficiency and carcass quality as compared to rice bran oil as such and control groups.

  3. Comparative evaluation of fermented and non-fermented de-oiled rice bran with or without exogenous enzymes supplementation in the diet of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Amit; Sahu, Narottam Prasad; Deo, Ashutosh Dharmendra; Kumar, H Sanath; Kumar, Sarvendra; Jain, Kamal Kant

    2018-03-29

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of exogenous enzymes (xylanase and phytase) supplementation in the non-fermented and fermented de-oiled rice bran (DORB)-based diet of Labeo rohita. Four test diets (T1-DORB-based diet, T2-fermented DORB-based diet, T3-phytase and xylanase supplemented DORB-based diet, and T4-phytase and xylanase supplemented fermented DORB-based diet) were formulated and fed to the respective groups. Test diets T3 and T4 were supplemented with 0.01% xylanase (16,000 U kg -1 ) and 0.01% phytase (500 U kg -1 ) enzymes. One hundred twenty juveniles of L. rohita, with an average weight 5.01 ± 0.02 g, were stocked in 12 uniform size plastic rectangular tanks in triplicate with 10 fishes per tank following a completely randomized design (CRD). Exogenous enzyme supplementation to the T3 group significantly improved the growth performance of L. rohita (p exogenous enzymes. The carcass composition (except CP %), enzyme activities (except amylase activity), globulin, and A/G ratio did not vary significantly (p > 0.05). Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that exogenous enzyme supplementation significantly increases the growth of fish fed with DORB-based diet.

  4. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  5. Dietary Wheat Bran Oil Is Equally as Effective as Rice Bran Oil in Reducing Plasma Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lin; Chen, Jingnan; Liu, Yuwei; Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Guohua; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2018-03-21

    Rice bran oil (RBO) possesses a plasma cholesterol-lowering activity, while effect of wheat bran oil (WBO) on plasma cholesterol remains unknown. The present study compared the cholesterol-lowering activity of WBO with that of RBO in hamsters. Fifty-four male hamsters were divided into seven groups fed either a noncholesterol diet (NCD) or one of six high-cholesterol diets, namely HCD diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% lard), HCD+C diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% lard +0.5% cholestyramine), WL diet (0.2% cholesterol +4.8% Lard +4.8% WBO), WH diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% WBO), RL diet (0.2% cholesterol +4.8% Lard +4.8% RBO), and RH diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% RBO). Plasma total cholesterol (TC) in HCD group was 327.4 ± 31.8 mg/dL, while plasma TC in two WBO and two RBO groups was 242.2 ± 20.8, 243.1 ± 31.7, 257.1 ± 16.3, and 243.4 ± 46.0 mg/dL, respectively, leading to a decrease in plasma TC by 22-26% ( P cholesterol-lowering potency was seen between WBO and RBO. Plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of WBO and RBO was accompanied by down-regulation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase, while up-regulation of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. WL, WH, RL, and RH diets increased the fecal excretion of total neutral sterols by 72.8%, 106.9%, 5.4%, and 36.8% ( P cholesterol absorption via down-regulation of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein, acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2, and ATP binding cassette transporter 5. In summary, WBO was equally effective as RBO in decreasing plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia hamsters.

  6. Digestibility and nutrient utilisation of soybean bran-based diets in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiku, S.O.E.; Alao, I.A.; Tiamiyu, L.O.

    2003-01-01

    The digestibility and utilisation of two soybean bran-based diets and two fishmeal-based diets serving as control, at optimal (30%) and suboptimal (20%) protein levels were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus. These were Diet I (Control)-fishmeal based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet II (Control) - fishmeal based diet at 20% crude protein, Diet III - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet IV - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 20%. Dry matter digestibility differed i...

  7. Assessment of the quality of bran and bran oil produced from some Egyptian rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Eglal G; El Hissewy, Ahmed; Agamy, Neveen F; Abd El Barry, Doaa

    2014-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the leading food crops of the world, the staple food of over half the world's population. The bran, which is an important byproduct obtained during rice milling, constitutes about 1/10 of the weight of the rice grain. Rice bran is the outer brown layer including the rice germ that is removed during the milling process of brown grain. This milling byproduct is reported to be high in natural vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin E. The present study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of bran and bran oil of 13 different rice varieties commonly produced in Egypt, to study the utilization of rice bran in bread production, and to assess the quality and acceptance of the rice bran edible oil produced. Rice bran was produced from 13 Egyptian varieties of recently harvested rice as well as from paddy rice stored for 1 year. The extracted bran was immediately stabilized then subjected to chemical analysis (such as moisture content, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, and ash) as well as trace and heavy metals determination (P, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg). Bread was produced by adding Giza172 rice bran at three different concentrations to wheat flour then subjected to chemical analysis, caloric content, and organoleptic examination. Bran oil was extracted from the different varieties of rice bran (recently harvested and stored) then subjected to chemical and organoleptic examinations as well as vitamin E and oryzanol determination. The percentage of rice bran of newly harvested Egyptian rice was 11.68% and was 10.97% in stored rice. The analysis showed mean values of 5.91 and 5.53% for moisture, 14.60 and 14.40% for crude protein, 14.83 and 15.20% for fat, 44.77 and 45.40% for carbohydrates, 6.55 and 7.06% for crude fiber, and 8.87 and 8.50% for ash for newly harvested and stored rice bran, respectively. Bread containing 15% rice bran showed the highest score percentages for organoleptic quality compared with the

  8. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  9. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  10. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra, R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO: sunflower oil (SnF and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil.

    Se analizaron diversos parámetros físico-químicos para la evaluación de mezclas de aceites en diferentes proporciones que incluyen: aceite de salvado de arroz físícamente refinado (PRBO: aceite de girasol (SNF y las mezclas PRBO: aceite de cártamo (SAF en diferentes proporciones. La cuantificación de la presencia del aceite de salvado de arroz en las mezclas se llevó a cabo por diferentes métodos, como cromatografía de gases (GC, cromatografía líquida (HPLC, ultrasonidos y métodos basados en otros parámetros f

  11. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  13. Optimization of biodiesel production from rice bran oil via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 9,12-octadecadienoic and 9-octadecadienoic acid. The fourier transform infrared spectrum of biodiesel also showed the characteristic bands of C=O, O-C-O, C=C and –(CH2)n-. Key words: Rice bran oil, biodiesel, response surface methodology, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, fourier transform infrared spectrum ...

  14. Heavy metals screening of rice bran oils and its relation to composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran oil contains beneficial compounds that contribute to the high stability of the oil itself, as well as the health of consumers. As a result, rice bran oil has been growing in popularity and is now widely used in many countries. However, concerns have surfaced in recent years related to the ...

  15. Effect of Rice Bran Oil on the Lipid Profile of Mild-Moderate Hypercholesterolemic Male Aged 19-55 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Diah Erlinawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adult individuals in Indonesia showed changes in diet and lack of physical activity, therefore increasing the risk of hypercholesterolemia and obesity. One of nutritional therapy for hypercholesterolemia is rice bran oil, which contains active substances that works synergistically in controlling lipid profile. The substances are gamma-orzanol, phytosterols, and vitamin E isomers (tocotrienol and tocopherol. Methods: A clinical trial was conducted for 4 weeks in City Hall of Jakarta on 20 males, age 19–55 years old, with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia, to assess lipid profile improvement of the supplementation of rice bran oil 45 ml/days compared to 15 ml/days without changing eating patterns. Results: After 4 weeks of intervention, there was significant difference in total cholesterol level between both groups (p = 0.049. In the group that received 45 ml/days of rice bran oil, total cholesterol level decreased 14%, and in the group of 15 ml/days total cholesterol level decreased 7.8%. The reduction of LDL and triglycerides and the increase of HDL were not significantly different between both groups (p >0,05. There was no significant changes of body weight in both groups. Conclusion: This study showed that consumption of  45 ml/days rice bran oil led to better improvements in lipid profiles compare to 15 ml/days. It has been demonstrated that gamma oryzanol and plant sterols in rice bran oil have the capability to remove cholesterol from bile salt micelles, thus decreasing cholesterol absorption in intestine.

  16. An alkali catalyzed trans-esterification of rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Faheem H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, biodiesel production by trans-esterification of three raw materials including virgin and used edible oil and non edible oil has been presented. A two step method following acidic and alkali catalyst was used for non edible oil due to the unsuitability of using the straight alkaline-catalyzed trans-esterification of high FFA present in rice bran oil. The acid value after processing for rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil was found to be 0.95, 0.12 and 0.87 respectively. The influence of three variables on percentage yield i.e., methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied at this stage. Cottonseed oil, waste cooking oil and rice bran oil showed a maximum yield of 91.7%, 84.1% and 87.1% under optimum conditions. Fuel properties of the three biodiesel satisfied standard biodiesel fuel results.

  17. Biodiesel development from rice bran oil: Transesterification process optimization and fuel characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Shailendra; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Garg, Sanjeev

    2008-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop viable alternative fuels from renewable resources that are environmentally more acceptable. Vegetable oil is a potential alternative fuel. The most detrimental properties of vegetable oils are its high viscosity and low volatility, and these cause several problems during their long duration usage in compression ignition (CI) engines. The most commonly used method to make vegetable oil suitable for use in CI engines is to convert it into biodiesel, i.e. vegetable oil esters using process of transesterification. Rice bran oil is an underutilized non-edible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in rice cultivating countries, and very little research has been done to utilize this oil as a replacement for mineral Diesel. In the present work, the transesterification process for production of rice bran oil methyl ester has been investigated. The various process variables like temperature, catalyst concentration, amount of methanol and reaction time were optimized with the objective of producing high quality rice bran oil biodiesel with maximum yield. The optimum conditions for transesterification of rice bran oil with methanol and NaOH as catalyst were found to be 55 deg. C reaction temperature, 1 h reaction time, 9:1 molar ratio of rice bran oil to methanol and 0.75% catalyst (w/w). Rice bran oil methyl ester thus produced was characterized to find its suitability to be used as a fuel in engines. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions has comparable properties to substitute mineral Diesel, hence, rice bran oil methyl ester biodiesel could be recommended as a mineral Diesel fuel substitute for compression ignition (CI) engines in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector

  18. Methodical characterization of rice ( Oryza sativa bran oil from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood, Zahid

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The hexane-extracted oil content of four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa viz. Super Kernel, 386, 385 and Basmati, bran was ranged 14.70-19.10 %. Other physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oils were as follow: Iodine value 112.40, 109.80, 105.1 and 103.70; refractive index ( 40 °C 1.4650, 1.4680, 1.4657 and 1.4660; density ( 40 °C 0.919, 0.913, 0.909 and 0.911; saponification value 183, 177, 186 and 190; unsaponifiable matter 6.15, 5.60, 4.98 and 5.40 % respectively. Tocopherols ( α, γ and δ in the oils were: 284.00, 175.12, 180.42, 300.06; 83.40, 98.70, 120.70, 90.60; 75.16, 57.20, 39.32, 83.00 mg/kg respectively. The contents of tocotrienols ( α, γ and δ in the oils were: 120.30, 106.00, 95.20, 135.74; 196.00, 125.00, 210.0, 276.41; 72.50, 20.00, 39.30, 64.00 mg/kg respectively. The amount of γ - Oryzanol in the investigated oils was ranged 415.12-802.05 The induction periods (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 °C of the crude oils were 6.81, 5.99, 6.39 and 7.40 h respectively. The major sterol fractions of the oils consisted of campesterol ranged (10.10-19.20%, stigmasterol (14.00-19.28 %, b -sitosterol (49.30-58.20 %, and D5 ,avenasterol (8.14-13.05 %. The investigated varieties ( Super Kernel, 386, 385 and Basmati of rice bran oil were found to contain high levels of oleic acid 42.67, 38.59, 40.68 and 36.78 % followed by linoleic and palmitic acids 31.58, 33.80, 28.70, 30.51 and 17.00, 14.88, 19.63, 20.00 % respectively. The contents of myristic, stearic and arachidic acids was 1.50, 2.02, 4.28, 1.00; 2.64, 2.87, 4.02, 7.48; and 1.28, 3.00, 1.00, 1.00 % respectively. A number of parameters of the investigated rice bran oils indigenous to Pakistan were comparable to those of typical rice bran and some other vegetable oils, reported in the literature. The results of the present analysis as compared with those of different vegetable oils demonstrated rice bran to be a potential oil source and thus could be useful

  19. Parametric optimization of rice bran oil extraction using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Syed W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of bran oil in various edible and nonedible industries is very common. In this research work, efficient and optimized methodology for the recovery of rice bran oil has been investigated. The present statistical study includes parametric optimization, based on experimental results of rice bran oil extraction. In this study, three solvents, acetone, ethanol and solvent mixture (SM [acetone: ethanol (1:1 v/v] were employed in extraction investigations. Response surface methodology (RSM, an optimization technique, was exploited for this purpose. A five level central composite design (CCD consisting four operating parameter, like temperature, stirring rate, solvent-bran ratio and contact time were examined to optimize rice bran oil extraction. Experimental results showed that oil recovery can be enhanced from 71% to 82% when temperature, solvent-bran ratio, stirring rate and contact time were kept at 55°C, 6:1, 180 rpm and 45 minutes, respectively while fixing the pH of the mixture at 7.1.

  20. Oil Extraction from “Morelos Rice” Bran: Kinetics and Raw Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zúñiga-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Morelos rice” is a variety of rice with certificate of denomination of origin. It is a large grain of opaque appearance and extra large size that is grown exclusively in Morelos state (Mexico. Thus, the quality and characteristics of its rice bran may affect the kinetic of the extraction process of its oil as well as its stability. Therefore, this work is oriented to determine the extraction kinetics of its oil and its oxidative stability. The latter one is obtained through the proposal of a method based on open-circuit potential measurements. The results showed that the rice bran has 21.44% of raw oil, with a chemical composition (based on fatty acids of 48.48% oleic acid, 35.26% linoleic acid, and 14.54% palmitic acid, as well as a free fatty acid content of 8.15%. A high percentage of its oil content can be recovered in a short time at room temperature, and its extraction kinetics is a function of both the washing and the diffusion of its oil. Under storage conditions the raw oil has a high stability, at least 8 months, and its oxidative stability was of 24, 9, and 7 hours at 50°C, 80°C, and 110°C, respectively.

  1. EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT, BARLEY AND CORN BRAN TREATED WITH GAMMA RAYS IMPROVING BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS OXIDIZED OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOLIMAN, S.M.; HAMZA, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of adding 3 different dietary fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran) to normal balanced diet after exposure to gamma radiation at dose of 20 kGy before adding cotton seed oils and boiled oil. The experimental diet was fed for 4 weeks. This study was designed to throw more light on certain biochemical and histological changes in liver of male albino rats. Rats were classified into 8 groups; control group fed on diet fibers free, group 2 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran), group 3 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers, group 4 fed on diet supplemented with 15% boiled oil, group 5 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fiber and 15% boiled oil, group 6 fed on diet supplemented with fibers and cotton seed oil 15%, group 7 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and boiled oil 15% and group 8 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and cotton seed oil 15%. Experimental investigations were carried out after 4 weeks. The results obtained revealed that extended administration of fibers and cotton seed oil has significantly minimized the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and significantly ameliorated the glutathion content. Superoxide dismutas and catalase enzymes were assayed in blood, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were detected. In addition, modulations of cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed through all the experiments. In rats fed on boiled oil, the data showed histological changes in liver such as tissue degeneration, lymphocyte infiltration, hepatic cell necrosis and dilation of portal spaces and blood vessels.

  2. SUPPLY OF Tithonia diversifolia SILAGE ALONE OR MIXED WITH CASSAVA BRAN IN BROILERS DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Andrés Betancourt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tithonia diversifolia and cassava bran are two food resources that noted for their protein and energy levels, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response performance of broilers fed diets containing T. diversifolia silage alone or mixed with cassava bran. We used 150 females chickens, which were housed in 15 pens and each pen was assigned to the treatments according to a randomized experimental design. The treatments consisted of three diets that were supplied to birds between 35 and 56 d of age: a control where the birds were fed only concentrate and two other treatments in which the birds were supplied concentrate of control treatment and additionally offered T. diversifolia silage either alone or mixed with cassava bran. Silage supply did not affect live weight at 56 d of age, but resulted in a reduction in concentrate consumption (P<0.05 and the carcass weight (P<0.05. It was concluded that T. diversifolia silage can be used to decrease the consumption of concentrate, but is necessary to carry out a proper habituation to avoid decrease in dry matter intake.

  3. Wheat bran with enriched gamma-aminobutyric acid attenuates glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenting; Si, Xu; Zhou, Zhongkai; Strappe, Padraig; Blanchard, Chris

    2018-05-23

    In this study, the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in wheat bran was increased to be six times higher through the action of endogenous glutamate decarboxylase compared with untreated bran. The process of GABA formation in wheat bran also led to an increased level of phenolic compounds with enhanced antioxidant capacity 2 times higher than the untreated status. The interventional effect of a diet containing GABA-enriched bran on hyperinsulinemia induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) was investigated in a rat model. The results showed that, when compared with animals fed with HFD-containing untreated bran (NB group), the consumption of HFD-containing GABA-enriched bran (GB group) demonstrated a greater improvement of insulin resistance/sensitivity as revealed by the changes in the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The expression of hepatic genes, cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 (Cyp7a1) and ubiquitin C (Ubc), which are involved in the adipogenesis-associated PPAR signalling pathway, was found to be significantly down-regulated in the GB group compared with the HFD group (P = 0.0055). Meanwhile, changes in the expression of a number of genes associated with lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis were also noted in the GB group versus the HFD group, but not in the NB group, indicating different regulatory patterns between the two brans in a high-fat diet. More importantly, the analysis of key genes related to glucose metabolism further revealed that the expression of insulin-induced gene 1/2 (Insig-1/2) was increased following GB intervention with a corresponding reduction in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pepck) and glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic subunit (G6pc) expression, suggesting that glucose homeostasis is greatly improved through the intervention of GABA-enriched bran in the context of a high-fat diet.

  4. Effect of saponification on composition of unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afinisha Deepam, L S; Arumughan, C

    2012-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil contains a variety of Unsaponifiable Constituents (USC) that are presumed to contribute to the high value of Unsaponifable Matter (USM). The objectives of the present study were to identify and quantify the constituents in USM. The changes that the unsaponifiables undergo during saponification were also quantitatively investigated. While analyzing the percentage of all constituents, the percentage of sterol get increased from 22.46 to 23.77 in USM of crude rice bran oil (CRBO) and 33.42 to 36.79 in USM of refined rice bran oil (RRBO). Oryzanol that comprised 34% of the unsaponifiable in the crude oil by direct estimation was almost eliminated in USM and same in refined oil. The results also revealed the presence of four additional classes of compounds that were quantified in USM (policosanol, fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols). Among the four classes of compounds, policosanol contributed high percentage in USM, (43.39% in CRBO and 28.46% in RRBO). Fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols together contributed 27.68% and 25.13% of USM from CRBO and RRBO respectively. The HPTLC method employed here thus, accounted for 96.75% by wt of the USM of CRBO and 92.00% by wt of the USM of RRBO.

  5. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of [ 14 C]pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and 14 C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6

  6. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. Methods: TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Results: Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for dete...

  7. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Salim, M.; Rauf, R.; Baloach, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  8. Potential of wheat bran to promote indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yali; Wang, Qinghong; Chen, Chunmao; Kim, Jung Bong; Zhang, Hongdan; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X

    2017-06-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an emerging oil extraction technology that utilizes microorganisms to facilitate recovery of crude oil in depleted petroleum reservoirs. In the present study, effects of wheat bran utilization were investigated on stimulation of indigenous MEOR. Biostimulation conditions were optimized with the response surface methodology. The co-application of wheat bran with KNO 3 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 significantly promoted indigenous MEOR (IMEOR) and exhibited sequential aerobic (O-), facultative (A n -) and anaerobic (A 0 -) metabolic stages. The surface tension of fermented broth decreased by approximately 35%, and the crude oil was highly emulsified. Microbial community structure varied largely among and in different IMEOR metabolic stages. Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., and uncultured Burkholderia sp. dominated the O-, A n - and early A 0 -stages. Bacillus sp., Achromobacter sp., Rhizobiales sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Clostridium sp. dominated the later A 0 -stage. This study illustrated occurrences of microbial community succession driven by wheat bran stimulation and its industrial potential.

  9. Rice Bran Oil: A Versatile Source for Edible and Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Yogita P; Pratap, Amit P

    2017-01-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) is healthy gift generously given by nature to mankind. RBO is obtained from rice husk, a byproduct of rice milling industry and is gaining lot of importance as cooking oil due to presence of important micronutrient, gamma oryzanol. Its high smoke point is beneficial for its use for frying and deep frying of food stuff. It is popular because of balanced fatty acid profile (most ideal ratio of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids), antioxidant capacity, and cholesterollowering abilities. Rice bran wax which is secondary by-product obtained as tank settling from RBO is used as a substitute for carnauba wax in cosmetics, confectionery, shoe creams etc. It can be also used as a source for fatty acid and fatty alcohol. The article is intended to highlight for the importance of RBO and its applications.

  10. ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) Catalyst in Biodiesel Conversion of Rice Bran Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Taushiyah, Ana; Badriatun Najah, Fitri; Azmi, Ulil

    2018-04-01

    Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) catalyst for conversion of rice bran oil to biodiesel have been investigated. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation method of ZrOCl2 as ZrO2 precursor with BLA at a theoretical content of 20% wt. followed by calcination. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst material were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and surface acidity measurement. Activity test of materials in biodiesel conversion of rice bran oil was used by reflux method and microwave (MW) assisted method. Reaction variables studied in the investigation were the effect of catalyst weight and time of MW irradiation compared with the use reflux method. The results showed that ZrO2/BLA catalyst exhibited competitively effective and efficient processes for the production of biodiesel. The reflux method demonstrated an higher conversion (%) compared to MW method, however MW method showed the better reusable properties.

  11. Fatty Amides from Crude Rice Bran Oil as Green Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Reyes-Dorantes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high oil content, this research proposes the use of an agroindustrial byproduct (rice bran as a sustainable option for the synthesis of corrosion inhibitors. From the crude rice bran oil, the synthesis of fatty amide-type corrosion inhibitors was carried out. The corrosion inhibitory capacity of the fatty amides was evaluated on an API X-70 steel using electrochemical techniques such as real-time corrosion monitoring and potentiodynamic polarization curves. As a corrosive medium, a CO2-saturated solution (3.5% NaCl was used at three temperatures (30, 50, and 70°C and different concentrations of inhibitor (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The results demonstrate that the sustainable use of agroindustrial byproducts is a good alternative to the synthesis of environmentally friendly inhibitors with high corrosion inhibition efficiencies.

  12. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  13. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO 2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO 2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO 2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  14. Microemulsion Formulation of Combination of Virgin Coconut Oil and Rice Bran Oil for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wira Noviana Suhery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on micro emulsion formulation of combination of virgin coconut oil (VCO and rice bran oil (RBO as a hair growth promoter has been done. The purpose of this study was to formulate and produce the best formula that is physically stable and optimally promoting the hair growth by varying the content of VCO and RBO in the form of micro emulsions. These dosage formulations were prepared in three formulas using 45% tween 80 as surfactants and 20% glycerin as co surfactant i.e.: F,I containing a combination of VCO and RBO 1:1; FII (1:2 and FIII (2:1. Physical evaluation of the preparation was carried out for 8 weeks of storage which included organoleptic examination, pH, homogeneity, density, globule particle size, phase freeze thaw, and rabbit hair growth activity test for 18 days. Based on the results of the evaluation, it was found that the FI, FII and FIII micro emulsion formulations were physically stable for 8 weeks of storage with a pH ranging from 6.7 to 7.0, density of 1.085-1.088 g/mL, average globul particle size of FI (34.6 nm , FII (54 nm and FIII (68.8 nm. The best formulas is FIII for hair growth length of 1.26 cm for 18 days.

  15. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  16. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Filho Pedro A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoemulsions have practical application in a multitude of commercial areas, such as the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cosmetic industries use rice bran oil in sunscreen formulations, anti ageing products and in treatments for skin diseases. The aim of this study was to create rice bran oil nanoemulsions using low energy emulsification methods and to evaluate their physical stability, irritation potential and moisturising activity on volunteers with normal and diseased skin types. Results The nanoemulsion developed by this phase diagram method was composed of 10% rice bran oil, 10% surfactants sorbitan oleate/PEG-30 castor oil, 0.05% antioxidant and 0.50% preservatives formulated in distilled water. The nanoemulsion was stable over the time course of this study. In vitro assays showed that this formulation has a low irritation potential, and when applied to human skin during in vivo studies, the nanoemulsion improved the skin's moisture and maintained normal skin pH values. Conclusion The results of irritation potential studies and in vivo assessments indicate that this nanoemulsion has potential to be a useful tool to treat skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  17. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Pak Dek, Mohd Sabri; Tan, Chin Ping; Mohd Zainudin, Mohd Asraf; Wee Fang, Evelyn Koh

    2014-01-01

    Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO) and rice bran oil (RBO) during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α)-tocopherol, gamma (γ)-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p -oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying. PMID:26785067

  18. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus in sugarcane-based diets for steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela da Conceição

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% in sugar cane-based diets on the intake of nutrients, feeding behavior, and rumen digestibility of steers was assessed using digested samples collected from the omasum. Five crossbred steers (1/2 Holstein-Zebu were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and then assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Samples of omasal digesta were collected for three days. Rumen was evacuated via the rumen cannula to determine the rumen pool of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, indigestible NDF (iNDF, intake (ki, passage (kp and degradation (NDF rates, and the passage of iNDF (kpi. Nutrient intake displayed a quadratic effect, with maximum intakes of DM (5.73 kg d−1, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, 4.63 kg d−1, and digestible organic matter (DOM, 3.45 kg d−1 estimated at the replacement levels of 54.63, 60.00, and 43.17%, respectively. The replacement levels showed no effect on feeding, rumination, or idle times. There was a linear increase in the total apparent and ruminal digestibility of CP as the spineless cactus content in the diet was increased. There was no effect on total and partial digestibilities of OM and NDF or on intestinal digestibility of CP. No effect was observed on the rumen pool of DM, NDF, or iNDF. Furthermore, ki, kp, NDF degradation, and iNDF passage rates displayed a quadratic effect, with higher concentrations estimated for replacement levels of 56.07, 56.12, 59.00, and 55.20%, respectively. Replacing 55% wheat bran with spineless cactus in sugar cane-based diets is recommended.

  19. Effect of microwave and air drying of parboiled rice on stabilization of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizk, Laila F.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Giza 175 (short grain and Giza 181 (long grain were partDoiled by soaking the grains at room temperature for 20 hours and steaming for 15 min then dried either at room temperature or by microwave. The results indicated that air and microwave drying significantly increased oil extraction in both rice bran varieties. Parboiling followed by air or microwave drying produced a slight change on protein, fiber and ash content of rice bran and reduced the development of free fatty acids (F.F.A. In oil bran. Microwave samples have less F.F.A. content than the corresponding samples air dried. Oils from the cold stored rice bran presented lower F.F.A. than the corresponding oil bran stored at room temperature. The ratio between total unsaturated fatty acids and total saturated ones (Tu/Ts decreased after air and microwave drying. Results also show that air drying increased the ratio of total hydrocarbons and total sterols (Tu/Ts in both varieties while microwave decreased it.

    Dos variedades de arroz, Giza 175 (grano corto y Giza 181 (grano largo se precocieron mediante la puesta en remojo de los granos a temperatura ambiente durante 20 horas y cocimiento al vapor durante 15 minutos, luego se secaron a temperatura ambiente o por microondas. Los resultados indicaron que el secado al aire y en microondas aumentó significativamente la extracción del aceite en ambas variedades de salvado de arroz. El precocido seguido del secado al aire o en microondas produjo un cambio pequeño en el contenido en proteína, fibra y ceniza y redujo el desarrollo de ácidos grasos libres (F.F.A. en el aceite de salvado. Las muestras secadas en microondas tuvieron un menor contenido en F.F.A. que las muestras correspondientes al secado en aire. Aceites de salvado de arroz almacenado en frió presentaron menor F.F.A. que los almacenados a temperatura ambiente. La relación entre ácidos grasos insaturados totales y los saturados totales (Tu/Ts disminuy

  20. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products.

  1. Ultrafiltration-based degumming of crude rice bran oil using a polymer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehn, G.A.R.; GonCalves, L.A.G.; Ming, C.C.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane technology has been gaining momentum in industrial processes, especially in food technology. It is believed to simplify processes, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollutants. The objective was to study the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) polymeric membranes in the degumming of the miscella of crude rice bran oil by using a bench-scale tangential filtration module. In addition, oil miscella filtration techniques using hexane and anhydrous ethyl alcohol solvents were compared. All membranes showed the retention of phospholipids and high flow rates. However, the best performance was observed using the 50-kDa PVDF membrane in miscella hexane solvent, with a 95.5% retention of the phosphorus concentration (by a factor of 1.4), resulting in a permeate with 29 mg·kg−1 of phosphorus and an average flow rate of 48.1 L·m−2·h−1. This technology can be used as a low-pollution, economical alternative for the de-gumming of crude rice bran oil, being effective in the removal of hydratable and non-hydratable phospholipids, resulting in oils with a low phosphorus content. (Author)

  2. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects on DE, ME, and NE for growing pigs of adding 15 or 30% wheat bran to a corn-soybean meal diet and to compare values for DE, ME, and NE calculated using the difference procedure with values obtained using linear regression. Eighteen barrows (54.4 ± 4.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates. The experiment had 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. The control diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 15 or 30% wheat bran with 85 or 70% of the control diet, respectively. The experimental period lasted 15 d. During the initial 7 d, pigs were adapted to their experimental diets and housed in metabolism crates and fed 573 kcal ME/kg BW per day. On d 8, metabolism crates with the pigs were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of O consumption and CO and CH production. The feeding level was the same as in the adaptation period, and feces and urine were collected during this period. On d 13 and 14, pigs were fed 225 kcal ME/kg BW per day, and pigs were then fasted for 24 h to obtain fasting heat production. Results of the experiment indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, crude fiber, ADF, and NDF linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased in the diets. The daily O consumption and CO and CH production by pigs fed increasing concentrations of wheat bran linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05), resulting in a linear decrease ( ≤ 0.05) in heat production. The DE (3,454, 3,257, and 3,161 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), ME (3,400, 3,209, and 3,091 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), and NE (1,808, 1,575, and 1,458 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively) of diets decreased (linear, ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased

  3. Rice Bran Oil Compared to Atorvastatin for Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Shakib

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The use of rice bran oil together with dietary modifications may have implications in lowering fasting and postprandial blood glucose, suppressing serum lipid levels, reduce the TC/HDL-C ratio and therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, RBO exerts a hypouricemic action and anti-inflammatory effects. The findings obtained from the current study reinforce the use of RBO as an alternative natural potent hypolipidemic agent safer than atorvastatin drug that may induce side effects in some cases in patients intolerant to statins.

  4. A Method for Ferulic Acid Production from Rice Bran Oil Soapstock Using a Homogenous System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoa Thi Truong; Manh Do Van; Long Duc Huynh; Linh Thi Nguyen; Anh Do Tuan; Thao Le Xuan Thanh; Hung Duong Phuoc; Norimichi Takenaka; Kiyoshi Imamura; Yasuaki Maeda

    2017-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is widely used as an antioxidant, e.g., as a Ultraviolet (UV) protectant in cosmetics and in various medical applications. It has been produced by the hydrolysis of γ-oryzanol found in rice bran oil soapstock. In this study, the base-catalyzed, homogenous hydrolysis of γ-oryzanol was conducted using various ratios of potassium hydroxide (KOH) to γ-oryzanol, initial concentrations of γ-oryzanol in the reaction mixture, and ratios of ethanol (EtOH) (as cosolvent)/ethyl acetate...

  5. An intensified esterification process of palm oil fatty acid distillate catalyzed by delipidated rice bran lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Fui Chin; Tey, Beng Ti; Dom, Zanariah Mohd; Ibrahim, Nordin; Rahman, Russly Abd; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2006-09-07

    An intensified esterification process was operated by circulating 10 l of reaction mixtures, consisting of palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD) and glycerol in hexane, through a packed-bed reactor (PBR) filled with 10 kg of delipidated rice bran lipase (RBL). The influence of the process parameters, such as reaction temperature and type of water-removal agent, on the performance of this intensified esterification process were investigated. The highest degree of esterification (61%) was achieved at a reaction temperature of 65 masculineC, using silica gels as the water-removal agent. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis showed that the major composition of the esterified product was diacylglycerol.

  6. Quantitative analysis of γ–oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC–image analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apirak Sakunpak

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  7. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  8. A Method for Ferulic Acid Production from Rice Bran Oil Soapstock Using a Homogenous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Thi Truong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA is widely used as an antioxidant, e.g., as a Ultraviolet (UV protectant in cosmetics and in various medical applications. It has been produced by the hydrolysis of γ-oryzanol found in rice bran oil soapstock. In this study, the base-catalyzed, homogenous hydrolysis of γ-oryzanol was conducted using various ratios of potassium hydroxide (KOH to γ-oryzanol, initial concentrations of γ-oryzanol in the reaction mixture, and ratios of ethanol (EtOH (as cosolvent/ethyl acetate (EtOAc (γ-oryzanol solution. Acceleration of the reaction using a planar type of ultrasound sonicator (78 and 130 kHz at different reaction temperatures was explored. By using a heating method, the 80% yield of FA was attained at 75 °C in 4 h under homogeneous conditions (initial concentration of γ-oryzanol 12 mg/mL, the KOH/γ-oryzanol ratio (wt/wt 10/1, and EtOH/EtOAc ratio (v/v 5/1. With the assistance of 78 and 130 kHz irradiation, the yields reached 90%. The heating method was applied for the γ-oryzanol-containing extract prepared from rice bran oil soapstock. From soapstock, the 74.3% yield of FA was obtained, but 20% of the trans-FA in the reaction mixture was transformed into cis-form within one month.

  9. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of neutral glycerides rich in micronutrients from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sumit; Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations.

  10. Antioxidative effects of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran methanolic extracts on the stability of rice bran oil under accelerated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mariod, Abdalbasit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the antioxidant activity against the synthetic 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and β-carotene–linoleic acid assay of the methanolic extracts of defatted rice bran from stabilized and unstabilized rice bran. The effects of the extracts (0.1 and 0.25% w/w on the oxidative stability of refined-bleached rice bran oil were determined and compared with those of BHA (synthetic antioxidant. The study was carried out over a 168 hr period at 70°C and the progression of oxidation was measured by peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. The relative % of residual α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol of the rice bran oil containing methanolic extracts of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran during storage at 70°C were studied.

    La presente investigación evalúa la actividad antioxidante mediante el radical sintético 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil y el ensayo β-caroteno–ácido linoleico de extractos metanólicos de salvado de arroz desengrasado procedente de salvado de arroz estabilizado y no-estabilizado. El efecto de los extractos (0.1 y 0.25% w/w sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite refinado de salvado de arroz fue determinado y comparado con el del BHA (antioxidante sintético. El estudio fue llevado a cabo durante un periodo de 168 hr a 70°C y la progresión de la oxidación fue medida mediante el valor de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidine y substancias reactivas del ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. El porcentaje relativo del α-tocoferol y γ-orizanol residual en el aceite de germen de arroz conteniendo extracto metanólico de germen de arroz desengrasado estabilizado y no estabilizado durante el almacenamiento a 70°C fueron estudiados.

  11. Physical properties of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  12. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-02-01

    To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  13. Feeding behavior and productive performance of steers fed pearl millet grain-based diets containing proportions of babassu mesocarp bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Martins Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior and feedlot productive performance of dairy-origin steers fed for 84 days ground pearl millet grain-based diets with 0, 120, 240, 360, and 480 g kg-1 of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB and a standard diet based on ground corn. Thirty Holstein-Zebu steers with average initial body weight of 371.02±27 kg were used. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replications. Dry matter intake showed better fit with the quadratic regression equation with the inclusion of BMB, reaching a maximum value in diets with 360 g of this by-product. There was no difference for dry matter intake between pearl millet- and corn-based diets. There was no difference in total digestible nutrients intake between diets. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter decreased linearly with the increase in the dietary level of BMB. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not different between corn and millet diets. There was no difference in feeding time between diets. Total requirement of metabolizable energy increased linearly with inclusion of BMB. However, total requirements of metabolizable energy did not differ between the corn- and pearl millet-based diets. Average daily gain decreased linearly with the increase in BMB, with adjustment forced by the sharp decline of this variable in diets with 480 g of BMB. There was no difference in average daily gain between corn- and pearl millet-based diets. The inclusion of levels above 360 g of babassu mesocarp bran in pearl millet-based diets reduces the supply of metabolizable energy and the productive performance of feedlot dairy steers.

  14. Extraction and Chemical Compounds Identification of Red Rice Bran Oil Using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo Sheren Hartono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study are to obtain optimum yield of extraction red rice bran oil, todetermine the physico-chemical characteristics, and componen coumpounds. Data was analyzedusing Nir Parametric Statistics by Friedmann test. The result showed the optimum extractionresults was obtained by the ratio of substrate : solvent of 1: 8 and the oil yield was 12.31 ±0.325%. The physico properties of red rice bran oil were greenish brown colour, with a densityranged from 0.908 ± 0.014 to 0.922 ± 0.014 (g/mL, and the water content ranged from 0.87 ± 0.06to 0.91 ± 0.02 %. The chemical properties of red rice bran oil were: the acid number ranged from116.41 ± 1.22 to 118.11 ± 2.45 (mg NaOH/g; the saponification number ranged from 193.74 ±21.88 to 199.62 ± 12.63 (mg KOH/g; and the peroxide number ranged from 24.37 ± 2.44 to 26.07± 4.88 (mgek/kg, respectively. Oils was analyzed used GC-MS. The chemical components of ricebran oil are oleic acid (46.24%, palmitic acid (18.25%, linoleic acid (13.29%, 9-octadecane(7.76%.

  15. Production of vanillin from waste residue of rice bran oil by Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lirong; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhihao; Bai, Yanbing; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xinfu

    2007-03-01

    A new technology of transforming ferulic acid, which was from waste residue of rice bran oil, into vanillin was developed by a combination of fungal strains Aspergillus niger CGMCC0774 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CGMCC1115. Various concentrations of ferulic acid were compared, and the highest yield reached 2.2 g l(-1) of vanillic acid by A. niger CGMCC0774 in a 25 l fermenter when concentration of ferulic acid was 4 g l(-1). The filtrate of A. niger CGMCC0774 culture was concentrated and vanillic acid in the filtrate was bio-converted into vanillin by P. cinnabarinus CGMCC1115. The yield of vanillin reached 2.8 g l(-1) when 5 g l(-1) of glucose and 25 g of HZ802 resin were supplemented in the bioconversion medium. The 13C isotope analysis indicated that delta13C(PDB) of vanillin prepared was much different from chemically synthesized vanillin.

  16. An Intensified Esterification Process of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Distillate Catalyzed by Delipidated Rice Bran Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fui Chin Chong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An intensified esterification process was operated by circulating 10 l of reaction mixtures, consisting of palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD and glycerol in hexane, through a packed-bed reactor (PBR filled with 10 kg of delipidated rice bran lipase (RBL. The influence of the process parameters, such as reaction temperature and type of water-removal agent, on the performance of this intensified esterification process were investigated. The highest degree of esterification (61% was achieved at a reaction temperature of 65°C, using silica gels as the water-removal agent. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC analysis showed that the major composition of the esterified product was diacylglycerol.

  17. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  18. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  19. Productive performance and blood parameters of bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran and whole or ground corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of corn milling and the inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB on productive performance, digestibility of dietary nutrients, and blood parameters of dairy crossbred (Holstein-Gyr bulls finished in confinement. Twenty-four bulls were fed four different experimental diets, containing two levels of inclusion of BMB (0 and 41.24% and corn supplied in two different forms (ground and whole, for 98 days (77 days of data collection and 21 days of adaptation. The intakes and digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM and nutrients were determined. There were no significant interaction effects of the BMB inclusion level and the form of corn used on the performance and digestibility variables. The intakes of DM, crude protein (CP, and neutral detergent fibre (NDF increased with the inclusion of BMB in the diets. However, the inclusion of BMB in the diets decreased the ether extract intake, the NDF apparent digestibility, and the feed efficiency of DM and CP. Dry matter and NDF intakes also increased with the use of ground corn in the diet, which promoted an increase in the intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN, digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates, and average daily gain. However, the supply of ground corn reduced the feed efficiency of TDN. The remaining measured variables did not vary with the tested diets. The levels of plasma protein and albumin remained normal, but glucose concentrations were always high, irrespective of the tested diet. The form of corn supplied and the level of BMB inclusion had a significant interaction effect on the levels of triglycerides, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Babassu mesocarp bran can be included up to 41.24% in the diet of confined bulls without a negative effect on the animal weight gain. Corn should be supplied ground because this form improves the performance of crossbred bulls

  20. Wheat bran extracts: a potent source of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of wheat (var. Inqalab 91 bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays using canola oil as the oxidation substrate. The bran samples were extracted with 80% and 100% methanol and acetone. A preliminary assessment of the antioxidant activity of the 80 and 100% acetone and methanolic extracts of wheat bran was done by the measurement of % inhibition of peroxidation in a linoleic acid system, total phenolic contents (TPC and bleachability of β-carotene in the linoleic acid system. Additionally, the canola oil samples were stabilized with crude concentrated extracts and subjected to ambient aging (6 months. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, and trienes- values. The results of ambient stored samples revealed a significant improvement in these oxidation parameters. The overall order of antioxidant activity of the extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was determined to be; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extracts . 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that extracts of the wheat bran indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for commercial and neutraceutical applications.

    En el presente trabajo la actividad antioxidante de diferentes extractos obtenidos con disolventes del salvado de trigo (var. Inqalab 91 fue evaluada mediante diferentes ensayos antioxidantes y aceite de canola como substrato de oxidación. Las muestras de salvado fueron extraídas con metanol y acetona al 80% y al 100%. La evaluación preliminar de la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de metanol y de acetona al 80% y 100% fue hecha mediante la medida del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en un sistema con ácido linoleico, el contenido total de fenoles

  1. γ-Oryzanol and tocopherol contents in residues of rice bran oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana-Bauer, Vanessa Ribeiro; Zambiazi, Rui C; Mendonça, Carla R B; Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2012-10-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) contains significant amounts of the natural antioxidants γ-oryzanol and tocopherols, which are lost to a large degree during oil refining. This results in a number of industrial residues with high contents of these phytochemicals. With the aim of supporting the development of profitable industrial procedures for γ-oryzanol and tocopherol recovery, the contents of these phytochemicals in all the residues produced during RBO refining were evaluated. The samples included residues from the degumming, soap precipitation, bleaching earth filtering, dewaxing and deodorisation distillation steps. The highest phytochemical concentrations were found in the precipitated soap for γ-oryzanol (14.2 mg g(-1), representing 95.3% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO), and in the deodorisation distillate for tocopherols (576 mg 100 g(-1), representing 6.7% of total tocopherols in crude RBO). Therefore, among the residues of RBO processing, the deodorisation distillate was the best source of tocopherols. As the soap is further processed for the recovery of fatty acids, samples taken from every step of this secondary process, including hydrosoluble fraction, hydrolysed soap, distillation residue and purified fatty acid fraction, were also analyzed. The distillation residue left after fatty acid recovery from soap was found to be the best source of γ-oryzanol (43.1 mg g(-1), representing 11.5% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  3. Efficient Degumming of Rice Bran Oil by Immobilized PLA1 from Thermomyces lanuginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Singhania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A1 (PLA1 immobilized in calcium alginate can effectively overcome the mass transfer resistance at the lipid-water interface making more room for the enzyme to separate itself from the products of reaction and to bind with the next available molecule at the interface. The reaction of an immobilized PLA1 hydrolase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was comparatively faster than of its free form. The rate of phospholipid hydrolysis by PLA1 was studied in calcium-rich and calcium-depleted environments; and the extent of phosphorus removed from the crude rice bran oil as well as the amount of free fatty acids produced during the reaction were used as indices for analysing the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis under standard conditions of pH, temperature, time of incubation and agitation. The immobilized PLA1 was found to be superior in removing phosphorus in the presencem of 10 mM bivalent calcium ions in a solution. As compared to a maximum of 72.52 % phosphorus removed by 0.01 kg of free enzyme per kg of oil, the same amount of immobilized PLA1 removed phosphorus from oil by 94.12 % under the same experimental conditions (pH=6, 60 °C, 1-hour incubation. Both the free PLA1 and its immobilized form had shown extended rates of hydrolysis in a calcium-rich environment. The mass fractions of free fatty acids produced by the free enzyme and by its immobilized form were 14.9 and 14.16 %, respectively, under the above experimental conditions. The removal of phosphorusfrom oil was accompanied by a signifi cant reduction in colour and restoration of iodine value to the desired level.

  4. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Abdul Hamid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO and rice bran oil (RBO during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α-tocopherol, gamma (γ-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p < 0.05, while that of RBO was preserved after deep-frying of fries. As expected, the concentration of α-tocopherol in PO and γ-tocotrienol in both PO and RBO decreased significantly (p < 0.05 with increased frying. Results also showed that γ-tocotrienol was found to be more susceptible to degradation compared to that of α-tocopherol in both PO and RBO. Interestingly, no significant degradation of α-tocopherol was observed in RBO. It is suggested that the presence of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying.

  5. A two-step acid-catalyzed process for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullaikah, S.; Lai, Chao Chin; Vali, S.R.; Ju, Yi Hsu [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of temperature, moisture and storage time on the accumulation of free fatty acid in the rice bran. Rice bran stored at room temperature showed that most triacylglyceride was hydrolyzed and free fatty acid (FFA) content was raised up to 76% in six months. A two-step acid-catalyzed methanolysis process was employed for the efficient conversion of rice bran oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The first step was carried out at 60 {sup o}C. Depending on the initial FFA content of oil, 55-90% FAME content in the reaction product was obtained. More than 98% FFA and less than 35% of TG were reacted in 2 h. The organic phase of the first step reaction product was used as the substrate for a second acid-catalyzed methanolysis at 100 {sup o}C. By this two-step methanolysis reaction, more than 98% FAME in the product can be obtained in less than 8 h. Distillation of reaction product gave 99.8% FAME (biodiesel) with recovery of more than 96%. The residue contains enriched nutraceuticals such as {gamma}-oryzanol (16-18%), mixture of phytosterol, tocol and steryl ester (19-21%). (author)

  6. Ultrafiltration-based degumming of crude rice bran oil using a polymer membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehn, G. A.R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology has been gaining momentum in industrial processes, especially in food technology. It is believed to simplify processes, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollutants. The objective was to study the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF and polyethersulfone (PES polymeric membranes in the degumming of the miscella of crude rice bran oil by using a bench-scale tangential filtration module. In addition, oil miscella filtration techniques using hexane and anhydrous ethyl alcohol solvents were compared. All membranes showed the retention of phospholipids and high flow rates. However, the best performance was observed using the 50-kDa PVDF membrane in miscella hexane solvent, with a 95.5% retention of the phosphorus concentration (by a factor of 1.4, resulting in a permeate with 29 mg·kg−1 of phosphorus and an average flow rate of 48.1 L·m−2·h−1. This technology can be used as a low-pollution, economical alternative for the de-gumming of crude rice bran oil, being effective in the removal of hydratable and non-hydratable phospholipids, resulting in oils with a low phosphorus content.La tecnología de membrana ha ido ganando impulso en los procesos industriales, especialmente en tecnología de los alimentos. Se piensa que simplifica los procesos, reduce el consumo de energía, y elimina contaminantes. El objetivo fué estudiar el rendimiento de las membranas poliméricas de fluoruro de polivinilo (PVDF y poliétersulfona (PES en el desgomado de miscelas de aceite de salvado de arroz crudo, mediante el uso de un módulo de filtración de escalado tangencial. Además, se compararon las técnicas de filtración de miscelas de aceite, utilizando como disolventes hexano y alcohol etílico anhidro. Todas las membranas mostraron retención de los fosfolípidos y altas tasas de flujo. Sin embargo, se observó un mejor rendimiento usando la membrana de PVDF de 50-kDa con hexano como disolvente, con una retención del 95

  7. Effects of cell wall degrading enzymes on carbohydrate fractions and metabolites in stomach and ileum of pigs fed wheat bran based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Inborr, J.; Bakker, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Pigs were fed diets containing 40 heat bran incubated with a water:acetic acid mixture (control, C) and a cellulase (Cel-i) or xylanase (Xyl-i) preparation or with addition of the cellulase (Cel-a) or xylanase (Xyl-a) preparation immediately before feeding. Stomach and ileal samples were analysed

  8. Protective effect of oryzanol isolated from crude rice bran oil in experimental model of diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuvra B. Ghatak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the involvement of poor glycemic control and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the development of diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication affecting more than 50% of diabetic patients. However, lack of understanding of the underlying etiology, development of tolerance, inadequate relief and possible toxicity associated with classical analgesics warrant the investigation of the novel agents. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oryzanol (OZ, a commercially-important potent antioxidant component isolated from from crude rice bran oil (cRBO, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. After eight weeks, diabetic rats developed neuropathy which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia and increased nociceptive behavior during the formalin test. This was accompanied by decreased motor coordination based on the evaluation of neuromuscular strength. Na+ K+ ATPase, a biochemical marker associated with the development of diabetic neuropathy, was significantly inhibited in the sciatic nerve of diabetic animals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly elevated in diabetic rats, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. Chronic treatment with oryzanol (OZ (50 and 100 mg/kg per oral (p.o. and standard drug glibenclamide (Gl (10 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the behavioral as well as biochemical changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. The findings provide experimental evidence to the protective effects of OZ on hyperglycemia-induced thermal hyperalgesia and oxidative stress which might be responsible for diabetes induced nerve damage.

  9. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  10. Effect of an Enzyme Blend on the Performance, Diet Metabolizability, Phosphorous Retention, and Bone Mineralization of Broilers Fed Diets Containing Defatted Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Moraes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of an enzyme blend (EB on the performance, diet metabolizability, phosphorus (P retention, and bone mineralization of broilers fed diets containing 10% defatted rice bran (DRB. In total, 432 one- to 38-d-old male Cobb broilers were evaluated according to a completely randomized experimental design in 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. Three diets were tested with two nutrient reductions (NR in the matrix (standard diet; NR I of 75 kcal/kg ME, 0.1% Ca and 0.1% available P; and NR II of 100 kcal/kg ME, 0.1% Ca and 0.1% available P with or without the addition of an EB (200 g/t. The coefficients of total tract apparent retention (CTTAR of the diets and P retention were determined by collecting excreta during two periods (14 to 17 and 28 to 31 d. As expected, birds fed the standard diet had higher BW, BW gain, and G:F compared to birds on the NR diets. The EB did not show any positive effects on CTTAR or on performance; however, birds fed the EB retained 6.58% more P from d 14 to 17 (p ≤ 0.07 and 8.55% from d 28 to 31 (p < 0.05. Tibiotarsus ash percentage also increased by 2.45% (p ≤ 0.06 on d 38. In diets containing 10% DRB, the enzyme blend showed biological activity improving P retention and tibiotarsus mineralization.

  11. Optimization and evaluation of foxtail millet (Setaria italica bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A Box-Behnken central composite design combined with the response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the parameters of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of foxtail millet bran oil (FMBO. Results showed that a maximum oil yield of 7.97% was achieved under the optimal conditions with an extracting pressure of 30.03MPa, extracting temperature of 47.93 °C; and an extraction time of 2.3 h. The quality of the oil obtained from SFE and solvent extraction (SE was evaluated by proximate analysis to include physicochemical properties, fatty acids and sterol compounds. The FBMO obtained from SFE showed a much lower phospholipid (0.188 mg/g content and a preferable color compared to the oil from SE, while it contained a higher content of total sterols, 1.55%. The thermal gravimetric analysis results showed one major regime of weight loss over a temperature range of 300–500 °C. The results show that FBMO obtained by SFE can be a promising nutritional source for food fortification and is understood to have more potentially healthy biological properties.Un diseño Box-Behnken combinado con la metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM se usó para optimizar los parámetros de extracción mediante fluido supercrítico (SFE de aceite de salvado de mijo (FMBO. Los resultados mostraron que un rendimiento máximo de extracción de aceite del 7,97% se logró en las condiciones óptimas correspondientes a una presión de 30.03MPa, una temperatura 47.93 °C y un tiempo 2,3H. Además, se evaluó la calidad del aceite obtenido por SFE y mediante extracción con disolvente (SE a partir de un análisis proximal que incluye propiedades fisicoquímicas, ácidos grasos y esteroles. El aceite de FBMO obtenido mediante SFE mostró un contenido mucho menor de fosfolípidos (0.188 mg/g y un color mas aceptable que el aceite de la SE, mientras que contenía un mayor contenido de esteroles totales: 1,55%. El resultado del análisis térmico gravimétrico mostr

  12. Development of Colorectal-Targeted Dietary Supplement Tablets Containing Natural Purple Rice Bran Oil as a Colorectal Chemopreventive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busaban Sirithunyalug

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer occurs due to various factors. The important risks are dietary lifestyle and inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. It has been found that the inhibitory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the colorectal region can potentially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study investigated rice bran oil from natural purple rice bran, which exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactive compound content of natural purple rice bran oil (NPRBO derived from native Thai purple rice and the anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO in colorectal cancer cells, and to develop a colorectal delivery platform in the form of film-coated tablets. NPRBO from the rice bran of five different Thai purple rice cultivars, namely Khao’ Gam Leum-Phua (KGLP, Khao’ Gam Boung (KGB, Khao’ Gam Thor (KGT, Khao’ Gam Pah E-Kaw (KGPEK, and Khao’ Niaw Dam (KND, were extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technique. The amount of γ-oryzanol (ORY, tocotrienols, and tocopherols present in NPRBOs and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO were investigated. The highest anti-inflammatory NPRBO was transformed into a dry and free-flowing powder by liquisolid techniques. Then, it was compressed into core tablets and coated with Eudragit®L100 and Eudragit® NE30D. The in vitro release study of the film-coated NPRBO tablets was performed in three-phase simulated gastrointestinal media. The cultivar KGLP was superior to the other samples in terms of the ORY, tocotrienol and tocopherol contents and anti-inflammatory activity. Aerosil® was the most suitable absorbent for transforming NPRBO into a free-flowing powder and was used to prepare the NPRBO core tablets. The in vitro KGLP-NPRBO film-coated tablet release profile showed that no ORY was released at gastric pH while 85% of ORY was released at pH 7.4 after 6 h; this would be expected to

  13. Development of Colorectal-Targeted Dietary Supplement Tablets Containing Natural Purple Rice Bran Oil as a Colorectal Chemopreventive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirithunyalug, Busaban; Saenjum, Chalermpong; Charumanee, Suporn; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Sirithunyalug, Jakkapan; Tipduangta, Pratchaya

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer occurs due to various factors. The important risks are dietary lifestyle and inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. It has been found that the inhibitory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the colorectal region can potentially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study investigated rice bran oil from natural purple rice bran, which exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactive compound content of natural purple rice bran oil (NPRBO) derived from native Thai purple rice and the anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO in colorectal cancer cells, and to develop a colorectal delivery platform in the form of film-coated tablets. NPRBO from the rice bran of five different Thai purple rice cultivars, namely Khao’ Gam Leum-Phua (KGLP), Khao’ Gam Boung (KGB), Khao’ Gam Thor (KGT), Khao’ Gam Pah E-Kaw (KGPEK), and Khao’ Niaw Dam (KND), were extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technique. The amount of γ-oryzanol (ORY), tocotrienols, and tocopherols present in NPRBOs and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO were investigated. The highest anti-inflammatory NPRBO was transformed into a dry and free-flowing powder by liquisolid techniques. Then, it was compressed into core tablets and coated with Eudragit®L100 and Eudragit® NE30D. The in vitro release study of the film-coated NPRBO tablets was performed in three-phase simulated gastrointestinal media. The cultivar KGLP was superior to the other samples in terms of the ORY, tocotrienol and tocopherol contents and anti-inflammatory activity. Aerosil® was the most suitable absorbent for transforming NPRBO into a free-flowing powder and was used to prepare the NPRBO core tablets. The in vitro KGLP-NPRBO film-coated tablet release profile showed that no ORY was released at gastric pH while 85% of ORY was released at pH 7.4 after 6 h; this would be expected to occur in

  14. Concentrations of tocols and γ-oryzanol compounds in rice bran oil obtained by fractional extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Won; Pyo, Young-Gil; Lee, Junsoo; Lee, Jeom-Sig; Kim, Byung Hee; Kim, In-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) is a good source of several commercially important bioactive phytochemicals, such as tocols (i.e. tocopherols and tocotrienols) and ferulic esters of sterols (i.e. γ-oryzanol). The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of different pressure and temperature combinations on the fractional extraction of RBO using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and to assess the levels of tocols homologues and γ-oryzanol components in the resulting oil fractions. Fractional extraction of rice bran oil was performed using SC-CO2 at either 27.6 or 41.4 MPa and either 40 or 60°C. The effects of the four different pressure and temperature combinations on the levels of seven tocols homologues (α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and α-, γ- and δ-tocotrienol) and the four major components of γ-oryzanol in the resulting oil fractions were investigated. Superior extraction efficiency was obtained using the higher pressure of 41.4 MPa. The tocols (particularly α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol) were recovered early in the extraction process, while the γ-oryzanol compounds were obtained in the later stages. With regard to SC-CO2 extraction, tocols are more soluble than γ-oryzanol components, α-tocopherol is the most soluble of the tocols and the four γ-oryzanol components all have similar solubilities. Valuable data on solubilities of tocols homologues in SC-CO2 were provided from present study.

  15. LDL-cholesterol lowering activity of a blend of rice bran oil and safflower oil (8:2) in patients with hyperlipidaemia: a proof of concept, double blind, controlled, randomised parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malve, Harshad; Kerkar, Prafulla; Mishra, Nidheesh; Loke, Sanjita; Rege, N N; Marwaha-Jaspal, Ankita; Jainani, Kiran J

    2010-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have emerged as major health burden worldwide in recent times. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) serves as the primary marker for cardiovascular diseases. Reports suggest that rice bran oil has antihyperlipidaemic properties. However, current evidence suggests that no single oil can provide the recommended dietary fat ratio. Hence the present study was undertaken in patients with hyperlipidaemia to study effects of substitution of the cooking oil with a blend of 80% rice bran oil and 20% safflower oil on LDL-C levels. The selected patients (n = 73) were randomly assigned either to the study oil group (blend under study) or control oil group (the oil which the patient was using before). The lipid profile was monitored monthly in these patients for 3 months during which they consumed the oil as per the randomisation. At each follow up, LDL-C levels showed a significant reduction from baseline in the study oil group and reduction was more than that observed in the control group. It was also observed that the percentage of the respondents was higher in the study oil group. At the end of the study period, 82% patients from this group had LDL levels less than 150 mg% as against 57% in the control group. Thus, the substitution of usual cooking oil with a blend of rice bran oil and safflower oil (8:2) was found to exert beneficial effects on the LDL-C levels shifting them to low-risk lipid category.

  16. Investigation of stability, consistency, and oil oxidation of emulsion filled gel prepared by inulin and rice bran oil using ultrasonic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbehesht, Newsha; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh

    2018-04-01

    Inulin, rice bran oil and rosemary essential oil were used to produce high quality emulsion filled gel (EFG) using ultrasonic radiation. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of oil content, inulin content and power of ultrasound on the stability and consistency of prepared EFG. The process conditions were optimized by conducting experiments at five different levels. Second order polynomial response surface equations were developed indicating the effect of variables on EFG stability and consistency. The oil content of 18%; inulin content of 44.6%; and power of ultrasound of 256 W were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the best EFG stability and consistency. Microstructure and rheological properties of prepared EFG were investigated. Oil oxidation as a result of using ultrasonic radiation was also investigated. The increase of oxidation products and the decrease of total phenolic compounds as well as radical scavenging activity of antioxidant compounds showed the damaging effect of ultrasound on the oil quality of EFG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets.

  18. Obese Mice Fed a Diet Supplemented with Enzyme-Treated Wheat Bran Display Marked Shifts in the Liver Metabolome Concurrent with Altered Gut Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    ) associated with specific microbes may be involved. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize ETWB-driven shifts in the cecal microbiome and to identify correlates between microbial changes and diet-related differences in liver metabolism in diet-induced obese mice that typically display......Background: Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) contains a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides (TGs) and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding affects hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., xenometabolites...... steatosis. Methods: Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a 45%-lard based fat diet supplemented with ETWB (20% wt:wt) or rapidly digestible starch (control) (n = 15/group) for 10 wk were characterized by using a multi-omics approach. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify variables that were...

  19. Presence of orally administered rice bran oil γ-oryzanol in its intact form in mouse plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eri; Ito, Junya; Kato, Shunji; Sawada, Kazue; Matsuki, Midori; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka

    2016-12-07

    Although the beneficial effects (e.g., lipid-lowering activity) of γ-oryzanol (OZ), a mixture of ferulic acid esters of plant sterols and triterpene alcohols, have been extensively investigated, few studies have evaluated the absorption and metabolism of OZ. Moreover, it is unclear whether OZ, once ingested, is directly absorbed by the intestine into the bloodstream at a sufficient level to exhibit activity. Here, we prepared OZ concentrate from purified rice bran oil (Rice Oil OZ), determined the concentration of OZ in the preparation (cycloartenyl ferulate equivalent concentration; 52.2%), and then carried out chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of plasma samples from mice after oral administration of Rice Oil OZ. The OZ concentrations of plasma from the control (vehicle-treated) mice were low (trace levels); however, at 5 h after a single oral administration of the Rice Oil OZ (600 mg per kg body weight), the levels significantly increased, reaching 17.6 ng mL -1 for cycloartenyl ferulate, 28.2 ng mL -1 for 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate isomers, 15.6 ng mL -1 for campesteryl ferulate, and 5.1 ng mL -1 for β-sitosteryl ferulate, respectively, expressed in equivalence of cycloartenyl ferulate in plasma. These results provided the first mass spectrometric evidence suggesting that a portion of orally administered OZ is directly absorbed by the intestine and is present in the intact form in plasma. The presence of a significant amount of OZ in its intact form in plasma may explain the beneficial effects of OZ in vivo.

  20. Maltodextrin and oils in the diet of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hauptli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of piglets fed two sources of oil (soybean and palm oil combined with maltodextrin and a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin, as well as the apparent digestibility coefficients of these diets. A total of 162 piglets weaned at 21 days, with a mean initial weight of 5.42 ± 0.55 kg, were allocated in a randomized block design consisting of three treatments and 18 replicates of three animals each. The following treatments were evaluated: T1: diet containing soybean oil [3.03% in the pre-initial (I and initial (II diets] and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T2: diet containing palm oil (3.03% in I and II and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T3: diet containing a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin (10.0% in I and II and maltodextrin added to the blend (4.07% in I so that the percentage of maltodextrin would be identical in the diets of the three treatments. The performance and digestibility data were submitted to analysis of variance using the MIXED and GLM procedures, respectively, of the SAS package and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05 in DFI, ADG or FC were observed between piglets submitted to the different treatments. The ADC of dry matter was 4.25% lower (P<0.05 for the diet containing palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin compared to the soybean oil diet. The ADC of ether extract was 54% higher (P<0.05 in the soybean oil diet compared to the palm oil diet, which negatively affected the ether extract digestibility coefficient. In conclusion, palm oil microencapsulated or not with maltodextrin can replace soybean oil in the diets of weaned piglets without compromising their performance.

  1. Finger millet bran supplementation alleviates obesity-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and gut microbial derangements in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Nida; Baboota, Ritesh K; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Khare, Pragyanshu; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Podili, Koteswaraiah; Alagesan, Subramanian; Chandra, T S; Bhutani, K K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran

    2014-11-14

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.

  2. Intestinal absorption of chromium as affected by wheat bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, K.S.; Holloway, C.L.; Hegsted, M.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary fiber, as found in wheat bran, on the absorption of chromium. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups of 10. The control was fed a semi-purified diet containing casein, methionine, cornstarch, sucrose, corn oil, mineral and vitamin mix, and choline bitartrate. The experimental group was fed the same diet but with soft red winter wheat bran added to a level of 35% of the diet at the expense of sucrose. To determine chromium absorption and uptake by selected tissues, rats were fasted for 24 hr, fed 5 g of the respective diet, 2 hr later intubated with 100μCi of Cr-51of sacrificed 24 hr later. The rats wee housed in metabolic cages after the Cr-51 intubation. The addition of wheat brand to the diet did not significantly affect chromium absorption as measured by percent dose of Cr-51 in the 24 hr urine. The percent dose in the control group was 0.68 +/- 0.20% (mean +/- SEM) and in the experimental group 0.63 +/- 0.24% (mean +/-SEM) (N.S.). The cr-51 uptake of liver, spleen, jejunum, and blood was not statistically different between groups. These results indicate that dietary fiber as found in wheat bran does not impair intestinal absorption of chromium

  3. Report: Protective effects of rice bran oil in haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia and serotonergic responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Noreen; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2016-07-01

    Effect of administration of Rice bran oil (RBO) was evaluated on haloperidol elicited tardive dyskinesia in rats. Albino Wistar rats treated with haloperidol in drinking water at a dose of 0.2mg/kg/day and RBO by oral tubes at a dose of 0.4 mL/day for 5 weeks. Motor coordination, VCMs and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline)[8-OH-DPAT] _syndrome were monitored. Striatal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-EC). Rats treated with haloperidol orally at a dose of for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs, which increased progressively as the treatment continued for 5 weeks. Motor coordination impairment started after the 1st week and was maximally impaired after 3 weeks and gradually returned to the 1st week value. Co-administration of RBO prevented haloperidol_induced VCMs as well impairment of motor coordination. The intensity of 8-OH-DPAT_induced syndrome and decreased 5-HT metabolism were greater in water + haloperidol treated animals than RBO + haloperidol treated animals. The present study suggested that involvement of free radical in the development of TD and point to RBO as a possible therapeutic option to treat this hyperkinetic motor disorder.

  4. One-step isolation of γ-oryzanol from rice bran oil by non-aqueous hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Apostolis; Urbain, Aurélie; Halabalaki, Maria; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2011-09-01

    The value-added γ-oryzanol was purified in one step from crude rice bran oil (RBO) using a preparative hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography (hydrostatic CCC) method, operating in the dual mode. The fractionation was performed using a non-aqueous biphasic solvent system consisting of heptane-acetonitrile-butanol (1.8:1.4:0.7, v/v/v), leading rapidly to the target compounds. Transfer of the analytical CCC method to large-scale isolation was also carried out yielding a high quantity-high purity fraction of γ-oryzanol. In addition, a fraction of hydroxylated triterpene alcohol ferulates (polar γ-oryzanol) was clearly separated and obtained. Furthermore, a fast HPLC-APCI(±)-HRMS method was developed and applied for the identification of γ-oryzanol as well as the polar γ-oryzanol in RBO and the resulting fractions. The purity of γ-oryzanol fraction was estimated as 97% based on HPLC-APCI-HRMS analysis. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Biodiesel production from rice bran oil by transesterification using heterogeneous catalyst natural zeolite modified with K2CO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslim; Iriany; Bani, O.; Parinduri, S. Z. D. M.; Ningsih, P. R. W.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, an effort had been made to use natural zeolite from Tapanuli Utara, North Sumatera as a potential catalyst for biodiesel production. Biodiesel production is usuallythrough transesterification, and a catalyst is employed to improve reaction rate and yield. In this research rice bran oil (RBO) was used as feedstock. The objective of this work was to discover the effectiveness of natural zeolite modified by K2CO3 as catalysts in biodiesel production from RBO. K2CO3/natural zeolite catalyst modification was by impregnation method at various K2CO3 concentrations followed by drying and calcination. Transesterification was conducted at 65°C and 500 rpm. Effect of process variables such as the amount of catalyst, reaction time, and the molar ratio of methanol to RBO was investigated.The maximum yield of 98.18% biodiesel was obtained by using 10:1 molar ratio of methanol to RBO at a reaction time of 3 hours in the presence of 4 w% catalyst. The obtained biodiesel was then characterized by its density, viscosity and ester content. The biodiesel properties met the Indonesia standard (SNI).The results showed that natural zeolite modified by K2CO3 was suitable as a catalyst in the synthesis of biodiesel through transesterification from RBO.

  6. BBD Optimization of K-ZnO Catalyst Modification Process for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Rice Bran Oil to Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabo, K. S.; Yacob, A. R.; Bakar, W. A. W. A.; Buang, N. A.; Bello, A. M.; Ruskam, A.

    2016-07-01

    Environmentally benign zinc oxide (ZnO) was modified with 0-15% (wt.) potassium through wet impregnation and used in transesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) to form biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), its basic sites determined by back titration and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize the modification process variables on the basic sites of the catalyst. The transesterification product, biodiesel was analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result reveals K-modified ZnO with highly increased basic sites. Quadratic model with high regression R2 = 0.9995 was obtained from the ANOVA of modification process, optimization at maximum basic sites criterion gave optimum modification conditions of K-loading = 8.5% (wt.), calcination temperature = 480 oC and time = 4 hours with response and basic sites = 8.14 mmol/g which is in close agreement with the experimental value of 7.64 mmol/g. The catalyst was used and a value of 95.53% biodiesel conversion was obtained and effect of potassium leaching was not significant in the process

  7. Enzyme-treated wheat bran alters gut microbiota and liver metabolome in mice fed a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber that has been shown to decrease body fat and modify the gut microbiome. However, it is not clear how these microbiome changes impact peripheral tissue metabolism. We hypothesized that supplementation with ETWB would change gut-derived...

  8. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  9. Growth responses of native chicken Sentul G-3 on diet containing high rice-bran supplemented with phytase enzyme and ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase enzymes and ZnO supplementation on the performance of native chicken Sentul-G3 fed high rice-bran diet. Two hundred and seventy day old chicks (DOC native chicken Sentul-G3 from three different hatcheries were used in this study. Factorial randomized block design (3 x 3 was applied in this study. The first factor was the enzyme phytase supplementation levels (0; 1000; 2000 U/kg, the second factor was the level of supplementation of ZnO (0; 1.5; 3.2 g/kg, so that there are nine treatment given, namely R1 = 50% commercial diet : 50% rice bran; R2 = R1 + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R3 = R1 + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R4 = R1 + phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg; R5 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R6 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R7 = R1 + phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg; R8 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R9 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg. Each experimental unit consisted of 6 head unsexed native chicken Sentul-G3. The experimental diet was fed for 10 weeks. The variables measured were body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, mineral deposition of Ca, P, Zn in the tibia bone, alkaline phosfatase enzyme activity in serum. Results showed that there was significant interaction (P 0.05 between phytase enzyme and ZnO supplementation on feed intake, mortality, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in serum, and deposition of calcium and phosphorus in the tibia bone. It was concluded that supplementation of phytase enzyme and ZnO were not able to increase the growth of native chicken Sentul-G3 on fed diet containing high rice bran.

  10. Whole grain rice flavor asssociated with assorted bran colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognition of the health benefits of whole grain and pigmented bran rice has resulted in their increased consumption. The bran contributes fiber, minerals, vitamins, and an array of phytonutrients to the diet. Understanding flavor differences arising from bran pigmentation helps consumers choose ...

  11. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  12. Optimization of dietary zinc for egg production and antioxidant capacity in Chinese egg-laying ducks fed a diet based on corn-wheat bran and soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Wang, S; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Xia, W G; Cui, Y Y; Zheng, C T; Lin, Y C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production 80%). Average egg weight and feed intake did not differ among the groups of graded Zn supplementation.The egg quality was not affected by dietary Zn, including the egg shape index, Haugh unit, yolk color score, egg composition, and shell thickness. The activities of plasma activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) increased in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with increasing supplemental Zn. Plasma concentration of Zn increased quadratically (P < 0.05) as dietary Zn increased. The hepatic activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH-PX increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn. Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with activities of T-SOD (P < 0.05), and positively with plasma Cu. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione was correlated with plasma Cu. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn at 30 or 45 mg/kg to a corn-wheat bran and soybean basal diet may improve the productive performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  14. One-step production of biodiesel from rice bran oil catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia via simultaneous esterification and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Due to the high content (25-50%) of free fatty acid (FFA), crude rice bran oil usually requires a two steps conversion or one step conversion with very harsh condition for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In this study, chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia (HClSO3-ZrO2) with strong acidity and durability is prepared and it shows excellent catalytic activity toward simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Under a relative low reaction temperature of 120 °C, HClSO3-ZrO2 catalyzes a complete conversion of simulated crude rice bran oil (refined oil with 40 wt% FFA) into biodiesel and the conversion yield keep at above 92% for at least three cycles. Further investigation on the tolerance towards FFA and water reveals that it maintains high activity even with the presence of 40 wt% FFA and 3 wt% water. It shows that HClSO3-ZrO2 is a robust and durable catalyst which shows high potential to be commercial catalyst for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mixed hydrogenated palm kernel oil and cold-pressed rice bran oil as ingredients in non-dairy creamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunakorn Katsri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and microbiological properties of hydrogenated palm kernel oil (PKO and cold-pressed rice bran oil (RBOas ingredients in the production of liquid and powdered non-dairy creamer (coffee whitener were studied. The mixing ratios between hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO were statistically designed as of 100:0, 90:10,80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100.The color, absorbanceand viscosity of the mixtures were investigated. As the ratio of cold-pressed RBO increased, the color became darker (L*of 93.06 to 86.25 and the absorbance significantly increased, while the viscosity of the mixtures of 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100 (54 cp. were the highest amongst the ratios tested.The hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO mixtures were further chemically tested for fatty acids, -oryzanol, -tocopherol, trans-fat contents andantioxidant activity. There were 10 fatty acids present in hydrogenated PKO with saturated fatty acid being the most predominant. Comparatively, there were only 5 fatty acids found in cold-pressed RBO with monounsaturated fatty acid being the major fatty acid. -Oryzanol and -tocopherol contents were higher with increasingcold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (0 to 1,155.00 mg/100g oil and 0.09 to 30.82 mg/100g oil, respectively. Antioxidant activity was increased with increasing cold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (9.26 to 94.24%.The pure hydrogenated PKO contained higher trans-fat content than that of the 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures (2.73, 1.93 and 1.85mg/100g oil,respectively while other samples had no trans-fat. No microorganisms were present in any of the samples.Therefore, substitution of hydrogenated PKO by cold-pressed RBO from 30-100% would offer more nutritional values and better chemical and physical properties of non-dairy creamer.

  16. A simple method for purification of deodorizer distillate from Indian rice (Oryza Sativa bran oil and preparation of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Rajan, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rice bran oil deodorizer distillates (RBO DOD-1 and RBO DOD-2 were studied for their physicochemical characteristics. The samples were semisolid and had a dark color. The free fatty acid values were 59.2% and 86.0%, the unsaponifiable matter was 18.7% and 7.75% and the phytosterol contents were 8.71% and 4.22%, respectively for the deodorizer distillates studied. A simple method of silica gel percolation was developed to purify DOD to obtain phytosterol concentrate fractions (PCF and a brown color and bad odor fraction (BCBOF. The color values were reduced by 72.8% and 73.0% of lovibond units in the PCF for DOD-1 and DOD-2 respectively, had no bad odor and were increased in the phytosterol concentration to 12.4% and 5.9%. The PCF was further processed to prepare high purity phytosterols. An HPLC analysis of the phytosterol mixture showed it to be formed by β-sitosterol (38.2%, stigmasterol (34.9%, campesterol (9.5% and other sterols (17.4%.Se estudiaron las características físico-químicas de muestras de destilados de desodorización de aceites de salvado de arroz (RBO DOD-1 y RBO DOD-2. Las muestras eran semi-sólidas y tenían un color oscuro. Los valores de ácidos grasos libres fueron 59,2% y 86,0%, materia insaponificable 18,7% y 7,75% y contenido de fitoesteroles de 8,71% y 4,22%, respectivamente, para los destilados de desodorización estudiados. Se desarrolló un método simple de filtración mediante sílica gel para purificar DOD y obtener concentrados de fitosteroles (PCF y una fracción de color marrón y olor desagradable (BCBOF. Los valores de color se redujeron en un 72,8% y el 73,0% de unidades Lovibond en el PCF para DOD-1 y DOD-2, respectivamente, no tenían mal olor y aumentaron su concentración en fitoesteroles al 12,4% y 5,9%. El PCF se procesó adicionalmente para preparar fitosteroles de alta pureza. El análisis por HPLC mostró que la mezcla de fitosteroles estaba formada por β-sitosterol (38

  17. Rice bran protein hydrolysates reduce arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Upa

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) contain highly nutritional proteins and antioxidant compounds which show benefits against metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased arterial stiffness and the components of MetS have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate whether RBPH could alleviate the metabolic disorders, arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard chow and tap water or a HCHF diet and 15 % fructose solution for 16 weeks. HCHF rats were treated orally with RBPH (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for the final 6 weeks of the experimental period. Rats fed with HCHF diet had hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, increased aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic wall hypertrophy and vascular remodeling with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. RBPH supplementation significantly alleviated these alterations (P stress was also alleviated after RBPH treatment by decreasing plasma malondialdehyde, reducing superoxide production and suppressing p47 phox NADPH oxidase expression in the vascular tissues of HCHF rats. RBPH increased plasma nitrate/nitrite level and up-regulated eNOS expression in the aortas of HCHF-diet-fed rats, indicating that RBPH increased NO production. RBPH mitigate the deleterious effects of HCHF through potential mechanisms involving enhanced NO bioavailability, anti-ACE, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. RBPH could be used as dietary supplements to minimize oxidative stress and vascular alterations triggered by MetS.

  18. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (penergy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation.

  19. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food. PMID:25230211

  20. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC. Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD. The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC (p < 0.05. Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  1. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran in rats fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-16

    The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  2. A fibre cocktail of fenugreek, guar gum and wheat bran reduces oxidative modification of LDL induced by an atherogenic diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandini; Devaraj, S Niranjali; Devaraj, H

    2007-01-01

    LDL (low-density lipoprotein) oxidation is a key trigger factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Relatively few studies exist on the impact of dietary fibre on LDL oxidation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of a novel fibre mix of fenugreek seed powder, guar gum and wheat bran (Fibernat) on LDL oxidation induced by an atherogenic diet. Male Wistar albino rats were administered one of the following diets: (1) a control diet that was fibre-free (Group I); (2) an atherogenic diet containing 1.5% cholesterol and 0.1% cholic acid (Group II) or (3) an atherogenic diet supplemented with Fibernat (Group III). Peroxidative changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and the oxidative susceptibility of LDL and the LDL + VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) fraction were determined. As a corollary to the oxidative modification theory, the titer of autoantibodies to oxidised LDL (oxLDL) was determined at various time points of the study. In addition, plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (Lp (a)), apolipoprotein (apoB), cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and alpha-tocopherol content of LDL were determined. A decrease in malonaldehyde (MDA) content (p<0.05) and relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of LDL was observed in the group III rats as compared to the group II rats. An increase in lag time to oxidation (p<0.01) and decrease in maximum oxidation (p<0.01) and oxidation rate (p<0.01) were observed in the LDL + VLDL fraction of group III rats. In group II rats, formation of autoantibodies to oxLDL occurred at an earlier time point and at levels greater than in the group III rats. Fibernat, had a sparing effect on LDL alpha-tocopherol, which was about 51% higher in the group III rats than in the group II rats; apo B content of LDL was reduced by 37.6% in group III rats. LDL of group III rats displayed a decrease in free and ester cholesterol (p<0.01) as compared to that of group II. A decrease in plasma homocysteine (p<0.01) and an increase

  3. Phytase enzyme in diets containing defatted rice bran for growing swine Enzima fitase dietas com farelo de arroz desengordurado para suínos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Moreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic phosphorus is poorly utilized by monogastric animals because they lack phytase, the enzyme that cleaves the ortho-phosphate groups from the phytate molecule. Diets fed to pigs are supplemented with inorganic P, and this can increase environmental pollution and diet costs. Sixty mixed sex, half-breed pigs, were used to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary levels of phytase (253, 759, 1265 and 1748 PU kg-1 feed on animal performance as compared to a control without phytase but supplemented with dicalcium phosphate. Enzyme levels did not affect daily feed intake, food conversion, average daily weight gain, plasma P and Ca, calcium and phosphorus in bone ash, and the calcium/phosphorus ratio in the plasma and bones. A quadratic relationship between phytase levels and the percentages of P and Ca in bone ash was observed, reaching a maximum at the 880 and 879 PU levels, respectively. Animals fed diets containing phytase presented low plasma P values when compared to the control, but no effects were observed for the regression analysis. Using 759 PU phytase in rations containing corn, soybean bran and defatted rice bran for growing pigs can eliminate the use of traditional sources of P.Os animais monogástricos não aproveitam eficientemente o P orgânico das dietas, pois não sintetizam a enzima fitase, sendo necessária a suplementação das rações com P inorgânico, podendo elevar o custo das dietas e a poluição ambiental. Foram utilizados 60 leitões mestiços (machos castrados e fêmeas para avaliar a eficácia dos níveis dietéticos crescentes da enzima fitase (253, 759, 1265 e 1748 UF kg-1 de ração sobre os parâmetros de desempenho e comparar com o tratamento testemunha que diferia dos demais por não conter fitase e por conter fosfato bicálcico. Os níveis da enzima fitase não afetaram o consumo diário de ração, conversão alimentar, ganho diário de peso, P e Ca no plasma, cinzas no osso e relação cálcio e f

  4. Cinética da degradação ruminal de dietas contendo farelo de casca de pequi Ruminal degradation kinetics of diets with pequi hulls bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Castro Geraseev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A casca de pequi é um resíduo do processamento do fruto, encontrado em grande volume nas regiões do cerrado brasileiro, que pode constituir uma alternativa para a alimentação de ruminantes. Avaliou-se a cinética da degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do farelo da casca de pequi (FCP e de dietas contendo diferentes níveis do resíduo em substituição ao capim-elefante (CE. Foram utilizados quatro caprinos, machos, portando cânulas ruminais, dispostos em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com parcela subdividida. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros de degradabilidade do FCP, capim-elefante e de dietas contendo 0, 10, 20 e 30% de FCP em substituição ao CE. Os alimentos foram incubados no rúmen nos tempos de 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. Os resultados indicaram degradação potencial da MS, PB e FDN do resíduo superiores a 90, 80 e 80%, respectivamente. A adição do FCP em substituição ao CE resultou em maior degradabilidade da matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro, reflexo da maior fração solúvel e potencialmente degradável da MS do FCP. Para a fração protéica, a adição de FCP correlacionou-se negativamente com a fração solúvel, degradação potencial e efetiva, e positivamente com a fração insolúvel potencialmente degradável. A substituição do capim-elefante por FCP permite melhor aproveitamento da dieta, elevando o aporte de nutrientes ao animal.The pequi hulls is a waste of pequi processing, found in large volume in the Brazilian Cerrado, which may provide an alternative to ruminants' diet. This experiment was developed to evaluate the ruminal degradation kinects of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of pequi hulls bran (PHB and experimental diets, with different substitution levels of elephant grass (EG by pequi hulls bran. Four goats castrated with ruminal cannulas were used in a randomized complete block

  5. The Effects Of Fresh And Thermoxidized Palm Oil Diets On Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil diets on some haematalogical indices in the rat were investigated in albino rats (Wistar strain). The animals were divided into three groups namely, the first group fed on thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) diet, a second group fed on fresh palm oil (FPO) diet and a third fed on normal ...

  6. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisah, Yusof; Ang, Shu-Min; Othman, Faizah; Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2016-10-01

    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

  7. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and protective effect against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Min; He, Shujian; Wang, Lu; Cao, Xinmin; Cao, Lili; Jiang, Shaotong

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate physicochemical characterization of the oil extracted from foxtail millet bran (FMBO), and the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice. GC-MS analysis revealed that unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) account for 83.76% of the total fatty acids; in particular, the linoleic acid (C18:2) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and the compounds of squalene and six phytosterols (or phytostanols) were identified in unsaponifiable matter of FMBO. The antioxidant activity examination of FMBO in vitro showed highly ferric-reducing antioxidant power and scavenging effects against DPPH· and HO· radicals. Furthermore, the protective effect of FMBO against acute hepatic injuries induced by ethanol was verified in mice. In this, intragastric administration with different dosages of FMBO in mice ahead of acute ethanol administration could observably antagonize the ethanol-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), and the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively, along with enhanced hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels relative to the control. Hepatic histological changes were also observed and confirmed that FMBO is capable of attenuating ethanol-induced hepatic injury.

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  9. Obese mice fed a diet supplemented with enzyme-treated wheat bran display marked shifts in the liver metabolome concurrent with altered gut bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding impacts hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., metabolites) associated with specific micro...

  10. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    - high fat diet that is thought to contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome - a condition that is strongly associated with diabetes, obesity and heart failure. Fish oil and TTA are known to have beneficial effects for the fatty acid metabolism and have been shown to alleviate some...... expression in a long-term study (50weeks) in male Wistar rats fed 5 different diets. The diets were as follows: low fat diet; high fat diet; and three diets that combined high fat diet with fish oil, TTA or combination of those two as food supplements. We used two different proteomics techniques: a protein...... antioxidant properties of TTA. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA...

  11. The effects of oil palm leaf meal-based diets on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... diets on the growth performance and haematological indices of red Sokoto goats. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... indices of Red Sokoto goats placed on oil palm leaf meal (OPLM)-wheat offal based diet.

  12. Preliminary use of cashew kernel oil in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings diet: comparison with fish oil and palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Paul Magouana Anvo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was performed to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO, palm oil (PO, and cashew kernel oil (CKO as the dietary lipid sources on the growth performance, tissues fatty acids composition and economical profitability in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Three isonitrogenous (49.32%, isolipidic (15.18%, and isoenergetic (21 kJ/g diets were formulated, differed only to the added lipid source and coded accordingly as D1 (fish oil, D2 (palm oil, and D3 (cashew kernel oil. Catfish fingerlings (initial body weight = 2.43 ± 0.04 g were stocked at 1 fish/L and fed to trial diets at 5.6%. At the end of 8 weeks, C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with D1 and D3 had significantly identical growth and feed utilization efficiency. Those fed with D2 exhibited significantly and numerically low growth performance compared, respectively, to D1 and D3. Contrary to whole-body composition of fish, the muscle lipids fatty acids composition was influenced by the fatty acids profile of the dietary lipid sources. High net profit value (NPV of 24.59$, high investment cost analysis (ICA of 10.14$ and low benefit: cost ratio (BCR of 2.42 were observed in fish fed with D1 while those fed with D3 allowed to have high NPV (23.15$, low ICA (7.86$ and high BCR (2.95. Like others vegetable oils, cashew kernel oil can replace expensive fish oil in C. gariepinus fingerlings diet without negatively affecting its growth performances.

  13. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  14. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  15. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  16. Olive oil-diet improves the simvastatin effects with respect to sunflower oil-diet in men with increased cardiovascular risk: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Bastida, S; Gutiérrez-García, O; Carbajal, A

    2009-01-01

    Concomitant intake of statins together with certain foods may affect their therapeutic effects. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the modulating effect of two culinary oils on the hypolipemic effect of statins. Twenty-five men with severe hypercholesterolemia and high estimate cardiovascular risk (> 20% according to the Adult Treatment Panel III of USA National Institutes of Health, ATP-III) were enrolled in an observational follow-up study to test lipoprotein profile changes after ix month 20-mg/d Simvastatin treatment. Thirteen volunteers using sunflower oil as the habitual culinary fat, and 12 using olive oil, were selected by non-probabilistic incidental sampling. Volunteers consent in follow their habitual diets and to maintain diet characteristics throughout the study. Diet was evaluated through the study by three 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire. The energy contribution of fat (P = 0.019) and MUFA (P alcohol (P = 0.005) was higher in the sunflower oil-group. TC/HDL-cholesterol and the ATP-III 10-year risk percent decreased more (P alcohol intakes were adjusted. Data suggest that although Simvastatin is a very effective hypolipemic drug, olive oil-diets in preference to sunflower oil-diets must be consumed in patients with high cardiovascular risk.

  17. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  18. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, Irene O. C. M.; van Diepen, Janna A.; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Westbroek, Irene; Keizer, Hiskias; Gambelli, Luisa; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Zondag, Gerben C. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oil (PUA) was fed for 12weeks to

  19. A butter diet induces higher levels of n-3 PUFA and of n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in rat serum and hearts than a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, K; Ozeki, Y; Nakano, T; Takezoe, R; Nakanishi, M; Asano, Y; Higuchi, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 47-week diet of butter or safflower oil as fat in combination with casein or soy protein as protein were observed for the serum concentrations of lipids and fatty acid compositions in rat serum and heart. Serum total cholesterol (Chol) did not differ among the four experimental diet groups. In the butter groups, significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-Chol and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-Chol were observed than in the safflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups, the butter groups showed higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents and lower n-6 PUFA contents in serum and the hearts (psafflower oil groups of under 0.01 in serum and 0.02 and 0.03 in the hearts (safflower oil-casein diet and safflower oil-soy protein diet, respectively) (psafflower oil diet in rat serum and hearts over a long feeding period.

  20. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  1. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Letícia Adélia MIOTTO; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pas...

  2. Ozone-Induced Vascular Contractility and Pulmonary Injury Are Differentially Impacted by Diets Enriched With Coconut Oil, Fish Oil, and Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Henriquez, Andres; Hodge, Myles; Bass, Virgina; Nelson, Gail M; Carswell, Gleta; Richards, Judy E; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chorley, Brian; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Tong, Haiyan; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2018-05-01

    Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet supplemented with fish, olive, or coconut oil for 8 weeks. Animals were then exposed to air or ozone (0.8 ppm), 4 h/day for 2 days. Ozone exposure increased phenylephrine-induced aortic vasocontraction, which was completely abolished in rats fed the fish oil diet. Despite this cardioprotective effect, the fish oil diet increased baseline levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) markers of lung injury and inflammation. Ozone-induced pulmonary injury/inflammation were comparable in rats on normal, coconut oil, and olive oil diets with altered expression of markers in animals fed the fish oil diet. Fish oil, regardless of exposure, led to enlarged, foamy macrophages in the BALF that coincided with decreased pulmonary mRNA expression of cholesterol transporters, cholesterol receptors, and nuclear receptors. Serum microRNA profile was assessed and demonstrated marked depletion of a variety of microRNAs in animals fed the fish oil diet, several of which were of splenic origin. No ozone-specific changes were noted. Collectively, these data indicate that although fish oil offered vascular protection from ozone exposure, it increased pulmonary injury/inflammation and impaired lipid transport mechanisms resulting in foamy macrophage accumulation, demonstrating the need to be cognizant of potential off-target pulmonary effects that might offset the overall benefit of this vasoprotective supplement.

  3. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  4. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  5. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  7. Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.

  8. Jean-Pierre Brans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brugha, Cathal Macswiney; Krarup, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    , OR gradually became a field with widespread applications, an academic discipline, and a field with its own institutions. The pioneers who paved the road deserve to be both identified and honoured. We present here a profile of Jean-Pierre Brans (born 1937), highly esteemed for his scientific achievements...

  9. Effect of low glycemic load diet with and without wheat bran on glucose control in gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A low-glycemic index diet is effective in blood glucose control of diabetic subjects, reduces insulin requirement in women with gestation diabetes mellitus (GDM and improves pregnancy outcomes when used from beginning of the second trimester. However there are limited reports to examine the effect of low glycemic load (LGL diet and fiber on blood glucose control and insulin requirement of women with GDM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of low glycemic load diet with and without fiber on reducing the number of women with GDM requiring insulin. Materials and Methods: All GDM women (n = 31 were randomly allocated to consume either a LGL diet with Fiber or LGL diet. Results: We found that 7 (38.9% of 18 women with GDM in Fiber group and 10 (76.9% in "Without Fiber" group required insulin treatment. Conclusion: The LGL diet with added fiber for women with GDM dramatically reduced the number needing for insulin treatment.

  10. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed

  11. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  12. Millet and corn oil in sorghum-based diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.

  13. Performance and Fatty Acid Profile of Japanese Quails Fed on Diets Supplemented with Used Restaurant Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Fahmy, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing cotton seed oil (CSO) with Used Restaurant Oil (URO) in Japanese quail diets on performance, fatty acid composition of the carcass and egg and concentration of iodine metabolites. URO was added to the diets at 0, 1, 2 or 4 % at the expense of CSO (4 %) in the control diet during a 10-week trial period. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, mortality rate, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the levels of used restaurant ,oi). Replacing 25,% or 50 % of CSO with URO had no significant (p>0.05) effect on linoleic acid content of carcass and egg. In contrary, linoleic acid content was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the carcass and egg of the group which fed on the diet with 4 % URO. It can be concluded that used restaurant oil can be supplemented to the Japanese quail diets at the levels of 1 % and 2 % without any determine effect on the performance and the fatty acid profile of carcass and egg. rat supplementation to broiler chicken is a long standing practice for improving the consistency and palatability of the diets; increasing the energy density of broiler meat; stimulating growth and utilization of food and energy; feed efficiency; egg size, yield, and hatch ability (Carew and Hill, 1964; Vermeersch and Vanschoubroek, 1968 and Summers and Lesson, 1979 ). Poultry required fat in the diet as a source of essential fatty acids and to facilitate supply and absorption of vitamins (Clarke et al, 1977). Oil may be added to poultry diets in order to meet the 1% linoleic acid requirements

  14. Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters in vitro menadione and nimesulide hepatic mitochondrial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João P; Silva, Ana M; Jurado, Amália S; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2013-10-01

    Diet-induced changes in the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes have been shown to influence physiological processes. However, the modulation effect of diet on mitochondrially-active drugs has not yet received the deserved attention. Our hypothesis is that modulation of membrane dynamics by diet impacts drug-effects on liver mitochondrial functioning. In a previous work, we have shown that a diet rich in rapeseed oil altered mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics in Wistar rats. In the present work, we investigated the influence of the modified diet on hepatic mitochondrial activity of two drugs, menadione and nimesulide, and FCCP, a classic protonophore, was used for comparison. The results showed that the effects of menadione and nimesulide were less severe on liver mitochondria for rats fed the modified diet than on rats fed the control diet. A specific effect on complex I seemed to be involved in drug-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Liver mitochondria from the modified diet group were more susceptible to nimesulide effects on MPT induction. The present work demonstrates that diet manipulation aimed at modifying mitochondrial membrane properties alters the toxicity of mitochondria active agents. This work highlights that diet may potentiate mitochondrial pharmacologic effects or increase drug-induced liabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  16. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsdottir, I.; Tomasson, H.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Gisladottir, E.; Kiely, M.; Parra, M.D.; Bandarra, N.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Martinez, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were

  17. Comparative effects in rats of intact wheat bran and two wheat bran fractions on the disposition of the mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Harris, Philip J.; Kestell, Philip; Zhu, Shuotun; Munday, Rex; Munday, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Wheat bran protects against mutations and cancer, but contains different plant cell types that are likely to have different protective effects. We previously described the production and chemical characterisation of an aleurone-rich fraction (ARF) and a pericarp-rich fraction (PRF) from wheat grain. We compared these with whole bran (WB), fed to rats as 10% of a high fat AIN-76 diet. All bran-supplemented diets increased faecal bulk, in the order PRF > WB > ARF. PRF increased the activity of NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase only in the forestomach, whereas ARF and WB enhanced levels of glutathione S-transferase in the duodenum. ARF but not PRF was digested and fermented, and also encouraged bacterial growth. Rats were gavaged with the radioactive mutagen 14 C-labelled IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), and effects of the brans on plasma radioactivity measured. Compared with the control diet, all bran-supplemented diets reduced the concentration of radioactivity in plasma, in the order ARF > PRF > WB. All brans increased faecal elimination of radioactivity, but only ARF and PRF enhanced urinary radioactivity. These data suggest that wheat bran may reduce mutation and cancers through direct adsorption and enhanced elimination of a dietary mutagen and/or its metabolites, and that wheat bran enriched in pericarp or aleurone cell walls may exert protective effects through different mechanisms.

  18. Chemical composition and effects of micronized corn bran on iron bioavailability in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Irineu de Oliveira Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The degermination of corn grains by dry milling generates 5% of a fibrous residue. After segregation and micronization, corn bran becomes a potential source of dietary fiber consumption. However, its effect on iron bioavailability has not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition of corn bran and its effects on iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: cellulose (control and corn bran (experimental. The bran had high content of total dietary fiber, especially the insoluble fraction, and low phytate content. Hemoglobin uptake did not differ between groups at the end of repletion period, and the iron relative bioavailability value of the corn bran diet was 104% in comparison to that of the control group. The product evaluated proved to be a potential source of dietary fiber and it showed no negative effects on iron bioavailability.

  19. Consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets alters biochemical indices in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Osmund Falade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is thermally oxidized to increase its palatability and this has been a usual practice in most homes. This study sought to assess the biochemical responses of rats to thermally oxidized palm oil diets. Therefore, Wistar strain albino rats (Rattus norveigicus were fed with fresh palm oil (control and thermally oxidized palm oil (test groups diets and water ad libitum for 30 days. Then, the malondialdehyde (MDA contents and total protein of the plasma and liver were determined. Subsequently, the plasma liver function markers [alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB and total bilirubin (TBIL ] and the lipid profile [triglyceride (TRIG, total cholesterol (T-CHOL, high density lipoprotein (HDL-CHOL and low density lipoprotein (LDL-CHOL ] were assayed. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the plasma and liver total protein, ALB, TRIG and HDL-CHOL of the test groups when compared with the control. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05 in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP, TBIL, T-CHOL, LDL-CHOL and plasma/liver MDA of the test groups when compared with the control. These effects were most pronounced in rats fed with 20 min-thermally oxidized palm oil diet. Hence, consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets had deleterious effects on biochemical indices in rats. Therefore, cooking with and/or consumption of palm oil subjected to heat treatment for several long periods of time should be discouraged in our homes as this might have deleterious effects on human health.

  20. Effects of Ingested Crude Oil Contaminated Diets on Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    vein of the eyes of the rats with the aid of a capillary tube and the plasma samples prepared for the biochemical tests. Also, one ... contaminated diets has been reported to cause liver ... as gastrointestinal disorders, burns, foot rot, leg ulcer,.

  1. Wheat-bran autolytic peptides containing a branched-chain amino acid attenuate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis via the suppression of oxidative stress and the upregulation of AMPK/ACC in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Ueno, Takato; Nogata, Yoichi; Hayakawa, Masako; Koga, Hironori; Torimura, Takuji

    2017-02-01

    Whole-wheat intake is known to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the active component remains unclear. Recently, we identified bioactive peptides [leucine-arginine-proline (LRP) and leucine-glutamine‑proline (LQP)] from wheat bran autolytic hydrolysate. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of LRP and LQP on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a mouse model. We also evaluated the effects of these peptides on oxidative stress and on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, two major pathogenic factors of NASH. Seven‑week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks and administered water supplemented with 0.05% LRP, 0.20% LRP, 0.05% LQP, or 0.20% LQP (each n=5) or distilled water (control; n=5) ad libitum. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolite (d-ROM) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP). Hepatic expression of phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were evaluated by immunoblotting. The result showed that non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score was significantly decreased in all types of treatment. Serum d-ROM levels were significantly decreased in the 0.20% LRP group, but not in the 0.05% LRP, 0.05% LQP, and 0.20% LQP groups. Serum BAP levels were significantly increased in the 0.05% LRP and 0.20% LRP groups, but not in the 0.05% LQP and 0.20% LQP groups. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of phospho-AMPK was increased whereas that of phospho-ACC was decreased in the 0.20% LQP group. In conclusion, we demonstrated that both LRP and LQP alleviated the severity of NASH in a high-fat diet-induced NASH mouse model. In addition, we showed that LRP and LQP modulated oxidative stress and upregulated AMPK/ACC, respectively. Thus, LRP and LQP may constitute clinically applicable therapeutic agents for NASH.

  2. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P < 0.001). CO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with CO diet (P < 0.014). Hypocholesterolemic response was greater with SO + PF compared with CO + PF (0.36 mmol 1(-1) vs 0.31 mmol 1(-1)). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were parallel to reductions of serum cholesterol. SO diet decreased, while CO diet increased serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo B. Very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-1 were unaffected by psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat.

  3. The effects of radiation on the oxidation of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawan; Kompiang, S.; Tangenjaya, B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the oxidation of oil in rice bran during storage was studied. As much as 0.25 kg rice bran (Var. Cisadane) in plastic bag was radiated with 2, 4, 6, and 10 kGy (gamma 60-Co) and storedin room temperature (25 Celcius centigrade) for 8 weeks. Peroxide value was determined biweekly. Although peroxide value was significantl increased, there was no interaction between radiation and storage. Radiation using 10 kGy effected the oxidation, in which the peroxide value was 113.24 mg eq/kg at 8 weeks storage compared to 87.85 mg eq/kg for the unradiated rice bran. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  4. Effects of Moringa oleifera seed oil supplemented diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) day old chicks comprising of two broiler genotypes (Arbor Acre and Ross 308) were fed to graded levels (0%, 4.5%, 5% and 5.5%) of Moringa oleifera Seed Oil (MOSO) to investigate its effect on their performance. The experiment was conducted for 35 days and the chickens were fed ad ...

  5. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  6. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.001. Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P<0.01, while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.05. The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.01. Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P<0.01. The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  7. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekian, Fatemeh; Khachaturyan, Margarita; Gebrelul, Sebhatu; Henson, James F

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.001). Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.01), while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.05). The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.01). Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P < 0.01). The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  8. Effects of host nutrition on virulence and fitness of entomopathogenic nematodes: Lipid- and protein-based supplements in Tenebrio molitor diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Rojas, M. Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan A.; Lewis, Edwin E.; Tedders, W. Louis

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema riobrave, were tested for virulence and reproductive yield in Tenebrio molitor that were fed wheat bran diets with varying lipid- and protein-based supplements. Lipid supplements were based on 20% canola oil, peanut, pork or salmon, or a low lipid control (5% canola). Protein treatments consisted of basic supplement ingredients plus 0, 10, or 20% egg white; a bran-only control was also included. Some diet supplements had positive effects on nematode quality, whereas others had negative or neutral effects. All supplements with 20% lipids except canola oil caused increased T. molitor susceptibility to H. indica, whereas susceptibility to S. riobrave was not affected. Protein supplements did not affect host susceptibility, and neither lipid nor protein diet supplements affected reproductive capacity of either nematode species. Subsequently, we determined the pest control efficacy of progeny of nematodes that had been reared through T. molitor from different diets against Diaprepes abbreviatus and Otiorhynchus sulcatus. All nematode treatments reduced insect survival relative to the control (water only). Nematodes originating from T. molitor diets with the 0% or 20% protein exhibited lower efficacy versus D. abbreviatus than the intermediate level of protein (10%) or bran-only treatments. Nematodes originating from T. molitor lipid or control diets did not differ in virulence. Our research indicates that nutritional content of an insect host diet can affect host susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes and nematode fitness; therefore, host media could conceivably be optimized to increase in vivo nematode production efficiency. PMID:19259513

  9. Effects of Inclusion Levels of Wheat Bran and Body Weight on Ileal and Fecal Digestibility in Growing Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q.; Su, Y. B.; Li, D. F.; Liu, L.; Huang, C. F.; Zhu, Z. P.; Lai, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of graded inclusions of wheat bran (0%, 9.65%, 48.25% wheat bran) and two growth stages (from 32.5 to 47.2 kg and 59.4 to 78.7 kg, respectively) on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID), apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and hindgut fermentation of nutrients and energy in growing pigs. Six light pigs (initial body weight [BW] 32.5±2.1 kg) and six heavy pigs (initial BW 59.4±3.2 kg) were surgically prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. A difference method was used to calculate the nutrient and energy digestibility of wheat bran by means of comparison with a basal diet consisting of corn-soybean meal (0% wheat bran). Two additional diets were formulated by replacing 9.65% and 48.25% wheat bran by the basal diet, respectively. Each group of pigs was allotted to a 6×3 Youden square design, and pigs were fed to three experimental diets during three 11-d periods. Hindgut fermentation values were calculated as the differences between ATTD and AID values. For the wheat bran diets, the AID and ATTD of dry matter (DM), ash, organic matter (OM), carbohydrates (CHO), gross energy (GE), and digestible energy (DE) decreased with increasing inclusion levels of wheat bran (pdigestibility of wheat bran in 9.65% inclusion level due to the coefficient of variation (CV) of the nutrient and energy digestibility being higher at 9.65% compared to 48.25% inclusion level of wheat bran. Digestible energy content of wheat bran at 48.25% inclusion level (4.8 and 6.7 MJ/kg of DM, respectively) fermented by hindgut was significantly higher (pdigestibility of some nutrients in pigs, while it positively affects the DE fermentation in the hindgut. PMID:25925062

  10. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Hammamieh

    Full Text Available The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD and standard lab diet (SD were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40% encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the

  12. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  13. Hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of jam enriched with microencapsulated fish oil decreases insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares de Oliveira Carvalho, Anna Paula; Kimi Uehara, Sofia; Nogueria Netto, José Firmino; Rosa, Glorimar

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome is related to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil help in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and are natural bindings of PPAR2. To evaluate the impact of hypocaloric diet associated with microencapsulated fish oil supplementation in women with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a randomized, single-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial with adult women who presented metabolic syndrome (n = 30) for 90 days. The volunteers were divided into two groups: placebo group (n = 15) and microencapsulated fish oil group (n = 15) (3 g/day of microencapsulated fish oil containing 0.41 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid and decosahexaneoic acid). Anthropometric, body composition, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. We considered p hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of microencapsulated fish oil was effective in reducing blood glucose, insulinemia and insulin resistance in women with MS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Inclusion Levels of Wheat Bran and Body Weight on Ileal and Fecal Digestibility in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of graded inclusions of wheat bran (0%, 9.65%, 48.25% wheat bran and two growth stages (from 32.5 to 47.2 kg and 59.4 to 78.7 kg, respectively on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD and hindgut fermentation of nutrients and energy in growing pigs. Six light pigs (initial body weight [BW] 32.5±2.1 kg and six heavy pigs (initial BW 59.4±3.2 kg were surgically prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. A difference method was used to calculate the nutrient and energy digestibility of wheat bran by means of comparison with a basal diet consisting of corn-soybean meal (0% wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by replacing 9.65% and 48.25% wheat bran by the basal diet, respectively. Each group of pigs was allotted to a 6×3 Youden square design, and pigs were fed to three experimental diets during three 11-d periods. Hindgut fermentation values were calculated as the differences between ATTD and AID values. For the wheat bran diets, the AID and ATTD of dry matter (DM, ash, organic matter (OM, carbohydrates (CHO, gross energy (GE, and digestible energy (DE decreased with increasing inclusion levels of wheat bran (p<0.05. While only AID of CHO and ATTD of DM, ash, OM, CHO, GE, and DE content differed (p<0.05 when considering the BW effect. For the wheat bran ingredient, there was a wider variation effect (p<0.01 on the nutrient and energy digestibility of wheat bran in 9.65% inclusion level due to the coefficient of variation (CV of the nutrient and energy digestibility being higher at 9.65% compared to 48.25% inclusion level of wheat bran. Digestible energy content of wheat bran at 48.25% inclusion level (4.8 and 6.7 MJ/kg of DM, respectively fermented by hindgut was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that in 9.65% wheat bran inclusion level (2.56 and 2.12 MJ/kg of DM, respectively, which was also affected (p<0.05 by two growth stages

  15. Mesquite bean and cassava leaf bran in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia kept in water with salinity Farelos da vagem da algaroba e da folha da mandioca em rações para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo mantidos em água salobra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Sérgio Oliveira Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the inclusion of the mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora and cassava leaf bran (Manihot esculenta in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (2.89±0.43g. 225 fish were used, distributed in 15 tanks (120L in a completely randomized design in a 2x2 factorial design, two sources and three levels of bran (10 and 20%, and a control treatment free of by-products (n=3. After 60 days, it was evaluated the growth performance (daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion and survival rate and corporal composition of fish. The performance and corporal composition, except the crude protein content, were not affected by the source or level of bran inclusion. The brans evaluated may be applicable in diets of Nile tilapia including up to 20% without decreasing performance.Avaliou-se a inclusão dos farelos da vagem da algaroba (Prosopis juliflora e folha da mandioca (Manihot esculenta em rações para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus (2,89±0,43g. Foram utilizados 225 peixes, distribuídos em 15 tanques (120L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2, duas fontes e dois níveis de farelo (10 e 20%, além de um tratamento controle isento dos coprodutos (n=3. Ao final de 60 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente e taxa de sobrevivência e a composição corporal dos peixes. O desempenho zootécnico e a composição corporal, exceto quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, não foram afetados pela fonte ou nível de inclusão do farelo. Os farelos estudados podem ser utilizados em rações de tilápias do Nilo até 20% de inclusão, sem comprometer o desempenho zootécnico.

  16. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  17. Replacement of soybean oil by fish oil increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats fed a high-carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Neves, Maria José; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fish oil consumption improves metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidaemia and hypertension induced by high-fat diet ingestion. Previously, we demonstrated that administration of a fructose-rich diet to rats induces liver lipid accumulation, accompanied by a decrease in liver cytosolic lipases activities. In this study, the effect of replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in a high-fructose diet (FRUC, 60% fructose) for 8 weeks on lipid metabolism in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from rats was investigated. The interaction between fish oil and FRUC diet increased glucose tolerance and decreased serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid droplet volume of hepatocytes. In addition, the fish oil supplementation increased the liver cytosolic lipases activities, independently of the type of carbohydrate ingested. Our results firmly establish the physiological regulation of liver cytosolic lipases to maintain lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. In epididymal adipose tissue, the replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in FRUC diet did not change the tissue weight and lipoprotein lipase activity; however, there was increased basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake. Increased cytosolic lipases activities were observed, despite the decreased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol release to the incubation medium. These findings suggest that fish oil increases the glycerokinase activity and glycerol phosphorylation from endogenous TAG hydrolysis. Our findings are the first to show that the fish oil ingestion increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats treated with high-carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Glycerin and essential oils in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance and apparent digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrayny Galoro da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the effect of partial replacing corn by glycerin and essential oils addition in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot on feed intake, animal performance and three markers were assessed to estimate apparent digestibility. Thirty bulls with average weight 400 ± 34.1 kg and 22 ± 2 months old were housed in collective pens (10 x 20 m2 for 63 days. The bulls were randomly assigned to 3 diets (10 bulls per treatment: CON – Control (without glycerin or Essential® oils; GLY – Glycerin (15% on dry matter - DM; and GEO – Glycerin (15% on DM and Essential® oils (3 g animal day-1. Three different markers were used to estimate apparent digestibility in the diets: indigestible dry matter –iDM; indigestible neutral detergent fiber – iNDF; and purified lignin – LIPE®. Feed efficiency and animal performance were not affected by the corn partial replacing by glycerin. No effects were found in partial corn replacing by glycerin and Essential® oils addition in the diets on the fecal output, crude protein and ether extract digestibility among the diets. The DM and OM apparent digestibility were higher for bulls fed with glycerin and Essential® oils. The CHO digestibility was higher for CON diet. The markers iDM, iNDF and LIPE® were similarly to estimate apparent digestibility to all nutrients in the diets.

  19. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, S.; Torres, L.; Castañer, O.

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes. [es

  20. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carrión

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes.

  1. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  2. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre.

  3. Effect of an avocado oil-enhanced diet (Persea americana) on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Toro-Equihua, Mario; Velasco-Rodríguez, Raymundo; López-Ascencio, Raúl; Vásquez, Clemente

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However, there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups. Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group): the control group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference was considered when p avocado oil showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively). Similar insulin resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p = 0.85). Addition of 5-30% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 5-20% avocado oil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Refino de óleo de farelo de arroz (Oryza sativa L. em condições brandas para preservação do γ-orizanol Refining of rice bran oil (Oryza sativa L. to preserve γ-orizanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Paucar-Menacho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O γ-orizanol é um antioxidante presente no óleo de farelo de arroz, mas ausente em outros óleos vegetais, ao qual têm sido atribuídos efeitos antioxidante e hipocolesterolêmico. O conteúdo de γ-orizanol no óleo de farelo de arroz bruto varia entre 1-2%, mas durante a etapa de neutralização do refino químico, este composto fica retido na borra. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo propor uma técnica alternativa de refino físico em condições brandas para o óleo de farelo de arroz com a finalidade de preservar o γ-orizanol. Utilizou-se farelo de arroz inativado e extrusado obtido a partir do processo de produção do arroz parboilizado, sendo o óleo bruto (Oryza sativa extraído pelo método de expeller. O processo de refino do óleo bruto consistiu nas etapas de degomagem ácida (com H3PO4 85%, centrifugação, clarificação, desodorização a 180 ºC e winterização. Foram realizadas análises para caracterização e comparação do óleo bruto e refinado, seguindo metodologias oficiais da AOCS. Concluiu-se que o processo de refino físico preservou 97% do γ-orizanol, o qual potencializou a estabilidade oxidativa do óleo refinado pelo método alternativo, que apresentou uma melhoria de 33% (13,3 horas a 110 ºC do período de indução da oxidação em relação ao óleo comercial.γ-orizanol is an antioxidant present in rice bran oil, but absent in other vegetable oils, which were attributed to antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effects. The content of γ-orizanol in crude rice bran oil varies between 1-2%, but during neutralization in chemical refining this substance is transferred to soapstock. The aim of this research is to study an alternative technique of physical refining in light conditions with the purpose of preserving γ-orizanol. Inativacted and extrused rice bran obtained by the production of parboilizated rice was used to extract crude rice bran oil (Oryza sativa by the expeller method. The process of

  5. Diets high in corn oil or extra-virgin olive oil differentially modify the gene expression profile of the mammary gland and influence experimental breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Vela, Elena; Ruiz de Villa, M Carme; Escrich, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Nutritional factors, especially dietary lipids, may have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. We aimed to analyze the effects of high-fat diets on the susceptibility of the mammary gland to experimental malignant transformation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, high-corn-oil, or high-extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction. Animals were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene at 53 days and euthanized at 36, 51, 100 and 246 days. Gene expression profiles of mammary glands were determined by microarrays. Further molecular analyses were performed by real-time PCR, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry. Carcinogenesis parameters were determined at 105 and 246 days. High-corn-oil diet increased body weight and mass when administered from weaning. The EVOO diet did not modify these parameters and increased the hepatic expression of UCP2, suggesting a decrease in intake/expenditure balance. Both diets differentially modified the gene expression profile of the mammary gland, especially after short dietary intervention. Corn oil down-regulated the expression of genes related to immune system and apoptosis, whereas EVOO modified the expression of metabolism genes. Further analysis suggested an increase in proliferation and lower apoptosis in the mammary glands by effect of the high-corn-oil diet, which may be one of the mechanisms of its clear stimulating effect on carcinogenesis. The high-corn-oil diet strongly stimulates mammary tumorigenesis in association with modifications in the expression profile and an increased proliferation/apoptosis balance of the mammary gland.

  6. Lovelock-Brans-Dicke gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie Tian, David; Booth, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    According to Lovelock’s theorem, the Hilbert-Einstein and the Lovelock actions are indistinguishable from their field equations. However, they have different scalar-tensor counterparts, which correspond to the Brans-Dicke and the Lovelock-Brans-Dicke (LBD) gravities, respectively. In this paper the LBD model of alternative gravity with the Lagrangian density {{L}}{LBD}=\\frac{1}{16π }≤ft[φ ≤ft(R+\\frac{a}{\\sqrt{-g}}{}*{RR}+b{ G }\\right)-\\frac{{ω }{{L}}}{φ }{{{\

  7. Rice Bran Stabilization And G-Oryzanol Content Of Two Local Paddy Varieties Ir 64 And Cisadane Muncul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available An autoclaving procedure was developed to produce stable rice bran from two local paddy varieties IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul. The stable rice bran showed no significant increase in free fatty acid content for 144 hours at 37oC. In the optimum wet heating process, rice bran was heated at 121oC and held for 3 minutes before cooling for both varieties. Stable rice bran contained 3.8 % moisture and the content of total tocopherol was not much changed by heating process, i.e., 209.8 mg/100 g rice bran oil and 279.8 for control (without heating process of IR 64 variety and 227.4 mg/100 g rice bran oil and 248.8 for control of Cisadane Muncul variety, respectively. The content of g-oryzanol varied and was depended on the degree of milling ranged from 39.1 to 147.7 mg/100 g rice bran oil for both of IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul rice varieties. The content of soluble dietary fiber varied and was depended on the degree of milling which ranged from 3.56 to 8.76 % for both of IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul rice varieties. The content of insoluble dietary fiber varied and was depended on the degree of milling which ranged from 15.00 to 25.38 % for both of IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul rice varieties.

  8. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Lira do Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  9. Changes in diets of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B.; Schwartz, C.C.; Browning, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the diets of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, were examined in 1989 and 1990. On the basis of identification of prey remains in their feces, otters fed principally on marine, bottom-dwelling fishes. Marine gastropods, bivalves, and crustaceans composed most of the invertebrates in the diet of otters; freshwater and terrestrial food items seldom occurred in their feces. The diets of otters included 149 different taxa, most of which rarely occurred in their feces. Sixty-five taxa occurred ≥5 times in the combined data set. Species richness and diversity of prey remains in otter feces were similar on oiled and nonoiled study areas in late winter 1989 (before the oil spill) and during summer 1989 following the spill. By summer 1990, however, there were significant declines in the richness and diversity of species (mostly bony fish, molluscs, and bivalves) in otter diets on the oiled area. Likewise, the relative abundance of prey remains in otter feces showed strong differences between areas and years, and an area by year interaction. Members of the Perciformes and Archaeogastropoda declined from 1989 to 1990 on the oiled area while they increased on the nonoiled site; Malacostraca exhibited the opposite pattern. These outcomes, when considered with other data on body mass and blood chemistry, strongly suggest that some effects of the oil spill on otters were delayed. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  11. Dietary gamma oryzanol plays a significant role in the anti-inflammatory activity of rice bran oil by decreasing pro-inflammatory mediators secreted by peritoneal macrophages of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2016-10-28

    Ricebran oil (RBO) is promoted as heart friendly oil because of its ability to maintain serum lipids at desirable levels. Inflammation also plays an important role on cardiovascular health. The role of minor constituents present in unsaponifiable fraction (UF) of RBO on inflammatory markers is not well understood. To evaluate this, we have taken RBO with UF (RBO-N), RBO stripped of UF (RBO-MCR) and RBO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO (UFRBO) or Gamma-Oryzanol (γ-ORY) were added in AIN-93 diets which was then fed to Wistar rats for a period of 60 days. Groundnut oil with UF (GNO-N), UF removed GNO (GNO-MCR) and GNO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO or γ-ORY was also used for comparison. The peritoneal macrophages from the rats were activated and pro-inflammatory mediators such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), eicosanoids, cytokines, hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomal origin were monitored. The results indicated that UF of RBO and γ-ORY supplemented in the dietary oils play a significant role in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages. Hence γ-ORY in RBO significantly contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of RBO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Different Extrusion Parameters on Dietary Fiber in Wheat Bran and Rye Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content of Rice Bran Fed to Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. X. Shi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content of 19 rice bran samples and to develop prediction equations for DE and ME based on their chemical composition. The 19 rice bran samples came from different rice varieties, processing methods and regions. The basal diet was formulated using corn and soybean meal (74.43% corn and 22.91% soybean meal and 2.66% vitamins and minerals. The 19 experimental diets based on a mixture of corn, soybean meal and 29.2% of each source of rice bran, respectively. In Exp. 1, 108 growing barrows (32.1±4.2 kg were allotted to 1 of 18 treatments according to a completely randomized design with 6 pigs per treatment. The treatment 1 was the control group which was fed with basal diet. The treatments 2 to 18 were fed with experimental diets. In Exp. 2, two additional rice bran samples were measured to verify the prediction equations developed in Exp. 1. A control diet and two rice bran diets were fed to 18 growing barrows (34.6±3.5 kg. The control and experimental diets formulations were the same as diets in Exp. 1. The results showed that the DE ranged from 14.48 to 16.85 (mean 15.84 MJ/kg of dry matter while the ME ranged from 12.49 to 15.84 (mean 14.31 MJ/kg of dry matter. The predicted values of DE and ME of the two additional samples in Exp. 2 were very close to the measured values.

  14. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae: growth and thermal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Ikeda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish using 72 juvenile freshwater angelfish, coming from phase I and maintained in 12 aquaria climatized chamber. The temperature was reduced 1ºC per day, until the observation of 100% fish mortality. Phase III, it was studied the heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish employing an identical procedure to phase II, but with a daily increase of 1ºC. Significant differences (P>0.05 were not observed for any parameters evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that the type of vegetable oil (canola, linseed, olive and soybean used as a diet supplement did not affect the productive performance, nor the tolerance to cold and heat, of juvenile freshwater angelfish.

  15. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Muñoz, Miguel A; Sorlí, José V; Martínez, J Alfredo; Fitó, Montserrat; Gea, Alfredo; Hernán, Miguel A; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2018-06-21

    Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown inverse associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. In a multicenter trial in Spain, we assigned 7447 participants (55 to 80 years of age, 57% women) who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was a major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). After a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the trial was stopped on the basis of a prespecified interim analysis. In 2013, we reported the results for the primary end point in the Journal. We subsequently identified protocol deviations, including enrollment of household members without randomization, assignment to a study group without randomization of some participants at 1 of 11 study sites, and apparent inconsistent use of randomization tables at another site. We have withdrawn our previously published report and now report revised effect estimates based on analyses that do not rely exclusively on the assumption that all the participants were randomly assigned. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants; there were 96 events in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (3.8%), 83 in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (3.4%), and 109 in the control group (4.4%). In the intention-to-treat analysis including all the participants and adjusting for baseline characteristics and propensity scores, the hazard ratio was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.91) for a Mediterranean diet with extra

  16. Virgin olive oil, palm olein and coconut oil diets do not raise cell adhesion molecules and thrombogenicity indices in healthy Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, P T; Ng, T K W; Lee, V K M; Nesaretnam, K

    2015-06-01

    Effects of high-protein diets that are rich in saturated fats on cell adhesion molecules, thrombogenicity and other nonlipid markers of atherosclerosis in humans have not been firmly established. We aim to investigate the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared separately with virgin olive oil (OO), palm olein (PO) and coconut oil (CO) on cell adhesion molecules, lipid inflammatory mediators and thromobogenicity indices in healthy adults. A randomized cross-over intervention with three dietary sequences, using virgin OO, PO and CO as test fats, was carried out for 5 weeks on each group consisting of 45 men and women. These test fats were incorporated separately at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. For fasting and nonfasting blood samples, no significant differences were observed on the effects of the three test-fat diets on thrombaxane B2 (TXB2), TXB2/PGF1α ratios and soluble intracellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules. The OO diet induced significantly lower (Pvirgin OO do not alter the thrombogenicity indices-cellular adhesion molecules, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and TXB2/prostacyclin (PGF1α) ratios. However, the OO diet lowered plasma proinflammatory LTB4, whereas the PO diet raised the antiaggregatory plasma PGF1α in healthy Malaysian adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00941837.

  17. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, E.C.; Jascolka, T.L.; Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M.; Peluzio, M.C.G.; Alvarez-Leite, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr −/− , C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action

  18. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, E.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jascolka, T.L. [Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peluzio, M.C.G. [Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Alvarez-Leite, J.I. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-05-11

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr{sup −/−}, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  19. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Aguilar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr-/-, C57BL/6-background. Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12 or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12 for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units. Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  20. Review of antidiabetic fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices commonly consumed in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-04-06

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and its prevalence is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Modifications of lifestyle such as suitable diet and exercise programs along with pharmacotherapy and education of patients are beneficial therapies for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. Our aim is to present a review for researchers who are interested in the biologically active dietary plants traditionally utilized in the treatment of diabetes. Information was obtained from a literature search of electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sci Finder and Cochrane. Common and scientific name of the fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and the words 'antidiabetic', 'hypoglycemic', 'anti-hyperglycemic', 'type 2 diabetes' were used as keywords for search. Certain fruits and vegetables are functional foods and their consumption reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemic effects of fruits and vegetables may be due to their inducing nature on pancreatic β-cells for insulin secretion, or bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids and anthocyanins, which act as insulin-like molecules or insulin secretagogues. This write-up covers hypoglycemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of some dietary fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and their active hypoglycemic constituents. Including such plant species in the diet might improve management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  2. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Growing Rats Fed Irradiated Full-Fat Rice Bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Niely, H.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran at dose levels of 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy were used in the diets of growing rats to evaluate their effect on plasma and liver lipid profile. Comparison was also done with the use of a standard casein diet. After 49 days of feeding trail, food intake and wt gain were found to be highest with rats received casein diet in comparison with those fed on rice bran diets. Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran diets, fed to rats caused a significant reduction in the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), while a significant elevation in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in plasma was recorded compared to those fed on casein diet. Also, similar changes were observed in liver. There was a significant increase in plasma and liver HDL-c/ TC ratio and LDL-c/ HDL-c ratio. Relative liver wt of rats fed on raw and irradiated full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy was lower compared to those fed on control diet (casein diet). The casein group had the highest total plasma and liver total protein (TP) compared to the other experimental groups. Among the experimental groups, raw and processed full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy, induced no significant effect on TP content of plasma and liver

  3. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.

  4. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) and the effects on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Aline A P; Forgiarini, Juliana; Xavier, Eduardo G; Lopes, Débora C N; Roll, Victor F B; Rutz, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01) and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01). All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  5. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix and the effects on egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE A.P. ROLL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01 and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01. All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  6. The Mediterranean Diet and the Increasing Demand of the Olive Oil Sector: Shifts and Environmental Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Neves

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean countries play a crucial role as olive oil producers and consumers compared to other world regions. This work focusses on the development of the world production, trade and consumption where the Mediterranean region stands out from the rest of the world, in particular, the Northern Mediterranean countries. Aspects such as how communication emphasizes the benefits of the Mediterranean diet - which is a distinctive characteristic of the Mediterranean culture and identity - the Slow Food Movement, the International Olive Council campaigns, and the successive Common Agricultural Policies, that have triggered production, trade and consumption around the world, are here discussed. Such increases and stimuli brought and is still bringing changes to the olive oil sector such as a shifting tendency in production modes as well as modernization of the sector, responding to the increasing demand. These shifts and demand are changing landscapes and are being referred as environmentally harmful to the ecosystems as the production of olive oil is shifting to more intensive production systems and monoculture plantations. These issues are here debated and illustrated with case study examples, referring to the Mediterranean countries, particularly, referring to the Iberian Peninsula.

  7. Effect of Adding Different Vegetable Oils to Quail Diets On Some Blood Parameters and Immune System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Wakwak, M.; Sabek, E.M.; Elaroussi, M.A.; El-Gendy, H.M.; Hammad, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    A total number of 1400 one-day old Japanese quail birds were used in this study, the birds were divided into seven equal groups, six treated while the 7 t h served as the control. The diet of the six treated groups was supplemented with 8 % of either one of the following tested oils: soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), corn (CO), cottonseed (CSO), olive (OO) or palm (PO). At the end of the 4 t hand 8 t h weeks of age blood samples were collected for blood picture, proteins and cortisol determination. Antibody titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and NewCastle disease virus (NDV) were determined at 7 and 8 weeks of age respectively. The results showed significant increase in relative lymphoid organ weights, RBCs, WBCs, Hb and PCV, total protein, globulin and cortisol hormone in treated groups compared to the control. The immunological parameters showed a significant increase in (HA) and (HI) against (SRBCs) and (NDV), respectively, in all treated groups compared to the control group. The present results confirm the beneficial effects of dietary oil supplementation to quail birds and in particular olive oil.

  8. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the [ 3 H]-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the [ 3 H]DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the β-adrenergic receptor in rat heart

  9. Replacement of fish oil with soybean oil in diets for juvenile Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus): effects on liver lipid peroxidation and biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deng-Hang; Chang, Jia-Zhi; Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the replacement of fish oil (FO) by soybean oil (SO) on growth performance, liver lipid peroxidation, and biochemical composition in juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Fish (13.7 ± 0.2 g) in triplicate were fed five experimental diets in which 0% (FO as control), 40% (SO40), 60% (SO60), 80% (SO40), and 100% (SO100) FO were replaced by SO. The body weight gain of fish fed SO40, SO60, or SO80 diet was similar to FO group, but diets that have 100% soybean oil as dietary lipid significantly reduced fish growth (P fish liver fed diets that contained SO, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the ratio n-3/n-6 were significantly reduced by the inclusion of dietary SO (P fish. However, diet containing 100% SO as dietary lipid could reduce growth performance. Thus, we recommended that 40-80% SO can be used as dietary lipid to replace FO for juvenile Chinese sucker.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  11. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs-independent functions of fish oil on glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakutsu Masaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish oil is known to improve lifestyle-related diseases. These effects occur partly via activation of PPARs by the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids included abundantly in fish oil. We investigated fish oil functions on glucose and lipid metabolism that are both dependent on and independent of PPARs pathway. Methods Mice were fed a diet containing 30 en% beef tallow (B diet for twelve weeks to induce obesity. The mice were then divided into two groups which were fed either a B diet or a diet containing 30 en% fish oil (F diet. Each group was further divided into two groups which were administered PPARα and γ antagonists or vehicle once a day for three weeks. Results The F diet groups showed lower triglyceride levels in plasma and liver than the B diet groups, but PPARs antagonists did not affect the triglyceride levels in either diet groups. The F diet groups also showed improvement of glucose tolerance compared with the B diet groups. However, PPARs antagonists made glucose tolerance worse in the F diet group but improved it in the B diet group. Therefore, by the administration of antagonists, glucose tolerance was inversely regulated between the B and F diets, and hypolipidemic action in the plasma and liver of the F diet group was not affected. Conclusion These results suggest that fish oil decreases lipid levels in plasma and liver via PPARs pathway-independent mechanism, and that glucose tolerance is inversely regulated by PPARs antagonists under diets containing different oils.

  13. A comprehensive review on anti-diabetic property of rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran (RB is one of the nutrient-rich agricultural byproducts. It is a composite of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, fibers, minerals, and trace elements such as phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and manganese. The extraction and purification process influences the quality and quantity of rice bran oil, which is rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and unsaturated fatty acids. The bioactive components of RB have been reported for exhibiting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, anti-cancer, anti-colitis, and antidiabetic properties. In vitro and in vivo studies, and clinical trials in human volunteers revealed the anti-hyperglycemic activity of RB derived compounds. An updated comprehensive review on the antidiabetic property of RB and its derivative is required to appraise the current knowledge in the particular field. Thus, the present paper covered the composition and bioactivities of RB, and influence of extraction methods on the biological property of rice bran oil and rice bran extract. And the current review also focused on the reported anti-hyperglycemia activity of rice bran derivatives, and its probable mechanism.

  14. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  15. Promotion of colon cancer metastases in rat liver by fish oil diet is not due to reduced stroma formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klieverik, L.; Fehres, O.; Griffini, P.; van Noorden, C. J.; Frederiks, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce 10-fold more metastases in number and 1000-fold in volume in an animal model of colon cancer metastasis in rat liver. It was observed that tumors of rats on a fish oil diet lacked peritumoral stroma unlike

  16. Certain investigation in a compression ignition engine using rice bran methyl ester fuel blends with ethanol additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study and analysis, the physical properties such as calorific value, viscosity, flash, and fire point temperatures of rice bran oil methyl ester were found. The rice bran oil biodiesel has been prepared by transesterification process from pure rice bran oil in the presence of methanol and NaOH. Moreover, property enhancement of rice bran oil methyl ester was also made by adding different additives such as ethanol in various proportions. Rice bran oil methyl ester with 1, 3, and 5% ethanol were analyzed for its fuel properties. The effects of diesel-B20ROME blends with ethanol additive of 1, 3, and 5% on a compression ignition engine were examined considering its emissions. It is found that the increase in biodiesel concentration in the fuel blend influences CO2 and NOx emissions. On the other hand CO and HC emissions are reduced. It is interesting to observe the emission as ethanol-B20ROME blends, reduces CO2 and NOx which are the major contributors to global warming. As the NOx and CO2 can be reduced drastically by the proposed blends, the global warming can be reduced considerably.

  17. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  18. Addition of Aspirin to a Fish Oil Rich Diet Decreases Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in ApoE-Null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Alexander V.; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Vaisman, Boris L.; Thacker, Seth; Yu, Zu-Xi; Sampson, Maureen; Serhan, Charles N.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FA) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE−/− female mice were fed for 13 weeks one of the four following diets: Omega-3 FA deficient (OD), Omega-3 FA Rich (OR) (1.8 g Omega-3 FAs/kg • diet per day), Omega-3 FA Rich plus ASA (ORA) (0.1 g ASA/kg • diet per day), or an Omega-3 FA deficient plus ASA (ODA) with supplement levels equivalent to human doses. Plasma lipids, atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation, hepatic gene expression and aortic lipid mediators were determined. Hepatic omega-3 FAs were markedly higher in OR (9.9-fold) and ORA (7-fold) groups. Mice in both OR and ORA groups had 40% less plasma cholesterol in VLDL and LDL fractions, but aortic plaque area formation was only significantly lower in the ORA group (5.5%) compared to the OD group (2.5%). Plasma PCSK9 protein levels were approximately 70% lower in the OR and ORA groups. Pro-inflammatory aortic lipid mediators were 50–70% lower in the ODA group than in the OD group and more than 50% lower in the ORA group. In summary, less aortic plaque lesions and aortic pro-inflammatory lipid mediators were observed in mice on the fish oil diet plus ASA versus just the fish oil diet. PMID:27394692

  19. Renormalization in quantum Brans-Dicke gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Haba, Z.

    2002-01-01

    In the Brans-Dicke model we treat the scalar field exactly and expand the gravitational field in a power series. A comparison with 2D sigma models and \\phi^{4} perturbation theory in four dimensions suggests that the perturbation series in 4D Brans-Dicke model is renormalizable.

  20. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  1. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  2. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Preliminary study of rubber seed Hevea brasiliensis oil utilization for tilapia diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Komariyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted as a preliminary study on utilization of RBO for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis sp. diet by also evaluating its effect on growth the performance. This research used SULTANA strain at average initial body weights of 8.33±0.07 g/ind. Experimental design was set in completely randomized design. Each treatment was done in triplicates. The treatments were various additions of RBO to replace corn oil in the diet, which were 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Feeding rate, feed efficiency, protein retention, fat retention, specific growth rate, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL (high-density lipoprotein, and hematology were used as evaluating parameters. The results showed that the growth performance, blood chemistry and hematology of fish decreased as the increasing of RBO level in the diet. These are caused by feed intake decreased significantly, which were 583.5 g to 145.6 g of treatments 0% to 100% RBO. Blood glucose, haemoglobin and specific growth of fish in the treatment of 0–100% RBO were 48.7–22.2 mg/dL, 7.6–5.4%, and 3.5–0.8%, respectively. The lowest survival was observed in fish fed 100% RBO (66.7%. Fish growth performance of 0% RBO was the best, so RBO could not be utilized yet as a source of fatty acid or corn oil replacement in tilapia diet. Keywords: free radical, HCN, Oreochromis sp., rubber seed oil  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan sebagai studi awal pemanfaatan minyak biji karet (MBK untuk pakan ikan nila dan mengevaluasi pengaruhnya terhadap pertumbuhan ikan nila. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah ikan nila strain SULTANA dengan bobot awal rata-rata 8,33±0,07 g/ind. Penelitian didesain dalam rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji berbagai sumbangan MBK untuk mengganti minyak jagung dalam pakan, yaitu 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, dan 100%. Selama pemeliharaan, beberapa parameter yang diukur adalah jumlah konsumsi pakan, efisiensi pakan, retensi

  4. Effect of cocoa bran on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and fecal bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W; Vuksan, V; Vidgen, E; Wong, E; Augustin, L S; Fulgoni, V

    Legumes have reported benefits in terms of reduced risk for coronary heart disease and of colonic health. A novel legume fiber, cocoa bran, also may have favorable health effects on serum lipid levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, and fecal bulk. Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic subjects (13 men and 12 women) (mean +/- SEM age, 37 +/- 2 years; mean +/- SEM body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], 24.6 +/- 0.7) ate cocoa-bran and chocolate-flavored low-fiber breakfast cereals for 2-week periods, with 2-week washout, in a double-blind crossover study. The cocoa-bran cereal provided 25.0 g/d of total dietary fiber (TDF). The low-fiber cereal (5.6 g/d TDF) was of similar appearance and energy value. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the start and end of each period, and 4-day fecal collections were made from days 11 through 14. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was higher (7.6% +/- 2.9%; P =.02) and the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was lower (6.7% +/- 2.3%; P =.007) for cocoa-bran compared with low-fiber cereal at 2 weeks. No effect was seen on LDL cholesterol oxidation. Mean fecal output was significantly higher for cocoa-bran than for low-fiber cereal (56 +/- 14 g/d; Pchocolate-flavored cocoa-bran cereal increased fecal bulk similarly to wheat bran and was associated with a reduction in the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. In view of the low-fat, high-fiber nature of the material, these results suggest a possible role for this novel fiber source in the diets of normal, hyperlipidemic, and constipated subjects.

  5. New Brans-Dicke wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Feng; Kim, Sung-Won

    2002-01-01

    Two new classes of exact solutions in vacuum Brans-Dicke theory are obtained, each of which is a two-way traversable wormhole for the coupling parameter ω<-2 or -2<ω≤0, respectively. Each of the two new classes of exact solutions satisfies not only the general constraints given by Morris and Thorne [Am. J. Phys. 56, 395 (1988)], as concluded earlier, but also the constraints from a trip through a wormhole. It also follows that the scalar field φ plays the role of exotic matter violating the weak energy condition

  6. Brans-Dicke wormhole revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Amrita; Nandi, Kamal K; Nigmatzyanov, Ilnur; Izmailov, Ramil

    2009-01-01

    A basic constraint to be satisfied by a Brans class I solution for being a traversible wormhole is derived. It is argued that the solution could be a wormhole analog of the Horowitz-Ross naked black hole. It is further demonstrated that the wormhole is traversible only 'in principle', but not in practice. Using a recently proposed measure of total gravitational energy inside a static wormhole configuration, it is shown that the wormhole contains the repulsive gravity required for the defocussing of orbits at the throat.

  7. Goat oocyte quality and competence to undergo IVM and embryo development after parthenogenetic activation from goats fed with different levels of cashew nut bran as source of dietary lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C C L; Feltrin, C; Martins, L T; Gaudêncio Neto, S; Aguiar, L H; Silva, A M; Oliveira, C H A; Silva, L M; Silva, C M G; Bertolini, M; Rondina, D

    2014-07-15

    Lipid-rich and energy-dense diets can have significant effects on the reproductive physiology, including the ovarian function and fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cashew nut bran supplementation as a lipid source on follicle development, plasma and intrafollicular concentrations of cholesterol, and developmental competence of in vitro-matured goat oocytes. The inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the goats' diet for 28 days increased the percentage and number of degenerated oocytes compared with the control (P diet. In conclusion, the inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the diet of adult goats for 28 days changed plasma cholesterol levels and reduced the proportion of viable immature oocytes; however, the 12% and 24% diet supplementations with cashew nut bran did not interfere with competence of resulting viable oocytes to reach the metaphase II stage after IVM, and to develop after parthenogenetic activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary Flaxseed Oil Prevents Western-Type Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Apolipoprotein-E Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has dramatically increased globally during recent decades. Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3, is believed to be beneficial to the development of NAFLD. However, little information is available with regard to the effect of flaxseed oil rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3, a plant-derived n-3 PUFA, in improving NAFLD. This study was to gain the effect of flaxseed oil on NAFLD and further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Apolipoprotein-E knockout (apoE-KO mice were given a normal chow diet, a western-type high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (WTD, or a WTD diet containing 10% flaxseed oil (WTD + FO for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of flaxseed oil significantly improved WTD-induced NAFLD, as well as ameliorated impaired lipid homeostasis, attenuated oxidative stress, and inhibited inflammation. These data were associated with the modification effects on expression levels of genes involved in de novo fat synthesis (SREBP-1c, ACC, triacylglycerol catabolism (PPARα, CPT1A, and ACOX1, inflammation (NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1, and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, GSH, and SOD.

  9. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  10. [Quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Rebolledo, M A

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of using rice bran as an ingredient in pastas spaghetti type. Two of the pastas were made with semolina from durum as raw material, supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. The other two were made with granular flour and the same percentage of rice bran. Proximate composition of raw material was analyzed. Pastas were elaborated in a local industry. Composition, proximal, color, texture, and sensorial quality of pastas were determined. Protein content (13.9-15.0%), ash (1.47-3.09%) and dietary fiber (6.71-8.45%) of pastas increased according to the percentage of rice bran added. The hardest pastas were those elaborated with semolina from durum wheat and with a 10% of substitution. Also, they were the most yellow. The sensory panel found differences in quality among the pastas evaluated. Pastas with 10% rice bran had the best quality. The results demonstrated that is possible to elaborate pastas with 20% as maximum of rice bran resulting products with high protein, ash and dietetic fiber content, but some undesirable characteristics were given by the rice bran as white spots, wrinkles and color changes.

  11. Effects of Added Lipids on Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance in Oiled Common Murres ( Uria aalge ) and Western Grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ) Fed Four Formulations of a Critical Care Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Klasing, Kirk C

    2017-06-01

    Nutritional support is a primary therapy administered to oiled animals during responses to oil spills, but data informing nutritional decision-making during events are limited. In this study, 44 common murres ( Uria aalge ) and 6 Western grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ), naturally oiled by oceanic seeps off the coast of Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties, CA, USA, were assigned to 1 of 4 groups fed diets with varying levels (6.8% [no added oil], 11%, and 20%) and types (salmon, corn) of oil added to a partially purified basal diet. Birds used in the study ranged from extremely emaciated to thin body condition (62%-80% wild bird mean body mass). Acid-insoluble ash was used as an indigestible dietary marker to quantify nitrogen retention, apparent nitrogen digestibility, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, energy digestibility, fat retention, fat digestibility, and estimated fat excretion. Fat excretion is important in these species because once birds have been cleaned they are at risk of plumage recontamination from excreted fat during care. Lower fat diets resulted in lower fat excretion but higher nitrogen retention, higher apparent nitrogen digestibility, and higher apparent metabolizable energy. Decreases in nitrogen retention were significantly related to increases in fat excretion. Regardless of diet, energy digestibility significantly declined with declines in body mass, suggesting severity of emaciation reduced a birds' ability to extract energy from food. Energy digestibility was highest in the 11% (low) salmon oil diet; hence, this diet had the highest effective energy content despite a lower gross kcal/kg diet. Diets fed during oil spills historically have had high fat concentrations to provide maximum caloric support. Results of this study suggest that lower fat diets may be more efficacious for nutritionally depleted seabirds. This study provides valuable data to guide clinical decision making regarding nutritional support during oil

  12. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  13. Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Krill Oil in Mice Fed a High-Sugar High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiota plays vital roles in metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia. Previous studies have confirmed that krill oil can alleviate hyperlipidemia, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To discern whether krill oil changes the structure of the gut microbiota during the hyperlipidemia treatment, 72 mice were acclimatized with a standard chow diet for 2 weeks and then randomly allocated to receive a standard chow diet (control group, n = 12 or a high-sugar-high-fat (HSHF diet supplemented with a low (100 μg/g·d, HSHF+LD group, n = 12, moderate (200 μg/g·d, HSHF+MD group, n = 12 or high dosage of krill oil (600 μg/g·d, HSHF+HD group, n = 12, simvastatin (HSHF+S group, n = 12 or saline (HSHF group, n = 12 continuously for 12 weeks. The resulting weight gains were attenuated, the liver index and the low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations showed a stepwise reduction in the treated groups compared with those of the control group. A dose-dependent modulation of the gut microbiota was observed after treatment with krill oil. Low- and moderate- doses of krill oil increased the similarity between the composition of the HSHF diet-induced gut microbiota and that of the control, whereas the mice fed the high-dose exhibited a unique gut microbiota structure that was different from that of the control and HSHF groups. Sixty-five key operational taxonomic units (OTUs that responded to the krill oil treatment were identified using redundancy analysis, of which 26 OTUs were increased and 39 OTUs were decreased compared with those of the HSHF group. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study suggest that the structural alterations in the gut microbiota induced by krill oil treatment were dose-dependent and associated with the alleviation of hyperlipidemia. Additionally, the high-dose krill oil treatment showed combined effects on the alleviation of

  14. An extra virgin olive oil rich diet intervention ameliorates the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high-fat "Western-type" diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Ruiz, Enrique; Varela, Lourdes M; Luque, Amparo; Berná, Genoveva; Cahuana, Gladys; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Soria, Bernat; de Roos, Baukje; Romero Gómez, Manuel; Martín, Franz

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the protective effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in high-fat diets (HFDs) on the inflammatory response and liver damage in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or a lard-based HFD (HFD-L) for 12 wk to develop NAFLD. HFD-fed mice were then divided into four groups and fed for 24 wk with the following: HFD-L, HFD-EVOO, HFD based on phenolics-rich EVOO, and reversion (standard diet). HFD-L-induced metabolic disorders were alleviated by replacement of lard with EVOO. EVOO diets improved plasma lipid profile and reduced body weight, plasma and epididymal fat INF-γ, IL-6 and leptin levels, and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, NAFLD activity scores were reduced. The liver lipid composition showed an increase in MUFAs, especially oleic acid, and a decrease in saturated fatty acids. Hepatic adiponutrin and Cd36 gene expression was upregulated in the EVOO groups. Liver ingenuity pathway analysis revealed in EVOO groups regulation of proteins involved in lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, gastrointestinal disease, and liver regeneration. Dietary EVOO could repair HFD-induced hepatic damage, possibly via an anti-inflammatory effect in adipose tissue and modifications in the liver lipid composition and signaling pathways. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The addition of medium-chain triglycerides to a purified fish oil-based diet alters inflammatory profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sarah J; Nandivada, Prathima; Chang, Melissa I; Mitchell, Paul D; O'Loughlin, Alison; Cowan, Eileen; Gura, Kathleen M; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CORONARY DIET INTERVENTION WITH OLIVE OIL AND CARDIOVASCULAR PREVENTION STUDY (THE CORDIOPREV STUDY): RATIONALE, METHODS, AND BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I.; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years, in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009–12) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high BMI (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity), with a median of LDL-cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL, and 20.3% patients < 70 mg/dL). 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic Syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean Diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  18. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P meal caused the greatest change in cod lipid composition and utilization.

  19. Comparative study of two techniques for assessing fat intake in a Mediterranean diet. The influence of culinary oils changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, B; Cuesta, I; Varela-Moreiras, G; Carmena, R; Pérez-Olleros, L

    2000-07-01

    The diet usually consumed by a community of 18 normolipemic monks was studied. It included olive oil as cooking fat (basal period BP). This diet was modified by substituting olive oil for sunflower oil during a 21-day period (experimental period EP). The precise individual weighing technique was utilised for the determination of intake, and by means of the food composition tables (FCTs) the energy and nutrient of the diet were calculated. By chemical analysis of the duplicate sample (CA) of the cooked dishes the lipid intake was also determined. Total serum cholesterol HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, AI and B-100 apolipoproteins and Lp(a) were also analysed. Similarly the absolute and relative values for SFA, MUFA and PUFA obtained by both techniques were also different and these were maintained when the (PUFA + MUFA)/SFA ratio was calculated by both techniques and in the two periods. The correction of the lipid intake by means of the CA technique did not improve either the correlation between the intake or the plasma lipid concentration or the cholesterolemia prediction (r = 0.83 for FCT and CA).

  20. The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Avila, Jesús A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; López-Díaz, José A; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Gómez-García, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Utilização da fitase em dietas com ou sem farelo de arroz desengordurado para suínos em crescimento/terminação Use of phytase in diets with or without defatted rice bran for growing/finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a eficiência de diferentes níveis de fitase em relação à suplementação de fosfato inorgânico (fosfato bicálcico, quando adicionados em dietas sem e com farelo de arroz desengordurado (FAD. Foram utilizados 128 suínos com peso inicial médio de 21,2 ± 2,4 kg, alojados em baias coletivas, para avaliar o desempenho nas fases de crescimento e terminação. Os suínos foram abatidos com peso médio de 95,4 ± 5,3 kg e coletado o osso metacarpo para determinação do cálcio e do fósforo. Foram usados oito tratamentos, sendo quatro dietas sem FAD (milho e farelo de soja e quatro dietas com 30% de inclusão de FAD, nas quais foram adicionados níveis de 0, 750 ou 1000 UF (Unidades de Fitase/kg. Foi observado que adicionar fitase, tanto em dietas sem FAD quanto em dietas com FAD, melhora a disponibilidade do fósforo orgânico. Com os níveis de 750 e 1000 UF/kg adicionados em ambas as dietas, sem suplementação de fosfato bicálcico, não houve prejuízo sobre o desempenho dos animais. Entretanto, as características ósseas são prejudicadas se as dietas com fitase não forem suplementadas com a fonte de fósforo inorgânico.The objective of this work was to compare the efficiency of different levels of phytase with the use of inorganic phosphate (dicalcium phosphate when added to diets with or without defatted rice bran (DRB. One hundred and twenty eight pigs with average initial weight of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg were housed in collective boxes for the pig performance evaluation in the growing and finishing phase. The pigs were slaughtered with an average weight of 95.42 ± 5.3 kg and the metacarpus bones were collected to determine the calcium and phosphorus content. Eight treatments were used with four diets being formulated without DRB (corn-soybean meal and the other four diets with DRB. The phytase levels added in the diets were 0, 750 or 1000 PU/kg of the diet. It was observed that

  2. Impact of olive oil-rich diet on serum omentin and adiponectin levels: a randomized cross-over clinical trial among overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Akram; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of olive oil-rich diet on omentin and adiponectin concentrations. This cross-over randomized trial included 17 overweight women. Participants were assigned to consume either a usual (16% saturated fatty acids [SFA] and 8% monounsaturated fatty acid [MUFA]) or an olive oil-rich diet (16% MUFA and 8% SFA) for 6 weeks crossing over after a 2-week washout period. There was no significant difference in the changes of omentin between two dietary interventions. However, in the adjusted model for polyunsaturated fatty acids and fat mass, usual diet tended to decrease omentin levels whilst olive oil-rich diet tended to increase (-56.1 ± 32.0 versus 40.6 ± 32.0 ng/mL; p = .056). Adiponectin levels increased during two periods, but changes were greater during olive oil-rich diet with a trend toward significance (4.8 ± 3.0 versus 13.4 ± 3.0 μg/mL; p = .06). Consumption of olive oil-rich diet tended to increase omentin and adiponectin in comparison with the usual diet.

  3. Fermions in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojeden, L. L.; Devecchi, F. P.; Kremer, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Using the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation we put under investigation a hypothetical universe filled with a fermionic field (with a self-interaction potential) and a matter constituent ruled by a barotropic equation of state. It is shown that the fermionic field [in combination with the Brans-Dicke scalar field φ(t)] could be responsible for a final accelerated era, after an initial matter dominated period.

  4. Adding palm oil to the diet of sheep alters fatty acids profile on yogurt: Benefits to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Anderson E; Silva, Aleksandro S DA; Biazus, Angelisa H; Richards, Neila S P S; Pellegrini, Luis G; Baldissera, Matheus D; Macedo, Vicente P; Silveira, André L F DA

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to modify the fatty acid profile of yogurt from sheep milk by the inclusion of different concentrations of palm oil into their diet. Thus, thirty-six sheep during lactation were separated in four groups with nine animals each, as described below: the group T0 (0%); the group T2 (inclusion of 2% of palm oil); the group T4 (inclusion of 4% of palm oil) and the group T6 (inclusion of 6% of palm oil). After 60 days of the supplementation, milk samples were collected and yogurt was produced, which was evaluated regarding the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA). A significant reduction (pyogurt of sheep supplemented with 4 and 6% of palm oil. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that palm oil supplementation exerts positive effects on yogurt, since it led to the reduction of undesirable fatty acids and increased fatty acids beneficial to human health.

  5. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson's correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%).

  6. Lignan precursors from flaxseed or rye bran do not protect against the development of intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kranen, H.J.; Mortensen, Alicja; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    2003-01-01

    lignan precursors, i.e., secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol. No statistically significant difference was observed in the incidence and multiplicity of small intestinal and colon tumors at terminal sacrifice between mice fed the control diet or the diet supplemented with 5% flaxseed. With the rye bran...... diet a statistically significant enhancement of the number of small intestinal tumors in female mice was observed. The number of colon tumors, however, was comparable between the control and rye bran-fed mice of either sex. Furthermore, no activating point mutations in the K-ras oncogene nor positive...... immunohistochemical staining for the p53 gene were observed in a set of 48 colon tumors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that increased intake of lignan precursors from flaxseed or rye bran, administered in a Western-style diet, does not protect against intestinal tumor development in an appropriate animal...

  7. Effect of Diet High in Coconut Oil on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in ApoE Knockout and Wild Type Mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Objective: We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease in both control and proatherosclerotic mice consuming diets high in coconut oil. Methods...evaluated by a pathologist blinded to treatment. Results: There were no differences in the average weight gain or amount of diet consumed regardless of...genotype or diet consumed . Similarly, there were no differences in total cholesterol, HDL, and triglyceride in any of the groups. Statistically

  8. A safflower oil-based high fat/high-sucrose diet modulates the gut microbiota and liver phospholipid profiles associated with early glucose intolerance in the absence of tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Andersen, Daniel; Radulescu, Ilinca Daria

    2017-01-01

    n-6 PUFA-rich diets are generally considered obesogenic in rodents. Here we examined how long-term intake of a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet based on safflower oil affected metabolism, inflammation and gut microbiota composition. We fed male C57BL/6J mice a HF/HS diet based on safflower oil...

  9. Navy Bean and Rice Bran Intake Alters the Plasma Metabolome of Children at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal cholesterol in childhood predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adulthood. Navy beans and rice bran have demonstrated efficacy in regulating blood lipids in adults and children; however, their effects on modulating the child plasma metabolome has not been investigated and warrants investigation. A pilot, randomized-controlled, clinical trial was conducted in 38 children (10 ± 0.8 years old with abnormal cholesterol. Participants consumed a snack for 4 weeks containing either: no navy bean or rice bran (control; 17.5 g/day cooked navy bean powder; 15 g/day heat-stabilized rice bran; or 9 g/day navy beans and 8 g/day rice bran. Plasma metabolites were extracted using 80% methanol for global, non-targeted metabolic profiling via ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Differences in plasma metabolite levels after 4 weeks of dietary intervention compared to control and baseline were analyzed using analysis of variance and Welch’s t-tests (p ≤ 0.05. Navy bean and/or rice bran consumption influenced 71 plasma compounds compared to control (p ≤ 0.05, with lipids representing 46% of the total plasma metabolome. Significant changes were determined for 18 plasma lipids in the navy bean group and 10 plasma lipids for the rice bran group compared to control, and 48 lipids in the navy bean group and 40 in the rice bran group compared to baseline. These results support the hypothesis that consumption of these foods impact blood lipid metabolism with implications for reducing CVD risk in children. Complementary and distinct lipid pathways were affected by the diet groups, including acylcarnitines and lysolipids (navy bean, sphingolipids (rice bran, and phospholipids (navy bean + rice bran. Navy bean consumption decreased free fatty acids associated with metabolic diseases (palmitate and arachidonate and increased the relative abundance of endogenous anti-inflammatory lipids

  10. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  11. A fish oil diet does not reverse insulin resistance despite decreased adipose tissue TNF-alpha protein concentration in ApoE-3*Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, Martin; Mensink, Ronald P.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary interventions with fish oil have been found to protect against the development of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and to decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. However, the effect of fish oil administration on preexisting insulin resistance is subject to

  12. Molecular diversity of lactic acid bacteria on ileum broiler chicken fed by bran and bran fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniyah, Laelatul; Nur Jannah, Siti; Rukmi, Isworo; Sugiharto

    2018-05-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) is a digestive tract microflora that have a positive role in poultry health. The number and diversity of LAB in the digestive tract affected by several factors, among them was the kind of feed. The purpose of this research was to know diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) ileum broiler’s after feeding with prebiotic bran and Rhizopus oryzae fermented bran which was added to commercial feed. As much as 15 broilers were used to determine the diversity of LAB. All broilers were fed using commercial feed. The control used commercial feed no addition of bran or fermented bran, and commercial feed with fermented bran and nonfermented bran were as a treatment. To determine the diversity of LAB, T-RFLP method was applied. The Hae III and Msp I were used as restriction enzymes. The number of phylotype, relative abundance, Shannon diversity index (H '), evenness (E), and Dominance (D) were examined. The results indicated that the addition of prebiotic bran on commercial feed showed a higher diversity of lactic acid bacteria on broiler’s ileum, compared with control and addition of Rhizopus oryzae fermented bran. LAB group that dominates in the ileum is Lactobacillus sp. and L. delbruecii subs bulgaricus.

  13. Chronic Swimming Exercise Ameliorates Low-Soybean-Oil Diet-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment by Enhancing BDNF-Mediated Synaptic Potentiation in Developing Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei; Cong, Jiyan; Wu, Yulong; Xie, Jiacun; Wang, Siyuan; Zhao, Yue; Zang, Xiaoying

    2018-05-01

    Exercise and low-fat diets are common lifestyle modifications used for the treatment of hypertension besides drug therapy. However, unrestrained low-fat diets may result in deficiencies of low-unsaturated fatty acids and carry contingent risks of delaying neurodevelopment. While aerobic exercise shows positive neuroprotective effects, it is still unclear whether exercise could alleviate the impairment of neurodevelopment that may be induced by certain low-fat diets. In this research, developing spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with chronic swimming exercise and/or a low-soybean-oil diet for 6 weeks. We found that performance in the Morris water maze was reduced and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus was suppressed by the diet, while a combination treatment of exercise and diet alleviated the impairment induced by the specific low-fat diet. Moreover, the combination treatment effectively increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR), which were both down-regulated by the low-soybean-oil diet in the hippocampus of developing SHR. These findings suggest that chronic swimming exercise can ameliorate the low-soybean-oil diet-induced learning and memory impairment in developing SHR through the up-regulation of BDNF and NMDAR expression.

  14. Efeito da fitase e xilanase sobre o desempenho e as características ósseas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de arroz Effect of phytase and xilanase on the performance and bone characteristics of broiler chicks fed diets with rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir José Conte

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso da fitase e xilanase no desempenho e na deposição óssea de minerais em frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo 15% de farelo de arroz, baixo fósforo disponível e sem suplementação de ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês. A fitase utilizada foi da marca comercial Natuphos 5000 e a xilanase, da marca Avizyme 1300. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2+1. A dieta controle foi composta por níveis adequados de nutrientes, sem farelo de arroz e sem enzimas. As dietas dos demais tratamentos foram formuladas com 15% de farelo de arroz, contendo baixo fósforo disponível (40% do recomendado e sem suplementação inorgânica de Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn, com quatro níveis de fitase (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 FTU/kg, com ou sem xilanase (1 kg/t. As variáveis estudadas aos 21 e 42 dias de idade foram desempenho e cinzas, P, Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu na tíbia. O peso vivo e consumo de ração aumentaram de maneira significativa com a adição de fitase, enquanto que a conversão alimentar não foi afetada, tanto aos 21 como aos 42 dias. O melhor nível de fitase foi de 1.105 e 1.023 FTU/kg para melhor desempenho, aos 21 e 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. A xilanase não afetou significativamente o peso vivo e o consumo de ração, porém melhorou significativamente a conversão alimentar nas duas idades avaliadas, em função de menor consumo de ração nas aves que receberam xilanase. Os níveis de fitase promoveram aumento linear nos teores de cinzas e fósforo da tíbia e não afetaram a deposição de Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu, nas duas idades estudadas. A xilanase não afetou os parâmetros avaliados na tíbia.The present work was designed to verify the effect of the use of phytase and xylanase upon the performance and bone deposition of minerals in broiler diets containing 15% of rice bran, low available phosphorus and without supplementation of iron

  15. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  16. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  17. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  18. Effect of the inclusion of fish residue oils in diets on the fatty acid profile of muscles of males and females lambari (Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Uribe Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of two lipids sources of fish residue (tilapia and salmon compared with a vegetable oil source (soybean oil on the fatty acid profiles of male and female lambari. This experiment was developed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments resulting from the combination of the three experimental diets for both sexes, with four replications for each treatment. This study involved 120 male (2.58±0.13 g and 72 female lambari (4.00±0.09 g, fed the experimental diets twice a day until apparent satiation for a period of 60 days. Oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic fatty acids were found at higher concentrations in all experimental oils and diets, as well in the muscle of male and female lambari. The low amounts of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the experimental diets and subsequent greater concentrations in muscle tissue, suggested that lambari are able to desaturate and elongate the chain of fatty acids with 18 carbons. The fish of both sexes that received the diet with soybean oil showed high levels of n-6 fatty acids, especially of C18: 2n-6 and low levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The diet with salmon residue oil promoted higher levels of fatty acids of the n-3 series and resulted in the best n-3/n-6 ratio in the muscle of male and female lambari. The oils from fish residues can be a substitute for traditional fish oil and its use in the lambari diets does not impair its growth.

  19. Thin-shell wormholes in Brans-Dicke gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are constructed within the framework of Brans-Dicke gravity. It is shown that, for appropriate values of the Brans-Dicke constant, these wormholes can be supported by matter satisfying the energy conditions

  20. Thin-shell wormholes in Brans-Dicke gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: eiroa@iafe.uba.ar; Richarte, Martin G. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: martin@df.uba.ar; Simeone, Claudio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: csimeone@df.uba.ar

    2008-12-22

    Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are constructed within the framework of Brans-Dicke gravity. It is shown that, for appropriate values of the Brans-Dicke constant, these wormholes can be supported by matter satisfying the energy conditions.

  1. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group ( n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  2. The effect of diet supplemented with vegetable oils and/or monensin on the vaccenic acid production in continuous culture fermenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sayed A. Khattab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that supplementing ruminant diets with vegetable oils modulated the rumen biohydrogenation and increased polyunsaturated fatty acid in their products. These positive values are often accompanied by a marginal loss of supplemented unsaturated fatty acids and rise in the concentrations of saturated fatty acids. This study were carried out mainly to investigate the effect of supplementing diets with sunflower oil, olive oil with or without monensin on the production and accumulation of vaccenic acid (VA in continuous culture fermenters as a long term in vitro rumen simulation technique. Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used in an 8 replication experiment lasted 10 days each (first 7 days for adaptation and last 3 days for samples collection. Supplementing diets with plant oils and monensin in the present experiment increased VA and conjugated linoleic acids (P > 0.05 in ruminal cultures. The results suggest that supplementing diets with both olive oil and sunflower oil and monensin increased VA accumulation compared to plant oils supplemented alone without affecting the rumen dry matter and organic matter digestibility.

  3. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  4. Influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of minerals from bread with differing bran content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepa, Beata; Siemianowska, Ewa; Skibniewska, Krystyna Anna

    2012-01-01

    Bread is considered an important source of minerals; however, the presence of fiber and phytic acid reduces bioavailability of minerals from cereal products. It is well established that activity of microorganisms in human gut increases the amount of nutrients released during digestion. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of some minerals from bread using an in vitro process of enzymatic digestion. White bread and with addition of 15, 30, or 45% of bran was baked in a bakery by traditional methods, with addition of yeasts and rye leaven, from flour made of wheat, Tonacja variety. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper, and iron were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Bread was enzymatically digested in vitro without and with the addition of Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 (inoculum 10(6) CFU/cm(3)) and percentages of minerals released were determined. The concentration of minerals released during enzymatic digestion varied depending upon the element, quantity of bran, and presence of bacteria. Increase in bran content decreased release of elements. Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 enhanced amounts of magnesium and zinc released from all types of bread, while manganese and copper rose only from white bread with 15% bran addition. Bacteria decreased amounts of calcium and iron released from bread. Data indicate that diets rich in beneficial bacteria (probiotics) but not balanced with minerals might increase mineral deficiency.

  5. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  6. Reciprocal combinations of barley and corn grains in oil-supplemented diets: feeding behavior and milk yield of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, S; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Schingoethe, D J

    2014-11-01

    The effect of barley-based (BBD) or corn-based diets (CBD), or their equal blend (BCBD) on dry matter (DM) intake, feeding and chewing behavior, and production performance of lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (75.6 ± 11.0 d in milk) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Forage-to-concentrate ratio (40:60), forage neutral detergent fiber (20% of DM), total neutral detergent fiber (>29% of DM), and geometric mean particle size (4.3mm) were similar among treatments. Meal patterns, including meal size and intermeal interval, were not affected by the dietary treatments and DM intake (25.6 kg/d) was not different among treatments. Ether extract intake increased linearly with increasing amount of the corn grain in the diets. Due to similar feed intake, actual milk (48.6 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (36.8 kg/d), and fat- and protein-corrected milk (38.1 kg/d) yields were not affected by treatments. Average milk protein percentage and yield were 2.83% and 1.37 kg/d, respectively, and were not different across treatments. Milk fat percentage increased linearly with increasing amount of corn grain in the diets and was greater in CBD relative to BCBD but not BBD (2.31, 2.28, and 2.57%, for BBD, BCBD, and CBD, respectively). However, milk fat yield tended to show a linear increase as the amount of corn grain included in the diets increased. Results indicated that changing diet fermentability by replacing barley grain for corn grain in oil-supplemented diets did not influence feeding patterns and thereby no changes in feed intake and milk yield occurred. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extruded linseed and linseed oil as alternative to soybean meal and soybean oil in diets for fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Caputi Jambrenghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal and soybean oil respectively with extruded linseed and linseed oil on the productive performances and meat quality traits in lambs slaughtered at 90 days. Lambs weaned at 40 days were divided into 3 groups (N.=10 fed ad libitum for 6 weeks as follows: C (control, commercial feed containing soybean meal and soybean oil; LO (feed containing linseed oil instead of soybean oil; EL (feed containing extruded linseed. Meat quality traits were evaluated on the Longissimus lumborum (Ll and Semimembranosus (Sm muscles. The lambs’ growth performances and the slaughtering and sectioning data did not differ between groups. The redness of meat was significantly higher (P<0.05 for the LO and EL groups compared to the control for both the muscles tested. Ll meat samples of the EL group showed a greater cooking loss compared to LO (P<0.01 and to the control (P<0.05. The amount of linoleic acid in raw Ll meat samples was significantly (P<0.01 lower in both LO and EL groups with respect to control. The concentration of α-linolenic acid was significantly (P<0.01 higher in the EL group and this positively affected the total content of ω3 as well as the ω6/ω3 ratio.

  8. Effects of bran pre-hydration on functional characteristics and bread baking quality of bran and flour blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of bran pre-hydration on the composition and bread baking quality was determined using bran and flour of two wheat varieties. Bran was hydrated in sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.3) to 50% moisture at 25 or 55°C for 1.5 or 12 h. The soluble sugar content in bran increased with pre-hydr...

  9. Biochemical and histological changes in whole body gamma-irradiated rats feed on wheat, barely and corn bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Hassan, A.A.; Ragab, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of adding 3 different of dietary fibers (wheat, barley or corn bran) to normal balanced diet on liver function, blood, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose level to counteract their elevation in whole body gamma irradiation rats. The experimental diets (balanced diet + fibre additive) were fed for 4 weeks. Samples (blood and tissue) were collected at intervals of times 7, 14 and 28 days post exposure to single dose (7 Gy) gamma irradiation. The control group consumed a fibre diet for 4 weeks, but not irradiated. The minimum aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and the lowest blood total cholestrol, triglycerides and blood glucose were observed in rats (irradiated and non-irradiated rats) fed on wheat bran experimental diet (barley or corn bran). It could be concluded that wheat fibers were more effective, as compared with other fibers contained in balanced diet, in improving the investigated parameters observed after whole body gamma irradiation exposure

  10. The regulatory effects of fish oil and chitosan on hepatic lipogenic signals in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Chang, Tien-Chia; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigated the regulatory effects of fish oil and chitosan on the signals of hepatic lipid metabolism and the postulated mechanism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Diet supplementation of chitosan and fish oil efficiently suppressed the increased weights in body and livers of high-fat diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan and fish oil significantly decreased the activities of hepatic lipid biosynthesis-related enzymes and efficiently regulated plasma lipoprotein homeostasis. Both chitosan and fish oil significantly ameliorated the alterations in the protein expressions of hepatic lipogenic transcription factors (LXRα and PPARα), and could also significantly regulate the downstream hepatic lipogenic genes (FAS, HMGCR, CYP7A1, FATP, FABP, AOX, and ABCA) expressions in high-fat diet-fed rats. These results suggest that both fish oil and chitosan exerts downregulative effects on hepatic lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats via the LXRα inhibition and PPARα activation, which further affect the expressions of hepatic lipogenesis-associated genes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A 3 years follow-up of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil is associated with high plasma antioxidant capacity and reduced body weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razquin, C; Martinez, J A; Martinez-Gonzalez, M A; Mitjavila, M T; Estruch, R; Marti, A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) after 3 years of intervention and the associations with adiposity indexes in a randomized dietary trial (PREDIMED trial) with high cardiovascular risk patients. 187 subjects were randomly selected from the PREDIMED-UNAV center after they completed 3-year intervention program. Participants were following a Mediterranean-style diet with high intake of virgin olive oil or high intake of nuts, or a conventional low-fat diet. Adiposity indexes were measured at baseline and at year 3. Plasma TAC was evaluated using a commercially available colorimetric assay kit. Plasma TAC in the control, olive oil and nuts groups was 2.01+/-0.15, 3.51+/-0.14 and 3.02+/-0.14 mM Trolox, respectively after adjusting for age and sex. The differences between the Mediterranean diet and control groups were statistically significant (Pvirgin olive oil group (B=-1.306; 95% CI=-2.439 to -0.173; P=0.025, after adjusting for age, sex and baseline body mass index). Mediterranean diet, especially rich in virgin olive oil, is associated with higher levels of plasma antioxidant capacity. Plasma TAC is related to a reduction in body weight after 3 years of intervention in a high cardiovascular risk population with a Mediterranean-style diet rich in virgin olive oil.

  12. Relating zoobenthic and emergent terrestrial insect production to tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestling diet in oil sands wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, J.L.; Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J. [Windsor Univ., Windsor, ON (Canada); Harms, N.J.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the influence of oil sands process materials (OSPM) on wetland macroinvertebrate community composition and production. Tree swallows are known to inhabit constructed nest boxes and forage near their nest on flying insects of terrestrial and aquatic origin. Therefore, this study evaluated the structure of wetland food webs and how it relates to the transfer of production from aquatic sediments to nestling tree swallows. The study involved 2 reference and 2 oil sands affected wetlands. Exuviae of emerging aquatic and flying insects from floating and sticky traps were collected every 3 days during the tree swallow nestling period in order to estimate benthic invertebrate composition and production. The tree swallow nest boxes, placed around the perimeter of the wetlands in spring were monitored during egg laying and incubation. Diets of the 10-14 day-old nestlings were determined by placing a ligature around the neck of each nestling, preventing the passage of food into the esophagus for 45 min. Food boluses were collected from nestlings fed by the parents during that time. The study showed that although oil sands-affected wetlands had lower aerial insect abundance, they represented over half of the total boluses collected. It was concluded that this study will help determine the ecological viability of oil sands-affected wetlands and their capability of supporting terrestrial predators that rely on zoobenthos.

  13. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  14. Rye bran as fermentation matrix boosts in situ dextran production by Weissella confusa compared to wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Mäkelä, Jari; Coda, Rossana; Shukla, Shraddha; Shi, Qiao; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Juvonen, Riikka; Ekholm, Päivi; Goyal, Arun; Tenkanen, Maija; Katina, Kati

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of fiber-rich foods such as cereal bran is highly recommended due to its beneficial health effects. Pre-fermentation of bran with lactic acid bacteria can be used to improve the otherwise impaired flavor and textural qualities of bran-rich products. These positive effects are attributed to enzymatic modification of bran components and the production of functional metabolites like organic acids and exopolysaccharides such as dextrans. The aim of this study was to investigate dextran production in wheat and rye bran by fermentation with two Weissella confusa strains. Bran raw materials were analyzed for their chemical compositions and mineral content. Microbial growth and acidification kinetics were determined from the fermentations. Both strains produced more dextran in rye bran in which the fermentation-induced acidification was slower and the acidification lag phase longer than in wheat bran. Higher dextran production in rye bran is expected to be due to the longer period of optimal pH for dextran synthesis during fermentation. The starch content of wheat bran was higher, which may promote isomaltooligosaccharide formation at the expense of dextran production. W. confusa Cab3 produced slightly higher amounts of dextran than W. confusa VTT E-90392 in all raw materials. Fermentation with W. confusa Cab3 also resulted in lower residual fructose content which has technological relevance. The results indicate that wheat and particularly rye bran are promising matrices for producing technologically significant amounts of dextran, which facilitates the use of nutritionally valuable raw bran in food applications.

  15. Assessment of epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) migrating into foods: comparison with ESBO-like epoxy fatty acids in our normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Grob, Koni

    2006-08-01

    Epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) was found to be toxic for rats, but the toxic constituent is unknown. It became an issue as the migration from the gaskets in the lids for jars into oily foods regularly far exceeds the European legal limit (overall migration limit and specific migration limit derived from the tolerable daily intake (TDI)). In the context of risk management it was of interest to determine the epoxidized fatty acids of ESBO in those foods of our normal diet which are expected to contain the highest concentrations, i.e., oxidized edible oils (including degraded frying oils), fried foods, bakery ware and roasted meat. The contribution of epoxy oleic acid from ESBO to our diet turned out to be negligible. If this acid were the toxic component in ESBO, the toxicological assessment would primarily be a warning regarding oxidized fats and oils. The contribution of diepoxy linoleic acid from ESBO might be similar to the exposure from oxidized fats and oils of our diet, whereas the intake of triepoxy linolenic acid from ESBO exceeds that from normal food by around two orders of magnitude. Hence use of an epoxidized edible oil virtually free of linolenic acid would be inconspicuous in our diet.

  16. Deposition of tocopherol and tocotrienol in the tissues of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., fed vitamin E-free diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Shern; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P vitamin E isomers present in plant oils. The type and concentration of endogenous vitamin E and the fatty acid composition of plant oils can affect the oxidative stability of tilapia tissues.

  17. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n–6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P.; DeMichele, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n–6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  18. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock. PMID:26161796

  20. Soybean polar lipids differently impact adipose tissue inflammation and the endotoxin transporters LBP and sCD14 in flaxseed vs. palm oil-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Manon; Couëdelo, Leslie; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Plaisancié, Pascale; Durand, Annie; Géloën, Alain; Joffre, Florent; Vaysse, Carole; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Laugerette, Fabienne

    2017-05-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are nutritional pathologies, characterized by a subclinical inflammatory state. Endotoxins are now well recognized as an important factor implicated in the onset and maintain of this inflammatory state during fat digestion in high-fat diet. As a preventive strategy, lipid formulation could be optimized to limit these phenomena, notably regarding fatty acid profile and PL emulsifier content. Little is known about soybean polar lipid (SPL) consumption associated to oils rich in saturated FA vs. anti-inflammatory omega-3 FA such as α-linolenic acid on inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. We then investigated in mice the effect of different synthetic diets enriched with two different oils, palm oil or flaxseed oil and containing or devoid of SPL on adipose tissue inflammation and endotoxin receptors. In both groups containing SPL, adipose tissue (WAT) increased compared with groups devoid of SPL and an induction of MCP-1 and LBP was observed in WAT. However, only the high-fat diet in which flaxseed oil was associated with SPL resulted in both higher WAT inflammation and higher circulating sCD14 in plasma. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that LPS transporters LBP and sCD14 and adipose tissue inflammation can be modulated by SPL in high fat diets differing in oil composition. Notably high-flaxseed oil diet exerts a beneficial metabolic impact, however blunted by PL addition. Our study suggests that nutritional strategies can be envisaged by optimizing dietary lipid sources in manufactured products, including fats/oils and polar lipid emulsifiers, in order to limit the inflammatory impact of palatable foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Boron deprivation alters rat behaviour and brain mineral composition differently when fish oil instead of safflower oil is the diet fat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Penland, James G

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether boron deprivation affects rat behaviour and whether behavioural responses to boron deprivation are modified by differing amounts of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1 mg (9 micromol)/kg boron in a factorial arrangement with dietary variables of supplemental boron at 0 and 3mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g/kg safflower oil or 65 g/kg fish (menhaden) oil plus 10 g/kg linoleic acid. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation and after weaning. Between ages 6 and 20 weeks, behavioural tests were performed on 13-15 male offspring from three dams in each dietary treatment. The rats were euthanized at age 21 weeks for the collection of tissues and blood. At ages 6 and 19 weeks, auditory startle was evaluated with an acoustic startle system and avoidance behaviour was evaluated by using an elevated plus maze. At ages 7 and 20 weeks, spontaneous behaviour activity was evaluated with a photobeam activity system. A brightness discrimination test was performed on the rats between age 15 and 16 weeks. Brain mineral composition was determined by coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Plasma total glutathione was determined by HPLC and total cholesterol and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) were determined by using commercially available kits. Boron-deficient rats were less active than boron-adequate rats when fed safflower oil based on reduced number, distance and time of horizontal movements, front entries, margin distance and vertical breaks and jumps in the spontaneous activity evaluation. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil attenuated the activity response to boron deprivation. In the plus maze evaluation, the behavioural reactivity of the boron-deficient rats fed fish oil was noticeably different than the other three treatments. They made more entries into both open and closed

  2. Carcass and Meat Characteristics and Gene Expression in Intramuscular Adipose Tissue of Korean Native Cattle Fed Finishing Diets Supplemented with 5% Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungkwon; Yan, Zhang; Choi, Changweon; Kim, Kyounghoon; Lee, Hyunjeong; Oh, Youngkyoon; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Jonggil; Smith, Stephen B; Choi, Seongho

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression but depress stearoyl-CoA desaturase ( SCD ) gene expression in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of Hanwoo steers during fattening period (from 16 to 32 mon of age). Fourteen Hanwoo steers were allotted randomly to 2 groups of 7 steers based on initial BW and fed either a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5% palm oil (BDSP). At slaughter, i.m. adipose tissue was harvested for analysis of adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition. There were no differences in BW or average daily gain between treatment groups. Supplemental palm oil had no effect on carcass quality traits (carcass weight, backfat thickness, loin muscle area, or marbling scores) or meat color values. Palm oil increased ( p Palm oil increased total i.m. polyunsaturated fatty acids ( p palm oil on i.m. adipose tissue gene expression, the absence of negative effects on carcass and meat characteristics indicates that palm oil could be a suitable dietary supplement for the production of Hanwoo beef cattle.

  3. Influence of different levels of n-3 supplemented (fish oil) diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate fish oil as n-3 fatty acids source on some performance, carcass and serum parameters in broilers. One-day old Ross strain male broiler chickens (n = 120) were randomly arranged in four dietary treatments (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 percent fish oil), with three replicates for each treatment.

  4. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Terra VC, de Almeida AC, et al. (2010) Qualitative analysis of hippocampal plastic changes in rats with epilepsy supplemented with oral omega-3 fatty... vegetable oil or fish oil. Am J Clin Nutr 63: 116–122. 92. Endres S, Meydani SN, Ghorbani R, Schindler R, Dinarello CA (1993) Dietary supplementation with

  6. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean pine nut oil (PNO has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO (PC, SC or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD, for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower. PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  7. Ketogenic Diet Based on Extra Virgin Coconut Oil Has No Effects in Young Wistar Rats With Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Isabelle T; M Rêgo, Elisabete; Bueno, Nassib B; Gomes, Tâmara C; Oliveira, Suzana L; Trindade-Filho, Euclides M; Cabral, Cyro R; Machado, Tacy S; Galvão, Jaqueline A; R Ataide, Terezinha

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) based on extra virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L., VCO), on the treatment of epileptic rats. Two sets of experiments were conducted. First, male Wistar rats underwent induction of status epilepticus (SE) with the administration of pilocarpine intraperitoneally 21 animals reached spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and were randomly allocated to the dietary regimens and video-monitored for 19 days. In the second experiment, 24 animals were randomized immediately after the induction of SE and followed for 67 days. Diets were as follows: Control (AIN-93G; 7% lipid), KetoTAGsoya (KD based on soybean oil; 69.79% lipid), and KetoTAGcoco (KD based on VCO; 69.79% lipid). There were no differences in the latency to the first crisis, total frequency, and duration of the SRS between groups in 2 experiments. The data suggest no effects of KD, with or without VCO, in rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. © 2018 AOCS.

  8. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alteration in lipid metabolism induced by a diet rich in soya-oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PGD

    2013-09-11

    Sep 11, 2013 ... metabolism in brain, liver and plasma of albino rat model. ... decrease in the levels of the steroidal sex hormones in the starved and other dietary groups compared ..... enriched diet rat group with significant differences only in.

  10. Impact of the consumption of a rich diet in butter and it replacement for a rich diet in extra virgin olive oil on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Vasquez, Hazel Ester; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ortega Fernández, Pablo; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the impact of the substitution of a rich diet in saturated fats with a rich diet in monounsaturated fats on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. A prospective, longitudinal and comparative study where 18 postmenopausal women participated in two periods of dietary intervention of 28 days each one: 1) (SAT diet) consumed butter. Caloric formula (CF) = 15% protein, 38% fat. [20% saturated fat (SFA), 12% monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates and 6% polyunsaturated (PUFA)]. b) Period MONO: with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). CF = 15% protein, 38% fat (profile: SAT diet increased TC (p <0.001), LDL-C (p <0.002) and non HDL-Cholesterol (p <0.000), HDL-C increased in MONO diet (p <0.000). SAT diet: TC/HDL-c ratio, Non col HDL-c/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c (p <0.000) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.000). In MONO diet decreased TC/HDL-c (p <0.015) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.016). The SAT diet increased cardiovascular risk, while the MONO diet decreased the risk to develop the metabolic syndrome components and choronary heart disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:28830128

  12. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2018-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  13. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Chanjula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW] were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat on a dry matter (DM basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05 among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  14. Performance and lipid profiles of native chickens fed diet containing skipjack fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, J. R.; Mandey, J. S.; Laihad, J. T.; Tinangon, R. M.; Tangkau, L.; Junus, C.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the use of fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory in diet on the performance and lipid profiles of native chickens. The experiment used 100 native chicken with an average initial body weight of 48,9 gram (sd + 9.9), was used in this study for 8 weeks experiment. These were arranged by a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 5 replications and 4 hens in replication each. The diets were: R0 = 100% Based Diet (BD) + 0% Fish Oil (FO); R1 = 98.5% BD + 1.5% FO; R2 = 98% BD + 2% FO; R3 = 97.5% BD + 2.5% FO; R4 = 97 % BD + 3% FO. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Variables were performance parameters and lipid profiles. Results showed that fish oil inclusion in diets were significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain, carcass percentage, liver, breast and thigh weight, and decreased blood cholesterol, carbohydrate and meat cholesterol, and also tended to decrease abdominal fat. However, there were no affected on feed conversion, water, protein, fat and ash of breast meat. It can be concluded that the use of fish oil in diet up to 3% could improved performance parameters of native chickens.

  15. Altered Potassium Ion Channel Function as a Possible Mechanism of Increased Blood Pressure in Rats Fed Thermally Oxidized Palm Oil Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanu, Etah E; Owu, Daniel U; Osim, Eme E

    2017-12-27

    Intake of thermally oxidized palm oil leads to cytotoxicity and alteration of the potassium ion channel function. This study investigated the effects of fresh and thermally oxidized palm oil diets on blood pressure and potassium ion channel function in blood pressure regulation. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight rats. Control group received normal feed; fresh palm oil (FPO) and thermally oxidized palm oil (TPO) groups were fed a diet mixed with 15% (weight/weight) fresh palm oil and five times heated palm oil, respectively, for 16 weeks. Blood pressure was measured; blood samples, hearts, and aortas were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Thermally oxidized palm oil significantly elevated basal mean arterial pressure (MAP). Glibenclamide (10 -5 mmol/L) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10 -3 mmol/L) significantly raised blood pressure in TPO compared with FPO and control groups. Levcromakalim (10 -6 mmol/L) significantly (p palm oil increases MAP probably due to the attenuation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (BK Ca ) channels, tissue peroxidation, and altered histological structures of the heart and blood vessels.

  16. Mediterranean diet and life expectancy; beyond olive oil, fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Martín-Calvo, Nerea

    2018-01-01

    Purpose to review the recent relevant evidence of the effects of the Mediterranean diet and lifestyle on health (2015 and first months of 2016). Recent findings Large observational prospective epidemiological studies with adequate control of confounding and two large randomized trials support the benefits of the Mediterranean dietary pattern to increase life expectancy, reduce the risk of major chronic disease, and improve quality of life and well-being. Recently, 19 new reports from large prospective studies showed –with nearly perfect consistency– strong benefits of the Mediterranean diet to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, total mortality, heart failure and disability. Interestingly, two large and well-conducted cohorts reported significant cardiovascular benefits after using repeated measurements of diet during a long follow-up period. Besides, PREDIMED, the largest randomized trial with Mediterranean diet, recently reported benefits of this dietary pattern to prevent cognitive decline and breast cancer. Summary In the era of evidence-based medicine, the Mediterranean diet represents the gold standard in preventive medicine, probably due to the harmonic combination of many elements with antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, which overwhelm any single nutrient or food item. The whole seems more important than the sum of its parts. PMID:27552476

  17. APPLICATION OF OAT, WHEAT AND RYE BRAN TO MODIFY NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRUDED CORN SNACKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Polcyn, Anna; Chudy, Sylwia; Michniewicz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cereal products constitute the basis of the diet pyramid. While the consumption of such products as bread decreases, the group of food which popularity increase is cereal snacks. Unfortunately, the dietary value of this group of foodstuffs is limited. Thus, different types of cereal bran may be added to the produced snacks to enhance their nutritive value. However, an addition of bran may have an adverse effect on quality attributes of products. Corn grits enriched with 20 and 40% oat, wheat and rye bran was extruded. Basic parameters determining the nutritive value, physical characteristics and sensory attributes of the six produced types of extrudates were measured and compared. Moreover, the effect of additives applied on viscosity of aqueous suspensions of the raw materials and extrudates under controlled conditions was measured using RVA. The dietary value of snacks containing bran depends on the type and quantitative shares of the additives. The content of dietary fibre in produced extrudates ranged from 6.5 to 15.8%, including soluble dietary fibre at 2.1 to 3.7%. With an increase of bran content in extrudates, their expansion decreased, density increased and the colour of extrudates changed (reduced brightness, increased a*, decreased b*). In sensory evaluation the highest acceptability was given to extrudates with a 20% addition of oat bran, while the lowest was given for those with 40% wheat bran. Based on PCA results positive correlations were found between overall desirability and crispiness, porosity, taste, colour and expansion. Negative correlations between desirability and hardness and density of extrudates were observed. The additives and their level also had an effect on changes in viscosity of aqueous suspensions measured using RVA. However, no correlation was found between quality features of extrudates and values of attributes measured in the analysis of viscosity. In the production of corn extruded snacks an addition of oat, wheat and rye bran

  18. The effect of inulin and wheat bran on intestinal health and microbiota in the early life of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Leblois, Julie; Taminiau, Bernard; Schroyen, Martine; Beckers, Yves; Bindelle, Jérôme; Everaert, Nadia

    2018-05-26

    Inulin and wheat bran were added to the starter diets of broiler chickens to investigate the potential of these ingredients to improve the host's health and growth performance, as well as the underlying mechanisms of their effects. A total of 960 1-day-old chicks were assigned to 4 treatments: control (CON), 2% inulin (IN), 10% wheat bran (WB), and 10% wheat bran +2% inulin (WB+IN). On day 11, 6 chicks per treatment were euthanized. A general linear model procedure with Tukey's multiple range test was performed to compare a series of parameters between treatments. The WB-containing treatments improved BW on day 7, day 11, day 35, and BW gain until day 11 (P 0.05), but these profiles were different from those found in chicks receiving the WB and the CON diets (P inulin ameliorated the growth performance and gut morphology of the starter chicks, which resulted in a higher BW until day 35. Inulin, on the other hand, had a greater ability to influence the microbiota profile. The beneficial results found in relation to BW and gut morphology during the starter period suggested a synergistic effect of inulin and wheat bran.

  19. Effect of primrose oil and corn oil diets on eicosanoid synthesis by rat mammary tumor induced by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ela, S.H.A.; Bunce, O.R.

    1986-03-01

    Evening primrose oil (PO) contains 9% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and 75% linoleic acid (LA) each of which are prostaglandin precursors. Corn oil (CO) contains 60% linoleic acid. Fifty day old virgin female rats were given DMBA (5 mg, intragastric). Three weeks post DMBA the rats were separated into two dietary groups of 20% PO and 20% CO, respectively. At 16 weeks post DMBA the rats were killed and mammary tumors analyzed by RIA for PGE/sub 1/, PGE/sub 2/, and 6-keto F/sub 1..cap alpha... PGE/sub 1/ levels in PO fed animals were increased two fold over those fed CO indicating that it is possible to shunt GLA toward monoenoic eicosanoid synthesis. However PGE/sub 2/ and 6 keto F/sub 1..cap alpha../ levels were 5x higher in PO compared to CO. Although this could be attributed to higher cis linoleic acid content of PO, more subtle mechanisms may be responsible.

  20. Milk Production of Ettawah Grade Goat Fed Diet Containing Different Protein and Energy Contents Supplemented with Organic Mineral and Grapes Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiani, A.; Kusumanti, E.; Harjanti, D. W.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of different protein and energy contents and supplementation ofZinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and grapes seed oil on milk production in dairy goat.Randomized block design(RBD) was used in this study. Twelve lactating Ettawah crossbreed goats divided into three groupsbased on milk production. The treatment ration were:T1 = ration containing 16% CPand 66% TDN; T2 = ration containing 14% CP and 63% TDN supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2 ppm; and T3 = T2 + 22 ml grapes seed oil/head/day. The ration wasa dry complete feed in the form of pellet. The feed ingredients used were rice bran, cassava, wheat pollard, soybean meal, coconut meal, molasses, coffee husk and corn straw.Experiment was conducted over 30 days. Results revealed that the goat fed the ration supplemented with Zn and Cr(T2) producehigher milk yield (1012.29 g/day) and better in milk fat production (Poil in the T3 (P<0.05), but no significant in milk fat production compared with T1. In conclusion,drycomplete feed containingof CP 14%, TDN 63% supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2ppm is recommended for lactating dairy goat.

  1. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  2. Effect of rice bran supplementation on cookie baking quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, A.; Bhatti, M.S.; Ahmed, A

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product obtained during polishing of un-milled rice, contains a large quantity of essential nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, fiber, amino acids and antioxidants. Supplementation of rice bran in cookies can improve their nutritional value. In the present study, cookies were prepared from wheat flour with supplementation of rice bran at the rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent. The rice bran was stabilized with acid and dry heat treatment before supplementation. Chemical analysis of the cookies revealed that there was no significant difference in chemical and physical properties of cookies supplemented with acid stabilized rice bran (ASRB) and heat stabilized rice bran (HSRB). The moisture, crude protein, fat and mineral contents were significantly increased with the increment of rice bran. Average width, thickness and spread factor of cookies also increased with the increase in percentage of rice bran. Sensory evaluation of cookies showed that scores for color of cookies decreased significantly with increase in level of rice bran and sensory scores were significantly higher in the cookies prepared with HSRB. However the decrease was non-significant at 10 percent level of substitution. Highest scores for overall acceptability of supplemented cookies was recorded at 15 percent level of substitution as compared to other treatments. Hence it is concluded from the results that supplementation of HSRB at the rate of 10 percent is more suitable for production of rice bran supplemented cookies. (author)

  3. Prevention of diet-induced obesity by safflower oil: insights at the levels of PPARalpha, orexin, and ghrelin gene expression of adipocytes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Fengchen; Sun, Yuqian; Zhang, Jinchao

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevention of diet-induced obesity by a high safflower oil diet and adipocytic gene expression in mice. Forty 3-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CON, 5% lard + 5% safflower oil), high lard group (LAR, 45% lard + 5% safflower oil), and high safflower oil group (SAF, 45% safflower oil + 5% lard). After 10 weeks, 10 mice of the LAR group were switched to high safflower oil diet (LAR-SAF). Ten weeks later, glucose tolerance tests were performed by intraperitoneal injection of glucose. Circulating levels of lipid and insulin were measured and white adipose tissues were taken for gene chip and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The LAR group showed higher body weight, adiposity index, insulin, and lipids than the CON group (P<0.05). The body weight in the LAR-SAF group decreased after dietary reversal. The plasma biochemical profiles decreased in the LAR-SAF and SAF groups (P<0.05) compared with those of the LAR group. The blood glucose level of the LAR-SAF group was reduced during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with that of the LAR group. The LAR-SAF group had lower levels of Orexin and Ghrelin gene expression, whereas the level of PPARalpha gene expression was significantly enhanced compared with that of the LAR group. So, the SAF diet can alter adipocytic adiposity-related gene expression and result in effective amelioration of diet-induced obesity.

  4. γ-Oryzanol-Rich Black Rice Bran Extract Enhances the Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soon Young; Kim, Heon-Woong; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Lim, Yoongho; Kim, Jung-Bong; Lee, Young Han

    2017-09-01

    The innate immune response is an important host primary defense system against pathogens. γ-Oryzanol is one of the nutritionally important phytoceutical components in rice bran oil. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of γ-oryzanol-rich extract from black rice bran (γORE) on the activation of the innate immune system. In this study, we show that γORE increased the expression of CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 and enhanced the phagocytic activity of RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, γORE and its active ingredient γ-oryzanol promoted the secretion of innate cytokines, interleukin-8, and CCL2, which facilitate phagocytosis by RAW264.7 cells. These findings suggest that γ-oryzanol in the γORE enhances innate immune responses.

  5. Deep sequencing shows microRNA involvement in bovine mammary gland adaptation to diets supplemented with linseed oil or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Ammah, Adolf A; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M

    2015-10-30

    Bovine milk fat composition is responsive to dietary manipulation providing an avenue to modify the content of fatty acids and especially some specific unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) isomers of benefit to human health. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression but their specific roles in bovine mammary gland lipogenesis are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the expression pattern of miRNAs following mammary gland adaptation to dietary supplementation with 5 % linseed or safflower oil using next generation RNA-sequencing. Twenty-four Canadian Holstein dairy cows (twelve per treatment) in mid lactation were fed a control diet (total mixed ration of corn:grass silages) for 28 days followed by a treatment period (control diet supplemented with 5 % linseed or safflower oil) of 28 days. Milk samples were collected weekly for fat and individual fatty acid determination. RNA from mammary gland biopsies harvested on day-14 (control period) and on days +7 and +28 (treatment period) from six randomly selected cows per treatment was subjected to small RNA sequencing. Milk fat percentage decreased significantly (P safflower oil treatments, respectively. Seven miRNAs including six up-regulated (bta-miR-199c, miR-199a-3p, miR-98, miR-378, miR-148b and miR-21-5p) and one down-regulated (bta-miR-200a) were found to be regulated (P < 0.05) by both treatments, and thus considered core differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs. The gene targets of core DE miRNAs have functions related to gene expression and general cellular metabolism (P < 0.05) and are enriched in four pathways of lipid metabolism (3-phosphoinositide biosynthesis, 3-phosphoinositide degradation, D-myo-inisitol-5-phosphate metabolism and the superpathway of inositol phosphate compounds). Our results suggest that DE miRNAs in this study might be important regulators of bovine mammary lipogenesis and metabolism. The novel miRNAs identified in this study will further enrich the bovine miRNome repertoire

  6. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  7. Review of Antidiabetic Fruits, Vegetables, Beverages, Oils and Spices commonly consumed in the Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-01-01

    for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our aim is to present a review...

  8. Study of the role of bran water binding and the steric hindrance by bran in straight dough bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, S; Langenaeken, N A; Jacobs, P J; Verspreet, J; Delcour, J A; Courtin, C M

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of the physical presence and water binding of wheat bran during bread making, and the possible mechanisms behind this effect. Regular bran, pericarp-enriched bran and synthetic bran-like particles with different water binding capacities and particle sizes were used. Incorporation of regular and pericarp-enriched bran in dough (15% dm) led to a lower oven rise than the control dough. Bread volumes decreased with 11% and 30%, respectively. Dough with synthetic bran, having a low water binding capacity, displayed a near to normal leavening and oven rise and resulted in a bread volume decrease of only 5% compared to the control. Particle size reduction of regular bran and synthetic bran to an average size of 200 µm did not affect final bread quality. Results indicate that water binding by bran affects bread quality the most, whereas steric hindrance by physical presence of bran particles is less determinative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  10. [Cooking quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Cafiero, J; Mosqueda, M

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality during and after cooking of four pastas spaghetti type. Rice bran was used as ingredient in order to increase protein and dietetic fiber content. In two of the four formulation, semolina durum was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. In the other two formulation granular flour was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. Time cooking, water absorbtion, solid loss, color and hardness, (instrumental and sensory), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Apparent Digestibility in vivo were determined. Acceptability was evaluated by a 35-member consumer panel. Rice bran improved solid loss during cooking and increased cooking time, PERs were not affected significantly but Apparent Digestibility decreased when rice bran was increased. Sensory quality was affected because rice bran made pastas hard and dark but they were comparable to high fiber pasta existing in market.

  11. Fish oil alleviated high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease via regulating hepatic lipids metabolism and metaflammation: a transcriptomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; Li, Qi; He, Lei; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Intake of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is believed to be beneficial against development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was to gain further understanding of the potential mechanisms of the protective effects of fish oil against NAFLD. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control diet (CON), a Western style high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (WD), or a WD diet containing fish oil (FOH) for 16 weeks respectively. The development of liver steatosis and fibrosis were verified by histological and biochemical examination. Hepatic transcriptome were extracted for RNA-seq analysis, and particular results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The consumption of fish oil significantly ameliorated WD-induced dyslipidemia, transaminase elevation, hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis showed that long-term intake of fish oil restored the expression of circadian clock-related genes per2 and per3, which were reduced in WD fed animals. Fish oil consumption also corrected the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism, such as Srebf1, Fasn, Scd1, Insig2, Cd36, Cyp7a1, Abcg5, Abcg8 and Pcsk9. Moreover, the expression levels of pro-inflammation genes Mcp1, Socs2, Sema4a, and Cd44 in the FOH group were lower than that of WD group, implying that fish oil protects the liver against WD-induced hepatic inflammation. The present study demonstrates fish oil protects against WD-induced NALFD via improving lipid metabolism and ameliorating hepatic inflammation. Our findings add to the current understanding on the benefits of n-3 PUFAs against NAFLD.

  12. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Added Colored Wheat Bran on Bread Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Machálková; Marie Janečková; Luděk Hřivna; Yvona Dostálová; Joany Hernandez; Eva Mrkvicová; Tomáš Vyhnánek; Václav Trojan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of colored wheat bran addition on bread quality was tested on wheat varieties with purple pericarp (Konini, Rosso and Karkulka) and on a variety containing blue aleurone (Skorpion). The effect of 10 %, 15 % and 20 % bran addition on sensory evaluation, bread color and texture was compared to the characteristics of bread prepared from wheat variety Mulan. The addition of 10 % bran significantly increased the sensory evaluation scores of bread. Crumb characteristics were improved mai...

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... in a complex and ridig cell wall structure. This thesis contains a thorough examination of the monosaccharide and structural composition of corn bran, which is used to assess and apply the relevant mono component enzyme preparations. In this way, the aim is to obtain the most effective minimal enzymatic......, especially with respect to xylose and glucose release, but vast amounts of the valuable monosaccharides are lost during this pretreatment and this is especially evident for arabinose. From a scientific point of view acid catalysed pretreatment renders the substrate in a state of disruption where assessment...

  15. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (Pgoats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  16. In growing pigs, the true ileal and total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in extracted corn oil is greater than in intact sources of corn oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Stein, H H

    2013-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the true ileal digestibility (TID) and the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ, and high protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and to compare these values to the TID and TTTD of AEE in full-fat soybeans. Nineteen barrows with an initial BW of 52.2 kg (SD = 3.8) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 19 × 11 Youden square design with 19 diets and 11 periods. A basal diet based on cornstarch, casein, sucrose, and corn bran was formulated. Eighteen additional diets were formulated by adding 3 levels of extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, HP DDG, or full-fat soybeans to the basal diet. The apparent ileal and the apparent total tract digestibility of AEE were calculated for each diet. The endogenous flow of AEE associated with each ingredient and values for TID and TTTD were calculated using the regression procedure. Results indicated that digested AEE in ileal digesta and feces linearly increased as AEE intake increased regardless of ingredient (P 0.77). However, the ileal and fecal endogenous losses of AEE were different (P oil, HP DDG, and full-fat soybeans. The TID of AEE was greater (P oil (95.4%) than for all other ingredients. The TID of AEE in HP DDG (76.5%) was not different from the TID of AEE in full-fat soybeans (85.2%) but greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ (53.0, 62.1, and 50.1%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE was greater (P oil (94.3%) than for all other ingredients, and the TTTD in full-fat soybeans (79.7%) was greater (P oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, and HP DDG (41.4, 51.9, 43.9, and 70.2%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE in HP DDG was also greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ. In conclusion, the intact sources of oil originating from high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, or HP DDG are much less digestible than extracted corn oil

  17. Tall oil fatty acid inclusion in the diet improves performance and increases ileal density of lactobacilli in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienola, K; Jurgens, G; Vuorenmaa, J; Apajalahti, J

    2018-04-20

    1. Studies were conducted with tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) to determine their effect on broiler chicken performance and ileal microbiota. TOFA, a product originating from coniferous trees and recovered by fractional distillation of side-streams from pulp production, mainly comprises free long-chain fatty acids (~90%) and resin acids (~8%). Conjugated linolenic acids and pinolenic acid are characteristic fatty acid components of TOFA. 2. TOFA products at 750 mg/kg feed were tested in two 35-day broiler chicken trials, each using a wheat soya-based diet and with 12 replicate pens per treatment. In both trials, TOFA improved body weight gain at all time points (P TOFA formulations (silica carrier and palm oil coating) were tested and showed performance effects similar to liquid TOFA. 3. Ileal digesta of the broiler chickens was analysed for total eubacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens on days 14 and 35. TOFA significantly increased total eubacteria and lactobacilli density on day 14 (P TOFA (P 250 mg/l. The in vitro results were thus in line with in vivo observations. 5. The mechanisms behind the bacterial shifts and their role in performance improvement are unknown. Further purification of TOFA components is needed to identify the effective agents.

  18. Assessment of irradiated rice bran as iron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Heden Katsue

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the largest cereal crop in Brazil. To obtain the polish grain, its external peel is extracted after abrasive process. As a result, rice bran is obtained. It has low cost and high nutritional level, which has been include into malnourished children feeding. There is a considerable controversy related to the rice bran effect on the prevention and control of undernutrition and iron deficiency. The aim os this study was to assess the availability of in vitro iron of in natura and treated rice brans, after different levels of irradiation were applied. Both sorts of bran had their composition analyzed emphasizing the iron and phytate contents. The microbiological quality of the rice bran was also assessed. The pathogenic microorganisms were destroyed only in the in natura rice bran. As the irradiation level applied on the stabilized bran increased, its lipidic fraction reduced an the progressive destruction of the phytates occurred. The high iron content follow its availability in the rice bran, despite of the irradiation level applied, on the rice bran products and its dietetic preparations. (author)

  19. Extra-virgin olive oil diet and mild physical activity prevent cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis model: an in vivo and in vitro study on lubricin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Loreto, Carla; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean diet includes a relatively high fat consumption mostly from monounsaturated fatty acids mainly provided by olive oil, the principal source of culinary and dressing fat. The beneficial effects of olive oil have been widely studied and could be due to its phytochemicals, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Lubricin is a chondroprotective glycoprotein and it serves as a critical boundary lubricant between opposing cartilage surfaces. A joint injury causes an initial flare of cytokines, which decreases lubricin expression and predisposes to cartilage degeneration such as osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of extra-virgin olive oil diet and physical activity on inflammation and expression of lubricin in articular cartilage of rats after injury. In this study we used histomorphometric, histological, immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, western blot and biochemical analysis for lubricin and interleukin-1 evaluations in the cartilage and in the synovial fluid. We report the beneficial effect of physical activity (treadmill training) and extra-virgin olive oil supplementation, on the articular cartilage. The effects of anterior cruciate ligament transection decrease drastically the expression of lubricin and increase the expression of interleukin-1 in rats, while after physical activity and extra-virgin olive oil supplemented diet, the values return to a normal level compared to the control group. With our results we can confirm the importance of the physical activity in conjunction with extra-virgin olive oil diet in medical therapy to prevent osteoarthritis disease in order to preserve the articular cartilage and then the entire joint.

  20. Starch and oil in the donor cow diet and starch in substrate differently affect the in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Nicot, M C; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2011-11-01

    Trans isomers of fatty acids exhibit different health properties. Among them, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on milk fat production and can affect human health. A shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of dairy cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with highly unsaturated fat sources. The differences of BH patterns between linoleic acid (LeA) and linolenic acid (LnA) in such ruminal conditions remain unknown; thus, the aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the effects of starch and sunflower oil in the diet of the donor cows and starch level in the incubates on the BH patterns and efficiencies of LeA and LnA. The design was a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 cows, 4 periods, and 4 diets with combinations of 21 or 34% starch and 0 or 5% sunflower oil. The rumen content of each cow during each period was incubated with 4 substrates, combining 2 starch levels and either LeA or LnA addition. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism of incubates showed that dietary starch decreased the diversity of the bacterial community and the high-starch plus oil diet modified its structure. High-starch diets poorly affected isomerization and first reduction of LeA and LnA, but decreased the efficiencies of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and trans C18:1 reduction. Dietary sunflower oil increased the efficiency of LeA isomerization but decreased the efficiency of trans C18:1 reduction. An interaction between dietary starch and dietary oil resulted in the highest trans-10 isomers production in incubates when the donor cow received the high-starch plus oil diet. The partition between trans-10 and trans-11 isomers was also affected by an interaction between starch level and the fatty acid added to the incubates, showing that the trans-10 shift only occurred with LeA, whereas LnA was mainly hydrogenated via the more usual trans-11

  1. Effects of full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Gloria A; Overholt, Martin F; Dilger, Anna C; Boler, Dustin D; Stein, Hans H

    2018-06-04

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that increasing inclusion levels of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) are not detrimental to growth or carcass characteristics, longissimus muscle (LM) quality, or fat quality when fed to growing-finishing pigs. A total of 224 barrows and gilts were randomly allotted to 7 treatments, with 4 pigs per pen and 8 pen replicates per treatment. Pigs had an average initial BW of 28.2 ± 4.1 kg and a 3-phase feeding program was used. A basal diet containing corn and soybean meal, 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB, and 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were formulated within each phase. Daily feed allotments and pig BW at the start of the experiment and at the conclusion of each phase were recorded. On the last day of the experiment, 1 pig per pen was harvested and carcass characteristics, LM quality, and fat quality were determined. For the overall experimental period, no effects of dietary treatments were observed for average daily gain. However, average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased (linear, P < 0.05) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) increased (linear, P < 0.05) for pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of FFRB. In contrast, ADFI increased linearly (P < 0.05) and G:F decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as DFRB was included in the diets. There were no effects of dietary treatments on LM quality. The length of the bellies decreased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as the inclusion of FFRB or DFRB increased in the diets. The concentration of crude fat in the adipose tissue of pigs increased linearly (P < 0.05) as the concentration of FFRB or DFRB increased in the diets. The concentration of saturated fatty acids in the adipose tissue of pigs fed diets containing FFRB decreased (linear, P < 0.05), whereas the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (linear, P < 0.05). In contrast, addition of DFRB did not affect the concentration of

  2. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO] on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals’ diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  3. Successful selection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss on their ability to grow with a diet completely devoid of fishmeal and fish oil, and correlated changes in nutritional traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Callet

    Full Text Available In the context of limited marine resources, the exponential growth of aquaculture requires the substitution of fish oil and fishmeal, the traditional components of fish feeds by terrestrial plant ingredients. High levels of such substitution are known to negatively impact fish performance such as growth and survival in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss as in other salmonids. In this respect, genetic selection is a key enabler for improving those performances and hence for the further sustainable development of aquaculture. We selected a rainbow trout line over three generations for its ability to survive and grow on a 100% plant-based diet devoid of both fish oil and fishmeal (V diet from the very first meal. In the present study, we compared the control line and the selected line after 3 generations of selection, both fed either the V diet or a marine resources-based diet (M diet. The objective of the study was to assess the efficiency of selection and the consequences on various correlated nutritional traits: feed intake, feed efficiency, digestibility, composition of whole fish, nutrient retention and fatty acid (FA profile. We demonstrated that the genetic variability present in our rainbow trout population can be selected to improve survival and growth. The major result of the study is that after only three generations of selection, selected fish fed the V diet grew at the same rate as the control line fed the M diet, whilst the relative reduction of body weight was 36.8% before the selection. This enhanced performance on the V diet seems to be mostly linked to a higher feed intake for the selected fish.

  4. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  5. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J. Krager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3 and γ-tocotrienol (GT3 have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR. However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source.

  6. Fish Oil Ameliorates High-Fat Diet Induced Male Mouse Reproductive Dysfunction via Modifying the Rhythmic Expression of Testosterone Synthesis Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs against high-fat diet induced male mouse reproductive dysfunction and to explore circadian regulation mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed a normal chow diet (control group, CON, a high-fat diet (HFD group or a HFD supplemented with fish oil (FO group for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of feeding, the body weight and the ratio of perinephric and epididymal fat weight to body weight were significantly higher in the HFD group compared with the CON group. The supplement of fish oil rich in ω-3PUFAs only slightly reduced the HFD-induced obesity but remarkably ameliorated HFD-induced dyslipidemia, sexual hormones disorder, testicle lesions and germ cell apoptosis. Fish oil supplementation restored the expression of steroid synthesis associated genes in HFD fed mouse and flattened the HFD-induced oscillations in circadian genes’ expression. Fish oil supplementation prevented HFD-induced male mouse reproductive dysfunction and modified the rhythmic expression of testosterone synthesis related genes.

  7. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat; Enkerlin, Walter

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  8. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  9. Rye bran bread intake elevates urinary excretion of ferulic acid in humans, but does not affect the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, H.; Tetens, I.; Let, Mette Bruni

    2004-01-01

    Background Rye bread contributes an important part of the whole grain intake in the Scandinavian diet. Ferulic acid is the major phenolic compound in rye bran and is an antioxidant in vitro and may, therefore, contribute to cardioprotective effects of whole grain consumption. Aim of study Firstly...... had no influence on lag time or propagation rate of the LDL oxidation ex vivo. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that ferulic acid from rye bran is bioavailable and that the urinary concentration of ferulic acid reflects the dietary intake of this hydroxycinnamic acid. Within the period...

  10. Evaluation of garlic oil in nano-emulsified form: Optimization and its efficacy in high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Gokulakannan; Muralidaran, Yuvashree; Sridharan, Badrinathan; Nachiappa Ganesh, Rajesh; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2017-07-01

    Garlic oil nanoemulsion was formulated using ultrasonic emulsification and the optimized garlic oil nanoemulsion ratio (1:2) of oil: surfactant showed spherical, with tiny droplet size 24.9 ± 1.11 nm. It was observed that the prepared nanoemulsion has the zeta potential of -42.63 ± 1.58 mV and a low polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.09 with excellent stability. The formulation was subjected to in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicity. In acute toxicity study, single oral administration of 18.63 ml of garlic oil nanoemulsion/kg resulted in immediate mortality. However, garlic oil nanoemulsion (0.46 ml/kg) and tween 80 (0.5 ml/kg) administered rats did not exhibit any toxicity and showed no changes in hematological and histological parameters. Further, both preventive and curative studies of garlic oil nanoemulsion were evaluated in high-fat diet fed dyslipidemic Wistar rats. Garlic oil nanoemulsion administered groups showed a significant effect in reducing the levels of lipid profiles (p garlic oil. Evaluation of lipid deposits in hepatic tissues was analyzed by Oil Red O staining, which revealed that garlic oil nanoemulsion administered rats markedly reduced the fat depots. Our findings suggest that garlic oil nano-emulsified form reduced toxicity and improved efficacy in preventing and treating dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of partial replacement of maize in the diet with crude glycerin and/or soyabean oil on ruminal fermentation and microbial population in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury Tatiana; Duarte Messana, Juliana; Carneiro de Souza, Vinícius; Lino Dias, Ana Veronica; Takeshi Kishi, Luciano; Rocha Rebelo, Lucas; Teresinha Berchielli, Telma

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of crude glycerin (CG) and soyabean oil (SO) could be used to partially replace maize in the diet of Nellore steers while maintaining optimum feed utilisation. Eight castrated Nellore steers fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a double 4×4 Latin square design balanced for residual effects, in a factorial arrangement (A×B), when factor A corresponded to the provision of SO, and factor B to the provision of CG. Steers feed SO and CG showed similar DM intake, DM, organic matter and neutral-detergent fibre digestibility to that of steers fed diets without oil and without glycerine (P>0·05). Both diets with CG additions reduced the acetate:propionate ratio and increased the proportion of iso-butyrate, butyrate, iso-valerate and valerate (Pdiets containing SO had less total N excretion (Pdiet generated a greater ruminal abundance of Prevotella, Succinivibrio, Ruminococcus, Syntrophococcus and Succiniclasticum. Archaea abundance (P=0·002) and total ciliate protozoa were less in steers fed diets containing SO (P=0·011). CG associated with lipids could be an energy source, which is a useful strategy for the partial replacement of maize in cattle diets, could result in reduced total N excretion and ruminal methanogens without affecting intake and digestibility.

  12. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell

  13. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of rice bran extracts using different antioxidant assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Bajwa, Jawad -ur-

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the antioxidant activity of different solvent (100% methanol, 80% methanol, 100% acetone, 80% acetone extracts of rice bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays and using sunflower oil as oxidation substrate. The rice bran extracts were evaluated from the estimate of % inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, total phenolics content (TPC and loss of β-carotene in a linoleic acid system. Additionally, crude concentrated rice bran extracts were added into the sunflower oil samples and stored under ambient conditions. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated diene-, and triene- values. The general order of antioxidant efficacy of rice bran extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic  extract > 80% acetone extract > 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that rice bran extracts of the Super Kernel variety indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.Se evalúa la actividad antioxidante diferentes extractos (100% metanol, 80% metanol, 100% acetona and 80% acetona de salvado de arroz -var. Super Kernel- mediante diferentes ensayos y utilizando aceite de girasol como substrato. Los ensayos utilizados fueron la estimación del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en sistemas con ácido linoleico, el contenido total en compuestos fenólicos y la pérdida de β-caroteno en sistemas con ácido linoleico. Adicionalmente, los concentrados de extractos de salvado de arroz se añadieron a aceite de girasol y las muestras se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente. La extensión de la oxidación se evaluó mediante el índice de peróxidos, el índice de p-anisidina, así como la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados. El orden de la eficacia antioxidante

  14. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shidfar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. Methods. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m2 and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil or the control group (with normal consumption of oil for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. Findings. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study (P = 0.004. In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements (P<0.01. There were significant differences in the ALT and AST levels between the two groups (P<0.02. The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. Conclusion. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  15. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Bahrololumi, Samaneh Sadat; Doaei, Saeid; Mohammadzadeh, Assieh; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadimanesh, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m 2 ) and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil) or the control group (with normal consumption of oil) for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study ( P = 0.004). In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements ( P groups ( P < 0.02). The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  16. Efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de arroz em dietas suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte = Effect of different inclusion levels of rice bran in diets supplemented with phytase for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Robério Vieira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenhozootécnico, rendimento de carcaça e a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas contendo quantidades crescentes de farelo de arroz integral (FAI, suplementados com fitase. Foram utilizados 600 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagemRoss, alojados em boxes de acordo com um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos seguintes tratamentos: T1-ração referência (milho e farelo de soja; T2-ração referência com 750 FTU g-1; T3-ração com 3,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T4-ração com 7,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T5-ração com 10,5% FAI com 750 FTU g-1 e T6-ração com 14% FAIcom 750 FTU g-1. A inclusão de fitase, com a utilização de FAI até o nível de 14% e redução do fósforo inorgânico na formulação da ração, não afetou o desempenho zootécnico e características de carcaça dos frangos de corte, porém reduziu a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia dos ossos.The experiment was carried with the objective of evaluating the productive performance, carcass yield, phosphorus availability and tibia ash in broilers subjected to diets containing increasing amounts of whole rice bran (WRB, supplemented with phytase. Six hundred broilers (Ross, all males, were allocated in boxesaccording to a completely randomized design, being fed the following regimens: T1 standard feed (corn and soybean meal; T2 standard feed with 750 FTU g-1; T3 feed with 3.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1; T4 feed with 7.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1 T5 feed with 10.5% WRB with 750 FTU g-1 and T6 feed with 14% WRB with 750 FTU g-1. The inclusion of phytase with the use of WRB to the level of 14% and the reduction of the inorganic P in the formulation of the feed did not affect the performance and carcass characteristics of the broiler chickens; however, it did decrease the presence of phosphorus and ash in the tibia.

  17. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  18. Rumen papillae keratinization, cell glycogen and chemical composition of the meat from young bulls fed different levels of concentrate and babassu mesocarp bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santos Barros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the rumen papillae keratinization, cellular levels of liver and muscle glycogen, and the chemical composition of meat from feedlot-finished Nellore young bulls fed with levels of concentrate and babassu mesocarp bran. Twenty-eight animals with initial age of 21 months and initial body weight of 356.7 ± 19 kg were randomized to the following treatments: two levels of concentrate in the diet (65% and 71%, with or without inclusion of 35% of babassu mesocarp bran. Fragments of liver, muscle and rumen were obtained after slaughter of the animals. Levels of concentrate and babassu mesocarp bran in the diet did not affect the quantities of liver and muscle glycogen, and did not induce hyperkeratinization of rumen papillae. The chemical composition of the meat was not affected by the studied factors. The inclusion of 35% babassu mesocarp bran in high concentrate diets does not induce hyperkeratinization of rumen papillae, and does not change the amount of muscle and liver glycogen or the chemical characteristics of meat of Nellore young bulls.

  19. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC 6.21 mmol/L than in women with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but palmolein decreased serum and LDL-peroxide in hypercholesterolemics more than in the normocholesterolemics, resulting in serum and LDL-peroxide levels which theoretically are more adequate. Though palmolein increased LDL-C concentrations, it better protected LDL particles, mainly in women with high TC, against peroxidation than did oleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

  20. The BRAN luminosity detectors for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matis, H.S.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, A.; Turner, W.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bravin, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Miyamoto, R. [European Spallation Source, ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2017-03-11

    This paper describes the several phases which led, from the conceptual design, prototyping, construction and tests with beam, to the installation and operation of the BRAN (Beam RAte of Neutrals) relative luminosity monitors for the LHC. The detectors have been operating since 2009 to contribute, optimize and maintain the accelerator performance in the two high luminosity interaction regions (IR), the IR1 (ATLAS) and the IR5 (CMS). The devices are gas ionization chambers installed inside a neutral particle absorber 140 m away from the Interaction Points in IR1 and IR5 and monitor the energy deposited by electromagnetic showers produced by high-energy neutral particles from the collisions. The detectors have the capability to resolve the bunch-by-bunch luminosity at the 40 MHz bunch rate, as well as to survive the extreme level of radiation during the nominal LHC operation. The devices have operated since the early commissioning phase of the accelerator over a broad range of luminosities reaching 1.4×10{sup 34} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} with a peak pileup of 45 events per bunch crossing. Even though the nominal design luminosity of the LHC has been exceeded, the BRAN is operating well. After describing how the BRAN can be used to monitor the luminosity of the collider, we discuss the technical choices that led to its construction and the different tests performed prior to the installation in two IRs of the LHC. Performance simulations are presented together with operational results obtained during p-p operations, including runs at 40 MHz bunch rate, Pb-Pb operations and p-Pb operations.

  1. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  2. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Edgar; Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  3. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Weigand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each, were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ and 22% cocoa butter (CB or 22% safflower oil (SF for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control. The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  4. Influence of essential oils in diet and life-stage on gut microbiota and fillet quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Florencia; Faccenda, Filippo; De Filippo, Carlotta; Albanese, Davide; Pindo, Massimo; Martelli, Roberta; Marconi, Paola; Lunelli, Fernando; Fava, Francesca; Parisi, Giuliana

    2018-05-01

    Developing fish farming to meet the demands of food security and sustainability in the 21st century will require new farming systems and improved feeds. Diet and microbe interactions in the gut is an important variable with the potential to make a significant impact on future fish farming diets and production systems. It was monitored the gut microbiota of farmed rainbow trout using 16S rRNA profiling over 51 weeks during standard rearing conditions and feeding diet with supplementation of an essential oils (MixOil) mixture from plants (at a concentration in diet of 200 mg/kg). Gut microbiota 16S rRNA profiling indicated that the fish gut was dominated by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Although the dietary supplementation with MixOil had no impact on either the composition or architecture of gut microbiota, significant changes in alpha and beta diversity and relative abundance of groups of gut bacteria were evident during growth stages on test feeds, especially upon prolonged growth on finishing feed. Fish fillet quality to guarantee palatability and safety for human consumption was also evaluated. Significant differences within the gut microbiota of juvenile and adult trout under the same rearing conditions were observed, The addition of essential oil blend affected some physicochemical characteristics of trout fillets, including their resistance to oxidative damage and their weight loss (as liquid loss and water holding capacity) during the first period of storage, that are two important parameters related to product shelf life and susceptibility to spoilage. The results highlighted the need for further studies concern dietary microbiome modulation at different life stages and its influence on animal health, growth performance and final product quality.

  5. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ramandeep; Brennan, Lorraine; Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Strain, J J; Gibney, Mike J; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Garg, Lalit; Welch, Robert W

    2016-02-17

    Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions.

  6. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vakili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY and cinnamon (CIN essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive, 2-THY (5 g/d/calf and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf. Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  7. PEMANFAATAN BAHAN TUMBUHAN SEBAGAI BIOKATALISATOR DALAM PRODUKSI MINYAK SAWIT KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 [Using of Plant Biocatalisator for Omega-3 PUFA -Rich Palm Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Elisabeth1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Incorporaton of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA into red palm oil was investigated by using acidolysis process. Rice bran and Carica papaya latex (CPL were used as biocatalyst. Acidolysis between red palm oil and n-3 PUFA concentrate in free fatty acid form was conducted without solvent, with weight ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to palm oil being 1:1. The n-3 PUFA concentrate was prepared from tuna oil by crystallization method. The study has demonstrated that rice bran lipase showed higher activity to incorporate n-3 PUFA into red palm oil than CPL. The extent of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 and DHA (docosahexaeboic acid, C22:6 incorporation were 3.4% and 12.7% with the rice bran lipase, and 1.7% and 3.2% with the CPL. Furthermore, rice bran from several varities of paddy (Mamberamo, IR-64, Merah Munte , and Cirata produced equal incorporation of EPA and DHA into red palm oil. Rice bran from germinated seed of paddy did not increase the n-3 PUFA incorporation into red palm oil. It means that rice bran in its natural form could be used and act as immobilized lipase. It is easier to remove the rice bran from reaction mixture and reuse the bran for 14 times without decreasing its enzyme activity

  8. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafine, Katherine M; Labay, Caitlin; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to obesity, chronic metabolic disease, and increased inflammation in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Dietary supplements that are high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can reduce or prevent these negative health consequences in rats. Eating high fat chow also increases the sensitivity of rats to behavioral effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems (e.g., cocaine), and this effect is greatest in adolescent females. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat chow induced increases in sensitivity to cocaine in adolescent female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 25-27) ate standard laboratory chow (5.7% fat), high fat chow (34.4% fat), or high fat chow supplemented with fish oil (20% w/w). Cocaine dose dependently (1-17.8mg/kg) increased locomotion and induced sensitization across 6 weeks of once-weekly testing in all rats; however, these effects were greatest in rats eating high fat chow. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented enhanced locomotion and sensitization in rats eating high fat chow. There were no differences in inflammatory markers in plasma or the hypothalamus among dietary conditions. These results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with fish oil can prevent high fat diet-induced sensitization to cocaine, but they fail to support the view that these effects are due to changes in proinflammatory cytokines. These data add to a growing literature on the relationship between diet and drug abuse and extend the potential health benefits of fish oil to stimulant drug abuse prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional composition of rice bran submitted to different stabilization procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida dos Santos Conceição Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to inactivate enzymatic deterioration, whole rice bran samples were subjected to two stabilization methods. Changes in nutritional value in terms of, concerning chemical composition, minerals and fatty acid content, were evaluated to supplement existing data and promote the utilization of rice bran in the human diet. The following homemade heat treatments were applied: roasting on a conventional stove or heating in a microwave oven. Based on the results, the different heating methods affected sample composition, since the levels of some nutrients of treated samples showed significant changes (pA fim de inativar a deterioração enzimática, as amostras de farelo de arroz foram submetidas a dois métodos de estabilização. As mudanças do valor nutricional, no que se refere a composição química, os minerais e o conteúdo de ácidos graxos, foram avaliadas para adicionar mais informações aos dados existentes e promover a utilização de farelo de arroz na dieta humana. Os seguintes tratamentos caseiros por calor foram aplicados: torra em forno convencional ou de aquecimento em forno de micro-ondas. Com base nos resultados, os diferentes métodos de aquecimento afetaram a composição das amostras, já que os níveis de alguns nutrientes mostraram alterações significativas (p <0,05, comparado com as amostras cruas correspondentes. O farelo de arroz tratado em fogão convencional forneceu produtos com menos umidade (5,14 ± 0,10 g/100 g e nutrientes, tais como: de sódio 11,8%; ácido palmítico 9,9% e ácido esteárico 8,1%. O procedimento de forno de micro-ondas resultou em melhor preservação dos nutrientes, com teor de umidade um pouco maior (6,28 ± 0,10 g/100 g, o que parece ser uma ferramenta prática e rápida no tratamento térmico caseiro para o farelo de arroz.

  10. Corn oil versus lard: Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in mice fed obesogenic diets with different fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlisova, Jana; Bardova, Kristina; Stankova, Barbora; Tvrzicka, Eva; Kopecky, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding the level of insulin resistance induced by high-fat diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) when compared to those enriched by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and how metabolic effects of marine PUFA of n-3 series, i.e. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), depend on dietary lipid background. Here we compared two high-fat diets, in which the major lipid constituent was based either on SFA in the form of pork lard (LHF diet) or PUFA of n-6 series (Omega-6) as corn oil (cHF diet). Both cHF and LHF parental diets were also supplemented with EPA+DHA (∼30 g/kg diet) to produce cHF+F and LHF+F diet, respectively. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed the experimental diets for 8 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in mice fed LHF and cHF diets, and then metabolic effects of cHF+F and LHF+F diets were assessed focusing on the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Both LHF and cHF induced comparable weight gain and the level of insulin resistance, however LHF-fed mice showed increased hepatic steatosis associated with elevated activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels when compared to cHF. Despite lowering hepatic SCD1 activity, which was concomitant with reduced hepatic steatosis reaching the level observed in cHF+F mice, LHF+F did not decrease adiposity and the weight of eWAT, and rather further impaired insulin sensitivity relative to cHF+F, that tended to improve it. In conclusion, high-fat diets containing as much as ∼35 weight% as lipids induce similar weight gain and impairment of insulin sensitivity irrespective whether they are based on SFA or Omega-6. Although the SFA-rich diet containing EPA+DHA efficiently reduced hepatic steatosis, it did so without a corresponding improvement in insulin sensitivity and in the absence of effect on adiposity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Fran

  11. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo. Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24. No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

  12. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear. to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p groups for DC (-2.1 ± 2,7 cm; p virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2003-01-01

    Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern.

  14. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD supplement with perilla oil (POH for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  15. Dietary rice bran component γ-oryzanol inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Kang, Mi Young; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the effects of rice bran and components on tumor growth in mice. Mice fed standard diets supplemented with rice bran, γ-oryzanol, Ricetrienol®, ferulic acid, or phytic acid for 2 weeks were inoculated with CT-26 colon cancer cells and fed the same diet for two additional weeks. Tumor mass was significantly lower in the γ-oryzanol and less so in the phytic acid group. Tumor inhibition was associated with the following biomarkers: increases in cytolytic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells; partial restoration of nitric oxide production and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages increases in released the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from macrophages; and reductions in the number of blood vessels inside the tumor. Pro-angiogenic biomarkers vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase-5 (5-LOX) were also significantly reduced in mRNA and protein expression by tumor genes. ELISA of tumor cells confirmed reduced expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX up to 30%. Reduced COX-2 and 5-LOX expression downregulated VEGF and inhibited neoangiogenesis inside the tumors. Induction of NK activity, activation of macrophages, and inhibition of angiogenesis seem to contribute to the inhibitory mechanism of tumor regression by γ-oryzanol. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, L M; Kaminsky, R G; Taren, D L; Shaw, E; Sander, J K

    2001-02-01

    Despite vitamin A supplementation programs, vitamin A deficiency in children remains a public health concern in Honduras. We investigated the effectiveness of short-term dietary supplementation of mothers with red palm oil as a strategy for improving the vitamin A status of the mother-infant dyad. Lactating mothers in Colonia Los Pinos, a barrio of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, consumed a total of 90-mg beta-carotene as red palm oil (n = 32) supplements (n = 36) or placebo (n = 18) in six equal doses over 10 days. Carotenoids and retinol in maternal and infant serum, and breastmilk carotenoids and retinol were measured before and after supplementation. Maternal diet was evaluated by 24-hour recall. Maternal serum alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations were increased 2 fold by palm oil compared with 1.2 fold by beta-carotene supplements. Changes were significantly different in infant serum alpha-carotene but not beta-carotene among the three experimental groups. Increases in breastmilk beta-carotene were greater for the palm oil group (2.5 fold) than for the beta-carotene supplement group (1.6 fold) and increases in milk alpha-carotene concentrations (3.2 fold) were slightly greater than those of beta-carotene. There were also small but significant changes among groups in breastmilk lutein and lycopene. Breastmilk retinol was not significantly different among the groups over the treatment period. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad. The use of dietary red palm oil to improve the vitamin A status of this population should be further investigated.

  17. Thermodynamics of black-holes in Brans-Dicke gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.

    1997-01-01

    It is recently been argued that non-trivial Brans-Dicke black-hole solutions different from the usual Schwarzschild solution could exist. The authors attempt here to 'censor' these non-trivial Brans-Dicke black-hole solutions by examining their thermodynamics properties. Quantities like Hawking temperature and entropy of the black holes are computed. The analysis of the behaviors of these thermodynamic quantities appears to show that even in Brans-Dicke gravity, the usual Schwarzschild space-time turns out to be the only physically relevant uncharged black-hole solution

  18. False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, E.J.

    1989-12-01

    We examine the bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology. We compute the leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. We find that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum, at late times the nucleation rate is time independent. 21 refs

  19. Cosmic no-hair in Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, E.; Alam, S.

    1993-08-01

    In this short note we report our finding that within the context of alternative version of the Brans-Dicke theory (for ω ≥ -3/2, where ω is the Brans-Dicke parameter) the anisotropic Bianchi type cosmological models evolve towards the de Sitter isotropic universe. In short it is shown that during inflation there is no difference between the Brans-Dicke theory and General Relativity. Our result can thus be viewed as a generalization of the Wald's theorem for General Relativity. (author). 5 refs

  20. Effect of the supplementation linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut into a high fat diet on the fatty acid profile of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study it was evaluated the effect of the addition of linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut added to a high fat (HF diet on the content of fatty acids (FAs in musculuss longissimus dorsi (MLD of pigs. A 5d with adaptation period was followed by a 70 d experimental period, during which the pigs were fed with a HF basal diet. The HF basal diet which served as a control (group CG was supplemented either with linseed oil (group LG or with inulin and horse chestnut (group IG. All of the pigs were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and samples of MLD were taken for FA analysis. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in MLD of the LG group was 58 % and 61 % higher (P˂0.05 compared to CG and IG groups, respectively. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was 0.03 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 0.07 in LG treatment. These FAs were not detected in CG and IG. The ratio of MUFA and PUFA n-6/n-3 in the MLD was the lowest (P˂0.05 in the LG (8.84 compared to CG (14.07 or IG (14.74 groups, representing a difference of 31.2%. The n-3/saturated FA ratio was highest (P˂0.05 in LG group (0.04 when compared to CG and IG groups (0.02. The supplementation of linseed oil, into the HF diet resulted in a higher concentration of α-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA and lower ratio of n-6/n-3 FA in MLD. Inulin and horse chestnut had no effect on FA profile of MLD.

  1. Evaluation of α-tocopherol acetate, peel and extract pomogrante antioxidative potential in diet contained fish oil on meat quality boiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Salehi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poultry meat enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (PUFA Lc n-3 can make a nutritionally meaningful contribution to Western diets in which consumption of PUFA Lc n-3 is low. Enrichment of poultry meat with this fatty acid is usually achieved by inclusion of fish oil in broiler diet (23, 24. However, meat enriched in this way is susceptible to quality deterioration by lipid oxidation during storage or cooking, leading to reduction in nutritive value and accumulation of lipid oxidation products (10. Oxidation is a very general process affecting lipids, pigments, proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and vitamins (11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary α-tocopherol (α-Toc, pomegranate peel extract (PPE and pomegranate peel (PP on fatty acid profile, aoxidation and phenolic compounds in raw thigh and breast meat during refrigeration. Materials and methods Peels of pomegranate were harvested in October 2011 from pomegranate trees (Ardestani, variety in Khorasan Razavi province (East, Iran. Dried powders of peels (2.5 g were extracted with 40 mL of methanol solvent at room temperature for 6 hours. Three hundred and eighty four 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 8 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds. Eight dietary treatments including control diet without feed additives, control diet mixed with 200 mg/kg α-Toc, control diet mixed with PPE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control diet mixed with PP (1, 2 and 3 g/kg. In all diets 2% fish oil were added to enhance the enrichment of unsaturated n-3 fatty acid in birds. One broiler chick was randomly selected from each pen of 42 d of age. The antioxidative potential and various meat quality characteristics were determined on 0, 7, and 11 days of refrigerated storage. Total phenols content in the aqueous supernatant was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (33. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging

  2. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  3. Cosmological constraints on Brans-Dicke theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilez, A; Skordis, C

    2014-07-04

    We report strong cosmological constraints on the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory of gravity using cosmic microwave background data from Planck. We consider two types of models. First, the initial condition of the scalar field is fixed to give the same effective gravitational strength Geff today as the one measured on Earth, GN. In this case, the BD parameter ω is constrained to ω>692 at the 99% confidence level, an order of magnitude improvement over previous constraints. In the second type, the initial condition for the scalar is a free parameter leading to a somewhat stronger constraint of ω>890, while Geff is constrained to 0.981theory and are valid for any Horndeski theory, the most general second-order scalar-tensor theory, which approximates the BD theory on cosmological scales. In this sense, our constraints place strong limits on possible modifications of gravity that might explain cosmic acceleration.

  4. Einstein metrics and Brans-Dicke superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is obtained here a space conformal to the Einstein space-time, making the transition from an internal bosonic space, constructed with the Majorana constant spinors in the Majorana representation, to a bosonic ''superspace,'' through the use of Einstein vierbeins. These spaces are related to a Grassmann space constructed with the Majorana spinors referred to above, where the ''metric'' is a function of internal bosonic coordinates. The conformal function is a scale factor in the zone of gravitational radiation. A conformal function dependent on space-time coordinates can be constructed in that region when we introduce Majorana spinors which are functions of those coordinates. With this we obtain a scalar field of Brans-Dicke type. 11 refs

  5. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  6. Effects of an Addition of Different Essential Oils and Their Combinations to Diets on Performance and Carcass Characteristics Parameters in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behlül Sevim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of thymus (Thymus vulgaris L., rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and French lavender (Lavandua stoechas L. essential oils and their mixtures on body weight and body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics in broiler. A total of one day old 640 broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used divided into 8 groups each having five replicates, ramdomly. There were 80 chicks in each experimental group. The experimental diets were consisted of control (0 mg/kg, addition to thymus essential oil (50 mg/kg, rosemary essential oil (50 mg/kg, lavandula essential oil (50 mg/kg tymus + rosemary (25+25 mg/kg, tymus + lavandula (25+25 mg/kg, rosemary + lavandula (25+25 mg/kg, tymus + rosemary + lavandula (16.7+16.7+16.7 mg/kg, respectively. Feed and water were provided as ad libitum. Experimental period was six weeks. The according to results that dietary different essential oil and their combinations did not significantly effect on body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and carcass characteristics.

  7. Weight Changes and Metabolic Outcomes in Calorie-Restricted Obese Mice Fed High-Fat Diets Containing Corn or Flaxseed Oil: Physiological Role of Sugar Replacement with Polyphenol-Rich Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Zamaninour, Negar; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Pishva, Hamideh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Dilmaghanian, Aydin; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Shidfar, Farzad

    2017-08-01

    Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S). After 11 weeks, 15 mice were sacrificed and another 60 were divided among 4 high-fat diet groups with 30% calorie restriction (CR) for the next 12 weeks. The diets contained corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO) with sugar (S) or grape (G). Despite CR, a weight loss trend was observed only during the first 4 weeks in all groups. CR did not significantly increase SIRT1 gene expression. Higher liver weight was observed in mice consuming FO (p sugar (FBS) was significantly higher than in CO + G-CR. Grape intake increased Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression and decreased insulin resistance in CO + G-CR. Sugar replacement with polyphenol-rich grape along with CR improved glucose homeostasis, and substituting corn oil with flaxseed oil in obese mice reduced fat mass, but even with no change in adiponectin levels it could not decrease insulin resistance. However, none of the food item combinations facilitated weight reduction in the long-term CR. Therefore, regardless of the total calorie intake, different diet components and fat contents may have unexpected effects on metabolic regulation.

  8. Production of TNF-α, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by macrophages from mice with paracoccidioidomycosis that were fed a linseed oil-enriched diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA can modulate the immune system and their primary effect is on macrophage function. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb. Macrophages are the main defence against this pathogen and have microbicidal activity that is dependent on interferon-Γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α. These cytokines stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, leading to the death of the fungus. To study the effect of n-3 PUFA on the host immune response during experimental PCM, macrophages that were obtained from animals infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched by linseed (LIN oil were cultured and challenged with the fungus in vitro. The macrophage function was analysed based on the concentrations of TNF-α, NO and H2O2. LIN oil seems to influence the production of TNF-α during the development of disease. A diet enriched with LIN oil influences the microbicidal activity of the macrophages by inducing the production of cytokines and metabolites such as NO and H2O2, predominantly in the chronic phase of infection.

  9. Production of TNF-α, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by macrophages from mice with paracoccidioidomycosis that were fed a linseed oil-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargi, Sheisa Cyléia; Dalalio, Márcia Machado de Oliveira; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Bezerra, Rafael Campos; Perini, João Ângelo de Lima; Stevanato, Flávia Braidotti; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2012-05-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can modulate the immune system and their primary effect is on macrophage function. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb). Macrophages are the main defence against this pathogen and have microbicidal activity that is dependent on interferon-Γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. These cytokines stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), leading to the death of the fungus. To study the effect of n-3 PUFA on the host immune response during experimental PCM, macrophages that were obtained from animals infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched by linseed (LIN) oil were cultured and challenged with the fungus in vitro. The macrophage function was analysed based on the concentrations of TNF-α, NO and H₂O₂. LIN oil seems to influence the production of TNF-α during the development of disease. A diet enriched with LIN oil influences the microbicidal activity of the macrophages by inducing the production of cytokines and metabolites such as NO and H₂O₂, predominantly in the chronic phase of infection.

  10. Effects of dietary vitamin B6 supplementation on fillet fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of rainbow trout fed vegetable oil based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadheera, Shyamalie D; Turchini, Giovanni M; Thanuthong, Thanongsak; Francis, David S

    2012-03-07

    Fish oil replacement in aquaculture feeds results in major modifications to the fatty acid makeup of cultured fish. Therefore, in vivo fatty acid biosynthesis has been a topic of considerable research interest. Evidence suggests that pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) plays a role in fatty acid metabolism, and in particular, the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA has been demonstrated in mammals. However, there is little information on the effects of dietary pyridoxine availability in fish fed diets lacking LC-PUFA. This study demonstrates a relationship between dietary pyridoxine supplementation and fatty acid metabolism in rainbow trout. In particular, the dietary pyridoxine level was shown to modulate and positively stimulate the activity of the fatty acid elongase and Δ-6 and Δ-5 desaturase enzymes, deduced by the whole-body fatty acid balance method. This activity was insufficient to compensate for a diet lacking in LC-PUFA but does highlight potential strategies to maximize this activity in cultured fish, especially when fish oil is replaced with vegetable oils.

  11. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-10-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (pfeed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  12. Effect of simplified feeding based only on wheat bran and brewer’s grain on rabbit performance and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Cherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simplified diets are based on maximum incorporation of fodder and/or by-products into animal feed, thus minimizing the formulation and the costs. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of feeding fattening rabbits with a simplified diet composed of only two agro-industrial by-products inexpensive and locally available: brewer’s grain and wheat bran. At weaning (35 days, 68 rabbits were divided into two identical groups (mean weight = 833 g and housed in individual cages until slaughter (77 days. Each of the two groups (B0 and SF was fed ad libitum either a commercial pelleted feed (control, or a simplified pelleted  experimental diet "SF" containing 72% wheat bran and 27% brewer’s grain. The feed conversion was within the standards and similar in the two groups (3.55 on average. The growth rate and feed intake of B0 group were 12% higher (P <0.001 than that of the SF group (35.2g vs 31.2 and 128.3 vs 113 g/d. The cold carcass yield and the carcass weight were respectively higher (P <0.001 by 4 units and by 9% in the control group. The carcass of SF group was less fatty (perirenal fat: -23%, inguinal fat: -41% and scapular fat:-14%. The economic efficiency was 40% better for SF diet with almost 50 Algerian Dinar more benefit (/kg of meat.

  13. Inorganic arsenic removal in rice bran by percolating cooking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Carey, Manus; Meharg, Andrew A

    2017-11-01

    Rice bran, a by-product of milling rice, is highly nutritious but contains very high levels of the non-threshold carcinogen inorganic arsenic (i-As), at concentrations around 1mg/kg. This i-As content needs to be reduced to make rice bran a useful food ingredient. Evaluated here is a novel approach to minimizing rice bran i-As content which is also suitable for its stabilization namely, cooking bran in percolating arsenic-free boiling water. Up to 96% of i-As removal was observed for a range of rice bran products, with i-As removal related to the volume of cooking water used. This process reduced the copper, potassium, and phosphorus content, but had little effect on other trace- and macro-nutrient elements in the rice bran. There was little change in organic composition, as assayed by NIR, except for a decrease in the soluble sugar and an increase, due to biomass loss, in dietary fiber. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing event DP-3O5423-1, nontransgenic near-isoline control, or commercial reference soybean meal, hulls, and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Hinds, M; Sanders, C; Layton, R; Lamb, I; Delaney, B

    2008-12-01

    DP-3Ø5423-1 (305423) is a genetically modified soybean that was produced by biolistic insertion of the gm-fad2-1 gene fragment and gm-hra genes into the germline of soybean seeds. Expression of gm-fad2-1 results in greater concentrations of oleic acid (18:1) by suppressing expression of the endogenous FAD2-1 gene, which encodes an n-6 fatty acid desaturase enzyme that catalyzes desaturation of 18:1 to linoleic acid (18:2). The GM-HRA protein expressed by the gm-hra gene is a modified version of the soybean acetolactate synthase enzyme that is used as a selectable marker during transformation. A 42-d feeding trial was conducted with broiler chickens to compare the nutritional performance of 305423 soybeans with nontransgenic soybeans. Diets were prepared using processed fractions (meal, hulls, and oil) from 305423 soybean plants. For comparison, additional diets were produced with soybean fractions obtained from a nontransgenic near-isoline (control) and nontransgenic commercial Pioneer brand varieties (93B86, 93B15, and 93M40). Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases. Starter, grower, and finisher diets contained 26.5, 23, and 21.5% soybean meal, respectively. Soybean hulls and oil were added at 1.0 and 0.5%, respectively, across all diets in each phase. No statistically significant differences were observed in growth performance (BW, mortality, feed efficiency), organ yield (liver and kidney), or carcass yield (breast, thigh, leg, wing, and abdominal fat) variables between broilers consuming diets prepared with isolated fractions from 305423 or near-isoline control soybean. Additionally, all performance and carcass variables from control and 305423 soybean treatment groups fell within tolerance intervals constructed for each response variable using data from broilers fed diets prepared with reference soybean fractions. Based on the results from this study, it was concluded that 305423 soybeans were nutritionally

  15. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal-Eldin, A; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    , compared to wheat bran, regarding structure and content of nutrients as well as a number of presumably bioactive compounds. Design: Six different rye brans from Sweden, Denmark and Finland were analysed and compared with two wheat brans regarding colour, particle size distribution, microscopic structures...... and chemical composition including proximal components, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds. Results: Rye brans were generally greener in colour and smaller in particle size than wheat brans. The rye brans varied considerably in their starch content (13.2-28.3%), which reflected variable inclusion...

  16. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  18. Association of Expanded Disability Status Scale and Cytokines after Intervention with Co-supplemented Hemp Seed, Evening Primrose Oils and Hot-natured Diet in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Baradaran

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. The aim of this study is to examine the correlations between expanded disability status scale (EDSS and cytokines after intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils and hot-natured diet in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. Methods: We studied a group of 23 patients with clinically definite RRMS, with EDSS<6 who received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advising hot-natured diet. Clinically EDSS and immunological factors (plasma cytokines of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Results: Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 days (N=23, 7 Male and 16 Females aged 25.0±7.5 years with disease duration 6.26±3.9 years. After 6 months, significant improvements in extended disability status score were found in the patients in agreement with decrease cytokines of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increase cytokines of IL-4. Clinical and immunological parameters showed improvement in the patients after the intervention. Conclusion: Our study shows that co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with hot-natured diet can have beneficial effects in improving clinical symptoms in relapsing remitting MS patients and significant correlation was found between EDSS and immunological findings.

  19. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H-Y; Lee, H-C; Cheng, W-Y; Huang, S-Y

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity has increased worldwide, as well as in Taiwan, particularly in women aged>40 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of a calorie-restriction diet (CR) supplemented with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on women with MetS. A total of 143 eligible female participants were recruited and assigned to four dietary interventions such as 1500-kcal CR, calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet (CRMR), calorie-restriction diet with fish oil supplementation (CRF) and calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF). The changes in anthropometric measures, metabolic profiles, inflammatory response and the Z-score of severity of MetS were evaluated. Among 143 female MetS patients enrolled, 136 patients completed the 12-week study. After the 12-week dietary interventions, we observed reductions in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in all groups. BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased significantly in the CRMR, CRF and CRMRF groups, but not in the CR group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had significantly improved in all four groups, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) had significantly decreased in the CRF and CRMRF groups. Following the interventions, the changes in waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 significantly correlated with the reductions in Z-score of MetS severity. Our study results indicate that a calorie-restriction dietary intervention combined with various macronutrients can reduce the severity of MetS in women and increase recovery from MetS by almost twofold in comparison with a CR alone.

  20. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  1. A safflower oil based high-fat/high-sucrose diet modulates the gut microbiota and liver phospholipid profiles associated with early glucose intolerance in the absence of tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Andersen, Daniel; Radulescu, Ilinca Daria; Normann-Hansen, Ann; Brejnrod, Asker; Kragh, Marie; Madsen, Tobias; Nielsen, Christian; Josefsen, Knud; Fretté, Xavier; Fjaere, Even; Madsen, Lise; Hellgren, Lars I; Brix, Susanne; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-05-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) PUFA-rich diets are generally considered obesogenic in rodents. Here, we examined how long-term intake of a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet based on safflower oil affected metabolism, inflammation, and gut microbiota composition. We fed male C57BL/6J mice a HF/HS diet based on safflower oil-rich in n-6 PUFAs-or a low-fat/low-sucrose diet for 40 wk. Compared to the low-fat/low-sucrose diet, intake of the safflower-based HF/HS diet only led to moderate weight gain, while glucose intolerance developed at week 5 prior to signs of inflammation, but concurrent with increased levels of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid in hepatic phospholipids. Intake of the HF/HS diet resulted in early changes in the gut microbiota, including an increased abundance of Blautia, while late changes coincided with altered inflammatory profiles and increased fasting plasma insulin. Analysis of immune cells in visceral fat and liver revealed no differences between diets before week 40, where the number of immune cells decreased in the liver of HF/HS-fed mice. We suggest that a diet-dependent increase in the n-6 to omega-3 (n-3) PUFA ratio in hepatic phospholipids together with gut microbiota changes contributed to early development of glucose intolerance without signs of inflammation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Temperature Increase Negatively Affects the Fatty Acid Bioconversion Capacity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Linseed Oil-Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account.

  3. Dietary Supplementation of Fermented Rice Bran Effectively Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahidul Islam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran (RB is a major by-product of rice polishing and a rich source of bioactive compounds. Here, we investigated the anti-colitis effect of diet supplementation with fermented rice bran (FRB in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. FRB was prepared by dual fermentation of RB using fungi and lactic acid bacteria. Colitis was induced in C57Bl/6N male mice (n = 8/group by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. Body weight change, disease activity index (DAI, histopathology score, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, cytokine and chemokine transcript levels, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and mucin in the colonic tissue were monitored. Based on histopathology scores, DSS induced severe mucosal inflammation, with an increased loss of crypts, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the control and RB groups, but not in the FRB group. MPO activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine transcript (Tnf-α, Il-1β, Il-6, and Il-17 levels were significantly higher in the control and RB groups than in the FRB group. Thus, dietary FRB attenuated intestinal inflammation owing to elevated SCFAs and tryptamine production, which might regulate tight junction barrier integrity and intestinal homeostasis. These results suggest that FRB could comprise an effective potential preventive agent for ulcerative colitis.

  4. Decreased production of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 associated with inhibition of delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids in mice fed safflower oil diets supplemented with sesamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, S R; Forse, R A

    1999-12-01

    The differences in the immune responses in mice fed sesame oil diets and those fed sesamin may be attributed to the presence of other lignans in the non-fat portion of the oil. The fatty acid composition (mean +/- SD mol. %) of liver membrane phospholipids and the levels of endotoxin-induced prostaglandin (PG) E2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in mice fed diets supplemented with 5% safflower oil (SO) in the absence or presence of 1% sesamol. The levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3omega6) were markedly higher (P<0.025) in the livers from mice fed sesamol supplemented SO diets (1.6 +/- 0.1) compared to the controls (1.4 +/- 0.1). These data suggest that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the in vivo delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids. Further, in animals fed sesamol supplemented SO diets, the levels of PGE2 (228 +/- 41 pg/ml) were markedly lower (P<0.01) compared to those fed SO diet alone (1355 +/- 188 pg/ml). Concomitantly, the concentrations of IL-6 were also lower (P<0.01) in mice fed sesamol diet (63 +/- 11 ng/ml) compared to the controls (143 +/- 22 ng/ml). A marked reduction in the levels of PGE2 in animals fed sesamol diets suggests that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase enzyme.

  5. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  7. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...

  8. Bioprocessing of wheat bran in whole wheat bread increases the bioavailability of phenolic acids in men and exerts antiinflammatory effects ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Anson, Nuria; Aura, Anna-Marja; Selinheimo, Emilia; Mattila, Ismo; Poutanen, Kaisa; van den Berg, Robin; Havenaar, Robert; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption has been linked to a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, which is normally associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation. The benefits of whole grain are in part related to the inclusion of the bran, rich in phenolic acids and fiber. However, the phenols are poorly bioaccessible from the cereal matrix. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bioprocessing of the bran in whole wheat bread on the bioavailability of phenolic acids, the postprandial plasma antioxidant capacity, and ex vivo antiinflammatory properties. After consumption of a low phenolic acid diet for 3 d and overnight fasting, 8 healthy men consumed 300 g of whole wheat bread containing native bran (control bread) or bioprocessed bran (bioprocessed bread) in a cross-over design. Urine and blood samples were collected for 24 h to analyze the phenolic acids and metabolites. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was measured in plasma. Cytokines were measured in blood after ex vivo stimulation with LPS. The bioavailabilities of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, and 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid from the bioprocessed bread were 2- to 3-fold those from the control bread. Phenylpropionic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were the main colonic metabolites of the nonbioaccessible phenols. The ratios of pro-:antiinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in LPS-stimulated blood after the consumption of the bioprocessed bread. In conclusion, bioprocessing can remarkably increase the bioavailability of phenolic acids and their circulating metabolites, compounds which have immunomodulatory effects ex vivo.

  9. Prebiotic Wheat Bran Fractions Induce Specific Microbiota Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D’hoe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran fibers are considered beneficial to human health through their impact on gut microbiota composition and activity. Here, we assessed the prebiotic potential of selected bran fractions by performing a series of fecal slurry anaerobic fermentation experiments using aleurone as well as total, ultrafine, and soluble wheat bran (swb as carbon sources. By combining amplicon-based community profiling with a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH approach, we found that incubation conditions favor the growth of Proteobacteria such as Escherichia and Bilophila. These effects were countered in all but one [total wheat bran (twb] fermentation experiments. Growth of Bifidobacterium species was stimulated after fermentation using ultrafine, soluble, and twb, in the latter two as part of a general increase in bacterial load. Both ultrafine and swb fermentation resulted in a trade-off between Bifidobacterium and Bilophila, as previously observed in human dietary supplementation studies looking at the effect of inulin-type fructans on the human gut microbiota. Aleurone selectively stimulated growth of Dorea and butyrate-producing Roseburia. All fermentation experiments induced enhanced gas production; increased butyrate concentrations were only observed following soluble bran incubation. Our results open perspectives for the development of aleurone as a complementary prebiotic selectively targeting colon butyrate producers.

  10. Prebiotic Wheat Bran Fractions Induce Specific Microbiota Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’hoe, Kevin; Conterno, Lorenza; Fava, Francesca; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Vermeiren, Joan; Tuohy, Kieran; Raes, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Wheat bran fibers are considered beneficial to human health through their impact on gut microbiota composition and activity. Here, we assessed the prebiotic potential of selected bran fractions by performing a series of fecal slurry anaerobic fermentation experiments using aleurone as well as total, ultrafine, and soluble wheat bran (swb) as carbon sources. By combining amplicon-based community profiling with a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach, we found that incubation conditions favor the growth of Proteobacteria such as Escherichia and Bilophila. These effects were countered in all but one [total wheat bran (twb)] fermentation experiments. Growth of Bifidobacterium species was stimulated after fermentation using ultrafine, soluble, and twb, in the latter two as part of a general increase in bacterial load. Both ultrafine and swb fermentation resulted in a trade-off between Bifidobacterium and Bilophila, as previously observed in human dietary supplementation studies looking at the effect of inulin-type fructans on the human gut microbiota. Aleurone selectively stimulated growth of Dorea and butyrate-producing Roseburia. All fermentation experiments induced enhanced gas production; increased butyrate concentrations were only observed following soluble bran incubation. Our results open perspectives for the development of aleurone as a complementary prebiotic selectively targeting colon butyrate producers. PMID:29416529

  11. Possible directions for using bran in heat-power engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaydabrus Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the necessity of providing of ecofriendlyness of energy the researches sent to the increase of stake of biomass in fuel and energy balance are actual direction of science and technique. The aim of work is put the study of heating engineering properties of bran and research of possibility of briquetting as it applies to the power use in the stratified fire-box devices. Research methods included standard methodologies of ISO and physical experiment. It is shown as a result of research that bran on the warmth of combustion is comparable with brown coals, but has a less ash-content considerably. However shallow factious composition of bran and caking in the process of ashing will result in high operating costs at their incineration in a natural kind. The variant of the power use of bran is considered as the preforms got the thermal pressing, and the optimal temperature of pressing, equal 150°C. On the example of pressing of shell of cedar nuts possibility of the use of bran is shown as connective, is set here.

  12. Prebiotic Wheat Bran Fractions Induce Specific Microbiota Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hoe, Kevin; Conterno, Lorenza; Fava, Francesca; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Vermeiren, Joan; Tuohy, Kieran; Raes, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Wheat bran fibers are considered beneficial to human health through their impact on gut microbiota composition and activity. Here, we assessed the prebiotic potential of selected bran fractions by performing a series of fecal slurry anaerobic fermentation experiments using aleurone as well as total, ultrafine, and soluble wheat bran (swb) as carbon sources. By combining amplicon-based community profiling with a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach, we found that incubation conditions favor the growth of Proteobacteria such as Escherichia and Bilophila . These effects were countered in all but one [total wheat bran (twb)] fermentation experiments. Growth of Bifidobacterium species was stimulated after fermentation using ultrafine, soluble, and twb, in the latter two as part of a general increase in bacterial load. Both ultrafine and swb fermentation resulted in a trade-off between Bifidobacterium and Bilophila , as previously observed in human dietary supplementation studies looking at the effect of inulin-type fructans on the human gut microbiota. Aleurone selectively stimulated growth of Dorea and butyrate-producing Roseburia . All fermentation experiments induced enhanced gas production; increased butyrate concentrations were only observed following soluble bran incubation. Our results open perspectives for the development of aleurone as a complementary prebiotic selectively targeting colon butyrate producers.

  13. The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    , to confirm if low non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-containing diets reduce swine dysentery the effect of different dietary levels of NSP and resistant starch (RS) was evaluated. These diets were based on cooked rice and animal protein, cooked rice and potato starch, cooked rice and wheat bran, or cooked rice...

  14. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  15. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Selinheimo, E.; Havenaar, R.; Aura, A.-M.; Mattila, I.; Lehtinen, P.; Bast, A.; Poutanen, K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed

  16. Supplementing sow diets with palm oil during late gestation and lactation: effects on milk production, sow hormonal profiles and growth and development of her offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, J; Juniper, D T; Lean, I J; Amusquivar, E; Herrera, E; Dodds, P F; Clarke, L

    2018-05-02

    The supplementing of sow diets with lipids during pregnancy and lactation has been shown to reduce sow condition loss and improve piglet performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental palm oil (PO) on sow performance, plasma metabolites and hormones, milk profiles and pre-weaning piglet development. A commercial sow ration (C) or an experimental diet supplemented with 10% extra energy in the form of PO, were provided from day 90 of gestation until weaning (24 to 28 days postpartum) in two groups of eight multiparous sows. Gestation length of PO sows increased by 1 day (Pmass per kg (C: 66.4±0.8 arbitrary units/kg; PO: 69.7±0.8 arbitrary unit/kg; P<0.01), but by day 14 of life this situation was reversed (C: 65.8±0.6 arbitrary units/kg; PO: 63.6±0.6 arbitrary units/kg; P<0.05). Following weaning, PO sows exhibited an increased ratio of male to female offspring at their subsequent farrowing (C: 1.0±0.3; PO: 2.2±0.2; P<0.05). We conclude that supplementation of sow diets with PO during late gestation and lactation appears to increase sow milk fat content and hence energy supply to piglets. Furthermore, elevated glucose concentrations in the sow during lactation may be suggestive of impaired glucose homoeostasis.

  17. Interacting ghost dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Sheykhi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the QCD ghost model of dark energy in the framework of Brans-Dicke cosmology. First, we study the non-interacting ghost dark energy in a flat Brans-Dicke theory. In this case we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of ghost energy density. Interestingly enough, we find that the equation of state parameter of the non-interacting ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line (w D =-1) provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably. Then, we generalize the study to the interacting ghost dark energy in both flat and non-flat Brans-Dicke framework and find out that the transition of w D to phantom regime can be more easily achieved for than when resort to the Einstein field equations is made.

  18. Inflation and dark energy from the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artymowski, Michał [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian UniversityŁojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsawul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-06-17

    We consider the Brans-Dicke theory motivated by the f(R)=R+αR{sup n}−βR{sup 2−n} model to obtain a stable minimum of the Einstein frame scalar potential of the Brans-Dicke field. As a result we have obtained an inflationary scalar potential with non-zero value of residual vacuum energy, which may be a source of dark energy. In addition we discuss the probability of quantum tunnelling from the minimum of the potential. Our results can be easily consistent with PLANCK or BICEP2 data for appropriate choices of the value of n and ω.

  19. Impact of Consuming Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts within a Mediterranean Diet on DNA Methylation in Peripheral White Blood Cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra Randomized Controlled Trial: A Role for Dietary Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Arpón, Ana; Milagro, Fermín I.; Razquin, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Marti, Amelia; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Riezu-Boj, José-Ignacio; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation could be reversible and mouldable by environmental factors, such as dietary exposures. The objective was to analyse whether an intervention with two Mediterranean diets, one rich in extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) and the other one in nuts (MedDiet + nuts), was influencing the methylation status of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) genes. A subset of 36 representative individuals were selected within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED-Navarra) trial, wi...

  20. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  1. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of enriched egg yolk lipids obtained by modifying hens’ diets with fish oil and flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçyn, Hasan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fish oil and flaxseed in the diets of laying hens on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg lipids were studied. Isa-White laying hens and five experimental diets were used. The first diet was used as the control. Fish oil (1.5%, flaxseed (4.32% and 8.64 or both of them (1.5% fish oil and 4.32% flaxseed were added to the others and hens were fed for 30 and 60 days. The cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined. No significant difference (pSe han estudiado los efectos producidos por la presencia de aceite de pescado y linaza, en la dieta de gallinas ponedoras, sobre la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de los lípidos del huevo. Se han utilizado gallinas ponedoras Isa-White y cinco tipos de dietas experimentales. La primera dieta fue usada como control. Se añadió aceite de pescado (1.5%, linaza (4.32% y 8.64 o ambos (1.5% aceite de pescado y 4.32% linaza a las otras dietas y se alimentó a las gallinas durante 30 y 60 días, determinándose la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de las yemas. No se encontró diferencia significativa (p<0.05 debida a las dietas en el contenido de colesterol de las yemas excepto en la que contenía 8.64% de linaza. El contenido total de ácidos grasos saturados disminuyó en todas las dietas en comparación con la dieta control. El contenido total de ácidos grasos n-3 fue significativamente mayor en todas las dietas. El cambio predominante en las dietas que contenían linaza se encontró en el contenido de ácido linolénico. El contenido de los ácidos eicosapentaenoico, docosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico de todas las dietas fue significativamente mayor.

  2. Functional suitability of commercially milled rice bran in India for use in different food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, K S; Dhillon, S S; Singh, N; Singh, B

    1997-01-01

    The effect of blending of commercially available full fat and defatted rice brans in India from modern multistage rice mills with parboiling/stabilizing facilities in different food products in comparison to those obtained from laboratory milling of rice is reported. Bread volume and cookie spread decreased but muffin volume increased with the addition of different types of bran to wheat flour, however, the cookie spread factor was not affected by addition of full fat rice bran. The yields of the extrudate were increased by the blending of full fat rice bran but were decreased by the addition of defatted rice bran. Rice brans could be added to different food products to the extent of 5-10%. However, the full fat rice bran could not be used for production of extruded snack food.

  3. Effects of super-hard rice bread blended with black rice bran on amyloid β peptide production and abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Hara, Takashi; Joh, Toshio; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Akira; Kasuga, Kensaku; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2017-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes are very serious diseases with the latter having been suggested to cause the former. We prepared super-hard rice bread blended with black rice bran (SRBBB), which contained a high amount of resistant starch that showed strong inhibitory activities against β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase even after heating. Black rice bran showed greater β-secretase inhibitory activity (3.6-fold) than Koshihikari rice. The bran contained more oleic acid and anthocyanin, meaning that it is potentially a biofunctional food with a high antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, aged mice, which were fed a SRBBB diet for four weeks, showed lower amyloid β 40 peptide in the blood than mice fed a commercial diet (p < 0.01). Additionally, their initial blood glucose levels (BGLs) after 12 weeks of being fed SRBBB were significantly lower than those in the control group. Taken together, our results indicate SRBBB shows promise for inhibiting not only amyloid β production, but also abrupt increases in postprandial BGLs.

  4. Anti obese potential of Cucurbita maxima seeds oil: effect on lipid profile and histoarchitecture in high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, A; Sathibabu Uddandrao, V V; Brahmanaidu, P; Saravanan, Ganapathy; Nivedha, P R; Tamilmani, P; Swapna, K; Vadivukkarasi, Sasikumar

    2017-10-19

    In this study, we made an attempt to evaluate the potential of Cucurbita maxima seeds oil (CSO) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats. We investigated the effect of CSO (100 mg/kg body weight) supplementation over 30 days on the changes of HFD-induced obese rats in body weight, biochemical parameters and lipid profile as well as investigated the effects of CSO on the histopathological changes. Oral administration with CSO revealed significant diminution in body weight gain, glucose and insulin levels, which altered the activity of lipid profile and restored the pathological alterations. It demonstrated that CSO had considerably altered these parameters when evaluated with HFD control rats. In conclusion, this study established that CSO prevents the HFD-induced obesity by altering the markers important to lipid metabolism.

  5. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in bran from three rice cultivars according to microwave roasting time. This study analyzed three rice cultivars, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P, and IRGA 417 (I determining the color parameters (L*, a*, and b * at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 minutes of roasting time. After applying the difference from control test, the rice brans with different characteristics aroma and flavor were selected: S and P roasted for 9 and 15 minutes and IRGA 417 roasted for 9, 12, and 15 minutes. These samples were characterized by Free-Choice Profile descriptive sensory analysis, and their chemical composition was also determined. The longer the roasting process, the higher the roasted flavor intensity and aroma. The IRG 417 cultivar roasted for 12 minutes showed a sweeter flavor and aroma. After roasting, the brans remained rich in protein and lipid and presented higher fiber content and lower reducing sugar and phytic acid content. Microwave roasting for 12 minutes can be a viable option for improving the sensory functional and nutritional characteristics of the rice bran considering its use in food products.

  6. Rice bran phytochemicals and dietary colon chemoprevention teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence supports that dietary rice bran exhibits gastrointestinal cancer control and prevention activity using carcinogen induced animal models and human colon cancer cell lines. Our laboratory has recently reported metabolomic differences in rice from globally and genetically dis...

  7. Biosorption of Uranium by Magnetically Modified Wheat Bran

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, H.; Yanqin, J.; Tian, Q.; Horská, Kateřina; Shao, X.; Maděrová, Zdeňka; Miao, X.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 16 (2014), s. 2534-2539 ISSN 0149-6395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12190 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : magnetic separation * biosorption * magnetic wheat bran * uranium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.171, year: 2014

  8. EFFECT OF REPLACING COCOA HUSK FOR WHEAT BRAN ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass yield, serum metabolites and economy of production of cockerels were studied for 12 weeks to determine the effect of replacing wheat bran with cocoa husk at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. Results of eviscerated yield were statistically different (P<0.05). Highest eviscerated yield of 70.52% was obtained from 25% ...

  9. Optimization of Rice Bran Fermentation Conditions Enhanced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice bran fermentation conditions for extraction of protein concentrate was enhanced by the use of baker's yeast at optimized conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design with three independent variables: fermentation temperature (25 to 35oC), yeast concentration (1 to 5%) and ...

  10. Some Physco-thermal properties of Rice Bran | Obetta | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of these properties were combined for study on their effect on thermal conductivity which was one of the thermal properties studied. Mean values of the thermal conductivity determined ranged from 0.2456 to 0.5764 W/m oC depending on the moisture content of the raw rice bran and the variety. The two major varieties ...

  11. Dietary fibre enrichment from defatted rice bran by dry fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jue; Suo, Geng; Wit, de Martin; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Defatted rice bran is excellent source of dietary fibre. The mostly used lab-scale method to extract dietary fibre is not very efficient; dry fractionation is a more energy efficient alternative at larger scale. Three separation routes were studied: two-step electrostatic separation, sieving and

  12. Inhibition of p38 MAPK during cellular activation modulate gene expression of head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed soy bean oil or fish oil based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, E; Winterthun, S; Du, Z-Y; Krøvel, A V

    2011-01-01

    Head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon fed either a diet based on fish oil (FO) or soy bean oil (VO) were used in order to evaluate if different lipid sources could contribute to cellular activation of the salmon innate immune system. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was used to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signalling in the head kidney leukocytes. The results show that LPS up regulate IL-1β, TNF-α, Cox2 expression in leukocytes isolated from fish fed either diet. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, reduced the LPS induced expression of these genes in both dietary groups. In LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from VO fed fish, SB202190 showed a clear dose dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β, TNF-α and Cox2 expression. This effect was also observed for Cox2 in leukocytes isolated from FO fed fish. Furthermore, there was a stronger mean induction of Cox2 in LPS stimulated leucocytes isolated from the VO-group compared to LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from the FO-group. In both dietary groups, LPS stimulation of salmon head kidney leukocytes increased the induction of CD83, a dendrite cell marker, while the inhibitor reduced CD83 expression in the VO fed fish only. The inhibitor also clearly reduced hsp27 expression in VO fed fish. Indicating a p38 MAPK feedback loop, LPS significantly inhibited the expression of p38MAPK itself in both diets, while SB202190 increased p38MAPK expression especially in the VO diet group. hsp70 expression was not affected by any treatment or feed composition. There were also differences in p38MAPK protein phosphorylation comparing treatment groups but no obvious difference comparing the two dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary fatty acids have the ability to modify signalling through p38 MAPK which may have consequences for the fish's ability to handle infections and stress. Signalling through p38MAPK is ligand dependent and affects gene and protein expression differently

  13. Ozone-Induced Vascular Contractility and Pulmonary Injury Are Differently Impacted by Coconut, Fish and Olive Oil-Rich diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in fish oil supplements are proposed to offer cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against the adverse health effects induced by exposure to air pollution. Ozone, an ubiquitous air p...

  14. Low cost removal of reactive dyes using wheat bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, Fatma; Ozer, Dursun; Ozer, Ahmet; Ozer, Ayla

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 (RB 19), Reactive Red 195 (RR 195) and Reactive Yellow 145 (RY 145) onto wheat bran, generated as a by-product material from flour factory, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration and adsorbent size. The adsorption of RB 19, RR 195 and RY 145 onto wheat bran increased with increasing temperature and initial dye concentration while the adsorbed RB 19, RR 195 and RY 145 amounts decreased with increasing initial pH and adsorbent concentration. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data depending on temperature and the isotherm constants were determined by using linear regression analysis. The monolayer covarage capacities of wheat bran for RB 19, RR 195 and RY 145 dyes were obtained as 117.6, 119.1 and 196.1 mg/g at 60 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the reactive dye adsorption capacity of wheat bran decreased in the order of RY 145 > RB 19 > RR 195. The pseudo-second order kinetic and Weber-Morris models were applied to the experimental data and it was found that both the surface adsorption as well as intraparticle diffusion contributed to the actual adsorption processes of RB 19, RR 195 and RY 145. Regression coefficients (R 2 ) for the pseudo-second order kinetic model were higher than 0.99. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of RB 19, RR 195 and RY 145 dyes onto wheat bran was endothermic in nature

  15. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, B.R.; Hernandez Rodas, M.C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincon Cervera, M.A.; Romero, N.; Barrera Vazquez, C.; Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, B.A.

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group) were fed a control diet (CD) or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day). The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in fat accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, accompanied by a reduction in the levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. Supplementation with EVOO mitigated the increase in fat and oxidative stress produced by HFD in the liver, along with a normalization of LCPUFA levels in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. It is proposed that EVOO supplementation protects against fat accumulation, and oxidative stress and normalizes n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA depletion induced in mice fed a HFD. (Author)

  16. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) by normalizing NLRP3 inflammasome showed potential neuroprotective effects in Amyloid-β induced toxicity and high-fat diet fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Khazaei, Mozafar; Komaki, Alireza; Amiri, Iraj; Jalili, Cyrus

    2018-05-02

    Both dyslipidemia and Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with aging. In this study, the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on inflammasome and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's model (receiving Amyloid-β (Aβ)) and high-fat diet (HFD) model were determined. A total of 120 male Wistar rats, were divided into 12 groups (n = 10), including; healthy control, sham surgery, sham surgery receiving normal saline, HFD, HFD + 8% VCO, HFD + 10% VCO, Aβ received rats, Aβ + 8%VCO, Aβ + 10%VCO, HFD + Aβ, HFD + Aβ+8%VCO, and HFD + Aβ + 10%VCO. Following memory and learning tests, blood sample prepared from the heart and hippocampus of rats in each group was kept at -70 °C for genes expression, oxidative stress, and biochemical tests. Aβ and HFD significantly impaired memory and learning by activating of both NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and oxidative stress (p<0.05), while treatment with both 8 and 10% VCO normalized inflammasome genes expression and oxidative stress (p<0.05). The Congo Red, Cresyl Violet staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) test revealed that VCO improved hippocampus histological changes, reduced Aβ plaques and phosphorylated Tau. High-fat diet has exacerbated the effects of Aβ, while VCO showed potential neuroprotective effect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  18. Essential oils improved weight gain, growth and feed efficiency of young dairy calves fed 18 or 20% crude protein starter diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Falahati, R; Poorhamdollah, M; Heidari, S R; Pezeshki, A

    2018-01-17

    The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO). The EO was supplemented as 1 g/kg of starter DM. Calves were fed ad libitum starter diet and were weaned at day 59 of age, but diets continued until day 80. There were no interactive effects of CP and EO on intake and growth. Pre-weaning feed efficiency tended to be increased for 200P-EO (p = .09). Average daily gain and feed efficiency during pre-weaning period as well as weaning weight were increased (p calves-fed EO (p = .05) and was lower in those fed 180P vs. 200P (p feed efficiency of dairy calves, irrespective of dietary protein content. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Impact of Diets Containing Plant Raw Materials as Fish Meal and Fish Oil Replacement on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata, and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorakis Kriton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate whether the total or high substitution of fish meal (FM and fish oil (FO by sustainable plant raw materials (plant meal and oils in long-term feeding for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp can result in spoilage alterations during ice storage. These three species were fed throughout their whole rearing cycle with plant-based diets and compared to counterparts that received FM/FO-based diets or commercial-like diets. Sensory QIM schemes adopted for these species and ATP breakdown products (K-value and components were used to evaluate the freshness. Sensory acceptability of 14, 15, and 12 days was found for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. This corresponded to K-values of approximately 80%, 35%, and 65% for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. No major effect of dietary history on postmortem shelf life was shown for gilthead sea bream and common carp; neither sensory-perceived nor chemical freshness showed diet-related differences. Rainbow trout fed with the plant-based diet exhibited slightly worse sensory freshness than fish fed with FM/FO-based diets, at the end of shelf life. These findings imply that FM and FO can be successfully substituted without major impacts on shelf life of fish.

  20. Sperathe effects of solid-state fermentation in the functional properties of defatted rice bran and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Moreira da Silveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of fermented bran produced by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp. in a solid-state fermentation system were determined, with an aim to evaluate their application in food formulation. The defatted rice bran and wheat bran were inoculated with the spores of the cultures and incubated at 30º C for 72 h. Samples were withdrawn at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Protein content, protein solubility, in-vitro digestibility, gelation and water holding capacity were determined in bran with or without fermentation. Rhizopus sp. increased significantly the protein content (69.0 and 56.0%, respectively, for defatted rice bran and wheat bran; protein solubility (28.5 and 36.2 and water holding capacity (11.4% for wheat bran. When A. oryzae was used all these properties were modified significantly after fermentation.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar as propriedades funcionais de farelo de arroz desengordurado e farelo de trigo, submetidos à fermentação em estado sólido pelos fungos Aspergillus oryzae e Rhizopus sp., para avaliar seu potencial de aplicação em formulações alimentícias. O farelo de arroz desengordurado e o farelo de trigo foram inoculados com esporos de Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus oryzae (4x10(6 esporos/grama de meio e incubados durante 72 horas a 30º C. Amostras foram coletadas em 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas de fermentação. Foram determinados o conteúdo protéico, a solubilidade protéica, a digestibilidade in-vitro, a capacidade de formação de gel e a capacidade de retenção de água nos farelos fermentados. Quando Rhizopus sp. foi utilizado, as seguintes propriedades aumentaram significativamente: o conteúdo protéico 69,0 e 56,0%, respectivamente, para farelo de arroz e farelo de trigo, a solubilidade protéica (28,5 e 36,2% e a capacidade de retenção de água (11,4% para farelo de trigo. Quando Aspergillus oryzae foi empregado, as propriedades não foram modificadas de maneira significativa pelo processo

  1. Valor do farelo de arroz integral como fonte de gordura na dieta de vacas Jersey na fase inicial de lactação: digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes Value of rice bran as a fat source for Jersey cows in early lactation: apparent digestibility of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Laerte Nörnberg

    2004-12-01

    -fibrous and iso-lipidic diets on the apparent digestibility of nutrients. Four treatments were used: CON concentrate without fat addition; BPF- concentrate with "by pass" fat; RBO- concentrate with rice bran + rice oil; RBT- concentrate with rice bran + tallow. The concentrate was made of corn meal and soybean meal. Corn silage and alfalfa hay in a ratio of 1:1 in dry matter basis were fed ad libitum and kept in a ratio to the concentrate of 55:45%, respectively. Concentrates were fed three times a day. Two 4 x 4 latin squares with 4-wk period were used and the means were compared by the F-test. The apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and nonfibrous carbohydrates was not affected by the fat sources. Rice bran can be used as fat source up to 6% of crude fat in diet for cows in early lactation.

  2. Biochemical and sensory evaluation of wheat bran supplemented sorghum kisra bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallasy, Limya Osman Husain

    1998-05-01

    Studies were carried out on the effects of addition of wheat bran to sorghum flour (Dabar cultivar) at two levels extraction rates (72% and 80%). Samples were fermented for 14hr and the PH, titrable acidity, crude fibre, protein, total solid, total soluble solids and reducing sugars of fermented batter were determined at 2 hrs intervals. Results indicated that addition of wheat bran either before or after fermentation increased the PH there was decrease in titrable acidity. Reducing sugar contents decrease as a result of addition of wheat bran. Addition of wheat bran result in increasing protein content (15.7%m 19.0% and 20.7% for control, 80%S/WB and 72% S/WB. respectively at the end of fermentation) and also increase of crude fibre content. Addition of wheat bran to sorghum batter either before or after fermentation was accompanied by increase in viscosity ( from 145.1 cp for control to 203.1 cp and 209.8 cp fpr 80%S/WB and 72%S/WB blends respectively). Starch content was determined using iodine spectrophotometry, the moisture content of kisra bread containing wheat bran was significant higher compared with control and lower in available calories. Kisra bread containing wheat bran was lower in reducing sugars 7.42% for control to 5.2% and 4.2% and 4.5% for kisra containing wheat bran, a higher reduction in total carbohydrate were observed in samples containing wheat bran added after fermentation.Kisra containing wheat bran before fermentation gave significantly lower in vitro protein digestabilities. Addition of wheat bran after fermentation resulted in still lower decrease in IVPD compared to addition before fermentation. Sensory evaluation of kisra containing wheat bran indicated significant preference for kisra containing wheat bran compared to the control kisra

  3. Biochemical and sensory evaluation of wheat bran supplemented sorghum kisra bread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallasy, Limya Osman Husain [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-05-01

    Studies were carried out on the effects of addition of wheat bran to sorghum flour (Dabar cultivar) at two levels extraction rates (72% and 80%). Samples were fermented for 14hr and the PH, titrable acidity, crude fibre, protein, total solid, total soluble solids and reducing sugars of fermented batter were determined at 2 hrs intervals. Results indicated that addition of wheat bran either before or after fermentation increased the PH there was decrease in titrable acidity. Reducing sugar contents decrease as a result of addition of wheat bran. Addition of wheat bran result in increasing protein content (15.7%m 19.0% and 20.7% for control, 80%S/WB and 72% S/WB. respectively at the end of fermentation) and also increase of crude fibre content. Addition of wheat bran to sorghum batter either before or after fermentation was accompanied by increase in viscosity ( from 145.1 cp for control to 203.1 cp and 209.8 cp fpr 80%S/WB and 72%S/WB blends respectively). Starch content was determined using iodine spectrophotometry, the moisture content of kisra bread containing wheat bran was significant higher compared with control and lower in available calories. Kisra bread containing wheat bran was lower in reducing sugars 7.42% for control to 5.2% and 4.2% and 4.5% for kisra containing wheat bran, a higher reduction in total carbohydrate were observed in samples containing wheat bran added after fermentation.Kisra containing wheat bran before fermentation gave significantly lower in vitro protein digestabilities. Addition of wheat bran after fermentation resulted in still lower decrease in IVPD compared to addition before fermentation. Sensory evaluation of kisra containing wheat bran indicated significant preference for kisra containing wheat bran compared to the control kisra. 132 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. The rationale of moisture on wheat, enriched flour from oat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, relevant is the production of food not only meets human needs but also has a certain nutritional value and mineral and vitamin composition, thereby providing a physiologically significant positive effect on the human body. Among bakery products, aimed at improvement of health, leads the bread produced with the goal of weight control, then it should be bread, stimulating the digestive functions of the body. The priority of increasing the nutritional value of bakery products is the inclusion in their formulation non-traditional types of flour from wholemeal grains of cereals and legumes seeds: wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, peas, chickpeas and others. Their use in the diet improves the balance of vitamins, amino acids, macro - and microelements, food fibers and has a positive effect on human health. The use of flour from oat bran in the production of bakery products will increase the content of protein, dietary fiber, minerals, will allow to produce a comprehensive enrichment product. The paper presents research on the influence of the moisture content of the dough of wheat flour of first grade flour from oat bran, obtained by disintegration-wave grinding on the organoleptic, physico-chemical characteristics properties of dough and finished bread. The results revealed rational moisture content of the dough of wheat bread – 46% at a dosage of fortifier – 7%, ensuring the best indicators of quality of semi-finished and products. The data obtained will contribute to the expansion of the range of breads of high nutritional value to give the product a functional orientation, to intensify the process of production.

  5. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  6. Mesquite bean and cassava leaf in diets for Nile tilapia in growth=Farelos da vagem da algaroba e da folha da mandioca em rações para tilápia do Nilo em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Batista Costa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the inclusion of mesquite bean bran (Prosopis juliflora and cassava leaf bran (Manihot esculenta in diets for Nile tilapia (85.22 ± 3.13 g. Three hundred and thirty-six fish were distributed in 28 fiberglass tanks (120 L in a 2 × 4 factorial scheme for two sources of oil and four levels of bran (0, 5, 10 and 20% (n = 4. After 60 days, growth performance (feed intake, weight gain, apparent feed conversion and survival rate and fish body composition were evaluated. Heights and density of villi were measured for morphometric analysis of the intestinal mucosa. Animal performance, body composition and villi density were not affected (p > 0.05 by the source and level of inclusion of bran. There was a significant effect of the level of inclusion of bran on villi height, with a linear trend, indicating that the higher the inclusion levels of bran, the lower the height of the villi. The bran studied can be used in diets for Nile tilapia up to 20% without compromising growth performance and body composition change, but the presence of these by-products can result in a deleterious effect on fish villi.Avaliou-se a inclusão dos farelos da vagem da algaroba (Prosopis juliflora e folha da mandioca (Manihot esculenta em rações para tilápia do Nilo (85,22 ± 3,13 g. Foram utilizados 336 peixes, distribuídos em 28 tanques (120 L, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, duas fontes de óleo e quatro níveis de farelo (0, 5, 10 e 20% (n = 4. Ao final de 60 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente e taxa de sobrevivência e a composição da carcaça dos peixes. Para análise da histologia intestinal, foram mensuradas a altura e a densidade das vilosidades. O desempenho zootécnico, a composição da carcaça e a densidade das vilosidades intestinais não foram afetados (p > 0,05 pela fonte e nível de inclusão de farelo. Houve efeito significativo do nível de inclusão dos

  7. Determination of Zinc in Wheat and Wheat Bran by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi Zahedi, M.; Bahrami Samani, A.; Sedaghati Zadeh, M.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of concentration of elements in foodstuffs is of significant interest. Wheat is one of the most consumed food stuffs in Iran and zinc is also considered as one of the necessary and vital elements. Since the measurement of some trace elements is not practical by the conventional analytical methods, due to the lower detection limit, the neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the zinc in wheat and wheat bran. Food sample of roughly 50 mg was irradiated for 24 hours. After cooling, the interval samples were counted by a gamma spectrometry system. The concentration of zinc in wheat without bran and the wheat bran were 18.444±0.656 and 19.927±0.698 ppm, respectively. The amount of zinc in wheat bran was noticeable so it showed that consuming wheat with bran is more beneficial than the wheat with no bran for the human-beings body requirements.

  8. Influences of an essential oil mixture supplementation to corn versus wheat-based practical diets on growth, organ size, intestinal morphology and immune response of male and female broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Coven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn, 2 feed additives (with or without EOM, and gender (male or female. EOM supplementation in the diet decreased body weight in corn-fed male birds at Days 21 and 42, but not in those fed the wheat-based diet, signifying a diet x EOM x gender interaction. Cumulative feed intake was not influenced by either the diet type or EOM. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet type, whereas EOM improved feed conversion ratio over the 42-day growth period. Feeding birds on wheat decreased the carcass yield while it increased relative small intestine and large intestine weight. Relative weights of liver, bursa fabricius and serum infectious bursal disease (IBD and Newcastle disease (ND titers were not affected by any of the variables studied. EOM supplementation and feeding birds on corn increased jejunal villus height at both 21 and 42 days of age, while bird gender showed no effect. In general, EOM positively influenced body weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in broiler chickens. Birds receiving the corn-based diet were more efficient in converting feed to body mass as compared to those fed on the wheat-based diet.

  9. Fish oil diet associated with acute reperfusion related haemorrhage, and with reduced stroke-related sickness behaviours and motor impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Celeste Pascoe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFA. However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviours after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioural effects of PUFA supplementation over a six-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute haemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined six weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviours, acute motor impairment and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behaviour.

  10. Impact of Consuming Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts within a Mediterranean Diet on DNA Methylation in Peripheral White Blood Cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra Randomized Controlled Trial: A Role for Dietary Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpón, Ana; Milagro, Fermín I; Razquin, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Marti, Amelia; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Riezu-Boj, José-Ignacio; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2017-12-23

    DNA methylation could be reversible and mouldable by environmental factors, such as dietary exposures. The objective was to analyse whether an intervention with two Mediterranean diets, one rich in extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) and the other one in nuts (MedDiet + nuts), was influencing the methylation status of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) genes. A subset of 36 representative individuals were selected within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED-Navarra) trial, with three intervention groups in high cardiovascular risk volunteers: MedDiet + EVOO, MedDiet + nuts, and a low-fat control group. Methylation was assessed at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed routes with differentially methylated CpG sites (CpGs) related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation, and signal transduction. Two CpGs were specifically selected: cg01081346- CPT1B / CHKB-CPT1B and cg17071192- GNAS/GNASAS , being associated with intermediate metabolism. Furthermore, cg01081346 was associated with PUFAs intake, showing a role for specific fatty acids on epigenetic modulation. Specific components of MedDiet, particularly nuts and EVOO, were able to induce methylation changes in several PWBCs genes. These changes may have potential benefits in health; especially those changes in genes related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation and signal transduction, which may contribute to explain the role of MedDiet and fat quality on health outcomes.

  11. Interacting holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheykhi, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    We study cosmological application of interacting holographic energy density in the framework of Brans-Dicke cosmology. We obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameter of the holographic dark energy in a non-flat universe. As system's IR cutoff we choose the radius of the event horizon measured on the sphere of the horizon, defined as L=ar(t). We find that the combination of Brans-Dicke field and holographic dark energy can accommodate w D =-1 crossing for the equation of state of noninteracting holographic dark energy. When an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is taken into account, the transition of w D to phantom regime can be more easily accounted for than when resort to the Einstein field equations is made.

  12. Stability of Brans-Dicke thin-shell wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Xiaojun, E-mail: yuexiaojun@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Gao, Sijie, E-mail: sijie@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-06-06

    Recently, a class of spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes in Brans-Dicke gravity have been introduced. Such wormholes can be supported by matter satisfying the weak energy condition (WEC). In this Letter, we first obtain all the exact solutions satisfying the WEC. Then we show these solutions can be stable for certain parameters. A general requirement for stability is that β{sup 2}>1, which may imply that the speed of sound exceeds the speed of light. -- Highlights: → Brans-Dicke thin-shell wormholes can be stable and satisfy the energy condition. → Solutions exist for ω<-2. → The speed of sound in the matter exceeds the speed of light.

  13. Unified dark fluid in Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali; Mishra, Bivudutta

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic dark energy cosmological models are constructed in the frame work of generalised Brans-Dicke theory with a self-interacting potential. A unified dark fluid characterised by a linear equation of state is considered as the source of dark energy. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar simulating an anisotropic relationship among the directional expansion rates. The dynamics of the universe in the presence of a unified dark fluid in anisotropic background have been discussed. The presence of an evolving scalar field makes it possible to get an accelerating phase of expansion even for a linear relationship among the directional Hubble rates. It is found that the anisotropy in expansion rates does not affect the scalar field, the self-interacting potential, but it controls the non-evolving part of the Brans-Dicke parameter. (orig.)

  14. Inflation and dark energy from the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artymowski, Michał [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek, E-mail: Michal.Artymowski@uj.edu.pl, E-mail: Zygmunt.Lalak@fuw.edu.pl, E-mail: Marek.Lewicki@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-06-01

    We consider the Brans-Dicke theory motivated by the f(R) = R + α R{sup n} − β R{sup 2−n} model to obtain a stable minimum of the Einstein frame scalar potential of the Brans-Dicke field. As a result we have obtained an inflationary scalar potential with non-zero value of residual vacuum energy, which may be a source of dark energy. In addition we discuss the probability of quantum tunnelling from the minimum of the potential. Our results can be easily consistent with PLANCK or BICEP2 data for appropriate choices of the value of n and ω.

  15. Effect of Oil Application, Age, Diet, and Pigmentation on the Tensile Strength and Breaking Point of Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Natarajan, Karthika; Thilagavathi, G; Srinivas, C R

    2016-01-01

    Hair strength depends on various factors such as nutrition, environmental factors, sunlight, oiling, aging, conditioner, etc. To compare the tensile strength and breaking point of the hair shaft between (1) vegetarian and nonvegetarian. (2) Those who regularly apply and those who do not apply oil. (3) Pigmented and nonpigmented hair, (4) childhood and elderly. Hair fibers were mounted in tensile strength testing machine Zwick/Roell Z010 and gradual force was administered. The elongation of hair fiber in mm and the maximum force required to break the hair strand were recorded for each fiber. Elasticity of the children's hair was more than the elasticity of adult ( P = 0.05) although tensile strength in children hair was not statistically significant (>0.05). Similarly, the tensile strength was more among those who regularly consumed nonvegetarian food but the difference was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in other groups ( P > 0.05). Elasticity in children hair is statistically more than elderly hair although there is no significant change in tensile strength.

  16. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  17. Isolation and identification of phenolic antioxidants in black rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyun-Il; Shin, Jae-Wook; Song, Geun-Seoup; Kim, Young-Soo

    2015-02-01

    Black rice bran contains phenolic compounds of a high antioxidant activity. In this study, the 40% acetone extract of black rice bran was sequentially fractionated to obtain 5 fractions. Out of the 5 fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was subfractionated using the Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in the extracts was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay, reducing power. The subfraction 2 from ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic contents (TPC) (816.0 μg/mg) and the lowest EC50 values (47.8 μg/mL for DPPH radical assay, 112.8 μg/mL for ABTS radical cation assay, and 49.2 μg/mL for reducing power). These results were 3.1, 1.3, and 2.6 times lower than those of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), respectively. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the antioxidant activity and TPC of various extracts was closely correlated, with correlation coefficients (R(2) ) higher than 0.86. The major phenolic acid in subfraction 2 was identified as ferulic acid (178.3 μg/mg) by HPLC and LC-ESI/MS/MS analyses. Our finding identified ferulic acid as a major phenolic compound in black rice bran, and supports the potential use of black rice bran as a natural source of antioxidant. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. The cosmological term and a modified Brans-Dicke cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Fukui, T.

    1977-01-01

    Adding the cosmological term Λ, which is assumed to be variable in this paper, to the Brans-Dicke Lagrangian, an attempt is made to understand the meaning of the term and to relate it to the mass of the universe. The Dirac large-number hypothesis is considered, applying the results obtained from the application of the present theory to a uniform cosmological model. (author)

  19. Wheat bran cereal, human gut bacteria and subjective wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew; Deaville, Eddie; Gibson, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that consumption of high fiber breakfast cereal is associated with improved subjective well-being, especially increased energy. One possible explanation of these results is through metabolism by gut bacteria and concomitant production of metabolites that influence psychological and gastrointestinal (GI) welfare. This was examined in the present study to determine whether consumption of wheat bran could modulate the composition of the GI microbiota. This human volunteer stud...

  20. Effects of rice bran on sensory and physico-chemical properties of emulsified pork meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S C; Shiau, C Y; Liu, T E; Chu, C L; Hwang, D F

    2005-08-01

    Four kinds of bran, which are milled from important rice cultivators in Taiwan, have high contents of dietary fiber, fat and protein. The use of rice bran in Kung-wan, an emulsified pork meatball, was investigated. It was found that protein and fat contents, and white index of meatballs decreased as the amount of bran increased. A texture profile analysis (TPA) also indicated the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the Kung-wan decreased. The sensory scores of taste, texture and overall acceptability of meatballs with less than 10% added bran showed no significant difference from those for meatballs without bran. However, the added amount of 15% enriched meatballs resulted in inferior sensory scores. The bran's particle size profoundly affected the sensory and physico-chemical properties of the meat products. Meatballs enriched with smaller bran particles possessed higher TPA indices and sensory scores than those added with larger ones. No significant differences in proximate composition, cooking yield, color and sensory quality were found among emulsified meatballs enriched with four different kinds of bran. Conclusively, the suitable amount of rice bran that should be added to emulsified pork meatballs was less than 10% and a smaller particle size would result in better quality.

  1. Growth and Carcass Physical Components of Thin Tail Rams Fed on Different Levels of Rice Bran

    OpenAIRE

    Rianto, E; Lindasari, E; Purbowati, E

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of rice bran supplementation on live weight gain (LWG), the proportion of carcass meat, bone and fat of Thin Tail Rams. Twelve thin tail rams, aged about 12 months, weighed 20.95 ± 1.52 kg (CV = 7.26%) were allocated into a Randomized Block Design with 2 blocks and 3 treatments. The treatments applied were levels of rice bran supplementation, i.e. Napier grass ad libitum without rice bran (T1), Napier grass ad libitum and 200 g rice bran (T2...

  2. Antigravity in F( R) and Brans-Dicke theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, V. K.; Karagiannakis, N.

    2014-12-01

    We study antigravity in F( R)-theory originating scalar-tensor theories and also in Brans-Dicke models without cosmological constant. For the F( R) theory case, we obtain the Jordan frame antigravity scalar-tensor theory by using a variant of the Lagrange multipliers method and we numerically study the time dependent effective gravitational constant. As we shall demonstrate in detail by using some viable F( R) models, although the initial F( R) models have no antigravity, their scalar-tensor counterpart theories might or not have antigravity, a fact mainly depending on the parameter that characterizes antigravity. Similar results hold true in the Brans-Dicke model, which we also studied numerically. In addition, regarding the Brans-Dicke model we also found some analytic cosmological solutions. Since antigravity is an unwanted feature in gravitational theories, our findings suggest that in the case of F( R) theories, antigravity does not occur in the real world described by the F( R) theory, but might occur in the Jordan frame scalar-tensor counterpart of the F( R) theory, and this happens under certain circumstances. The central goal of our study is to present all different cases in which antigravity might occur in modified gravity models.

  3. Suplementação com óleo de soja na dieta de potros Soybean oil supplementation in the diet of foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska Tobo Pastori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em um delineamento quadrado latino 4 X 4 balanceado, foram utilizados quatro potros, filhos do mesmo garanhão, com idade entre 10 e 12 meses e 270 ± 9,80 kg. Foram analisados os efeitos dos níveis de 5, 10, 15 e 20% de óleo de soja no concentrado sobre a aceitabilidade e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e sobre a concentração plasmática de colesterol total e suas frações nas lipoproteínas de densidade muito baixa (VLDL-C, densidade baixa (LDL-C e densidade alta (HDL-C e nos triglicérides totais. O aumento do nível de óleo na dieta afetou as digestibilidades da matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido, que apresentaram resposta quadrática, com diminuição após os valores de 10,7; 9,5 e 10,5%, respectivamente, de extrato etéreo na dieta. Os níveis de óleo de soja tiveram efeito linear sobre as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol e LDL-C, que apresentaram diminuição de 0,65 mg/dL e 0,58 mg/dL, respectivamente, a cada 1% de aumento no extrato etéreo do concentrado. Níveis de óleo de soja superiores a 9,5% no concentrado afetam a digestibilidade da dieta, principalmente na parede celular, e diminuem as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol e LDL-C.Four foals, sired by the same stallion, aged between 10 and 12 months and 270 ± 9.80 kg average weight, were alloted in a 4 X 4 balanced Latin Square design. The effects were analyzed of the inclusion of the levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of soybean oil in the concentrate on the acceptability, nutrient digestibilities and on total cholesterol plasma concentrations and its fractions: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and total triglycerides (TRG. The increase in the level of soybean oil in the diet affected the digestibilities of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber that presented a quadratic response which decreased after a expected values of 10

  4. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lounaouci-Ouyed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF] or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15% of soybean meal, alfalfa and maize (SBM15 diet; g/kg as fed: 161 CP and 267 NDF and 2 experimental diets based on 26% of field bean (FB26 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 250 NDF or 30% of pea (P30 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 255 NDF as main protein source, and completed with hard wheat bran (34 and 40%, respectively for FB26 and P30 diets partly replacing alfalfa and maize. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 3 groups of 40 mixed-sex growing rabbits of Algerian white population, placed in collective cages (4 rabbits/cage from weaning (28 d, mean weight: 614±112 g until 77 d of age (slaughter. Faecal digestibility was measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 7 rabbits/group. Gross energy and crude protein digestibility coefficients were similar for SBM15 and FB26 diets (78.6 and 86.4%, respectively and lower for P30 diet (75.1 and 83.6%, respectively; P≤0.03. Treatments had no effect (P=0.12 on mortality rate, which was on av. 9.2%. Treatments did not affect growth performance from 28 to 77 d of age (30.8 g/d or feed intake (mean 94.6 g/d, but feed conversion ratio was higher for rabbits fed FB26 and P30 diets compared to those fed SBM15 diet (3.13 vs. 2.94; P=0.006. The dressing out percentages (mean 66.6% and the muscle/bone ratio (6.8 were similar for the 3 groups of rabbits. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran, without methionine supplementation, does not seem to affect

  5. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  6. Uso de óleo na dieta de eqüinos submetidos ao exercício Use of oil in diet of equine under exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mattos

    2006-08-01

    vegetal oil (250 and 500 g/day. Eighteen castrated thoroughbred horses aging from 4 and 8 years old and averaging body weight of 456±2.90 kg were alloted to a split plot approach with repeated measures over time in a completely randomized design, with the collection times in the sub-plots and the soybean oil levels (0, 250 and 500 g per horse per day in the plots. During 30 days, the horses were fed 8.40, 7.95, and 7.30 kg/day of diets with 0, 250 and 500 g of oil, respectively, divided in three daily feeds. At the end of 30 days, the exercise test was performed with all horses, during 2 hours, at large trot. At the beginning and at the end of the exercise, the levels of glucose, lactate, haematocrit, body temperature were estimated. The heart and respiratory rates were taken at the beginning, 1 and 2 hours of exercise and 15 minutes after the end of the exercise. Interaction of collection times ´ dietary oil levels on the levels of glucose, lactate, and haematocrit, body temperature, and heart and respiratory frequencies was observed. The supplementation of 250 and 500 g of oil in the diet of equines under exercise of mid intensity increased haematophysiological performance, that can improve horse athletic performance. The horses daily fed 500 g of oil showed better recovery post-trial, and that is verified by the values of heart rate and of haematocrit.

  7. Delay oil oxidation during frying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, N.M.M.; Shams Eldin, N.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Blend oil (mixed of refined sunflower and soy beans oils 1:1 w/w) containing add 200 ppm of rosemary leaves methanolic extract (rosemary extract) (RE) and 3% refined rice bran oil (RRBO), were used in frying process at 1800 degree c for 5 hrs/ day, four consecutive days to delay oil oxidation during frying. Therefore, rosemary extract (methanolic extract) was analyzed by HPLC technique for identification of flavonoids compounds (as a specific active compounds; gives high protection to frying oil). Physical and chemical properties, including refractive index(RI). Red color unit (R), viscosity, acidity (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) oxidized fatty acid (OFA), polymer content (PC), total polar components (TPC) and trans fatty acid (TFA) as eliadic acid were determined. The results indicated that; rosemary extract contained about eight flavonoids compounds (hypersoid, rutin, 3-OH flavon, luleotin, kempferol, sakarutin, querectrin and apeginin). Addition of RE or RRBO to frying oil caused delay oil oxidation during frying process compared with frying oil without any addition. Also, the results indicated that rosemary extract was more effective in reducing formation of PV, FFA, OFA, PC, TPC and TFA in frying oil than refined rice bran oil

  8. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  9. The impact of Rhizopus oryzae cultivation on rice bran: Gamma-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarolo, Kelly Cristina; Denardi de Souza, Taiana; Collazzo, Carolina Carvalho; Badiale Furlong, Eliana; Souza Soares, Leonor Almeida de

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the solid state cultivation (SSC) time of rice bran by Rhizopus oryzae on γ-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties. Gamma-oryzanol was extracted with organic solvents and its extracts were characterized by GC-FID and HPLC-UV. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by DPPH and ABTS + assays, β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and reduction of oxidation in lipid system. The biomass showed the γ-oryzanol recovery increased by 51.5% (20.52mg/g), and 5.7% in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The γ-oryzanol major components changing in their profile. The γ-oryzanol extract from biomass (72h) showed the greatest DPPH inhibition (59.0%), while 90.5% inhibition of oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and 30% reduction of the indicators of oxidation in olive oil was observed in the one cultivated at 96h, these behaviors were confirmed by PCA analyses. SSC provides an increase in the γ-oryzanol recovery followed by improving of the functional properties of rice bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  11. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  12. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  13. Alteration of biomass composition in response to changing substrate particle size and the consequences for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn bran is a by-product from corn starch processing. This work examined the effects of changing substrate particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of both raw and pretreated destarched corn bran. The biomass composition of the corn bran varied between particle size fractions: The largest particles...

  14. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  15. Bran characteristics influencing quality attributes of whole wheat Chinese steamed bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the variations in the characteristics of brans obtained from a pilot-scale milling of 17 soft red winter wheat varieties and their influences on the quality of whole wheat northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from blends of a base flour and brans of different w...

  16. Variation in levels of the flavone tricin in bran from rice genotypes varying in pericarp color

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flavone tricin has recently been shown to have numerous health benefits and has been proposed as a safe candidate for clinical trials of cancer prevention. One dietary source of tricin is rice bran. Rice bran, which is removed from polished rice, consists of the pericarp, testa, and aleurone (t...

  17. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  18. Protective effects of black rice bran against chemically-induced inflammation of mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of black rice (cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1) bran against 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema and 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in inflammatory mouse models. We also determined the effects of the bran...

  19. Effect of rice bran on the quality of vermicompost produced from food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Pourzamani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that composting and vermicomposting process can be used as a potential tool for bio convert rice bran and food waste. However, it is suggested that the rice bran can be amended with food waste to ensure better quality of vermicompost.

  20. Effect of essential oil from Cordia verbeancea on the fermentation of a high concentrate diet by using the in vitro gas production technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, R C; Pires, A V [ESALQ, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Abdalla, A.L. [CENA, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: rcanonenco@hotmail.com (and others)

    2009-07-01

    Studies with plant secondary metabolites as rumen fermentation modifiers have increased as an attempt to reproduce the effects of ionophores. Cordia verbenacea D.C. is a Brazilian bush with antimicrobial properties attributed to its essential oil (EO). The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of C. verbenacea EO on the ruminal fermentation by using an in vitro gas production system. Treatments were defined as: Control - without addition of monensin or EO; MON - addition of monensin (Sigma Aldrich Inc.) at 3 {mu}M as a positive control; COR37.5 . addition of 37.5 {mu}L of EO in 75 mL of buffered rumen fluid; COR75 - addition of 75 {mu}L of EO in 75 mL of buffered rumen fluid. A complete randomized design was utilized with six replicates for gas production (mL/g OM{sub incub}) and three replicates for all other variables. Two conditions were independently assessed: a) Coastcross (Cynodon sp.) hay (89.2% DM, 9.7% CP, 1.3% EE, 7.9% ash, 60.2% NDF, and 30.6% ADF) as substrate + inoculum of sheep on pasture; b) 80:20 concentrate:forage diet (20.0% Coastcross hay, 62.7% corn, 15.0% soybean meal, 1.0% limestone, and 1.3% mineral premix on DM basis; 91.5% DM, 15.7% CP, 3.3% EE, 4.3% ash, 20.3% NDF, and 8.8% ADF) as substrate + inoculum of sheep adapted to this diet. Two different inocula for each condition were used as source of variation. In each flask (160 mL), 0.5 g of substrate was incubated with 50 mL of incubation medium and 25 mL of rumen fluid at 39 deg C. Incubation time was 24 h for the hay and 16 h for the high-concentrate diet. Flasks without substrate (blanks) and flasks containing standard hay were also included. According to the GC-MS analysis, the major compounds of C. verbenacea EO were: transcaryophyllene (28.19%), alpha-pinene (23.58%), aloaromadendrene (6.90%), and alpha-humulene (4.54%). Considering both substrates, MON reduced gas and methane productions, increased propionate concentration, and decreased acetate:propionate ratio

  1. Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K; Koh-Banerjee, Pauline; Franz, Mary

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intake of whole grains is inversely associated with risk of diabetes and ischemic heart disease in observational studies. The lower risk associated with high whole-grain intakes may be mediated through improvements in glycemic control, lipid profiles, or reduced inflammation. OBJECTIV...... in this population. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a lower risk of diabetes and heart disease in persons who consume diets high in whole grains.......BACKGROUND: Intake of whole grains is inversely associated with risk of diabetes and ischemic heart disease in observational studies. The lower risk associated with high whole-grain intakes may be mediated through improvements in glycemic control, lipid profiles, or reduced inflammation. OBJECTIVE......-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and interleukin 6). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of the relations of whole grains, bran, and germ intakes with homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation in 938 healthy men and women. RESULTS: Whole-grain intake was inversely associated...

  2. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  3. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED OIL PALM FRONDS IN DIET ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND MEAT QUALITY OF GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Musnandar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF on body weightgain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%, R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50% and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0%and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG, weight andpercentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goatwas not affected by treatment, but the average daily gain, carcass weight, and percentage of carcass, wasaffected by the differences of percentage of FOPF in the pellet complete feed. The best ration was in theR1 ration (grass 0%: FOPF 100% that significantly different (P<0.05 from the other rations. The feedintake tended to be higher in goat fed R1 (895.87 g/d compared to those in goat with the R2 (854.38g/d and R3 (851.53 g/d. The average daily gain and carcass weight were higher in goat fed R1 rationcompared to those in goat fed R2 and R3. Consequently, the carcass percentage in R1 was higher thanthose in R2 and R3. The carcass percentage was ranged from 38.41-41.38%. The Ribeye area was higherin goat fed R1 (9.73 cm2 than R2 (8.34 cm2 and R3 (7.76 cm2. In this study, the protein content ofgoat meat was ranged from 19.06 to 20.71%, lipid content was ranged from 0.703 to 1.106% and watercontent was range from 72.45% to 74.12%, in which were not different among the treatments. It can beconcluded that the use of FOPF in a complete feed could improve performance and meat quality of goat.

  4. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED OIL PALM FRONDS IN DIET ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND MEAT QUALITY OF GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Musnandar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF on body weight gain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3 treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%, R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50% and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0% and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG, weight and percentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goat was not affected by treatment, but the average daily gain, carcass weight, and percentage of carcass, was affected by the differences of percentage of FOPF in the pellet complete feed. The best ration was in the R1 ration (grass 0%: FOPF 100% that significantly different (P<0.05 from the other rations. The feed intake tended to be higher in goat fed R1 (895.87 g/d compared to those in goat with the R2 (854.38 g/d and R3 (851.53 g/d. The average daily gain and carcass weight were higher in goat fed R1 ration compared to those in goat fed R2 and R3. Consequently, the carcass percentage in R1 was higher than those in R2 and R3. The carcass percentage was ranged from 38.41-41.38%. The Ribeye area was higher in goat fed R1 (9.73 cm2 than R2 (8.34 cm2 and R3 (7.76 cm2. In this study, the protein content of goat meat was ranged from 19.06 to 20.71%, lipid content was ranged from 0.703 to 1.106% and water content was range from 72.45% to 74.12%, in which were not different among the treatments. It can be concluded that the use of FOPF in a complete feed could improve performance and meat quality of goat.

  5. Rice Bran Metabolome Contains Amino Acids, Vitamins & Cofactors, and Phytochemicals with Medicinal and Nutritional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Iman; Brown, Dustin G; Nealon, Nora Jean; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2017-12-01

    Rice bran is a functional food that has shown protection against major chronic diseases (e.g. obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer) in animals and humans, and these health effects have been associated with the presence of bioactive phytochemicals. Food metabolomics uses multiple chromatography and mass spectrometry platforms to detect and identify a diverse range of small molecules with high sensitivity and precision, and has not been completed for rice bran. This study utilized global, non-targeted metabolomics to identify small molecules in rice bran, and conducted a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed literature to determine bioactive compounds. Three U.S. rice varieties (Calrose, Dixiebelle, and Neptune), that have been used for human dietary intervention trials, were assessed herein for bioactive compounds that have disease control and prevention properties. The profiling of rice bran by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 453 distinct phytochemicals, 209 of which were classified as amino acids, cofactors & vitamins, and secondary metabolites, and were further assessed for bioactivity. A scientific literature search revealed 65 compounds with health properties, 16 of which had not been previously identified in rice bran. This suite of amino acids, cofactors & vitamins, and secondary metabolites comprised 46% of the identified rice bran metabolome, which substantially enhanced our knowledge of health-promoting rice bran compounds provided during dietary supplementation. Rice bran metabolite profiling revealed a suite of biochemical molecules that can be further investigated and exploited for multiple nutritional therapies and medical food applications. These bioactive compounds may also be biomarkers of dietary rice bran intake. The medicinal compounds associated with rice bran can function as a network across metabolic pathways and this

  6. Development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae in different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WERMELINGER E. D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate, in laboratory, the development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae, vectors of leishmaniasis in Brazil, in the following diets: industrialized food for rabbits, dogs, hamsters and aquarium fishes, besides liver powder, cooked lettuce, wheat germ, beer yeast, oat, wheat bran and a diet denominated aged food. Except wheat bran for L. intermedia, all diets provided adequate development for both species, which showed that any of them can be used in laboratory insectaries for these insects. L. intermedia showed better development with most nutritious diets and both species presented better development with aged food. Fungi as an additional nutrient source for L. intermedia and L. longipalpis is suggested.

  7. Interacting HDE and NADE in Brans-Dicke chameleon cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheykhi, Ahmad; Jamil, Mubasher

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the recent work of one of us Setare and Jamil (2010) , we generalize this work to the case where the pressureless dark matter and the holographic dark energy do not conserve separately but interact with each other. We investigate the cosmological applications of interacting holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory with chameleon scalar field which is non-minimally coupled to the matter field. We find out that in this model the phantom crossing can be constructed if the model parameters are chosen suitably. We also perform the study for the new agegraphic dark energy model and calculate some relevant cosmological parameters and their evolution.

  8. Interacting HDE and NADE in Brans-Dicke chameleon cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheykhi, Ahmad, E-mail: sheykhi@mail.uk.ac.i [Department of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, Mubasher, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.p [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-01-03

    Motivated by the recent work of one of us Setare and Jamil (2010) , we generalize this work to the case where the pressureless dark matter and the holographic dark energy do not conserve separately but interact with each other. We investigate the cosmological applications of interacting holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory with chameleon scalar field which is non-minimally coupled to the matter field. We find out that in this model the phantom crossing can be constructed if the model parameters are chosen suitably. We also perform the study for the new agegraphic dark energy model and calculate some relevant cosmological parameters and their evolution.

  9. Straight spinning cosmic strings in Brans-Dicke gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, S. Mittmann; da Silva, J. M. Hoff; Cindra, J. L.

    2018-03-01

    An exact solution of straight spinning cosmic strings in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation is presented. The possibility of the existence of closed time-like curves around these cosmic strings is analyzed. Furthermore, the stability about the formation of the topological defect discussed here is checked. It is shown that the existence of a suitable choice for the integration constants in which closed time-like curves are not allowed. We also study the (im)possibility of using the obtained spacetime in the rotational curves problem.

  10. Thermodynamics in modified Brans-Dicke gravity with entropy corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Shamaila; Jawad, Abdul; Nawaz, Tanzeela [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Manzoor, Rubab [University of Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamics in the frame-work of recently proposed theory called modified Brans-Dicke gravity (Kofinas et al. in Class Quantum Gravity 33:15, 2016). For this purpose, we develop the generalized second law of thermodynamics by assuming usual entropy as well as its corrected forms (logarithmic and power law corrected) on the apparent and event horizons. In order to analyzed the clear view of thermodynamic law, the power law forms of scalar field and scale factor is being assumed. We evaluate the results graphically and found that generalized second law of thermodynamics holds in most of the cases. (orig.)

  11. Thermodynamics in modified Brans-Dicke gravity with entropy corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Shamaila; Jawad, Abdul; Nawaz, Tanzeela; Manzoor, Rubab

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamics in the frame-work of recently proposed theory called modified Brans-Dicke gravity (Kofinas et al. in Class Quantum Gravity 33:15, 2016). For this purpose, we develop the generalized second law of thermodynamics by assuming usual entropy as well as its corrected forms (logarithmic and power law corrected) on the apparent and event horizons. In order to analyzed the clear view of thermodynamic law, the power law forms of scalar field and scale factor is being assumed. We evaluate the results graphically and found that generalized second law of thermodynamics holds in most of the cases. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of chromium, nickel, iron and manganese content in wheat, flour, bran and selected baked products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawiec Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional values, breadstuff plays a big part in covering human nourishment needs and constitutes a base of all day diet. Moreover, bread is an excellent source of numerous vitamins and minerals the abundance of which depends on the degree of grinding. Thus, it seems to be very important to know the composition and level of bio-elements. That is why the main target of this study was to evaluate the concentration of selected trace elements: chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, iron (Fe and manganese (Mn in wheat grain, wheat bran, different wheat and rye flour types and variety of breadstuff also with addition of grains and seeds from different bakeries and mills. Another task was to analyze if the technological process has an influence on secondary despoil of bread goods with heavy metal elements. The analyzed trace elements were measured with a precise and accurate atomic absorption spectrophotometric method (AAS and the results were expressed in mg/kg of selected sample. Obtained results show that bread and grain products are a good source of trace elements like chromium, nickel, iron and manganese. However, the higher levels of chromium and nickel in bread goods could rather be an effect of impurity caused by a technological process in mill and bakeries.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Navy Bean or Rice Bran Consumption in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borresen, Erica C; Brown, Dustin G; Harbison, Greg; Taylor, Lynn; Fairbanks, Amanda; O'Malia, Joanne; Bazan, Marlon; Rao, Sangeeta; Bailey, Susan M; Wdowik, Melissa; Weir, Tiffany L; Brown, Regina J; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of navy beans (NB) and rice bran (RB) have been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis. Given the overall poor diet quality in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and low reported intake of whole grains and legumes, practical strategies to increase consumption merit attention. This study determined feasibility of increasing NB or RB intake in CRC survivors to increase dietary fiber and examined serum inflammatory biomarkers and telomere lengths. Twenty-nine subjects completed a randomized controlled trial with foods that included cooked NB powder (35 g/day), heat-stabilized RB (30 g/day), or no additional ingredient. Fasting blood, food logs, and gastrointestinal health questionnaires were collected. The amount of NB or RB consumed equated to 4-9% of subjects' daily caloric intake and no major gastrointestinal issues were reported with increased consumption. Dietary fiber amounts increased in NB and RB groups at Weeks 2 and 4 compared to baseline and to control (P ≤ 0.01). Telomere length correlated with age and HDL cholesterol at baseline, and with improved serum amyloid A (SAA) levels at Week 4 (P ≤ 0.05). This study concludes feasibility of increased dietary NB and RB consumption to levels associated with CRC chemoprevention and warrants longer-term investigations with both foods in high-risk populations that include cancer prevention and control outcomes.

  14. Substitution of wheat bran by corn gluten feed without steep water in cats feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Geraldi Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat bran (WB by corn gluten feed without steep water (CGF in cats feeds regarding the nutritional value of the diet, stool characteristics, time of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, intestinal gas production and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA in blood and faeces. Twenty eight cats were distributed in a randomized block design with four treatments (0, 2.6, 5.3 or 8.0% CGF, based on dry matter, substituting for WB and seven replicates. Substitution of WB by CGF decreased (P0.05 the digestibility of other nutrients and apparent metabolizable energy. There was also no effect (P>0.05 on faeces moisture, faecal pH and score, food transit time in the GIT, intestinal gas area and SCFA concentrations in faeces, while blood concentrations of propionate were influenced differently by the different feeds and sampling times (P<0.05. Thus replacement of up to 8% of WB by CGF may be done safely in cats feed.

  15. Cereal based diets modulate some markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mano Mark

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control. After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1. Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06. Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  16. Effects of rice bran on performance, egg quality, oxidative status, yolk fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Fouad, A M; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of rice bran (RB) in laying duck diets on performance, egg quality, oxidation status, egg yolk fatty acid composition, and hepatic expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 19 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted RB for corn and wheat bran and a small reduction of soybean meal. The level of substitution in diets (II to VI) was 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, and 30%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 wks. Average egg weight and daily egg mass decreased linearly as the level of RB inclusion increased (Pegg yolk linearly decreased with increasing RB, and many of the key polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, linearly increased (Pegg yolk cholesterol or triglyceride content (P>0.05). In conclusion, the current study suggests that ducks from 19 to 31 wk could be fed diets with up to about 18% RB without effect on the number of eggs produced, egg quality, and oxidative status. Increasing amounts of RB linearly increased egg yolk concentrations of key fatty acids like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 and decreased the hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP-1 transcripts. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Comparative study on conventional, ultrasonication and microwave assisted extraction of γ-oryzanol from rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Pradyuman; Panesar, Paramjeet Singh; Bunkar, Durga Shankar; Mishra, Diwaker; Chopra, H K

    2016-04-01

    In present study, conventional, ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction methods were compared with the aim of optimizing best fitting solvent and method, solvent concentration and digestion time for high yield of γ-oryzanol from rice bran. Petroleum ether, hexane and methanol were used to prepare extracts. Extraction yield were evaluated for giving high crude oil yield, total phenolic content (TPC) and γ-oryzanol content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry was used for the determination of γ-oryzanol concentration. The highest concentration of γ-oryzanol was detected in methanolic extracts of microwave treatment (85.0 ppm) followed by ultrasonication (82.0 ppm) and conventional extraction method (73.5 ppm). Concentration of γ-oryzanol present in the extracts was found to be directly proportional to the total phenolic content. A combination of 80 % methanolic concentration and 55 minutes digestion time of microwave treatment yielded the best extraction method for TPC and thus γ-oryzanol (105 ppm).

  18. Rice Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Post-Menopausal Vietnamese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Bui Thi; Tuyen, Le Danh; Linh, Vu Anh; Anh, Nguyen Do Van; Nga, Tran Thuy; Thuc, Vu Thi Minh; Yui, Kei; Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether pre-germinated brown rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucosides (PSG) reduces the risk of atherosclerosis in post-menopausal Vietnamese women. A total of 60 post-menopausal Vietnamese women (45-65 y old) with high LDL cholesterol levels (over 140 mg/dL) were randomly divided into PSG (n=30) and placebo (n=30) groups. The subjects in the PSG group were assigned a daily intake of 6 capsules containing 50 mg PSG, and the subjects in the placebo group were assigned a daily intake of 6 capsules containing corn oil for 6 mo. Before baseline and after month 2, month 4, and month 6 of the intervention, we conducted anthropometric measurements, blood biochemical examinations, a nutrition survey, and physical activity, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) measurements. Serum LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced from 163.6±25.3 (mg/dL) to 135.9±26.8 (mg/dL) compared to the placebo group (pVietnamese women with high LDL cholesterol.

  19. Physical, Textural, and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Waxy Wheat Flour Snack Supplemented with Several Varieties of Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Emily F; Kowalski, Ryan J; Morris, Craig F; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Chongjun; Ganjyal, Girish; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-09-28

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and although industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets fed to livestock. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran samples from hard red spring, soft white club cv. Bruehl, and purple wheat lines were added to cv. Waxy-Pen wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.) at replacement concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% (w/w; n = 10). Extrudates were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, color, and physical properties. Results showed that high fiber concentrations altered several pasting properties, reduced expansion ratios (P extrudates. Purple bran supplemented extrudates produced harder products compared to white and red bran treatments (P Extrudates produced with 37.5% (w/w) of each bran variety absorbed more water than the control with no added bran. The oxygen radical absorption capacity assay, expressed as Trolox Equivalents, showed that extrudates made with addition of red (37.5%) and purple (37.5%) bran had higher values compared to the other treatments; the control, red, and white bran treatments had less antioxidant activity after extrusion (P extrudates. Purple and red brans may serve as viable functional ingredients in extruded foods given their higher antioxidant activities. Future studies could evaluate how bran variety and concentration, extruded shape, and flavor influence consumer acceptance. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Long-term dietary replacement of fishmeal and fish oil in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Effects on growth, whole body fatty acids and intestinal and hepatic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève

    2018-01-01

    The effects of replacing fishmeal and fish oil with a plant-based diet were studied in juvenile (10g) and ongrowing (250-350g) rainbow trout from first-feeding. Feed-related differences in the intestinal and hepatic transcriptome were examined in juveniles after 7 months of feeding at 7°C. Based on microarray results obtained for juveniles, the expression of selected genes related to lipid, cholesterol and energy metabolisms, was assessed by RT-qPCR in ongrowing trout after 6 additional months of feeding at 17°C. Plasma glucose and cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid profile of whole body were analyzed at both stages. After 7 months at 7°C, all juveniles reached the same body weight (10g), while at 13 months ongrowing fish fed the totally plant-based diet exhibited lower body weight (234 vs 330-337g). Body lipid content was higher in juveniles fed the totally plant-based diet (13.2 vs 9.4-9.9%), and plasma cholesterol was about 2-times lower in trout fed the plant-based diets at both stages. Fatty acid profile mirrored that of the respective diet, with low proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish fed plant-based diets. Genes involved in protein catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and trafficking were down-regulated in the intestines of juveniles fed the plant-based diets. This was not true for ongrowing fish. Genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolisms were up-regulated in the livers of fish fed plant-based diets for both stages. In this study, feeding trout a totally plant-based diet from first-feeding affect a relatively low proportion of metabolism-related genes. In the longer term, when fish were reared at a higher temperature, only some of these changes were maintained (i.e. up-regulation of lipid/cholesterol metabolism). Although the plant-based diets tested in this study had no major deficiencies, small adjustments in the feed-formula are needed to further optimize growth performance while sparing marine resources.

  1. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  2. Chemical quality of Baru almond (Dipteryx alata oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vegetable oils are suitable for human consumption as part of a healthy diet and native fruits of the cerrado, such as almond baru, which are natural sources of these oils. This study informed about the quality of baru oil having as a basis for comparison, soybean oil and olive oil, usually consumed in human diet. Analyzes of acid value, peroxide and iodine for the three oils and fatty acid composition for the baru oil were performed according to official standard methodology. Baru oil has the potential to be part of the human consumption, in healthy diets similarly to soybean oil and olive oil.

  3. On the action of the complete Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofinas, Georgios [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Karlovassi, Samos (Greece); Tsoukalas, Minas [Bogazici University, Physics Department, Istanbul (Turkey); National Technical University of Athens, Physics Division, Athens (Greece)

    2016-12-15

    Recently the most general completion of Brans-Dicke theory has appeared with energy exchanged between the scalar field and ordinary matter, given that the equation of motion for the scalar field keeps the simple wave form of Brans-Dicke. This class of theories contain undetermined functions, but there exist only three theories which are unambiguously determined from consistency. Here, for the first such theory, the action of the vacuum theory is found, which arises as the limit of the full matter theory. A symmetry transformation of this vacuum action in the Jordan frame is found which consists of a conformal transformation of the metric together with a redefinition of the scalar field. Since the general family of vacuum theories is parametrized by an arbitrary function of the scalar field, the action of this family is also found. As for the full theory with matter the action of the system is only found when the matter Lagrangian vanishes on-shell, as for example for pressureless dust. Due to the interaction, the matter Lagrangian is non-minimally coupled either in the Jordan or the Einstein frame. (orig.)

  4. On the action of the complete Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofinas, Georgios; Tsoukalas, Minas

    2016-01-01

    Recently the most general completion of Brans-Dicke theory has appeared with energy exchanged between the scalar field and ordinary matter, given that the equation of motion for the scalar field keeps the simple wave form of Brans-Dicke. This class of theories contain undetermined functions, but there exist only three theories which are unambiguously determined from consistency. Here, for the first such theory, the action of the vacuum theory is found, which arises as the limit of the full matter theory. A symmetry transformation of this vacuum action in the Jordan frame is found which consists of a conformal transformation of the metric together with a redefinition of the scalar field. Since the general family of vacuum theories is parametrized by an arbitrary function of the scalar field, the action of this family is also found. As for the full theory with matter the action of the system is only found when the matter Lagrangian vanishes on-shell, as for example for pressureless dust. Due to the interaction, the matter Lagrangian is non-minimally coupled either in the Jordan or the Einstein frame. (orig.)

  5. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt.

  6. Effects of yeast and bran on phytate degradation and minerals in rice bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, R S; Philli