WorldWideScience

Sample records for brake lamps

  1. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  2. TGV disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, X.; Foy-Margiocchi, F.; Nguyen, Q. S.; Gautier, P. E.

    2006-06-01

    The discomfort generated by the noise emission of braking systems in trains has aroused recently many studies on the mechanical modelling of brake noise in France. A theoretical and numerical discussion on the phenomenon of brake squeal is given in this paper in relation with some experimental data. This study is based upon a flutter instability analysis giving unstable modes of the brake system under the contact and Coulomb friction.

  3. LED lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  4. Pulsar Braking Indices Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, S; Johnston, Simon; Galloway, David

    1999-01-01

    Using the standard equation for the slowdown of a neutron star, we derive a formula for the braking index via integration rather than the conventional differentiation. The new formula negates the need to measure the second time derivative of the rotation frequency. We show that the method gives similar braking indices for PSR B1509-58 and the Crab pulsar to those already in the literature. We point out that our method is useful for obtaining the braking indices of moderate aged pulsars without the need for long, phase-connected timing solutions. We applied the method to 20 pulsars and discuss the implications of the results. We find that virtually all the derived braking indices are dominated by the effects of (unseen) glitches, the recovery from which corrupts the value of the frequency first derivative. However, any real, large, positive braking index has implications for magnetic field decay and offers support to recent models of pulsar evolution.

  5. Precision performance lamp technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  6. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, H. [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China); Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J. [KIAA and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Song, L. M., E-mail: tonghao@xao.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-05-10

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L{sub x}<- E-dot{sub rot} may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  7. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with Lxrot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  8. Wind Braking of Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Song, L. M.; Qiao, G. J.

    2013-05-01

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L_x{rot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  9. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  10. Halogen lamp experiment, HALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, G.; Stapelmann, J.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the Halogen Lamp Experiment (HALEX) was to investigate the operation of a halogen lamp during an extended period in a microgravity environment and to prove its behavior in space. The Mirror Heating Facilities for Crystal Growth and Material Science Experiments in space relies on one or two halogen lamps as a furnace to melt the specimens. The HALEX aim is to verify: full power operation of a halogen lamp for a period of about 60 hours; achievement of about 10% of its terrestrial life span; and operation of the halogen lamp under conditions similar to furnace operation.

  11. Development of hydraulic brake actuator for active brake control; Active brake seigyoyo yuatsu booster no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Y.; Hattori, M. Sugisawa, M.; Nishii, M. [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, application of active brake control systems of the vehicle are increasing. (Vehicle stability control, Panic brake assist ) We have developed a new hydraulic brake actuator for active brake control systems. New hydraulic brake actuator is composed of the three parts. (Hydraulic booster unit, Power supply unit, Control valve unit) This report describes the construction of the new hydraulic booster unit. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  13. Development of brake assist system. Summary of hydraulic brake assist system; Brake assist system no kaihatsu. Ekiatsushiki brake assist system no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, M.; Ota, M.; Shimizu, S. [Toyota, Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have already developed vacuum-booster-type Brake Assist System that supplies additional braking power when panic braking is recognized. We are convinced that the expansion of Brake Assist System will become more important issue in the future. Therefore we have developed hydraulic Brake Assist System with increasing its controllability and reducing its discomfort. This system have a brake pressure sensor to detect emergency braking operation and an antilock device to supply additional braking power. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Development of mechanical brake assist; Mechanical brake assist no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, M.; Shingyoji, S.; Nakamura, I.; Tagawa, T.; Saito, Y.; Ishihara, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Yoshida, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have recognized that there are drivers who cannot apply strong brake pedal force , in spite of the necessity of hard braking in emergencies. We have developed a `mechanical brake assist system` which assists drivers appropriately, according to the drivers` characteristics based on studying the characteristic`s of conditions of drivers applying the brake pedal force in emergency conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake performance. 393.52 Section 393.52... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.52 Brake performance. (a) Upon application of its service brakes... braking force is measured by a performance-based brake tester which meets the requirements of...

  16. Development of combined brake system on front and rear brakes for scooter; Scooter yo zenkorin rendo brake system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Y.; Itabashi, T.; Shinohara, S.; Honda, Y. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Scooters need appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution and each of front and rear brakes have been operated using right and left levers. This time, a low cost brakes with cable type combined brake system for small size scooter and a brakes with hydraulic type combined brake system for middle size scooter have been developed to obtain appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution. Both systems use convenient left lever to operate. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Wind braking of magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, H; Song, L M; Qiao, G J

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are magnetar candidates. During their studies, the magnetic dipole braking mechanism is often assumed. This will result in a high surface dipole field for most AXPs and SGRs. It will also bring several problems challenging the magnetar interpretation. Alternatively, it is possible that AXPs and SGRs are braked down by a particle wind which also originates from magnetic field decay. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with strong multipole field. A strong dipole field is no longer required. Recent challenging observations of magnetars may be explained naturally in the wind braking scenario: (1) The supernova energetics of those associated with magnetars are of normal value; (2) The non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) The problem posed by the low-magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeater; (4) The relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars ; (5) A decreasing period derivative during magnetar ou...

  18. Comparative analysis into the tractor-trailer braking dynamics: tractor with single axle brakes, tractor with all wheel brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasoiu, Mircea; Ispas, Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    The paper elaborates a mathematical model in order to conduct a study into the dynamics of tractor-trailer systems during braking. The braking dynamics is analyzed by considering two versions for the braking system: 1) braking applied on the rear axle and 2) braking applied on all four wheels. In both versions the trailer is braked on all wheels. The mathematical model enables us to determine and graphically illustrate the evolution of the following parameters: braking deceleration, braking speed and the distance traveled by the tractor during braking. The mathematical model elaborated is applied on a tractor-trailer system completing transportation works.

  19. Experiments with airplane brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Franz

    1931-01-01

    This report begins by examining the forces on the brake shoes. For the determination of the load distribution over the shoes it was assumed that the brake linings follow Hooke's law, are neatly fitted and bedded in by wear. The assumption of Hooke's law, that is, the proportionality between compression of the lining and the absorption of force, is fulfilled to a certain extent for the loading, as becomes apparent from the load tests described further on. But there is a material discrepancy at unloading. From the load distribution we merely defined the position of the normal force resultant, while for the rest, the effect of the distribution was disregarded in the comparison of the different shoe dispositions.

  20. Tether Deployer And Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    Design concept promises speed, control, and reliability. Scheme for deploying tether provides for fast, free, and snagless payout and fast, dependable braking. Developed for small, expendable tethers in outer space, scheme also useful in laying transoceanic cables, deploying guidance wires to torpedoes and missiles, paying out rescue lines from ship to ship via rockets, deploying antenna wires, releasing communication and power cables to sonobuoys and expendable bathythermographs, and in reeling out lines from fishing rods.

  1. Slit-lamp exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to light for a few hours after the exam if dilating drops are used. ... The slit lamp exam may detect many diseases of the eye, including: Clouding of the lens of the eye ( cataract ) Injury to the ...

  2. Magnetic fluorescent lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, S.M.; Richardson R.W.

    1983-12-29

    The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly is enhanced by providing means for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

  3. Brake assembly including torque monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a brake assembly for selectively braking rotation of an input shaft extending from a control rod drive having a longitudinal centerline axis, the shaft being rotatable for selectively inserting and withdrawing a control rod in a nuclear reactor vessel. It comprises a stationary base; an annular bearing mounted to the base; a brake mounted to the bearing; a backing plate mounted to the bearing; a first braking pad fixedly joined to the backing plate; a rotor disc fixedly connected to the input shaft and disposed adjacent to the first pad; a second braking pad disposed adjacent to the rotor disc; and means for selectively clamping the first and second pads against the rotor disc for braking the input shaft; means for torsionally restraining the brake including: a pin extending outwardly from the backing plate toward the base; and a spring extending from the base to the pin and generally perpendicular to the centerline axis; and means for monitoring the angle for monitoring braking torque capability of the brake

  4. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  5. Lamps and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Cayless, MA; Marsden, A M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of lighting. Covering the physics of light production, light sources, circuits and a wide variety of lighting applications, it is both suitable as a detailed textbook and as thoroughly practical guide for practising lighting engineers. This fourth edition of Lamps and Lighting has been completely updated with new chapters on the latest lamp technology and applications. The editors ahve called upon a wide range of expertise and as a result many sections have been broadened to include both European and US practice.The book begins with

  6. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  7. Pulsar braking: magnetodipole vs. wind

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, H

    2015-01-01

    Pulsars are good clocks in the universe. One fundamental question is that why they are good clocks? This is related to the braking mechanism of pulsars. Nowadays pulsar timing is done with unprecedented accuracy. More pulsars have braking indices measured. The period derivative of intermittent pulsars and magnetars can vary by a factor of several. However, during pulsar studies, the magnetic dipole braking in vacuum is still often assumed. It is shown that the fundamental assumption of magnetic dipole braking (vacuum condition) does not exist and it is not consistent with the observations. The physical torque must consider the presence of the pulsar magnetosphere. Among various efforts, the wind braking model can explain many observations of pulsars and magnetars in a unified way. It is also consistent with the up-to-date observations. It is time for a paradigm shift in pulsar studies: from magnetic dipole braking to wind braking. As one alternative to the magnetospheric model, the fallback disk model is also...

  8. Pulsar braking: magnetodipole vs. wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Pulsars are good clocks in the universe. One fundamental question is that why they are good clocks? This is related to the braking mechanism of pulsars. Nowadays pulsar timing is done with unprecedented accuracy. More pulsars have braking indices measured. The period derivative of intermittent pulsars and magnetars can vary by a factor of several. However, during pulsar studies, the magnetic dipole braking in vacuum is still often assumed. It is shown that the fundamental assumption of magnetic dipole braking (vacuum condition) does not exist and it is not consistent with the observations. The physical torque must consider the presence of the pulsar magnetosphere. Among various efforts, the wind braking model can explain many observations of pulsars and magnetars in a unified way. It is also consistent with the up-to-date observations. It is time for a paradigm shift in pulsar studies: from magnetic dipole braking to wind braking. As one alternative to the magnetospheric model, the fallback disk model is also discussed.

  9. Transient switching control strategy from regenerative braking to anti-lock braking with a semi-brake-by-wire system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Xujian; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui; Song, Jian; Ran, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Regenerative braking is an important technology in improving fuel economy of an electric vehicle (EV). However, additional motor braking will change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, leading to braking instability, especially when the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is triggered. In this paper, a novel semi-brake-by-wire system, without the use of a pedal simulator and fail-safe device, is proposed. In order to compensate for the hysteretic characteristics of the designed brake system while ensure braking reliability and fuel economy when the ABS is triggered, a novel switching compensation control strategy using sliding mode control is brought forward. The proposed strategy converts the complex coupling braking process into independent control of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking, through which a balance between braking performance, braking reliability, braking safety and fuel economy is achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective and adaptable in different road conditions while the large wheel slip rate is triggered during a regenerative braking course. The research provides a new possibility of low-cost equipment and better control performance for the regenerative braking in the EV and the hybrid EV.

  10. Thermal Characterisation of Brake Pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Séverine; Høj, Jakob Weiland; Sørensen, O. T.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical-physical decomposition processes that occur in a brake pad heated to 1000degreesC have been studied. This temperature can be reached when a brake pad is applied. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used in combination with evolved gas analysis, and image analysis...... using a scanning electron microscope.A brake pad is essentially a mixture of iron, carbon and binder. Combined techniques have been used, because of chemical reaction overlap, to determine how and at what temperature the binder decomposes, the coal and graphite combust and the iron oxidises.This work...

  11. Weight reduction of a standard brake drum: A design approach

    OpenAIRE

    D. Rambabu; R. Gopinath; U. Senthil rajan; G. B. Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    A Brake drum is specialized brake that uses the concept of friction to decelerate the vehicle speed. The deceleration is achieved by the assistance of the friction generated by a set of brake shoes or pad, when operator presses against a rotating brake drum. The material generally preferred for making the brake drum is grey cast iron or vermicular cast iron. The drum brake is highly efficient for hand brake and service brake applications. During the operation of drum brake excessive heating o...

  12. The economics of lamp switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The effect of switching off fluorescent lamps, in terms of electricity cost, was discussed. Fluorescent lamps are designed to burn for thousands of hours. Initially, it was believed that turning them off was not economical. However, with new fluorescent lamps available today, this no longer holds true. It was shown that as energy costs increase, it is advantageous to switch lamps off in office buildings during lunch, coffee breaks and other non-essential periods. Also, as labour and lamp costs increase it becomes even more economical to turn lamps on only when needed in some areas such as washrooms, stockrooms, etc. Inexpensive photo-electric and time-switch controls are readily available for automatic switching to eliminate the `human error` of forgetting to turn light off when they are not required. Over time, the energy saved would offset the cost of the switch controllers and the reduction in lamp life caused by repeated switching. 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Brake Performance Analysis of ABS for Eddy Current and Electrohydraulic Hybrid Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an eddy current and electro-hydraulic hybrid brake system to solve problems such as wear, thermal failure, and slow response of traditional vehicle brake system. Mathematical model was built to calculate the torque of the eddy current brake system and hydraulic brake system and analyze the braking force distribution between two types of brake systems. A fuzzy controller on personal computer based on LabVIEW and Matlab was designed and a set of hardware in the loop system was constructed to validate and analyze the performance of the hybrid brake system. Through lots of experiments on dry and wet asphalt roads, the hybrid brake system achieves perfect performance on the experimental bench, the hybrid system reduces abrasion and temperature of the brake disk, response speed is enhanced obviously, fuzzy controller keeps high utilization coefficient due to the optimal slip ratio regulation, and the total brake time has a smaller decrease than traditional hydraulic brake system.

  14. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF CRANE BRAKE PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high failure rate of crane brake results from improper choice of braking torque. The mathematical model of reliability for the crane brake parameters is introduced. Based on large amount of actual data the parameter reliabilities of 5~50 t general overhead travelling cranes are calculated,the probabilities that the braking torque is less than the static torque acting on the axle when the load moves down are obtained. Moreover,the ways to improve the reliability of brake parameters are discussed,the most reasonable values of braking safety coefficient are given.

  15. Physics of Incandescent Lamp Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Paul; King, John

    2008-01-01

    Incandescent lamps with tungsten filaments have been in use for about a century while being gradually replaced by fluorescent lamps; in another generation both will quite probably be largely replaced by light-emitting diodes. Incandescent lamps (simply called lamps in what follows) burn out after a lifetime that depends mostly on the temperature of the filament and hence the applied voltage. A full-term project (about 100 hours) on lamp burnout was carried out by two students in 1965 and has been briefly described. Many aspects of the physics of lamps have been dealt with in articles that have appeared in this journal, in the American Journal of Physics, and in Physics Education.2,3

  16. CAE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE LAMP

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Wakchaure*; G.V.R Seshagiri Rao

    2015-01-01

    This Paper work is focused on the different FE analysis performed for the automotive lamps. Front fog lamp is designed according to the mounting position given in the panel and the light output requirement. In this paper different type of CAE analysis performed to qualify the physical test requirement the objective of this analysis is to find the optimum size design of lamp to qualify the test & output as per customer requirement. In this paper Static, vibration & fatigue analysis...

  17. Thorium in lamp technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1892 the natural radionuclide thorium has been applied in form of thoriated incandescent mantles for gas lighting. But also for a series of modern electrical discharge lamps the application of electrode-systems containing thorium is still today an international standard of technique. Inspite of intensive research - in consideration of radiation protection - it has neither been possible to find a suitable substitution for thorium nor to abandon it totally while maintaining present product quality. Thus, handling this material, we further will have to pay attention to a high standard in protecting our employees and the environment. (orig.)

  18. The Missing Lamp

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This collection of poems, The Missing Lamp, might better be called nothing, or No Nothing, as this poet often vowed not to write about anything he knew, yet just as often he found himself walking down Westwood Blvd. under the artificial day of the LA streetlights and taking note of surreal coincidences––the friends that slipped into his poems in the form of shadows, the uncanny resemblance between his laugh and the mechanical cackle of Alfred Jarry’s baboon. There is never a shortage of light...

  19. Compact fluorescent lamps, LED lamps and harmonic distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the harmonic distortion in the current waveform of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) and Lamps Lighting Emitting Diode (LED). For this, we analysed the power factor, voltage waveform, current waveform, total harmonic distortion (THD) and active power consumed

  20. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  1. Brakes, brake control and driver assistance systems function, regulation and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Braking systems have been continuously developed and improved throughout the last years. Major milestones were the introduction of antilock braking system (ABS) and electronic stability program. This reference book provides a detailed description of braking components and how they interact in electronic braking systems. Contents Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Car braking-system components.- Wheel brakes.- Antilock breaking systems.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modulator.- Sensors for brake control.- Sensotronic brake control.- Active steering.- Occupant protection systems.- Driver assistance systems.- Adaptive cruise control.- Parking systems.- Instrumentation.- Orientation methods.- Navigation systems.- Workshop technology. The target groups Motor-vehicle technicians in education and vocational training Master-mechanics and technicians in garage-workshops Teachers and lecturers in vocation...

  2. BRAKING OF HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER TRAINS WITH REGARD TO THE OPERATION OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC RAIL BRAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Je. Naumenko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of the braking process of high-speed passenger train with the use of compressed-air, electropneumatic and electromagnetic track brakes is carried out. The dependences of braking distance on motion speed for vehicles equipped by block or disk brakes as well as for a case of electromagnetic track brakes used in addition to existing braking means.

  3. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake system. 238.231 Section 238.231... Equipment § 238.231 Brake system. Except as otherwise provided in this section, on or after September 9... train's primary brake system shall be capable of stopping the train with a service application from...

  4. Compact, Lightweight Servo-Controllable Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.; Townsend, William; Guertin, Jeffrey; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2010-01-01

    Compact, lightweight servo-controllable brakes capable of high torques are being developed for incorporation into robot joints. A brake of this type is based partly on the capstan effect of tension elements. In a brake of the type under development, a controllable intermediate state of torque is reached through on/off switching at a high frequency.

  5. Eddy current braking experiment using brake disc from aluminium series of A16061 and A17075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic braking using eddy current was studied, focused on two series of aluminium as the brake disc which are A16061 and A17075. This paper presents the comparison for both series in a few varied parameters related to eddy current braking such as air-gap, number of turns and brake disc thickness. Optical tachometer has been used along with PULSE analyzer to capture the speed (rpm) and time (s). The findings shows that the smaller the air-gap, the larger of electromagnet turns and the thicker disc thickness is, will generate higher braking torque to stop the rotational motion of disc brake and give great performance for eddy current braking. Thos parameters that been evaluated also addressed a potential on expanding this knowledge to develop an electromagnetic braking system to replace the conventional braking system.

  6. Phase out of incandescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Since early 2007 almost all OECD and many non-OECD governments have announced policies aimed at phasing-out incandescent lighting within their jurisdictions. This study considers the implications of these policy developments in terms of demand for regulatory compliant lamps and the capacity and motivation of the lamp industry to produce efficient lighting products in sufficient volume to meet future demand. To assess these issues, it reviews the historic international screw-based lamp market, describes the status of international phase-out policies and presents projections of anticipated market responses to regulatory requirements to determine future demand for CFLs.

  7. Custom blending of lamp phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral output of fluorescent lamps can be precisely adjusted by using computer-assisted analysis for custom blending lamp phosphors. With technique, spectrum of main bank of lamps is measured and stored in computer memory along with emission characteristics of commonly available phosphors. Computer then calculates ratio of green and blue intensities for each phosphor according to manufacturer's specifications and plots them as coordinates on graph. Same ratios are calculated for measured spectrum. Once proper mix is determined, it is applied as coating to fluorescent tubing.

  8. Anu Lamp / [vestelnud Kalju Orro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2007-01-01

    Lavakunstikooli sisseastumisest, õppimisest, õpetajatest ja õpetamisest. Anu Lamp õppis Lavakunstikoolis 10. lennus (1978-1982). Osalenud samas lavakõne õppejõuna 18.-23. lennu ja erialaõppejõuna 20. lennu töös

  9. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear...) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall...

  10. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with hydraulic brake systems. (a) Brake system failure indicator. The hydraulic brake system failure...

  11. Retinal slit lamp video mosaicking

    OpenAIRE

    De Zanet, Sandro; Rudolph, Tobias; Richa, Rogerio; Tappeiner, Christoph; Sznitman, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To this day, the slit lamp remains the first tool used by an ophthalmologist to examine patient eyes. Imaging of the retina poses, however, a variety of problems, namely a shallow depth of focus, reflections from the optical system, a small field of view and non-uniform illumination. For ophthalmologists, the use of slit lamp images for documentation and analysis purposes, however, remains extremely challenging due to large image artifacts. For this reason, we propose an automatic...

  12. Electromagnetic braking for Mars spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Aerobraking concepts are being studied to improve performance and cost effectiveness of propulsion systems for Mars landers and Mars interplanetary spacecraft. Access to megawatt power levels (nuclear power coupled to high-storage inductive or capacitive devices) on a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft may make feasible electromagnetic braking and lift modulation techniques which were previously impractical. Using pulsed microwave and magnetic field technology, potential plasmadynamic braking and hydromagnetic lift modulation techniques have been identified. Entry corridor modulation to reduce loads and heating, to reduce vertical descent rates, and to expand horizontal and lateral landing ranges are possible benefits. In-depth studies are needed to identify specific design concepts for feasibility assessments. Standing wave/plasma sheath interaction techniques appear to be promising. The techniques may require some tailoring of spacecraft external structures and materials. In addition, rapid response guidance and control systems may require the use of structurally embedded sensors coupled to expert systems or to artificial intelligence systems.

  13. Falling Magnets and Electromagnetic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbreath, Christopher; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The slow fall of a rare earth magnet through a copper pipe is a striking example of electromagnetic braking; this remarkable phenomenon has been the subject of a number of scientific paper s [1, 2]. In a pipe having radius R and wall thickness D, the terminal velocity of the falling magnet is proportional to (R̂4)/D. It is interesting to ask what happens in the limit as D becomes very large. We report our experimental observations and theoretical predictions of the dependence of the terminal velocity on pipe radius R for large D. [1] Y. Levin, F.L. da Silveira, and F.B. Rizzato, ``Electromagnetic braking: A simple quantitative model''. American Journal of Physics, 74(9): p. 815-817 (2006). [2] J.A. Pelesko, M. Cesky, and S. Huertas, Lenz's law and dimensional analysis. American Journal of Physics, 3(1): p. 37-39. 2005.

  14. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čadež, A.; Zampieri, L.; Barbieri, C.; Calvani, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, M.; Ponikvar, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. Aims: The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. Methods: We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. Results: From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "instantaneous" changes at the time of observed jumps in rotational frequency (glitches). We find that the phase evolution of the Crab pulsar is dominated by a series of constant braking law episodes, with the braking index changing abruptly after each episode in the range of values between 2.1 and 2.6. Deviations from such a regular phase description behave as oscillations triggered by glitches and amount to fewer than 40 turns during the above period, in which the pulsar has made more than 2 × 1010 turns. Conclusions: Our analysis does not favor the explanation that glitches are connected to phenomena occurring in the interior of the pulsar. On the contrary, timing irregularities and changes in slow down rate seem to point to electromagnetic interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding environment.

  15. Friction Wear Property of Brake Materials by Copper-based Powder Metallurgy With Various Brake Speeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-xiu; GAO Hong-xia; WEI Xiu-lan

    2004-01-01

    The experiment is conducted on MM-1000 friction test machine, which tests friction wear property of copper-based brake materials by powder metallurgy at different brake speeds. It shows that the coefficient of friction and wear volume are greatly influenced by brake speed. When the brake speed is 4000 r/min, which is a bit higher, the material still has a higher coefficient of friction with 0.47. When the brake speed is over 4000r/min, the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. When the brake speed is 3000r/min, the material's wear is in its minimum. That is to say no matter how higher or lower the brake speed is the wear volume is bigger relatively. With the brake speed of the lower one it mainly refers to fatigue wear; while of higher one it mainly refers to abradant and oxidation wear.

  16. Aerodynamic investigations of ventilated brake discs.

    OpenAIRE

    Parish, D.; MacManus, David G.

    2005-01-01

    The heat dissipation and performance of a ventilated brake disc strongly depends on the aerodynamic characteristics of the flow through the rotor passages. The aim of this investigation was to provide an improved understanding of ventilated brake rotor flow phenomena, with a view to improving heat dissipation, as well as providing a measurement data set for validation of computational fluid dynamics methods. The flow fields at the exit of four different brake rotor geometrie...

  17. CFD design analysis of ventilated disc brakes

    OpenAIRE

    Pulugundla, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    This thesis reports the numerical investigation of the automotive ventilated disc brake rotor. Disc brakes operate on the principle of friction by converting kinetic energy into heat energy. The main objective of a disc brake rotor is to store this heat energy and dissipate it as soon as possible. This work is carried out in a area where there is very limited understanding. Commercial CFD code FLUENT was used for carrying out the simulations with the rotor rotating in still ...

  18. Dynamics of Braking Vehicles: From Coulomb Friction to Anti-Lock Braking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and…

  19. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of CMH lamp demands the use of current control device in the lamp circuit and perfect matching of lamp ballast combination is required for efficient lamp operation. The electrical and photometric performance of two sets of commercial 70 watt CMH lamp and intregated ballast units were measured to investigate their compatibility for optimum lamp operation. The measured data were utilized to develop an electrical model for lamp ballast combination. Using this model a compatibility index is proposed which can be used for assessment of lamp performance.

  20. Analysis and Design of Circular Plate MR Fluids Brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yan; Lin Chang-Hua; Li Hui; Zhou Jing

    2004-01-01

    A magnetorheological (MR) fluids brake is a device to achieve brake by shear force of MR fluids. A MR rotary brake has the property that its braking torque changes quickly in response to an external magnetic field. In this study, the design method of the circular plate MR fluids brake is investigated theoretically. The equation of the torque transmitted by the MR fluids in the brake is derived to provide the theoretical foundation in the design of the brake. Based on this equation, after mathematically manipulated, the calculations of the volume, thickness and width of the MR fluids within the circular plate MR fluids brake are yield.

  1. Research on Heat-Mechanical Coupling of Ventilated Disc Brakes under the Condition of Emergency Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuelong; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Wenxian; Zhang, Yang

    Taking the ventilated disc brake in some company as research object, and using UG to build 3D models of brake disc and pad, and making use of ABAQUS/Standard to set up two parts' finite element model, via the decelerated motion of actual simulation brake disc, which gets ventilated disc brake in the case of emergency breaking in time and space distribution of conditions of temperature and stress field, summarizes the distribution of temperature field and stress field, proves complex coupling between temperature, stress, and supplies the direct basis for brake's fatigue life analysis.

  2. Landing and Braking of Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Louis

    1929-01-01

    In the numerical examples, we have considered an airplane landing in calm air in a fixed direction after crossing the border (with its obstacles) at a height of 30 m. Its stopping point is at a distance D from the obstacle, comprising: a distance D(sub 1) in regular gliding flight; a distance D(sub 2) in levelling off; a distance D(sub 3) in taxying on the ground. The calculations enable us to make out the following table, which gives an idea of the improvements to be expected in the use of various possible methods of braking in the air and on the ground.

  3. Constraining the braking indices of magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z. F.; Li, X.-D.; Wang, N.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, P.; Peng, Q. H.; Du, Y. J.

    2016-02-01

    Because of the lack of long-term pulsed emission in quiescence and the strong timing noise, it is impossible to directly measure the braking index n of a magnetar. Based on the estimated ages of their potentially associated supernova remnants (SNRs), we estimate the values of the mean braking indices of eight magnetars with SNRs, and find that they cluster in the range of 1-42. Five magnetars have smaller mean braking indices of 1 wind-aided braking. The larger mean braking indices of n > 3 for the other three magnetars are attributed to the decay of external braking torque, which might be caused by magnetic field decay. We estimate the possible wind luminosities for the magnetars with 1 3, within the updated magneto-thermal evolution models. Although the constrained range of the magnetars' braking indices is tentative, as a result of the uncertainties in the SNR ages due to distance uncertainties and the unknown conditions of the expanding shells, our method provides an effective way to constrain the magnetars' braking indices if the measurements of the SNR ages are reliable, which can be improved by future observations.

  4. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A...

  5. 14 CFR 27.921 - Rotor brake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor brake. 27.921 Section 27.921... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.921 Rotor brake. If there is a means to control the rotation of the rotor drive system independently of the engine, any limitations...

  6. 14 CFR 29.921 - Rotor brake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor brake. 29.921 Section 29.921... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.921 Rotor brake. If there is a means to control the rotation of the rotor drive system independently of the engine, any limitations...

  7. Operation peculiarities of airplane brake systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Г. Докучаев

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed is the loading of airplane brake systems. Complex methods are proposed for investi­gation of highly loaded brake systems. The results of investigation of the influence of various factors on technical condition of friction units are given

  8. Method and apparatus for electromagnetically braking a motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electromagnetic braking system and method is provided for selectively braking a motor using an electromagnetic brake having an electromagnet, a permanent magnet, a rotor assembly, and a brake pad. The brake assembly applies when the electromagnet is de-energized and releases when the electromagnet is energized. When applied the permanent magnet moves the brake pad into frictional engagement with a housing, and when released the electromagnet cancels the flux of the permanent magnet to allow a leaf spring to move the brake pad away from the housing. A controller has a DC/DC converter for converting a main bus voltage to a lower braking voltage based on certain parameters. The converter utilizes pulse-width modulation (PWM) to regulate the braking voltage. A calibrated gap is defined between the brake pad and permanent magnet when the brake assembly is released, and may be dynamically modified via the controller.

  9. New technical solutions of using rolling stock electrodynamical braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some theoretical and practical problems associated with the use of traction motor are operating in the generator mode (in braking. Mathematical and graphical relationships of electrodynamic braking, taking into account the requirements raised to braking systems in rail transport are presented. The latter include discontinuity of braking process, braking force regulation, depending on the locomotive speed, mass, type of railway and other parameters. Schematic diagrams of the locomotive braking and ways of controlling the braking force by varying electric circuit parameters are presented. The authors suggested contact-free regulation method of braking resistor for controlling braking force in rheostatic braking, and resistor parameters regulate with pulse regulation mode by semiconductor devices, such as new electrical components for rolling stock – IGBT transistors operating in the key mode. Presenting energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking-returning energy and diesel engine or any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  10. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    CERN Document Server

    Čadež, A; Barbieri, C; Calvani, M; Naletto, G; Barbieri, M; Ponikvar, D

    2015-01-01

    Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "inst...

  11. Marble Waste Using Produced of Automotive Brake Pad of Friction Coefficient Different Pad Brake Pads With Comprasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Timur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brake linings used in automotive disks are usually composed of various components. Expected properties from a brake lining are appropriate standard value of wear resist, friction coefficient. Brake lining extremely warms up during braking due to friction. The braking performance of brake lining changes and braking lining is subject to mechanical deformation due to excessive temperature. In this study, it is aimed to revaluate the waste of marble dust in marble processing in Turkey. For this purpose, marble wastes are grinded to produce marble dust. The brake lining, which has new formulation, is produced by using various additive materials. The friction performances of the brake pads produced were compared with those of other firms and the results were show in graphics. Therefore, the effect of marble dust on braking performance is investigated. It is observed that a favorable result in braking performance is obtained using of marble dust.

  12. UV lamp for photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An UV lamp and a differential pumping system which enables to couple the lamp to an ultra-high vacuum chamber (10-9 torr) without using windows, are described. The differential between the pressure inside the discharge chamber and the one in de UHV region, which is of 108-109, is achieved with two pumping states separated by pyrex capillaries having an internal diameter of 0.6 mm. In the first stage, a mechanical pump (10-3 torr) is used; in the second stage, a diffusor pump with a cryogenic trap (N2 liq - 10-7 torr) is employed. The lamp produces, when used with high purity He, narrow lines almost clear at 21.2 eV and 40.8 eV, depending on the discharge chamber pressure, thus eliminating the need of a monochromator. As a high voltage source (3 KV), a commercial unit with a good current control was used, ensuring UV beam stability - an essential characteristic for this lamp if it is employed for photoelectron excitation of crystalline samples. (C.L.B.)

  13. 21 CFR 890.5500 - Infrared lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infrared lamp. 890.5500 Section 890.5500 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5500 Infrared lamp. (a) Identification. An infrared lamp is a device intended for medical purposes that emits energy at...

  14. Diesel Technology: Brakes. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert; Scarberry, Terry; Kellum, Mary

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course on brakes in the diesel technology curriculum. The course consists of 12 units organized in three sections. The three units of the introductory section cover: (1) brakes; (2) wheel bearings and seals; and (3) antilock brake systems. The second section, Hydraulic Brakes, contains the…

  15. Nonlinear Coupling Characteristics Analysis of Integrated System of Electromagnetic Brake and Frictional Brake of Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since theoretical guidance is lacking in the design and control of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake, this paper aims to solve this problem and explores the nonlinear coupling characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake. This paper uses the power bond graph method to establish nonlinear coupling mathematical model of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake and conducts the contrastive analysis on the dynamic characteristics based on this mathematical model. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the nonlinear coupling mathematical model proposed above is verified on the hardware in the loop simulation platform, and nonlinear coupling characteristics of the integrated system are also analyzed through experiments.

  16. The influence of various pressures in pneumatic tyre on braking process of car with anti-lock braking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian HADRYŚ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article has been presented the influence of various pressures inpneumatic tyre of passenger car Fiat Panda 1.3 JTD with anti-lock braking system on chosen parameters of braking process: course of braking deceleration, maximum value of deceleration, braking distances.

  17. Screw-released roller brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  18. Materials for incandescent and fluorescent lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Knud Aage

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the materials systems used for incandescent lamps as well as a brief introduction to the systems used for fluorescent lamps. The materials used for incandescent lamps are doped tungsten used for the filaments, metals and alloys used for terminal and support posts......, lead wires and internal reflectors and screens as well as glasses for the envelope. The physics of bulbs and changes in bulbs during use are elucidated. The cost and energy savings and environmental benefits by replacement of incandescent lamps by fluorescent lamps are presented....

  19. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibin Song; Weimin Li; Guoqing Xu; Kun Xu

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs) to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS) integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from ex...

  20. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Guoqing Xu; Weimin Li; Kun Xu; Zhibin Song

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs) to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS) integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from ex...

  1. Electrical and Optical Characteristics of Electrodeless Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chang-quan; ZHANG Gui-xin; DONG Jin-yang; SHAO Ming-song; WANG Xin-xin; WANG Zan-ji

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the methods to enhance the efficacy of electrodeless lamp,volt-ampere characteristics,illuminance and emission spectrum have been investigated in home-built electrodeless lamp experimental system with an electrodeless lamp in shape like QL 85 lamp.The results show that lamp current increases as lamp voltage increases in non-discharge,the current decreases first and then increases as the voltage increases in discharge.The illuminance of electrodeless lamp increases linearly with discharge power increasing,and it decreases linearly with power decreasing.The emission spectrum is different for different bulb and lighting time.The spectrum of Ar 811.5 nm,76.5 nm,750.4 nm and Hg 313.2 nm decrease with lighting time.While the intensity of Hg 407.8 nm increases with lighting time.

  2. Dynamics of braking vehicles: from Coulomb friction to anti-lock braking systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and without sliding. The advantage of using an anti-lock braking system (ABS) is put in evidence, and a quantitative estimate of its efficiency is proposed and discussed

  3. Hunting Plan Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Morgan Brake...

  4. Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Corneliu; Teichmann, Ralph; Avagliano, Aaron; Kammer, Leonardo Cesar; Pierce, Kirk Gee; Pesetsky, David Samuel; Gauchel, Peter

    2009-02-10

    A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

  5. Constraining the Braking Indices of Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Z F; Wang, N; Yuan, J P; Peng, Q H; Du, Y J

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of long term pulsed emission in quiescence and the strong timing noise, it is impossible to directly measure the braking index $n$ of a magnetar. Based on the estimated ages of their potentially associated supernova remnants (SNRs), we estimate the values of $n$ of nine magnetars with SNRs, and find that they cluster in a range of $1\\sim$41. Six magnetars have smaller braking indices of $13$ for other three magnetars are attributed to the decay of external braking torque, which might be caused by magnetic field decay. We estimate the possible wind luminosities for the magnetars with $13$ within the updated magneto-thermal evolution models. We point out that there could be some connections between the magnetar's anti-glitch event and its braking index, and the magnitude of $n$ should be taken into account when explaining the event. Although the constrained range of the magnetars' braking indices is tentative, our method provides an effective way to constrain the magnetars' braking indices if th...

  6. Topology Optimization in Automotive Brake Pedal Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Sudin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, automotive industry is continuing to strive for light weight vehicle in improving fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. To produce a better performance car it is important to design vehicles with optimum weight. In order to reduce the weight of vehicle without sacrificing its integrity, this project aims to employ topology optimization technique to propose an optimal design of an automotive component in early phase of product development. In this project the material used for an existing brake pedal is unchanged as this study focuses on reducing weight of existing brake pedal without material substitution. The digital model of an existing brake pedal was generated using CATIA V5 solid modelling software. Topology optimization was performed by using Altair Optistruct software under linear static stress analysis. Finally, a new light weight design brake pedal is proposed. The result of the study shows that the weight of a new designed brake pedal was 22% less as compared to an existing brake pedal without sacrificing its performance requirement.

  7. Automated visual inspection of brake shoe wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengfang; Liu, Zhen; Nan, Guo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-10-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railway, the automated fault inspection is necessary to ensure train's operation safety. Visual technology is paid more attention in trouble detection and maintenance. For a linear CCD camera, Image alignment is the first step in fault detection. To increase the speed of image processing, an improved scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method is presented. The image is divided into multiple levels of different resolution. Then, we do not stop to extract the feature from the lowest resolution to the highest level until we get sufficient SIFT key points. At that level, the image is registered and aligned quickly. In the stage of inspection, we devote our efforts to finding the trouble of brake shoe, which is one of the key components in brake system on electrical multiple units train (EMU). Its pre-warning on wear limitation is very important in fault detection. In this paper, we propose an automatic inspection approach to detect the fault of brake shoe. Firstly, we use multi-resolution pyramid template matching technology to fast locate the brake shoe. Then, we employ Hough transform to detect the circles of bolts in brake region. Due to the rigid characteristic of structure, we can identify whether the brake shoe has a fault. The experiments demonstrate that the way we propose has a good performance, and can meet the need of practical applications.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF BRAKE PADS THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ON PASSANGER CAR BRAKE SYSTEM EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag D Milenković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase of vehicle braking system designing, besides of mechanical characteristics, it is also necessary to take under consideration the system's thermal features. This is because it is not enough just to achieve proper braking power, for the brake system to be effective but equally important thing is the dissipation of heat to the environment. Heat developed in the friction surfaces dissipate into the environment over the disk in one hand and through the brake linings and caliper, in the other. The striving is to make that greatest amount of heat to dissipate not threw the brake pads but threw disc. The experimental researching of heat transfer process taking place at vehicle brakes was made in the R&D Center of "Zastava automobili" car factory in order to increase the efficiency of brake system. The standard laboratory and road test procedures were used, according to factory quality regulations. The modern equipment such as thermo camera, thermo couples, torque transducers, signal amplifiers, optical speed measuring system and laptop computer were used. In this paper will be shown the part of the experimental researching, which refers to the thermal conductivity of brake pad friction linings.

  9. Geometric optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake considering different shapes for the brake envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When designing a magneto-rheological brake (MRB), it is well known that the shape of the brake envelope significantly affects the performance characteristics of the brake. In this study, different shapes for the MR brake envelope, such as rectangular, polygonal or spline shape, are considered and the most suitable shape identified. MRBs with different envelope shapes are introduced followed by the derivation of the braking torque based on Bingham-plastic behavior of the magneto-rheological fluid (MRF). Optimization of the design of the MRB with different envelope shapes is then done. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value for the significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a certain required braking torque while the brake mass is minimized. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. From the results, the most suitable shape for the brake envelope is identified and discussed with the reduction of mass. In addition, the results of the analysis are compared with the experimental results to verify the proposed optimal design characteristics. (paper)

  10. Evaluation of Wear in Aftermarket Brake Pads for Enhancing Braking Performance in a Passenger Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zaki Bahrom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the high demands from the independence automotive service centers; there are many aftermarket brake pads available at spare parts shops and sold at reasonable prices. Several types of brake pads are available in the market such as semi-metallic and Non-Asbestos brake pads. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the wear of after-market brake pad performance under the normal driving conditions (highway and non-highway. Three types of aftermarket brake pads that mainly used and sold by independent service shop were selected in this study.  The data of the wear in thicknesses losses and weight percentage losses were recorded. The results show that brake pad of non- Asbestos Organic type gives the highest wear loss and create a lot of dust. For semi-metallic brake pad type, the result shows the lowest mass loss. Therefore, it is important to select the suitable type of after-market brake pads in order to get balance between cost and quality.

  11. Braking Index of Isolated Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Hamil, Oliver Q; Urbanec, Martin; Urbancova, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities $\\Omega$, and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. The commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of $\\Omega$. This relation leads to the power law $\\dot{\\Omega}$ = -K $\\Omega^{\\rm n}$ where $n$ is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts $n$ exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of $n$, individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1$ <$ n $ < $ 2.8, which is consistently less than the predictions of the MDR model. In spite of an extensive investigation of various modifications of the MDR model, no satisfactory explanation of observation has been found yet. The aim of this work is t...

  12. Neutrons put the brakes on stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don't you hate it when you're driving along, put your foot on the brake and feel that juddering feeling through the pedal? It happens when the disc brake rotors become distorted through normal use of the brakes. To the car manufacturing industry it's called runout, and is a multimillion dollar warranty problem each year. Not to mention a pain for drivers! Dr Maurice Ripley and Dr Oliver Kirstein from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) wanted to figure out whether runout is caused by residual stresses from the manufacturing process or by normal use of the brake, so they decided to test and compare a used and new brake disc. 'To picture what metal looks like at the atomic level, imagine spheres stacked evenly around each other in all three dimensions,' explained Kirstein. The spheres represent atoms in the metal and the structure is called a metallic lattice.' We're familiar with the idea that metal expands when it gets hot - the atoms get excited with the heat and have the energy to move further away from each other, so spaces between the atoms in the lattice get larger. 'When parts of the metal are heated up and cool down at different rates, you may end up with a distorted lattice with some parts expanded and others not,' explained Kirstein. 'This unevenness in the lattice creates residual stress.' While a bunch of methods were available to test the discs, Kirstein and Ripley picked neutrons from ANSTO's HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) as their tool of choice. 'Neutrons allow us to look at the inside of the metal without damaging it,' said Kirstein. 'They can penetrate through the iron, so we were able to take measurements at a series of points at different depths through the brake disc.' Word around the car industry is that when residual stresses are relaxed through heating of the brake disc during use, the discs could potentially distort, causing the runout and that juddering feeling. But everyone was clueless as to what

  13. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of...

  14. Weight reduction of a standard brake drum: A design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rambabu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Brake drum is specialized brake that uses the concept of friction to decelerate the vehicle speed. The deceleration is achieved by the assistance of the friction generated by a set of brake shoes or pad, when operator presses against a rotating brake drum. The material generally preferred for making the brake drum is grey cast iron or vermicular cast iron. The drum brake is highly efficient for hand brake and service brake applications. During the operation of drum brake excessive heating of brake drum may occur. This excessive heating occurs due to repeated or frequent contact of the brake shoes against the drum. This causes the drum to crack, oversize, extreme wear, out of round drums and also leads to vibration which while braking will leads to reduced brake drum life and braking efficiency. The Un-laden weight of the vehicle will result in increased fuel consumption, reduced payload and ride handling characteristics. The objective of the paper is to improve the thermal characteristics by incorporating fins in the brake drum and to reduce the un-laden weight of the vehicle by changing the rib thickness, wall thickness and base flange thickness. The design is done by using 3D CAD Modelling software and Hexahedral finite element model prepared by using CAE pre-processing software and Stiffness analysis. Design iterations are carried out by using Linear/Non-linear Finite Element Solvers, Stress Displacement and Temperature is post-processed for design validation. Optimized design solution obtained based on the comparison study between the iteration with rib thickness 75 mm, star shaped removal and wall thickness 17 mm has been chosen. 1.8Kg of weight is being reduced from the brake drum including fins.   Keywords: Drum Brake, 3D CAD Modelling, Para Metric Matrix, Structural Analysis, Fins.

  15. 77 FR 51649 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... Wet Brake Test E. Heat Fade Test F. Parking Brake System Test G. Antilock Brake System (ABS.... Other ABS-Related Comments H. Partial Failure Test--Split Service Brake System I. Power-Assisted Braking..., Motorcycle Brake Systems, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 73 FR 54020 (Sept. 17, 2008) (hereinafter ``FMVSS...

  16. Brake force estimation for electromechanical vehicle brakes; Bremskraft-Rekonstruktion fuer elektromechanische Fahrzeugbremsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R. [Continental Teves (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    Due to the increasing safety and comfort demands of the customer, the functionality of modern brake systems has grown continuously in the last years. However, implementation of the extended functionality in conventional brake hydraulics makes active electronic intervention necessary and therefore requires a lot of technical effort. In recent years the automotive supplier industry has started to develop brake systems which have electromechanical brake actuators generating the brake forces at the individual wheels. Electromechanically actuated wheel brakes need to be operated in a closed control loop. This paper introduces a new method to reconstruct the needed feedback value brake force from easy to measure signals. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgrund des gestiegenen Sicherheits- und Komfortbewusstseins der Fahrzeugkaeufer ist die Funktionsvielfalt moderner Bremssysteme in den letzten Jahren staendig gewachsen. Die Umsetzung der erweiterten Funktionalitaet mittels konventioneller Bremsenhydraulik ist jedoch durch den elektronischen, aktiven Eingriff sehr aufwendig. In den letzten Jahren hat daher die Automobilzulieferindustrie begonnen, Bremssysteme zu entwickeln, bei denen die Bremskraft an den einzelnen Raedern von elektromechanischen Bremsaktuatoren aufgebracht wird. Elektromechanisch betaetigte Radbremsen muessen im geschlossenen Regelkreis betrieben werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag, der im Rahmen einer Forschungskooperation zwischen Continental Teves und dem Institut fuer Automatisierungstechnik der TU Darmstadt entstand stellt ein Verfahren vor, mit dem die dafuer benoetigte Rueckfuehrungsgroesse `Bremskraft` aus einfach messbaren Signalen rekonstruiert werden kann. (orig.)

  17. ACTIVE FRONT STEERING DURING BRAKING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Deling; CHEN Li; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    An active front steering (AFS) intervention control during braking for vehicle stability is presented. Based on the investigation of AFS mechanism, a simplified model of steering system is established and integrated with vehicle model. Then the AFS control on vehicle handling dynamics during braking is designed. Due to the difficulties associated with the sideslip angle measurement of vehicle, a state observer is designed to provide real time estimation. Thereafter, the controller with the feedback of both sideslip and yaw angle is implemented. To evaluate the system control, the proposed AFS controlled vehicle has been tested in the Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) system and compared with that of conventional vehicle. Results show that AFS can improve vehicle lateral stability effectively without reducing the braking performance.

  18. A Review of a Study on Disc Brake Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of the automotive industry, disc brake noise has become an issue of growing concern to the automotive industry and customers. In this paper, the types of disc brake noise have been discussed. Ajter that, the theories and models that have been proposed as an explanation of brake squeal are reviewed. On the basis of these theories and models, some example simulations of disc brake squeal which use the Finite Element method and mathematical model have been introduced.

  19. Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuges Deer Harvest Records are from 2008 and 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake NWRs during the 2008 and 2014 deer seasons. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of...

  20. Biweekly Waterfowl Counts from Mathews Brake, Morgan Brake, and Hillside National Wildlife Refuges in 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biweekly Waterfowl Counts from Mathews Brake, Morgan Brake, and Hillside National Wildlife Refuges conducted from October 2001 to February 2002

  1. Central Mississippi Refuges: Yazoo, Panther Swamp, Hillside, Morgan Brake & Bathews Brake: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yazoo, Hillside, Panther Swamp, Morgan Brake, and Mathews Brake NWRs covers refuge activities during 2001. The report begins with a...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404... Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. Each locomotive and haulage car used in an underground coal mine... brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar...

  3. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  4. The braking indices in pulsar emission models

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, F; Gil, J; Gil, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    Using the method proposed in a previous paper, we calculate pulsar braking indices in the models with torque contributions from both inner and outer accelerating regions, assuming that the interaction between them is negligible. We suggest that it is likely that the inverse Compton scattering induced polar vacuum gap and the outer gap coexist in the pulsar magnetosphere. We include the new near threshold vacuum gap models with curvature-radiation and inverse Compton scattering induced cascades, respectively; and find that these models can well reproduce the measured values of the braking indices.

  5. High efficiency fluorescent excimer lamps: An alternative to mercury based UVC lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoud, N. M. [UV Solutions Inc, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Physics and Chemistry Department, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (United States); Murnick, D. E. [UV Solutions Inc, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    A high efficiency xenon excimer lamp radiating at 172 nm, with an internal phosphor coating shifting to UVC has been demonstrated, showing the feasibility of a cost effective alternative to UVC mercury lamps. Fluorescent lamps so designed can be fabricated in various geometries with high efficiency. Unlike other xenon excimer lamps based on dielectric barrier discharges this new system is highly compatible with existing and proposed phosphors as it operates in an inert gas environment at modest temperature and is subject only to 172 nm primary radiation. Using a lamp coated with a UVC phosphor we have demonstrated the feasibility of germicidal and curing lamps with 40% energy conversion efficiency and high power density. These lamps are rapidly switchable, have long projected lifetimes and are compatible with dimmers.

  6. High efficiency fluorescent excimer lamps: an alternative to mercury based UVC lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, N M; Murnick, D E

    2013-12-01

    A high efficiency xenon excimer lamp radiating at 172 nm, with an internal phosphor coating shifting to UVC has been demonstrated, showing the feasibility of a cost effective alternative to UVC mercury lamps. Fluorescent lamps so designed can be fabricated in various geometries with high efficiency. Unlike other xenon excimer lamps based on dielectric barrier discharges this new system is highly compatible with existing and proposed phosphors as it operates in an inert gas environment at modest temperature and is subject only to 172 nm primary radiation. Using a lamp coated with a UVC phosphor we have demonstrated the feasibility of germicidal and curing lamps with 40% energy conversion efficiency and high power density. These lamps are rapidly switchable, have long projected lifetimes and are compatible with dimmers. PMID:24387421

  7. HALOGEN LAMP BURST PHOTOKERATITIS: A MASS INCIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : Tungsten-halogen lamps, used in stage lighting and outdoor events pose a risk with their improper use or as a consequence of lamp rupture. Acute over-exposure to ultraviolet radiation produced by the lamps can lead to photokeratitis. We report an event of, blast of 15 halogen lamps involving 205 patients presenting with blephorospasm, photophobia and burning sensations. 167 had conjunctival congestion and 43 keratoconjunctivitis. Visual acuity between 6/12 and 6/60, was noted in 33 cases. One patient had iridocyclitis and one episcleritis. Ultraviolet irradiance overexposure in an acute setting due to halogen lamps is hitherto unreported and ophthalmologists need to be aware of the clinical spectrum of acute UV radiation keratitis when caring for patients in these uncommon situations.

  8. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  9. Experimental Identification of Brake Pad Material Properties—A Step Towards a Better Prediction of Brake Squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Sylwia; Hochlenert, Daniel; von Wagner, Utz

    2010-09-01

    Automotive brake squeal is a disruptive high frequency sound radiation phenomenon generated by friction-induced self-excited vibrations of the brake system. The brake system loses its stability and starts oscillating in a limit cycle with amplitudes limited by nonlinearities, the main origin of the nonlinearities being brake lining material. In order to perform a reliable brake squeal prediction using established mathematical-mechanical models, the knowledge of the lining material properties is of great importance. The present paper deals with the experimental identification of lining material properties, expecially referring to the elastic properties. Since these strongly vary depending on the operating conditions of brake systems, it is necessary to reproduce the operating conditions during brake squeal as close as possible in experimental setups. In this context a special test rig, the test data evaluation and the experimentally determined nonlinear elastic brake lining properties are presented. Assuming these brake lining properties to be the prominent source of the nonlinearity, a nonlinear stability analysis is performed on a realistic disk brake model. The results referring to brake squeal are discussed, whereas basic phenomena known from operating experience of brake systems can be explained on the basis of this analysis.

  10. Hillside, Morgan Brake, and Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuges Reforestation Plan for 1992-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan addresses the history of reforestation at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge and its two satellite refuges, Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge and...

  11. Study on reduction method of brake squeal; Brake naki teigen shuho ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, T.; Okada, Y. [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The reduction of brake squeal is an important technological subject in terms of making vehicles quieter. In our research, we carried out a modal analysis from the caliper to the installation bracket during generating brake squeal to identify the places that influence the squeal. Based on this, we studied proposals to reduce the squeal, and have reduced the squeal noise at about 5 kHz as reported in this paper. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  12. Wear determination in braking systems by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friction and wear behaviour of friction couples has been tested applying loads and sliding speeds. The determination was carried out by direct measurements of the lining material and by surface activation of the opposite material with protons. The application limits of several braking materials could be determined and compared

  13. Massive star models with magnetic braking

    CERN Document Server

    Meynet, Georges; Maeder, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic fields at the surface of a few early-type stars have been directly detected. These fields have magnitudes between a few hundred G up to a few kG. In one case, evidence of magnetic braking has been found. We investigate the effects of magnetic braking on the evolution of rotating ($\\upsilon_{\\rm ini}$=200 km s$^{-1}$) 10 M$_\\odot$ stellar models at solar metallicity during the main-sequence (MS) phase. The magnetic braking process is included in our stellar models according to the formalism deduced from 2D MHD simulations of magnetic wind confinement by ud-Doula and co-workers. Various assumptions are made regarding both the magnitude of the magnetic field and of the efficiency of the angular momentum transport mechanisms in the stellar interior. When magnetic braking occurs in models with differential rotation, a strong and rapid mixing is obtained at the surface accompanied by a rapid decrease in the surface velocity. Such a process might account for some MS stars showing strong mixing and low surfa...

  14. Electric disc brakes hold nuclear aircraft carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the U.S.S. Nimitz and the soon-to-be-completed U.S.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower, use electric disc brakes to stop and hold lines on warping and mooring capstans during docking maneuvers and mooring operations

  15. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arnab Ganguly; Raji George

    2008-02-01

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to wear and shows good temperature stability.

  16. Innovation of Electromagnetic Brake for Rail Vehicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, B.; Doležel, Ivo

    Opole : Technical University of Opole, 2005, s. 650-653. ISBN 83-88492-74-8. [International Symposium on Electrical Machines SME 2005 /41./. Opole-Jarnoltówek (PL), 14.06.2005-17.06.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : electromagnetic brake * electromagnetic field * numerical analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  17. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  18. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. PMID:20728647

  19. The Effect of Cashew to The Friction Performance Of Automotive Brake Linings

    OpenAIRE

    Timur, Mustafa; Kılıç, Halil; Sugözü, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Brake linings used in automotive disks are usually composed of various components. Expected properties from a brake lining are appropriate standart value of wear resist, friction coefficient and also economical value. Brake lining extremely warms up during braking due to friction. The braking performance of brake lining changes and braking lining is subject to mecanical deformation due to excessive temperature. In recent twenty years in consequence of fast development in automotive technology...

  20. Simulation and analysis of vehicle stability based on ADAMS/CAR differential brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the braking safety of automobiles, the author studied the effect of differential brake on the stabilities. To analyze the mechanical characteristics of differential brake, automotive subsystem models were built by applying ADAMS/CAR, and automotive mechanics simulation model was built by setting the main subsystems such as body, engine and brake. The simulation model studied the distribution mode of three kinds of differential brake, and beeline braking stability and turning braking stability wer...

  1. A pulse generator for xenon lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Janata, E

    2002-01-01

    A pulse generator is described, which enhances the analyzing light emitted from a xenon lamp as used in kinetic photospectrometry experiments. The lamp current is increased to 600 A for a duration of 3 ms; the current is constant within +-0.2% during a time interval of 2 ms. Because of instabilities of the lamp arc during pulsing, the use of the enhanced light source is limited to measuring times up to 500 mu s. The enhancement in light intensity depends on the wavelength and amounts to more than 400-fold in the UV-region.

  2. LED lamp power management system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  3. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  4. Simulation and analysis of vehicle stability based on ADAMS/CAR differential brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the braking safety of automobiles, the author studied the effect of differential brake on the stabilities. To analyze the mechanical characteristics of differential brake, automotive subsystem models were built by applying ADAMS/CAR, and automotive mechanics simulation model was built by setting the main subsystems such as body, engine and brake. The simulation model studied the distribution mode of three kinds of differential brake, and beeline braking stability and turning braking stability were simulated. It shows that differential brake can amend turning shortage of automobile brake and improve its braking stability, but the effect of automobile mass on its braking stability is great. So the distribution mode of braking force and the effect of mass change should be considered while differential brake is applied.

  5. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from experiencing wheel lock and slip phenomena during braking. Then, a fuzzy RBS using the driver’s braking force command, vehicle speed, battery SOC, battery temperature are designed to determine the distribution between friction braking force and regenerative braking force to improve the energy recuperation efficiency. The experimental results on an “LF620” prototype EV validated the feasibility and effectiveness of regenerative braking and showed that the proposed fuzzy RBS was endowed with good control performance. The maximum driving range of LF620 EV was improved by 25.7% compared with non-RBS conditions.

  6. 49 CFR 571.135 - Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the braking ratio of the vehicle. Antilock brake system or ABS means a portion of a service brake... neutral. (b) For an EV that is equipped with both ABS and RBS that is part of the service brake system, the ABS must control the RBS. S5.2. Parking brake system. Each vehicle shall be equipped with...

  7. A method to achieve comparable thermal states of car brakes during braking on the road and on a high-speed roll-stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The temperature of a brake friction surface influences significantly the braking effectiveness. The paper describes a heat transfer process in car brakes. Using a developed program of finite element method, the temperature distributions in brake rotors (disc and drum brake) of a light truck have been calculated. As a preliminary consistency criterion of the brake thermal state in road and roll-stand braking conditions, a balance of the energy cumulated in the brake rotor has been taken into account. As the most reliable consistency criterion an equality of average temperatures of the friction surface has been assumed. The presented method allows to achieve on a roll-stand the analogical thermal states of automotive brakes, which are observed during braking in road conditions. Basing on this method, it is possible to calculate the braking time and force for a high-speed roll-stand. In contrast to the previous papers of the author, new calculation results have been presented.

  8. Friction characteristics of a brake friction material under different braking conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The tribological behavior of the brake material is well depending on interfacial temperature and friction conditions. • The friction performance is influenced by the material heterogeneity and its anisotropy. • The friction performance depended on the nature, morphology and orientation of constituents. - Abstract: As the evaluation of the tribological properties of the brake lining material is important for the braking performance identification, a pad-on-disc friction and wear tests of a commercial brake pad material against cast iron disc were conducted under low, middle and severe conditions. Three experiments via (t1), (t2) and (t3) with different sliding speeds and nominal contact pressure were conducted. Tests were performed with the pad in periodic sliding contact for 30 cycles. The scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) was used to characterize the rubbed surface. The results showed that during the run-in period, the coefficient of friction increases steadily. For the friction mechanism: (i) at lower conditions, a stable friction film was generated on the surface of the brake pad, providing excellent friction stability with less wear, (ii) at middle conditions, fibers were agglomerated and were not contributed more, and (iii) at higher conditions, contact plates were identified which were accommodated the speed and the load

  9. Braking Resistor Scheme for Transient Stability Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abazari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems in power systems design is increasing the damping of the swing amplitude and also to increase the critical time in transient stability. One of the best techniques is to use resistor braking. However, their performance in power systems, duration of their activity and their place of installation are of great importance. In this paper by using of some of devices in power electronics and by precies modeling of the network and optimal controller is designed which leads as to our final objective. In fact resistor braking are effectively attract additive energy which is a result of disturbances and help us to improve the stability of overall system.

  10. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  11. Modeling of a Hydraulic Braking System

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to derive an analytical model representing a reduced form of a mine hoist hydraulic braking system. Based primarily on fluid mechanical and mechanical physical modeling, along with a number of simplifying assumptions, the analytical model will be derived and expressed in the form of a system of differential equations including a set of static functions. The obtained model will be suitable for basic simulation and analysis of system dynamics, with the aim to cap...

  12. An Intelligent Auxiliary Vacuum Brake System

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Chia-Chang; Lin, Jhih-Yu; Li, Shih-Fan; Li, Jiun-Yi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper focuses on designing an intelligent, compact, reliable, and robust auxiliary vacuum brake system (VBS) with Kalman filter and self-diagnosis scheme. All of the circuit elements in the designed system are integrated into one programmable system-on-chip (PSoC) with entire computational algorithms implemented by software. In this system, three main goals are achieved: (a) Kalman filter and hysteresis controller algorithms are employed within PSoC chip by software to sur...

  13. Bernoulli effect at free revolving flow braking

    OpenAIRE

    Budarin, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this research paper, analytical equations for the calculation of radial flow due to the braking on the flat surface plane of revolving flow were obtained. The calculation method is based on the use of pressure force balance equation, viscid friction and inertia. Three motion equations for incompressible, polytropic and isothermal flow were obtained, the type of a cumulative curve for the incompressible flow has been shown. Possibility of the use of radial flow for the compression of water ...

  14. Braking Resistor Scheme for Transient Stability Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Abazari

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power systems design is increasing the damping of the swing amplitude and also to increase the critical time in transient stability. One of the best techniques is to use resistor braking. However, their performance in power systems, duration of their activity and their place of installation are of great importance. In this paper by using of some of devices in power electronics and by precies modeling of the network and optimal controller is designed which...

  15. Slit-lamp calibration, crucial but neglected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfah Rif’ati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Kalibrasi berkala alat diagnostik sangat esensial untuk diagnosis yang akurat. Riset fasilitas kesehatan (Rifaskes 2011 mengumpulkan data termasuk kalibrasi lampu celah (slit-lamp pada sampel rumah sakit (RS di Indonesia. Tujuan analisis ialah untuk mengidentifikasi faktor dominan yang berpengaruh terhadap pelaksanaan kalibrasi berkala lampu celah di RS.Metode: Analisis memakai sebagian data Rifaskes 2011 di antara 442 RS yang menyediakan layanan kesehatan mata. Risiko relatif dipergunakan untuk menilai kemungkinan tidak dilakukannya kalibrasi lampu celah di RS.Hasil: Di antara 248 RS sampel yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi, hanya 25,8% RS yang melakukan kalibrasi lampu celah tepat waktu. Dibandingkan dengan rumah sakit yang dimiliki oleh Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN, rumah sakit yang dimiliki lembaga lain memiliki risiko yang lebih tinggi tidak mengkalibrasi lampu celah. Menurut tipe RS, RS non-pendidikan dibandingkan dengan RS -pendidikan berisiko 40% lebih tinggi tidak mengkalibrasi lampu [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,40; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,02-1,91].Kesimpulan: Kalibrasi tepat waktu lampu-celah masih menjadi masalah di sebagian besar RS. Dibandingkan dengan rumah sakit yang dimiliki oleh BUMN, rumah sakit yang dimiliki oleh instansi lain berisiko yang lebih tinggi tidak mengkalibrasi lampu celah. (Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xxKata kunci:kalibrasi, lampu celah, rumah sakitAbstractBackground: Periodical diagnostic tool calibration is essential for accurate diagnosis. Health Facilities Research (Rifaskes in 2011 collected data on the slit-lamp calibration of all registered general hospitals in Indonesia.Methods: Analysis using a part Rifaskes 2011 data among 442 hospitals that provide eye health services. Relative risk was used to assess the risk of performing calibration slit lamp.Results: Out of 442 hospitals, 248 hospitals met the inclusion study criteria, and only 25.8% calibrating the slit-lamp

  16. Failure analysis in locomotive Bogie Brake-Hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAVNEET SINGH1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Breakage of brake riggings in WAP7 locomotives has been a matter of concern since 2004, almost afterits commencement of manufacturing, which is having same bogie design as that in WAG9 locomotives. Both ofthese bogies are having TBU/PBU assembly for brakes, but breakage of brake hangers in WAG9 locomotivesare unheard off. Both the inner as well as outer hangers are breaking. However, the cases of breakage of innerhangers towards bogie frame are much more with 80% of the total failures. This paper deliberates to understandthe various failures in locomotive Bogie Brake-Hanger and on root cause analysis for the failure of Brakehanger. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of brake hanger using FEA software.The goal of the project is to develop a high-speed train system capable of reaching the maximum speedand to secure its key technologies, one of which is the braking technology.

  17. Elastoplastic finite element analysis for wet multidisc brake during lasting braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhanling

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressed to serious heat degradation problem of the braking continuously performed in the drag brake application for a long time, finite element analysis for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling is adopted to investigate temperature and stress when material properties are temperature-dependent. Based on the constitutive relations of heat transfer and strain-stress, three-dimensional transient finite element equilibrium equations with many kinds of boundary conditions for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling were derived. And it was originally presented that start time, location, severity and evolution laws of plastic deformation were depicted using dimensionless stress distribution contour with the yield limit related to temperature. The change laws of plastic element number and contact area versus braking time were expressed by plasticity ratio and contact ratio curves, respectively. The laws revealed by the numerical calculation results are in accordance with the objective perception and reasoning.

  18. The Friction of Vehicle Brake Tandem Master Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, M. J.; Chang, H.; Tsung, T. T.; Lin, H. M.

    2006-10-01

    The behaviour of an elastomeric seal for vehicle brake Tandem master cylinder is measured and analyzed in temperature and brake fluids changed. Working conditions are simulated for different piston rod velocity and cylinder supply pressure, in temperature rising, brakefluid boundary and Nanoaluminum oxide brakefluid oxide brakefluid lubrication. The result shows that Nanoaluminum oxide brakefluid with its ball shape can highly reduce friction coefficient to avoid seal excessive wear and reduce slick slip in brake applications.

  19. Low-impact friction materials for brake pads

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfanti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art friction materials for applications in disc brake systems are constituted by composite materials, specifically formulated to ensure proper friction and wear performances, under the sliding contact conditions of braking events. The bases of typical friction compound formulations usually include 10 to 30 different components bonded with a polymeric binder cross-linked in situ. Main requests to be fulfilled during braking are an adequate friction efficiency and enough mechanical...

  20. The Friction of Vehicle Brake Tandem Master Cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of an elastomeric seal for vehicle brake Tandem master cylinder is measured and analyzed in temperature and brake fluids changed. Working conditions are simulated for different piston rod velocity and cylinder supply pressure, in temperature rising, brakefluid boundary and Nanoaluminum oxide brakefluid oxide brakefluid lubrication. The result shows that Nanoaluminum oxide brakefluid with its ball shape can highly reduce friction coefficient to avoid seal excessive wear and reduce slick slip in brake applications

  1. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Khairnar; V.M. Phalle; S. S. Mantha

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained hav...

  2. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Fluorescent lamps are the most widely used artificial light source today, responsible for approximately 70% of the lumens delivered to our living spaces globally. The technology was originally commercialized in the 1930's, and manufacturers have been steadily improving the efficacy of these lamps over the years through modifications to the phosphors, cathodes, fill-gas, operating frequency, tube diameter and other design attributes. The most efficient commercially available fluorescent lamp is the 25 Watt T5 lamp. This lamp operates at 114-116 lumens per watt while also providing good color rendering and more than 20,000 hours of operating life. Industry experts interviewed indicated that while this lamp is the most efficient in the market today, there is still a further 10 to 14% of potential improvements that may be introduced to the market over the next 2 to 5 years. These improvements include further developments in phosphors, fill-gas, cathode coatings and ultraviolet (UV) reflective glass coatings. The commercialization of these technology improvements will combine to bring about efficacy improvements that will push the technology up to a maximum 125 to 130 lumens per watt. One critical issue raised by researchers that may present a barrier to the realization of these improvements is the fact that technology investment in fluorescent lamps is being reduced in order to prioritize research into light emitting diodes (LEDs) and ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Thus, it is uncertain whether these potential efficacy improvements will be developed, patented and commercialized. The emphasis for premium efficacy will continue to focus on T5 lamps, which are expected to continue to be marketed along with the T8 lamp. Industry experts highlighted the fact that an advantage of the T5 lamp is the fact that it is 40% smaller and yet provides an equivalent lumen output to that of a T8 or T12 lamp. Due to its smaller form factor, the T5 lamp

  3. Online inspection of circular fluorescent lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Beng-Hoe

    1998-10-01

    One step in the manufacture of circular fluorescent lamps is the mercury (Hg) injection process in which a small amount of mercury approximately 20 mg is injected into the fluorescent tube. An on-line detection of mercury is required to ensure that the amount of mercury residual inside the tube is within the acceptable tolerance. This critical operation is to reduce manufacturing overhead by controlling cost and reducing waste of materials. In view of this, an attempt has been made to design and develop an on- line mercury detection system with important benefits to the manufacturers, such as increased throughput, accuracy, reliability and consistency. This paper presents the configuration and development works of the on-line circular fluorescent lamp inspection system developed by Industrial Project Group--Machine Vision Center of Nanyang Polytechnic. The inspection system performs on-line detection of mercury particles (Hg) inside the circular fluorescent lamp. Taking the orientation and translation offsets of the lamp into consideration, it detects the presence/absence as well as the size of the injected mercury. The system has been successfully operating 15 hours per day and inspecting more than 22 thousands lamps in the production plant.

  4. A Model Predictive Control Allocation Approach to Hybrid Braking of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Satzger, Clemens; Pinto de Castro, Ricardo; Buente, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    With the recent emergence of electric drivetrains, a faster and energy efficient braking actuator - the electric motor - has become available to complement the operation of the traditional friction brakes. The decision on how to split the braking torque among the friction brake and the electric motor is one of the main issues of such hybrid braking systems. With this challenge in mind, a new model predictive control allocation (MPCA) approach for hybrid braking is proposed. In comparison to s...

  5. Research on Modeling and Control of Regenerative Braking for Brushless DC Machines Driven Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-ping Wen; Chuan-wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV) using brushless DC machine (BLDCM), the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO) to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, ...

  6. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-14

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one

  7. Intelligent Controller of Digital High Intensity Discharge Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium, low-pressure sodium and less commonly, xenon short-arc lamps. The light-producing element of these lamp types is a well-stabilized arc discharge contained within a refractory envelope (arc tube) with wall loading in excess of 3 W/cm (19.4 W/in.). Compared to fluorescent and incandescent lamps, HID lamps produce a much larger quantity of light in a relatively small package. With tests made by the National Quality Supervision and

  8. Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, D.; Bardelli, F.; Dongarrà, G.; Tamburo, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained combining several well established and advanced characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS). The advantage of SR-XAS is that samples do not undergo any chemical treatment prior to measurements, thus excluding possible alterations. These analyses revealed that the samples of wheel rims dust, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter are composed by an admixture of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different relative abundances. Brake linings turned out to be composed by Sb(III) oxide (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Stibnite was also detected in some of the particulate matter samples. The obtained data suggest that Sb2S3 during the brake abrasion process is easily decomposed forming more stable compounds such as antimony mixed oxidic forms. Sb redox speciation, in particular and well studied circumstances, may enhance the potential and selectivity of this element as a tracer of motor vehicle emissions in apportioning studies.

  9. LAMP proteins are required for fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Kassidy K; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Scott, Cameron C; Malevanets, Anatoly; Saftig, Paul; Grinstein, Sergio

    2007-01-24

    Lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are delivered to phagosomes during the maturation process. We used cells from LAMP-deficient mice to analyze the role of these proteins in phagosome maturation. Macrophages from LAMP-1- or LAMP-2-deficient mice displayed normal fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes. Because ablation of both the lamp-1 and lamp-2 genes yields an embryonic-lethal phenotype, we were unable to study macrophages from double knockouts. Instead, we reconstituted phagocytosis in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by transfection of FcgammaIIA receptors. Phagosomes formed by FcgammaIIA-transfected MEFs obtained from LAMP-1- or LAMP-2- deficient mice acquired lysosomal markers. Remarkably, although FcgammaIIA-transfected MEFs from double-deficient mice ingested particles normally, phagosomal maturation was arrested. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 double-deficient phagosomes acquired Rab5 and accumulated phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, but failed to recruit Rab7 and did not fuse with lysosomes. We attribute the deficiency to impaired organellar motility along microtubules. Time-lapse cinematography revealed that late endosomes/lysosomes as well as phagosomes lacking LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 had reduced ability to move toward the microtubule-organizing center, likely precluding their interaction with each other. PMID:17245426

  10. Quality control of cast brake discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stawarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The largest industrial application so far have the gray cast irons which are characterized by low tensile and bending strength, while at the same time they have good ultimate comprehensive strength. Additionally, the fatigue strength of gray cast irons is comparatively low and they are only to some extend sensitive for the surface waters effects. Cast iron is the material, which is comparatively easy to be processed, and for this reason – it is not expensive. Brake discs are exploited in particularly hard conditions. They must be resistant both against the thermal fatigue and abrasion wearing (at dry friction as well as against seizing, corrosion and mechanical load [1-3]. The gray cast iron, better than other materials, fulfills all the requirements necessary for making the material for the casts resistant against such tough conditions. This work reflects the researches aiming to define the quality of cast brake discs (ventilated and non-ventilated ones upon a period of their exploitation in real conditions. The following researches were performed: evaluations of the disc surface condition, measurement of disc thickness, examination of run – out flank and metallographic analysis. In order to more detailed recognition of mechanisms and reasons of brake discs wearing in real conditions, one should conduct additional examinations: computer analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition analysis, etc., as well as study of the technology of their production in foundries, where they are manufactured [4]. By obtaining the full set of the mentioned above data one can draw final conclusions and remove causes of possible defects.

  11. 49 CFR 570.5 - Service brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Friction materials. On each brake the thickness of the lining or pad shall not be less than one thirty... CFR 571.105, on every new passenger car manufactured on or after January 1, 1968, and on other types... from loose material, oil, or grease. The service brakes shall be applied at a vehicle speed of 20...

  12. 49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Friction materials. On each brake, the thickness of the lining or pad shall not be less than one thirty-second of an inch over the fastener, or one-sixteenth of an inch over the brake shoe on bonded linings or... percent grade), dry, smooth, hard-surfaced road that is free from loose material, oil or grease....

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  14. Design of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Han Gyeol; Choi, Seung-Bok; Sohn, Jung Woo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new type of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brake is proposed and its performances are evaluated. The proposed haptic master consists of base frame, stick grip and small-sized four MR brakes for 3-DOF rotational motion and 1-DOF gripper motion. To obtain large braking torque under limited small size of MR brake, dual tapered shape inner magnetic core is proposed and its performance is evaluated via both numerical estimation and experimental test. After design and implementation of control algorithm, it has been demonstrated through experiment that the proposed actuator has good performances on tracking control of desired torques. Then, a new haptic master device is designed and constructed by adopting the proposed MR brakes and light weight frame structures. It is verified that the proposed haptic master device is effective for the real application in the field.

  15. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2016-06-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  16. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  17. Radial brake assembly for a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a brake assembly for a control rod drive for selectively preventing travel of a control rod in a nuclear reactor vessel. It comprises a shaft having a longitudinal centerline axis; means for selectively rotating the shaft in a first direction and in a second direction, opposite to the first direction; a stationary housing having a central aperture receiving the shaft; a frame fixedly joined to the housing and having a guide hole; a rotor disc fixedly connected to the shaft for rotation therewith and having at least one rotor tooth extending radially outwardly from a perimeter thereof, the rotor tooth having a locking surface and an inclined surface extending therefrom in a circumferential direction; a brake member disposed adjacent to the rotor disc perimeter and including a base, at least one braking tooth having a locking surface extending therefrom in a circumferential direction, and a plunger extending radially outwardly from the base and slidably joined to the frame through the guide hole; the rotor tooth and the braking tooth being complementary to each other; and means for selectively positioning the brake member in a deployed position abutting the rotor disc perimeter for allowing the braking tooth locking surface to contact the rotor tooth locking surface for preventing rotation of the shaft in the first direction, and in a retracted position spaced radially away from the rotor disc for allowing the rotor disc and the shaft to rotate without restraint from the brake member, the positioning means including a tubular solenoid fixedly joined to the frame and having a central bore disposed around the brake member plunger and effective for sliding the brake member plunger relative to the frame for positioning the brake member in the deployed and retracted positions

  18. Illuminating the Mathematics of Lamp Shades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael E.; Gross, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The problem of creating lamp shades to specific design parameters allows rich and interesting explorations in the mathematics of circles and triangles. This interactive project helps students build their spatial reasoning and is especially appropriate during a unit on either the Pythagorean theorem or similar triangles. (Contains 7 figures and 1…

  19. Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Brightness Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Gladstone, G.; Stern, S.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Parker, J. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Versteeg, M. H.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) is an ultraviolet (UV) spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that is designed to map the lunar albedo at far-UV wavelengths. LAMP primarily measures interplanetary Hydrogen Lyman-alpha sky-glow and far-UV starlight reflected from the night-side lunar surface, including permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near the poles. Dayside observations are also obtained. Brightness maps sorted by wavelength (including the Lyman-alpha wavelength of 121.6 nm) are reported for the polar regions, with a few regions of interest reported in more detail. LAMP's spectral range of 58 nm to 196 nm includes a water ice spectral feature near 160 nm, which provides a diagnostic tool for detecting water on the lunar surface that is complementary to recent discoveries using infrared and radio frequency techniques. Progress towards producing far-UV albedo maps and searching for water ice signatures will be reported. We'll discuss how LAMP data may address questions regarding how water is formed on the moon, transported through the lunar atmosphere, and deposited in the PSRs.

  20. Heat Lamps Solder Solar Array Quickly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P. J.; Crouthamel, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Interconnection tabs in a nine-solar-cell array have been soldered simultaneously with radiant heat. Cells and tabs are held in position for soldering by sandwiching them between compliant silicone-rubber vacuum platen and transparent polyimide sealing membrane. Heat lamps warm cells, producing smooth, flat solder joints of high quality.

  1. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  2. A prototype high power portable lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammis, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    Portable lighting system serves the combined work and photographic needs of manned spacecraft efforts. This system enables the lamps to be momentarily brightened while the camera shutter is opened. The brightness is adequate for black and white or color photography and yet the increased heat load is nil.

  3. 49 CFR 230.56 - Water glass lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water glass lamps. 230.56 Section 230.56... Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks § 230.56 Water glass lamps. All water glasses must be supplied with a suitable lamp properly located to enable the engine crew to easily see the water in the glass....

  4. Analysis of the performance of domestic lighting lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power crisis problem is getting worse in the developing countries. Measures are being taken to overcome the power shortage problem by efficiently utilizing the available power. Replacement of high-power consumption lamps with energy efficient lamps is also among these steps. This paper presents a detailed comparative analysis between domestic lighting lamps (DLLs) use for producing artificial light. DLLs include incandescent lamp (IL), fluorescent lamp (FL) and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL). Light emitting diodes (LED) based lamp technology is relatively new in comparison with conventional incandescent and discharge lamps. However, the present study will also cover the LED lamps. Power quality based experiments have been conducted on DLLs in Power System Laboratory and power consumption based calculations are carried out using the lighting design software DIALux. The result shows that with the current technology, the use of FL and LED lamp is beneficial for utility as well as for consumer. However, with the current pace in the development of LED technology, it is possible LED lamps will lead the lighting market in the near future. The paper has also presented the uncertainties that exist in lighting market and proposed the guidelines that will help in making future energy policy. - Highlights: ► Performances of domestic lighting lamps are compared. ► Power quality and power consumption based case study results are presented. ► For future energy policies, recommendations are also given.

  5. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wood's fluorescent lamp. 866.2600 Section 866.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's fluorescent lamp is a device intended for medical purposes to...

  6. 30 CFR 75.522-1 - Incandescent and fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incandescent and fluorescent lamps. 75.522-1...-1 Incandescent and fluorescent lamps. (a) Except for areas of a coal mine inby the last open... or fluorescent lamps may be used inside underground structures (except magazines used for the...

  7. Energy saving lamps in the discussion; Energiesparlampen in der Diskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-01

    In the contribution under consideration the following questions according to energy saving lamp are discussed: (a) Mercury from broken energy saving lamp - a health problem?; (b) Why did the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) measure the mercury emissions from energy saving lamps?; (c) Which consequences does the Federal Environmental Agency draw from the investigations?.

  8. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  9. 49 CFR 236.554 - Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or brake pipe. 236.554 Section 236.554 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...; Locomotives § 236.554 Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe. The equalizing-reservoir pressure or brake-pipe pressure reduction during an automatic brake application shall be at a rate not...

  10. Optimal design of a disc-type MR brake for middle-sized motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Hung; Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This research work focuses on optimal design of a disc-type magneto-rheological (MR) brake that can replace a conventional hydraulic brake (CHB) of middle-sized motorcycles. Firstly, a MR brake configuration is proposed considering the available space and the simplicity to replace a CHB by the proposed MR brake. An optimal design of the proposed MR brake is then performed considering the required braking torque, operating temperature, mass and size of the brake. In order to perform the optimization of the brake, the braking torque of the brake is analyzed based on Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of MR fluid. The constrain on operating temperature of the MR brake is determined by considering the steady temperature of the brake when the motorcycle is cruising and the temperature increase during a braking process. An optimization procedure based on finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Optimal solution of the MR brake is then presented and simulated performance of the optimized brake is shown with remarkable discussions.

  11. 49 CFR 571.121 - Standard No. 121; Air brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... brakes. Antilock brake system or ABS means a portion of a service brake system that automatically... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the material may be inspected at... control lines and reservoirs that minimizes damage in field operations. Air brake system means a...

  12. Nano RE Energy-saving Lamp To Be Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Revealed from Science Technology Bureau of Ha ErbinDongli District, nano RE energy-saving lamp, which belongs toNational "863 Plan" projects, will be launched to the marketat the beginning of next year. Rare earths are raw materialsfor nano energy-saving lamp. When they are roasted intonano powder, with some additives such as magnesium,powder for lamp will be produced. Compared with presentenergy-saving lamp, nano lamp will save energy by 30%, withservice life of 30,000 - 50,000 hours. Luminosity of the new...

  13. Research on Modeling and Control of Regenerative Braking for Brushless DC Machines Driven Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV using brushless DC machine (BLDCM, the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, the autodisturbances rejection controller (ADRC for controlling the braking current is developed. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives better recovery efficiency and is robust to disturbances.

  14. Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alok Srivatava

    2007-03-31

    This is the Final Report of the Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program is to develop novel hybrid phosphors by coating commercially available lamp phosphors with highly stable wide band-gap nanocrystalline phosphors (NCP). The prime technical approach is the development of NCP quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) and ultra-violet (UV) emitting phosphors with quantum efficiencies exceeding that of the conventional phosphors at 185 nm. The novel hybrid phosphors will increase the efficiency of the fluorescent lamps by up to 32%, enabling total energy savings of 0.26 quads, the reduction in the U.S. energy bill by $6.5 billion and the reduction of the annual carbon emission by 4.1 billion kilogram. Our work started by investigating through modeling calculations the requirement for the particle size of the NCP. Our work to develop suitable nanocrystalline phosphors started with the known oxide quantum splitting and UV emitting phosphors. We demonstrated several synthesis techniques for the production of high quality nanocrystalline materials that crystallizes in the desired phase and with the desired particle size. In collaboration with our subcontractor we demonstrated the feasibility for the manufacture of NC phosphors. We also demonstrated novel techniques of coating the NCP on the surface of micron sized phosphors. Our chief achievement pertains to the successful testing of the coated hybrid phosphor systems in linear fluorescent lamps. In linear fluorescent lamp tests, we have demonstrated up to 7% increase in the efficacy of hybrid phosphors over the conventional (uncoated) phosphors. We have also demonstrated the improvement in the lumen maintenance of the coated phosphors. A hybrid phosphor system based on the commercial red emitting phosphor, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} did not show the anticipated improvement in lamp efficacy. We explored the reasons for this observation

  15. Finite element analysis of advanced bicycle precision brake disk forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dyi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bicycle has become an environmentally friendly transportation. The bicycle can be divided into mountain bicycle and highway bicycle. Safe driving is the prior consideration. The bicycle braking system can be divided into oil pressure disk brakes and mechanical disk brakes. The brake disk system is one indispensable component of the safe system. In accordance to overall weight consideration of the bike, the brake disk should also focus on the lightweight design. This paper discussed an innovative brake disk forming technology for 6061 aluminum alloy by the rigid-plastic finite element analysis. The simulation parameters include geometric shapes of the brake disk and mold, die temperature, and friction factors. The stress and strain in forming, brake deformation and vibration modal analysis of brake disk in riding were studied. The paper is expected to offer some precision bicycle brake disk manufacture knowledge for industry.

  16. Energy-efficient compact screw-in fluorescent lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, E. W.

    1982-11-01

    A compact fluorescent lamp has been designed and constructed which can replace an incandescent lamp. The lamp is slightly larger than a standard lamp (8 3/4 in. x 3 1/4 in.), but is designed to fit a majority of portable lamp applications. This version, with a core-coil ballast, results in a system efficacy of 54 lumens per watt, with a light output of more than 1800 lumens. This compares favorably with a 100-watt incandescent (17.5 lumens per watt and 1750 lumens light output). The color temperature of 30000K is compatible with an incandescent lamp (28000K). The color rendition index (CRI) is 84. With a solid-state ballast, the efficacy and light output could be increased by 20% (65 l/w, 2200 lumens) and could provide a direct replacement for a three-way, 150-watt incandescent lamp (15 l/w, 2200 lumens).

  17. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed

  18. Retardation-controlled safety brake at the test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, A.; Schroeder, R.; Sondermann, W.

    1989-02-01

    A double-drum winding installation is thought to require a retardation-controlled safety brake. The investigations needed for the design acceptance of such a braking installation have so far only been possible on an actual winding installation. This has not ruled out that the commissioning procedure of the whole installation could be delayed or endangered. The use of a simulator developed by the WBK Rope Testing Station, which replicates the behaviour of braked masses in the winding installation, made it possible for the first time to transfer a major part of the necessary investigations to the test site.

  19. MODIFICATION OF FLAKE REINFORCED FRICTION BRAKE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    According to the recent development trend and need of the friction brake material, the flake reinforced friction brake material has been made out by adjusting the recipe and techniques. The two-dimensional flake vermiculite is selected as the reinforced stuffing of the material; the modified resin is used as the basal bed of the material. The tests manifest that the properties of mechanics are high, the friction coefficients are suitable and stable,and especially in high temperatures the wear is low. It is an excellent friction brake material.

  20. New Phase-coherent Measurements of Pulsar Braking Indices

    CERN Document Server

    Livingstone, M A; Gavriil, F P; Manchester, R N; Gotthelf, E V; Kuiper, L; Livingstone, Margaret A.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Manchester, Richard N.; Kuiper, Lucien

    2007-01-01

    Pulsar braking indices offer insight into the physics that underlies pulsar spin-down. Only five braking indices have been measured via phase-coherent timing; all measured values are less than 3, the value expected from magnetic dipole radiation. Here we present new measurements for three of the five pulsar braking indices, obtained with phase-coherent timing for PSRs J1846-0258 (n=2.65+/-0.01), B1509-58 (n=2.839+/-0.001) and B0540-69 (n=2.140+/-0.009). We discuss the implications of these results and possible physical explanations for them.

  1. Gravitational waves from pulsars with measured braking index

    CERN Document Server

    de Araujo, Jose C N; Costa, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    We study the putative emission of gravitational waves (GWs) in particular for pulsars with measured braking index. We show that the appropriate combination of both GW emission and magnetic dipole brakes can naturally explain the measured braking index, when the surface magnetic field and the angle between the magnetic dipole and rotation axes are time dependent. Then we discuss the detectability of these very pulsars by aLIGO and the Einstein Telescope. We call attention to the realistic possibility that aLIGO can detect the GWs generated by at least some of these pulsars, such as Vela, for example.

  2. Cycling and wind: does sidewind brake?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that the presence of wind is crucial for the practice of numerous outdoor sports. Among them, the case of cycling competition is especially important because the speeds that are developed are perfectly comparable with moderate or strong winds, giving rise to great variability in race times. Conversely, the sidewind seems to behave as neutral in the race, and nevertheless all the cyclists know the difficulties that it causes. In this brief paper we show that the sidewind also produces an appreciable braking as a consequence of the quadratic dependence of the aerodynamic drag force on the air speed. Our work presents an interesting problem of mechanics and physics of fluids, which may be suitable as a task for intermediate level students in university courses

  3. A Pulsar Eases Off the Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In 2006, pulsar PSR 18460258 unexpectedly launched into a series of energetic X-ray outbursts. Now a study has determined that this event may have permanently changed the behavior of this pulsar, raising questions about our understanding of how pulsars evolve.Between CategoriesA pulsar a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation can be powered by one of three mechanisms:Rotation-powered pulsars transform rotational energy into radiation, gradually slowing down in a predictable way.Accretion-powered pulsars convert the gravitational energy of accreting matter into radiation.Magnetars are powered by the decay of their extremely strong magnetic fields.Astronomical classification often results in one pesky object that doesnt follow the rules. In this case, that object is PSR 18460258, a young pulsar categorized as rotation-powered. But in 2006, PSR 18460258 suddenly emitted a series of short, hard X-ray bursts and underwent a flux increase behavior that is usually only exhibited by magnetars. After this outburst, it returned to normal, rotation-powered-pulsar behavior.Since the discovery of this event, scientists have been attempting to learn more about this strange pulsar that seems to straddle the line between rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars.Unprecedented DropOne way to examine whats going on with PSR 18460258 is to evaluate whats known as its braking index, a measure of how quickly the pulsars rotation slows down. For a rotation-powered pulsar, the braking index should be roughly constant. The pulsar then slows down according to a fixed power law, where the slower it rotates, the slower it slows down.In a recent study, Robert Archibald (McGill University) and collaborators report on 7 years worth of timing observations of PSR 18460258 after its odd magnetar-like outburst. They then compare these observations to 6.5 years of data from before the outburst. The team finds that the braking index for this bizarre

  4. Comparisonal Analysis of Manuevering and Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Žukas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the possibility of avoiding a traffic accident considering a car driver who is fallen in a dangerous situation. In such a case, the driver can choose one of the following ways: hard braking or one of the types of maneuvering, including turning off, turning with straightening or changing a line regarding road surface type (dry asphalt, wet asphalt or snowy asphalt. The article also proposes formulas for calculating road distance the car travels till dead stop. Moreover, the tables display theoretical values taking into account various car speeds and road surfaces. The pictures help with determining the most suitable type of action in light of road and weather conditions as well as car speed. The pictures clearly show the dependence of road length on movement speed. At the end of the article, conclusions are proposed.Article in Lithuanian

  5. LAMP Joining between Ceramic and Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Nishimoto, Kouji; Katayama, Seiji

    Joining of dissimilar materials is necessary and important from a manufacturing viewpoint. Therefore, the authors have developed a new laser direct joining method between a metal and a plastic which is named Laser Assisted Metal and Plastic (LAMP) joining method. In this research, LAMP joining was applied to join silicon nitride Si3N4 ceramic and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) engineering plastic, although metal was replaced by ceramic. The tensile shear strength of obtained joints was 3100 N at the maximum, which was strong enough to elongate a PET base plate of 2 mm in thickness and 30 mm in width. Moreover, transmission electron microscopes (TEM) observation demonstrates that the ceramic and the plastic are tightly bonded on atomic or molecular sized level.

  6. LED lamp color control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  7. Opportunity and challenge of RE lamps (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zengqi; Wang Xinlin; Song Hongfang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅳ. Development trend of phosphors and proposals 1. Development trend of phosphors From the new developing trend of phosphors for lamps at home and abroad, it is necessary to improve the luminescent efficiency, color rendering, luminous flux maintenance and secondary characteristics of rare earth phosphors and keep consistence of those properties. Research, development, production and application of rare earth phosphors for lamps should not be limited to trichromatic phosphors but be ex-panded to the new generation multi-component rare earth trichromatic phosphors. Multi-primary phospho-rs with the band of red, orange, green, blue and blue green in different systems should be developed. Expe-riences on complexes like compound vitamin or rare earth compound fertilizer can be used for a reference.

  8. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  9. Brake Pedal Displacement Measuring System based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Displacement of brake pedal was an important characteristic of driving behavior. This paper proposed a displacement measure algorithm based on machine vision. Image of brake pedal was captured by camera from left side, and images were processed in industry computer. Firstly, average smooth algorithm and wavelet transform algorithm were used to smooth the original image consecutively. Then, edge extracting method which combined Roberts’s operator with wavelet analysis was used to identify the edge of brake pedal. At last, least square method was adopted to recognize the characteristic line of brake pedal’s displacement. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method takes the advantages of Roberts’s operator and wavelet transform, it can obtain better measurement result as well as linear displacement sensors

  10. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.57... to the wheel to prevent localized thermal stress in the edge of the rim or the flange....

  11. Fishery Management Plan for Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan was prepared by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge. Data was provided by the Refuge and Area Office...

  12. Fishery Management Plan for Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan was prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Mathew's Brake National Wildlife Refuge. Data was provided by the refuge and area office...

  13. Fishing Plan for Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal calls for the opening of Mathews Brake NWR to sport fishing. General regulations pertaining to licenses, creel limits, and methods of taking fish will...

  14. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc, proposes an SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane mechanism to switch...

  15. Numerical Modeling of Disc Brake System in Frictional Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belhocine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety aspect in automotive engineering has been considered as a number one priority in development of new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirement. Instead of having air bag, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, there is one most critical system in the vehicle which is brake systems. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyse the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake disc and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor by holding account certain parameters such as; the material used, the geometric design of the disc and the mode of braking. The analysis also gives us, the heat flux distribution for the two discs.

  16. Experimental investigations for uncertainty quantification in brake squeal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, A.; Massa, F.; Lallemand, B.; Tison, T.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the correlation between the experimental and the numerical prediction of unstable frequencies for automotive brake systems considering uncertainty. First, an experimental quantification of uncertainty and a discussion analysing the contributions of uncertainty to a numerical squeal simulation are proposed. Frequency and transient simulations are performed considering nominal values of model parameters, determined experimentally. The obtained results are compared with those derived from experimental tests to highlight the limitation of deterministic simulations. The effects of the different kinds of uncertainty detected in working conditions of brake system, the pad boundary condition, the brake system material properties and the pad surface topography are discussed by defining different unstable mode classes. Finally, a correlation between experimental and numerical results considering uncertainty is successfully proposed for an industrial brake system. Results from the different comparisons reveal also a major influence of the pad topography and consequently the contact distribution.

  17. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes a Phase II SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane...

  18. Handy Brake National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Handy Brake National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a longterm vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern...

  19. Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  20. Stability analysis and μ-synthesis control of brake systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lignon, Sylvain; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Jezequel, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The concept of friction-induced brake vibrations, commonly known as judder, is investigated. Judder vibration is based on the class of geometrically induced or kinematic constraint instability. After presenting the modal coupling mechanism and the associated dynamic model, a stability analysis as well as a sensitivity analysis have been conducted in order to identify physical parameters for a brake design avoiding friction-induced judder instability. Next, in order to reduce the size of the i...

  1. Stability analysis and \\mu-synthesis control of brake systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lignon, Sylvain; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Jezequel, Louis

    2008-01-01

    The concept of friction-induced brake vibrations, commonly known as judder, is investigated. Judder vibration is based on the class of geometrically induced or kinematic constraint instability. After presenting the modal coupling mechanism and the associated dynamic model, a stability analysis as well as a sensitivity analysis have been conducted in order to identify physical parameters for a brake design avoiding friction-induced judder instability. Next, in order to reduce the size of the i...

  2. 49 CFR 393.55 - Antilock brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 105 (49 CFR 571.105, S5.5). (b) ABS malfunction indicators for... with an antilock brake system that meets the requirements of FMVSS No. 121 (49 CFR 571.121, S5.1.6.1(b... equipped with an antilock brake system that meets the requirements of FMVSS No. 121 (49 CFR 571.121,...

  3. AASPT Carbon/Carbon Aircraft Brake Disk Granted MPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Xi'an Chaoma Technology Co. Ltd. was issued Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) for Carbon/Carbon aircraft brake disk for Airbus 320 series by Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). The company is held by Academy of Aerospace Solid Propulsion Technology (AASPT), a subsidiary of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). It is the first approval given to a Chinese company to design and produce brakes for main civilian aircraft.

  4. OPTIMAL EMERGENCY VEHICLE BRAKING CONTROL BASED ON DYNAMIC FRICTION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos, L.; L. Álvarez-Icaza

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic friction model for the tire-road interface is used in an optimal control scheme for emergency braking of vehicles. The controller sets a target relative velocity curve that the vehicle must track in order to achieve braking in minimum time. It is shown that this curve corresponds to the solution of a minimum time optimal control problem. The final goal of the control is to improve the safety levels in highway transportation.

  5. OPTIMAL EMERGENCY VEHICLE BRAKING CONTROL BASED ON DYNAMIC FRICTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Olmos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic friction model for the tire-road interface is used in an optimal control scheme for emergency braking ofvehicles. The controller sets a target relative velocity curve that the vehicle must track in order to achieve braking inminimum time. It is shown that this curve corresponds to the solution of a minimum time optimal control problem.The final goal of the control is to improve the safety levels in highway transportation.

  6. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  7. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable

  8. Predict optimize the friction characteristics of brake pads; Brake pad no masatsu tokusei no yosoku to saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saotome, H. [Nissin Kogyo Co., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of the friction and the wear properties of brake pads were experimentally studied using a test rig of scale of 1/10 of the system used in a commercial car. The experimental data were investigated by the Multiple Regression Analysis and the Neural Network, and the effects of volume % of components on the friction and the wear properties were predicted. In addition the components of brake pads are optimized by Genetic Algorithms. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Thermal measurement of brake pad lining surfaces during the braking process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowski, Tadeusz; Polakowski, Henryk; Kastek, Mariusz; Baranowski, Pawel; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Małachowski, Jerzy; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the test campaign concept and definition and the analysis of the recorded measurements. One of the most important systems in cars and trucks are brakes. The braking temperature on a lining surface can rise above 500°C. This shows how linings requirements are so strict and, what is more, continuously rising. Besides experimental tests, very supportive method for investigating processes which occur on the brake pad linings are numerical analyses. Experimental tests were conducted on the test machine called IL-68. The main component of IL-68 is so called frictional unit, which consists of: rotational head, which convey a shaft torque and where counter samples are placed and translational head, where samples of coatings are placed and pressed against counter samples. Due to the high rotational speeds and thus the rapid changes in temperature field, the infrared camera was used for testing. The paper presents results of analysis registered thermograms during the tests with different conditions. Furthermore, based on this testing machine, the numerical model was developed. In order to avoid resource demanding analyses only the frictional unit (described above) was taken into consideration. Firstly the geometrical model was performed thanks to CAD techniques, which in the next stage was a base for developing the finite element model. Material properties and boundary conditions exactly correspond to experimental tests. Computations were performed using a dynamic LS-Dyna code where heat generation was estimated assuming full (100%) conversion of mechanical work done by friction forces. Paper presents the results of dynamic thermomechanical analysis too and these results were compared with laboratory tests.

  10. Optics designs for an innovative LED lamp family system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Herbert; Muschaweck, Julius; Hadrath, Stefan; Kudaev, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    On the general lighting market of LED lamps for professional applications there are still mainly products for single purpose solutions existing. There is a lack of standardised lamp systems like they are common for conventional lighting technologies. Therefore, an LED lamp family system was studied using high power LED with the objective to entirely substitute standard conventional lamp families in general lighting applications in the professional market segment. This comprises the realization of sets of lamp types with compact and linear shapes as well as with light distribution characteristics ranging from diffuse to extreme collimation and exceptionally high candle power. Innovative secondary optics concepts are discussed which allow both, the design of lamps with non-bulky shape and to obtain sufficient colour mixing when using multicolour LED combinations in order to achieve a very high colour rendering quality.

  11. Intelligently Controllable Walker with Magnetorheological Fluid Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takehito; Tanida, Sosuke; Tanaka, Toshimasa; Kobayashi, Keigo; Mitobe, Kazuhisa

    Caster walkers are supporting frames with casters and wheels. These tools are regularly utilized as life support tools or walking rehabilitation tools in hospitals, nursing homes and individual residences. Users of the walkers can easily move it thanks to its wheels and casters. However falling accidents often happen when it moves without users. The falling accident is very serious problem and one of leading causes of secondary injuries. In the other case, it is hard to move to desired directions if users have imbalance in their motor functions or sensory functions, e.g., hemiplegic patients. To improve safeness and operability of the walkers, we installed compact MR fluid brakes on the wheels and controlled walking speed and direction of the walker. We named this intelligently controllable walker, “i-Walker” and discussed on the control methods and experimental results in this paper. Preliminary trials for direction control of the first-generation of the i-Walker (i-Walker1) are presented. On the basis of the results, we improved the control method and hardware of the i-Walker1, and developed the second-generation (i-Walker2). System description and experimental results of the i-Walker2 are also described. The i-Walker2 has better operability and lower energy consumption than that of the i-Walker1. The line-tracing controller of the i-Walker2 well controls human motions during walking experiments on the target straight line.

  12. Sa uurisid ekspressionismi 1960ndatel ja 70ndatel... / Ene Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Ene

    2005-01-01

    2004. a. ilmunud raamatu "Ekspressionism" eest Eesti Kultuurkapitali suure kunstipreemia (100000 kr.) saanud Ene Lamp ekspressionismi tähenduse muutumiset, ekspressionismi rollist eesti kunstis, oma tulevikuplaanidest

  13. DESIGNING AN OFF-ROAD WORKING LAMP WITH LEDS

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİL, Celal Zaim; YAKIŞIR, Burcu

    2012-01-01

    In this study a working lamp used on the off-road working machines and vehicles is designed by using the LED diodes instead of a halogen bulb. In the design, firstly a LED array is determined and a proper driver circuit that can provide the required optical power is designed, and the working lamp developed is tested under various conditions. The luminous output values of the designed LED working lamp are compared with those of a commercial working lamp, which uses a halogen bulb. It is evalua...

  14. Promoting Literacy and Protection with Solar Lamps in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Farrell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By distributing solar lamps to vulnerable rural women in Yemen, we promoted enrollment in literacy programs, as well as reading among their children. We saw a number of secondary benefits as well: safer households where dangerous kerosene lamps were used less frequently in the evening; a number of livelihood activities - cooking, husbandry, handicrafts - continued safely into evening hours; children found it easier to work on their homework using the solar powered lamps; and children found it easier and safer to walk in dark, rural streets in the evening with the solar lamps slung around their necks.

  15. Modelling of Ar-Hg Electrodeless Lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨深; 石挺; 刘洋; 陈育明

    2012-01-01

    A self-consistent model of high-frequency electrodeless lamps with internM coils is developed. Radial distributions of the plasma parameters are obtained. Mercury lines with wavelength of 435.8 nm and 365 nm are measured to testify the model. Based on the model, the population of resonance state 63p1 of mercury in dependence on the argon pressure and driving frequency is calculated. It is shown that the population of 63p1 of mercury is larger when the argon pressure is between 26.6 Pa and 53.2 Pa. Meanwhile the driving frequency has little influence on the population of 63P1.

  16. Squeal analysis of ventilated disc brake using ansys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Naser, Ibrahim Ahmed, Essam Allam, Sabry Allam, Shawki Abouel-seoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that automobile brakes can generate several kinds of noises. Among them is squeal, a noise in the 1-15 kHz range. It is commonly accepted that brake squeal is initiated by instability due to the friction forces, leading to self excited vibrations. To predict the onset of brake instability, a modal analysis of the prestressed structure can be performed on an improved dynamic finite element model of ventilated disc brake with friction coupling. An unsymmetric stiffness matrix is a result of the friction coupling between the brake pad and disc; this may lead to complex eigenfrequencies. The complex eigenvalue method (Unsymmetric solver used to analyse mode shapes associated with the predicted natural frequency. Creating the element of Matrix27 between the ventilated disc and pad was very important in studying the squeal of the coupled ventilated disc brake. The results demonstrated that the FEM for the coupled ventilated rotor and pad showed a good interaction between the non-linear contact and the linear modal analysis. Furthermore, the unsymmetric solver showed that the modes of the coupled disc-pad contained two types of mode. The first type was normal mode, which did not contain an imaginary part while the second type was complex mode that contained real and imaginary parts. Moreover, complex eigenvalue analysis predicted always more unstable modes than the number of squeal frequencies that really occur in the brake system. The maximum squeal index was observed at mode 16 and at frequency of 4083 Hz with instability of 480 sec-1. However; the tendency of instability (TOI for the system at contact stiffness of 1 GN/m was 59 that gave the lowest instability of the system.

  17. Optimal design of an automotive magnetorheological brake considering geometric dimensions and zero-field friction heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) brake for a middle-sized passenger car which can replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. In the optimization, the required braking torque, the temperature due to zero-field friction of MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions are considered. After describing the configuration, the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is derived on the basis of the field-dependent Bingham and Herschel–Bulkley rheological model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of the MR brake is then analyzed taking into account available space, mass, braking torque and steady heat generated by zero-field friction torque of the MR brake. The optimization procedure based on the finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is proposed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Based on the proposed procedure, optimal solutions of single and multiple disc-type MR brakes featuring different types of MR fluid are achieved. From the results, the most effective MR brake for the middle-sized passenger car is identified and some discussions on the performance improvement of the optimized MR brake are described

  18. Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

  19. 78 FR 14357 - Certain Compact Fluorescent Reflector Lamps, Products Containing Same and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Certain Compact Fluorescent Reflector Lamps, Products Containing Same and Components Thereof... importation of certain compact fluorescent reflector lamps, products containing same and components thereof by... importation of certain compact fluorescent reflector lamps, products containing same and components thereof...

  20. Optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake absorber for torsional vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents an optimal design of a magneto-rheological (MR) brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft. Firstly, the configuration of an MR brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft system is proposed. Then, the braking torque of the MR brake is derived based on the Bingham plastic model of the MR fluid. By assuming that the behaviour of the MR brake absorber is similar to that of a dry friction torsional damper, the optimal braking torque to control the torsional vibration is determined and validated by simulation. The optimal design problem of the MR brake absorber is then developed and a procedure to solve the optimal problem is proposed. Based on the proposed optimal design procedure, the optimal design of a specific rotating shaft system is performed. Vibration control performance of the shaft system employing the optimized MR brake absorber is then investigated through simulation and discussion on the results is given. (paper)

  1. Freshwater Fish Survey of Mathews Brake Water Body - 1980 and 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Freshwater Fish Survey of Mathews Brake water body including land not within Mathews Brake NWR. Methods included Electroshocker, creel census, and seine.

  2. 49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WHEN ADDING BRAKE FLUID. (2) KEEP BRAKE FLUID CLEAN AND DRY. Contamination with dirt, water, petroleum... paraffin. Do not use a standard with an age exceeding three months. (1) Potassium hydrogen phthalate...

  3. Luminous flux and colour maintenance investigation of integrated LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This article will present an investigation of the luminous flux and colour maintenance of white LED based retrofit lamps. The study includes 23 different types of integrated LED lamps, covering 18 directional and 5 non-directional. Luminous flux and colour data for operation up to 20000 h has been...

  4. Surrogate models for efficient stability analysis of brake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechak, Lyes; Gillot, Frédéric; Besset, Sébastien; Sinou, Jean-Jacques

    2015-07-01

    This study assesses capacities of the global sensitivity analysis combined together with the kriging formalism to be useful in the robust stability analysis of brake systems, which is too costly when performed with the classical complex eigenvalues analysis (CEA) based on finite element models (FEMs). By considering a simplified brake system, the global sensitivity analysis is first shown very helpful for understanding the effects of design parameters on the brake system's stability. This is allowed by the so-called Sobol indices which discriminate design parameters with respect to their influence on the stability. Consequently, only uncertainty of influent parameters is taken into account in the following step, namely, the surrogate modelling based on kriging. The latter is then demonstrated to be an interesting alternative to FEMs since it allowed, with a lower cost, an accurate estimation of the system's proportions of instability corresponding to the influent parameters.

  5. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  6. Dynamics Models of Interacting Torques of Hydrodynamic Retarder Braking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic retarder is a kind of assist braking device, which can transfer the vehicle kinetic energy into the heat energy of working medium. There are complicated three-dimensional viscous incompressible turbulent flows in hydrodynamic retarder, so that it is difficult to represent the parameters changing phenomenon and investigate the interactional law. In order to develop a kind of reliable theoretical model for internal flow field, in this study, the dynamics models of interacting torques between impellers and working fluid were constructed based on braking energy transfer principle by using Euler theory to describe the flow state in view of time scale. The model can truly represent the dynamic braking process.

  7. Braking Performance of a Biomimetic Squid-Like Underwater Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Mahbubar Rahman; Sinpei Sugimori; Hiroshi Miki; Risa Yamamoto; Yugo Sanada; Yasuyuki Toda

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the braking performance of the undulating fin propulsion system ofa biomimetic squid-like underwater robot was investigated through free run experiment and simulation of the quasi-steady mathematical model.The quasi-steady equations of motion were solved using the measured and calculated hydrodynamic forces and compared with free-run test results.Various braking strategies were tested and discussed in terms of stopping ability and the forces acting on the stopping stage.The stopping performance of the undulating fin propulsion system tured out to be excellent considering the short stopping time and short stopping distance.This is because of the large negative thrust produced by progressive wave in opposite direction.It was confirmed that the undulating fin propulsion system can effectively perform braking even in complex underwater explorations.

  8. What can the braking indices tell us about pulsars' nature?

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Y L; Zhu, W W

    2006-01-01

    As a result of observational difficulties, braking indices of only six rotation-powered pulsars are obtained with certainty, all of which are remarkably smaller than the value ($n=3$) expected for pure magnetodipole radiation model. This is still a real fundamental question not being well answered after nearly forty years of the discovery of pulsar. The main problem is that we are shamefully not sure about the dominant mechanisms that result in pulsars' spin-down. Based on the previous works, the braking index is re-examined, with a conclusion of suggesting a constant gap potential drop for pulsars with magnetospheric activities. New constrains on model parameters from observed braking indices are presented.

  9. Simplified model of eddy current brakes and its use for optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmann, Christoph/C.H.; Rinderknecht, Frank/F.R.; Friedrich, Horst E./H.E.F.

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of vehicles makes it possible to think about new concepts to substitute conventional technologies. For example in an electrical drive train, with a traction motor for each wheel mechanical friction brakes can be replaced by eddy current brakes. In this work a method for optimizing the torque density of eddy current brakes is presented. For a fast optimization process the model of the eddy current brake is split up in two levels of detail. In the first level a global model ...

  10. Investigation of Friction Behaviors of Brake Shoe Materials using Metallic Filler

    OpenAIRE

    E. Surojo; Jamasri; V. Malau; M.N. Ilman

    2015-01-01

    Some vehicles use brake shoe made from semi-metallic materials. Semi-metallic brake shoes are made from a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. Metallic particles are added in the formulation of brake shoe material to improve composites characteristics. In this paper, friction behaviors of brake shoe material using metallic filler were investigated. Machining chips of cast iron and copper wire of electric motor used were incorporated in composite as metallic fillers with amount ...

  11. Calibration and temperature profile of a tungsten filament lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work proposed for undergraduate students and teachers is the calibration of a tungsten filament lamp from electric measurements that are both simple and precise, allowing to determine the temperature of tungsten filament as a function of the current intensity. This calibration procedure was first applied to a conventional filament lamp (lamp used in automotive lighting) and then tested on a standard tungsten ribbon lamp. The calibration procedure developed was checked by determining the calibration point of the tungsten ribbon lamp with an accuracy of 2%. In addition, for low current intensity, it was observed that the temperature of the filament was not uniform; an explanation is proposed by considering a simple heat transfer model.

  12. Calibration and temperature profile of a tungsten filament lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Izarra, Charles [Groupe de Recherche sur l' Energetique des Milieux Ionises, UMR6606 Universite d' Orleans, CNRS, Faculte des Sciences, Site de Bourges, rue Gaston Berger, BP 4043, 18028 Bourges Cedex (France); Gitton, Jean-Michel, E-mail: Charles.De_Izarra@univ-orleans.f [College Littre, 10 rue Littre, Bourges (France)

    2010-07-15

    The goal of this work proposed for undergraduate students and teachers is the calibration of a tungsten filament lamp from electric measurements that are both simple and precise, allowing to determine the temperature of tungsten filament as a function of the current intensity. This calibration procedure was first applied to a conventional filament lamp (lamp used in automotive lighting) and then tested on a standard tungsten ribbon lamp. The calibration procedure developed was checked by determining the calibration point of the tungsten ribbon lamp with an accuracy of 2%. In addition, for low current intensity, it was observed that the temperature of the filament was not uniform; an explanation is proposed by considering a simple heat transfer model.

  13. Processes and Technologies for the Recycling of Spent Fluorescent Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujawski Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing industrial application of rare earth metals led to great interest in the new technologies for the recycling and recovery of REEs from diverse sources. This work reviews the various methods for the recycling of spent fluorescent lamps. The spent fluorescent lamps are potential source of important rare earth elements (REEs such as: yttrium, terbium, europium, lanthanum and cerium. The characteristics of REEs properties and construction of typical fl uorescent lamps is described. The work compares also current technologies which can be utilized for an efficient recovery of REEs from phosphors powders coming from spent fluorescent lamps. The work is especially focused on the hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. It was concluded that hydrometallurgical processes are especially useful for the recovery of REEs from spent fluorescent lamps. Moreover, the methods used for recycling of REEs are identical or very similar to those utilized for the raw ores processing.

  14. Tanning lamps ultraviolet emissions and compliance with technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the compliance of tanning lamps with technical standards EN 60335-2-27 'Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety. Part 2: Particular requirements for appliances for skin exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation' was analysed. Results of this analysis showed that none of the examined technical documentation produced by the lamps manufacturers is fully compliant with the standard technique. Furthermore data reported in the same manuals, such as effective radiant exposure or irradiance, would indicate that these sources may be the cause of undue exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. For this reason a measurement campaign on UV lamps used in tanning salons was organised. The first results of these measurements seem to confirm the doubts raised from the analysis of the lamp manuals: the use of a tanning lamp can lead to UV radiation exposure levels higher than reference maximum values recommended by EN 60335-2-27. (authors)

  15. EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE ON BRAKE REACTION TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Reaction time is the time taken to respond to a stimulus or change in the environment. It is a method to assess the time taken from the perception of a stimulus followed by mental processing for a motor response. Reaction time in various day to day activities as in driving a car is very important. Brake reaction time (BRT is the time taken for the driver to respond to visualize an object and to press the brake pedal. It is affected by many features like age, gender, neuromuscular disorders. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Study has been undertaken to compare the BRT in male and female drivers and to analyze the effect of sex difference on Brake reaction time. MATERIALS & METHODS Male and female subjects between the age group of 25 – 35 years with driving license were included. Study is conducted in a stationary car. An in-house built; braking timer is fixed to the electric circuit of the braking system in the car. This device is wirelessly connected to the reaction time software installed in the laptop. The subject is instructed to press the brake pedal when the light changed from red to green in the laptop screen. 5 readings are taken and the mean BRT is recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS & RESULTS Statistical analysis done with unpaired student t test indicates that the BRT was more in the females than the males and was statistically significant (p value - 0007. CONCLUSION Gender difference has a significant effect on BRT and reaction time in female is longer than for the males.

  16. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Incandescent A Type and Decorative Lamps and LED Replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingard, R. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Myer, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paget, M. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses common omnidirectional incandescent lamps - A-type and small decorative, candelabra-type lamps - and their commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  17. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  18. Investigation of Product Performance of Al-Metal Matrix Composites Brake Disc using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatchurrohman, N.; Marini, C. D.; Suraya, S.; Iqbal, AKM Asif

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand of fuel efficiency and light weight components in automobile sectors have led to the development of advanced material parts with improved performance. A specific class of MMCs which has gained a lot of attention due to its potential is aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs). Product performance investigation of Al- MMCs is presented in this article, where an Al-MMCs brake disc is analyzed using finite element analysis. The objective is to identify the potentiality of replacing the conventional iron brake disc with Al-MMCs brake disc. The simulation results suggested that the MMCs brake disc provided better thermal and mechanical performance as compared to the conventional cast iron brake disc. Although, the Al-MMCs brake disc dissipated higher maximum temperature compared to cast iron brake disc's maximum temperature. The Al-MMCs brake disc showed a well distributed temperature than the cast iron brake disc. The high temperature developed at the ring of the disc and heat was dissipated in circumferential direction. Moreover, better thermal dissipation and conduction at brake disc rotor surface played a major influence on the stress. As a comparison, the maximum stress and strain of Al-MMCs brake disc was lower than that induced on the cast iron brake disc.

  19. 49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Process to introduce new brake system technology... Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the procedures... brake system technology, prior to implementing the plan. (b) Each railroad shall complete a...

  20. METHODOLOGY FOR PARAMETER CALCULATION OF DISK BRAKE MECHANISMS WITH HYDRAULIC CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Rukteshel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new methodology for a parameter calculation of a disk brake mechanism with hydraulic control that allows to determine a value of hysteresis losses in a brake at the design stage with high accuracy. A complex analysis for obtaining qualitative and quantitative evaluation of design brake parameter influence on hysteresis value in it is presented in the paper.

  1. 49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection. 232... Class IA brake tests—1,000-mile inspection. (a) Except as provided in § 232.213, each train shall receive a Class IA brake test performed by a qualified person, as defined in § 232.5, at a location...

  2. Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in…

  3. Thermal-mechanical coupled analysis of a brake disk rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhocine, Ali; Bouchetara, Mostefa

    2013-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of the dry contact between the brake disk and pads during the braking phase. The simulation strategy is based on computer code ANSYS11. The modeling of transient temperature in the disk is actually used to identify the factor of geometric design of the disk to install the ventilation system in vehicles The thermal-structural analysis is then used with coupling to determine the deformation and the Von Mises stress established in the disk, the contact pressure distribution in pads. The results are satisfactory when compared to those of the specialized literature.

  4. Hydraulic braking system for loads subjected to impacts and vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a hydraulic braking system for loads subjected to impacts and vibrations. These double acting telescopic type hydraulic braking systems possess significant drawbacks linked to possibly important hydraulic leaks due to (a) the use of many dynamic seals in such appliances and (b) the effects of the environment of the system on these seals, particularly when employed in nuclear power stations where the seals reach significant temperatures and are subjected to radiation. Under this invention a remedy is suggested to such drawbacks by integrating means to offset automatically the leaks and the accumulation of hydraulic fluid expansions, as well as facilities to show if such leaks have occurred

  5. Prophylactic UV Radiation and CIE Standard on Photobiological Safety of Lamps and Lamp Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychev, Genrih; Gavrilkina, Galina

    Two aspects of UV photobiology have come up almost simultaneously for discussion. On the one hand, the CIE has, for all practical purposes, completed discussions of a new standard “CIE S 009/E: 2002 Photobiological Safety of Lamps and Lamp Systems”1), and it was adopted without any amendments. On the other hand, some national standards (for example, in Russia) have for decades insisted on UVA+UVB radiation being used for prophylactic purposes at actinic erythemal doses (around 140 J m-2 per 8 hours of irradiation), which are significantly higher than prohibitive doses of actinic UV hazard (30 J m-2) suggested in the CIE standard. It seems that this arisen situation is to be thought about more carefully.

  6. Power balance in highly loaded fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, G G [Osram Sylvania, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Curry, J J [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States); Lawler, J E [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2004-11-21

    Discrepancies reported in the literature between numerical predictions and experimental measurements in low-pressure Hg discharges at high current densities are considered. Elements of a one-dimensional fluid model and recent spectroscopic and Langmuir probe measurements are combined in a semi-empirical way to individually examine components of the positive column power balance and the discharge conductivity. At a Hg vapour pressure of 0.81 Pa (6.1 mTorr) and a current density of 300 mA cm{sup -2}, previous discrepancies in the power balance and discharge conductivity are simultaneously resolved by assuming a higher electron density than that obtained from the Langmuir probe measurements. This conclusion is supported by independent measurements of ion density reported in a companion paper. The importance of radial cataphoresis under these conditions, particularly with regard to radiation transport, is highlighted. This work is of particular interest for the design of fluorescent lamps operating at high current densities.

  7. Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-07-23

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15°. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15° or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens

  8. Pathogen diagnosis of children sepsis by LAMP technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cai Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore a rapid diagnostic method in neonatal sepsis and bacterial meningitis. Methods:The primers were designed and synthesized based on16S rRNA gene of Staphylococcus aureus.Four specimens ofStaphylococcus aureus,16 specimens of coagulase-negativeStaphylococci,2 specimens ofEnterococci,3 specimens ofStreptococcus,1 specimen ofMicrococcus,3 specimens ofEscherichia coli,4 specimens ofKlebsiella pneumoniae,3 specimens ofPseudomonas aeruginosa,2 specimens ofEnterobacter cloacae, and5 specimens of Acinetobacterwere tested by loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) assay.A total of118 clinical specimens of sepsis and non-sepsis were collected and detected with bothLAMP assay and blood culture.Results:By designing primers specific forStaphylococcus aureus, specimens containing different kinds of pathogens were carried out byLAMP assay, and our data showed LAMP technology for the specific detection ofStaphylococcus aureus in samples was successfully established.All clinical specimens of sepsis and non-sepsis were tested by both blood cultures andLAMP, and our data showed that compared wit blood culture method, theLAMP technology showed significantly high detection rate(P <0.01).Conclusions:As a quick and easy detection ofStaphylococcus aureus, theLAMP technology was successfully established, laid the foundation for the diagnosis and treatment of childrenStaphylococcus aureus sepsis, and showed great promotion and application value.

  9. Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

    2011-09-11

    This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

  10. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  11. Fallback level concepts for conventional and by-wire automotive brake systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brake-by-wire represents the replacement of traditional brake components such as pumps, hoses, fluids, brake boosters, and master cylinders by electronic sensors and actuators. The different design of these brake concepts poses new challenges for the automotive industry with regard to availability and fallback levels in comparison to standard conventional brake systems. This contribution focuses on the development of appropriate fallback level concepts. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) techniques and field trials will be used to investigate the performance and the usability of such systems.

  12. New slim automotive taillight using HiPerVision lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, Ludo; Ansems, Johan; Schuurmans, Jelle; de Montureux, Philippe

    2002-08-01

    HiPerVision is a new automotive signaling range of lamps (clear and colored) developed by Philips. These lamps offer car life service, reduced size and - consequently - new design opportunities. HiPerVision aims at progressively replacing P21W lamps and at being an economic alternative to LEDs. All lamp dimensions are significantly smaller than P21W's. The HiPerVision 16W lamp produces less heat than the P21W lamp (9 W less dissipation at 13.5 V), what enables a reduced reflector size, the use of low cost plastic or a combination of both. With a luminous flux of 300 lm (instead of 460 lm for P21W), the legal requirements can be easily fulfilled because of the smaller dimensions and tolerances. In order to illustrate the lamps benefits, a complete automotive taillight with 4 functions was designed and made. This paper describes the reflector design process for that taillight with HiPerVision. According to a current styling trend, the reflectors are based on Pillow Shaped Facets and on a clear front lens with no optical structure. With this design method, the whole reflector area is filled with sparkling light. The basic shape of the reflector was used to optimize heat management. By changing the shape and/or number of the pillows the desired light distribution was made. The HiPerVision lamp was measured with a Luminance Goniometer. The measurements were converted to ASAP ray sets as input for accurate simulations. The legal requirements were easily met which was confirmed by actual measurements. The total depth of the complete designed taillight was 53 mm, which is small compared to existing P21W based designs. If the lamp is placed transversal the requirements are still met and the depth of the complete taillight could be reduced to 33 mm, which is comparable with a taillight based on LEDs.

  13. Analysis of nanoparticles released from the car brakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švábenská, Eva; Roupcová, Pavla; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    Ostrava: Tanger, 2015. ISBN 978-80-87294-59-8. [NANOCON 2015. International Conference /7./. Brno (CZ), 14.10.2015-16.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : nanoparticles * wear debris * automotive brake Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  14. T-type channels: release a brake, engage a gear

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert; Laconova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2016), s. 78-80. ISSN 1933-6950 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : gating brake * pore opening * Ca(V)3.3 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.410, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/19336950.2015.1106655

  15. Computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kuraishi, Takashi; Tabata, Shinichiro; Takagi, Hirokazu

    2016-06-01

    We present computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake, including thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake and heat conduction analysis of the disk. The computational challenges include proper representation of the small-scale thermo-fluid behavior, high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near the spinning solid surfaces, and bringing the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow to the heat conduction analysis of the spinning disk. The disk brake model used in the analysis closely represents the actual configuration, and this adds to the computational challenges. The components of the method we have developed for computational analysis of the class of problems with these types of challenges include the Space-Time Variational Multiscale method for coupled incompressible flow and thermal transport, ST Slip Interface method for high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near spinning solid surfaces, and a set of projection methods for different parts of the disk to bring the HTC calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis. With the HTC coming from the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake, we do the heat conduction analysis of the disk, from the start of the breaking until the disk spinning stops, demonstrating how the method developed works in computational analysis of this complex and challenging problem.

  16. Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process oxygen diffusion was applied to titanium rotors and has shown very encouraging results. The oxygen diffused Ti-6Al-4V (OD-Ti) was tested on a sub-scale brake tester against a flat block of commercial brake lining material and benchmarked against several other Ti-based materials, including untreated Ti-6Al-4V, ceramic particle-reinforced Ti composites (MMCs), and a thermal-spray-coated Ti alloy. With respect to friction, the OD-Ti outperformed all other candidate materials under the imposed test conditions with the friction coefficient remaining within a desirable range of 0.35-0.50, even under the harshest conditions when the disk surface temperature reached nearly 600 C. In addition, the OD-Ti showed significantly improved wear-resistance over the non-treated one and was even better than the Ti-based composite materials.

  17. Electromechanical design and optimization of electromagnetic brake for rail vehicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Moravec, J.; Sedláček, J.; Ulrych, B.

    Lausanne: House EPFL Lausanne, 2005, s. 1-5. [Symposium on Advanced Electromechanical Motion Systems /6/ [0204121]. Lausanne (CH), 27.09.2005-29.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : optimization electromagnetic brake Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. A Laboratory Activity on the Eddy Current Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolivar, J. A.; Abella-Palacios, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a simple and low-cost experimental setup that can be used to study the eddy current brake, which considers the motion of a sliding magnet on an inclined conducting plane in terms of basic physical principles. We present a set of quantitative experiments performed to study the influence of the geometrical and…

  19. Non-resonant magnetic braking on JET and TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Liang, Y.; Shaing, K.C.;

    2012-01-01

    The non-resonant magnetic braking effect induced by a non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation is investigated on JET and TEXTOR. The collisionality dependence of the torque induced by the n = 1, where n is the toroidal mode number, magnetic perturbation generated by the error field correction coil...

  20. 16 CFR 1512.5 - Requirements for braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as determined by the equivalent ground speed specified in § 1512.18(d)(2)(vi). (2) Hand lever access. Hand lever mechanisms shall be located on the handlebars in a position that is readily accessible to... dimension between the brake hand lever and the handlebars in the plane containing the centerlines of...

  1. Analysis of the surface layer of the brake disk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švábenská, Eva; Roupcová, Pavla; Podstranská, Ivana; Petr, M.; Filip, J.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    Ostrava : TANGER Ltd, 2015. ISBN 978-80-87294-58-1. [METAL 2015. International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials /24./. Brno (CZ), 03.06.2015-05.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grey cast iron * brake disk * microstructure analysis * surface layer Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  2. Braking index of isolated pulsars: open questions and ways forward

    CERN Document Server

    Hamil, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities $\\Omega$, and their time derivatives which show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises either through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body, through emission of a relativistic particle wind, or via higher order magnetic multipole or gravitational quadrupole radiation. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar is model dependent and leads to the power law $\\dot{\\Omega}$ = -K $\\Omega^{\\rm n}$ where $n$ is called the braking index. The theoretical value for braking index is $n = 1, 3, 5$ for wind, MDR, quadrupole radiation respectively. The accepted view is that pulsar braking is strongly dominated by MDR. Highly precise observations of isolated pulsars yield braking index values in the range $1 < n < 2.8$ which are consistently less than the value pred...

  3. Can Dark Matter explain the Braking Index of Neutron Stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We explore a new mechanism of slowing down the rotation of neutron stars via accretion of millicharged dark matter. We find that this mechanism yields pulsar braking indices that can be substantially smaller than the standard $n\\sim 3$ of the magnetic dipole radiation model for millicharged dark matter particles that are not excluded by existing experimental constraints thus accommodating existing observations.

  4. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  5. Can dark matter explain the braking index of neutron stars?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Perez-Garcia, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a new mechanism of slowing down the rotation of neutron stars via accretion of millicharged dark matter. We find that this mechanism yields pulsar braking indices that can be substantially smaller than the standard n similar to 3 of the magnetic dipole radiation model for millicharged...... dark matter particles that are not excluded by existing experimental constraints thus accommodating existing observations....

  6. Chinese Enterprises Slams the Brakes on Acquisition of Overseas Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On June 25,China Mining Association revealed that,as of the middle of June,Chinese enterprises slammed the brakes on acquisition of overseas mines.There are only 53 overseas mine acquisition cases so far this year,

  7. Lightweight LED Fluorescent lamp using engineering poly carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Jong-Phil

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we developed lightweight LED fluorescent lamp using thermally conductive engineering PC a heat sink instead of metal. In order to secure price competitiveness, we used double extrusion molding which extrude both the heat sink plate and diffuser plate simultaneously. Fabricated fluorescent lamp has less than 20% of weight as compare to glass fluorescent lamp and power consumption is 20.2 watts, luminous efficiency 123.9 lm/W, respectively. Despite the heat conductive plastic is adopted, the system temperature is maintained less than 35° and the thermal resistance is 25 °/W.

  8. Theoretical and experimental studies on a magnetorheological brake operating under compression plus shear mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, C.; Hirani, H.

    2013-11-01

    The torque characteristics of magnetorheological brakes, consisting of rotating disks immersed in a MR fluid and enclosed in an electromagnetic casing, are controlled by regulating the yield stress of the MR fluid. An increase in yield stress increases the braking torque, which means that the higher the yield strength of the MR fluid, the better the performance of the MR brake will be. In the present research an application of compressive force on MR fluid has been proposed to increase the torque capacity of MR brakes. The mathematical expressions to estimate the torque values for MR brake, operating under compression plus shear mode accounting Herschel-Bulkley shear thinning model, have been detailed. The required compressive force on MR fluid of the proposed brake has been applied using an electromagnetic actuator. The development of a single-plate MR disk brake and an experimental test rig are described. Experiments have been performed to illustrate braking torque under different control currents (0.0-2.0 A). The torque results have been plotted and compared with theoretical study. Experimental results as well as theoretical calculations indicate that the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is higher than that of the MR brake operating only under shear.

  9. Theoretical and experimental studies on a magnetorheological brake operating under compression plus shear mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The torque characteristics of magnetorheological brakes, consisting of rotating disks immersed in a MR fluid and enclosed in an electromagnetic casing, are controlled by regulating the yield stress of the MR fluid. An increase in yield stress increases the braking torque, which means that the higher the yield strength of the MR fluid, the better the performance of the MR brake will be. In the present research an application of compressive force on MR fluid has been proposed to increase the torque capacity of MR brakes. The mathematical expressions to estimate the torque values for MR brake, operating under compression plus shear mode accounting Herschel–Bulkley shear thinning model, have been detailed. The required compressive force on MR fluid of the proposed brake has been applied using an electromagnetic actuator. The development of a single-plate MR disk brake and an experimental test rig are described. Experiments have been performed to illustrate braking torque under different control currents (0.0–2.0 A). The torque results have been plotted and compared with theoretical study. Experimental results as well as theoretical calculations indicate that the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is higher than that of the MR brake operating only under shear. (paper)

  10. A low cost, light weight cenosphere–aluminium composite for brake disc application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Saravanan; P R Thyla; S R Balakrishnan

    2016-02-01

    The commonly used composite material for brake rotor consists of silicon carbide (SiC) or aluminium oxide (Al$_2$O$_3$) particles which are more expensive. The weight of conventionally used composite is more compared to base alloy. The aim of this paper is to develop a light weight material for brake disc applications thereby substituting base alloy and conventional composite. This analysis led to 10 vol% cenosphere reinforced aluminium alloy (AA) 6063 composite as the most appropriate material for brake disc. To ensure the manufacturability of composite, composite brake rotor was casted using the sand casting technique and was machined to achieve the final component. Thermal capability of brake disc was ensured by studying temperature variation through vehicle testing procedure of disc brake. Cost reduction is one of the important benefit acquired using cenosphere reinforced composite. This was ensured by cost estimation and analysis. The cost estimated to manufacture the AA6063 brake disc was compared with composite cost.

  11. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Zakaria, Lambang, Lullus; Triyono, Muhayat, Nurul

    2016-03-01

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Antifriction Magnetorheological Fluids for Brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjit Sarkar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetorheological (MR fluids are smart materials with shear strength ranging between zero to 100 kPa under the influence of magnetic field. The present paper discusses the synthesis of MR fluid and its application in brake. In MR brake, gap between stator and rotor is filled with low (off-state viscosity MR fluid. On the application of magnetic field, MR fluid changes its state from liquid to semi-solid by aligning magnetic particles in chains. Due to such chaining action, yield strength of fluid increases, friction between stator and rotor increases and fulfils the braking function. The strength of magnetic particle is a function of relative speed between stator and rotor, applied magnetic field, and volume percentage of magnetic particle. In this study antifriction (off-state and strong chain (on-state CI based MR fluid has been prepared by mixing oleic acid as antifriction additives and tetramethylammonium hydroxide as surfactant to reduce the agglomeration of the MR fluid. Yield strengths of the synthesized MR fluid in on-state and off-state have been compared with commercially available MRF 241ES fluid. A flywheel based MR brake experimental setup has been developed to analyze the performance of designed and developed MR brake.Results show that synthesized MR fluid is stronger and faster in response compared to MRF 241ES fluid.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(4, pp.408-412, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2633

  13. Comparison of short time annealing of implanted silicon layers with tungsten-halogen lamp and mercury arc lamp sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short time anneal (STA) experiments were performed in a specially designed system which uses either a bank of Tungsten-Halogen lamps or a moving Mercury arc lamp as the light source. Both STA results were compared with conventional furnace anneal. The Mercury arc lamp anneal is found to be a critical process but optimization for wafer damage free conditions can be achieved. The anneals result in general in a better profile control which is most outspoken for shallow Boron implants while the electrical activation is comparable for all elements to that obtained with Tungsten-Halogen or furnace anneal

  14. 75 FR 14287 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts,'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653. DOE has completed the... consumption for fluorescent lamp ballasts in the Federal Register on October 22, 2009. 74 FR 54445. II... service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflector lamps (74 FR 34080) adopted a new definition...

  15. In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is

  16. 21 CFR 878.4635 - Ultraviolet lamp for tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4635 Ultraviolet lamp for...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  17. Purging means and method for Xenon arc lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    High pressure Xenon short-arc lamp with two reservoirs which are selectively connectable to the lamp's envelope is described. One reservoir contains an absorbent which will absorb both Xenon and contaminant gases such as CO2 and O2. The absorbent temperature is controlled to evacuate the envelope of both the Xenon and the contaminant gases. The temperature of the absorbent is then raised to desorb only clean Xenon while retaining the contaminant gases, thereby clearing the envelope of the contaminant gases. The second reservoir contains a gas whose specific purpose is, to remove the objectional metal film which deposits gradually on the interior surface of the lamp envelope during normal arc operation. The origin of the film is metal transferred from the cathode of the arc lamp by sputtering or other gas transfer processes.

  18. Corneal astigmatism measuring module for slit lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an automatic keratometer module for slit lamps that provides automatic measurements of the radii of the corneal curvature. The system projects 72 light spots displayed in a precise circle at the examined cornea. The displacement and deformation of the reflected image of these light spots are analysed providing the keratometry. Measurements in the range of 26.8-75 D can be obtained and a self-calibration system has been specially designed in order to keep the system calibrated. Infrared LEDs indicate automatically which eye is being examined. Volunteer patients (492) have been submitted to the system and the results show that our system has a high correlation factor with the commercially available manual keratometers and the keratometry measurements from a topographer. Our developed system is 95% in agreement with the corneal topographer (Humphrey-Atlas 995 CZM) and the manual keratometer (Topcon OM-4). The system's nominal precision is 0.05 mm for the radii of curvature and 10 for the associated axis

  19. 600-W lamp pumped CW Nd:YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li(李强); Zhimin Wang(王志敏); Zhiyong Wang(王智勇); Zhensheng Yu(于振声); Hong Lei(雷訇); Jiang Guo(郭江); Gang Li(李港); Tiechuan Zuo(左铁钏)

    2003-01-01

    A lamp pumped CW Nd:YAG laser is presented in this paper for the requirement of industrial application.The main factors, which affect output power and beam quality of high power solid-state laser module, are theoretically analyzed. Total electro-optics efficiency of lamp pumped Nd:YAG crystal as high as 4.0% is obtained, and output power is higher than 647 W with beam parameter product 22 mm.mrad.

  20. Rapid annealing using the water-wall arc lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpey, Jeffrey C.; Stump, Paul O.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid annealing techniques using graphite strip heaters [1], tungsten-halogen lamps [2], and conventional arc lamps [3] have been gaining favor to provide controllable activation of ion implants while minimizing the diffusion of the implanted dopant. These conventional heat sources have given good results, but they all suffer from limitations in power output and/or the ability to change power levels rapidly. The water-wall d.c. arc lamp overcomes these limitations and allows precise control and excellent reproducability of the anneal cycle. The high power output and excellent optical coupling of the water-wall lamp allows ilumination from one side of the sample. The wafer temperature can then be directly monitored with a pyrometer and the fast response time of the lamp allows the pyrometer output to control the lamp power and, hence, provide direct feedback control of the wafer temperature. Direct control is important to overcome variations caused by different doping levels or dielectric coatings on the wafers. Annealing experiments using the water-wall lamp have shown that good activation and essentially complete removal of implant damage can be achieved while moving the junction only minimally [4,5]. The degree of dopant diffusion (generally on the order of 1000 Å) is small compared to device dimensions but is somewhat more than would be expected from classical diffusion theory using published diffusion coefficients. The differences depend on the implanted species and models are being developed to explain the discrepancies. The vary rapid heating and cooling rates obtainable with the water-wall lamp offer a great deal of flexibility in the time/temperature cycles used for annealing (or other rapid thermal processes). There are indications that the ability to achieve a rapid cooling rate allows more complete activation of high dose implants and rapid heating rates may reduce the residual damage and amount of diffusion.

  1. Rapid annealing using the water-wall arc lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelpey, J.C.; Stump, P.O. (Eaton Corp., Beverly, MA (USA). Semiconductor Equipment Operations)

    1985-01-01

    Rapid annealing techniques using graphite strip heaters, tungsten-halogen lamps and conventional arc lamps have been gaining favor to provide controllable activation of ion implants while minimizing the diffusion of the implanted dopant. These conventional heat sources have given good results, but they all suffer from limitations in power output and/or the ability to change power levels rapidly. The water-wall d.c. arc lamp overcomes these limitations and allows precise control and excellent reproducability of the anneal cycle. The high power output and excellent optical coupling of the water-wall lamp allows ilumination from one side of the sample. The wafer temperature can then be directly monitored with a pyrometer and the fast response time of the lamp allows the pyrometer output to control the lamp power and, hence, provide direct feedback control of the wafer temperature. Direct control is important to overcome variations caused by different doping levels or dielectric coatings on the wafers. Annealing experiments using the water-wall lamp have shown that good activation and essentially complete removal of implant damage can be achieved while moving the junction only minimally. The degree of dopant diffusion (generally on the order of 1000 A) is small compared to device dimensions but is somewhat more than would be expected from classical diffusion theory using published diffusion coefficients. The differences depend on the implanted species and models are being developed to explain the discrepancies. The vary rapid heating and cooling rates obtainable with the water-wall lamp offer a great deal of flexibility in the time/temperature cycles used for annealing (or other rapid thermal processes). There are indications that the ability to achieve a rapid cooling rate allows more complete activation of high dose implants and rapid heating rates may reduce the residual damage and amount of diffusion.

  2. Rapid annealing using the water-wall arc lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid annealing techniques using graphite strip heaters, tungsten-halogen lamps and conventional arc lamps have been gaining favor to provide controllable activation of ion implants while minimizing the diffusion of the implanted dopant. These conventional heat sources have given good results, but they all suffer from limitations in power output and/or the ability to change power levels rapidly. The water-wall d.c. arc lamp overcomes these limitations and allows precise control and excellent reproducability of the anneal cycle. The high power output and excellent optical coupling of the water-wall lamp allows ilumination from one side of the sample. The wafer temperature can then be directly monitored with a pyrometer and the fast response time of the lamp allows the pyrometer output to control the lamp power and, hence, provide direct feedback control of the wafer temperature. Direct control is important to overcome variations caused by different doping levels or dielectric coatings on the wafers. Annealing experiments using the water-wall lamp have shown that good activation and essentially complete removal of implant damage can be achieved while moving the junction only minimally. The degree of dopant diffusion (generally on the order of 1000 A) is small compared to device dimensions but is somewhat more than would be expected from classical diffusion theory using published diffusion coefficients. The differences depend on the implanted species and models are being developed to explain the discrepancies. The vary rapid heating and cooling rates obtainable with the water-wall lamp offer a great deal of flexibility in the time/temperature cycles used for annealing (or other rapid thermal processes). There are indications that the ability to achieve a rapid cooling rate allows more complete activation of high dose implants and rapid heating rates may reduce the residual damage and amount of diffusion. (orig.)

  3. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  4. Deuterium lamps as transfer standards for spectral radiance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work carried out at NPL and PTB to improve the performance of a low pressure deuterium discharge lamp, so that it can be used as a transfer standard in the spectral range 120 to 350 nm. To this end it was necessary: - to replace the original quartz windows by magnesium fluoride single crystal plates, which were cut perpendicular to the c-axis of the crystal and which had to be free of impurities, - to construct the lamps in that way that the directional uniformity of the emitted radiation is within the demands, - to age the lamps and to preselect only those of which the irradiance was stable within ± 1% during a thirty minute period after warm-up, - to improve the commercially available electrical power supply to meet the operational needs of the lamps. Thus, the deuterium lamps drifted by about 3% over a period of 100 h at all wavelengths except at 250 nm, where the ageing increased to 4.5%. A liquid nitrogen trap has been developed which can be installed between the vacuum system and the lamp. This reduced to about 2% the decrease of the window's transmission during the first hour of operation, caused by the deposition of oil from the vacuum system

  5. Implementation of Energy Saving Controller for Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Barsoum, Cheong; Barsoum, N. N.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescent lamps have proven to be the most efficient lighting device. However, energy losses have been found in electromagnetic ballast due to high harmonic distortion and low power factor so energy is consumed unnecessarily. In today's energy demanding environment, energy efficiency of fluorescent lamps can be improved by introducing an energy saving controller in the electromagnetic ballast. The energy saving controller limits the supply voltage to an optimum level which tends to reduce the power losses in electromagnetic ballasts and fluorescent lamps. It is also anticipated that the energy saving controller has desirable characteristics of high power factor with dimmable illuminance level control. In comparison to electronic dimmable ballast, integration an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps results in less power consumption, dimmable illuminance control and longer life span at a much lower installation cost. Furthermore, there is no replacement cost for integrating the energy saving controller with existing electromagnetic fluorescent lamps system. In this paper, experimental works have been performed to investigate hardware implementation of the system which further supported by simulation on MATLAB Simulink. Experimental results based on the proposed energy saving controller showed that electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps can be dimmed without any problems down to 50% illuminance level output. In addition, experimental results show that 37.5% power consumption can be saved by reducing 15% of the supply voltage.

  6. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  7. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paget, M. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lingard, R. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines standard fluorescent lamps, the recessed troffers they are commonly used in, and available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps and their application in fluorescent troffers.

  8. Use of a hydraulic brake as a source of thermal energy for the railway rolling stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.Gabrinets

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this paper the braking issues of passenger trains which have a great speed and frequent stops are examines. Problem statement: These processes are ехpensive and have big energy losses. The proposed solution to the problem: The kinetic energy of braking prosses propose to turn into thermal energy of heating fluid. For this purpose special hydraulic brake is proposed. The brake is connected with the wheel carriage pairs. The process is based on the energy dissipation in liqid when the disks with spikes rotate in it. Because the real liquid has friction and viscosity, it will be heat up, when the mechanical parts of the hydraulic brake are moved in it. The design, operating principle and characteristics of the hydraulic brake are proposed. Transmission of kinetic energy of carriage motion to brake system executed by mechanical clutches. It connected with the wheel pair and transmitting the energy the wheels rotation to hydraulic brake discs. The cylindrical rods are installed on the discs. Rods location fits the profile of the curved centrifugal pump vanes. As result, the fluid heatind prosess by rotatinge discs with rods take place also at the same time with the liquid pumping through the inner volume of brake system.Conclusions: Affordable passenger carriage braking dynamic is achieved by varying the size and number of rods. The heated liquid may be subsequently used for household needs and for heating the passenger carriage.

  9. Characterization of a FEL lamp type source towards a blue light irradiance intercomparison in medical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A. F. G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the characterization of modified FEL 1000W lamp housing to be used as a transference standard in the blue light irradiance intercomparison. It aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures concerning the phototherapy treatment stated on the standard NBR/IEC 60601-2-50. The light source characterization consists of lamp seasoning, lamp short-term drift and lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution at the plane of measurement. The lamp seasoning is performed by a software developed in LabView® which measures the lamp voltage, current and irradiance at each 5 minutes during 25 hours of seasoning. The lamp short-term drift is evaluated by measuring the lamp irradiance during a sequence of 2 hours of lamp using. The lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution is verified using a radiometer head with a reduced aperture attached to an YZ positing system at each 2 mm in an interval of 24 mm. The lamp presented variation of about 0.1%/h during seasoning. Short-term drift for the lamp after a warm-up of 20 minutes was less than 0.9% for series of 4 lamp switching cycles. Lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution showed a variation of ±1.25% for a circular diameter of 20 mm. The overall uncertainty for lamp irradiance was 3.65%.

  10. Characterization of a FEL lamp type source towards a blue light irradiance intercomparison in medical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, A F G Jr, E-mail: agentil@ipt.br [Laboratorio de Equipamentos Elotricos e Opticos, Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Almeida Prado, 532, 05508-901 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the characterization of modified FEL 1000W lamp housing to be used as a transference standard in the blue light irradiance intercomparison. It aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures concerning the phototherapy treatment stated on the standard NBR/IEC 60601-2-50. The light source characterization consists of lamp seasoning, lamp short-term drift and lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution at the plane of measurement. The lamp seasoning is performed by a software developed in LabView (registered) which measures the lamp voltage, current and irradiance at each 5 minutes during 25 hours of seasoning. The lamp short-term drift is evaluated by measuring the lamp irradiance during a sequence of 2 hours of lamp using. The lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution is verified using a radiometer head with a reduced aperture attached to an YZ positing system at each 2 mm in an interval of 24 mm. The lamp presented variation of about 0.1%/h during seasoning. Short-term drift for the lamp after a warm-up of 20 minutes was less than 0.9% for series of 4 lamp switching cycles. Lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution showed a variation of {+-}1.25% for a circular diameter of 20 mm. The overall uncertainty for lamp irradiance was 3.65%.

  11. Characterization of a FEL lamp type source towards a blue light irradiance intercomparison in medical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the characterization of modified FEL 1000W lamp housing to be used as a transference standard in the blue light irradiance intercomparison. It aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures concerning the phototherapy treatment stated on the standard NBR/IEC 60601-2-50. The light source characterization consists of lamp seasoning, lamp short-term drift and lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution at the plane of measurement. The lamp seasoning is performed by a software developed in LabView (registered) which measures the lamp voltage, current and irradiance at each 5 minutes during 25 hours of seasoning. The lamp short-term drift is evaluated by measuring the lamp irradiance during a sequence of 2 hours of lamp using. The lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution is verified using a radiometer head with a reduced aperture attached to an YZ positing system at each 2 mm in an interval of 24 mm. The lamp presented variation of about 0.1%/h during seasoning. Short-term drift for the lamp after a warm-up of 20 minutes was less than 0.9% for series of 4 lamp switching cycles. Lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution showed a variation of ±1.25% for a circular diameter of 20 mm. The overall uncertainty for lamp irradiance was 3.65%.

  12. Differential Rotation in Neutron Stars Magnetic Braking and Viscous Damping

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, S L

    2000-01-01

    Diffferentially rotating stars can support significantly more mass in equilibrium than nonrotating or uniformly rotating stars, according to general relativity. The remnant of a binary neutron star merger may give rise to such a ``hypermassive'' object. While such a star may be dynamically stable against gravitational collapse and bar formation, the radial stabilization due to differential rotation is likely to be temporary. Magnetic braking and viscosity combine to drive the star to uniform rotation, even if the seed magnetic field and the viscosity are small. This process inevitably leads to delayed collapse, which will be accompanied by a delayed gravitational wave burst and, possibly, a gamma-ray burst. We provide a simple, Newtonian, MHD calculation of the braking of differential rotation by magnetic fields and viscosity. The star is idealized as a differentially rotating, infinite cylinder consisting of a homogeneous, incompressible conducting gas. We solve analytically the simplest case in which the ga...

  13. Syntegra: complete integration of traction, bogie and brake systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenstein, L.; Wangelin, F. von [Siemens AG, Transportation Systems, Erlangen (Germany). Group Technology TS GT; Teichmann, M.; Hoffmann, T. [Siemens TS, Graz (Austria); Joeckel, A. [Siemens Automation and Drives, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    With Syntegra {sup registered} technology, Siemens has developed an approach to the complete integration of traction, bogie and brake systems, and this has initially been put into practice for metro, underground and S-Bahn (urban regional express) trains. Syntegra constitutes a fundamentally new approach, achieving a greater intensity of integration compared with the types of drive system that have been in use up until now. With Syntegra, the bogie, transmission and brake components are all brought together as part of one and the same system. The integration and, more especially, the technological advances within the three named areas bring about numerous synergies. The new generation of powered bogie features a combination of high efficiency, low dead weight and reduced emissions. A Syntegra drive system achieves a performance which is markedly better than that of conventional systems. (orig.)

  14. Can non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics solve the magnetic braking catastrophe?

    CERN Document Server

    Wurster, James; Bate, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether or not the low ionisation fractions in molecular cloud cores can solve the `magnetic braking catastrophe', where magnetic fields prevent the formation of circumstellar discs around young stars. We perform three-dimensional smoothed particle non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of the gravitational collapse of one solar mass molecular cloud cores, incorporating the effects of ambipolar diffusion, Ohmic resistivity and the Hall effect alongside a self-consistent calculation of the ionisation chemistry assuming 0.1 micron grains. When including only ambipolar diffusion or Ohmic resistivity, discs do not form in the presence of strong magnetic fields, similar to the cases using ideal MHD. With the Hall effect included, disc formation depends on the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the rotation vector of the gas cloud. When the vectors are aligned, strong magnetic braking occurs and no disc is formed. When the vectors are anti-aligned, a disc with radius of 13AU ca...

  15. Magnetic Braking and Protostellar Disk Formation: The Ideal MHD Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Richard R.; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2008-07-01

    Magnetic fields are usually considered dynamically important in star formation when the dimensionless mass-to-flux ratio is close to, or less than, unity (λ lesssim 1). We show that, in disk formation, the requirement is far less stringent. This conclusion is drawn from a set of 2D (axisymmetric) simulations of the collapse of rotating, singular isothermal cores magnetized to different degrees. We find that a weak field corresponding to λ ~ 100 can begin to disrupt the rotationally supported disk through magnetic braking, by creating regions of rapid, supersonic collapse in the disk. These regions are separated by one or more centrifugal barriers, where the rapid infall is temporarily halted. The number of centrifugal barriers increases with the mass-to-flux ratio λ. When λ gtrsim 100, they merge together to form a more or less contiguous, rotationally supported disk. Even though the magnetic field in such a case is extremely weak on the scale of dense cores, it is amplified by collapse and differential rotation, to the extent that its pressure dominates the thermal pressure in both the disk and its surrounding region. For relatively strongly magnetized cores with λ lesssim 10, the disk formation is suppressed completely, as found previously. A new feature is that the mass accretion is highly episodic, due to reconnection of the magnetic field lines accumulated near the center. For rotationally supported disks to appear during the protostellar mass accretion phase of star formation in dense cores with realistic field strengths, the powerful magnetic brake must be weakened, perhaps through nonideal MHD effects. Another possibility is to remove, through protostellar winds, the material that acts to brake the disk rotation. We discuss the possibility of observing a generic product of the magnetic braking, an extended circumstellar region that is supported by a combination of toroidal magnetic field and rotation—a "magnetogyrosphere"—interferometrically.

  16. Subway Train Braking System: A Fuzzy Based Hardware Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun B.I. Reaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Automated subway train-braking system require perfection, efficiency and fast response. In order to cope with this concerns, an appropriate algorithm need to be developed which need to be implemented in hardware for faster response. Approach: In this research, the FPGA realization of fuzzy based subway train braking system has been presented on an Alter FLEX10K device to provide an accurate and increased speed of convergence of the network. The fuzzy based subway train braking system is comprised of fusilier, inference, rule selector and defuzzifier modules. Sixteen rules are identified for the rule selector module. After determining the membership functions and its fuzzy variables, the Max-Min Composition method and Madman-Min implication operator are used for the inference module and the Centre of Gravity method is used for the defuzzification module. Each module is modeled individually using behavioral VHDL. The layers are then connected using structural VHDL. Two 8-bit and one 8-bit unsigned digital signals are used for input and output respectively. Six ROMs are defined in order to decrease the chances of processing and increasing the throughput of the system. Results: Functional simulations were commenced to verify the functionality of the individual modules and the system as well. We have validated the hardware implementation of the proposed approach through comparison, verification and analysis. The design has utilized 2372 units of LC with a system frequency of 139.8MHz. Conclusion: In this research, the FPGA realization of fuzzy brake system of subway train has been successfully implemented with minimum usage of logic cells. The validation study with C model shows that the hardware model is appropriate and the hardware approach shows faster and accurate response with full automatic control.

  17. Differential Rotation in Neutron Stars: Magnetic Braking and Viscous Damping

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2000-01-01

    Diffferentially rotating stars can support significantly more mass in equilibrium than nonrotating or uniformly rotating stars, according to general relativity. The remnant of a binary neutron star merger may give rise to such a ``hypermassive'' object. While such a star may be dynamically stable against gravitational collapse and bar formation, the radial stabilization due to differential rotation is likely to be temporary. Magnetic braking and viscosity combine to drive the star to uniform ...

  18. Carbon nanotube torsional springs for regenerative braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanwei; Martin, Corbin; Lashmore, David; Schauer, Mark; Livermore, Carol

    2015-10-01

    The modeling and demonstration of large stroke, high energy density and high power density torsional springs based on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns is reported, as well as their application as energy-storing actuators for regenerative braking systems. An originally untwisted CNT yarn is cyclically loaded and unloaded in torsion, with the maximum rotation angle increasing incrementally until failure. The measured average extractable energy density values are 2.9 kJ kg-1  ±  1.2 kJ kg-1 and 3.4 kJ kg-1  ±  0.4 kJ kg-1 for 1-ply CNT yarns and 2-ply CNT yarns, respectively. Additionally, a regenerative braking system is demonstrated to capture the kinetic energy of a wheel and store it as elastic energy in twisted CNT yarns. When the yarn’s twist is released, the stored energy reaccelerates the wheel. The measured energy and mean power densities of the CNT yarns in the simple regenerative braking setup are on average 3.3 kJ kg-1 and 0.67 kW kg-1, respectively, with maximum measured values of up to 4.7 kJ kg-1 and 1.2 kW kg-1, respectively. A slightly lower energy density of up to 1.2 kJ kg-1 and a 0.29 kW kg-1 mean power density are measured for CNT yarns in a more complex setup that mimics a unidirectional rotating regenerative braking mechanism.

  19. Nonlinear transient and chaotic interactions in disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-04-01

    In automotive disc-brake squeal, most numerical studies have been focussed on the prediction of unstable vibration modes in the frequency domain using the complex eigenvalue analysis. However, the magnitude of the positive real part of a complex eigenvalue is an unreliable indicator of squeal occurrence. Although nonlinearities have been shown to play a significant role in brake squeal, transient nonlinear time domain analyses have rarely been applied owing to high computational costs. Here the complex eigenvalue analysis, the direct steady-state analysis and the transient nonlinear time domain analysis are applied to an isotropic pad-on-disc finite element model representing a simple model of a brake system. While in this investigation, in-plane pad-mode instabilities are not detected by the complex eigenvalue analysis, the dissipated energy obtained by the direct steady-state analysis of the model subjected to harmonic contact pressure excitation is negative at frequencies of pad modes, indicating a potential for instabilities. Transient nonlinear time domain analysis of the pad and disc dynamics reveal that in-plane pad vibrations excite a dominant out-of-plane disc mode. For intermittently chaotic pad motion, the disc dynamics is quasi-periodic; and for chaotic motion of the pad, a toroidal attractor is found for the disc's out-of-plane motion. Nonlinear interactions between the pad and the disc highlight that different parts in a brake system display different dynamic behaviour and need to be analysed separately. The type II intermittency route to chaos could be the cause for the experimentally observed instantaneous mode squeal.

  20. Neural Signatures Enhance Emergency Braking Intention Detection during Simulated Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Haufe; M. F. Gugler; Sagebaum, M.

    2010-01-01

    In many safety-critical areas such as individual car traffic, human performance has become the limiting factor. Modern driving assistance systems can detect potential upcoming crashes and take preparatory measures or even initiate automatic emergency braking.We conducted a driving simulator study (N=20) using a customized version of the open-source racing software TORCS. The experiment comprised 3 blocks (45 minutes each) of driving, in which the subjects had to tightly follow a computer-cont...

  1. SPINDOWN OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OR MAGNETIC BRAKING?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the spindown of isolated neutron stars from initially rapid rotation rates, driven by two factors: (1) gravitational wave emission due to r-modes and (2) magnetic braking. In the context of isolated neutron stars, we present the first study including self-consistently the magnetic damping of r-modes in the spin evolution. We track the spin evolution employing the RNS code, which accounts for the rotating structure of neutron stars for various equations of state. We find that, despite the strong damping due to the magnetic field, r-modes alter the braking rate from pure magnetic braking for B ≤ 1013 G. For realistic values of the saturation amplitude αsat, the r-mode can also decrease the time to reach the threshold central density for quark deconfinement. Within a phenomenological model, we assess the gravitational waveform that would result from r-mode-driven spindown of a magnetized neutron star. To contrast with the persistent signal during the spindown phase, we also present a preliminary estimate of the transient gravitational wave signal from an explosive quark-hadron phase transition, which can be a signal for the deconfinement of quarks inside neutron stars.

  2. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Österle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear.

  3. Neuroendocrine brake for the treatment of morbid obesity. Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Ludovico de Paula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To demonstrate the preliminary results of a newtechnique named neuroendocrine brake, for surgical treatment ofmorbid obesity. Methods: In November 2003, three patientsunderwent the neuroendocrine brake operation performed by thelaparoscopic approach. The mean age was 46.4 years; all patientswere female. Mean BMI was 42.3 kg/m2. The patients selectedpresented some relative or absolute contraindications to the useof gastrointestinal bypass techniques, including gastric ulcer anda family history of gastric malignancy(1 and chronic anemia (2.All patients had associated diseases, including type II diabetesmellitus (2, hypertension (2, obstructive sleep apnea (1,dyslipidemia (3, cholecystolithiasis (1, gastric ulcer (1 andchronic anemia (2. The laparoscopic technique consisted of anileal interposition at the proximal jejunum and longitudinalgastrectomy. Results: There was no conversion to open surgery orpostoperative complications. Sixteen months later, the meanpercentage of initial body weight loss was 44.6% and the meanBMI was 24.3 kg/m2. Glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levelswere normalized, and sleep apnea showed remission. Conclusion:In spite of the reduced number of patients and short term followup, the good results suggest that the neuroendocrine brake maybecome an option for surgical treatment of morbid obesity in thenear future.

  4. Mechanism analysis and evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The energy flow of an electric vehicle with regenerative brake is analyzed. • Methodology for measuring the regen brake contribution is discussed. • Evaluation parameters of regen brake contribution are proposed. • Vehicle tests are carried out on chassis dynamometer. • Test results verify the evaluation method and parameters proposed. - Abstract: This article discusses the mechanism and evaluation methods of contribution brought by regenerative braking to electric vehicle’s energy efficiency improvement. The energy flow of an electric vehicle considering the braking energy regeneration was analyzed. Then, methodologies for measuring the contribution made by regenerative brake to vehicle energy efficiency improvement were introduced. Based on the energy flow analyzed, two different evaluation parameters were proposed. Vehicle tests were carried out on chassis dynamometer under typical driving cycles with three different control strategies. The experimental results the difference between the proposed two evaluation parameters, and demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the evaluation methodologies proposed

  5. A Combined Cooperative Braking Model with a Predictive Control Strategy in an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Guo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative braking with regenerative braking and mechanical braking plays an important role in electric vehicles for energy-saving control. Based on the parallel and the series cooperative braking models, a combined model with a predictive control strategy to get a better cooperative braking performance is presented. The balance problem between the maximum regenerative energy recovery efficiency and the optimum braking stability is solved through an off-line process optimization stream with the collaborative optimization algorithm (CO. To carry out the process optimization stream, the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD is presented to discrete the continuous design space. To solve the poor real-time problem of the optimization, a high-precision predictive model based on the off-line optimization data of the combined model is built, and a predictive control strategy is proposed and verified through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the predictive control strategy and the combined model are reasonable and effective.

  6. Detecting groan sources in drum brakes of commercial vehicles by TVA-FMEA

    OpenAIRE

    Karabay, Sedat; Baynal, Kasim; İğdeli, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategy followed by an automobile company for detecting the root causes of groan complaints related to rear drum brakes in commercial vehicles is presented using data collected from the sold troubled vehicles and from new vehicles from the production line, as well as the drum-brake test rig at the laboratory. Drum brake groan is often very intense and can cause large numbers of customer complaints. During a groan noise event, vehicle structure and suspension components a...

  7. Detecting groan sources in drum brakes of commercial vehicles by TVA-FMEA: a case study:

    OpenAIRE

    Baynal, Kasim; Igdeli, Cengiz; Karabay, Sedat

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the strategy followed by an automobile company for detecting the root causes of groan complaints related to rear drum brakes in commercial vehicles is presented using data collected from the sold troubled vehicles and from new vehicles from the production line, as well as the drum-brake test rig at the laboratory. Drum brake groan is often very intense and can cause large numbers of customer complaints. During a groan noise event, vehicle structure and suspension components a...

  8. Experimental characterization and numerical modelling of the squeal noise generated by railway disc brakes

    OpenAIRE

    CHIELLO,O; LORANG,X; Cordier, JF; MARGIOCCHI,F

    2007-01-01

    The squeal noise generated by railway disk brakes is an everyday source of discomfort for the passengers both inside and outside the trains in stations. The development of silent brake components is needed but beforehand requires a better characterisation and understanding of the phenomenon. This is the aim of the experimental and theoretical investigations performed on high power disc brakes in the framework of the CRISFIS project and presented in this paper. The first part is concerned with...

  9. An approach of inertia compensation based on electromagnetic induction in brake test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduced the operational principle of the brake test bench, and points out the shortcomings when controlling the current of brake test, which means the reference measuring data is instantaneous. Aimed at this deficiency, a current control model based on electromagnetic induction and DC voltage is proposed. On the principle of electromagnetic induction, continuous data and automatic processes are realized. It significantly minimized errors owing to instantaneous data, and maximized the accuracy of the brake test.

  10. Thermo-Mechanical Simulation of Brake Disc Frictional Character by Moment of Inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Gao

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of temperatures gradient and thermal stress of brake disc has been simulated by FEM code to make brake disc thermal stress more homogenously. In this study, using moment of inertia to simulate the realistic brake process instead of theoretically predefines the train deceleration rate, nonlinear deceleration rate and thermo-mechanical behavior has been revealed. The FEM models build upon LS-DYNA® thermo-mechanical code and contact algorithm. Non-uniform temperature alone disc ...

  11. Studies on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine with Passive Teetered Brake & Damper Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Yukimaru; KAMADA, Yasunari; MAEDA, Takao

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve the reliability of megawatt wind turbines, the passive teetered brake & damper mechanism is applied. Its two unique effects, as its name implies, are braking and damping. The passive brake & damper mechanism is useful for variable speed control of the large wind turbine. It is comprised of teetering and feathering mechanisms. When the wind speed exceeds the rated wind speed, the blade is passively teetered in a downwind direction and, at the same time, a feathering mechani...

  12. Physics of mercury-free high-pressure discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a summary of recent results about the replacement of mercury in high-pressure discharge lamps by metallic zinc. Actually, this topic is of high relevance for the lighting industry due to the need of more environmentally friendly products. The work presented here is supported by the German government under contract no 13N8072 and 13N8264. Due to upcoming European legislations which are expected for the year 2003, the replacement of mercury in lighting products is a high priority task. For example, mercury-free headlight discharge lamps are requested by the automotive industry. Pure zinc/argon discharges as well as lamps including zinc or mercury and metal halide additives are investigated. Experimental data are compared with model calculations of the energy balance involving the transport of heat and radiation. Since the excitation energies of relevant zinc transitions are lower than for mercury, axis temperatures of pure zinc lamps are about 300 K below the value of mercury arcs. In addition, the thermal conductivity of zinc including the contribution of radiation diffusion is larger than compared to mercury. From lamp voltage measurements it is found that the cross section for elastical electron scattering by zinc atoms is about the same than for mercury. When adding metal halides to a pure zinc discharge with argon as a starting gas, i.e. NaI, TlI, DyI3, axis temperatures decrease to about 5100 K due to strong radiation cooling. In order to obtain sufficiently large lamp voltages, wall temperatures of more than 1300 K are adjusted by means of polycrystalline aluminaoxide (Al2O3) as a wall material. Electric field strengths of 6.0 and 8.6 V mm-1 are measured for metal halide lamps containing zinc or mercury, respectively. The light technical data of the discharges are very close, since mercury and zinc do not contribute significantly to the radiation in the visible range. Efficacies of up to 93 and 100 lm W-1 are found in metal halide lamps with

  13. Red phosphors for use in high CRI fluorescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Vankatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

    2005-11-15

    Novel red emitting phosphors for use in fluorescent lamps resulting in superior color rendering index values compared to conventional red phosphors. Also disclosed is a fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer comprising blends of one or more of a blue phosphor, a blue-green phosphor, a green phosphor and a red a phosphor selected from the group consisting of SrY.sub.2 O.sub.4 :Eu.sup.3+, (Y,Gd)Al.sub.3 B.sub.4 O.sub.12 :Eu.sup.3+, and [(Y.sub.1-x-y-m La.sub.y)Gd.sub.x ]BO.sub.3 :Eu.sub.m wherein yphosphor layer can optionally include an additional deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of the disclosed red phosphors in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over the course of the lamp life.

  14. Design of a squeeze film magnetorheological brake considering compression enhanced shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, C.; Hirani, H.

    2013-02-01

    A magnetorheological brake, consisting of rotating disks immersed in a MR fluid and enclosed in an electromagnet, is proposed to replace the conventional heavy weight low response hydraulic disk brake. The frictional characteristics of the proposed brake can be controlled by regulating the yield stress of the MR fluid as function of magnetic field and normal compressive force. The controllable yield stress retards the surfaces of rotating disks, thus MR fluid can be used as a brake lining material. The present research work attempts designing a squeeze film MR brake by accounting compression enhanced shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluid. Theoretical calculations indicate that the estimated braking torque of the six plate squeeze film MR brake, under compression, is in the order of 600Nm. To validate the theoretical design and its findings, a prototype of single-plate squeeze film MR disk brake has been developed. Experimental test setup helps to illustrate braking torque under different control currents (0.0 to 1.25 A).

  15. Characteristic Analysis and Control of a Hybrid Excitation Linear Eddy Current Brake

    OpenAIRE

    Baoquan Kou; Yinxi Jin; Lu Zhang; He Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid excitation linear eddy current brake is presented as a braking system for high-speed road and rail vehicles. The presence of the permanent magnets (PMs), whose flux lines in the primary core are oppositely directed with respect to the flux lines by the excitation windings, has the effect of mitigating the saturation of the iron in the teeth of the primary core. This allows the brake to be fed with more intense currents, improving the braking force. First, using...

  16. Optimal design of a novel hybrid MR brake for motorcycles considering axial and radial magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an optimal solution of a new type of motorcycle brake featuring different smart magnetorheological (MR) fluids. In this study, typical types of commercial MR fluid are considered there for the design of a motorcycle MR brake; MRF-122-2ED (low yield stress), MRF-132-DG (medium yield stress) and MRF-140-CG (high yield stress). As a first step, a new configuration featuring a T-shaped drum MR brake is introduced and a hybrid concept of magnetic circuit (using both axial and radial magnetic flux) to generate braking force is analyzed based on the finite element method. An optimal design of the MR brake considering the required braking torque, the temperature due to friction of the MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions is then performed. For the optimization, the finite element analysis (FEA) is used to achieve principal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. In addition, the size, mass and power consumption of three different MR motorcycle brakes are quantitatively analyzed and compared. (paper)

  17. Analysis of the stability of PTW riders in autonomous braking scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidis, Ioannis; Kavadarli, Gueven; Erich, Schuller; Graw, Matthias; Peldschus, Steffen

    2012-11-01

    While fatalities of car occupants in the EU decreased remarkably over the last decade, Powered Two Wheelers (PTWs) fatalities still increase following the increase of PTW ownership. Autonomous braking systems have been implemented in several types of vehicles and are presently addressed by research in the field of PTWs. A major concern in this context is the rider stability. Experiments with volunteers were performed in order to find out whether autonomous braking for PTWs will produce a greater instability of the rider in comparison to manual braking. The PTW's braking conditions were simulated in a laboratory with a motorcycle mock-up mounted on a sled, which was accelerated with an average of 0.35 g. The motion of the rider was captured in autonomous braking scenarios with and without pre-warning as well as in manual braking scenarios. No significant differences between the scenarios were found with respect to maximum forward displacement of the volunteer's torso and head (pautonomous braking at low deceleration will not cause significant instabilities of the rider in comparison to manual braking in idealized laboratory conditions. Based on this, further research into the development and implementation of autonomous braking systems for PTWs, e.g. by extensive riding tests, seems valuable. PMID:23036398

  18. Gravitational wave emission by the high braking index pulsar PSR J1640-4631

    CERN Document Server

    de Araujo, José C N; Costa, César A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a braking index for the pulsar PSR J1640-4631 has been measured. With a braking index of $n = 3.15 \\pm 0.03$, this pulsar has the highest braking index ever measured. As it is well known, a pure magnetic dipole brake yields $n = 3$, whereas a pure gravitational wave brake yields $n = 5$. Therefore, each of these mechanisms alone can not account for the braking index found for PSR J1640-4631. Here we show that such a braking index can be accounted for if the spindown model combines magnetic dipole and gravitational wave brakes. Then, we briefly discuss the detectability of this pulsar by aLIGO and the planned Einstein Telescope. In particular, we show that the amplitude of the gravitational wave that comes from our model is around a factor four lower than the amplitude modeled exclusively by gravitational wave energy loss. Another interesting outcome of our modeling is that we are able to obtain the ellipticity from the braking index and other pulsar parameters.

  19. Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment Proof of Concept Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    This proof-of-concept research was performed to explore the feasibility of using real-world braking data from commercial motor vehicles to make a diagnosis of brake condition similar to that of the performance-based brake tester (PBBT). This was done by determining the relationship between pressure and brake force (P-BF), compensating for the gross vehicle weight (GVW). The nature of this P-BF relationship (e.g., low braking force for a given brake application pressure) may indicate brake system problems. In order to determine the relationship between brake force and brake application pressure, a few key parameters of duty cycle information were collected. Because braking events are often brief, spanning only a few seconds, a sample rate of 10 Hz was needed. The algorithm under development required brake application pressure and speed (from which deceleration was calculated). Accurate weight estimation was also needed to properly derive the braking force from the deceleration. In order to ensure that braking force was the predominant factor in deceleration for the segments of data used in analysis, the data was screened for grade as well. Also, the analysis needed to be based on pressures above the crack pressure. The crack pressure is the pressure below which the individual brakes are not applied due the nature of the mechanical system. This value, which may vary somewhat from one wheel end to another, is approximately 10 psi. Therefore, only pressures 15 psi and above were used in the analysis. The Department of Energy s Medium Truck Duty Cycle research has indicated that under the real-world circumstances of the test vehicle brake pressures of up to approximately 30 psi can be expected. Several different types of data were collected during the testing task of this project. Constant-pressure stopping tests were conducted at several combinations of brake application pressure (15, 20, 25, and 30 psi), load conditions (moderately and fully laden), and speeds (20 and

  20. 重载列车制动管路对制动性能的影响%Influence of braking pipe on braking performance for heavy haul train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏伟; 杜念博

    2011-01-01

    应用流体动力学理论,建立了重载列车制动管路模型与分配阀模型,求解了制动管路和边界点的动力学方程,仿真计算了制动过程中的制动系统性能,分析了列车主管和支管长度对制动系统性能的影响。分析结果表明:当列车主管长度由13.24 m增大为17.24 m时,在常用制动下,列车管路减压时间增大了30.75%,制动缸升压时间增大了20.45%,主管长度对常用制动的影响要强于对紧急制动的影响;当列车支管长度由0.50 m增大到5.00 m时,在常用制动下,列车管路减压时间增大了6.63%,制动缸升压时间增大了5.22%,支管长度对常用制动和紧急制动影响程度差别不大。列车制动管路长度增大降低了列车制动管路减压速度与制动缸升压速度;列车主管长度对制动性能的影响要明显大于列车支管长度的影响,车辆位置距机车越远影响越明显。%With fluid dynamics theory,the models of braking pipe and distributing valve for heavy haul train were built,the equations of braking pipe and boundary point were solved,the braking system performances in braking process were simulated,and the influence of the lengths of main pipe and branch pipe on the braking performances was analyzed.Analysis result shows that under common braking,when the length of main pipe increases from 13.24 m to 17.24 m,the decompression time of braking pipe increases by 30.75%,and the boost time of braking cylinder increases by 20.45%.The influence of main pipe on common braking is even stronger than that of main pipe on emergency braking.Under common braking,when the length of branch pipe increases from 0.50 m to 5.00 m,the decompression time of braking pipe increases by 6.63%,and the boost time of braking cylinder increases by 5.22%.The influence of branch pipe on common braking is almost same for that of branch pipe on emergency braking.The increase length of braking pipe reduces the decompression speed of braking pipe

  1. Design of White LED Energy-saving Street Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huan-jie; FENG Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An energy-saving light-emitting-diode(LED) street lamp was conducted. Based on the simulation by optical software TracePro, a physical street lamp system including 600 white LEDs was achieved. This system was operated under a constant current of 20mA for each unit, and the electric power consumption of the whole lamp was only 42W. Experimental results demonstrated that the total average illuminance reached 8.8lx and the overall uniformity was 0.370 for a 30-m-long and 10-m-wide test area at a height of 8m, which is fully acceptable for the current standard for sub-main road.

  2. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85Kr, 147Pm, 3H and 232Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, RD; Howells, John

    We provide an anatomy of the influence of Edison’s incandescent lamp patent U.S. 223,898 on downstream development and show how subsequent inventor activity adjusts to the improved certainty provided by court decisions as to the boundaries of a patent’s claims. First, we show that court decisions...... upholding Edison’s patent generated a surge of patent filings in the incandescent lamp classes at the U.S. Patent Office. Second, by inspection of the specifications of these later patents we are able to categorize certain design-around efforts by their evasion of specific elements of the claims of Edison......’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute for...

  4. Investigating antennas as ignition aid for automotive HID lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the ignition of mercury-free high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps for car headlights. Due to safety reasons, these lamps need to have a fast run-up phase which is ensured, amongst other things, by a high Xe pressure of roughly 15 bar (cold) in the discharge vessel. The high Xe pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with former mercury-containing automotive HID lamps or low-pressure lamps used for general-lighting applications. The increase in ignition voltage can be limited if the electric field in front of the electrodes is raised by an uplifting of the electrical conductivity along the outer wall of the inner bulb either by a conductive layer on its surface or by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) within the outer bulb. This paper considers on the one hand conventional antennas deposited by physical vapour deposition (PVD) and on the other hand a combination of these antennas with a DBD within the outer-bulb operated in 100 mbar Ar as ignition aids. In both cases the antenna potential and antenna width are varied. Additionally, the effects of antenna thickness and antenna material are investigated. The ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission during ignition are measured on a nanosecond timescale. Furthermore, for the very first time, the ignition process is recorded in four consecutive intensified charge-coupled device images using a high-speed camera system with a time resolution in the range of nanoseconds. It was found that antennas strongly reduce the ignition voltage of automotive HID lamps. Active antennas reduce the ignition voltage significantly more than passive antennas, proportional to the conductance of the antenna. Combining conventional antennas with an outer-bulb discharge reduces the ignition voltage from 19 kV without any ignition aid to the intrinsic ignition voltage of the lamp below 10 kV, in the best case. (paper)

  5. Modulation transfer spectroscopy of ytterbium atoms in hollow cathode lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the experimental study of modulation transfer spectroscopy of ytterbium atoms in a hollow cathode lamp. The dependences of its linewidth, slope and magnitude on the various experimental parameters are measured and fitted by the well-known theoretical expressions. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. We have observed the Dicke narrowing effect by increasing the current of the hollow cathode lamp. It is also found that there are the optimal current and laser power to generate the better modulation transfer spectroscopy signal, which can be employed for locking the laser frequency to the atomic transition. (authors)

  6. TELEGRAPHS TO INCANDESCENT LAMPS: A SEQUENTIAL PROCESS OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Malone

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a sequential process of technological innovation in the emergence of the electrical industry in the United States from 1830 to 1880. Successive inventions that realize the commercial possibilities of electricity provided the foundation for an industry where technical knowledge, invention and diffusion were ultimately consolidated within the managerial structure of new firms. The genesis of the industry is traced, sequentially, through the development of the telegraph, arc light and incandescent lamp. Exploring the origins of the telegraph and incandescent lamp reveals a process where a series of inventions and firms result from successful efforts touse scientific principles to create new commodities and markets.

  7. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute for...... Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  8. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  9. 40 CFR 426.120 - Applicability; description of the incandescent lamp envelope manufacturing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incandescent lamp envelope manufacturing subcategory. 426.120 Section 426.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Incandescent Lamp Envelope Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.120 Applicability; description of...

  10. 78 FR 24233 - Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same: Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same: Notice of Institution of... importation of certain dimmable compact fluorescent lamps (``CFLs'') and products containing the same by...

  11. 78 FR 20946 - Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Notice of Request for... limited exclusion order against certain infringing dimmable compact fluorescent lamps and...

  12. Spindown of Isolated Neutron Stars: Gravitational Waves or Magnetic Braking?

    OpenAIRE

    Staff, Jan; Jaikumar, Prashanth; Chan, Vincent; Ouyed, Rachid

    2011-01-01

    We study the spindown of isolated neutron stars from initially rapid rotation rates, driven by two factors: (i) gravitational wave emission due to r-modes and (ii) magnetic braking. In the context of isolated neutron stars, we present the first study including self-consistently the magnetic damping of r-modes in the spin evolution. We track the spin evolution employing the RNS code, which accounts for the rotating structure of neutron stars for various equations of state. We find that, despit...

  13. MAGNETIC BRAKING AND FIELD DISSIPATION IN THE PROTOSTELLAR ACCRETION PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Galli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize recent theoretical work addressing the role of magnetic elds in the process of star formation. First, we concentrate on the efficiency of magnetic braking during cloud collapse and its consequences on the formation of centrifugally supported disks around young stars. Then, we relate this issue to the well-known magnetic ux problem of star formation, and we show that the introduction of non-ideal MHD e ects is a necessary step toward the development of self-consistent models for the collapse of molecular clouds and the formation and evolution of accretion disks around young stars.

  14. Big brake singularity is accommodated as an exotic quintessence field

    OpenAIRE

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a big brake singularity in terms of a modified Chaplygin gas equation of state $p=(\\ga_{m}-1)\\rho+\\al\\ga_{m}\\rho^{-n}$, accommodate this late-time event as an exotic quintessence model obtained from an energy-momentum tensor, and focus on the cosmological behavior of the exotic field, its kinetic energy and the potential energy. At the background level, the exotic field does not blow up whereas its kinetic energy and potential both grow without limit near the future singularity. W...

  15. Dynamic Braking System of a Tidal Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Wright, Alan; Gevorgian, Vahan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-08-01

    Renewable energy generation has experienced significant cost reductions during the past decades, and it has become more accepted by the global population. In the beginning, wind generation dominated the development and deployment of renewable energy; however, during recent decades, photovoltaic (PV) generation has grown at a very significant pace due to the tremendous decrease in the cost of PV modules. The focus on renewable energy generation has now expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. The input water flow to these types of resources is more predictable than wind or solar generation. The data used in this paper is representative of a typical river or tidal generator. The analysis is based on a generator with a power rating of 40 kW. The tidal generator under consideration is driven by two sets of helical turbines connected to each side of the generator located in between the turbines. The generator is operated in variable speed, and it is controlled to maximize the energy harvested as well as the operation of the turbine generator. The electrical system consists of a three-phase permanent magnet generator connected to a three-phase passive rectifier. The output of the rectifier is connected to a DC-DC converter to match the rectifier output to the DC bus voltage of the DC-AC inverter. The three-phase inverter is connected to the grid, and it is controlled to provide a good interface with the grid. One important aspect of river and tidal generation is the braking mechanism. In a tidal generator, the braking mechanism is important to avoid a runaway condition in case the connection to the grid is lost when there is a fault in the lines. A runaway condition may lead to an overspeed condition and cause extreme stresses on the turbine blade structure and eventual disintegration of the mechanical structure. In this paper, the concept of the dynamic braking system is developed and investigated for normal

  16. Dynamic Control Applied to a Laboratory Antilock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtémoc Acosta Lúa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of an antilock braking system is a difficult problem due to the existence of nonlinear dynamics and uncertainties of its characteristics. To overcome these issues, in this work, a dynamic nonlinear controller is proposed, based on a nonlinear observer. To evaluate its performance, this controller has been implemented on an ABS Laboratory setup, representing a quarter car model. The nonlinear observer reconstructs some of the state variables of the setup, assumed not measurable, to establish a fair benchmark for an ABS system of a real automobile. The dynamic controller ensures exponential convergence of the state estimation, as well as robustness with respect to parameter variations.

  17. Parameter Analysis on Torque Stabilization for the Eddy Current Brake: A Developed Model, Simulation, and Sensitive Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Quan Zhou; Xuexun Guo; Gangfeng Tan; Xiaomeng Shen; Yifan Ye; Zhaohua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Eddy current brake (ECB) is an attractive contactless brake whereas it suffers from braking torque attenuation when the rotating speed increases. To stabilize the ECB’s torque generation property, this paper introduces the concept of anti-magneto-motive force to develop the ECB model on the fundamental of magnetic circles. In the developed model, the eddy current demagnetization and the influence of temperature which make the braking torque attenuation are clearly presented. Using the develop...

  18. Comparing Variability of Parameters between Roller Bed Brakes Testers and Dynamometric Platform of Ministry Of Transport Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senabre C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study gives a comparison between which parameters may vary when braking on two different Ministry of Transport (MOT brake testers, such as roller bed brake tester and dynamometric platform. A comparative study between both types of brake testers have been carried out by the mechanical engineering staffs at the mechanical laboratory at the Miguel Hernández University in Elche to determinate which parameters can vary the result of the test.

  19. Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase Brushless Direct-Current Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Long; Shin Teak Lim; Ji Hyoung Ryu; Kil To Chong

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery powered electric vehicles (EVs). This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the braking period, the switching sequence of the power converter is controlled to inverse the output torque of the three-phase brushless direct-current (DC) motor, so that the braking energy can be returned to the battery. Compared with ...

  20. Short term braking capability during power interruptions for integrated matrix converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    attractive. Sinusoidal input currents and bi-directional power flow are other advantages of the matrix converter, but it is less immune to power grid disturbances compared to a standard ASD. In hoisting applications, short-term braking capability during a power outage is needed until the mechanical brake...

  1. Evolution of the pulsar inclination angle in the wind braking model

    CERN Document Server

    Kou, F F; Wang, N

    2016-01-01

    In a plasma filled magnetosphere, in addition to providing a torque to brake down the pulsar, the magnetosphere will also generate a torque to align the pulsar magnetic and rotational axes. The evolution of pulsar inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. In the wind braking model, the oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment will also affect the spin-down behavior. Braking index will increase firstly and then decrease as the pulsar evolving from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the wind braking dominated case. Braking index may be larger than $3$ in the early time. And during the following long time, braking index will be always smaller than $3$. This can explain braking index observations of larger than $3$ and smaller than $3$. Besides, the pulsar will evolve downwards straightly to the death valley after pulsar death in the $P-\\dot{P}$ diagram. This may explain the observed maximum spinning period of pulsars. And the long-term evolution of pulsars in the wind brak...

  2. Solid state circuit controls direction, speed, and braking of dc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit controls the direction, speed, and braking of a dc motor. Gating in the circuit of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers /SCRS/ controls output polarity and braking is provided by an SCR that is gated to short circuit the reverse voltage generated by reversal of motor rotation.

  3. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... 6x4 tractor with a 190-inch wheelbase, equipped with a hybrid disc brake configuration. The vehicle... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems...

  4. Brake wear from vehicles as an important source of diffuse copper pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Gon, H.A.C.D. van der; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Schaap, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we show that brake wear from road traffic vehicles is an important source of atmospheric (participate) copper concentrations in Europe. Consequently, brake wear also contributes significantly to deposition fluxes of copper to surface waters. We estimated the copper emission due to br

  5. 77 FR 39561 - Advanced Braking Technologies That Rely on Forward-Looking Sensors; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Sensors; Request for Comments AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department... technologies that rely on forward-looking sensors to supplement driver braking or to actuate automatic braking... information from forward-looking sensors, usually a camera or radar, to determine whether or not a crash...

  6. Design of Light Source of Agricultural UVALED Pest Control Lamp in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tianhua; Luo Guangyi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the design of light source of agricultural UVALED pest control lamp in food production. The traditional agricultural black light lamp is a special gas discharge lamp, which can emit 320~400 nm ultraviolet light to trap the pests. However, the traditional agricultural black light lamp has such problems as low light efficiency, large power consumption; poor shock resistance, short life span and the filler harming the environment. To solve these problems, thi...

  7. Influence of electrode, buffer gas and control gear on metal halide lamp performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the influence of electrode composition, buffer gas fill pressure and control gear on the performance of metal halide lamps is investigated. It is shown that pure tungsten electrodes improve lumen maintenance and reduce voltage rise over lamp life. An optimum buffer gas fill pressure condition is discovered which allows for reduced electrode erosion during lamp starting as well as under normal operating conditions. Use of electronic control gear is shown to improve the performance of metal halide lamps

  8. Three Dimensional Passive Integrated Electronic Ballast for Low Wattage HID Lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Around 19% of global power consumption and around 3% of global oil demand is attributable to lighting. After the first incandescent lamp was invented in 1879, more and more energy efficient lighting devices, such as gas discharge lamps, and light-emitting diodes (LED), have been developed during the last century. It is estimated that over 38% of future global lighting energy demand could be avoided by the use of more efficient lamps and ballasts [1]. High intensity discharge (HID) lamp...

  9. Characterization of Acoustic Resonance in a High-Pressure Sodium Lamp

    OpenAIRE

    Chhun, Labo; Maussion, Pascal; Bhosle, Sounil; Zissis, Georges

    2011-01-01

    International audience With the last decades, the high pressure sodium (HPS) lamp has been supplied in high frequency in order to increase the efficacy of the lamp/ballast system. However, at some given frequencies, standing acoustic waves, namely acoustic resonance (AR), might develop in the burner and cause lamp luminous fluctuation, extinction and destruction in the most serious case. As we seek for a control method to detect and avoid the lamp AR some main characteristics of the acoust...

  10. Miniature Incandescent Lamps as Fiber-Optic Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret; Collura, Joe; Helvajian, Henry; Pocha, Michael; Meyer, Glenn; McConaghy, Charles F.; Olsen, Barry L.

    2008-01-01

    Miniature incandescent lamps of a special type have been invented to satisfy a need for compact, rapid-response, rugged, broadband, power-efficient, fiber-optic-coupled light sources for diverse purposes that could include calibrating spectrometers, interrogating optical sensors, spot illumination, and spot heating.

  11. Anu Lamp õpetab presidendile kõnekunsti peensusi / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Näitleja Anu Lamp õpetab president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele kaheksa akadeemilise tunni jooksul kõnelemisoskust. Vt. samas: Martti Kass. Presidendi hiiglaslik vastuvõtutelk võtab ilmet. Tartus hakati Vanemuise teatri külje alla hiigeltelki püstitama. Telgis surub president Toomas Hendrik Ilves 24. veebruaril 2007 kutsutud külaliste kätt

  12. Keeleuuendusest sündis diplomilavastus / Anu Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    24. märtsil esietendus teatris NO99 lavakunstikooli 22. lennu viimane diplomilavastus "Keeleuuenduse lõpmatu kurv". Lavastaja Anu Lamp räägib, kuidas sündis ja kuidas materjal Johannes Aaviku keeleuuendusest lavale jõudis

  13. Very Fast Temperature Measurement with a Thin Lamp Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Calza, Gratton, L. M.; Lopez-Arias, T.; Oss, S.

    2012-01-01

    We construct a thermometer exploiting the electric resistance of the filament of a small lamp used in micro-illumination settings. The instrument may guarantee a response time better than 10 ms, i.e. much faster than commercial thermocouples or other quite expensive devices. This makes our thermometer a useful one in several processes which are…

  14. Modeling of Kr-Xe discharge of excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belasri A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical simulation of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD for Kr-Xe excilamp. The model of the discharge consists of three main modules: a plasma chemistry module, a circuit module and a Boltzmann equation module. The results predict the optimal operating conditions and describe the electrical and chemical properties of the KrXe* excimer lamp.

  15. Characterization of residues from physicochemical treatment of waste fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urniezaite, Inga; Denafas, Gintaras; Jankunaite, Dalia

    2010-07-01

    Fluorescent lamps are widely used world-wide due to their long life and energy saving capability. These lamps contain mercury (Hg) as a source of fluorescent radiation. The object of this study is a new technology for physicochemical treatment of waste fluorescent lamps. The residuals of the technological process were evaluated for potential leaching of heavy metals into the environment. Evaluation was performed using standardized extraction tests. Additionally, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis, as well as tests with complex-forming agents and under pH-stable conditions were performed aiming to predict stability of the residuals in various environmental conditions. According to the XRD analysis, the minerals fluorapatite and hydroxylapatite were dominant in analyzed samples. The results of total extraction by aqua regia revealed that residuals contain relatively high total concentrations of Hg, Mn, and Zn. Concentrations of heavy metals, leaching to aqueous solution, were compared to leaching limit values (according to EU legislation). The concentrations of available Hg in the waste fluorescent lamp treatment products, according to its solubility in the water, exceed the limit values. The measured water-leachable Hg concentration was 4.88 mg kg(-1), while the value for waste acceptable at hazardous waste landfill sites is 2 mg kg(-1). Concentrations of other measured heavy metals did not exceed the limit values. According to the results, Hg stabilization potential for presented technology exceeds 99%. PMID:19710106

  16. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  17. Non-axisymmetrical freeform design for short LED street lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Ching-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Lu, Ming-Jun

    2011-10-01

    Based on energy savings trend, LED has been developing as the main force of the future lighting, especially the road lighting. For controlling the intensity distribution of LED, the concept of freeform design has been proposed in many articles with transmission or reflection components but mainly focus on axial symmetrical types or dual axial symmetrical types. We, in this paper, design a non-axisymmetrical freeform system applying in a short LED street lamp whose dimension is 10cm (W) x 10cm (L) x 7cm (H) that has an advantage, easy maintaining. For coordinate transformation and simplifying the non- axisymmetrical system, we create two virtual surfaces and design the slope of each discrete point on the freeform surface to control the light path between the two virtual surfaces and avoid the total internal reflection. The short street lamp has four LEDs to light 3m square and each LED light a triangle area. According to the simulation results, the uniformity of illumination is 1:3 and the optical efficiency is more than 80% that meet the legal requirements of street lamp. In short, to reduce manufacturing and maintenance costs, the proposed design is appropriate to use in the actual lighting on the road and to replace the traditional street lamps.

  18. Optimized elemental analysis of fluorescence lamp shredder waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobohm, Julia; Kuchta, Kerstin; Krüger, Oliver; van Wasen, Sebastian; Adam, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Fluorescence lamps contain considerable amounts of rare earth elements (REE). Several recycling procedures for REE recovery from spent lamps have been established. However, despite their economic importance, the respective recycling is scarce so far, with an REE recovery rate of less than 1%. A reliable analysis of REE and other relevant metals like Yttrium is crucial for a thorough and complete recovery process. This applies both to the solid matter and aqueous phase, since most of the recycling processes include wet-chemical steps. We tested seven different reagent mixtures for microwave-assisted digestion of fluorescent lamp shredder, including hydrofluoric acid, perchloric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. We determined the concentrations of 25 of the most relevant rare earth and other trace elements (Al, P, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Y, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, La, Ce, Eu, Gd, Tb, W, Au, Hg, and Pb) in the respective dilutions. Two independent digestions, one a mixture of perchlorid/nitric/hydrofluoric acid and the other aqua regia, showed the highest concentrations of 23 of these elements, excluding only Sn and Tb. The REE concentrations in the tested lamp shredder sample (stated in g/kg) were 10.2 (Y), 12.1 (La), 7.77 (Ce), 6.91 (Eu), 1.90 (Gd), and 4.11 (Tb). PMID:26592653

  19. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  20. Nonlinear Behavior in High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Bernd; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2015-01-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behaves very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  1. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  2. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, Jan; Koleska, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, NOV (2015), s. 56-59. ISSN 0969-806X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010237; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fluorescent lamp * mercury measurement * neutron activation analysis * research reactor Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2014

  3. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light…

  4. Investigation on hardness and impact resistance of automotive brake pad composed with rice husk dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Shahril Anuar; Isa, Khairul Hafizee; Kassim, Masitah Abu; Mohamed, Zulkifli; Othman, Eliasidi Abu

    2012-06-01

    In this study, hardness and impact resistance properties of automotive brake pad composed with rice husk dust (RHD) were documented. RHD was mixed with other metallic and synthetic ingredients of automotive brake pad. To obtain RHD, rice husk was ground and dried to 1 - 3% moisture content. The RHD was screened to obtain different dust sizes (80 and 100-mesh) before it was mixed with other materials at different percentages of composition (10 and 30%). The mixture was then pressed to produce brake pad. Rockwell hardness testing machine was used in hardness determination, while Izod impact testing machine was used in impact resistance determination. Hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 10% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was significantly higher than 100-mesh. Hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition and 100-mesh size of RHD was slightly higher than 80 mesh. However, based on analysis, the difference was not significant. According to the result, hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition of RHD was higher than 10%. RHD has filled up the space and enhanced the micro structural behaviour of automotive brake pad. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 10% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was insignificantly higher than 100-mesh. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was significantly higher than 100 mesh. Large RHD size has increased the capability to resist high-rated impact loading. The impact energy was distributed over wider area for larger particle size. This factor has increased the impact resistance of automotive brake pad from large dust size. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 80-mesh size and 30% composition of RHD was higher than 10%. In contrast, impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 100-mesh size and 10% composition of RHD was higher than 30%. However, the difference was not

  5. Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, PJ

    2001-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to present a survey of commercial brake materials and additives, and to indicate their typical properties and functions, especially as regards their use in heavy trucks. Most truck pad and shoe materials described here were designed to wear against cast iron. Brake material test methods are also briefly described. This report does not address issues associated with the fabrication and manufacturing of brake materials. Since there are literally thousands of brake material additives, and their combinations are nearly limitless, it is impractical to list them all here. Rather, an attempt has been made to capture the primary constituents and their functions. An Appendix contains thermo-physical properties of some current and potential brake materials.

  6. Effect of Road Adhesion Coefficient on Tractor-Semitrailer Cornering Braking Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Chen; Tang, Geteng; Wang, Cheng

    A dynamic model of tractor-semitrailer cornering braking was established in this paper, and the accuracy of the model was verified by real vehicle test. By model simulation of the cornering braking process, different road adhesion coefficient such as 0.15, 0.3, 0.45, 0.6, 0.75 was chosen to analyzed the changing curve of braking distance, articulation angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration when initial speed of tractor-semitrailer was 30km h. The result showed that the peak values of articulation angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration gotten by simulation were the largest. On the road of road adhesion coefficient 0.15, distance of tractor-semitrailer cornering braking was the longest. On the road of road adhesion coefficient 0.75, distance of tractor-semitrailer cornering braking was the shortest and the peak values of articulation angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration were small relatively.

  7. Investigation of Friction Behaviors of Brake Shoe Materials using Metallic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Surojo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some vehicles use brake shoe made from semi-metallic materials. Semi-metallic brake shoes are made from a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. Metallic particles are added in the formulation of brake shoe material to improve composites characteristics. In this paper, friction behaviors of brake shoe material using metallic filler were investigated. Machining chips of cast iron and copper wire of electric motor used were incorporated in composite as metallic fillers with amount 0, 2, and 4 vol. %. Friction testing was performed to measure coefficient of friction by pressing surface specimen against the surface of rotating disc. The results show that cast iron chip and Cu short wire have effect on increasing coefficient of friction of brake shoe material. They form contact plateau at contact surface. At contact surface, the Cu short wires which have parallel orientation to the sliding contact were susceptible to detach from the matrix.

  8. 78 FR 7450 - Certain Fluorescent Reflector Lamps and Products and Components Containing Same; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Fluorescent Reflector Lamps and Products and Components Containing Same; Notice of Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Compact Fluorescent Reflector Lamps and Products and... importation of certain fluorescent reflector lamps and products and components containing same. The...

  9. 77 FR 11587 - Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Institution of... States after importation of certain dimmable compact fluorescent lamps and products containing same by... certain dimmable compact fluorescent lamps and products containing same that infringe one or more of...

  10. 77 FR 4363 - Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Receipt of Complaint... complaint entitled In Re Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same, DN 2873... within the United States after importation of certain dimmable compact fluorescent lamps and...

  11. LAMP3 is involved in tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells through the modulation of autophagy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, A.P.; Sieuwerts, A.M.; Bussink, J.; Sweep, F.C.; Look, M.P.; Foekens, J.A.; Martens, J.W.; Span, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a member of the LAMP-family of proteins, which are involved in the process of autophagy. Autophagy is induced by tamoxifen in breast cancer cells and may contribute to tamoxifen resistance. In this study, the significance of LAMP3 for tamoxifen resis

  12. LAMP3 is involved in tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells through the modulation of autophagy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nagelkerke (Anika); A.M. Sieuwerts (Anieta); J. Bussink (Johan); F.C. Sweep (Fred); M.P. Look (Maxime); J.A. Foekens (John); J.W.M. Martens (John); P.N. Span (Paul)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractLysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a member of the LAMP-family of proteins, which are involved in the process of autophagy. Autophagy is induced by tamoxifen in breast cancer cells and may contribute to tamoxifen resistance. In this study, the significance of LAMP3 for tam

  13. Design of the Electronic Brake Pressure Modulator Using a Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Commercial Vehicles for the Safety of Braking in Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hunmo

    In the brake systems, it is important to reduce the rear brake pressure in order to secure the safety of the vehicle in braking. So, there was some research that reduced and controlled the rear brake pressure exactly like a L. S. P. V and a E. L. S. P. V. However, the previous research has some weaknesses: the L. S. P. V is a mechanical system and its brake efficiency is lower than the efficiency of E. L. S. P. V. But, the cost of E. L. S. P. V is very higher so its application to the vehicle is very difficult. Additionally, when a fail appears in the circuit which controls the valves, the fail results in some wrong operation of the valves. But, the previous researchers didn't take the effect of fail into account. Hence, the efficiency of them is low and the safety of the vehicle is not confirmed. So, in this paper we develop a new economical pressure modulator that exactly controls brake pressure and confirms the safety of the vehicle in any case using a direct adaptive fuzzy controller.

  14. Thomson scattering on high pressure Hg discharge lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Vries, N de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kieft, E R [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Haverlag, M [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Central Development Lighting, Philips Lighting, PO Box 80020, 5600 JM, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2005-06-21

    Thomson scattering (TS) experiments have been performed on high-pressure Hg discharge lamps. These lamps were filled with different amounts of Hg (15, 30, 50 and 70 mg) and were operating at different powers (150, 200 and 240 W) with a square-wave ballast. As in the previous studies (Zhu X et al 2004 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37 736-43) a triple grating spectrograph was used to suppress the false stray light and Rayleigh scattered photons. This set-up had to be modified for this special application. The collective TS spectra have been fitted using both a calibration using Raman scattering and a form fitting procedure. It was found that the electron temperature fluctuates around a certain value that seems rather constant in the central region. The value of electron temperature (T{sub e}) varies between 5500 and 7600 K in the central region (r {<=} 0.3 R). The spatial-averaged T{sub e} value increases with the lamp power. The electron density was found to be of the order of 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} which is high at the centre and decreases as r increases. The n{sub e} value also increases with the lamp power. Moreover the results of TS are compared with those from x-ray absorption measurement. The comparison shows that the plasmas in such lamps are not in local thermal equilibrium in the sense that T{sub e} {ne} T-dot{sub g}-gas temperature and locally the rate of ionization is much larger than that of three body recombination.

  15. UV-Lamp Intensity Determination Without Use of Radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alimohammadi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Measurement of light intensity is a recommended practice for insuring the delivery of required germicidal dose in disinfection operations by UV lamps. Use of sensitive to light chemicals which is the base of actionometeric methods could be considered as a suitable manner for estimating the intensity of UV lamp in circumstances that special radiometers are not available."nMaterials and Methods: lodide-iodate mixture was used as an actinometer for this study. The light intensities of a UV lamp (LP 25W were first determined by a special UVC ‌radiometer at certain distances from the lamp. Then the test of determining the suitable period of time for irradiation of actinometer was accomplished.  Finally، the color changes of iodide - iodate solutions at the predetermined distances were evaluated at the wavelength of 352 nm. The latter analysis can be done by a common (visible spectrophotometer."nResults:‌ Results indicated that use of this actinometer is more suitable at the distances of 35 to 60 cm from the center of the lamp bulb، since iodode-iodate solution has a detectable color change at this range of distance in one minute irradiation which may be considered as a reasonable time for actionmeteric operations."nConclusion:  Although all kinds of actinometers should not be regarded as precise as special radiometers and there would be need to use pure chemicals for actinometeric determination of light intensity، it can be claimed that the recommended procedure in this study which is the newest actinometeric method can be used in acceptable evaluation of UV intensity with least difficulty in providing necessary instruments.

  16. Development of fly ash-based automotive brake lining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, S.; Chugh, Y.P. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). College of Engineering

    2007-07-15

    Coal-fired power plants all over the world generate huge amounts of fly ash each year, 70 million tons of which are produced in the United States alone. Only 40% of all fly ashes generated in the USA find beneficial applications and rest have to be disposed off, which is burden for the generation industry. Fly ash particles possess certain characteristics that make them suitable for use in friction composites as a filter material. An attempt has been made through this research to incorporate more than 50wt% of fly ash particles in automotive brake lining friction composites. This paper presents the research carried out on development of friction composites, using fly ash obtained from a specific power plant in Illinois. Ingredients such as phenolic resin, aramid pulp, glass fiber, potassium titanate, graphite, aluminum fiber and copper powder were used in the composite development phase, in addition to the fly ash. The developed brake lining composites have exhibited consistent coefficients of friction in the range of 0.35-0.4, and wear rates lower than 12wt%.

  17. A nonextensive view of the stellar braking indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, D. B.; Cavalcante, F. J.; Soares, B. B.; Silva, J. R. P.

    2015-08-01

    The present work is based on the effects of the magnetic braking for the angular-mometum loss evolution and, consequently, the relationship between stellar rotation and age. In general, this loss rate denoted by {d}J/{d}t depends on the angular velocity Ω in the form {d}J/ {d}t\\proptoΩq , where q is a parameter from nonextensive statistical mechanics. In the context of the stellar rotation, this parameter is directly related to the braking index. For q equal to unity, the scenario of the saturation of the magnetic field is recovered. Such an approach was proposed and investigated by de Freitas and De Medeiros for unsaturated field stars. We propose a new nonextensive approach for the stellar rotational evolution based on the Reiners and Mohanty model. We developed a nonextensive version of Reiners and Mohanty torque, and compare it with the model proposed in de Freitas and De Medeiros, by using a sample of velocity v\\sin i for ∼16000 field F- and G- stars. As a result, we show that the Kawaler and Reiners-Mohanty models exhibit strong discrepancies in relation to the domain of validity of the entropic index q. These discrepancies are mainly due to sensitivity on the stellar radius. Our results also showed that the modified Kawaler prescription is consistent in a wider mass ranges, while the Reiners and Mohanty model is restricted to masses less than from G6 stars.

  18. Big brake singularity is accommodated as an exotic quintessence field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a big brake singularity in terms of a modified Chaplygin gas equation of state p =(γm-1 )ρ +α γmρ-n, accommodate this late-time event as an exotic quintessence model obtained from an energy-momentum tensor, and focus on the cosmological behavior of the exotic field, its kinetic energy, and the potential energy. At the background level the exotic field does not blow up, whereas its kinetic energy and potential both grow without limit near the future singularity. We evaluate the classical stability of this background solution by examining the scalar perturbations of the metric along with the inclusion of entropy perturbation in the perturbed pressure. Within the Newtonian gauge, the gravitational field approaches a constant near the singularity plus additional regular terms. When the perturbed exotic field is associated with α >0 the perturbed pressure and contrast density both diverge, whereas the perturbed exotic field and the divergence of the exotic field's velocity go to zero exponentially. When the perturbed exotic field is associated with α <0 the contrast density always blows up, but the perturbed pressure can remain bounded. In addition, the perturbed exotic field and the divergence of the exotic field's velocity vanish near the big brake singularity. We also briefly look at the behavior of the intrinsic entropy perturbation near the singular event.

  19. Structure Analysis at the Micro Iron Pour at Gray Brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melya D. Sebayang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gray cast iron brake drum as the material is the most appropriate choice, because it has properties which have good heat conductivity, hardness, toughness, good friction properties and the ability to absorb vibration. The purpose of this study to determine the ratio of the microstructure on both original material drum that is new and original drum ex-wear. With the aim of analysis is expected to be used as basis in planning the development of better vehicle brakes. Of all the test results it can be mentioned chemical composition of test results with the main alloying elements, to drum new original: C 4:13%, 2:51% Si, 0.15% S, 0.65% Mn, 0.0054% P, and the original drum ex-wear: C 4:13%, 2:17% Si, 0.15% S, 0.53% Mn, 0.0054% P. So the comparison of properties of the resulting structure after the testing process on each drum is the hardness and resistance to wear and tear on a new original drum better when compared with the original drum ex-wear.

  20. Digital Sliding Mode Control of Anti-Lock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITIC, D. B.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of anti-lock braking system is a great challenge, because of the nonlinear and complex characteristics of braking dynamics, unknown parameters of vehicle environment and system parameter variations. Using some of robust control methods, such as sliding mode control, can be a right solution for these problems. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to design of ABS controllers, which is based on digital sliding mode control with only input/output measurements. The relay term of the proposed digital sliding mode control is filtered through digital integrator, reducing the chattering phenomenon in that way, and the additional signal of estimated modelling error is introduced into control algorithm to enhance the system steady-state accuracy. The given solution was verified in real experimental framework and the obtained results were compared with the results of implementation of two other digital sliding mode control algorithms. It is shown that it gives better system response, higher steady-state accuracy and smaller chattering.

  1. A nonextensive view of the stellar braking indices

    CERN Document Server

    de Freitas, D B; Soares, B B; Silva, J R P

    2015-01-01

    The present work is based on a description for the angular mometum loss rate due to magnetic braking for main-sequence stars on the relationship between stellar rotation and age. In general, this loss rate denoted by $\\mathrm dJ/\\mathrm dt$ depends on angular velocity $\\Omega$ in the form $\\mathrm dJ/\\mathrm dt\\propto\\Omega^{q}$, where $q$ is a parameter extracted from nonextensive statistical mechanics. Already, in context of stellar rotation, this parameter is greater than unity and it is directly related to the braking index. For $q$ equal to unity, the scenario of saturation of the magnetic field is recovered, otherwise $q$ indicates an unsaturated field. This new approach have been proposed and investigated by de Freitas \\& De Medeiros for unsaturated field stars. In present work, we propose a nonextensive approach for the stellar rotational evolution based on the Reiners \\& Mohanthy model. In this sense, we developed a nonextensive version of Reiners \\& Mohanthy torque and also compare this ...

  2. Can non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics solve the magnetic braking catastrophe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, James; Price, Daniel J.; Bate, Matthew R.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate whether or not the low ionization fractions in molecular cloud cores can solve the `magnetic braking catastrophe', where magnetic fields prevent the formation of circumstellar discs around young stars. We perform three-dimensional smoothed particle non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of the gravitational collapse of one solar mass molecular cloud cores, incorporating the effects of ambipolar diffusion, Ohmic resistivity and the Hall effect alongside a self-consistent calculation of the ionization chemistry assuming 0.1 μm grains. When including only ambipolar diffusion or Ohmic resistivity, discs do not form in the presence of strong magnetic fields, similar to the cases using ideal MHD. With the Hall effect included, disc formation depends on the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the rotation vector of the gas cloud. When the vectors are aligned, strong magnetic braking occurs and no disc is formed. When the vectors are anti-aligned, a disc with radius of 13 au can form even in strong magnetic when all three non-ideal terms are present, and a disc of 38 au can form when only the Hall effect is present; in both cases, a counter-rotating envelope forms around the first hydrostatic core. For weaker, anti-aligned fields, the Hall effect produces massive discs comparable to those produced in the absence of magnetic fields, suggesting that planet formation via gravitational instability may depend on the sign of the magnetic field in the precursor molecular cloud core.

  3. Zavorne ploščice iz karboniziranega materiala za zavorne diske iz C/C-SiC: Carbonised-material-based brake pads for a C/C-SiC composite brake disc:

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Zmago

    2001-01-01

    Letely the brake discs from carbon-fibre-reinforced carbon composites infiltrated by silicon (LSI-process) have become very interesting for automotive brakes applications. Composite materials with a hard SiC layer on the surface of the disc (C/C-SiC) or composites with the fibre-reinforced ceramic structure (C/SiC) need the right brake-lining materials. The results of our new-brake-lining-material investigation for C/C-SiC brake discs are presented. The influence of some particular additives ...

  4. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  5. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  6. Radiation of lamp and optimized experiment using artificial light in the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-ping; David Barber; LI Tao; LI Shu-jiang; LI Xiang

    2008-01-01

    A winter optical experiment by an artificial lamp was conducted in the Amundsen Bay of Arctic Ocean from November of 2007 to January of 2008. The radiation field emitted from an artificial lamp was measured and is introduced in this paper, and the optimized experiment project is discussed. It is demonstrated that the minimum size allowed of the lamp is determined by both the field of view (FOV) of optical instrument and the measuring distance from the lamp. Some problems that might influence on the experiment result often occur for a simple fluorescent lamp,such as instability, spatial nonuniformity, light divergence, effect of lamp temperature, etc. By the analysis of the light radiation, three kind of measures are proposed to control the quality of the experiment, i.e. keeping consistency of lamp size with FOV of instrument, calibrating in situ downwind, and conducting measurement in effective range. Among them, the downwind calibration is the key step to overcome most problems arose by the lamp. The experiment indicated that the reliable results can be obtained only when the optical measurement is coordinated with the radiation field of artificial lamp. The measured radiation property of the lamp was used to advise the field experiment to minimize measuring error. As the experiment by artificial lamp was the first attempt in the Arctic Ocean, the experience given by this paper is a valuable reference to the correlative studies.

  7. Perspectives for the recovery of rare earths from end-of-life fluorescent lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Binnemans; PT Jones

    2014-01-01

    This vision paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the three main options for the recycling of rare-earth ele-ments from end-of-life fluorescent lamps:(1) direct re-use of the lamp phosphor mixture;(2) separation of the lamp phosphor mixture into the different phosphor components; (3) recovery of the rare-earth content. An overview is given of commercial activities in Europe in the domain of recycling of materials from end-of-life fluorescent lamps and the recovery of rare earths from these lamps. The collection of end-of-life fluorescent lamps is currently driven by a legal framework that prohibited the release of mercury to the environment. The contaminations of the lamp phosphor powders by mercury and by small glass particles of crushed fluorescent lamps are limiting factors in the recycling process. Research should be directed to an advanced clean-up of the reclaimed lamp phosphor fraction, and in particular to the removal of mercury and glass fragments. The recovery of rare earths from the lamp phosphors could be facilitated by taking advantage of the differences in resistance of the different lamp phosphors by chemical attack by inorganic ac-ids and bases.

  8. Optimal design of disc-type magneto-rheological brake for mid-sized motorcycle: experimental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Jeon, Juncheol; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a disc-type magneto-rheological (MR) brake is designed for a mid-sized motorcycle and its performance is experimentally evaluated. The proposed MR brake consists of an outer housing, a rotating disc immersed in MR fluid, and a copper wire coiled around a bobbin to generate a magnetic field. The structural configuration of the MR brake is first presented with consideration of the installation space for the conventional hydraulic brake of a mid-sized motorcycle. The design parameters of the proposed MR brake are optimized to satisfy design requirements such as the braking torque, total mass of the MR brake, and cruising temperature caused by the magnetic-field friction of the MR fluid. In the optimization procedure, the braking torque is calculated based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model, which predicts MR fluid behavior well at high shear rate. An optimization tool based on finite element analysis is used to obtain the optimized dimensions of the MR brake. After manufacturing the MR brake, mechanical performances regarding the response time, braking torque and cruising temperature are experimentally evaluated.

  9. Interactive design optimization of magnetorheological-brake actuators using the Taguchi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research explored an optimization method that would automate the process of designing a magnetorheological (MR)-brake but still keep the designer in the loop. MR-brakes apply resistive torque by increasing the viscosity of an MR fluid inside the brake. This electronically controllable brake can provide a very large torque-to-volume ratio, which is very desirable for an actuator. However, the design process is quite complex and time consuming due to many parameters. In this paper, we adapted the popular Taguchi method, widely used in manufacturing, to the problem of designing a complex MR-brake. Unlike other existing methods, this approach can automatically identify the dominant parameters of the design, which reduces the search space and the time it takes to find the best possible design. While automating the search for a solution, it also lets the designer see the dominant parameters and make choices to investigate only their interactions with the design output. The new method was applied for re-designing MR-brakes. It reduced the design time from a week or two down to a few minutes. Also, usability experiments indicated significantly better brake designs by novice users

  10. Modeling of automotive drum brakes for squeal and parameter sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinchun; Krousgrill, Charles M.; Bajaj, Anil K.

    2006-01-01

    Many fundamental studies have been conducted to explain the occurrence of squeal in disc and drum brake systems. The elimination of brake squeal, however, still remains a challenging area of research. Here, a numerical modeling approach is developed for investigating the onset of squeal in a drum brake system. The brake system model is based on the modal information extracted from finite element models for individual brake components. The component models of drum and shoes are coupled by the shoe lining material which is modeled as springs located at the centroids of discretized drum and shoe interface elements. The developed multi degree of freedom coupled brake system model is a linear non-self-adjoint system. Its vibrational characteristics are determined by a complex eigenvalue analysis. The study shows that both the frequency separation between two system modes due to static coupling and their associated mode shapes play an important role in mode merging. Mode merging and veering are identified as two important features of modes exhibiting strong interactions, and those modes are likely candidates that lead to coupled-mode instability. Techniques are developed for a parameter sensitivity analysis with respect to lining stiffness and the stiffness of the brake actuation system. The influence of lining friction coefficient on the propensity to squeal is also discussed.

  11. Why do the braking indices of pulsars span over more than 100 millions?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Here we report that the observed braking indices of the 366 pulsars in the sample of Hobbs et al. (2012) span from about $-10^8$ to about $+10^8$ and are significantly correlated with their characteristic ages. Using the model of magnetic field evolution we developed previously (Zhang & Xie 2012) based on the same data, we derived an analytical expression of the braking index, which agrees with all the observed statistical properties of the braking indices of the pulsars in the sample of Hobbs et al. (2012). Our model is, however, incompatible to the previous interpretation that the magnetic field growth is responsible for the observed small values of braking indices ($<3$) of "baby" pulsars with characteristic ages of less than $2\\times 10^3$ yr. We find that the "instantaneous" braking index of a pulsar may be different from the "averaged" braking index obtained from fitting the data over a certain time span. The close match between our model predicted "instantaneous" braking indices and the observed...

  12. Experimental Method for Analyzing Friction Phenomenon Related to Drum Brake Squeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GLIŠOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Automobile brakes have been intensively developed during past few decades, but the maximum motor’s power, that should amortized in vehicle brakes, has been significantly increased also. Most of the kinetic energy of the moving vehicles is transforming into heat through friction. But the small part of kinetic energy transforms into sound pressure and makes noise. Low frequency squeal of drum brakes is very intense and can lead to customers’ complain. The interaction between the brake system and the vehicle framework and suspension is often very substantial during occurrence of brake noise. Unfortunately, to solve this type of squeal problem is also difficult because of the large number of components involved. The other cause is attributed to self-excited vibration that is induced when the friction material has a negative slope in relation to the relative velocity. This paper illustrates an approach to experimental studies of drum brakes in road conditions in order to monitor changes in the coefficient of friction that can generate drum brake squeal at low frequencies.

  13. Position control optimization of aerodynamic brake device for high-speed trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jianyong; Luo, Zhuojun; Chen, Zhongkai

    2014-03-01

    The aerodynamic braking is a clean and non-adhesion braking, and can be used to provide extra braking force during high-speed emergency braking. The research of aerodynamic braking has attracted more and more attentions in recent years. However, most researchers in this field focus on aerodynamic effects and seldom on issues of position control of the aerodynamic braking board. The purpose of this paper is to explore position control optimization of the braking board in an aerodynamic braking prototype. The mathematical models of the hydraulic drive unit in the aerodynamic braking system are analyzed in detail, and the simulation models are established. Three control functions—constant, linear, and quadratic—are explored. Two kinds of criteria, including the position steady-state error and the acceleration of the piston rod, are used to evaluate system performance. Simulation results show that the position steady state-error is reduced from around 12-2 mm by applying a linear instead of a constant function, while the acceleration is reduced from 25.71-3.70 m/s2 with a quadratic control function. Use of the quadratic control function is shown to improve system performance. Experimental results obtained by measuring the position response of the piston rod on a test-bench also suggest a reduced position error and smooth movement of the piston rod. This implies that the acceleration is smaller when using the quadratic function, thus verifying the effectiveness of control schemes to improve to system performance. This paper proposes an effective and easily implemented control scheme that improves the position response of hydraulic cylinders during position control.

  14. Detection of visually unrecognizable braking tracks using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Brada, Michal; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Identification of the position, length and mainly beginning of a braking track has proven to be essential for determination of causes of a road traffic accident. With the introduction of modern safety braking systems and assistance systems such as the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) or Electronic Stability Control (ESC), the visual identification of braking tracks that has been used up until the present is proving to be rather complicated or even impossible. This paper focuses on identification of braking tracks using a spectrochemical analysis of the road surface. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was selected as a method suitable for fast in-situ element detection. In the course of detailed observations of braking tracks it was determined that they consist of small particles of tire treads that are caught in intrusions in the road surface. As regards detection of the "dust" resulting from wear and tear of tire treads in the environment, organic zinc was selected as the identification element in the past. The content of zinc in tire treads has been seen to differ with regard to various sources and tire types; however, the arithmetic mean and modus of these values are approximately 1% by weight. For in-situ measurements of actual braking tracks a mobile LIBS device equipped with a special module was used. Several measurements were performed for 3 different cars and tire types respectively which slowed down with full braking power. Moreover, the influence of different initial speed, vehicle mass and braking track length on detected signal is discussed here.

  15. High CRI phosphor blends for near-UV LED lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkov, Emil; Setlur, Anant; Brown, Zena; Reginelli, James

    2004-10-01

    Currently, the highest color rendering index (CRI) value obtained in commercially available LED devices is around 90. This falls short of the CRI values typical for incandescent lamps (defined at 100). Similarly, the commercially available LEDs for higher color temperature have CRI values of 65-85, well below the theoretical maximum of 100. New phosphor blends are proposed for use with LED chips emitting in the 350-450 nm range. The application of such blends can afford CRI values greater than 95, over the entire range of color temperatures of interest for general illumination (2500K - 8000K). In some cases, the CRI values approach the theoretical maximum of 100. LED based lamps with a steady state performance of 23 LPW and 25 lumens per chip at 3000K, with a general CRI (Ra) of 97 and a mean CRI (R1-R14) of 96 are demonstrated.

  16. Application Analysis of Ad Lamp-box Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yuan; LU Bin

    2014-01-01

    The ad lamp-box controller is designed in consideration that ordinary urban ad lights usually remain lit through the night and a specially assigned staff needs to be on duty to control their switches. It can be automatically controlled with a photo resistance testing the day and night as well as a CD4060 chip controlling the length of time interval between switching the ad lamp-boxes on and off. In this way, both energy and labor can be saved with the controller. It is matching with the target of“constructing a conservation-minded society”in our country and deserves to be promoted in market with its practical signifi-cance.

  17. Environmental friendly high efficient light source plasma lamp - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courret, G.; Calame, L. [Haute Ecole d' ingenierie et de gestion du canton de Vaud, Institut de micro et nano techniques, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Meyer, A. [Solaronix SA, Aubonne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at work done on the development of a sulphur-based plasma lamp. In 2007, the capability of a new modulator has been explored. The most important results are discussed. With the production of a 1.2 cm{sup 3} bulb, the way towards the production of a 100 W lamp has been opened. The authors comment that modulation by impulses increases the luminous efficiency in comparison to modulation using a continuous sinusoidal wave. The report deals with the history of the project, the development of the new modulator, the use of rotational effects and the optimisation of the amount of active substances - tellurium and selenium - in the bulb. The electromagnetic coupling system used is described and discussed.

  18. Short term Braking Capability during Power Interruptions for Integrated Matrix Converter-Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    The new trend in Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD) is to integrate the inverter and the motor into a single unit in order to reduce the production cost, the commissioning time and the physical size of the equipment. This last issue becomes more important, making the matrix converter topology more...... engages or to perform more effective a combined braking.This paper proposes a new method to provide short-term braking capability during a power outage for matrix converters. A braking chopper is needed in the clamp circuit, which allows for a drastically reduction of the capacitor size. The power flow in...

  19. Optimization of a parity of brake forces of automobiles in view of a bias of road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In clause it is shown a method optimization of brake of forces in view of a bias road it is established, that in mountain conditions of loss of coupling weight of automobiles than 2-3 times concerning flat conditions therma are more. The degree of use of coupling weight in result use of a regulator of brake forces very much increases also efficiency of brake systems such a kind of automobiles is provided with definition of optimum factor of coupling at which value of loss of coupling weight is provided minimal

  20. Compression Strength Testing for Automotive Brake Pads Used in Earthquake Energy Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Voiculescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to calibrate a friction damper which uses automotive brake pads it is necessary to determine the compression behaviour of the friction material. This paper summarizes the experimental results obtained for a set of automotive brake pads made in Romania. These results are useful in order to determine the slip load level in a seismic energy dissipation mechanism which uses this type of friction pads. The paper presents the experimental set up and the compression behaviour curves obtained for a set of four commercial brake pads. The testing was performed by the author as a part of his research work, using a hydraulic compression press.

  1. The emergency braking module for an electronic copilot design and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameling, C.; Kirchner, A. [Univ. of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with design and development of an emergency braking module for an electronic copilot (ECP). ECP is used within an autonomous vehicle as a partial redundant system for vehicle control. ECP receives the necessary information about the positions and relative velocities of obstacles from various sources such as laserscanner or vision sensors. In the current stage of development the emergency breaking module computes, whether an object collides with the front of the vehicle. If the time-to-collision falls below the braking capacity an emergency braking is triggered. Experimental results show the capabilities of the system. (orig.)

  2. Braking indices of pulsars obtained in the presence of an effective force

    CERN Document Server

    Magalhaes, N S; Frajuca, C

    2016-01-01

    Braking indices of pulsars present a scientific challenge as their theoretical calculation is still an open problem. In this paper we report results of a study regarding such calculation which adapts the canonical model (which admits that pulsars are rotating magnetic dipoles) basically by introducing a compensating component in the energy conservation equation of the system. This component would correspond to an effective force that varies with the first power of the tangential velocity of the pulsar's crust. We test the proposed model using data available and predict braking indices values for different stars. We comment on the high braking index recently measured of the pulsar J1640-4631.

  3. Photometric characterization of LED's for optimal design of interior lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tuxtla Gutierrez Technology Institute, and the Innovaluz of Mexico S A of C V company have joined forces to develop LED lighting technology in Chiapas, Mexico. We performed a comprehensive study of power savings for a household using this luminary. The main results of the Lighting are presented exclusively for the ILIGPL153BF24W model, as well as the design features of a functional lamp. (Author)

  4. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m3, 15.4 μg/m3, 14.0 μg/m3, 247.6 μg/m3, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m3, 9.0 μg/m3, 9.0 μg/m3, 219.2 μg/m3, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures

  5. Blackbody absorption efficiencies for six lamp pumped Nd laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Patricia L.; Barnes, Norman P.; Skolaut, Milton W., Jr.; Storm, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    Utilizing high resolution spectra, the absorption efficiencies for six Nd laser materials were calculated as functions of the effective blackbody temperature of the lamp and laser crystal size. The six materials were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:Q-98 Glass, Nd:YVO4, Nd:BEL, and Nd:Cr:GSGG. Under the guidelines of this study, Nd:Cr:GSGG's absorption efficiency is twice the absorption efficiency of any of the other laser materials.

  6. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Žukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The applicability of colour quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour rendering index metric (CRI) or a refined colour quality scale metric (CQS) fail to distinguish between two principle colour rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially...

  7. UV-C lamps for sterilisation of flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BBC developed a system for sterilisation of flowing water with UV-C radiation. This system uses a high-power low-pressure mercury-vapour lamp. Thus advantages such as extreme compactness and high flow volume are offered. The system sterilizes water at a reasonable cost without leaving any residues. Other liquids can also be sterilized by this method. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB

  8. Playing with a bulb lamp: RTL measurements and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzo, G.; D’Anna, M.; Pecori, B.

    2016-09-01

    The electric, thermal and optical behaviour of an incandescent lamp was studied by a real time laboratory (RTL) apparatus, using two voltage probes and a light probe. The software STELLA was used to model the phenomena and to analyse the transient behaviour in absence of thermal equilibrium. We show how the Joule-heating effect explains the non-linear current/voltage relation and how the filament thermal capacity affects the phase lag of light peaks with respect to input power peaks.

  9. Atmospheric testing of wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.S. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Migliore, P.G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Quandt, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    An experimental investigation was conducted using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable span trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. A primary goal was to directly compare study results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were utilized to define effective changes in the aerodynamic coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans and configurations. Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (<70%) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with characteristic vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.

  10. A laboratory activity on the eddy current brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a simple and low-cost experimental setup that can be used to study the eddy current brake, which considers the motion of a sliding magnet on an inclined conducting plane in terms of basic physical principles. We present a set of quantitative experiments performed to study the influence of the geometrical and electromagnetic properties of the magnet on the magnetic drag force. This video-based experiment is ideal for the study of kinematic graphs and the application of Newton's laws. Video motion analysis software enables students to make precise measurements of the magnet's position at incremental times during its motion, thus allowing them to quantify electromagnetic induction phenomena. The equipment needed for this experiment and data collection software are present in most physics teaching laboratories or are inexpensive and available. (paper)

  11. Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps CALiPER Benchmark Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Paget, Maria L.; Lingard, Robert D.

    2009-01-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) Program was established in 2006 to investigate the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) based luminaires and replacement lamps. To help users better compare LED products with conventional lighting technologies, CALiPER has also performed benchmark research and testing of traditional (i.e., non-LED) lamps and fixtures. This benchmark report addresses standard 4-foot fluorescent lamps (i.e., T12 and T8) and the 2-foot by 4-foot recessed troffers in which they are commonly used. This report also examines available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps, and their application in fluorescent troffers. The construction and operation of linear fluorescent lamps and troffers are discussed, as well as fluorescent lamp and fixture performance, based on manufacturer data and CALiPER benchmark testing. In addition, the report describes LED replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, and compares their bare lamp and in situ performance with fluorescent benchmarks on a range of standard lighting measures, including power usage, light output and distribution, efficacy, correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index. Potential performance and application issues indicated by CALiPER testing results are also examined.

  12. Network of LAMP systems for atmospheric monitoring in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapragada, Bhavani Kumar; Jayaraman, Achuthan

    2012-07-01

    A systematic knowledge of the vertical distribution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is required for understanding many atmospheric processes such as dynamics of boundary layer, pollution transport, modification of cloud microphysics etc. At present, the information on the particle distribution in the atmosphere is far from sufficient to estimate properly the load of aerosols in the atmosphere. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has been demonstrated to be a reliable remote sensing technique to obtain altitude profiles of atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering. A LIDAR network is being implemented by National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), a Department of Space unit, in India for the measurement and monitoring of the atmospheric aerosols and clouds. Towards this, the technology of boundary layer lidar (BLL) (Bhavani Kumar, 2006) has been exploited. Several industrial grade BLL systems are being fabricated at a private industry in India through technological transfer from NARL. The industrial BLL lidar is named as LAMP, stands for LIDAR for Atmospheric Measurement and Probing. Five LAMP systems have already been fabricated and deployed at several locations of the country for continuous monitoring of aerosols and clouds under the Indian Lidar network (I-LINK) programme. The LAMP system employs a single barrel construction so that no realignment is required in future. Moreover, the network lidar system employs several features like rotation facility about the elevation (EL) axis, a provision of front window for environmental protection to the telescope optics and a silica gel pocket for desiccation (for transmit and receive assembly) and a provision of nitrogen purging to overcome the humidity effects. The LAMP system is an autonomous system equipped with a diode pumped Nd-YAG laser, a PMT for the detection of the backscattered photons, and a PC based photon counting electronics for recording the photon returns. In this paper, a report describing

  13. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH BIO-DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SHIVA SHANKAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion in world petroleum reserves and uncertainty in petroleum supply due to political and economical reasons, as well as, the sharp escalations in the petroleum prices have stimulated the search for alternatives to petroleum fuels. The situation is very grave in developing countries like India which imports 70% of the required fuel, spending 30% of her total foreign exchange earnings on oil imports. Petroleum fuels are being consumed by agriculture and transport sector for which diesel engine happens to be the prime mover. Diesel fuelled vehicles discharge significant amount of pollutants like CO, HC, NOx, soot, lead compounds which are harmful to the universe. Though there are wide varieties of alternative fuels available, the research has not yet provided the right renewable fuel to replace diesel. Vegetable oils due to their properties being close to diesel fuel may be a promising alternative for its use in diesel engines. The high viscosity and low volatility are the major drawbacks of the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines. India is the second largest cotton producing country in the world today. The cotton seeds are available in India at cheaper price. Experiments were conducted on 5.2 BHP single cylinder four stroke water-cooled variable compression diesel engine. Methyl ester of cottonseed oil is blended with the commercially available Xtramile diesel. Cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME is blended in four different compositions varying from 10% to 40% in steps of 10 vol%. Using these four blends and Xtramile diesel brake thermal efficiency (BTE and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC are determined at 17.5 compression ratio.

  14. On electrode erosion in fluorescent lamps during instant start

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadrath, S.

    2006-09-15

    A fluorescent lamp driven with an 'instant start electronic control gear' starts in a glow mode. In the glow mode, which lasts typically for tens of milliseconds, the cathode fall exceeds hundreds of volts. This causes high energy ion bombardment of the electrode which heats the electrode, and induces a transition from glow to arc mode. In the arc mode the electrode emits thermionically and the cathode fall drops to the 12 - 15 V range. Unfortunately, the high energy ion bombardment during the glow mode leads also to intense sputtering of electrode material, including tungsten as well as emitter. Thus, instant started fluorescent lamps often suffer from early failures due to coil fracture. Therefore, the investigation of tungsten erosion during instant start is necessary and was the main goal of this work. The density of neutral atomic tungsten is determined by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and optical emission spectroscopy measurements (OES). Investigations are performed on a low-pressure argon dc discharge and on commercial fluorescent lamps. To include the entire temperature profile along the electrode the diffuse and spot operation modes of the dc lamp are studied experimentally and theoretically. The measured dependencies of the cathode temperature along the coil on the discharge and heating parameters are compared with the calculated results. For the first time the tungsten erosion during instant start of commercial fluorescent lamps was experimentally investigated in this work. The erosion process could be related to sputtering. A reconstruction of the temporal evolution of the absolute tungsten population density of the ground state during the glow mode was presented. The sputtered tungsten density increases immediately with the ignition, reaches a maximum where the discharge contracts at the end of the glow mode, and decreases some milliseconds before the glow-to-arc transition takes place. The maximum tungsten density was observed within a

  15. Design and control of a dual unidirectional brake hybrid actuation system for haptic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossa, Carlos; Lozada, José; Micaelli, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid actuators combining brakes and motors have emerged as an efficient solution to achieve high performance in haptic devices. In this paper, an actuation approach using two unidirectional brakes and a DC motor is proposed. The brakes are coupled to overrunning clutches and can apply a torque in only one rotational direction. The associated control laws, that are independent of the virtual environment model, calculate the control gains in real time in order limit the energy and the stiffness delivered by the motor to ensure stability. The reference torque is respected using the combination of the motor and the brake. Finally, an user experiment has been performed to evaluate the influence of passive and active torque differences in the perception of elasticity. The proposed actuator has a torque range of 0.03 Nm to 5.5 Nm with a 17.75 kNm (-2) torque density. PMID:25122593

  16. ANALYSIS OF POSSIBILITY TO AVOID A RUNNING-DOW ACCIDENT TIMELY BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarayev, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Such circumstances under which the drive can stop the vehicle by applying timely braking before reaching the pedestrian crossing or decrease the speed to the safe limit to avoid a running-down accident is considered.

  17. Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge Deer Harvest Records from 2011 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Morgan Brake during the 2011 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  18. Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge public use review and development plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document addresses the ten Public Use Requirements for Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge as well as General Impressions of the review team.

  19. STUDY ON THE CONTROL SYSTEM OF HYDRAULIC MOMENT-ADJUSTED BRAKE FOR DOWNWARD BELT CONVEYOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟国营; 徐志强; 霍森; 方佳雨

    1997-01-01

    Having analyzed the drawbacks on the design of control system of hydraulic momentadjusted brake system, the author presents a closed loop control system in the process of start and braking of the conveyer. On the basis of the concept of the critical time and the critical acceleration and its deductions, the working mode of the conveyer can be identified and controlled in feedback, furthermore, thus realize the process of soft start. In the deceleration process, the author points out the problems that exist in the present control system and sets forward the control process that acted by the combined function of brake moment of motor and the drag torque of hydraulic brake at the beginning of deceleration, it will further improved reliability of conveyor system.

  20. Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge Deer Harvest Records from 2011 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Mathews Brake during the 2011 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  1. Upper Ouachita and Handy Brake National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Upper Ouachita and Handy Brake NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  2. Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under Emergency Shutdown Using Hydrodynamic Brake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency shutdown is always a challenge for an operating vertical axis wind turbine. A 5-MW vertical axis wind turbine with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure was examined in this study. Coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of the floating vertical...... axis wind turbine were carried out for emergency shutdown cases over a range of environmental conditions based on correlated wind and wave data. When generator failure happens, a brake should be applied to stop the acceleration of the rotor to prevent the rotor from overspeeding and subsequent disaster....... In addition to the traditional mechanical brake, a novel hydrodynamic brake was presented to apply to the shutdown case. The effects of the hydrodynamic brake on the platform motions and structural loads under normal operating conditions and during the emergency shutdown events were evaluated. The...

  3. The Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Ecological Characteristics of Drum and Disk Wheel Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Revin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that automobile transport as well as industry are the main sources of air pollution. In addition to exhaust gases, the flow of traffic releases a cloud of dust, consisting of over 60% of micro- and ultramicroscopic particles with radius of 10.0–0.25 µm, which are formed due to wheel abrasion (caused by the road grip of a tyre and the use of the brake blocks (in braking. The products formed in the process of wearing of the wheel brake pads are also the sources of the mass of fine dispersed particles over an urban highway. The authors analyse and evaluate ecological characteristics of drum and disk wheel brakes of vehicles.Article in Russian

  4. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID...

  5. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID...

  6. Development of an Engine Air-Brake for Quiet Drag Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel quiet engine air-brake (EAB) is proposed in response to NASA's solicitation for active and passive noise control concepts for conventional and advanced...

  7. An analysis of the friction mechanism on brake gear of railway rolling stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Barnard

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Friction energy dissipation at an interface involves a wide range of interdisciplinary concepts. As the demand for higher operating speeds increased, the limitations of cast iron as the traditional friction material for rail transport brakes became more apparent. Only through an intensive analysis of the interfacial interaction between the brake block and brake path could the problems encountered with other promising friction materials be solved. The article deals with the difficulties pertaining to the early composite materials, and indicates how these were overcome by the understanding and implementation of new techniques not previously associated with conventional systems connected with railway braking. Two composite materials, that is 840/N for locomotives and freight wagons where mass oriented momentum dominates, and high friction composite 655/C for passenger vehicles with a predominantly speed-oriented momentum, are presently used.

  8. Environmental Assessment of the Proposed Opening of Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge to Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal calls for the opening of Mathews Brake NWR to sport fishing. General regulations pertaining to licenses, creel limits, and methods of taking fish will...

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of an energy-reinforced braking radiation photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the theoretical study of a photon beam raised towards high energies, its experimental implementation, the definition of a gamma spectrometry method which aimed at checking various hypotheses used in the beam theoretical study. After a presentation of the theory of phenomena of electron braking radiation, of materialisation of photons into positon-negaton pair, and of issues related to multiple Coulomb diffusion, the author reports the study of the different solutions which allow a photon beam to be obtained. A braking radiation of mono-kinetic electron has been used. This braking radiation is reinforced by absorption of low energy protons in a column of lithium hydride. The author describes how the beam is built up, and the experimental approach. He describes how raw data are processed to get rid of the influence of the multiple Coulomb diffusion and of the braking radiation. Experimental results are compared with those obtained by convolution of photon spectra and differential cross section

  10. Development of an Engine Air-Brake for Quiet Drag Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel quiet engine air-brake is proposed in response to NASA's solicitation for concepts for active and passive control of noise sources for conventional and...

  11. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  12. Research of Testing Devices That Determine Friction Parameter and Wear Resistance of Brake Pads

    OpenAIRE

    Timur, Mustafa; Kılıç, Halil

    2013-01-01

    The testing devices used today handles the variables such as speed, temperature, pressure occuring in automobiles due to various factors, and examines the impacts of these variables on brake pads in automobiles. In these devices, following experimental studies, the friction paramters, erosion resistance and thermal contacts of brake pads can be easily determined. Although it is quite easy to obtain information about the states of the materials using test device, testing devices have provided ...

  13. Validity of Spontaneous Braking and Lane Changing with Scope of Awareness by Using Measured Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Steven Ray Sentinuwo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the validation method and its evaluation of the spontaneous braking and lane changing with scope awareness parameter. By using the real traffic flow data, the traffic cellular automaton model that accommodate these two driver behaviors, e.g., spontaneous braking and driver scope awareness has been compared and evaluated. The real traffic flow data have been observed via video-recording captured from real traffic situation. The validation results shown that by accommodate s...

  14. Rail temperature rise characteristics caused by linear eddy current brake of high-speed train

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoshan Lu; Yunfeng Li; Mengling Wu; Jianyong Zuo; Wei Hu

    2014-01-01

    The rail temperature rises when the linear eddy current brake of high-speed train is working, which may lead to a change of rail physical characteristics or an effect on train operations. Therefore, a study concerning the characteristics of rail temperature rise caused by eddy current has its practical necessity. In the research, the working principle of a linear eddy current brake is introduced and its FEA model is established. According to the generation mechanism of eddy current, the theor...

  15. An approach of inertia compensation based on electromagnetic induction in brake test

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowen Li; Han Que

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the operational principle of the brake test bench, and points out the shortcomings when controlling the current of brake test, which means the reference measuring data is instantaneous. Aimed at this deficiency, a current control model based on electromagnetic induction and DC voltage is proposed. On the principle of electromagnetic induction, continuous data and automatic processes are realized. It significantly minimized errors owing to instantaneous data, and ...

  16. Advanced Emergency Braking Controller Design for Pedestrian Protection Oriented Automotive Collision Avoidance System

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Lie; Ren Zejian; Ge Pingshu; Chang Jing

    2014-01-01

    Automotive collision avoidance system, which aims to enhance the active safety of the vehicle, has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, most of the current systems ignore the active protection of pedestrian and other vulnerable groups in the transportation system. An advanced emergency braking control system is studied by taking into account the pedestrians and the vehicles. Three typical braking scenarios are defined and the safety situations are assessed by comparing the cu...

  17. Magnetic Braking and Viscous Damping of Differential Rotation in Cylindrical Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, James N.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Stephens, Branson C.

    2003-01-01

    Differential rotation in stars generates toroidal magnetic fields whenever an initial seed poloidal field is present. The resulting magnetic stresses, along with viscosity, drive the star toward uniform rotation. This magnetic braking has important dynamical consequences in many astrophysical contexts. For example, merging binary neutron stars can form "hypermassive" remnants supported against collapse by differential rotation. The removal of this support by magnetic braking induces radial fl...

  18. Analysis of electrodynamic brake for utilization in systems with rotating shafts

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Georgii

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of an opportunity to apply eddy current brakes in dynamical systems containing rotating shafts. While conducting the research the general principles of deceleration, eddy currents’ origin, basics of magnetism and currently existing types of brakes were clarified and gathered briefly, but informatively. The theory which is explained in this thesis was taken from reliable secondary sources. The concepts of physics were investigated from sever...

  19. On a Flywheel-Based Regenerative Braking System for Regenerative Energy Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Tai-Ran

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a unique flywheel-based regenerative energy recovery, storage and release system developed at the author's laboratory. It can recover and store regenerative energy produced by braking a motion generator with intermittent rotary velocity such as the rotor of a wind turbogenerator subject to intermittent intake wind and the axels of electric and hybrid gas-electric vehicles during frequent coasting and braking. Releasing of the stored regenerative energy in the flywheel is c...

  20. Physico-chemical characterization and oxidative reactivity evaluation of aged brake wear particles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Jiayuan; Lewinski Nastassja; Riediker Michael

    2015-01-01

    Brake wear dust is a significant component of traffic emissions and has been linked to adverse health effects. Previous research found a strong oxidative stress response in cells exposed to freshly generated brake wear dust. We characterized aged dust collected from passenger vehicles, using microscopy and elemental analyses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with acellular and cellular assays using 2′7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein dye. Microscopy analyses revealed sam...

  1. Wear, friction, and temperature characteristics of an aircraft tire undergoing braking and cornering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Yager, T. J.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation to evaluate the wear, friction, and temperature characteristics of aircraft tire treads fabricated from different elastomers is presented. The braking and cornering tests performed on aircraft tires retreaded with currently employed and experimental elastomers are described. The tread wear rate is discussed in relation to the slip ratio during braking and yaw angle during cornering. The extent of wear in either operational mode is examined in relation to the runway surface.

  2. Casting of Brake Disc and Impeller from Aluminium Scrap Using Silica Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Oladeji A. OGUNWOLE; Oluwafemi A. OLUGBOJI; Matthew S. ABOLARIN

    2007-01-01

    The impeller blade and the brake disc were produced using sand casting method. Wooden patterns of the two castings were constructed incorporating the necessary allowances. Green and moulding technique utilizing locally available materials were used for preparing the moulds. Aluminium scraps were used as the casting material. Melting of the Aluminium scraps was obtained using a crucible furnace and finally pouring the molten metal into the sand mould to obtain the impeller and the brake disc.A...

  3. Driver head displacement during (automatic) vehicle braking tests with varying levels of distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rooij, L. van; Pauwelussen, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Janssen, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle occupant behavior in emergency driving conditions has a large effect on traffic safety. Distraction is estimated to be the cause of 15-20% of all crashes. Additionally, the posture of the occupants prior to the possibly unavoidable crash is known to have a large effect on the injury reducing performance of the restraint system. In this study it is investigated whether braking settings as well as driver distraction influence the kinematic response of an occupant during braking events, ...

  4. Torchiere-style halogen floor lamps: a need for fire safety awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, P E; Palmieri, T; Greenhalgh, D G

    2000-01-01

    Torchiere-style halogen lamps pose a significant fire hazard. The 500-W halogen bulb in these lamps can generate temperatures as high as 1200 degrees F. Factors related to the design of the lamp also contribute to the fire risk. The Consumer Products Safety Commission has issued various warnings and recalls on these lamps because of a significant number of fire-related incidents and deaths. The impact of these recalls on a random sample of consumers was investigated. A survey of these participants revealed that 60% of lamp owners and nonowners were unaware of the recalls. The majority of respondents were also not aware of the risks of injury, the extreme bulb temperatures, or safety measures designed for these lamps. There is a need for increasing community awareness and education to reduce the fire hazards associated with this product. PMID:11020053

  5. Analysis and fabrication of minifeature lamp lens by excimer laser micromachining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocheng, Hong; Wang, Kuan-Yu

    2007-10-10

    A variety of shapes of lamp lenses at the feature millimeter scale have been extensively used in lamp design. To further improve the light efficiency and to reduce the overall dimension of lamps, the lamp lens at the micrometer scale is fabricated by excimer laser cross scanning on a polycarbonate sheet. To verify the proposed method, the influence of an optical system with various shapes and sizes of lamp lenses on the light efficiency is explored in advance by ASAP optical software. The lens with a miniature feature can produce a smaller divergence angle than that with a large-size lens feature. The experiment is carried out at varying laser operating parameters, mask shape, and dimensions. The simulation shows that the desired lamp lens profile can be effectively produced by excimer laser micromachining. PMID:17932527

  6. A Study of Consumer Behavior on Recycling of Fluorescent Lamps in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro M. Laruccia; Jarbas Vargas Nascimento; Gilmar Jonas Deghi; Mamerto Granja Garcia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to understand consumer behavior on the disposal of fluorescent lamps used in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The research discusses the consumer's decision on recycling, environmental aspects of disposal of fluorescent lamps and reverse logistics. Regarding methodology procedures we used a survey on the basis of convenience, with a sample of 240 people. As a result, most people discard fluorescent lamps in the organic waste and considering the right place for disposal the se...

  7. A Study of Consumer Behavior on Recycling of Fluorescent Lamps in S?o Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Maia Laruccia; Jarbas Vargas Nascimento; Gilmar Jonas Deghi; Mamerto Granja Garcia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to understand consumer behavior on the disposal of fluorescent lamps used in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The research discusses the consumer's decision on recycling, environmental aspects of disposal of fluorescent lamps and reverse logistics. Regarding methodology procedures we used a survey on the basis of convenience, with a sample of 240 people. As a result, most people discard fluorescent lamps in the organic waste and considering the right place for disposal the se...

  8. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  9. Influence of gas discharge parameters on emissions from a dielectric barrier discharge excited argon excimer lamp

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Collier; Erich Rohwer; Timo Stehmann; Hubertus M. von Bergmann; Dumisani J. Hlatywayo; Peter Baricholo

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge excited neutral argon (Ar I) excimer lamp has been developed and characterised. The aim of this study was to develop an excimer lamp operating at atmospheric pressure that can replace mercury lamps and vacuum equipment used in the sterilisation of medical equipment and in the food industry. The effects of discharge gas pressure, flow rate, excitation frequency and pulse width on the intensity of the Ar I vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission at 126 nm and near infra...

  10. Temperature controlled light-emitting diode lamp for photovoltaic rural applications

    OpenAIRE

    Narvarte Fernández, Luis; Gago Calderón, Alfonso; Fernández-Ramos, José

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, interest in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting has been growing because of its high efficacy, lifetime and ruggedness. This paper proposes a better adaptation of LED lamps to the technical requirements of photovoltaic lighting domestic systems, whose main quality criteria are reliability and that behave as voltage power supplies. As the key element of reliability in LED lamps is temperature, a solution is proposed for driving LED lamps using voltage sources, such as photovol...

  11. High-frequency electrode less lamps for application in atomic absorption analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors measured and optimised main characteristic of different EDL-s, interesting for their use in atomic absorption spectroscopy: working time, main spectral line intensities and spectral widths, as well as limits of detection for respective elements. In the experiment spectrometer MGA-915 was used. In the table the ultimate limits of detection (LOD) are compered for HF ED lamps and HJC lamps. LOD for HF EDL lamps are 1.5 - 8 times lower than ones for HCL-s

  12. Calibration d'une lampe \\`a ruban de tungst\\`ene

    CERN Document Server

    De Izarra, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the work presented is the calibration of a lamp filament of tungsten was from electrical measurements that are simple and precise, and for determining the temperature of tungsten against the current intensity value crossing the lamp.These data are then used to calibrate the lamp in terms of luminance directly used to calibrate sensors such as optical pyrometers or other photometric sensor.

  13. Perspectives for the recovery of rare earths from end-of-life fluorescent lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Binnemans, Koen; Jones, Peter Tom

    2014-01-01

    This vision paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the three main options for the recycling of rare-earth elements from end-of-life fluorescent lamps: (1) direct re-use of the lamp phosphor mixture; (2) separation of the lamp phosphor mixture into the different phosphor components; (3) recovery of the rare-earth content. An overview is given of commercial activities in Europe in the domain of recycling of materials from end-of-life fluorescent lamps and the recovery of rare ea...

  14. Automatic detecting method of LED signal lamps on fascia based on color image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoling; Hou, Wenguang; Ding, Mingyue

    2009-10-01

    Instrument display panel is one of the most important parts of automobiles. Automatic detection of LED signal lamps is critical to ensure the reliability of automobile systems. In this paper, an automatic detection method was developed which is composed of three parts in the automatic detection: the shape of LED lamps, the color of LED lamps, and defect spots inside the lamps. More than hundreds of fascias were detected with the automatic detection algorithm. The speed of the algorithm is quite fast and satisfied with the real-time request of the system. Further, the detection result was demonstrated to be stable and accurate.

  15. Challenging loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) technique for molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirzad; Fallahi; Zahra; Arab; Mazar; Mehrdad; Ghasemian; Ali; Haghighi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare analytical sensitivity and specificity of a newly described DNA amplification technique.LAMP and nested PCR assay targeting the RE and Bl genes for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii(T.gondii) DNA.Methods:The analytical sensitivity of LAMP and ncstcd-PCR was obtained against 10-fold serial dilutions of T.gondii DNA ranging from 1 ng to 0.01 fg.DNA samples of other parasites and human chromosomal DNA were used to determine the specificity of molecular assays.Results:After testing LAMP and nesled-PCR in duplicate,the detection limit of RE-LAMP.B1-LAMP,RE-nested PCR and B1-nested PCR assays was one fg.100 fg,1 pg and 10 pg of T.gondii DNA respectively.All the LAMP assays and nested PCRs were 100% specific.The RE-LAMP assay revealed the most sensitivity for the detection of T.gondii DNA.Conclusions:The obtained results demonstrate that the LAMP technique has a greater sensitivity for detection of T.gondii.Furthermore,these findings indicate that primers based on the RE are more suitable than those based on the B1 gene.However,the B1-LAMP assay has potential as a diagnostic tool for detection of T.gondii.

  16. Optimization of lamp arrangement in a closed-conduit UV reactor based on a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Tipu; Ahmad, Zeshan; Cho, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    The choice for the arrangement of the UV lamps in a closed-conduit ultraviolet (CCUV) reactor significantly affects the performance. However, a systematic methodology for the optimal lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor is not well established in the literature. In this research work, we propose a viable systematic methodology for the lamp arrangement based on a genetic algorithm (GA). In addition, we analyze the impacts of the diameter, angle, and symmetry of the lamp arrangement on the reduction equivalent dose (RED). The results are compared based on the simulated RED values and evaluated using the computational fluid dynamics simulations software ANSYS FLUENT. The fluence rate was calculated using commercial software UVCalc3D, and the GA-based lamp arrangement optimization was achieved using MATLAB. The simulation results provide detailed information about the GA-based methodology for the lamp arrangement, the pathogen transport, and the simulated RED values. A significant increase in the RED values was achieved by using the GA-based lamp arrangement methodology. This increase in RED value was highest for the asymmetric lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor. These results demonstrate that the proposed GA-based methodology for symmetric and asymmetric lamp arrangement provides a viable technical solution to the design and optimization of the CCUV reactor. PMID:27191576

  17. Application of an antenna excited high pressure microwave discharge to compact discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel type of high pressure microwave discharge has been investigated to feed the microwave power at the centre of the compact high pressure discharge lamps using the antenna effect. This method of microwave discharge is named as the antenna excited microwave discharge (AEMD). The 2.45 GHz microwave of around 50 W from the solid state microwave generator can sustain a stable plasma column in the small gap between a couple of antennas fitted on the compact lamp filled with discharge gases at a pressure higher than atmosphere. The AEMD has been applied to a compact metal halide lamp and an extremely high pressure mercury discharge lamp. As a result, the metal halide lamp showed high luminous efficacy of around 130 lm W-1. The excellent lamp properties obtained here can be explained by the low heating loss at the antennas and the lamp wall. The profiles of the microwave electric field in the lamp and the microwave launcher have been numerically calculated to consider the microwave power supply into the lamp

  18. Analysis of compact and portable goniospectrometer system for test of LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Thorseth, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    measurements in a near-field goniophotometer. A collection of six different types of directional and non-directional integrated LED lamps with three samples of each were used as test devices. It is shown that the main uncertainty comes from the inadequate thermal stabilisation of the LED lamps. With pre......-heating relative differences for total luminous flux of ±2,5% were obtained. Reliable photometric data can be obtained for use in market monitoring to identify probable non-compliance LED lamps and hence as an improved method for selecting LED lamps for accredited verification testing....

  19. LED演艺灯具的色彩特性%Color Characteristics of LED Performing Lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国义

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum, color mixing, color rendering of LED light source were introduced, along with the differences between the LED lamps and traditional lamps in the formation of colored lighting as wel as the characteristics of White lighting LED lamps and colored lighting LED lamps.%阐述LED光源的光谱、色彩混合、显色性等特性,LED光源灯具与传统光源灯具在彩色光形成等方面的差异,白光LED和彩色光LED灯具的不同特点。

  20. The Tetraspanin CD63/lamp3 Cycles between Endocytic and Secretory Compartments in Human Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Toshihide; Vischer, Ulrich M; Rosnoblet, Corinne; Lebrand, Cécile; Lindsay, Margaret; Parton, Robert G.; Egbert K. O. Kruithof; Gruenberg, Jean

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we show that in human endothelial cells the tetraspanin CD63/lamp3 distributes predominantly to the internal membranes of multivesicular–multilamellar late endosomes, which contain the unique lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid. Some CD63/lamp3 is also present in Weibel–Palade bodies, the characteristic secretory organelle of these cells. We find that CD63/lamp3 molecules can be transported from late endosomes to Weibel–Palade bodies and thus that CD63/lamp3 cycles between en...

  1. Conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps in India and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia)

    1989-07-01

    We evaluate the conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for managing the rapidly increasing electrical energy and peak demand in India and Brazil. Using very conservative assumptions, we find that the cost of conserved energy using 16 W CFLs is 4 and 6 times less than the long range marginal cost of electricity for the two countries. The cost of avoided peak installed capacity is 6 and 9.5 times less than the cost of new installed capacity for India and Brazil. The analysis is undertaken from the three separate perspectives of the national economies, the consumers, and the utilities. We find that because residential electricity is subsidized, the consumers have little or no incentive to purchase and install the CFLs, unless they too are subsidized. However, the benefits of CFL installation to the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility in almost all cases. As an illustration of a gradual introduction strategy for CFLs, we calculate a scenario where national savings of the order of US $1.2 million per day for India and US $2.5 million per day for Brazil are reached in 10 years by a small and gradual transfer of subsidy from residential electricity to CFLs. We then explore the barriers to immediate large scale introduction of these lamps in the two countries. Specific technical and marketing problems are identified and discussed, which would require solution before such an introduction can be attempted. Lastly, we discuss the range of policy instruments, in addition to a subsidy scheme, that can be used for promoting the diffusion of these lamps in the domestic and commercial sector. 47 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Novel Design of HID Lamp Electronic Ballast for Automotive Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ye-qiang; WANG Jin-hai; ZHENG Yu; ZHANG Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high intensity discharge(HID) lamp for automotive illumination.A novel type of ballast for HID is proposed without an acoustic resonance.The system consists of high frequency DC/DC converter,DC/AC inverter(SLA2403M), high voltage igniter and a microcontroller unit(MCU).The proposed ballast controls the complex start-up process and constant power process by programming on the microcontroller. It is verified that experimental results agree well with the calculated ones. The ballast features such functions as failure protection, line under-voltage, line over-voltage, output short circuit and disconnection protections.

  3. SEM investigation of incandescent lamp mantle structure on durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The incandescent mantle as used on pressure and non-pressure liquid fuel lamps has been in use for over 100 years. What remains unexplained is the way in which the resistance to mechanical shock and the decline in tensile strength with usage is experienced. It has been suggested that to improve durability it is necessary to continuously burn a new mantle for the first two to three hours. The known factors in mantle durability and mechanical strength are chemical composition and fabric weave. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of burning time and temperature on thorium oxide mantles. The operating temperature of mantles on a range of kerosene pressure lamps was measured and found to be between 800 and 1100 deg C. Heat treatments of thorium based Coleman mantles were carried out in a laboratory furnace within these ranges of temperatures for periods ranging from 2 minutes to 2 hours. The mantles were then viewed in a LEO S440 analytical SEM. Results at 800 deg C show a distinct change in surface morphology with increasing exposure time. At the shorter times (2-5 minutes) the surface was relatively smooth. With increased time periods (15 - 120 minutes) the surface was observed to have a large lumpy structure. At 1100 deg C the difference in surface morphology was not apparent between the shortest and longest times. The surface appears much smoother and no lumpy structure was observed. This suggests that when a mantle is operated at the higher temperature of 1100 deg C the structure of the Thorium oxide is quickly transformed into the known stronger amorphous form. This is taken as the observed smooth structure seen in the SEM images of the 1100 deg C samples. Thus the mantle is expected to be more resistant to mechanical shock and have increased durability. Practical field test results confirm these observations. The mantle on a lamp that is operating efficiently, burns brightly, will far outlast a mantle on an inefficient lamp which bums

  4. Portable flash lamp reflectance analyzer system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James Edward (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The system and method allow spectroscopic analysis of vegetation or the like without effects from changing sun and cloud conditions, undesired portions of the area of interest or atmospheric disturbances. The system (1) includes a light source (5) such as a xenon flash lamp, a telescope (7), a spectrometer (9), an analog/digital converter (11), a memory (13), a display (15), and an on-board microprocessor (17) or a port (19) for attachment to a laptop computer. The system is taken to an area of interest in the woods (step 41), the vegetation is illuminated from below (step 43) and data are taken (step 45).

  5. Glow discharge lamp: A light source for optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, K. S.; Srinivasan, V.; Nalini, S.; Mahalingam, T. R.

    A glow discharge lamp based on a modified version of the Grimm design has been fabricated. Its utility as a radiation source for optical emission spectrography by standardizing a method for the analysis of low alloy steels using a set of certified standards from DMRL, Hyderabad, has been demonstrated. A model has been proposed where the sputtering rates of different metals have been correlated with their heats of sublimation, metallic radii, and densities. Sputtering rates of ten different metals obtained from literature have been used to test this model, and the correlation appears to be excellent.

  6. Glow discharge lamp: a light source for optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glow discharge lamp based on a modified version of the Grimm design has been fabricated. Its utility as a radiation source for optical emmission spectrography by standardising a method for the analysis of low alloy steels using a set of certified standards from DMRL, Hyderabad, has been demonstrated. A model has been proposed where the sputtering rates of different metals have been correlated with their heats of sublimation, metallic radii and densities. Sputtering rates of ten different metals obtained from literature have been used to test this model, and the correlation appears to be excellent. (author). 19 re fs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukauskas, A [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, bldg. III, Vilnius, LT-10222 (Lithuania); Vaicekauskas, R [Department of Computer Science, Vilnius University, Naugarduko g. 24, Vilnius, LT-03225 (Lithuania); Shur, M S, E-mail: arturas.zukauskas@ff.vu.l [Department of Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  8. The Therapeutic Lamp: Treating Small-Animal Phobias

    OpenAIRE

    WRZESIEN, Maja; Alcaniz, Mariano; Botella, Cristina; BURKHARDT, Jean Marie; BRETON LOPEZ, Juana; Ortega, Mario; BENEITO BROTONS, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We all have an irrational fear or two. Some of us get scared by an unexpected visit from a spider in our house; others get nervous when they look down from a high building. Fear is an evolutionary and adaptive function that can promote self-preservation and help us deal with the feared object or situation. However, when this state becomes excessive, it might develop into psychological disorders such as phobias, producing high anxiety and affecting everyday life. The Therapeutic Lamp is an int...

  9. LRO-LAMP Observations of Lunar Exospheric Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, Cesare; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hurley, Dana M.; Feldman, Paul D.; Gladstone, Randy; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Cook, Jason C.; Stern, Alan; Pryor, Wayne R.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Kaufmann, David E.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s (LRO) UV spectrograph LAMP (Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project) campaign to study the lunar atmosphere. Two kinds of off-nadir maneuvers (lateral rolls and pitches towards and opposite the direction of motion of LRO) were performed to search for resonantly scattering species, increasing the illuminated line-of-sight (and hence the signal from atoms resonantly scattering the solar photons) compared to previously reported LAMP “twilight observations” [Cook & Stern, 2014]. Helium was the only element distinguishable on a daily basis, and we present latitudinal profiles of its line-of-sight column density in December 2013. We compared the helium line-of-sight column densities with solar wind alpha particle fluxes measured from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon’s Interaction with the Sun) twin spacecraft. Our data show a correlation with the solar wind alpha particle flux, confirming that the solar wind is the main source of the lunar helium, but not with a 1:1 relationship. Assuming that the lunar soil is saturated with helium atoms, our results suggest that not all of the incident alpha particles are converted to thermalized helium, allowing for a non-negligible fraction (~50 %) to escape as suprathermal helium or simply backscattered from the lunar surface. We also support the finding by Benna et al. [2015] and Hurley et al. [2015], that a non-zero contribution from endogenic helium, coming from radioactive decay of 232Th and 238U within the mantle, is present, and is estimated to be (4.5±1.2) x 106 He atoms cm-2 s-1. Finally, we compare LAMP-derived helium surface density with the one recorded by the mass spectrometer LACE (Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment) deployed on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission, finding good agreement between the two measurements. These LRO off-nadir maneuvers allow LAMP to provide unique coverage of local solar time and

  10. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  11. A global strategy based on experiments and simulations for squeal prediction on industrial railway brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinou, J.-J.; Loyer, A.; Chiello, O.; Mogenier, G.; Lorang, X.; Cocheteux, F.; Bellaj, S.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent experimental and numerical investigations on industrial railway brakes. The goal of the present study is to discuss the relevance of the mechanical modeling strategy for squeal prediction. Specific experimental set-ups based on transient and controlled braking tests are designed for this purpose. Measurements are performed on it to investigate the dynamic behavior of TGV squeal noise and its squeal characterization through experiments. It will be demonstrated that it is possible to build consistent and efficient finite element models to simulate squeal events in TGV brake systems. The numerical strategy will be presented, including not only the modeling of the TGV brake system and the stability analysis, but also the transient nonlinear dynamic and computational process based on efficient reduced basis. This complete numerical strategy allows us to perform relevance squeal prediction on industrial railway brakes. This study comes within the scope of a research program AcouFren that is supported by ADEME (Agence De l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie) concerning the reduction of the squeal noise generated by high power railway disc brakes. experiments with an evolution of the rotational speed of the disc: these tests are called "transient braking tests" and correspond to real braking tests, experiments with a controlled steady rotational speed (i.e. dynamic fluctuations in rotational speed are not significant): these tests are called "controlled braking tests". In the present study, the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) [20] is used to study the time-history responses of the TGV brake system. So, a brief basic theory of the wavelet analysis that transforms a signal into wavelets that are well localized both in frequency and time is presented in this part of the paper. Considering a function f(t), the associated Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) corresponds to a wavelet transform given by W(a,b

  12. The Influence of Swirl Brakes on the Rotordynamic Forces Generated by Discharge-to-Suction Leakage Flows in Centrifugal Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Sivo, Joseph M.; Allan J. Acosta; Brennen, Christopher E.; Caughey, Thomas K.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest has been given to swirl brakes as a means of reducing destabilizing rotordynamic forces due to leakage flows in new high speed rocket turbopumps. Although swirl brakes have been used successfully in practice (such as with the Space Shuttle HPOTP), no experimental tests until now have been performed to demonstrate their beneficial effect over a range of leakage flow rates. The present study investigates the effect of swirl brakes on rotordynamic forces generated by discha...

  13. Effect of coordination of optimal reclosing and fuzzy controlled braking resistor on transient stability during unsuccessful reclosing

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mohd.Hasan; Murata, Toshiaki; Tamura, Junji

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of the coordination of optimal reclosing and fuzzy logic-controlled braking resistor on the transient stability of a multimachine power system in case of an unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers. The transient stability performance of the coordinated operation of optimal reclosing and fuzzy controlled braking resistor is compared to that of the coordinated operation of conventional auto-reclosing and fuzzy controlled braking resistor. The effectiveness of t...

  14. Big brake singularity is accommodated as an exotic quintessence field

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, Luis P

    2015-01-01

    We describe a big brake singularity in terms of a modified Chaplygin gas equation of state $p=(\\ga_{m}-1)\\rho+\\al\\ga_{m}\\rho^{-n}$, accommodate this late-time event as an exotic quintessence model obtained from an energy-momentum tensor, and focus on the cosmological behaviour of the exotic field, its kinetic energy and the potential energy. At background level, the exotic field does not blow-up whereas its kinetic energy and potential both grow without limit near the future singularity. We evaluate the classical stability of this background solution by examining the scalar perturbations of the metric along with the inclusion of entropy perturbation in the perturbed pressure. Within the Newtonian gauge, the gravitational field approaches to a constant near the singularity plus additional regular terms. When the perturbed exotic field is associated with $\\al>0$, the perturbed pressure and contrast density both diverge whereas the perturbed exotic field and the divergence of exotic field's velocity go to zero e...

  15. Braking index of isolated uniformly rotating magnetized pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Hamil, Oliver; Urbanec, Martin; Urbancova, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities $\\Omega$, and their time derivatives which show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of debate in detail, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of $\\Omega$. This relation leads to the power law $\\dot{\\Omega}$ = -K $\\Omega^{\\rm n}$ where $n$ is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts $n$ exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of $n$, individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1$ <$ n $ < $ 2.8, which is consi...

  16. Radiative braking in the extended exosphere of GJ436b

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrier, Vincent; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des

    2015-01-01

    The recent detection of a giant exosphere surrounding the warm Neptune GJ436 b has shed new light on the evaporation of close-in planets, revealing that moderately irradiated, low-mass exoplanets could make exceptional targets for studying this mechanism and its impact on the exoplanet population. Three HST/STIS observations were performed in the Lyman-$\\alpha$ line of GJ436 at different epochs, showing repeatable transits with large depths and extended durations. Here, we study the role played by stellar radiation pressure on the structure of the exosphere and its transmission spectrum. We found that the neutral hydrogen atoms in the exosphere of GJ436 b are not swept away by radiation pressure as shown to be the case for evaporating hot Jupiters. Instead, the low radiation pressure from the M-dwarf host star only brakes the gravitational fall of the escaping hydrogen toward the star and allows its dispersion within a large volume around the planet, yielding radial velocities up to about -120 km s$^{-1}$ tha...

  17. Friction and wear behavior of carbon fiber reinforced brake materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du-qing CHENG; Xue-tao WANG; Jian ZHU; Dong-bua QIU; Xiu-wei CHENG; Qing-feng GUAN

    2009-01-01

    A new composite brake material was fabri-cated with metallic powders, barium sulphate and modified phenolic resin as the matrix and carbon fiber as the reinforced material. The friction, wear and fade character-istics of this composite were determined using a D-MS friction material testing machine. The surface structure of carbon fiber reinforced friction materials was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Glass fiber-reinforced and asbestos fiber-reinforced composites with the same matrix were also fabricated for comparison. The carbon fiber-reinforced friction materials (CFRFM) shows lower wear rate than those of glass fiber- and asbestos fiber-reinforced composites in the temperature range of 100℃-300℃. It is interesting that the frictional coefficient of the carbon fiber-reinforced friction materials increases as frictional temperature increases from 100℃ to 300℃, while the frictional coefficients of the other two composites decrease during the increasing temperatures. Based on the SEM observation, the wear mechanism of CFRFM at low temperatures included fiber thinning and pull-out. At high temperature, the phenolic matrix was degraded and more pull-out enhanced fiber was demonstrated. The properties of carbon fiber may be the main reason that the CFRFM possess excellent tribological performances.

  18. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a

  19. Line short circuit detection by d.c. motor vehicles with regenerative braking equipment; Streckenkurzschlusserkennung in rueckspeisenden Gleichstromtriebfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loesel, T.; Roehling, S. [elbas Elektrische Bahnsysteme Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Dresden (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Line short circuits which occur during regenerative braking of traction vehicles cannot be detected reliably by conventional d.c. substation equipment. A method will be described how braking d.c. traction vehicles can detect a line short circuit and as a consequence interrupt regenerative braking. Unnecessary triggering can be detected and braking restored. Design and experiences will be presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Erkennung von Streckenkurzschluessen, die waehrend des Einsatzes der Netzbremse auftreten, ist im Unterwerk nicht immer moeglich. Es wird ein Verfahren beschrieben, mit dem das bremsende Fahrzeug einen Kurzschluss selbst erkennt und die Netzbremsung daraufhin unterbricht. Das Verfahren kann Fehlausloesungen feststellen und zuruecknehmen. (orig.)

  20. Inclination angle and braking index evolution of pulsars with plasma-filled magnetosphere: application to high braking index of PSR J1640-4631

    CERN Document Server

    Ekşi, Kazım Yavuz; Çıkıntoğlu, Sercan; Gügercinoğlu, Erbil; Motlagh, Armin Vahdat; Kızıltan, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered rotationally powered pulsar PSR J1640-4631 is the first to have a braking index measured, with high enough precision, to be greater than three. An inclined magnetic rotator in vacuum or plasma would be subject to not only spin-down torque but also to an alignment torque. The vacuum model can address the braking index only for an almost orthogonal rotator which is incompatible with the single peaked pulse profile. We show that the magnetic dipole model with the corotating plasma predicts braking indices between $3-3.25$ and can explain the braking index of $3.15$ for two different inclination angles, $18.5\\pm 3$ degrees and $56 \\pm 4$ degrees. Of these the former is preferred given the pulse profile has a single peak. We infer the change in the inclination angle to be at the rate $-0.23$ degrees per century, three times smaller in absolute value than the rate recently observed from the Crab pulsar.

  1. On the potential of uncertainty analysis for prediction of brake squeal propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C. S.

    2016-09-01

    Brake squeal is a source of significant warranty-related claims for automotive manufacturers because it is annoying and is often perceived by customers as a safety concern. A brake squeal analysis is complex due to changing environmental and operating conditions, high sensitivity to manufacturing and assembly tolerances as well as the not so well understood role of nonlinearities. Although brake squeal is essentially a nonlinear problem, the standard analysis tool in industry is the linear complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) which may under-predict or over-predict the number of unstable vibration modes. A nonlinear instability analysis is more predictive than CEA but is still computationally too expensive to be used routinely in industry for a full brake finite element model. Also, although the net work analysis of a linearised brake system has shown potential in predicting the origin of brake squeal, it has not been extensively used. In this study, the net work of an analytical viscously damped self-excited 4-dof friction oscillator with cubic contact force nonlinearity is compared with the instability prediction using the CEA and a nonlinear instability analysis. Results show that both the net work analysis and CEA under-predict the instability because of their inability to detect the sub-critical Hopf bifurcation. Then, the uncertainty analysis is applied to examine if it can improve instability prediction of a nonlinear system using linear methods and its limitations. By applying a variance-based global sensitivity analysis to parameters of the oscillator, suitable candidates for an uncertainty analysis are identified. Results of uncertainty analyses by applying polynomial chaos expansions to net work and CEA correlate well with those of the nonlinear analysis, hence demonstrating the potential of an uncertainty analysis in improving the prediction of brake squeal propensity using a linear method.

  2. Detection of braking intention in diverse situations during simulated driving based on EEG feature combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Woo; Haufe, Stefan; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2015-02-01

    Objective. We developed a simulated driving environment for studying neural correlates of emergency braking in diversified driving situations. We further investigated to what extent these neural correlates can be used to detect a participant's braking intention prior to the behavioral response. Approach. We measured electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic signals during simulated driving. Fifteen participants drove a virtual vehicle and were exposed to several kinds of traffic situations in a simulator system, while EEG signals were measured. After that, we extracted characteristic features to categorize whether the driver intended to brake or not. Main results. Our system shows excellent detection performance in a broad range of possible emergency situations. In particular, we were able to distinguish three different kinds of emergency situations (sudden stop of a preceding vehicle, sudden cutting-in of a vehicle from the side and unexpected appearance of a pedestrian) from non-emergency (soft) braking situations, as well as from situations in which no braking was required, but the sensory stimulation was similar to stimulations inducing an emergency situation (e.g., the sudden stop of a vehicle on a neighboring lane). Significance. We proposed a novel feature combination comprising movement-related potentials such as the readiness potential, event-related desynchronization features besides the event-related potentials (ERP) features used in a previous study. The performance of predicting braking intention based on our proposed feature combination was superior compared to using only ERP features. Our study suggests that emergency situations are characterized by specific neural patterns of sensory perception and processing, as well as motor preparation and execution, which can be utilized by neurotechnology based braking assistance systems.

  3. Mercury risk from fluorescent lamps in China: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2012-09-01

    Energy-efficient lighting is one of the key measures for addressing electric power shortages and climate change mitigation, and fluorescent lamps are expected to dominate the lighting market in China over the next several years. This review presents an overview on the emissions and risk of mercury from fluorescent lamps during production and disposal, and discusses measures for reducing the mercury risk through solid waste management and source reduction. Fluorescent lamps produced in China used to contain relatively large amounts of mercury (up to 40 mg per lamp) due to the prevalence of liquid mercury dosing, which also released significant amounts of mercury to the environment. Upgrade of the mercury dosing technologies and manufacturing facilities had significantly reduced the mercury contents in fluorescent lamps, with most of them containing less than 10 or 5mg per lamp now. Occupational hygiene studies showed that mercury emissions occurred during fluorescent lamp production, particularly in the facilities using liquid mercury dosing, which polluted the environmental media at and surrounding the production sites and posed chronic health risk to the workers by causing neuropsychological and motor impairments. It is estimated that spent fluorescent lamps account for approximately 20% of mercury input in the MSW in China. Even though recycling of fluorescent lamps presents an important opportunity to capture the mercury they contain, it is difficult and not cost-effective at reducing the mercury risk under the broader context of mercury pollution control in China. In light of the significant mercury emissions associated with electricity generation in China, we propose that reduction of mercury emissions and risk associated with fluorescent lamps should be achieved primarily through lowering their mercury contents by the manufacturers while recycling programs should focus on elemental mercury-containing waste products instead of fluorescent lamps to recapture

  4. High-frequency electrodeless lamps in argon-mercury mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, N [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Revalde, G [Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia, Raina blvd. 19, Riga (Latvia); Skudra, A [Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia, Raina blvd. 19, Riga (Latvia); Zissis, G [CPAT, University Toulouse 3, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); Zorina, N [Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia, Raina blvd. 19, Riga (Latvia)

    2005-09-07

    In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations of high-frequency (HF) electrodeless lamps in argon-mercury mixtures are performed. The intensities of the mercury spectral lines having wavelengths {lambda} = 404.66, 435.83, 546.07 nm (7{sup 3}S{sub 1}-6{sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) and the resonance line {lambda} = 253.7 nm (6{sup 3} P{sub 1}-6{sup 1}S{sub 0}) are measured at a wide range of mercury pressures, varying the HF generator current and argon filling pressure. A stationary self-consistent model of HF electrodeless discharge lamp is developed including kinetics of the excited mercury and argon atomic states. Based on the developed model, the radiation characteristics of the discharge plasma are calculated. Numerical simulation of the line intensities behaviour in dependence on the mercury pressure, HF generator current and argon filling pressure is performed. The model results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The calculations of the relative intensities of the visible triplet lines 7{sup 3}S{sub 1}-6{sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2} are presented for the first time in this paper.

  5. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  6. Infrared continuum radiation from metal halide high intensity discharge lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herd, M T; Lawler, J E [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2007-06-07

    Infrared (IR) continuum radiation from the arc of a metal halide high intensity discharge lamp was measured and modelled. There are three contributions to the near IR continuum from free electrons: electron-Hg atom bremsstrahlung, electron-ion bremsstrahlung and electron-ion recombination radiation. Electron-Hg atom bremsstrahlung is the most important of these. The radiation transport model utilized empirical Hg density, arc temperature and electron density maps. The line width of the Hg 7{sup 1}S{sub 0} to 6{sup 1}P{sub 1} resonance broadened transition was used to determine the arc core Hg density. The arc temperature as a function of radius was determined using the radiance of the Hg 9860, 7311 and 7166 cm{sup -1} lines. Relative densities of neutral Dy atoms and Dy ions as a function of radius were found using an Abel inversion of the relative line radiance of selected Dy I and Dy II lines. A Saha analysis was used to determine the electron density in the lamp. The continuum is 73% of the total near IR radiation in the 4000-12 800 cm{sup -1} range.

  7. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) is directed to a target inside a chamber evacuated to ~15 Pa causing desorption of molecules from the target's surface. The desorbed molecules are ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp (filled with xenon, major wavelength at 148 nm). The resulting ions are stored and detected in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap modified from a Finnigan Mat LCQ mass spectrometer operated at a pressure of ≥ 0.004 Pa. The limit of detection for desorbed coronene molecules is 1.5 pmol, which is about two orders of magnitude more sensitive than laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry using a fluorine excimer laser (157 nm) as the ionization source. The mass spectrum of four standard aromatic compounds (pyrene, coronene, rubrene and 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPC)) shows that parent ions dominate. By increasing the infrared laser power, this instrument is capable of detecting inorganic compounds. PMID:25601688

  8. X-ray-binary spectra in the lamp post model

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, F H; Zdziarski, A A; Madej, J

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Context. The high-energy radiation from black-hole binaries may be due to the reprocessing of a lamp located on the black hole axis, emitting X-rays. The observed spectrum is made of 3 components: the direct spectrum; the thermal bump; and the reflected spectrum made of the Compton hump and the iron-line complex. Aims. We aim at computing accurately the complete reprocessed spectrum (thermal bump + reflected) of black-hole binaries over the entire X-ray band. We also determine the strength of the direct component. Our choice of parameters is adapted to a source showing an important thermal component. Methods. We compute in full GR the illumination of a thin disk by a lamp along the rotation axis. We use the ATM21 radiative transfer code to compute the spectrum emitted along the disk. We ray trace this local spectrum to determine the reprocessed spectrum as observed at infinity. We discuss the dependence of the local and ray-traced spectra on the emission angle and spin. Results. We show the importa...

  9. Physics of Electrodeless UV Lamps and Applications of UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekic, Miodrag; Ruckman, Mark

    2004-12-01

    Electrodeless discharge microwave powered ultraviolet limps are a special class of high power incoherent UV sources, conceptualized forty years ago for industrial processing applications. Because of the nonimaging character of the applications, the need for measuring averaged properties of the lamps' exceeds the motivation to obtain detailed space-resolved discharge parameters. This writing discusses measurements of the average plasma temperature of a 5.8kW high pressure mercury bulb and a XeCl* excimer bulb driven by the microwaves of the same power. First method is based on the black body radiance fit to the self-absorbed 185nm and 254nm mercury lines. The second method is essentially Boltzmann plot method applied to the roto-vibrational levels of B1/2 - X1/2 XeCl* molecular transition with a maximum at 308nm. We also present a procedure for evaluation of effectiveness of different bulb spectra to the given UV curing chemistry system independent from the Beer-Lambert law. Conversely, the procedure can be used for the optimization of the chemistry to the chosen UV lamp radiance spectrum.

  10. X-ray-binary spectra in the lamp post model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, F. H.; Różańska, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Madej, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The high-energy radiation from black-hole binaries may be due to the reprocessing of a lamp located on the black hole rotation axis and emitting X-rays. The observed spectrum is made of three major components: the direct spectrum traveling from the lamp directly to the observer; the thermal bump at the equilibrium temperature of the accretion disk heated by the lamp; and the reflected spectrum essentially made of the Compton hump and the iron-line complex. Aims: We aim to accurately compute the complete reprocessed spectrum (thermal bump + reflected) of black-hole binaries over the entire X-ray band. We also determine the strength of the direct component. Our choice of parameters is adapted to a source showing an important thermal component. We are particularly interested in investigating the possibility to use the iron-line complex as a probe to constrain the black hole spin. Methods: We computed in full general relativity the illumination of a thin accretion disk by a fixed X-ray lamp along the rotation axis. We used the ATM21 radiative transfer code to compute the local, energy-dependent spectrum emitted along the disk as a function of radius, emission angle and black hole spin. We then ray traced this local spectrum to determine the final reprocessed spectrum as received by a distant observer. We consider two extreme values of the black hole spin (a = 0 and a = 0.98) and discuss the dependence of the local and ray-traced spectra on the emission angle and black hole spin. Results: We show the importance of the angle dependence of the total disk specific intensity spectrum emitted by the illuminated atmosphere when the thermal disk emission is fully taken into account. The disk flux, together with the X-ray flux from the lamp, determines the temperature and ionization structure of the atmosphere. High black hole spin implies high temperature in the inner disk regions, therefore, the emitted thermal disk spectrum fully covers the iron-line complex. As a

  11. Breakthrough of ultraviolet light from various brands of fluorescent lamps: Lethal effects on DNA repair-defective bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a comparative study of 17 pairs of 15 W fluorescent lamps intended for use in homes and purchased in local stores, we detect over 10-fold differences in UVB + UVC emissions between various lamps. This breakthrough of ultraviolet (UV) light is in part correlated with ability of lamps to kill DNA repair-defective recA-uvrB- Salmonella. Relative proficiency of lamps in eliciting photoreactivation of UV-induced DNA lesions also plays a prominent role in the relative rates of bacterial inactivation by emissions from different lamps. Lamps made in Chile, such as Phillips brand lamps and one type of General Electric lamp, produce far less UVB + UVC and fail to kill recA- uvrB- bacteria. In contrast, all tested lamps manufactured in the USA, Hungary, and Japan exhibit readily observed deleterious biological effects. When an E. coli recA- uvrB- phr- (photolyase-negative) triple mutant is used for assay, lethal radiations are detected from all lamps, and single-hit exponential inactivation rates rather closely correlate to amount of directly measured UVB + UVC output of each pair of lamps. Although all lamps tested may meet international and Unite States standards for radiation safely, optimal practices in lamp manufacture are clearly capable of decreasing human exposure to indoor UV light. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. 77 FR 4203 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps, General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... addressing test procedures for fluorescent and incandescent lamps. 62 FR 29221 (May 29, 1997); 74 FR 31829... previous test procedure rulemaking on incandescent and fluorescent performance testing. 62 FR 29221, 29229... Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps''). 76 FR 56661, 56662 (September 14, 2011). DOE...

  13. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... public rulemaking (NOPR) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 76 FR 20090. For the test... supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR). 75 FR 71570. All comments on the fluorescent lamp ballast... rulemaking''). DOE initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a...

  14. 76 FR 56661 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps, General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... fluorescent lamps (CFLs), IRLs, and GSILs. 59 FR 49468 (establishing 10 CFR part 430, subpart B, Appendix R... procedures for fluorescent and incandescent lamps. 62 FR 29222 (May 29, 1997); 74 FR 31829 (July 6, 2009); 74... references to industry standards adopted in the September 1994 Interim Final Rule. 62 FR 29222....

  15. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Availability of the Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653. On...) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 75 FR 14319. DOE also published a test... initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a public meeting...

  16. A survey of infrared continuum versus line radiation from metal halide lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M; Herd, M T; Lawler, J E [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2008-07-21

    Near-infrared radiation (near-IR) losses from the arcs of six commercial metal halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamps with various power levels and with both Na/Sc and rare earth doses were surveyed in this paper. A radiometrically calibrated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used. Lamps with rare earth doses have appreciably better color rendering indices (CRIs) than lamps with Na/Sc doses. The ratios of near-IR continuum emission over near-IR line emission from these six lamps were compared. The near-IR continuum dominates near-IR losses from lamps with rare earth doses and the continuum is significant, but not dominant, from lamps with Na/Sc doses. There was no strong dependence of this ratio on input power or color temperature (T{sub c}). Total near-IR losses were estimated using absolutely calibrated, horizontal irradiance measurements. Estimated total near-IR losses were correlated with CRI. The lamps with rare earth doses yield the best CRIs, but have appreciably higher near-IR losses due primarily to continuum processes. One of these rare earth MH-HID lamps was used in a more detailed study of the microscopic physics of the continuum mechanism (Herd M T and Lawler E 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 3386)

  17. A survey of infrared continuum versus line radiation from metal halide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-infrared radiation (near-IR) losses from the arcs of six commercial metal halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamps with various power levels and with both Na/Sc and rare earth doses were surveyed in this paper. A radiometrically calibrated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used. Lamps with rare earth doses have appreciably better color rendering indices (CRIs) than lamps with Na/Sc doses. The ratios of near-IR continuum emission over near-IR line emission from these six lamps were compared. The near-IR continuum dominates near-IR losses from lamps with rare earth doses and the continuum is significant, but not dominant, from lamps with Na/Sc doses. There was no strong dependence of this ratio on input power or color temperature (Tc). Total near-IR losses were estimated using absolutely calibrated, horizontal irradiance measurements. Estimated total near-IR losses were correlated with CRI. The lamps with rare earth doses yield the best CRIs, but have appreciably higher near-IR losses due primarily to continuum processes. One of these rare earth MH-HID lamps was used in a more detailed study of the microscopic physics of the continuum mechanism (Herd M T and Lawler E 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 3386)

  18. CALiPER Application Summary Report 21. Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    This report focuses on the bare lamp performance of 31 linear LED lamps intended as an alternative to T8 fluorescent lamps. Data obtained in accordance with IES LM-79-08 indicated that the mean efficacy is similar to that of fluorescent lamps, but that lumen output is often much lower. This presents a situation where something must change in order for energy savings and equivalent illumination levels to be achieved simultaneously. In this case, the luminous intensity distribution of all the tested lamps was directional or semi-directional, rather than omnidirectional. Also discussed in this report are several issues related to the electrical configuration of the lamps, such as the required socket types and power feed location. While no configuration is necessarily better, the multitude of options can make specifying and installing linear LED lamps more difficult, with the potential for safety issues. Similarly, the variety of color and power quality attributes adds a layer of complexity to the specification process. Many products offered good or excellent quality attributes, but some did not and thus could be perceived as inferior to fluorescent lamps in some installations.

  19. A survey of infrared continuum versus line radiation from metal halide lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M.; Herd, M. T.; Lawler, J. E.

    2008-07-01

    Near-infrared radiation (near-IR) losses from the arcs of six commercial metal halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamps with various power levels and with both Na/Sc and rare earth doses were surveyed in this paper. A radiometrically calibrated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used. Lamps with rare earth doses have appreciably better color rendering indices (CRIs) than lamps with Na/Sc doses. The ratios of near-IR continuum emission over near-IR line emission from these six lamps were compared. The near-IR continuum dominates near-IR losses from lamps with rare earth doses and the continuum is significant, but not dominant, from lamps with Na/Sc doses. There was no strong dependence of this ratio on input power or color temperature (Tc). Total near-IR losses were estimated using absolutely calibrated, horizontal irradiance measurements. Estimated total near-IR losses were correlated with CRI. The lamps with rare earth doses yield the best CRIs, but have appreciably higher near-IR losses due primarily to continuum processes. One of these rare earth MH-HID lamps was used in a more detailed study of the microscopic physics of the continuum mechanism (Herd M T and Lawler E 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 3386).

  20. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrish, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.