WorldWideScience

Sample records for brake drums

  1. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  2. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  3. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, D. B., E-mail: rmt.bowo@gmail.com; Haryanto, I., E-mail: ismoyo2001@yahoo.de; Laksono, N. P., E-mail: priyolaksono89@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  4. The unbalanced signal measuring of automotive brake drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Ye, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Bang-Cheng

    2005-04-01

    For the purpose of the research and development of automatic balancing system by mass removing, the dissertation deals with the measuring method of the unbalance signal, the design the automatic balance equipment and the software. This paper emphases the testing system of the balancer of automotive brake drum. The paper designs the band-pass filter product with favorable automatic follow of electronic product, and with favorable automatic follow capability, filtration effect and stability. The system of automatic balancing system by mass removing based on virtual instrument is designed in this paper. A lab system has been constructed. The results of contrast experiments indicate the notable effect of 1-plane automatic balance and the high precision of dynamic balance, and demonstrate the application value of the system.

  5. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... same size. (c) Slack adjusters. The effective length of the slack adjuster on each end of an axle must...

  6. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  7. Experimental Method for Analyzing Friction Phenomenon Related to Drum Brake Squeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GLIŠOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Automobile brakes have been intensively developed during past few decades, but the maximum motor’s power, that should amortized in vehicle brakes, has been significantly increased also. Most of the kinetic energy of the moving vehicles is transforming into heat through friction. But the small part of kinetic energy transforms into sound pressure and makes noise. Low frequency squeal of drum brakes is very intense and can lead to customers’ complain. The interaction between the brake system and the vehicle framework and suspension is often very substantial during occurrence of brake noise. Unfortunately, to solve this type of squeal problem is also difficult because of the large number of components involved. The other cause is attributed to self-excited vibration that is induced when the friction material has a negative slope in relation to the relative velocity. This paper illustrates an approach to experimental studies of drum brakes in road conditions in order to monitor changes in the coefficient of friction that can generate drum brake squeal at low frequencies.

  8. Study on Parameter Optimization Design of Drum Brake Based on Hybrid Cellular Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the significant role the brake plays in ensuring the fast and safe running of vehicles, and since the present parameter optimization design models of brake are far from the practical application, this paper proposes a multiobjective optimization model of drum brake, aiming at maximizing the braking efficiency and minimizing the volume and temperature rise of drum brake. As the commonly used optimization algorithms are of some deficiency, we present a differential evolution cellular multiobjective genetic algorithm (DECell by introducing differential evolution strategy into the canonical cellular genetic algorithm for tackling this problem. For DECell, the gained Pareto front could be as close as possible to the exact Pareto front, and also the diversity of nondominated individuals could be better maintained. The experiments on the test functions reveal that DECell is of good performance in solving high-dimension nonlinear multiobjective problems. And the results of optimizing the new brake model indicate that DECell obviously outperforms the compared popular algorithm NSGA-II concerning the number of obtained brake design parameter sets, the speed, and stability for finding them.

  9. The Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Ecological Characteristics of Drum and Disk Wheel Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Revin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that automobile transport as well as industry are the main sources of air pollution. In addition to exhaust gases, the flow of traffic releases a cloud of dust, consisting of over 60% of micro- and ultramicroscopic particles with radius of 10.0–0.25 µm, which are formed due to wheel abrasion (caused by the road grip of a tyre and the use of the brake blocks (in braking. The products formed in the process of wearing of the wheel brake pads are also the sources of the mass of fine dispersed particles over an urban highway. The authors analyse and evaluate ecological characteristics of drum and disk wheel brakes of vehicles.Article in Russian

  10. Analysis of Failure Causes and the Criticality Degree of Elements of Motor Vehicle’s Drum Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ćatić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the paper gives the basic concepts, historical development of methods of Fault Tree Analysis - FTA and Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis - FMECA for analysis of the reliability and safety of technical systems and importance of applying this method is highlighted. Failure analysis is particularly important for systems whose failures lead to the endangerment of people safety, such as, for example, the braking system of motor vehicles. For the failure analysis of the considered device, it is necessary to know the structure, functioning, working conditions and all factors that have a greater or less influence on its reliability. By formation of the fault tree of drum brakes in braking systems of commercial vehicles, it was established a causal relation between the different events that lead to a reduction in performance or complete failure of the braking system. Based on data from exploitation, using FMECA methods, determination of the criticality degree of drum brake’s elements on the reliable and safe operation of the braking system is performed.

  11. Production of spheroidal graphite cast iron (S. G. Iron) for an automobile brake drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.Z.; Aziz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The role of automobile industry for any country has a great importance. Break drum is one of the essential parts of automobile car and its local casting is required in order to achieve the target for automobile industry because it has special significance. Break drum being the important constituent of the system of an automobile requires a great degree of accuracy and reliability. S. G. Iron is preferred because of its mechanical properties i.e., higher strength modulus, impact resistance and ductility along with excellent machinability and manufacturing ease. (author)

  12. Clutches and brakes design and selection

    CERN Document Server

    Orthwein, William C

    2004-01-01

    FRICTION MATERIALSFriction CodeWearBrake FadeFriction MaterialsNotationReferencesBAND BRAKESDerivation of EquationsApplicationLever-Actuated Band Brake: Backstop DesignExample: Design of a BackstopNotationFormula CollectionReferencesEXTERNALLY AND INTERNALLY PIVOTED SHOE BRAKESPivoted External Drum BrakesPivoted Internal Drum BrakesDesign of Dual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesDual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design ExamplesDesign of Single-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesSingle-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design Exam

  13. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Brake Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory, operation, and repair of drum brakes, disc brakes, and brake system components. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Brake Systems, (2) Master Cylinder, (3) Drum Brakes, (4) Disc Brakes, (5) Power Brakes, and (6)…

  14. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  15. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

  16. Brake wear warning device: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    Heat-insulated wire is introduced through brake shoe and partially into brake lining. Wire is connected to positive terminal and light bulb. When brakes wear to critical point, contact between wire and wheel drum grounds circuit and turns on warning light.

  17. Brakes. Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 6. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Robert

    This module is the sixth of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Eight units cover: introduction to automotive brake systems; disc and drum brake system components and how they operate; properties of brake fluid and procedures for bleeding the brake system; diagnosing and determining needed repairs on…

  18. Steam drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1978-01-01

    Steam drums are described that are suitable for use in steam generating heavy water reactor power stations. They receive a steam/water mixture via riser headers from the reactor core and provide by means of separators and driers steam with typically 0.5% moisture content for driving turbines. The drums are constructed as prestressed concrete pressure vessels in which the failure of one or a few of the prestressing elements does not significantly affect the overall strength of the structure. The concrete also acts as a radiation shield. (U.K.)

  19. The design of brake fatigue testing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brake is used to reduce the operating speed of the machinery equipment or to make it stop. It is essential for vehicles, climbing machines and many fixed equipment in their safety work. Brake tester is an experimental apparatus to measure and analyse the braking performance. Based on the PLC technology and for the purpose of testing brake shoe friction material’s life, this paper designed a virtual brake test platform. In it, inverter were used to control the motor, so that it can load automatically and ensure brake drum constant speed output; what is more, closed loop control system were used to control the brake shoe, so that the cylinder pressure keeps stable in the process of dynamic braking.

  20. Research on brake noise. Concerning LT drum brake; Brake noise ni kansuru kenkyu. LT Drum brake ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikamori, S; Shimizu, Y [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan); Yano, M [Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The four degrees of freedom of shoe motion were adopted by considering the bending for the shoe vibration, and the simulation model was derived. Using this model, the mechanism by which the squeal is generated was reviewed. And conditions for the occurrence of squeal vibration were determined by a series of simulations. Then father analysis was conducted on the influences of various parameters upon the occurrence of squeal vibration. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  2. A method to achieve comparable thermal states of car brakes during braking on the road and on a high-speed roll-stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The temperature of a brake friction surface influences significantly the braking effectiveness. The paper describes a heat transfer process in car brakes. Using a developed program of finite element method, the temperature distributions in brake rotors (disc and drum brake) of a light truck have been calculated. As a preliminary consistency criterion of the brake thermal state in road and roll-stand braking conditions, a balance of the energy cumulated in the brake rotor has been taken into account. As the most reliable consistency criterion an equality of average temperatures of the friction surface has been assumed. The presented method allows to achieve on a roll-stand the analogical thermal states of automotive brakes, which are observed during braking in road conditions. Basing on this method, it is possible to calculate the braking time and force for a high-speed roll-stand. In contrast to the previous papers of the author, new calculation results have been presented.

  3. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  4. Better Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Through continuing studies on high-temperature space materials useful for better brake linings, Bendix Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to develop a novel composite. This team worked to fabricate several combinations of composite materials and evaluated results. The one selected increases wear rates and lowers costs. It exhibits constant coefficient of friction at temperatures as high as 650 degrees Fahrenheit, a region where conventional brake linings fade markedly. Other suitable markets include brakes for trucks and industrial equipment such as overhead cranes and hoists. Afterwards brake linings could find successful application in passenger cars.

  5. Braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  6. Sprag solenoid brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    Operation of solenoid braking mechanism is discussed. Illustrations of construction of the brake are provided. Device is used for braking low or medium speed shaft rotations and produces approximately ten times braking torque of similar solenoid brakes.

  7. Magnetostrictive Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron A.; Hulse, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    A magnetostrictive brake has been designed as a more energy-efficient alternative to a magnetic fail-safe brake in a robot. (In the specific application, failsafe signifies that the brake is normally engaged; that is, power must be supplied to allow free rotation.) The magnetic failsafe brake must be supplied with about 8 W of electric power to initiate and maintain disengagement. In contrast, the magnetostrictive brake, which would have about the same dimensions and the same torque rating as those of the magnetic fail-safe brake, would demand only about 2 W of power for disengagement. The brake (see figure) would include a stationary base plate and a hub mounted on the base plate. Two solenoid assemblies would be mounted in diametrically opposed recesses in the hub. The cores of the solenoids would be made of the magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D or equivalent. The rotating part of the brake would be a ring-and spring- disk subassembly. By means of leaf springs not shown in the figure, this subassembly would be coupled with the shaft that the brake is meant to restrain. With no power supplied to the solenoids, a permanent magnet would pull axially on a stepped disk and on a shelf in the hub, causing the ring to be squeezed axially between the stepped disk and the hub. The friction associated with this axial squeeze would effect the braking action. Supplying electric power to the solenoids would cause the magnetostrictive cylinders to push radially inward against a set of wedges that would be in axial contact with the stepped disk. The wedges would convert the radial magnetostrictive strain to a multiplied axial displacement of the stepped disk. This axial displacement would be just large enough to lift the stepped disk, against the permanent magnetic force, out of contact with the ring. The ring would then be free to turn because it would no longer be squeezed axially between the stepped disk and the hub.

  8. Rotary drum for centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo; Ichinoto, Seiichi.

    1972-01-01

    An outwardly concaved metallic end plate is fitted into each end of a metallic rotary drum for a centrifuge until each end face of the drum is brought to bear upon a section of the end plate radially projected in a direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the drum, said section being provided at the marginal edge of the end plate. Following completion of the fitting operation, the end plate is welded to the rotary drum. During high speed rotation, the drum contracts axially and expands radially, while the concave end plate, radially tensioned due to the radial expansion of the drum, undergoes a reduction in its degree of concavity resulting in outwardly directed axial displacement of the end plate proper its marginal edge remaining unaffected relative to the drum. Such displacement conpensates for axial contraction of the drum. Since displacement of the end plate and contraction of the drum depend upon the speed of rotation, substantial axial distortion of the drum can be avoided relative to the end plates at both low and high speeds to permit a high degree of balance for the rotary drum. (Ohno, Y.)

  9. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  10. Experimental investigation of an accelerometer controlled automatic braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Sleeper, R. K.; Nayadley, J. R., Sr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of an automatic braking system for arresting the motion of an airplane by sensing and controlling braked wheel decelerations. The system was tested on a rotating drum dynamometer by using an automotive tire, wheel, and disk-brake assembly under conditions which included two tire loadings, wet and dry surfaces, and a range of ground speeds up to 70 knots. The controlling parameters were the rates at which brake pressure was applied and released and the Command Deceleration Level which governed the wheel deceleration by controlling the brake operation. Limited tests were also made with the automatic braking system installed on a ground vehicle in an effort to provide a more realistic proof of its feasibility. The results of this investigation indicate that a braking system which utilizes wheel decelerations as the control variable to restrict tire slip is feasible and capable of adapting to rapidly changing surface conditions.

  11. Waste drum refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of -60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything

  12. Optimal design and selection of magneto-rheological brake types based on braking torque and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Lang, V T; Choi, S B

    2015-01-01

    In developing magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), it is well known that the braking torque and the mass of the MRBs are important factors that should be considered in the product’s design. This research focuses on the optimal design of different types of MRBs, from which we identify an optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass. In the optimization, common types of MRBs such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-type, and T-shape types are considered. The optimization problem is to find an optimal MRB structure that can produce the required braking torque while minimizing its mass. After a brief description of the configuration of the MRBs, the MRBs’ braking torque is derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of the magnetorheological fluid. Then, the optimal designs of the MRBs are analyzed. The optimization objective is to minimize the mass of the brake while the braking torque is constrained to be greater than a required value. In addition, the power consumption of the MRBs is also considered as a reference parameter in the optimization. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is used to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs with different required braking torque values are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, we discuss the optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass. (technical note)

  13. BRAKE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  14. Type B drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998

  15. 76 FR 54721 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... operational use. Based on these fundamental performance characteristics of s-cam brakes, the August 2005 final... maintenance task (e.g., readjusting the brakes or replacing an inoperable slack adjuster) at the inspection..., slack adjusters, linings/pads, and drums/rotors. * * * * * (e) Clamp, Bendix DD-3, bolt-type, and...

  16. Automotive Brake Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  17. Airborne Wear Particles Emissions fromCommercial Disc Brake Materials– Passenger Car Field Test

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlström, Jens; Olofsson, Ulf; Jansson, Anders; Olander, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Most modern passenger cars have disc brakes on the front wheels, which unlike drum brakes are not sealed off to the ambient air. During braking, there is wear to both the rotor and the pads. This wear process generates particles, which may become airborne. In field tests it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment. It may be preferable to use laboratory test stands where the cleanness of the surrounding air can be controlled. The validity of these...

  18. Study on friction behaviour of brake shoe materials for mining hoist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, M.; Ungureanu, N. S.; Crăciun, I.

    2017-02-01

    The friction coefficient in the brake linkages has an important influence on the braking efficiency and safety of machines. The paper presents a method for the study of the friction coefficient of the friction couple brake shoe-drum for mining hoist. In this context, it is interesting to define the friction coefficient, not just according to the materials in contact, but according to the entire ensemble of tribological factors of the friction couple.

  19. Emergency braking : research summary.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    This report deals with an investigation concerning braking capacity of trucks if somewhere a failure occurs in the normal service brake. Purpose of research was to get an insight in various secondary braking systems for trucks. It is shown that with almost all of the secondary braking system it was

  20. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: interim results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David M; Rogers, Rick; Sepulveda, Rosalina; Kunzendorf, Peter; Bellmann, Bernd; Ernst, Heinrich; Phillips, James I

    2014-04-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (>20 μm) cleared quickly with T(½) estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T(½)>1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 14 CFR 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brakes and braking systems. 25.735 Section... braking systems. (a) Approval. Each assembly consisting of a wheel(s) and brake(s) must be approved. (b... an automatic braking system is installed, means are provided to: (i) Arm and disarm the system, and...

  2. Antiskid braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdera, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Published report describes analytical development and simulation of braking system. System prevents wheels from skidding when brakes are applied, significantly reducing stopping distance. Report also presents computer simulation study on system as applied to aircraft.

  3. Deployable Brake for Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, J. R.; Maloney, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Aerodynamic shield that could be opened and closed proposed. Report presents concepts for deployable aerodynamic brake. Brake used by spacecraft returning from high orbit to low orbit around Earth. Spacecraft makes grazing passes through atmosphere to slow down by drag of brake. Brake flexible shield made of woven metal or ceramic withstanding high temperatures created by air friction. Stored until needed, then deployed by set of struts.

  4. Roller Locking Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Roller locking brake is normally braking rotary mechanism allowing free rotation when electromagnet in mechanism energized. Well suited to robots and other machinery which automatic braking upon removal of electrical power required. More compact and reliable. Requires little electrical power to maintain free rotation and exhibits minimal buildup of heat.

  5. High speed rotary drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, H

    1970-03-25

    A high speed rotary drum is disclosed in which the rotor vessel is a double-wall structure comprising an inner wave-shaped pipe inserted coaxially within an outer straight pipe, the object being to provide a strengthened composite light-weight structure. Since force induced axial deformation of the straight pipe and radial deformation of the corrugated pipe are small, the composite effectively resists external forces and, if the waves of the inner pipe are given a sufficient amplitude, the thickness of both pipes may be reduced to lower the overall weight. Thus high angular velocities can be obtained to separate U/sup 235/ from gaseous UF/sub 6/.

  6. Shearer drums - the cutting edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, M.; Wright, C.

    2004-09-15

    The paper discusses continuous miner and shearer cutters. It claims cutting drum require the same level of engineering know-how and technical expertise as do the machines driving them, and that the cutting drum, whether on a longwall shearer or continuous miner, comprises, the steel, pedestals, bit holders and the bits.

  7. Compound drum for a centrifugal separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This invention concerns a method for centrifugal separation of UF 6 . The invention provides a composite drum capable of rapid rotation for use in a centrifugal separating arrangement for gaseous materials. The drum is provided with a first drum section comprised of a metal and a second drum section comprised of a fiber-reinforced synthetic material. The second drum section is applied on the outside peripheral surface of the first drum section, where the second drum section is provided with a number of annular components, each of which is shorter than the first drum section

  8. A parametric FE modeling of brake for non-linear analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed,Ibrahim; Fatouh, Yasser [Automotive and Tractors Technology Department, Faculty of Industrial Education, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt); Aly, Wael [Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology Department, Faculty of Industrial Education, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    A parametric modeling of a drum brake based on 3-D Finite Element Methods (FEM) for non-contact analysis is presented. Many parameters are examined during this study such as the effect of drum-lining interface stiffness, coefficient of friction, and line pressure on the interface contact. Firstly, the modal analysis of the drum brake is also studied to get the natural frequency and instability of the drum to facilitate transforming the modal elements to non-contact elements. It is shown that the Unsymmetric solver of the modal analysis is efficient enough to solve this linear problem after transforming the non-linear behavior of the contact between the drum and the lining to a linear behavior. A SOLID45 which is a linear element is used in the modal analysis and then transferred to non-linear elements which are Targe170 and Conta173 that represent the drum and lining for contact analysis study. The contact analysis problems are highly non-linear and require significant computer resources to solve it, however, the contact problem give two significant difficulties. Firstly, the region of contact is not known based on the boundary conditions such as line pressure, and drum and friction material specs. Secondly, these contact problems need to take the friction into consideration. Finally, it showed a good distribution of the nodal reaction forces on the slotted lining contact surface and existing of the slot in the middle of the lining can help in wear removal due to the friction between the lining and the drum. Accurate contact stiffness can give a good representation for the pressure distribution between the lining and the drum. However, a full contact of the front part of the slotted lining could occur in case of 20, 40, 60 and 80 bar of piston pressure and a partially contact between the drum and lining can occur in the rear part of the slotted lining.

  9. Reel safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, C. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A braking apparatus is described for a tape transport device having two stacked coaxial reels and feelers mounted in proximity to the reels for sensing the tape being wound on each reel. A device is mounted in proximity to adjacent central hubs of the reels to a simultaneously, frictionally engage both hubs and brake both reels. A mechanical actuator is coupled to both feelers and to the brake device. The brake means comprises a pair of rubber shoulders that extend in opposite directions relative to a common axis, and turns about the axis in response to either of the feelers.

  10. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, F.B.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation

  11. An antilock molecular braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Ting; Huang, Shou-Ling; Yao, Hsuan-Hsiao; Chen, I-Chia; Lin, Ying-Chih; Yang, Jye-Shane

    2012-08-17

    A light-driven molecular brake displaying an antilock function is constructed by introducing a nonradiative photoinduced electron transfer (PET) decay channel to compete with the trans (brake-off) → cis (brake-on) photoisomerization. A fast release of the brake can be achieved by deactivating the PET process through addition of protons. The cycle of irradiation-protonation-irradiation-deprotonation conducts the brake function and mimics the antilock braking system (ABS) of vehicles.

  12. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, David M.; Rogers, Rick; Sepulveda, Rosalina; Kunzendorf, Peter; Bellmann, Bernd; Ernst, Heinrich; Phillips, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T 1/2 estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T 1/2 > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d

  13. Radwaste disposal drum centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.; Deltete, C.P.; Crook, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The drum or processing bowl of the DDC becomes the disposal container when the filling operation is completed. Rehandling of the processed resin is eliminated. By allowing the centrifugally compacted resin to remain in the processing container, extremely efficient waste packaging can be achieved. The dewatering results and volume reductions reported during 1986 were based upon laboratory scale testing sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Since the publication of these preliminary results, additional testing using a full-scale prototype DDC has been completed, again under the auspices of the DOE. Full-scale testing has substantiated the results of earlier testing and has formed the basis for preliminary discussions with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding DDC licensing for radioactive applications. A comprehensive Topical Report and Process Control Program is currently being prepared for submittal to the NRC for review under a utility licensing action. Detailed cost-benefit analyses for actual plant operations have been prepared to substantiate the attractiveness of the DDC. Several methods to physically integrate a DDC into a nuclear power plant have also been developed

  14. Wheel brake with mechatronic parameter value control - investigation of operating behaviour and driver integration problems, with particurticular regard to brake-by-wire systems; Radbremse mit mechatronischer Kennwertregelung - Untersuchung von Betriebsverhalten und Fahreranbindungsproblematik, hinsichtlich Brake-by-Wire-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leber, M.

    1998-11-01

    The book presents a new brake system with mechatronically controlled self-energizing and with low energy demand. Potentials and limits of mechatronic parameter value control are pointed out with a view towards future brake-by-wire systems. Measurements on a parameter-controlled duplex drum brake provide information on the response to different disturbances. The possibility of influencing the driver by parameter-controlled wheel brakes were investigated in a novel experimental vehicle with freely programmable brake system parameters, and the main paramters of the driver/brake system interface were identified. The report ends with a few words on adaptive brake systems which can combine optimum driving efficiency with maximum comfort in all possible driving situations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Buch stellt eine neuartige Fahrzeugbremse mit mechatronisch geregelter Selbstverstaerkung vor, die einen niedrigen Spannenergiebedarf aufweist. Im Hinblick auf zukuenftige Brake-by-Wire-Systeme werden Potentiale, aber auch Grenzen einer mechatronischen Kennwertregelung aufgezeigt. Messungen an einer kennwertgeregelten Duplex-Trommelbremse geben Aufschluss ueber das Betriebsverhalten unter Einfluss verschiedener Stoergroessen. Die Moeglichkeiten einer Fahrerbeeinflussung durch kennwertgeregelte Radbremsen werden mittels eines neuartigen Versuchsfahrzeugs mit frei programmierbaren Bremssystemparametern untersucht. Darueber hinaus wird die Schnittstelle Fahrer/Bremssystem hinsichtlich ihrer bestimmenden Parameter beschrieben. Den Schluss der Arbeit bildet ein Ausblick auf adaptive Bremssysteme mit dem Potential, optimale fahrdynamische Effizienz bei groesstmoeglichem Komfort situationsabhaengig darzustellen. (orig.)

  15. Brake for rollable platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Frame-mounted brake is independent of wheels and consists of simple lever-actuated foot. Brake makes good contact with surface even though foot pad is at higher or lower level than wheels, this is particularly important when a rollable platform is used on irregular surface.

  16. Magnetorheological suspension electromagnetic brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    The magnetorheological suspension (MRS) brake is of the monoblock type. The main part of the electromagnetic brake is an electromagnet, between whose poles two MRS disks are placed. For distances between disks of 0.65x10 -3 m±10%, revolutions of the electric motor, coupled to the electromagnetic brake, ranging between 200 and 1600 rev/min and braking powers of up to 85 W, there are no differences in revolutions between the disks of the electromagnetic brake. For fixed revolutions of the electric motor, the revolution of the parallel disk can be modified continuously by means of the intensity of the magnetic field. In all cases, the quantity of MRS is of 0.35x10 -3 kg

  17. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.; Song, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L x rot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  18. Optimal design of a novel hybrid MR brake for motorcycles considering axial and radial magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an optimal solution of a new type of motorcycle brake featuring different smart magnetorheological (MR) fluids. In this study, typical types of commercial MR fluid are considered there for the design of a motorcycle MR brake; MRF-122-2ED (low yield stress), MRF-132-DG (medium yield stress) and MRF-140-CG (high yield stress). As a first step, a new configuration featuring a T-shaped drum MR brake is introduced and a hybrid concept of magnetic circuit (using both axial and radial magnetic flux) to generate braking force is analyzed based on the finite element method. An optimal design of the MR brake considering the required braking torque, the temperature due to friction of the MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions is then performed. For the optimization, the finite element analysis (FEA) is used to achieve principal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. In addition, the size, mass and power consumption of three different MR motorcycle brakes are quantitatively analyzed and compared. (paper)

  19. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  20. On friction braking demand with regenerative braking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, A.M.; Lampérth, M.U.; Wilkins, S.

    2002-01-01

    Developments in Hybrid Electric and pure Electric Vehicles are intended to improve the operational efficiency of road vehicles. Regenerative braking, which has long been established in rail vehicles, is integral to efficiency improvement, with up to 30% of overall traction energy demand satisfied by

  1. Vehicle brake testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  2. Braking System for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

    1987-01-01

    Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

  3. Load proportional safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    This brake is a self-energizing mechanical friction brake and is intended for use in a rotary drive system. It incorporates a torque sensor which cuts power to the power unit on any overload condition. The brake is capable of driving against an opposing load or driving, paying-out, an aiding load in either direction of rotation. The brake also acts as a no-back device when torque is applied to the output shaft. The advantages of using this type of device are: (1) low frictional drag when driving; (2) smooth paying-out of an aiding load with no runaway danger; (3) energy absorption proportional to load; (4) no-back activates within a few degrees of output shaft rotation and resets automatically; and (5) built-in overload protection.

  4. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, R.L.; Haecker, C.F.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided

  5. Rotary drum for distilling bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-02

    A rotary drum with insert tubes for distilling bituminous materials, like mineral coal, brown coal, wood, peat, and oil-shale, is characterized in that the insert tube is heated also by superheated steam introduced into the drum.

  6. Vapor generator steam drum spray heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasnacht, F.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and cooldown water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure

  7. Development of hydraulic brake actuator for active brake control; Active brake seigyoyo yuatsu booster no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Y; Hattori, M. Sugisawa, M.; Nishii, M [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, application of active brake control systems of the vehicle are increasing. (Vehicle stability control, Panic brake assist ) We have developed a new hydraulic brake actuator for active brake control systems. New hydraulic brake actuator is composed of the three parts. (Hydraulic booster unit, Power supply unit, Control valve unit) This report describes the construction of the new hydraulic booster unit. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  8. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can be...

  9. Unidirectional high gain brake stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, David J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

  10. Determining the frequency of asbestos use in automotive brakes from a fleet of on-road California vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Joseph; Wall, Stephen; Wagner, Jeff; Wang, Zhong-Min; Rao, Leela E

    2012-02-07

    Asbestos is a known human carcinogen, and recent regulation in California limits asbestiform fibers in brakes to trace levels beginning in 2014, although there is no corresponding federal requirement. In order to gauge the current prevalence of asbestos use in automotive brake applications, the California Air Resources Board tested brake linings from 137 light- and medium-duty vehicles and 54 heavy-duty vehicles. Only about 3% of the light- and medium-duty vehicle brake linings contained chrysotile asbestos. All of those brake linings were drum-type shoes, which are generally being phased out. No asbestos was found in low mileage vehicles presumed to have their original stock linings from the vehicle manufacturer. Additionally, no asbestos was found in the heavy-duty vehicle brake shoe linings sampled. Given the small percentage of vehicle brake linings with asbestos observed, it appears that the prior federal ban that was subsequently overturned, in combination with a threat of litigation, has reduced asbestos use in brake linings. However, our study was limited in scope and without a national ban, the current and future prevalence of asbestos in brakes is uncertain, suggesting the need for continued monitoring of materials released as toxic air contaminants in normal braking operations.

  11. Research on Braking Stability of Electro-mechanical Hybrid Braking System in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Fenzhu; Tian, Mi

    2010-01-01

    For the electro-mechanical hybrid braking system, which is composed of electric brake and general friction brake, the models of electric braking force, total braking force and the utilization adhesion coefficient for front and rear axles were established based on the analysis of braking torque distribution. The variation relationship between electric braking force and friction braking force in different braking intensity was calculated and analyzed with the paralleled-hybridized braking contr...

  12. Comparison of friction and wear performances of brake materials containing different amounts of ZrSiO4 dry sliding against SiCp reinforced Al matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaoyang; Wang Fuping

    2007-01-01

    Low friction levels for brake materials dry sliding against Al matrix composites (Al-MMCs) were observed. Al matrix composites reinforced with 30 vol.% SiC p (34 μm) were used first to fabricate a new brake drum in place of the conventional cast iron brake drum for a Chase Machine. Experimental studies on the brake materials differing in amounts of zirconium silicate (0 wt%, 4 wt%, 8 wt%, and 12 wt% ZrSiO 4 ) dry sliding against the Al-MMCs drum were performed on the Chase Machine in order to examine their effects on friction and wear performances. The test procedures include friction fade and recovery, load and speed sensitivities at 177 deg. C and 316 deg. C, and wear. Experimental results show that the brake material containing 8 wt% ZrSiO 4 had the best wear resistance and higher friction level. The brake material containing 12 wt% ZrSiO 4 had the highest friction level, but wear increased rapidly. The deterioration of the latter wear suggests that this brake material is unreliable in commercial applications

  13. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  14. Development of mechanical brake assist; Mechanical brake assist no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, M; Shingyoji, S; Nakamura, I; Tagawa, T; Saito, Y; Ishihara, T; Kobayashi, S; Yoshida, M [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have recognized that there are drivers who cannot apply strong brake pedal force , in spite of the necessity of hard braking in emergencies. We have developed a `mechanical brake assist system` which assists drivers appropriately, according to the drivers` characteristics based on studying the characteristic`s of conditions of drivers applying the brake pedal force in emergency conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Development of brake assist system. Summary of hydraulic brake assist system; Brake assist system no kaihatsu. Ekiatsushiki brake assist system no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, M; Ota, M; Shimizu, S [Toyota, Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have already developed vacuum-booster-type Brake Assist System that supplies additional braking power when panic braking is recognized. We are convinced that the expansion of Brake Assist System will become more important issue in the future. Therefore we have developed hydraulic Brake Assist System with increasing its controllability and reducing its discomfort. This system have a brake pressure sensor to detect emergency braking operation and an antilock device to supply additional braking power. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Safety brake for tape reels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    All-mechanical device senses end of tape and stops reel, even in event of electronic system failure. Assembly includes stop to prevent brake from overriding tape. Recentering mechanism returns brake to neutral position after torque is removed from reels.

  17. Cooperative Control of Regenerative Braking and Antilock Braking for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Guodong; Jin, XianJian

    2013-01-01

    A new cooperative braking control strategy (CBCS) is proposed for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with both a regenerative braking system and an antilock braking system (ABS) to achieve improved braking performance and energy regeneration. The braking system of the vehicle is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the antilock braking system work together with the regenerative braking system harmoniously. In the cooperative braking control strategy, a sli...

  18. The eigenspectra of Indian musical drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathej, G; Adhikari, R

    2009-02-01

    In a family of drums used in the Indian subcontinent, the circular drum head is made of material of nonuniform density. Remarkably, and in contrast to a circular membrane of uniform density, the low eigenmodes of the nonuniform membrane are harmonic. In this work the drum head is modeled as a nonuniform membrane whose density varies smoothly between two prescribed values. The eigenmodes and eigenvalues of the drum head are obtained using a high-resolution numerical method. The mathematical model and the numerical method are able to handle both concentric and eccentric nonuniformities, which correspond, respectively, to the dayan and the bayan drums. For a suitable choice of parameters, which are found by optimizing the harmonicity of the drum, the eigenspectra obtained from the model are in excellent agreement with experiment. The model and the numerical method should find application in numerical sound synthesis.

  19. Development of combined brake system on front and rear brakes for scooter; Scooter yo zenkorin rendo brake system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Y; Itabashi, T; Shinohara, S; Honda, Y [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Scooters need appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution and each of front and rear brakes have been operated using right and left levers. This time, a low cost brakes with cable type combined brake system for small size scooter and a brakes with hydraulic type combined brake system for middle size scooter have been developed to obtain appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution. Both systems use convenient left lever to operate. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Storage drums for radio-active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knights, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    The lid of a storage drum for radioactive waste is secured by a series of clamps each of which has a hook for engaging the rim of the drum. Each clamp has an indicating means whereby a remote operator can check that the lid is secured to the drum. In a second embodiment, the position of an arm acts as a visual indication as to whether or not the clamp is in engagement with the container rim. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D M; Rogers, R A; Sepulveda, R; Kunzendorf, P; Bellmann, B; Ernst, H; Creutzenberg, O; Phillips, J I

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  3. CT examination of radwaste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duwe, R.; Jansen, P.

    1988-01-01

    In order to garantee safe operation of the waste disposal site it is inevitable for the operator to know the radioactive inventory as well as the physical and chemical properties of the conditioned waste. The declarations of the waste producers describing the type, amount and conditioning of the wastes are taken as a basis for specifications of waste forms. The aim of the work till now was to install simple measuring desk for emission computed tomography in order to count γ-activity levels in drums, and to detect density distributions by transmission computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  4. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  5. Tether Deployer And Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    Design concept promises speed, control, and reliability. Scheme for deploying tether provides for fast, free, and snagless payout and fast, dependable braking. Developed for small, expendable tethers in outer space, scheme also useful in laying transoceanic cables, deploying guidance wires to torpedoes and missiles, paying out rescue lines from ship to ship via rockets, deploying antenna wires, releasing communication and power cables to sonobuoys and expendable bathythermographs, and in reeling out lines from fishing rods.

  6. Sprag solenoid brake. [development and operations of electrically controlled brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of an electrically operated brake are discussed. The action of the brake depends on energizing a solenoid which causes internally spaced sprockets to contact the inner surface of the housing. A spring forces the control member to move to the braking position when the electrical function is interrupted. A diagram of the device is provided and detailed operating principles are explained.

  7. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-ell bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-ell bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was < 6 g fissile/ell, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that would

  8. Hydraulic brake-system for a bicycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Frankenhuyzen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a hydraulic brake system for a bicycle which may or may not be provided with an auxiliary motor, comprising a brake disc and brake claws cooperating with the brake disc, as well as fluid-containing channels (4,6) that extend between an operating organ (1) and the brake

  9. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Type of motor vehicle Service brake systems Braking force as a percentage of gross vehicle or... specifications for performance-based brake testers for commercial motor vehicles, where braking force is the sum of the braking force at each wheel of the vehicle or vehicle combination as a percentage of gross...

  10. Los Alamos waste drum shufflers users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Painter, J.

    1993-01-01

    This user manual describes the Los Alamos waste drum shufflers. The primary purpose of the instruments is to assay the mass of 235 U (or other fissile materials) in drums of assorted waste. It can perform passive assays for isotopes that spontaneously emit neutrons or active assays using the shuffler technique as described on this manual

  11. Listening to the Shape of a Drum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 9. Listening to the Shape of a Drum - The Mathematics of Vibrating Drums. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 3 Issue 9 September 1998 pp 26-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Listening to the Shape of a Drum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 10. Listening to the Shape of a Drum - You Cannot Hear the Shape of a Drum! S Kesavan. General Article Volume 3 Issue 10 October 1998 pp 49-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Development of SGS for various waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Hong; Ryu, Young-Gerl; Kwak, Kyung-Kil; Ji, Yong-Young

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive waste assay system was manufactured to measure the individual nuclides' activity in homogeneous and non-homogeneous waste drums and to exclude worker's exposure. After measuring the activities of all individual γ-emitters, our system was programmed to calculate the activities of α, Β emitters, automatically and then calculated total activities of drum by utilizing scaling factor (relationship between α, Β emitters and Co-60, Cs-137). In general, SGS (Segmented gamma Scanning system) divided a waste drum into 8 segments vertically, and also 8 sectors in one segment to minimize the error. And SGS can be determined the density of drum by using the several matrix correction methods such as transmission ratio, differential peak absorption and mean density correction, individually or by combination. However, from the NPPs and other nuclear facilities, various drum (100∼350L) could be generated. To analyze the activities of γ-emitters from various drums, we modified the collimator (horizontal and vertical) and added detector mover to the existing SGS system. As a results, the measurement error was <12% in a short distance (10 segments, Co-60; 47.87μCi and Cs-137; 101.16μCi) and was <25% in a long distance (8 segments, same sources). This system can be applied to the drum which TGS system does not analyze drum (for example, high density, high activities and large volume). (author)

  14. Sound analysis of a cup drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun ho

    2012-01-01

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide tournament that evaluates a high-school student's ability to solve various physics conundrums that have not been fully resolved in the past. The research presented here is my solution to the cup drum problem. The physics behind a cup drum has never been explored or modelled. A cup drum is a musical instrument that can generate different frequencies and amplitudes depending on the location of a cup held upside-down over, on or under a water surface. The tapping sound of a cup drum can be divided into two components: standing waves and plate vibration. By individually researching the nature of these two sounds, I arrived at conclusions that could accurately predict the frequencies in most cases. When the drum is very close to the surface, qualitative explanations are given. In addition, I examined the trend of the tapping sound amplitude at various distances and qualitatively explained the experimental results. (paper)

  15. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  16. Development of nuclear waste concrete drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Yinghui

    1995-06-01

    The raw materials selection and the properties for nuclear waste concrete drum, the formula and properties of the concrete, the specification and technical quality requirement of the drum were described. The manufacture essentials and technology, the experiments and checks as well as the effective quality control and quality assurance carried out in the course of production were presented. The developed nuclear waste drum has a simple structure, easily available raw materials and rational formula for concrete. The compressive strength of the drum is more than 70 MPa, the tensile strength is more than 5 MPa, the nitrogen permeability is (2.16∼3.6) x 10 -18 m 2 . The error of the drum in dimensions is +-2 mm. The external surface of the drum is smooth. The drum accords with China standards in the sandy surface, void and crack. The results shows China has the ability to develop and manufacture nuclear waste concrete container and lays the foundation for standardization and series of the nuclear waste container for packing and transporting nuclear wastes in China. (5 figs., 10 tabs.)

  17. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigh, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper

  18. Seismic behavior analysis of piled drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, H.; Kosaka, T.; Mizushina, T.; Shimizu, M.; Uji, S.; Tsuchiya, H.

    1987-01-01

    In general, low level radioactive waste is packed in drums and stored in a warehouse being piled vertically, or laid horizontally. To observe the behavior of piled drums during an earthquake, an experimental study was reported. The experimental study is limited by the vibrating platform capacity. To carry out these tests up to the supporting limit is not recommended, in view of the vibrating platform curing as well as the operators' security. It is very useful to develop the analytical method for simulating the behavior of the drums. In this report, a computer program of piled drum's dynamic motion is shown, and the analytical result is referred to the experimental result. From the result of experiment on piled drums, the sliding effect has been found to be very important for the stability of drum, and the rocking motion observed, showing a little acceleration is less than the static estimated value. Behavior of piled drums is a complex phenomena comprising of sliding, rocking and jumping

  19. Modeling VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the VOC permeability had been measured. Permeabilities for five VOCs [methylene chloride, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene] were measured across a polyethylene bag. Comparison of model and experimental results of VOC concentration as a function of time indicate that model accurately accounts for significant VOC transport mechanisms in a lab-scale waste drum

  20. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A.; Zeek, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations.

  1. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A.; Zeek, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations

  2. Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

  3. Energy Expenditure in Rock/Pop Drumming

    OpenAIRE

    De La Rue, S; Draper, Stephen B; Potter, Christopher R; Smith, M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean +/- SD; age 27 +/- 8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily assembled...

  5. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum...

  6. Rotary drum for a centrifugal separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Tamotsu.

    1970-01-01

    Herein provided is a rotary drum designed to prevent strength reduction and eccentric weight redistribution at the joints between the drum body and the end cups therefore when materials having divergent specific gravities, strengths and Young's Modulus are employed as the construction materials for the drum body and end cups. The drum body is fabricated by combining glass, carbon boron or similar high strength fibers with a thermosetting hardenable resin. This composite material is then molded into the finished cylindrical product the ends of which are bent slightly inward to receive a rigid, high-strength, ring-shaped end fitting to be integrally joined thereto during the molding operation. Each ring is further adapted to retain an end cap by a procedure which entails lowering the temperature of the end cap and applying heat to the ring, thus joining both members tightly together by employing the differences in thermal expansion of each. (Owens, K. J.)

  7. Buoy-Rope-Drum Wave Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsen Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A buoy-rope-drum wave power system is a new type of floating oscillating buoy wave power device, which absorbs energy from waves by buoy-rope-drum device. Based on the linear deep water wave theory and pure resistive load, with cylinder buoy as an example, the research sets up the theoretical model of direct-drive buoy-rope-drum wave power efficiency and analyzes the influence of the mass and load of the system on its generating efficiency. It points out the two main categories of the efficient buoy-rope-drum wave power system: light thin type and resonance type, and optimal designs of their major parameters are carried out on the basis of the above theoretical model of generating efficiency.

  8. DRUM DRYER FOR DRYING THE PARTICULATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Iurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For raise effectiveness drying process drum-type installation in which drum the mechanism of creation of various zones providing a necessary temperature and hydrodynamic regime of process of drying in process of product passage on a drum and changes in it of a relationship of various forms of communication of a moisture, and also a process intensification at last stage of drying by creation разряжения in a continuous technological stream of drying is provided is offered. The drum provides formation of a zone of separation of heat-transfer agent by means of the dissector, zones of intensive drying by disposing lobate nozzles in chessboard order with a dividing ring, zones of separation of the completed heat-transfer agent from жома as a result of separator installation in which the elliptic disk having cuts on a straight line from edge to the centre places, with formation of the triangular slot for passage dried pulp and heat-transfer agent, and also zones the final drying by performance of a section of a drum matching to a zone perforated on which length are had spring-loaded lobate nozzles representing the blades connected bow-shaped rod with metal plates, had with outer side of a drum and under the form repeating its contour, thus the bow-shaped rod from the interior of a drum which ends are supplied by springs rest against overhead and bottom persistent screw nuts, and blades and metal plates are installed with possibility of twirl concerning a fastening place on a drum and supplied by reinforcing ribs.

  9. Rotary drum dryers for coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baunack, F

    1983-04-01

    The suitability, sizing and internal equipment of rotary drum dryers for high-ash coal slurries are discussed. Rotary dryers will handle also difficult slurries; by suitable drum sizes, lifter blades and chains not only high specific evaporation capacities can be achieved but also very high throughputs of up to 400 tons/h of finished product and high evaporation capacities of 60 tons/h.

  10. Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.

  11. Thermal Characterisation of Brake Pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Séverine; Høj, Jakob Weiland; Sørensen, O. T.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical-physical decomposition processes that occur in a brake pad heated to 1000degreesC have been studied. This temperature can be reached when a brake pad is applied. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used in combination with evolved gas analysis, and image analysis...... using a scanning electron microscope.A brake pad is essentially a mixture of iron, carbon and binder. Combined techniques have been used, because of chemical reaction overlap, to determine how and at what temperature the binder decomposes, the coal and graphite combust and the iron oxidises.This work...

  12. Transient switching control strategy from regenerative braking to anti-lock braking with a semi-brake-by-wire system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Xujian; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui; Song, Jian; Ran, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Regenerative braking is an important technology in improving fuel economy of an electric vehicle (EV). However, additional motor braking will change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, leading to braking instability, especially when the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is triggered. In this paper, a novel semi-brake-by-wire system, without the use of a pedal simulator and fail-safe device, is proposed. In order to compensate for the hysteretic characteristics of the designed brake system while ensure braking reliability and fuel economy when the ABS is triggered, a novel switching compensation control strategy using sliding mode control is brought forward. The proposed strategy converts the complex coupling braking process into independent control of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking, through which a balance between braking performance, braking reliability, braking safety and fuel economy is achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective and adaptable in different road conditions while the large wheel slip rate is triggered during a regenerative braking course. The research provides a new possibility of low-cost equipment and better control performance for the regenerative braking in the EV and the hybrid EV.

  13. Selection of magnetorheological brake types via optimal design considering maximum torque and constrained volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on optimal design of different types of magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), from which an optimal selection of MRB types is identified. In the optimization, common types of MRB such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-types, and T-shaped type are considered. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value of significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a maximum braking torque. The MRB is constrained in a cylindrical volume of a specific radius and length. After a brief description of the configuration of MRB types, the braking torques of the MRBs are derived based on the Herschel–Bulkley model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of MRBs constrained in a specific cylindrical volume is then analysed. The objective of the optimization is to maximize the braking torque while the torque ratio (the ratio of maximum braking torque and the zero-field friction torque) is constrained to be greater than a certain value. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions of the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs constrained in different volumes are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, discussions on the optimal selection of MRB types depending on constrained volumes are given. (paper)

  14. Intelligent Braking System using the IR Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gajanan Koli

    2017-01-01

    Most of the accidents in four wheeled vehicles occur because of failure of braking systems. Manual method of applying brakes is always dangerous as it leads to accidents. Unconsciousness of driver, failure in the linkages of braking systems, road conditions, uncontrollable speed of the vehicle and manual operation of braking systems are the reasons of accidents. It is necessary to control brakes automatically through electronics devices to minimize the accident problems. In this research pape...

  15. Single acting translational/rotational brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor); Fleck, Jr., Vincent J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A brake system is provided that applies braking forces on surfaces in both the translational and rotational directions using a single acting self-contained actuator that travels with the translational mechanism. The brake engages a mechanical lock and creates a frictional force on the translational structure preventing translation while simultaneously creating a frictional torque that prevents rotation of the vertical support. The system may include serrations on the braking surfaces to provide increased braking forces.

  16. Brake Stops Both Rotation And Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Johnny W.; Fleck, Vincent J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Combination of braking and positioning mechanisms allows both rotation and translation before brake engaged. Designed for use in positioning model airplane in wind tunnel. Modified version used to position camera on tripod. Brake fast and convenient to use; contains single actuator energizing braking actions against both rotation and translation. Braking actuator electric, but pneumatic actuator could be used instead. Compact and lightweight, applies locking forces close to load, and presents minimal cross section to airflow.

  17. Evaluation of overturning capacity of low level radioactive waste drum during earthquake. Part 2. Investigation of drum weight distribution effect and drum columns interaction by numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochigi, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Numerical analysis case study is carried out for three layered and four layered low level radioactive waste drums by numerical models based on the results of shaking table test. First of all, numerical analysis results about drums displacement due to uplift and sliding on pallets during earthquake are compared with the experimental results and it is shown good agreement in both results. By this analytical model effects of drum weight distribution along height direction and drum columns interaction followed by each other drum's collisions on overturning capacity during earthquake are researched. From numerical analysis results the limit acceleration which is minimum value of input acceleration at storage building floor when three layered or four layered waste drums overturn is researched. It is shown that overturning capacity during earthquake decline when height of gravity center of three layered and four layered drums get large. So it is available to get down height of gravity center by controlling drum weight distribution along height direction. And as effect of drum columns interaction it is indicated that overturning capacity of single column arrangement drums is larger than that of many columns arrangement drums because phase deference between drum columns occur and decrease vibration amplitude by each other collisions. (author)

  18. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  19. An analysis of braking measures

    OpenAIRE

    De Groot, S.; De Winter, J.C.F.; Wieringa, P.A.; Mulder, M.

    2010-01-01

    Braking to a full stop at a prescribed target position is a driving manoeuvre regularly used in experiments to investigate driving behaviour or to test vehicle acceleration feedback systems in simulators. Many different performance measures have been reported in the literature for analysing braking. These may or may not be useful to analyse the stopping manoeuvre, because a number of potential problems exist: 1) the scores on a measure may be insufficiently reliable, 2) the measure may be inv...

  20. Slowly braked, rotating neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.

    1975-01-01

    A slowly braked, rotating neutron star is believed to be a star which rapidly rotates, has no nebula, is nonpulsing, and has a long initial braking time of ten thousand to a million years because of a low magnetic field. Such an object might be observable as an extended weak source of infrared or radio wave radiation due to the scattering of low-frequency strong-wave photons by accelerated electrons. If these objects exist abundantly in the Galaxy, they would act as sources of relatively low-energy cosmic rays. Pulsars (rapidly braked neutron stars) are shown to have difficulties in providing an adequate amount of cosmic-ray matter, making these new sources seem necessary. The possibility that the acceleration mechanism around a slowly braked star may be not a direct acceleration by the strong wave but an acceleration due to plasma turbulence excited by the strong wave is briefly explored. It is shown that white dwarfs may also be slowly braked stars with braking times longer than 3.15 million years.

  1. Gas formation in drum waste packages of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Svingor, E.; Szanto, Z.; Futo, I.; Ormai, P.

    2000-01-01

    Gas composition measurements have been carried out by mass spectrometry analysis of samples taken from the headspace of ten drum waste packages generated and temporarily stored at Paks NPP. Four drums contained compacted solid waste, three drums were filled with grouted (solidified) sludge and three drums contained solid waste without compaction. The drums have been equipped with a special gas outlet system to make repeated sampling possible. Based on the first measurements significant differences in the gas composition and the rate of gas generation among the drums were found. (author)

  2. Brake Performance Analysis of ABS for Eddy Current and Electrohydraulic Hybrid Brake System

    OpenAIRE

    Ren He; Xuejun Liu; Cunxiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an eddy current and electro-hydraulic hybrid brake system to solve problems such as wear, thermal failure, and slow response of traditional vehicle brake system. Mathematical model was built to calculate the torque of the eddy current brake system and hydraulic brake system and analyze the braking force distribution between two types of brake systems. A fuzzy controller on personal computer based on LabVIEW and Matlab was designed and a set of hardware in the loop system...

  3. HANFORD Pu-238 DRUM INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Hanford is presently retrieving contact-handled, transuranic (CH-TRU) waste drums from the site's Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) for processing and disposition. A subgroup of these drums (12 total), referred to as Pu-238 drums, has some unique characteristics that may impact the current drum handling and processing activities. These characteristics include content, shielding, thermal, pressurization and criticality issues. An effort to evaluate these characteristics, for the purpose of developing a specific plan for safe retrieval of the Pu-238 drums, is underway. In addition to the above evaluation, the following integrity assessment of the inner container material and/or confinement properties, with primary emphasis on the Source Capsule (primary confinement barrier) and Shipping Container has been performed. Assessment included review of the inner container materials and the potential impact the service history may have had on material and/or confinement properties. Several environmental degradation mechanisms were considered with the objective of answering the following question: Is it likely the container material and/or confinement properties have been significantly altered as a result of service history?

  4. Thermal analysis on motorcycle disc brake geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Zurin W., S.; Talib, R. J.; Ismail, N. I.

    2017-08-01

    Braking is a phase of slowing and stop the movement of motorcycle. During braking, the frictional heat was generated and the energy was ideally should be faster dissipated to surrounding to prevent the built up of the excessive temperature which may lead to brake fluid vaporization, thermoelastic deformation at the contact surface, material degradation and failure. In this paper, solid and ventilated type of motorcycle disc brake are being analyse using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. The main focus of the analysis is the thermal behaviour during braking for solid and ventilated disc brake. A comparison between both geometries is being discussed to determine the better braking performance in term of temperature distribution. It is found that ventilated disc brake is having better braking performance in terms of heat transfer compare to solid disc.

  5. Performance requirements for locomotive braking systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vermaak, P

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available operated “Neutral Brake”. This brake may become active immediately or after a certain time delay when the controller is placed in the neutral position or moved into the neutral position by the “dead-man’s device”. Because this brake will interfere... in testing emergency brake systems due to the inherent braking action of the service brakes and/or locomotive controllers; • Potential problems limitations to braking effort associated with the prime movers and/or hydraulic systems on hydrostatically...

  6. Brake Performance Analysis of ABS for Eddy Current and Electrohydraulic Hybrid Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an eddy current and electro-hydraulic hybrid brake system to solve problems such as wear, thermal failure, and slow response of traditional vehicle brake system. Mathematical model was built to calculate the torque of the eddy current brake system and hydraulic brake system and analyze the braking force distribution between two types of brake systems. A fuzzy controller on personal computer based on LabVIEW and Matlab was designed and a set of hardware in the loop system was constructed to validate and analyze the performance of the hybrid brake system. Through lots of experiments on dry and wet asphalt roads, the hybrid brake system achieves perfect performance on the experimental bench, the hybrid system reduces abrasion and temperature of the brake disk, response speed is enhanced obviously, fuzzy controller keeps high utilization coefficient due to the optimal slip ratio regulation, and the total brake time has a smaller decrease than traditional hydraulic brake system.

  7. Complementary Therapy for Addiction: “Drumming Out Drugs”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This article examines drumming activities as complementary addiction treatments and discusses their reported effects. Methods. I observed drumming circles for substance abuse (as a participant), interviewed counselors and Internet mailing list participants, initiated a pilot program, and reviewed literature on the effects of drumming. Results. Research reviews indicate that drumming enhances recovery through inducing relaxation and enhancing theta-wave production and brain-wave synchronization. Drumming produces pleasurable experiences, enhanced awareness of preconscious dynamics, release of emotional trauma, and reintegration of self. Drumming alleviates self-centeredness, isolation, and alienation, creating a sense of connectedness with self and others. Drumming provides a secular approach to accessing a higher power and applying spiritual perspectives. Conclusions. Drumming circles have applications as complementary addiction therapy, particularly for repeated relapse and when other counseling modalities have failed. PMID:12660212

  8. Sealing of rotary drums for operation under pressurized conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvani, M.; Khanof, M. H.; Yousefi, M. R.; Sadighi, S.

    2006-01-01

    In practice, rotary drums are always designed for operation under vacuum conditions. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed for sealing the rotary drums under pressurized conditions. The proposed system is based on applying a secondary pressurized volume around the leaking gap of the drum. By controlling the pressure of this volume above the pressure of the drum, it will be possible to prevent from any leakage of gases to the ambient. The objective of a controller in this system is that the pressure of secondary volume be kept above the pressure of the drum in spite of the disturbances which may be exerted on the system by the wind outside the drum. The control system is also required to trace the variations in the drum pressure with the least fluctuations in the pressure difference among the drum and the volume

  9. Metal matrix composites synthesis, wear characteristics, machinability study of MMC brake drum

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Nanjappan; Davim, J Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to composite materials, presenting different synthesis processes, composite properties and their machining behaviour. The book describes also the problems on manufacturing of metal matrix composite components. Among others, it provides procedures for manufacturing of metal matrix composites and case studies.

  10. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic surgical...

  11. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Equipped with brake indicators as defined in § 238.5, designed so that the pressure sensor is placed in a... alcohol or other chemicals into the air brake system of passenger equipment is prohibited. (f) The...

  12. Press to compress contaminated wastes drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevost, J.

    1993-01-01

    This patent describes a press for contaminated wastes drums pressing. The press is made of a structure comprising a base and an upper stringer bind to the base by vertical bearers, a compression system comprising a main cylinder and a ram, connected to the upper stringer

  13. Beat my bass, pluck my drum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, B.J.; Funk, M.; Doing, V.

    2014-01-01

    Beating a bass, plucking a drum -- new systems of instruments make it possible. In this paper we describe recent research into networked musical instruments for group improvisation; instruments that reciprocally influence each other's behaviour, making, contrary to what we are used to, the

  14. THE STUDY OF BRAKE EFFECTIVENESS HOPPER SYSTEM WITH SEPARATE BRAKING TRUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Je. Nishhenko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of tests of the hopper brake systems for the pellets having typical system and separate braking per each bogie are presented. It is shown that the brake system with separate braking has several advantages as compared to the typical one.

  15. Biodegradability of unused lubricating brake fluids in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradability of four unused lubricating brake fluids (Total brake fluid, Allied brake fluid, Oando brake fluid and Ate brake fluid) was carried out in fresh and marine water obtained from Isiokpo stream and Bonny river of the Niger Delta, South South Nigeria. Biodegradability, of the brake fluids were obtained after a 56 ...

  16. Brakes, brake control and driver assistance systems function, regulation and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Braking systems have been continuously developed and improved throughout the last years. Major milestones were the introduction of antilock braking system (ABS) and electronic stability program. This reference book provides a detailed description of braking components and how they interact in electronic braking systems. Contents Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Car braking-system components.- Wheel brakes.- Antilock breaking systems.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modulator.- Sensors for brake control.- Sensotronic brake control.- Active steering.- Occupant protection systems.- Driver assistance systems.- Adaptive cruise control.- Parking systems.- Instrumentation.- Orientation methods.- Navigation systems.- Workshop technology. The target groups Motor-vehicle technicians in education and vocational training Master-mechanics and technicians in garage-workshops Teachers and lecturers in vocation...

  17. 49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (e) The following requirements apply to blended braking systems: (1) Loss of power or failure of the... adhesion control system designed to automatically adjust the braking force on each wheel to prevent sliding during braking. In the event of a failure of this system to prevent wheel slide within preset parameters...

  18. The dynamics of antilock brake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2005-11-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of automobile braking are investigated. Nonlinearity arises because of the manner in which the friction coefficient between vehicle tyres and road surface depends upon vehicle speed and wheel angular speed. We show how antilock brake systems approach optimum braking performance.

  19. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's brake valve through the train, used for the transmission of air under... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation...

  20. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulating all pressures, including but not limited to the automatic and independent brake valves, operate as intended and that the water and oil have been drained from the air brake system. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brakes: General. 229.46 Section 229.46...

  1. Friction brake cushions acceleration and vibration loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, G. F.; Zawadski, G. Z.

    1966-01-01

    Friction brake cushions an object in a vehicle from axially applied vibration and steady-state acceleration forces. The brake incorporates a doubly tapered piston that applies a controlled radial force to friction brake segments bearing against the walls of a cylinder.

  2. Compact, Lightweight Servo-Controllable Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.; Townsend, William; Guertin, Jeffrey; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2010-01-01

    Compact, lightweight servo-controllable brakes capable of high torques are being developed for incorporation into robot joints. A brake of this type is based partly on the capstan effect of tension elements. In a brake of the type under development, a controllable intermediate state of torque is reached through on/off switching at a high frequency.

  3. Infrared thermography applied to monitoring of radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelmer, P.; Camarano, D.M.; Calado, F.; Phillip, B.; Viana, C.; Andrade, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of thermography in the inspection of drums containing radioactive waste is being stimulated by the absence of physical contact. In Brazil the majority of radioactive wastes are compacted solids packed in metal drums stored temporarily for decades and requires special attention. These drums have only one qualitative indication of the radionuclides present. However, its structural condition is not followed systematically. The aim of this work is presents a methodology by applying thermography for monitoring the structural condition of drums containing radioactive waste in order to detect degraded regions of the drums. (author)

  4. Sensotronic brake control. Braking with maximum efficiency; Die Sensotronic Brake Control. Bremsen auf hoechstem Niveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischle, G.; Stoll, U.; Hinrichs, W.

    2002-05-01

    Sensotronic Brake Control (SBC) celebrated its world premiere when it was introduced into standard production along with the new SL in October 2001. This innovative brake system is also fitted as standard in the new E-Class. The design of the system components is identical to those used in the SL-Class. The software control parameters have been adapted to the conditions in the new saloon. (orig.) [German] Die Sensotronic Brake Control (SBC) wurde als Weltneuheit mit dem neuen SL im Oktober 2001 in Serie gebracht. Dieses innovative Bremssystem gehoert ebenfalls zur Serienausstattung der neuen E-Klasse. Die Systemkomponenten sind baugleich mit denen der SL-Klasse. Die Regelparameter der Software sind an die Verhaeltnisse der Limousine angepasst. (orig.)

  5. Electronic brakes. From ABS to brake-by-wire. 2. ed.; Elektronische Bremssysteme. Vom ABS zum Brake-by-Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, H.R.

    2003-07-01

    The book reports trends in vehicle brakes from 1968 to 1998. This was the age of the electronic revolution. The book presents conventional brakes, antiblocking systems (ABS), antislip systems (ASS), brake assistants (BAS), dynamic control systems, and brake-by-wire systems. [German] Das Buch berichtet ueber Entwicklungen an Fahrzeugbremsanlagen in der Zeitspanne von 1968 bis etwa 1998. Diese Zeit war gepraegt vom Vordringen der Elektronik in die Bremsen, was fuer Hersteller und Kunden eine Revolution bedeutete. Behandelt sind: (a) Konventionelle Bremsanlagen, (b) Antiblockiersysteme (ABS), (c) Anti-Schlupf-regelungen (ASR), (d) Bremsassistenten (BAS), (e) Fahrdynamikregelungen (FDR, ESP), (f) Brake-by-Wire (orig.)

  6. Cooperative Control of Regenerative Braking and Antilock Braking for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new cooperative braking control strategy (CBCS is proposed for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV with both a regenerative braking system and an antilock braking system (ABS to achieve improved braking performance and energy regeneration. The braking system of the vehicle is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the antilock braking system work together with the regenerative braking system harmoniously. In the cooperative braking control strategy, a sliding mode controller (SMC for ABS is designed to maintain the wheel slip within an optimal range by adjusting the hydraulic braking torque continuously; to reduce the chattering in SMC, a boundary-layer method with moderate tuning of a saturation function is also investigated; based on the wheel slip ratio, battery state of charge (SOC, and the motor speed, a fuzzy logic control strategy (FLC is applied to adjust the regenerative braking torque dynamically. In order to evaluate the performance of the cooperative braking control strategy, the braking system model of a hybrid electric vehicle is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It is found from the simulation that the cooperative braking control strategy suggested in this paper provides satisfactory braking performance, passenger comfort, and high regenerative efficiency.

  7. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.; Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Harapin, D.; Hertl, B.

    2006-01-01

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  8. Brake blending strategy for a hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Evan S.

    2000-12-05

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including a transmission for driving a pair of wheels of a vehicle and a heat engine and an electric motor/generator coupled to the transmission. A friction brake system is provided for applying a braking torque to said vehicle. A controller unit generates control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system for controllably braking the vehicle in response to a drivers brake command. The controller unit determines and amount of regenerative torque available and compares this value to a determined amount of brake torque requested for determining the control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system.

  9. BASIC STUDY ON TAILORMADE BRAKING SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya HIROSE, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    This research reviewed the construction of models of a Tailormade Braking Support System (TBSS for braking to stop vehicles and the evaluation of drivers. As a result, the following conclusions were drawn. (1 Braking factors were found to change in the period from the start of braking to stopping; (2 Changes in braking factors can be logically incorporated into the control elements of braking support system; (3 Readymade Driver Model is effective as a model to be incorporated into the base system of TBSS; (4 Tailormade Driver Model built on Neural Network is effective as a main model to construct TBSS; (5 As for TBSS, both subjective and objective ratings on the timing and magnitude of braking are favorable, and its safety and sense of security are improved.

  10. Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

  11. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This

  12. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  13. Developing of a software for determining advanced brake failures in brakes test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Köylü

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At present time, the brake test bench conducts the braking and suspension tests of front or rear axles and the test results are evaluated through one axle. The purpose of the brake testing system is to determine braking force and damping coefficient dissymmetry of one axle. Thus, this test system evaluates the performance of service brake, hand brake and suspension systems by considering separately front and rear axle dissymmetry. For this reason, the effects of different braking and damping forces applied by right and left wheels of both axles on braking performance of all vehicle are not determined due to available algorithm of the test bench. Also, the other brake failures are not occurred due to the algorithm of brake test system. In this study, the interface has been developed to determine the other effects of dissymmetry and the other brake failures by using the one axle results of brake test bench. The interface has algorithm computing the parameters according to the interaction between front and rear axles by only using measured test results. Also, it gives the warnings by comparing changes in the parameters with braking performance rules. Braking and suspension tests of three different vehicles have been conducted by using brake test bench to determine the performance of the algorithm. Parameters based on the axle interaction have been calculated by transferring brake test results to the interface and the test results have been evaluated. As a result, the effects of brake and suspension failures on braking performance of both axle and vehicle have been determined thanks to the developed interface.

  14. Chipping machines: disc and drum energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Facello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and fossil fuel reserves exhaustion are increasing the importance of the biomass-derived products, in particular wood, as source of clean and renewable energy for the production of electricity or steam. In order to improve the global efficiency and the entire production chain, we have to evaluate the energetic aspects linked to the process of transformation, handling and transport of these materials. This paper reports results on a comparison between two chippers of similar size using different cutting technology: disc and drum tool respectively. During trials, fuel consumption, PTO torque and speed, processing time and weight of processed material were recorded. Power demand, fuel consumption, specific energy and productivity were computed. The machine was fed with four different feedstock types (chestnut logs, poplar logs, poplar branches, poplar sawmill residues. 15 repetitions for each combination of feedstock-tool were carried out. The results of this study show that the disc tool requires, depending on the processed material, from 12 to 18% less fuel per unit of material processed than the drum tool, and consequently, from 12 to 16% less specific energy. In particular, the highest difference between tools was found in branches processing whereas the smallest was in poplar logs. Furthermore the results of the investigation indicate, that, in testing conditions, the productivity of drum tool is higher (8% than disc tool.

  15. IDEAL BRAKE FORCE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN THE AXLES OF THE TWO-AXLE VEHICLE SERVICE BRAKE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Podryhalo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The obtained analytical expressions allow us to evaluate the stability of two-axle vehicles at various slowdowns. An analytical expression for calculating the ideal according to condition stability ensuring of a two-axle vehicle at service brake applications of brake force distribution allows to offer automatic control devices for brake force adjucement. With decellerationg growth of the two-axle vehicle at service braking the braking force acting on the front axle should decrease relative to the brake force on the rear axle.

  16. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition.

  17. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Gerson

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early music perception and cognition.

  18. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  19. Space shuttle wheels and brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsley, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

  20. Drum-mate: interaction dynamics and gestures in human-humanoid drumming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose-Bagci, Hatice; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Syrdal, Dag S.; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.

    2010-06-01

    This article investigates the role of interaction kinesics in human-robot interaction (HRI). We adopted a bottom-up, synthetic approach towards interactive competencies in robots using simple, minimal computational models underlying the robot's interaction dynamics. We present two empirical, exploratory studies investigating a drumming experience with a humanoid robot (KASPAR) and a human. In the first experiment, the turn-taking behaviour of the humanoid is deterministic and the non-verbal gestures of the robot accompany its drumming to assess the impact of non-verbal gestures on the interaction. The second experiment studies a computational framework that facilitates emergent turn-taking dynamics, whereby the particular dynamics of turn-taking emerge from the social interaction between the human and the humanoid. The results from the HRI experiments are presented and analysed qualitatively (in terms of the participants' subjective experiences) and quantitatively (concerning the drumming performance of the human-robot pair). The results point out a trade-off between the subjective evaluation of the drumming experience from the perspective of the participants and the objective evaluation of the drumming performance. A certain number of gestures was preferred as a motivational factor in the interaction. The participants preferred the models underlying the robot's turn-taking which enable the robot and human to interact more and provide turn-taking closer to 'natural' human-human conversations, despite differences in objective measures of drumming behaviour. The results are consistent with the temporal behaviour matching hypothesis previously proposed in the literature which concerns the effect that the participants adapt their own interaction dynamics to the robot's.

  1. The Saami shaman drums: some reflexions from an archaelogical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Zachrisson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saami shaman drums from northern Scandinavia can be discussed from many different points of view. For an archaeologist there are other questions of interest than those which generally occupy the historian of religions. One important question is how old the known Saami drums are. The known drums are as a rule assumed to be from the seventeenth or the eighteenth centuries, when most of them were collected. It has also been thought that, because of the materials they are made of, drums could not have been preserved any longer. Another perhaps more interesting question is how old the known types of Saami drums might be. When did they acquire their 'classical' form? What did the Viking Age Saami drums look like?

  2. Development of Regenerative Braking Co-operative Control System for Automatic Transmission-based Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Electronic Wedge Brake

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Jiweon; Ko, Sungyeon; Bak, Yongsun; Jang, Mijeong; Yoo, Byoungsoo; Cheon, Jaeseung; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2013-01-01

    This research proposes a regenerative braking co-operative control system for the automatic transmission (AT)-based hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The brake system of the subject HEV consists of the regenerative braking and the electronic wedge brake (EWB) friction braking for the front wheel, and the hydraulic friction braking for the rear wheel. A regenerative braking co-operative control algorithm is suggested for the regenerative braking and friction braking, which distributes the braking...

  3. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions

  4. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum

  5. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear...) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall be...

  6. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG ampersand G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured

  7. Examination of representative drum from 618-9 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The work described in this report was conducted in pursuance of Task E of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Solid Waste Technology Support Program for Westinghouse Hanford Company. Task E calls for a determination of the corrosion rate of low-carbon steels under typical Hanford Site conditions. To meet this objective, Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined one intact drum that was judged to be representative of the largely intact drums excavated at the 618-9 Burial Ground located west of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. Six samples were examined to characterize the drum, its composition, and its corrosion and corrosion products. The drum, which was found empty, was constructed of low-carbon steel. Its surface appeared relatively sound. The drum metal varied in thickness, but the minimum thickness in the samples was near 0.020 in. The corrosion corresponds to approximately 25 to 35 mils of metal loss, roughly a 1 mil/yr corrosion rate. Corrosion products were goethite and maghymite, expected products of iron buried in soil. Apparently, the drum leaked some time ago, but the cause of the leakage is unknown because records of the drums and their burial are limited. The drum was empty when found, and it is possible that it could have failed by pitting rather than by general corrosion. A pitting rate of about 3.5 mils/yr would have caused loss of drum integrity in the time since burial

  8. Fire propagation through arrays of solid-waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.T.; Hinkle, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of propagation of a fire through drums of solid waste has been an unresolved issue that affects all solid-waste projects and existing solid-waste storage and handling facilities at the Hanford site. The issue involves the question of how many drums of solid waste within a given fire area will be consumed in a design-basis fire for given parameters such as drum loading, storage arrays, initiating events, and facility design. If the assumption that all drums of waste within a given fire area are consumed proves valid, then the construction costs of solid waste facilities may be significantly increased

  9. An improved segmented gamma scanning for radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Wang Dezhong; Bai Yunfei; Qian Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the equivalent radius of radioactive sources in each segment is determined by analyzing the different responses of the two identical detectors, and an improved segmented gamma scanning is used to assay waste drums containing mainly organic materials, and proved by an established simulation model. The simulated radioactivity distributions in homogenous waste drum and an experimental heterogeneous waste drum were compared with those of traditional segmented gamma scanning. The results show that our method is good in performance and can be used for analyzing the waste drums. (authors)

  10. Research of braking peculiarities of used cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mitunevičius

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes some analysis of a car braking process - the peculiarities of car wheel-to-road adhesion, the influence of distribution of braking forces on car stability between front and rear axles. The requirements of EU Directive 71/320/EEC to braking force coefficients of car front and rear axles are exposed. Structural designs of braking systems are analyzed with respect to their meeting the EU standards. Experimental measurements of braking force coefficients for some models of cars which are used in Lithuania, are presented with the analysis how these coefficients meet the EU standards. The analysis of test results, suggestions for the ratio of braking forces of car front and rear axles are presented.

  11. Talking about the Automobile Braking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    With the continuous progress of society, the continuous development of the times, people’s living standards continue to improve, people continue to improve the pursuit. With the rapid development of automobile manufacturing, the car will be all over the tens of thousands of households, the increase in car traffic, a direct result of the incidence of traffic accidents. Brake system is the guarantee of the safety of the car, its technical condition is good or bad, directly affect the operational safety and transportation efficiency, so the brake system is absolutely reliable. The requirements of the car on the braking system is to have a certain braking force to ensure reliable work in all cases, light and flexible operation. Normal braking should be good performance, in addition to a foot sensitive, the emergency brake four rounds can not be too long, not partial, not ring.

  12. Fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, F; Martz, W; Birngruber, C G; Dettmeyer, R B

    2018-04-23

    Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner. Essentially the autopsy revealed a cerebral oedema with encephalomalacia, no coagulated blood as well as increased blood and tissue fluid content of the lung. Toxicological analysis revealed brake cleaner fluid in the lung, gastric content and heart blood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and Analysis of a Novel Centrifugal Braking Device for a Mechanical Antilock Braking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Ping; Yang, Ming-Shien; Liu, Tyng

    2015-06-01

    A new concept for a mechanical antilock braking system (ABS) with a centrifugal braking device (CBD), termed a centrifugal ABS (C-ABS), is presented and developed in this paper. This new CBD functions as a brake in which the output braking torque adjusts itself depending on the speed of the output rotation. First, the structure and mechanical models of the entire braking system are introduced and established. Second, a numerical computer program for simulating the operation of the system is developed. The characteristics of the system can be easily identified and can be designed with better performance by using this program to studying the effects of different design parameters. Finally, the difference in the braking performance between the C-ABS and the braking system with or without a traditional ABS is discussed. The simulation results indicate that the C-ABS can prevent the wheel from locking even if excessive operating force is provided while still maintaining acceptable braking performance.

  14. Impact of Brake Pad Structure on Temperature and Stress Fields of Brake Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guoshun; Fu, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing ABAQUS finite element software, the study established the relationship between a brake pad structure and distributions of temperature and thermal stress on brake disc. By introducing radial structure factor and circular structure factor concepts, the research characterized the effect of friction block radial and circumferential arrangement on temperature field of the brake disc. A method was proposed for improving heat flow distribution of the brake disc through optimizing the posit...

  15. Regenerative braking system of PM synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Lv, Chengxing; Zhao, Na; Zang, Hechao; Jiang, Huilue; Zhang, Zhaowen; Zhang, Fengli

    2018-04-01

    Permanent-magnet synchronous motor is widely adopted in many fields with the advantage of a high efficiency and a high torque density. Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist PMSM system achieve better fuel economy and lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of the regenerative braking systems of PMSM. The mode of PWM duty has been adjusted to control regenerative braking of PMSM using energy controller for the port-controlled Hamiltonian model. The simulation analysis indicates that a smooth control could be realized and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by Regenerative Braking Systems.

  16. Dynamics of Braking Vehicles: From Coulomb Friction to Anti-Lock Braking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and…

  17. Brake noise measurements on mixed freight trains with composite brake blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.H.W.; Dittrich, M.G.; Sikma, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Brake noise is known to be a major contributor to the total sound emission of railway yards and areas near stations. It has been established that composite brake blocks reduce rolling noise, but it is not known if this is also the case for braking noise. Therefore, in order to investigate this,

  18. Special closures for steel drum shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Otts, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop special lid closures for typical, steel drum, radioactive material shipping containers. Previous experience and testing had shown that the existing container was adequate to withstand the required environmental tests for certification, but that the lid and closure were just marginally effective. Specifically, the lid closure failed to consistently maintain a tight seal between the container and the lid after drop tests, thus causing the package contents to be vulnerable in the subsequent fire test. Recognizing the deficiency, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration requested the development of new closure(s) which would: (1) be as strong and resistant to a drop as the bottom of the container; (2) have minimal economic impact on the overall container cost; (3) maximize the use of existing container designs; (4) consider crush loads; and (5) result in less dependence on personnel and loading procedures. Several techniques were evaluated and found to be more effective than the standard closure mechanism. Of these, three new closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to provide containment when a 454-kg drum was drop tested from 9.14-m onto an unyielding surface. The three designs were: (1) a 152-mm long lid extension or skirt welded to the standard drum lid, (2) a separate inner lid, with 152-mm long skirt and (3) C-clamps used at the container-lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the lid extension is the recommended special closure

  19. Chimpanzee drumming : a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, Valerie; Poulin, Nicolas; Cure, Charlotte; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species,

  20. Active drumming experience increases infants' sensitivity to audiovisual synchrony during observed drumming actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerson, S.A.; Schiavio, A.A.R.; Timmers, R.; Hunnius, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this

  1. Characterization of vehicular brake service personnel exposure to airborne asbestos and particulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, F W; Tolar, G; Meraz, L B

    2001-12-01

    Evaluation of fibers and total particulate generated during the servicing of drum brakes on motor vehicles as well as during the resurfacing (arcing) of brake shoes was conducted. Conditions for the studies were based on review of contemporary (approximately 1950-1980) working practices in the industry. This work was conducted in two parts. Phase 1 estimated the release of asbestos fibers and total particulate during brake inspection and replacement of light-duty vehicle rear drum brakes at an auto/truck repair facility. Two distinct work practices were evaluated: One rear wheel from each vehicle was serviced using compressed air to remove dust while the second rear wheel was serviced without compressed air. Area and personal monitoring of fiber levels demonstrated counts (without compressed air) that ranged from 0.05 to 0.2 f/cc. Fiber counts when using compressed air averaged from 0.05 to 0.9 f/cc. Results from real-time aerosol monitoring indicated elevated dust levels for about 15 minutes after blow out. With shop doors open, dust levels increased to 5.0 mg/m3 at blow out and returned to 0.08 mg/m3 within two minutes. When the shop doors were closed, the dust levels reached 13.5 mg/m3 at blow out and decreased to 1.68 mg/m3 within one minute and to background within 14 minutes. The Phase 2 series evaluated the release of fibers and other particulate from are grinding. For operations conducted under conditions simulating a workplace, a mean of 0.19 f/cc +/- 0.16 was determined. Dust levels averaged 0.25 mg/m3 +/- 0.05. Brake service monitoring in these tests demonstrates that asbestos fiber concentrations, considered on a time weighted average basis, should not exceed currently acceptable workplace standards whether or not the worker uses compressed air, nor during the arc grinding process when arcing is conducted in accord with the design of the equipment.

  2. Multiloop control of a drum boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kozáková

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Equivalent Subsystems Method (ESM (Kozáková et al., 2011 is methodology of decentralized controller design in the frequency domain which allows designing local controllers using any SISO frequency domain method. The paper deals with the digital ESM version where digital local PID controllers guaranteeing required performance for the full system are designed for individual equivalent subsystems using the practice-oriented Sine-wave method (Bucz et al., 2012. The proposed decentralized controller design procedure was verified on the nonlinear benchmark drum boiler simulation model (Morilla, 2012.

  3. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  4. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  5. Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lu, Xin; Xue, Junliang; Li, Bos

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus...

  6. Waste streams that preferentially corrode 55-gallon steel storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.; Reece, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    When 55-gal steel drum waste containers fail in service, i.e., leak, corrode or breach, the standard fix has been to overpack the drum. When a drum fails and is overpacked into an 83-gal overpack drum, there are several negative consequences. Identifying waste streams that preferentially corrode steel drums is essential to the pollution prevention philosophy that ''an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.'' It is essential that facilities perform pollution prevention measures at the front end of processes to reduce pollution on the back end. If these waste streams can be identified before they are packaged, the initial drum packaging system could be fortified or increased to eliminate future drum failures, breaches, clean-ups, and the plethora of other consequences. Therefore, a survey was conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex for information concerning waste streams that have demonstrated preferential corrosion of 55-gal steel drums. From 21 site contacts, 21 waste streams were so identified. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure, 0.5 to 2 years. This report provides the results of this survey and research

  7. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers and drums. 1434.8 Section 1434.8... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers...

  8. Solar thermal drum drying performance of prune and tomato pomaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable pomaces are co-products of the food processing industry; they are underutilized in part because their high water activity (aw) renders them unstable. Drum drying is one method that can dry/stabilize pomaces, but current drum drying methods utilize conventional, high-environmental...

  9. Device to measure level in a steam drum of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, Yu.A.

    1988-01-01

    Gravitation-hydrostatic device for measuring coolant level in a steam drum of NPP is described. The device enables to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of measuring coolant level above and below the submerged perforated sheet of the steam drum and decrease the amount of levelling vessels in the unit by 50%. 1 fig

  10. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN PECULIARITIES PERTAINING TO DRUMS OF CONTINUOUS MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Prushak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers design peculiarities of belt conveyor drums in respect of their operational reliability; their advantages and disadvantages have been analyzed. There are some proposals presenting technical solutions to modernization of belt conveyor drum designs which presuppose reduction of their material consumption while preserving their strength and general rigidity. 

  11. Packaging design criteria for the Type B Drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.; Smith, R.J.; Wells, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Type B Drum package is a transportation cask capable of shipping a single 55-gal (208 L) drum of transuranic (TRU) waste. The Type B Drum is smaller than existing certified packages, such as the TRUPACT-II cask, but will allow payloads with higher thermal and gas generation rates, thus providing greater operational flexibility. The Type B Drum package has double containment so that plutonium contents and other radioactive material may be transported in Type B quantities. Conceptual designs of unshielded and shielded versions of the Type B Drum were completed in Report on the Conceptual Design of the Unshielded Type B Drum Packaging and Report on the Conceptual Design of the Shielded type B Drum Packaging (WEC 1994a, WEC 1994b), which demonstrated the Type B Drum to be a viable packaging system. A Type B package containment system must withstand the normal conditions of transport and the hypothetical accident conditions, which include a 9-m (30-ft) drop onto an unyielding surface and a 1-m (3-ft) drop onto a 15-cm (6-in.) diameter pin, and a fire and immersion scenarios

  12. A59 Drum Activity database (DRUMAC): system documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, Alan.

    1993-01-01

    This paper sets out the requirements, database design, software module designs and test plans for DRUMAC (the Active handling Building Drum Activity Database) - a computer-based system to record the radiological inventory for LLW/ILW drums dispatched from the Active Handling Building. (author)

  13. Accelerometer-controlled automatic braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Sleeper, R. K.; Nayadley, J. R., Sr.

    1973-01-01

    Braking system, which employs angular accelerometer to control wheel braking and results in low level of tire slip, has been developed and tested. Tests indicate that system is feasible for operations on surfaces of different slipperinesses. System restricts tire slip and is capable of adapting to rapidly-changing surface conditions.

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF TROLLEYBUS DRIVE BRAKE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safonau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirements for trolleybuses brake systems are analyzed. Some results of the studies examined, contemporary trends of developing in this direction are shows. The range of problems whose solution is aimed at creating high-performance brake systems whose increase efficiency and safety of trolleybuses determined.

  15. Feedback brake distribution control for minimum pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernini, Davide; Velenis, Efstathios; Longo, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    The distribution of brake forces between front and rear axles of a vehicle is typically specified such that the same level of brake force coefficient is imposed at both front and rear wheels. This condition is known as 'ideal' distribution and it is required to deliver the maximum vehicle deceleration and minimum braking distance. For subcritical braking conditions, the deceleration demand may be delivered by different distributions between front and rear braking forces. In this research we show how to obtain the optimal distribution which minimises the pitch angle of a vehicle and hence enhances driver subjective feel during braking. A vehicle model including suspension geometry features is adopted. The problem of the minimum pitch brake distribution for a varying deceleration level demand is solved by means of a model predictive control (MPC) technique. To address the problem of the undesirable pitch rebound caused by a full-stop of the vehicle, a second controller is designed and implemented independently from the braking distribution in use. An extended Kalman filter is designed for state estimation and implemented in a high fidelity environment together with the MPC strategy. The proposed solution is compared with the reference 'ideal' distribution as well as another previous feed-forward solution.

  16. Air brake-dynamometer accurately measures torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Air brake-dynamometer assembly combines the principles of the air turbine and the air pump to apply braking torque. The assembly absorbs and measures power outputs of rotating machinery over a wide range of shaft speeds. It can also be used as an air turbine.

  17. 30 CFR 56.14101 - Brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which is not originally equipped with brakes unless the manner in which the equipment is being operated...; (2) The performance of the service brakes shall be evaluated according to Table M-1. Table M-1 Gross... values include a one-second operator response time. Table M-2—The Speed of a Vehicle Can be Determined by...

  18. Design of a magnetic braking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, M.; Shiau, J.-K.; Sun, C.-C.

    2006-01-01

    A non-contact method, using magnetic drag force principle, was proposed to design the braking systems to improve the shortcomings of the conventional braking systems. The extensive literature detailing all aspects of the magnetic braking is briefly reviewed, however little of this refers specifically to upright magnetic braking system, which is useful for industries. One of the major issues to design upright magnetic system is to find out the magnetic flux. The changing magnetic flux induces eddy currents in the conductor. These currents dissipate energy in the conductor and generate drag force to slow down the motion. Therefore, a finite element model is developed to analyze the phenomena of magnetic flux density when air gap and materials of track are varied. The verification shows the predicted magnetic flux is within acceptable range with the measured value. The results will facilitate the design of magnetic braking systems

  19. New technical solutions of using rolling stock electrodynamical braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some theoretical and practical problems associated with the use of traction motor are operating in the generator mode (in braking. Mathematical and graphical relationships of electrodynamic braking, taking into account the requirements raised to braking systems in rail transport are presented. The latter include discontinuity of braking process, braking force regulation, depending on the locomotive speed, mass, type of railway and other parameters. Schematic diagrams of the locomotive braking and ways of controlling the braking force by varying electric circuit parameters are presented. The authors suggested contact-free regulation method of braking resistor for controlling braking force in rheostatic braking, and resistor parameters regulate with pulse regulation mode by semiconductor devices, such as new electrical components for rolling stock – IGBT transistors operating in the key mode. Presenting energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking-returning energy and diesel engine or any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  20. Frictional Performance and Temperature Rise of a Mining Nonasbestos Brake Material during Emergency Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Bao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By simulating emergency braking conditions of mine hoisters, tribological experiments of a mining nonasbestos brake material sliding on E355CC steel friction disc investigated a pad-on-disc friction tester. It is shown that, under combined influence of braking velocity and pressure, the lubricating film and micro-convex-apices on wear surface would have complex physicochemical reactions which make the instant friction coefficient rise gradually while the instant surface temperature rises first and then falls. With the antifriction effect from lubricating film and the desquamating of composite materials, the mean friction coefficient decreases first, then rises, and decreases again with the increasing of initial braking velocity. And with the existence of micro-convex-apices and variation from increment ratio of load and actual contacting area, it rises first and then falls with the increasing of braking pressure. However, the mean surface temperature rises obviously with the increasing of both initial braking velocity and braking pressure for growth of transformed kinetic energy. It is considered that the friction coefficient cannot be considered as a constant when designing brake devices for mine hoisters. And special attention should be paid to the serious influence of surface temperature on tribological performance of brake material during emergency braking.

  1. Validity of a device designed to measure braking power in bicycle disc brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew C; Fink, Philip W; Macdermid, Paul William; Perry, Blake G; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-21

    Real-world cycling performance depends not only on exercise capacities, but also on efficiently traversing the bicycle through the terrain. The aim of this study was to determine if it was possible to quantify the braking done by a cyclist in the field. One cyclist performed 408 braking trials (348 on a flat road; 60 on a flat dirt path) over 5 days on a bicycle fitted with brake torque and angular velocity sensors to measure brake power. Based on Newtonian physics, the sum of brake work, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance was compared with the change in kinetic energy in each braking event. Strong linear relationships between the total energy removed from the bicycle-rider system through braking and the change in kinetic energy were observed on the tar-sealed road (r 2  = 0.989; p brake torque and angular velocity sensors are valid for calculating brake power on the disc brakes of a bicycle in field conditions. Such a device may be useful for investigating cyclists' ability to traverse through various terrains.

  2. Design and analysis of an MR rotary brake for self-regulating braking torques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Koo, Jeong-Hoi

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a novel Magneto-rheological (MR) brake system that can self-regulate the output braking torques. The proposed MR brake can generate a braking torque at a critical rotation speed without an external power source, sensors, or controllers, making it a simple and cost-effective device. The brake system consists of a rotary disk, permanent magnets, springs, and MR fluid. The permanent magnets are attached to the rotary disk via the springs, and they move outward through grooves with two different gap distances along the radial direction of the stator due to the centrifugal force. Thus, the position of the magnets is dependent on the spin speed, and it can determine the magnetic fields applied to MR fluids. Proper design of the stator geometry gives the system unique torque characteristics. To show the performance of an MR brake system, the electromagnetic characteristics of the system are analyzed, and the torques generated by the brake are calculated using the result of the electromagnetic analysis. Using a baseline model, a parametric study is conducted to investigate how the design parameters (geometric shapes and material selection) affect the performance of the brake system. After the simulation study, a prototype brake system is constructed and its performance is experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that the prototype produced the maximum torque of 1.2 N m at the rotational speed of 100 rpm. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed MR brake as a speed regulator in rotating systems.

  3. Influence of convective cooling on a disc brake temperature distribution during repetitive braking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamowicz, Adam; Grzes, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate an impact of convective mode of heat transfer on the thermal behaviour of a disc brake system during repetitive braking process with the constant velocity using fully three-dimensional finite element model. The transient thermal analysis to determine the temperature distributions on the contact surface of a disc brake is performed. The issue of non-uniform frictional heating effects of mutual slipping of a disc over fixed pads is tested using FE models with the several possible to occur in automotive application heat transfer coefficients. To have a possibility of comparison of the temperature distributions of a disc during cyclic brake application, the energy transformed during time of every analyzed case of braking process and the subsequent release periods was equal. The time-stepping procedure is employed to develop moving heat source as the boundary heat flux acting interchangeably with the convective cooling terms. The difficulties accounted for the accurate simulation of heating during spin of the rotor is omitted by the use of the code, which enable shaping curves responsible for the thermal flux entering the disc at subsequent moments of time. The resulting evolution of temperature on the friction surface reveals a wide range of variations, distinguishing periods of heating and cooling states. It has been established, that during single braking the convective cooling has insignificant influence on the temperature distributions of a disc brake, consequently is not able to prevent overheat problem. However the brake release period after the braking operation, when the velocity of the vehicle remains on the same level, results in considerable decrease of temperature. - Highlights: → Convection does not allow to lower temperature of disc during single braking process. → Maximal temperature of disc decreases with number of brake applications. → Temperature at the end of braking increases with number of brake

  4. Dynamic analysis of three autoventilated disc brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. García-León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The braking system of a car must meet several requirements, among which safety is the most important. It is also composed of a set of mechanical parts such as springs, different types of materials (Metallic and Non Metallic, gases and liquids. The brakes must work safely and predictably in all circumstances, which means having a stable level of friction, in any condition of temperature, humidity and salinity of the environment. For a correct design and operation of brake discs, it is necessary to consider different aspects, such as geometry, type of material, mechanical strength, maximum temperature, thermal deformation, cracking resistance, among others. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to analyze the dynamics and kinetics of the brake system from the pedal as the beginning of mathematical calculations to simulate the behavior and Analysis of Finite Elements (FEA, with the help of SolidWorks Simulation Software. The results show that the third brake disc works best in relation to the other two discs in their different working conditions such as speed and displacement in braking, concluding that depending on the geometry of the brake and the cooling channels these systems can be optimized that are of great importance for the automotive industry.

  5. Heat load limits for TRU drums on pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.; McKinley, M.S.

    1993-08-01

    Some of the Trans-Uranic (TRU) waste generated at SRS is packaged in 55 gallon, galvanized steel drums and stored on concrete pads that are exposed to the weather. It was necessary to compute how much heat can be generated by the waste in these drums without exceeding the temperature limits of the contents of the drum. This report documents the calculation of heat load limits for the drum, which depend on the temperature limits of the contents of the drum. The applicable temperature limits for the contents of the drum are the melting temperature of the polyethylene liner, 284 ± 8 F, the combustion temperature of paper, 450 F and the decomposition temperature of anionic resin, 190 F. One part of the analysis leading to the heat load limits was the collection of weather records on solar flux, wind speed and air temperature. Another part of the task was an experimental measurement of two important properties of the drum lid, the emittance and the absorptance. As used here, emittance is the rate at which an object emits infrared thermal radiation divided by the rate at which a perfect black body at the same temperature emits thermal radiation. Absorptance is the rate at which an object absorbs solar radiation divided by the rate at which a perfect black body absorbs radiation. For nine locations on each of eight typical weathered drum lids the measured emittance ranged from 0.73 ± 0.05 to 1.00 ± 0.07 (95% confidence level) and the average emittance for the eight lids was 0.85. For the eight drum lids the measured absorptance ranged from 0.64 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.07 with an average absorptance for the eight lids of 0.739

  6. The aesthetic interpretation on Wooden Drum Dancing of Wa people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfeng Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wa nationality, a typical ethnic group in Yunnan province, is an ancient one lives across Yunnan. The main residences of it are border area beside northern Yunnan and the Wa States in Burma. Among all the Wa dances, Wooden Drum Dancing leads a vital position, and it is also a symbolic dancing in the culture of Wa people. The feature of Wooden Drum Dancing is that every action expending by the beats of wooden drum, namely, first the wooden drum, then the Wooden Drum Dancing. Dancing is an important content in the life of Wa people, and the aesthetics of life comes from dancing, so they present their value on worship by the form of dancing. This article is going to interpret the aesthetic standard on Wa people’s Wooden Drum Dancing by the view of aesthetics, and come into a conclude that the inspiration of such dancing came from practice and their worship to nature and ancestor. The Wooden Drum Dancing displays totally the tough air and solidarity of Wa people, which also presents the fair society of them. The Wooden Drum Dancing is an enriched art that Wa People took from particle life, so dancing of Wa is often classified into the aesthetic area of plain. The information of people’s living situation displayed by Wa dancing also conveys their rich emotions. The sense of beauty within Wooden Drum Dancing will give others a solemn feeling. The formal beauty is displayed by the rhythm of upper part of body, and the power beauty is displayed by the rhythm of the lower part of body.

  7. Screw-released roller brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  8. Statistical analysis of brake squeal noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2011-06-01

    Despite substantial research efforts applied to the prediction of brake squeal noise since the early 20th century, the mechanisms behind its generation are still not fully understood. Squealing brakes are of significant concern to the automobile industry, mainly because of the costs associated with warranty claims. In order to remedy the problems inherent in designing quieter brakes and, therefore, to understand the mechanisms, a design of experiments study, using a noise dynamometer, was performed by a brake system manufacturer to determine the influence of geometrical parameters (namely, the number and location of slots) of brake pads on brake squeal noise. The experimental results were evaluated with a noise index and ranked for warm and cold brake stops. These data are analysed here using statistical descriptors based on population distributions, and a correlation analysis, to gain greater insight into the functional dependency between the time-averaged friction coefficient as the input and the peak sound pressure level data as the output quantity. The correlation analysis between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure data is performed by applying a semblance analysis and a joint recurrence quantification analysis. Linear measures are compared with complexity measures (nonlinear) based on statistics from the underlying joint recurrence plots. Results show that linear measures cannot be used to rank the noise performance of the four test pad configurations. On the other hand, the ranking of the noise performance of the test pad configurations based on the noise index agrees with that based on nonlinear measures: the higher the nonlinearity between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure, the worse the squeal. These results highlight the nonlinear character of brake squeal and indicate the potential of using nonlinear statistical analysis tools to analyse disc brake squeal.

  9. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart. (2) Air brake systems. Buses, trucks and truck-tractors equipped with air brake systems and..., and 393.52 of this subpart. (4) Electric brake systems. Motor vehicles equipped with electric brake..., trucks and truck tractors manufactured on or after March 1, 1975, and trailers manufactured on or after...

  10. Model-Based Brake Control including Tyre Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, E.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to develop a method for controlled braking of a vehicle. The brake pedal depression has been considered to be proportional to the intended deceleration. The brake controller is not aimed to replace a cruise control; it will have an anti-lock braking (ABS) function. The

  11. 49 CFR 393.43 - Breakaway and emergency braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.43 Breakaway and emergency braking. (a) Towing vehicle protection system. Every motor vehicle, if used to tow a trailer equipped with brakes, shall be equipped with... brake systems installed on towed vehicles shall be so designed, by the use of “no-bleed-back” relay...

  12. 49 CFR 393.55 - Antilock brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hydraulic braked vehicles. Each hydraulic braked vehicle subject to the requirements of paragraph (a) of...)). (2) Each air braked commercial motor vehicle other than a truck tractor, manufactured on or after... malfunction circuits and signals for air braked vehicles. (1) Each truck tractor manufactured on or after...

  13. Diesel Technology: Brakes. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert; Scarberry, Terry; Kellum, Mary

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course on brakes in the diesel technology curriculum. The course consists of 12 units organized in three sections. The three units of the introductory section cover: (1) brakes; (2) wheel bearings and seals; and (3) antilock brake systems. The second section, Hydraulic Brakes, contains the…

  14. 49 CFR 236.701 - Application, brake; full service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a split reduction in brake pipe pressure at a service rate until maximum brake cylinder pressure is developed. As applied to an automatic or electro-pneumatic brake with speed governor control, an application other than emergency which develops the maximum brake cylinder pressure, as determined by the design of...

  15. 49 CFR 393.41 - Parking brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system shall, at all times, be capable of being applied by either the driver's muscular effort or by... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parking brake system. 393.41 Section 393.41... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.41 Parking brake system. (a) Hydraulic-braked vehicles...

  16. Automation of a measurement systems of waste drum alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labarre, S.; Bardy, N.

    1985-10-01

    The alpha radiator activity in the two-hundred liter waste drums is found by an IN96, computerized analyzer of the society Intertechnique, from data delivered by a gamma detector (GeHP) and by neutron detection blocks (He counter). This computerized analyzer manages not only the drum rotation and position in front of the detector, but also the experimental data monitoring and their processing from specific programs (background noise, calibration, drum measurements). Thanks to this automation, the measurement number and their reliability are optimized [fr

  17. Combined braking system for hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulekina, A. V.; Bakholdin, P. A.; Shchurov, N. I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of surface vehicle’s existing braking systems. The technical solution and brake-system design were developed for use of regenerative braking energy. A technical parameters comparison of energy storage devices of various types was made. Based on the comparative analysis, it was decided to use supercapacitor because of its applicability for an electric drive intermittent operation. The calculation methods of retarder key components were proposed. Therefrom, it was made a conclusion that rebuild gasoline-electric vehicles are more efficient than gasoline ones.

  18. Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

  19. Nonlinear Coupling Characteristics Analysis of Integrated System of Electromagnetic Brake and Frictional Brake of Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since theoretical guidance is lacking in the design and control of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake, this paper aims to solve this problem and explores the nonlinear coupling characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake. This paper uses the power bond graph method to establish nonlinear coupling mathematical model of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake and conducts the contrastive analysis on the dynamic characteristics based on this mathematical model. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the nonlinear coupling mathematical model proposed above is verified on the hardware in the loop simulation platform, and nonlinear coupling characteristics of the integrated system are also analyzed through experiments.

  20. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao

    2017-09-01

    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  1. The influence of various pressures in pneumatic tyre on braking process of car with anti-lock braking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian HADRYŚ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article has been presented the influence of various pressures inpneumatic tyre of passenger car Fiat Panda 1.3 JTD with anti-lock braking system on chosen parameters of braking process: course of braking deceleration, maximum value of deceleration, braking distances.

  2. The influence of various pressures in pneumatic tyre on braking process of car with anti-lock braking system

    OpenAIRE

    Damian HADRYŚ; Tomasz WĘGRZYN; Michał MIROS

    2008-01-01

    In this article has been presented the influence of various pressures inpneumatic tyre of passenger car Fiat Panda 1.3 JTD with anti-lock braking system on chosen parameters of braking process: course of braking deceleration, maximum value of deceleration, braking distances.

  3. Dynamics of braking vehicles: from Coulomb friction to anti-lock braking systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, J M

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and without sliding. The advantage of using an anti-lock braking system (ABS) is put in evidence, and a quantitative estimate of its efficiency is proposed and discussed

  4. Research of braking process of transport vehicle with hydraulic brake system parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimirov, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    Emergency braking of a vehicle is bound with many factors, such as the behaviour of the driver, the drive of the vehicle braking system, the braking mechanisms, the condition of the tyres, and the properties of the pavement. This process involves all parameters of the system “the driver – the vehicle – the road”. In order to investigate the efficiency of braking process upon specific conditions, it is necessary to examine all physical processes that take place in the vehicle on pressing the b...

  5. A-Ha. Drum'n'bassi supernimi FABIO

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    7.sept. annab norra menukaim popansambel A-Ha Tallinnas Lauluväljakul kontserdi, kus presenteerib ka oma viimast albumit "Lifelines". 14. sept.tuleb drum'n'bassi spetsialist Fabio Tallinna üritusele Circulation

  6. Source imaging of drums in the APNEA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, D.

    1995-01-01

    The APNea System is a neutron assay device utilizing both a passive mode and a differential-dieaway active mode. The total detection efficiency is not spatially uniform, even for an empty chamber, and a drum matrix in the chamber can severely distort this response. In order to achieve a response which is independent of the way the source material is distributed in a drum, an imaging procedure has been developed which treats the drum as a number of virtual (sub)volumes. Since each virtual volume of source material is weighted with the appropriate instrument parameters (detection efficiency and thermal flux), the final assay result is essentially independent of the actual distribution of the source material throughout the drum and its matrix

  7. Direct measurement of γ-emitting radionuclides in waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ruwei; Mao Yong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Xia Xiaobin; Guo Caiping; Han Yueqin

    1993-01-01

    The low-level rad waste produced from nuclear power plant, nuclear facilities, and in the process of their decommissioning is stored in waste depository. For the safety of transport and storage of these wastes, some test must be done. One of them is to analyse the kinds and activities of radionuclides in each waste drum. Segmented scanning gamma spectrum analysis can be used for direct measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in drum. Gamma emitters such as Co-60, Cs-137, Ra-226 can be measured directly from outside of drum. A method and system for direct measuring gamma emitters in waste drum are described, and measuring apparatus and measurement results as well

  8. Hydrogen explosion testing with a simulated transuranic drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored onsite for future retrieval and permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some of the TRU waste is stored in vented 210-liter (55-gallon) drums and consists of gloves, wipes, plastic valves, tools, etc. Gas generation caused by radiolysis and biodegradation of these organic waste materials may produce a flammable hydrogen-air mixture (>4% v/v) in the multi-layer plastic waste bags. Using a worst case scenario, a drum explosion test program was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration necessary to cause removal of the drum lid. Test results indicate an explosive mixture up to 15% v/v of hydrogen can be contained in an SRS TRU drum without total integrity failure via lid removal

  9. Expected precision of neutron multiplicity measurements of waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1995-01-01

    DOE facilities are beginning to apply passive neutron multiplicity counting techniques to the assay of plutonium scrap and residues. There is also considerable interest in applying this new measurement technique to 208-liter waste drums. The additional information available from multiplicity counting could flag the presence of shielding materials or improve assay accuracy by correcting for matrix effects such as (α,n) induced fission or detector efficiency variations. The potential for multiplicity analysis of waste drums, and the importance of better detector design, can be estimated by calculating the expected assay precision using a Figure of Merit code for assay variance. This paper reports results obtained as a function of waste drum content and detector characteristics. We find that multiplicity analysis of waste drums is feasible if a high-efficiency neutron counter is used. However, results are significantly poorer if the multiplicity analysis must be used to solve for detection efficiency

  10. Europa Drum Sampler (EDuS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to develop a robust and effective sample acquisition system for the Europa lander called the Europa Drum Sampler (EDuS)....

  11. 14 CFR 29.735 - Brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.735 Brakes. For... dry, smooth pavement. [Doc. No. 5084, 29 FR 16150, Dec. 3, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 29-24, 49 FR...

  12. 14 CFR 27.735 - Brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.735 Brakes. For rotorcraft... dry, smooth pavement. [Doc. No. 5074, 29 FR 15695, Nov. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 27-21, 49 FR...

  13. Plasma brake model for preliminary mission analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Leonardo; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.

    2018-03-01

    Plasma brake is an innovative propellantless propulsion system concept that exploits the Coulomb collisions between a charged tether and the ions in the surrounding environment (typically, the ionosphere) to generate an electrostatic force orthogonal to the tether direction. Previous studies on the plasma brake effect have emphasized the existence of a number of different parameters necessary to obtain an accurate description of the propulsive acceleration from a physical viewpoint. The aim of this work is to discuss an analytical model capable of estimating, with the accuracy required by a preliminary mission analysis, the performance of a spacecraft equipped with a plasma brake in a (near-circular) low Earth orbit. The simplified mathematical model is first validated through numerical simulations, and is then used to evaluate the plasma brake performance in some typical mission scenarios, in order to quantify the influence of the system parameters on the mission performance index.

  14. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous re- inforcing ... every manufacturer of automotive friction materials uses phenolics as ... The resin binder is a critical compo- nent. The limits ...

  15. Clutches and brakes design and selection

    CERN Document Server

    Orthwein, William C

    2004-01-01

    Conveniently gathering formulas, analytical methods, and graphs for the design and selection of a wide variety of brakes and clutches in the automotive, aircraft, farming, and manufacturing industries, Clutches and Brakes: Design and Selection, Second Edition simplifies calculations, acquaints engineers with an expansive range of application, and assists in the selection of parameters for specific design challenges. Contains an abundance of examples, 550 display equations, and more than 200 figures for clear presentation of various design strategies Thoroughly revised throughout, the second edition offers… Additional chapters on friction drives and fluid clutches and retarders An extended discussion on cone brakes and clutches A simpler formulation of the torque from a centrifugal clutch Updated sections on automatic braking systems An analysis of variable-speed friction drives with clutch capability Analytical and computer-assisted design techniques.

  16. Thermal analysis and temperature characteristics of a braking resistor for high-speed trains for changes in the braking current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Dong; Kang, Hyun-Il; Shim, Jae-Myung

    2015-09-01

    Electric brake systems are used in high-speed trains to brake trains by converting the kinetic energy of a railway vehicle to electric energy. The electric brake system consists of a regenerative braking system and a dynamic braking system. When the electric energy generated during the dynamic braking process is changed to heat through the braking resistor, the braking resistor can overheat; thus, failures can occur to the motor block. In this paper, a braking resistor for a high-speed train was used to perform thermal analyses and tests, and the results were analyzed. The analyzed data were used to estimate the dependence of the brake currents and the temperature rises on speed changes up to 300 km/h, at which a test could not be performed.

  17. Rotary Speed Sensor for Antilocking Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Sensor based on fluidic principles produces negative pressure approximately proportional to rotational speed. Sensor developed as part of antilocking brake system for motorcycles. Uses inlet pressure rather than outlet pressure as braking-control signal, eliminating pressure pulsations caused by pump vanes and ensuring low-noise signal. Sensor is centrifugal air pump turned by one of motorcycle wheels. Air enters pump through orifice plates, and suction taken off through port in pump inlet plenum.

  18. Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Corneliu [Laguna Hills, CA; Teichmann, Ralph [Nishkayuna, NY; Avagliano, Aaron [Houston, TX; Kammer, Leonardo Cesar [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Pesetsky, David Samuel [Greenville, SC; Gauchel, Peter [Muenster, DE

    2009-02-10

    A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

  19. Possibilities of rotating drums in ultra-high-speed cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Michel

    A theoretical study shows that it is possible to produce a drum rotating at a peripheral speed of 500m/s. A prototype has actually reached this speed and confirmed the feasibility of the system. It is driven by an electric motor and is made of titanium covered with boron fibres. The main performances to be expected of cameras (whole-image, slit or spectrographic) using such a drum is described [fr

  20. The method study for nuclide analysis of waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The principle of waste drum nuclide analysis system and the principle of the detector chosen are introduced. The linear attenuation coefficient and mass attenuation coefficient of five environmental medium (water, soil, red brick, concrete and sands) have been measured with γ transmission method simulative equipment. The absorption coefficient and nuclide activity of three measuring conditions (collimation-columnar source, un-collimation-columnar source, and un-collimation-rotation-drum source) have been calculated

  1. Drum of storing fuel assemblies of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, L.N.; Batjukov, V.I.; Fadeev, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    The proposed drum for storing fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor comprises a holder rotatable around its axis and provided with tubular sockets arranged in concentric rows along the circumference of the holder so that the axis of at least one socket of each row intersects the trajectory described by the grip of the recharging mechanism in the course of its movement. The proposed drum design makes it possible to facilitate and speed up the process of recharging fuel asemblies

  2. Automated visual inspection of brake shoe wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengfang; Liu, Zhen; Nan, Guo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-10-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railway, the automated fault inspection is necessary to ensure train's operation safety. Visual technology is paid more attention in trouble detection and maintenance. For a linear CCD camera, Image alignment is the first step in fault detection. To increase the speed of image processing, an improved scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method is presented. The image is divided into multiple levels of different resolution. Then, we do not stop to extract the feature from the lowest resolution to the highest level until we get sufficient SIFT key points. At that level, the image is registered and aligned quickly. In the stage of inspection, we devote our efforts to finding the trouble of brake shoe, which is one of the key components in brake system on electrical multiple units train (EMU). Its pre-warning on wear limitation is very important in fault detection. In this paper, we propose an automatic inspection approach to detect the fault of brake shoe. Firstly, we use multi-resolution pyramid template matching technology to fast locate the brake shoe. Then, we employ Hough transform to detect the circles of bolts in brake region. Due to the rigid characteristic of structure, we can identify whether the brake shoe has a fault. The experiments demonstrate that the way we propose has a good performance, and can meet the need of practical applications.

  3. Coke degradation by surface breakage in a modified tumble drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litster, J D

    1987-01-01

    The surface breakage rate constant for three Australian battery cokes was measured in a specially modified tumble drum using a previously developed technique. The effect of experimental test parameters - coke size, sample mass, drum speed, lifter height and lifter number - on the surface breakage rate constant was examined. The motion of coke particles within a tumble drum was filmed in a simulation experiment with a 0.31 m diameter drum. Particles were raised on the lifters, fell and collided with the bottom of the drum. These collisions were the main source of fines (minus 1 mm) production rather than true abrasion as depicted by a rubbing, rolling action. Hence the term 'surface breakage' is more appropriate than 'abrasion' to describe the breakage process. By measuring the volume of coke carried by each lifter and the height of fall of the coke, the effect of drum speed, sample mass, lifter height and number on the rate of surface breakage was successfully explained. The surface breakage rate constant was found to be proportional to particle size to the power 0.33 for the three cokes studied. A normalized surface breakage rate constant was derived which allowed comparison of cokes with different size distributions. This parameter characterises the coke surface breakage resistance.

  4. Nonlinear vibrations analysis of rotating drum-disk coupling structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaofeng, Li; Boqing, Miao; Qiansheng, Tang; Chenyang, Xi; Bangchun, Wen

    2018-04-01

    A dynamic model of a coupled rotating drum-disk system with elastic support is developed in this paper. By considering the effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces as well as rotation-induced hoop stress, the governing differential equation of the drum-disk is derived by Donnell's shell theory. The nonlinear amplitude-frequency characteristics of coupled structure are studied. The results indicate that the natural characteristics of the coupling structure are sensitive to the supporting stiffness of the disk, and the sensitive range is affected by rotating speeds. The circumferential wave numbers can affect the characteristics of the drum-disk structure. If the circumferential wave number n = 1 , the vibration response of the drum keeps a stable value under an unbalanced load of the disk, there is no coupling effect if n ≠ 1 . Under the excitation, the nonlinear hardening characteristics of the forward traveling wave are more evident than that of the backward traveling wave. Moreover, because of the coupling effect of the drum and the disk, the supporting stiffness of the disk has certain effect on the nonlinear characteristics of the forward and backward traveling waves. In addition, small length-radius and thickness-radius ratios have a significant effect on the nonlinear characteristics of the coupled structure, which means nonlinear shell theory should be adopted to design rotating drum's parameter for its specific structural parameters.

  5. Regional Courts as Judicial Brakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalf Katrin Nyman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how regional integration courts can act as judicial brakes, at a time when “constitutional coups” – leaders staying in power past constitutional time limits or other forms of actions against the spirit if not always the letter of the constitution – are alarmingly common. The article discusses how regional courts can be used to modify or protect national rule of law and the constitutional order from the outside (i.e. from the regional integration aspect and the extent to which this can be valid particularly to promote a uniform interpretation and application of human rights. Although this trend is visible in Europe, it is more striking, because less expected, on other continents, in particular Africa and the Americas, where the developments take place in less than perfect democratic environments. The article contains evidence from cases dealt with in the various regional courts, supporting that a system of political and judicial oversight, especially in regions with weak or fragile democratic systems, can be a useful addition to national judicial or other mechanisms of protection of rule of law and control of the executive. Action by regional courts helps defeat perceptions of majoritarian politics, which in many countries allow for the winner to take all. Under a system of regional oversight, states become aware of the limits they themselves have set and citizens become aware of their possibilities to challenge political power.

  6. Electromagnetic brake/clutch device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electromagnetic brake/clutch device includes a drive shaft supported by at least one bearing for transmitting torque, a housing, affixed to prevent its rotation, surrounding the drive shaft, and an electromagnetically activated device within the housing to selectively prevent and allow rotation of the drive shaft. The electromagnetically activated device includes a plurality of cammed rollers to prevent counter-clockwise rotation of the drive shaft. The drive shaft includes a circumferential disk and the housing includes a reaction ring for engagement with the plurality of cammed rollers. The plurality of cammed rollers are released from engagement with the circumferential disk and the reaction ring by a plurality of tripping mechanisms within the housing. The tripping action uses the locking force to act as a release force merely by changing the boundary conditions of the roller interface angles. The tripping mechanisms include trippers for disengaging the plurality of cammed rollers and an anvil shaped portion for providing lateral movement of the trippers. The plurality of cammed rollers is preloaded to engagement with the circumferential disk and reaction ring by a spring, and is located with respect to an adjacent tripping mechanism with another spring.

  7. Magnetic braking in galactic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparke, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear fireworks of active galaxies are believed to derive their power from the kinetic energy of gas falling onto a massive central objects; mass shed from evolving galactic stars is an obvious source of fuel for this process. But this ejected material shares the galactic rotation, and a centrifugal barrier will prevent it from reaching the nucleus, if its angular momentum is not removed. This paper shows that, if the large-scale galactic magnetic field has a strong enough radial component, magnetic torques can act to spin down the infalling matter. Rotation of the interstellar gas induces a toroidal magnetic field, and Maxwell stresses remove angular momentum from the flow; gas can then fall inward to the galactic center. In this way, the monster in the nucleus can be fed on gas from a galaxy's own stars. The magnetic fields in M87 and NGC 1275, giant elliptical galaxies which are accreting from an intracluster medium, appear to be strong enough to allow magnetic braking

  8. Geometric optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake considering different shapes for the brake envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Lang, V T; Nguyen, N D; Choi, S B

    2014-01-01

    When designing a magneto-rheological brake (MRB), it is well known that the shape of the brake envelope significantly affects the performance characteristics of the brake. In this study, different shapes for the MR brake envelope, such as rectangular, polygonal or spline shape, are considered and the most suitable shape identified. MRBs with different envelope shapes are introduced followed by the derivation of the braking torque based on Bingham-plastic behavior of the magneto-rheological fluid (MRF). Optimization of the design of the MRB with different envelope shapes is then done. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value for the significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a certain required braking torque while the brake mass is minimized. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. From the results, the most suitable shape for the brake envelope is identified and discussed with the reduction of mass. In addition, the results of the analysis are compared with the experimental results to verify the proposed optimal design characteristics. (paper)

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF BRAKE PADS THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ON PASSANGER CAR BRAKE SYSTEM EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag D Milenković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase of vehicle braking system designing, besides of mechanical characteristics, it is also necessary to take under consideration the system's thermal features. This is because it is not enough just to achieve proper braking power, for the brake system to be effective but equally important thing is the dissipation of heat to the environment. Heat developed in the friction surfaces dissipate into the environment over the disk in one hand and through the brake linings and caliper, in the other. The striving is to make that greatest amount of heat to dissipate not threw the brake pads but threw disc. The experimental researching of heat transfer process taking place at vehicle brakes was made in the R&D Center of "Zastava automobili" car factory in order to increase the efficiency of brake system. The standard laboratory and road test procedures were used, according to factory quality regulations. The modern equipment such as thermo camera, thermo couples, torque transducers, signal amplifiers, optical speed measuring system and laptop computer were used. In this paper will be shown the part of the experimental researching, which refers to the thermal conductivity of brake pad friction linings.

  10. Geometric optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake considering different shapes for the brake envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Lang, V. T.; Nguyen, N. D.; Choi, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    When designing a magneto-rheological brake (MRB), it is well known that the shape of the brake envelope significantly affects the performance characteristics of the brake. In this study, different shapes for the MR brake envelope, such as rectangular, polygonal or spline shape, are considered and the most suitable shape identified. MRBs with different envelope shapes are introduced followed by the derivation of the braking torque based on Bingham-plastic behavior of the magneto-rheological fluid (MRF). Optimization of the design of the MRB with different envelope shapes is then done. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value for the significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a certain required braking torque while the brake mass is minimized. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. From the results, the most suitable shape for the brake envelope is identified and discussed with the reduction of mass. In addition, the results of the analysis are compared with the experimental results to verify the proposed optimal design characteristics.

  11. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the drain cocks in the service and supply reservoir on the truck or truck-tractor. Note the pressure.... Close the drain cocks, and, with the trailer(s) uncoupled, check air pressure buildup at the... brakes fully applied. (b) Air brake system hoses, tubes and connections. Air system tubes, hoses and...

  12. Neutrons put the brakes on stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Katynna

    2006-01-01

    Don't you hate it when you're driving along, put your foot on the brake and feel that juddering feeling through the pedal? It happens when the disc brake rotors become distorted through normal use of the brakes. To the car manufacturing industry it's called r unout , and is a multimillion dollar warranty problem each year. Not to mention a pain for drivers! Dr Maurice Ripley and Dr Oliver Kirstein from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) wanted to figure out whether runout is caused by residual stresses from the manufacturing process or by normal use of the brake, so they decided to test and compare a used and new brake disc. 'To picture what metal looks like at the atomic level, imagine spheres stacked evenly around each other in all three dimensions,' explained Kirstein. T he spheres represent atoms in the metal and the structure is called a metallic lattice.' We're familiar with the idea that metal expands when it gets hot - the atoms get excited with the heat and have the energy to move further away from each other, so spaces between the atoms in the lattice get larger. 'When parts of the metal are heated up and cool down at different rates, you may end up with a distorted lattice with some parts expanded and others not,' explained Kirstein. 'This unevenness in the lattice creates residual stress.' While a bunch of methods were available to test the discs, Kirstein and Ripley picked neutrons from ANSTO's HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) as their tool of choice. 'Neutrons allow us to look at the inside of the metal without damaging it,' said Kirstein. 'They can penetrate through the iron, so we were able to take measurements at a series of points at different depths through the brake disc.' Word around the car industry is that when residual stresses are relaxed through heating of the brake disc during use, the discs could potentially distort, causing the runout and that juddering feeling. But everyone was clueless as to what

  13. ABOUT WAVEFORM OF BRAKING CYLINDER FILLING IN FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Ursuliak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. As part of the scientific paper it is necessary to study the waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on longitudinal train dynamics at different modes of braking. At this one should estimate the level of maximum longitudinal forces and braking distance size in freight cars of various lengths. Methodology. In this paper we attempt to approximate the actual diagram of braking cylinders filling with rational functions of varying degrees. In selection of coefficients in the required functions the highest values of the longitudinal forces and braking distances were used as controlled parameters. They were compared with similar values obtained as a result of experimental rides. The level of longitudinal forces and braking distances amount were evaluated by means of mathematical modeling of train longitudinal vibrations, caused by different braking modes. Findings. At mathematical modeling was assumed that the train consists of 60 uniform four-axle gondola cars, weight of 80 tons, equipped with air dispenser No. 483 included in the median operation, composite braking blocks, and one locomotive VL-8. Train before braking has been pre-stretched. Various types of pneumatic braking (emergency, full service and adjusting braking of the freight train on the horizontal section of the track were simulated. As the calculation results were obtained values of the longitudinal forces, braking distances amounts and reduction time in speed at various braking modes. Originality. Waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on the longitudinal forces level and braking distances amount in freight trains were investigated. Also the longitudinal loading of freight trains at various pneumatic braking was investigated. Practical value. Obtained results can be used to assess the level of largest longitudinal forces and braking distances in the freight trains of different lengths by mathematical modeling of different braking modes.

  14. Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Roy I.

    1990-01-01

    A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more roadwheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the roadwheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the roadwheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded.

  15. Recent studies of tire braking performance. [for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Leland, T. J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results from recent studies of some factors affecting tire braking and cornering performance are presented together with a discussion of the possible application of these results to the design of aircraft braking systems. The first part of the paper is concerned with steady-state braking, that is, results from tests conducted at a constant slip ratio or steering angle or both. The second part deals with cyclic braking tests, both single cycle, where brakes are applied at a constant rate until wheel lockup is achieved, and rapid cycling of the brakes under control of a currently operational antiskid system.

  16. Backup Mechanical Brake System of the Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, E. A.; Solomin, E. V.; Gandzha, S. A.; Kirpichnikova, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    Paper clarifies the necessity of the emergency mechanical brake systems usage for wind turbines. We made a deep analysis of the wind turbine braking methods available on the market, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The electromechanical braking appeared the most technically reasonable and economically attractive. We described the developed combined electromechanical brake system for vertical axis wind turbine driven from electric drive with variable torque enough to brake over the turbine even on the storm wind speed up to 45 m/s. The progress was made due to the development of specific kinematic brake system diagram and intelligent control system managed by special operation algorithm.

  17. Verification calculation of drum and pulley overhead travelling crane on gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Ari Satmoko; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    Having verified the calculation of dam drum pulleys found on cranes to facilitate the gamma irradiator. Drum is a device for rolling steel ropes while the pulley is a circular pieces called disks, which are made from metal or non-metal to transmit motion and force. Having verified calculation of forces acting style on drums, drum diameter and length and style of press that occurred on drums. Likewise, the pulley, pulley diameter verified calculations, measures of disc and shaft power pulleys. From the verification results will be obtained whether the data drums and pulley device is safe or not safe to use. (author)

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plutonium in solid waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Jacques; Escarieux, Emile

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the results given by a study carried out for the development of qualitative and quantitative analysis, by γ spectrometry, of plutonium in solid waste drums is presented. After having reminded the standards and their incidence on the quantities of plutonium to be measured (application at industrial Pu: 20% of Pu 240 ) the equipment used is described. Measurement station provided with a mechanical system consisting of: a rail and a pulley block to bring the drums; a pit and a hydraulic jack with a rotating platform. The detection instrumentation consisting of: a high volume coaxial Ge(Li) detector with a γ ray resolution of 2 keV; an associated electronic; a processing of data by a 'Plurimat 20' minicomputer. Principles of the identification and measurements are specified and supported by experimental results. They are the following: determination of the quality of Pu by measuring the ratio between the γ ray intensities of the 239 Pu 129 keV and of the 241 Pu 148 keV; measurement of the 239 Pu mass by estimating the γ ray counting rate of the 375 keV from the calibrating curves given by plutonium samples varying from 32 mg to 80 g; correction of the results versus the source position into the drum and versus the filling in plastic materials into this drum. The experimental results obtained over 40 solid waste drums are presented along with the error estimates [fr

  19. The Saami shaman's drum and the star horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sommarström

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to examine the possible influences of stellar constellations on the positioning of the drum figures on the drums used by the Saami people during the 17th and 18th centuries. Certain of the drum figures seem to have a similar position to corresponding figures on traditional star maps, both with respect to single star constellations and to some members of the Zodiac circle. The most general correspondences between star maps and the painted designs on drums depend on the existence of a cross for determining the four cardinal points in both cases. The star constellations compared here with the drum-figures are in fact peripheral Saami skies. It is hard to believe that they can have played any vital role in their capacity as star symbols within the frame of the Saamis' own astral cosmology. It is more probable that the earthly meanings of most of the figures were more important to the drummer.

  20. Fatigue life estimation on coke drum due to cycle optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Andrey Stephan; Ambarita, Himsar; Kawai, Hideki; Daimaruya, Masashi

    2018-04-01

    In the last decade, due to the increasing demand of petroleum product, the necessity for converting the heavy oil are increasing. Thus, demand for installing coke drum in whole world will be increase. The coke drum undergoes the cyclic high temperature and suddenly cooling but in fact is not designed to withstand that kind of cycle, thus the operational life of coke drum is much shorter in comparison to other equipment in oil refinery. Various factors determine in order to improve reliability and minimize the down time, and it is found that the cycle optimization due to cycle, temperature, and pressure have an important role. From this research it is found that the fatigue life of the short cycle is decrease by a half compare to the normal cycle. It also found that in the preheating stage, the stress peak is far exceed the yield strength of coke drum material and fall into plastic deformation. This is happened because of the temperature leap in the preheating stage that cause thermal shock in the upper part of the skirt of the coke drum.

  1. Brake force estimation for electromechanical vehicle brakes; Bremskraft-Rekonstruktion fuer elektromechanische Fahrzeugbremsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R. [Continental Teves (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    Due to the increasing safety and comfort demands of the customer, the functionality of modern brake systems has grown continuously in the last years. However, implementation of the extended functionality in conventional brake hydraulics makes active electronic intervention necessary and therefore requires a lot of technical effort. In recent years the automotive supplier industry has started to develop brake systems which have electromechanical brake actuators generating the brake forces at the individual wheels. Electromechanically actuated wheel brakes need to be operated in a closed control loop. This paper introduces a new method to reconstruct the needed feedback value brake force from easy to measure signals. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgrund des gestiegenen Sicherheits- und Komfortbewusstseins der Fahrzeugkaeufer ist die Funktionsvielfalt moderner Bremssysteme in den letzten Jahren staendig gewachsen. Die Umsetzung der erweiterten Funktionalitaet mittels konventioneller Bremsenhydraulik ist jedoch durch den elektronischen, aktiven Eingriff sehr aufwendig. In den letzten Jahren hat daher die Automobilzulieferindustrie begonnen, Bremssysteme zu entwickeln, bei denen die Bremskraft an den einzelnen Raedern von elektromechanischen Bremsaktuatoren aufgebracht wird. Elektromechanisch betaetigte Radbremsen muessen im geschlossenen Regelkreis betrieben werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag, der im Rahmen einer Forschungskooperation zwischen Continental Teves und dem Institut fuer Automatisierungstechnik der TU Darmstadt entstand stellt ein Verfahren vor, mit dem die dafuer benoetigte Rueckfuehrungsgroesse `Bremskraft` aus einfach messbaren Signalen rekonstruiert werden kann. (orig.)

  2. Analyzing Track Responses to Train Braking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Tulika; Levenberg, Eyal; Zania, Varvara

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to suggest a response analysis framework for railway tracks that are subjected to braking. An analytical formulation was developed, in which the rail–track system was modeled as an infinite beam supported by an orthogonal Winkler foundation consisting of linear...... a response analysis framework for railway tracks that are subjected to braking. An analytical formulation was developed, in which the rail–track system was modeled as an infinite beam supported by an orthogonal Winkler foundation consisting of linear springs in perpendicular directions. The spring constants...... springs in perpendicular directions. The spring constants were varied over a wide range in order to represent different track types. Braking loads were simulated as representative sets of vertical and longitudinal forces, either concentrated or distributed. Considering a realistic set of model parameters...

  3. Consideration of materials for aircraft brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. B.; Ho, T.-L.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been made of the frictional behavior of several aircraft brake materials using a simple high-temperature Falex-type apparatus. Tests were run at velocities of seven ft/minute; loads to 600 pounds and temperatures to 700 C. The data for these brake materials sliding against a variety of steels and other materials indicate a large reduction in friction due to surface oxidation in the temperature range 250 to 300 C. It also was found that the retention of this oxide was a function of the temperature changes. With increasing temperature the oxide was removed, while with reducing temperature it was retained. Frictional behavior was more characteristic of the steel than the brake material.

  4. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  5. 49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 10,000 Pounds § 570.59 Service brake system. (a) Service brake performance. Compliance with any one of the following performance criteria will satisfy the requirements of this section. Verify that tire...

  6. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1995-09-12

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 10 figs.

  7. Regenerative Intelligent Brake Control for Electric Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle models whose propulsion system is based on electric motors are increasing in number within the automobile industry. They will soon become a reliable alternative to vehicles with conventional propulsion systems. The main advantages of this type of vehicles are the non-emission of polluting gases and noise and the effectiveness of electric motors compared to combustion engines. Some of the disadvantages that electric vehicle manufacturers still have to solve are their low autonomy due to inefficient energy storage systems, vehicle cost, which is still too high, and reducing the recharging time. Current regenerative systems in motorcycles are designed with a low fixed maximum regeneration rate in order not to cause the rear wheel to slip when braking with the regenerative brake no matter what the road condition is. These types of systems do not make use of all the available regeneration power, since more importance is placed on safety when braking. An optimized regenerative braking strategy for two-wheeled vehicles is described is this work. This system is designed to recover the maximum energy in braking processes while maintaining the vehicle’s stability. In order to develop the previously described regenerative control, tyre forces, vehicle speed and road adhesion are obtained by means of an estimation algorithm. A based-on-fuzzy-logic algorithm is programmed to carry out an optimized control with this information. This system recuperates maximum braking power without compromising the rear wheel slip and safety. Simulations show that the system optimizes energy regeneration on every surface compared to a constant regeneration strategy.

  8. 77 FR 51649 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... motorcycle braking regulations from around the world, including the U.S. motorcycle brake systems standard.... Partial Failure Test--Split Service Brake System I. Power-Assisted Braking System Failure Test V. Other... motorcycle brake system technologies. In order to address modern braking technologies, the agency sought to...

  9. REGRESSIVE ANALYSIS OF BRAKING EFFICIENCY OF M1 CATEGORY VEHICLES WITH ANTI-BLOCKING BRAKE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Sarayev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The problematics of assessing the effectiveness of vehicle braking after road accidentoccurrence is considered. For the first time in relation to the modern models of vehicles equipped with anti-lock brakes there were obtained regression models describing the relationship between the coefficient of traction and a random variable of steady deceleration. This does not contradict the essence of the stochastic physical object, which is the process of vehicle braking, unlike the previously adopted method of formalizing this process, using a deterministic function.

  10. Alternatives to reduce corrosion of carbon steel storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    The major tasks of this research were (a) pollution prevention opportunity assessments on the overpacking operations for failed or corroded drums, (b) research on existing container corrosion data, (c) investigation of the storage environment of the new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Type II storage modules, (d) identification of waste streams that demonstrate deleterious corrosion affects on drum storage life, and (e) corrosion test cell program development. Twenty-one waste streams from five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites within the DOE Complex were identified to demonstrate a deleterious effect to steel storage drums. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure: 0.5 to 2 years. The results of this research support the position that pollution prevention evaluations at the front end of a project or process will reduce pollution on the back end

  11. Hydromagnetic rotational braking of magnetic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, R.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that the magnetic Ap stars can be rotationally decelerated to long periods by the braking action of the associated magnetic field on time scales of order 10 7 --10 10 years depending on whether the star's dipole field is aligned perpendicular or parallel to the rotation axis. Rotation includes a toroidal magnetic field in the plasma surrounding a star, and the accompanying magnetic stresses produce a net torque acting to despin the star. These results indicate that it is not necessary to postulate mass loss or mass accretion for this purely hydromagnetic braking effect

  12. Tire Models for Use in Braking Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Svendenius, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The tire is a significant part for control of a vehicle. For a well-working brake system the contact properties between the tire and the ground is the limiting factor for a safe braking. To get optimal performance it is important that the system can utilize all friction resources. The brush tire model was a popular method in the 1960's and 1970's before the empirical approaches became dominating. The brush model gives an educational interpretation of the physics behind the tire behavi...

  13. Station Stopping of Freight Trains with Pneumatic Braking

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Bai; Baohua Mao; Tinkin Ho; Yu Feng; Shaokuan Chen

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese mainline railway, freight trains need to stop within passenger stations at times because of the delayed passenger trains. Without any decision-support system, it is very difficult for drivers to stop trains within stations with consistency in one braking action. The reasons are that braking performance of train changes with the conditions of braking equipment and the drivers’ subjective evaluations of track profiles and braking distance are vague and imprecise. This paper presents ...

  14. Combined emergency braking and turning of articulated heavy vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, G; Cebon, David

    2017-01-01

    ‘Slip control’ braking has been shown to reduce the emergency stopping distance of an experimental heavy goods vehicle by up to 19%, compared to conventional electronic/anti-lock braking systems (EBS). However, little regard has been given to the impact of slip control braking on the vehicle’s directional dynamics. This paper uses validated computer models to show that slip control could severely degrade directional performance during emergency braking. A modified slip control strategy, ‘atte...

  15. Controlled braking scheme for a wheeled walking aid

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Eugene; O'Dwyer, Aidan; Young, Eileen; Sullivan, Kevin; Toner, A.

    2006-01-01

    A wheeled walking aid with an embedded controlled braking system is described. The frame of the prototype is based on combining features of standard available wheeled walking aids. A braking scheme has been designed using hydraulic disc brakes to facilitate accurate and sensitive controlled stopping of the walker by the user, and if called upon, by automatic action. Braking force is modulated via a linear actuating stepping motor. A microcontroller is used for control of both stepper movement...

  16. Numerical simulation of heat transfer process in automotive brakes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Voltas, David

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis concerns the theoretical investigations of the heat transfer process in automotive brakes. The process of heat generation and heat transfer to ambient air in automotive brake was presented. The two–dimensional, axi-symmetrical model of transient heat conduction for the brake was applied. The relevant boundary conditions, that describe the heat generated in the brake and the heat transferred to ambient air, were used. The unsteady heat conduction problem was solved by the...

  17. 49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... intercity passenger train shall receive a Class I brake test once each calendar day that the train is placed...-distance intercity passenger train shall receive a Class I brake test: (1) Prior to the train's departure... shoes or pads are firmly seated against the wheel or disc with the brakes applied; (3) Piston travel is...

  18. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received, or...

  19. Development of a Dynamic Engine Brake Model for Control Purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.L.J.; Baert, R.S.G.; Willems, F.P.T.; Vink, W.; van den Heuvel, I.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of an existing mean value dynamic engine model with new models for the combination of a compression release brake and an exhaust valve brake. The focus is on the prediction of engine brake torque, exhaust gas temperatures and mass flow rates. The implemented models

  20. Development of a dynamic engine brake model for control purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.L.J.; Baert, R.S.G.; Willems, F.P.T.; Vink, W.; van den Heuvel, I.T.M.; Corde, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of an existing mean value dynamic engine model with new models for the combination of a compression release brake and an exhaust valve brake. The focus is on the prediction of engine brake torque, exhaust gas temperatures and mass flow rates. The implemented models

  1. 30 CFR 75.1404-1 - Braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Braking system. 75.1404-1 Section 75.1404-1... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1404-1 Braking system. A locomotive equipped with a dual braking system will be deemed to satisfy the requirements of § 75.1404 for a...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic controls and brakes. 77.1401 Section... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and elevators shall be equipped with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable of stopping the elevator...

  3. Physiology and pathophysiology of the ileal brake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, My Kieu

    2007-01-01

    The ileal brake is an intraluminal nutrient-triggered feedback control from the distal to the proximal gut with fat being the most potent trigger. Peptide YY (PYY) is one of the hormonal mediators of the ileal brake. Effects of the fat induced ileal brake on proximal small intestine, postprandial

  4. 49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, every motor vehicle manufactured after June 30, 1953, which is equipped with power brakes, must have the braking system so arranged that one application valve must when activated cause all of the service brakes on the motor vehicle or combination motor vehicle...

  5. 49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a pneumatic signal... and release of the brakes on the last car in the train; and (6) The communicating signal system is... be used to verify the set and release on cars so equipped. However, the observation of the brake...

  6. An Instructor's Guide for a Program in Brake Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The instructor's guide is designed to present an understanding of the automotive hydraulic brake system and to help individuals develop new skills for employment in this specialized field of automotive service. Applicable for secondary or adult education, this guide describes: the brake system, types of brakes, diagnosis and correction of brake…

  7. 14 CFR 27.493 - Braked roll conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Braked roll conditions. 27.493 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.493 Braked roll conditions. Under braked roll conditions with the shock absorbers in their static positions— (a) The limit...

  8. 14 CFR 23.493 - Braked roll conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Braked roll conditions. 23.493 Section 23.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....493 Braked roll conditions. Under braked roll conditions, with the shock absorbers and tires in their...

  9. 14 CFR 29.493 - Braked roll conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Braked roll conditions. 29.493 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.493 Braked roll conditions. Under braked roll conditions with the shock absorbers in their static positions— (a) The limit...

  10. 49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., snowy, or icy roads. (2) Automatic devices. Automatic devices must not reduce the front-wheel braking force by more than 50 percent of the braking force available when the automatic device is disconnected... times be capable of operating. (b) Devices to reduce or remove front-wheel braking effort. A commercial...

  11. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30 percent...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404... Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. [Statutory Provisions] Each locomotive and haulage car used in an... permit automatic brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other...

  13. On the efficiency calibration of a drum waste assay system

    CERN Document Server

    Dinescu, L; Cazan, I L; Macrin, R; Caragheorgheopol, G; Rotarescu, G

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency calibration of a gamma spectroscopy waste assay system, constructed by IFIN-HH, was performed. The calibration technique was based on the assumption of a uniform distribution of the source activity in the drum and also a uniform sample matrix. A collimated detector (HPGe--20% relative efficiency) placed at 30 cm from the drum was used. The detection limit for sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co is approximately 45 Bq/kg for a sample of about 400 kg and a counting time of 10 min. A total measurement uncertainty of -70% to +40% was estimated.

  14. Model air-supported drum-type homopolar generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustom, R.L.; Fuja, R.E.; Wehrle, R.B.; Smith, R.P.; Kovarik, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A single cylinder, drum-type homopolar generator has been designed and built for the purpose of developing a simple air support system for thin cylinder rotors operated at high surface velocities and significant radial drum growth. The model has an aluminum cylinder which is 0.32 cm thick, 25 cm in diameter, and 12.7 cm long. It is designed to operate at a peak current of 2500 A and to store a total of 40 kJ with a surface velocity of 305 m/sec

  15. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  16. Case studies of corrosion of mixed waste and transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents three case studies of corrosion of waste drums at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Corrosion was not anticipated by the waste generators, but occurred because of subtle chemical or physical mechanisms. In one case, drums of a cemented transuranic (TRU) sludge experienced general and pitting corrosion. In the second instance, a chemical from a commercial paint stripper migrated from its primary containment drums to chemically attack overpack drums made of mild carbon steel. In the third case, drums of mixed low level waste (MLLW) soil corroded drum packaging even though the waste appeared to be dry when it was placed in the drums. These case studies are jointly discussed as ''lessons learned'' to enhance awareness of subtle mechanisms that can contribute to the corrosion of radioactive waste drums during interim storage

  17. Emergency Braking of a Mine Hoist in the Context of the Braking System Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Stanisław

    2017-03-01

    The paper addresses the selected aspects of the dynamic behaviour of mine hoists during the emergency braking phase. Basing on the model of the hoist and supported by theoretical backgrounds provided by the author (Wolny, 2016), analytical formulas are derived to determine the parameters of the braking system such that during an emergency braking it should guarantee that: - the maximal loading of the hoisting ropes should not exceed the rope breaking force, - deceleration of the conveyances being stopped should not exceed the admissible levels Results of the dynamic analysis of the mine hoist behaviour during an emergency braking phase summarised in this study can be utilised to support the design of conveyance and rope attachments by the fatigue endurance methods, with an aim to adapt it to the specified operational parameters of the hoisting installation (Eurokod 3).

  18. The design of aircraft brake systems, employing cooling to increase brake life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringe, R. P.; Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A research program was initiated to determine the feasibility of using cooling to increase brake life. An air cooling scheme was proposed, constructed and tested with various designs. Straight and curved slotting of the friction material was tested. A water cooling technique, similar to the air cooling procedure, was evaluated on a curved slotted rotor. Also investigated was the possibility of using a phase-change material within the rotor to absorb heat during braking. Various phase-changing materials were tabulated and a 50%, (by weight) LiF - BeF2 mixing was chosen. It was shown that corrosion was not a problem with this mixture. A preliminary design was evaluated on an actual brake. Results showed that significant improvements in lowering the surface temperature of the brake occurred when air or water cooling was used in conjunction with curved slotted rotors.

  19. RATIONALE FOR CENTERING CAPACITY OF REDISIGNED BELT CONVEYOR DRUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  20. Beryllium in aircraft brakes - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczak, S.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium has been in use in aircraft brakes for ten years. During the original design phases of the several aircraft programs using beryllium a number of problems requiring solution confronted the designers. In actual service the solution to these problems performed much better than had been anticipated. A summary is presented. (author)

  1. Wear determination in braking systems by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruch, W.

    1979-01-01

    Friction and wear behaviour of friction couples has been tested applying loads and sliding speeds. The determination was carried out by direct measurements of the lining material and by surface activation of the opposite material with protons. The application limits of several braking materials could be determined and compared

  2. Braking Control for Improving Ride Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jonghyup

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While many vehicle control systems focus on vehicle safety and vehicle performance at high speeds, most driving conditions are very low risk situations. In such a driving situation, the ride comfort of the vehicle is the most important performance index of the vehicle. Electro mechanical brake (EMB and other brake-by-wire (BBW systems have been actively researched. As a result, braking actuators in vehicles are more freely controllable, and research on improving ride comfort is also possible. In this study, we develop a control algorithm that dramatically improves ride comfort in low risk braking situations. A method for minimizing the inconvenience of a passenger due to a suddenly changing acceleration at the moment when the vehicle is stopped is presented. For this purpose, an acceleration trajectory is generated that minimizes the discomfort index defined by the change in acceleration, jerk. A controller is also designed to track this trajectory. The algorithm that updates the trajectory is designed considering the error due to the phase lag occurring in the controller and the plant. In order to verify the performance of this controller, simulation verification is completed using a car simulator, Carsim. As a result, it is confirmed that the ride comfort is dramatically improved.

  3. Calculations enable optimum design of magnetic brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmahl, H. G.

    1966-01-01

    Mathematical analysis and computations determine optimum magnetic coil configurations for a magnetic brake which controllably decelerates a free falling load to a soft stop. Calculations on unconventionally wound coils determine the required parameters for the desired deceleration with minimum electrical energy supplied to the stationary coil.

  4. 30 CFR 57.14101 - Brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which is not originally equipped with brakes unless the manner in which the equipment is being operated... evaluated according to Table M-1. Table M-1 Gross vehicle weight lbs. Equipment Speed, MPH 10 11 12 13 14 15... response time. Table M-2—The Speed of a Vehicle Can Be Determined by Clocking It Through a 100-Foot...

  5. Use of elastomers in regenerative braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The storage of potential energy as strain energy in elastomers was investigated. The evolution of the preferred stressing scheme is described, and test results on full-size elastomeric energy storage units sized for an automotive regenerative braking system application are presented. The need for elastomeric material improvements is also discussed.

  6. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to ...

  7. Generation of brake squeal. Fundamental vibration in brake system; Entstehungsmechanismus des Bremsenquietschens. Grundschwingung im Bremssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Xiaoming; Mitschke, M.

    1997-11-01

    Reducing or preventing brake squealing is a prime goal of brake development. To provide constructional means of doing this the mechanism by which it occurs must first be understood. Research at the Technical University of Braunschweig now offers a plausible explanation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verringerung oder Vermeidung des Bremsenquietschens ist ein wichtiges Ziel der Bremsenentwicklung. Um konstruktiv Abhilfe zu schaffen, muss zunaechst der Entstehungsmechanismus fuer dieses unerwuenschte Geraeusch geklaert werden. Forschung an der Technischen Universitaet Braunschweig ermoeglicht jetzt eine plausible Erklaerung. (orig.)

  8. Development of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) for Vehicles Braking

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Vu Trieu; Oamen Godwin; Vassiljeva Kristina; Teder Leo

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a real laboratory of anti-lock braking system (ABS) for vehicle and conducts real experiments to verify the ability of this ABS to prevent the vehicle wheel from being locked while braking. Two controllers of PID and fuzzy logic are tested for analysis and comparison. This ABS laboratory is designed for bachelor and master students to simulate and analyze performances of ABS with different control techniques on various roads and load conditions. Thi...

  9. Study on reduction method of brake squeal; Brake naki teigen shuho ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, T; Okada, Y [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The reduction of brake squeal is an important technological subject in terms of making vehicles quieter. In our research, we carried out a modal analysis from the caliper to the installation bracket during generating brake squeal to identify the places that influence the squeal. Based on this, we studied proposals to reduce the squeal, and have reduced the squeal noise at about 5 kHz as reported in this paper. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  10. The Extraordinary Nature of Barney's Drumming : A Complementary Study of Ordinary Noise Making in Chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, Valérie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gayet, Pierre; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    In a previous study (Dufour et al., 2015) we reported the unusual characteristics of the drumming performance of a chimpanzee named Barney. His sound production, several sequences of repeated drumming on an up-turned plastic barrel, shared features typical for human musical drumming: it was

  11. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, C.F., [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R., [Hughes Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  12. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable head...

  13. Parametric Optimization Design of Brake Block Based on Reverse Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hua-wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the key part of automotive brake,the performance of brake block has a direct impact on the safety and comfort of cars. Modeling the brake block of disc brake in reverse parameterization by reverse engineering software, analyzing and optimizing the reconstructed model by CAE software. Processing the scanned point cloud by Geomagic Studio and reconstructing the CAD model of the brake block with the parametric surface function of the software, then analyzing and optimizing it by Wrokbench. The example shows that it is quick to reconstruct the CAD model of parts by using reverse parameterization method and reduce part re-design development cycle significantly.

  14. Influences of braking system faults on the vehicle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straky, H.; Kochem, M.; Schmitt, J.; Hild, R.; Isermann, R. [Technische Univ., Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. of Automatic Control

    2001-07-01

    From a safety point of view the braking system is, besides the driver, one of the key subsystems in a car. The driver, as an adaptive control system, might not notice small faults in the hydraulic part of the braking system and sooner or later critical braking situations, e.g. due to a brake-circuit failure, may occur. Most of the drivers are not capable to deal with such critical situations. Therefore this paper investigates the influence of faults in the braking system on the dynamic vehicle behavior and the steering inputs of the driver to keep the vehicle on the desired course. (orig.)

  15. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  17. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Convective heat transfer analysis in aggregates rotary drum reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, Laurédan; Huchet, Florian; Dumoulin, Jean; Baudru, Yvan; Tamagny, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Heat transport characterisation inside rotary drum dryer has a considerable importance linked to many industrial applications. The present paper deals with the heat transfer analysis from experimental apparatus installed in a large-scale rotary drum reactor applied to the asphalt materials production. The equipment including in-situ thermal probes and external visualization by mean of infrared thermography gives rise to the longitudinal evaluation of inner and external temperatures. The assessment of the heat transfer coefficients by an inverse methodology is resolved in order to accomplish a fin analysis of the convective mechanism inside baffled (or flights) rotary drum. The results are discussed and compared with major results of the literature. -- Highlights: ► A thermal and flow experimentation is performed on a large-scale rotary drum. ► Four working points is chosen in the frame of asphalt materials production. ► Evaluation of the convective transfer mechanisms is calculated by inverse method. ► The drying stage is performed in the combustion area. ► Wall/aggregates heat exchanges have a major contribution in the heating stage

  19. Middle School Drum Ensemble: An Unlikely Experience in Classroom Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, James

    2013-01-01

    Though music has a long and successful history within education, it is often one of the first sacrificial lambs when school budgets tighten. Over the course of an academic year, a documentary film sought to tell the story of an American middle school drum ensemble. The context of this group provided an ideal way to examine the nature of student…

  20. Experimental study of liquid carryover in a separator drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhudharwadkar, Deoras M.; More, Rahul Z.; Iyer, Kannan N.

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of carryover, i.e. entrainment of liquid along with separated steam is observed in all the steam separators. Due to the risks, such as turbine blade erosion and radioactivity leakage, associated with it, it is desired to have an estimate of the carryover value. This is all the more important when the separation is only under the influence of gravity as proposed in some of the new generation natural circulation reactors. Experiments were carried out in an air-water facility at atmospheric conditions to characterize the entrainment in drums with ratio of the drum diameter to riser diameter varying from 1 to 6. Various parameters influencing the liquid entrainment were identified. The vapour superficial velocity and the drum diameter to riser diameter ratio were found to be the most influencing parameters. A dimensionless prediction correlation was evolved for the liquid entrainment and it was found to agree with previous works in the literature for drum to riser diameter ratio equal to 1.

  1. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  2. MCNP Modeling Results for Location of Buried TRU Waste Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, D K; Schweitzer, J S

    2006-01-01

    In the 1960's, fifty-five gallon drums of TRU waste were buried in shallow pits on remote U.S. Government facilities such as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (now split into the Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Completion Project [ICP]). Subsequently, it was decided to remove the drums and the material that was in them from the burial pits and send the material to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Several technologies have been tried to locate the drums non-intrusively with enough precision to minimize the chance for material to be spread into the environment. One of these technologies is the placement of steel probe holes in the pits into which wireline logging probes can be lowered to measure properties and concentrations of material surrounding the probe holes for evidence of TRU material. There is also a concern that large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are also present that would contaminate the environment during removal. In 2001, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) built two pulsed neutron wireline logging tools to measure TRU and VOC around the probe holes. The tools are the Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) and the Pulsed Neutron Gamma (PNG), respectively. They were tested experimentally in surrogate test holes in 2003. The work reported here estimates the performance of the tools using Monte-Carlo modelling prior to field deployment. A MCNP model was constructed by INEEL personnel. It was modified by the authors to assess the ability of the tools to predict quantitatively the position and concentration of TRU and VOC materials disposed around the probe holes. The model was used to simulate the tools scanning the probe holes vertically in five centimetre increments. A drum was included in the model that could be placed near the probe hole and at other locations out to forty-five centimetres from the probe-hole in five centimetre increments. Scans were performed with no chlorine in the

  3. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55-GALLON DRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG and G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air)

  4. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  5. Calculation of calibration factors and layout criteria for gamma scanning of waste drums from nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inder Schmitten, W.; Sohnius, B.; Wehner, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper present a procedure to calculate calibration factors for converting the measured gamma rate of waste drums into activity content and a layout and free release measurement criterion for waste drums. A computer program is developed that simulates drum scanning technique, which calculates calibration factors and eliminates laborious experimental measurements. The calculated calibration factors exhibit good agreement with experimentally determined values. By checking the calculated calibration factors for trial equipment layouts (including the waste drum and the scanning facility) using the layout and free release measurement criterion, a layout can be achieved that clearly determines whether there can be free release of a waste drum

  6. Mathematical Modeling of the Braking System of Wheeled Mainline Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The braking system of the landing gear wheels of a mainline aircraft has to meet mandatory requirements laid out in the Aviation Regulations AP-25 (Para 25.735. «Brakes and brake systems". These requirements are essential when creating the landing gear wheel brake control system (WBCS and are used as main initial data in its mathematical modeling. The WBCS is one of the most important systems to ensure the safe completion of the flight. It is a complex of devices, i.e. units (hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical, connected through piping, wiring, mechanical constraints. This complex should allow optimizing the braking process when a large number of parameters change. The most important of them are the following: runway friction coefficient (RFC, lifting force, weight and of the aircraft, etc. The main structural elements involved in braking the aircraft are: aircraft wheels with pneumatics (air tires and brake discs, WBCS, and cooling system of gear wheels when braking.To consider the aircraft deceleration on the landing run is of essence at the stage of design, development, and improvement of brakes and braking systems. Based on analysis of equation of the aircraft motion and energy balance can be determined energy loading and its basic design parameters, braking distances and braking time.As practice and analysis of energy loading show, they (brake + wheel absorb the aircraftpossessed kinetic energy at the start of braking as much as 60-70%, 70-80%, and 80-90%, respectively, under normal increased, and emergency operating conditions. The paper presents a procedure for the rapid calculation of energy loading of the brake wheel.Currently, the mainline aircrafts use mainly electrohydraulic brake systems in which there are the main, backup, and emergency-parking brake systems. All channels are equipped with automatic anti-skid systems. Their presence in the emergency (the third reserve channel significantly improves the reliability and safety of

  7. Modeling and design of cooperative braking in electric and hybrid vehicles using induction machine and hydraulic brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In mixed-mode braking applications, the electric motor / generator (M/G and hydraulic pressure valve are controlled to meet the driver’s braking demand. Controlling these braking elements is achieved by modulating the current generated by the M/G and adjusting the fluid pressure to the wheel brake cylinders. This paper aims to model and design combined regenerative and hydraulic braking systems which, comprise an induction electric machine, inverter, NiMH battery, controller, a pressure source, pressure control unit, and brake calipers. A 15 kW 1500 rpm induction machine equipped with a reduction gear having a gear ratio of 4 is used. A hydraulic brake capable to produce fluid pressure up to 40 bar is used. Direct torque control and pressure control are chosen as the control criteria in the M/G and the hydraulic solenoid valve. The braking demands for the system are derived from the Federal Testing Procedure (FTP drive cycle. Two simulation models have been developed in Matlab®/Simulink® to analyze the performance of the control strategy in each braking system. The developed model is validated through experiment. It is concluded that the control system does introduce torque ripple and pressure oscillation in the braking system, but these effects do not affect vehicle braking performance due to the high frequency nature of pressure fluctuation and the damping effect of the vehicle inertia. Moreover, experiment results prove the effectiveness of the developed model.

  8. Quantification of brake data acquired with a brake power meter during simulated cross-country mountain bike racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew C; Fink, Philip W; Macdermid, Paul W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2018-01-17

    There is currently a dearth of information describing cycling performance outside of propulsive and physiological variables. The aim of the present study was to utilise a brake power meter to quantify braking during a multi-lap cross-country mountain bike time trial and to determine how braking affects performance. A significant negative association was determined between lap time and brake power (800.8 ± 216.4 W, mean ± SD; r = -0.446; p  0.05) which was attributed to decreased brake work (p < 0.05) and brake time (p < 0.05) in both the front and rear brakes by the final lap. A multiple regression model incorporating braking and propulsion was able to explain more of the variance in lap time (r 2  = 0.935) than propulsion alone (r 2  = 0.826). The present study highlights that riders' braking contributes to mountain bike performance. As riders repeat a cross-country mountain bike track, they are able to change braking, which in turn can counterbalance a reduction in power output. Further research is required to understand braking better.

  9. EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF ROAD RESEARCH OF LANOS CAR, EQUIPPED WITH AN ADVANCED HYDRAULIC BRAKE DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nazarov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of road emergency braking of the car, the brake system equipped with an improved hydraulic brake actuator according to the patent number 76189 Ukraine are analyzed. This drive provides more efficient emergency braking of cars under operating conditions by of installing in each of the contours of the rear brakes one brake-power, each of which provides distribution of braking forces between the wheels of the corresponding side.

  10. Effects of tempo, swing density, and listener's drumming experience, on swing detection thresholds for drum rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, Andrew V; Shams, Ladan

    2017-06-01

    Swing, a popular technique in music performance, has been said to enhance the "groove" of the rhythm. Swing works by delaying the onsets of even-numbered subdivisions of each beat (e.g., 16th-note swing delays the onsets of the second and fourth 16th-note subdivisions of each quarter-note beat). The "swing magnitude" (loosely speaking, the amount of delay) is often quite small. And there has been little investigation, using musical stimuli, into what swing magnitudes listeners can detect. To that end, this study presented continually-looped electronic drum rhythms, with 16th-note swing in the hi-hat on every other bar, to drummers and non-drummers. Swing magnitude was adjusted using a staircase procedure, to determine the magnitude where the difference between swinging and not-swinging bars was just-noticeable. Different tempi (60 to 140 quarter-notes per minute) and swing densities (how often notes occurred at even-numbered subdivisions) were used. Results showed that all subjects could detect smaller swing magnitudes when swing density was higher, thus confirming a previous speculation that the perceptual salience of swing increases with swing density. The just-noticeable magnitudes of swing for drummers differed from those of non-drummers, in terms of both overall magnitude and sensitivity to tempo, thus prompting questions for further exploration.

  11. Fatigue behaviour of coke drum materials under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes damage in coke drums in the form of bulging and cracking. There were some studies on the fatigue life estimation for the coke drums, but most of them were based on strain-fatigue life curves at constant temperatures, which do not consider simultaneous cyclic temperature and mechanical loading conditions. In this study, a fatigue testing system is successfully developed to allow performing thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF test similar to the coke drum loading condition. Two commonly used base and one clad materials of coke drums are then experimentally investigated. In addition, a comparative study between isothermal and TMF lives of these materials is conducted. The experimental findings lead to better understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring in coke drums and more accurate prediction of fatigue life of coke drum materials.

  12. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from experiencing wheel lock and slip phenomena during braking. Then, a fuzzy RBS using the driver’s braking force command, vehicle speed, battery SOC, battery temperature are designed to determine the distribution between friction braking force and regenerative braking force to improve the energy recuperation efficiency. The experimental results on an “LF620” prototype EV validated the feasibility and effectiveness of regenerative braking and showed that the proposed fuzzy RBS was endowed with good control performance. The maximum driving range of LF620 EV was improved by 25.7% compared with non-RBS conditions.

  13. Friction and Braking Application of Unhazardous Palm Slag Brake Pad Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoni, Norizzahthul Ainaa Abdul; Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2018-03-01

    This paper reveals new alternative friction materials for brake pads. Palm slag was studied as new friction materials in brake pads but its much harder made it difficult to be applied. As a way to reduce the hardness, tire dust was including as purpose on stabilizing the hardness of brake pads. The palm slag was sieves to get desired size that is 150 μm, 300 μm and 600 μm. The percentage weight of materials used are 20% graphite, 20% aluminium oxide, 20% steel fiber, 20% polyester resin and another 40% are varied between tire dust and palm slag. All of materials were blend and compress by using hot pressed machine. The composites properties that were examined are density, porosity, hardness, compressive strength, microstructure analysis and wear rate. The composition of 30% palm slag, 10% tire dust and larger size of filler give better result of mechanical properties and less wear rate of brake pads composites. Then, palm slag can be used in producing of non asbestos brake pads.

  14. On the interpretation of pulsar braking indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Romani, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Timing observations of the Crab pulsar rotation frequency of sufficient accuracy and duration to allow a 10 per cent estimate of the third frequency derivative have been reported (Lyne et al. 1988. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 233, 667). This measurement is consistent with both non-dipolar electromagnetic models and a secular change in the dipole moment. A more accurate determination may discriminate between these two possibilities. Measurements of braking indices in other young pulsars may reveal similar variations. (author)

  15. Discussion on stochastic braking for a single-rail rope-driven lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This paper discusses the braking and control of a A-2/73 clip type friction brake system made in FRG - a clamp type brake system made in USSR and an eccentric wheel type brake system made in Poland. Then it analyses a ZGZ auto increasing force type braking system of a single-rail rope driven lifter. The braking principle of the ZGZ system is that the braking blocks insert along the brake base and contact with the ribs of the single-rail. Then the braking would be realized as a function of increasing frictional force.

  16. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air...

  17. Elastoplastic finite element analysis for wet multidisc brake during lasting braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhanling

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressed to serious heat degradation problem of the braking continuously performed in the drag brake application for a long time, finite element analysis for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling is adopted to investigate temperature and stress when material properties are temperature-dependent. Based on the constitutive relations of heat transfer and strain-stress, three-dimensional transient finite element equilibrium equations with many kinds of boundary conditions for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling were derived. And it was originally presented that start time, location, severity and evolution laws of plastic deformation were depicted using dimensionless stress distribution contour with the yield limit related to temperature. The change laws of plastic element number and contact area versus braking time were expressed by plasticity ratio and contact ratio curves, respectively. The laws revealed by the numerical calculation results are in accordance with the objective perception and reasoning.

  18. Practical Use of the Braking Attributes Measurements Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondruš Ján

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with issues of braking the passenger car. The measurement of braking deceleration of the vehicle Kia Cee´d 1,6 16 V was carried out by an optical device Correvit system. The measurement was carried out on the airport of the village of Rosina located close to Zilina. 10 drivers of different age, praxis, and kilometers driven participated in the measurement. The measured process was the vehicle full braking with the service brake of the initial speed of approximately 50 km.h-1. Each of the drivers had 10 attempts. In the closure of this contribution the results of the performed measurements, their evaluation and comparison are presented. Practical result from the contribution is mainly the measurement set of braking deceleration of the respective vehicle during intensive braking.

  19. In-depth analysis of bicycle hydraulic disc brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Oliver; Györfi, Benedikt; Wrede, Jürgen; Arnold, Timo; Moia, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    Hydraulic Disc Brakes (HDBs) represent the most recent and innovative bicycle braking system. Especially Electric Bicycles (EBs), which are becoming more and more popular, are equipped with this powerful, unaffected by environmental influences, and low-wear type of brakes. As a consequence of the high braking performance, typical bicycle braking errors lead to more serious accidents. This is the starting point for the development of a Braking Dynamics Assistance system (BDA) to prevent front wheel lockup and nose-over (falling over the handlebars). One of the essential prerequisites for the system design is a better understanding of bicycle HDBs' characteristics. A physical simulation model and a test bench have been built for this purpose. The results of the virtual and real experiments conducted show a high correlation and allow valuable insights into HDBs on bicycles, which have not been studied scientifically in any depth so far.

  20. Design of temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; He, Rongjun

    2018-03-01

    For difficult wiring and big measuring error existed in the traditional temperature detection method for drum of belt conveyor, a temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor based on Radio Frequency(RF) communication is designed. In the device, detection terminal can collect temperature data through tire pressure sensor chip SP370 which integrates temperature detection and RF emission. The receiving terminal which is composed of RF receiver chip and microcontroller receives the temperature data and sends it to Controller Area Network(CAN) bus. The test results show that the device meets requirements of field application with measuring error ±3.73 ° and single button battery can provide continuous current for the detection terminal over 1.5 years.

  1. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  2. Material Selection for a Manual Winch Rope Drum

    OpenAIRE

    Moses F. Oduori; Enoch K. Musyoka; Thomas O. Mbuya

    2016-01-01

    The selection of materials is an essential task in mechanical design processes. This paper sets out to demonstrate the application of analytical decision making during mechanical design and, particularly, in selecting a suitable material for a given application. Equations for the mechanical design of a manual winch rope drum are used to derive quantitative material performance indicators, which are then used in a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) model to rank the candidate materials....

  3. Assessment of DOD Wounded Warrior Matters -- Fort Drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    their relation to military duties. The six factors that are evaluated are: physical capacity or stamina , upper extremities, lower extremities...Health Net Federal Services contractor. The Fort Drum MEDDAC Referral Management Office created a “Reports Cell ” which was responsible for obtaining...Care Division had created a CLR/Reports Cell group that focused specifically on obtaining CLRs, inputting them into patients’ AHLTA records and

  4. The Friction of Vehicle Brake Tandem Master Cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, M J; Chang, H; Tsung, T T; Lin, H M

    2006-01-01

    The behaviour of an elastomeric seal for vehicle brake Tandem master cylinder is measured and analyzed in temperature and brake fluids changed. Working conditions are simulated for different piston rod velocity and cylinder supply pressure, in temperature rising, brakefluid boundary and Nanoaluminum oxide brakefluid oxide brakefluid lubrication. The result shows that Nanoaluminum oxide brakefluid with its ball shape can highly reduce friction coefficient to avoid seal excessive wear and reduce slick slip in brake applications

  5. Development of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) for Vehicles Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Vu Trieu; Oamen, Godwin; Vassiljeva, Kristina; Teder, Leo

    2016-11-01

    This paper develops a real laboratory of anti-lock braking system (ABS) for vehicle and conducts real experiments to verify the ability of this ABS to prevent the vehicle wheel from being locked while braking. Two controllers of PID and fuzzy logic are tested for analysis and comparison. This ABS laboratory is designed for bachelor and master students to simulate and analyze performances of ABS with different control techniques on various roads and load conditions. This paper provides educational theories and practices on the design of control for system dynamics.

  6. Kinematics and Path Following Control of an Articulated Drum Roller

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIAN, Yongming; YANG, Meng; FANG, Xiaojun; WANG, Xiahui

    2017-07-01

    Automatic navigation of an articulated drum roller, which is an articulated steering type vehicle widely used in the construction industry, is highly expected for operation cost reduction and improvement of work efficiency. In order to achieve the path following control, considering that its steering system is articulated steering and two frames are articulated by an active revolute joint, a kinematic model and an error dynamic state-space equation of an articulated drum roller are proposed. Besides, a state-feedback control law based on Lyapunov stability theory is also designed, which can be proved to achieve the purpose of control by the analysis of stability. What's more, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, simulation under the MATLAB/Simulink and experiments using positioning algorithm and errors correction at the uneven construction site are performed, with initial displacement error (-1.5 m), heading error (-0.11 rad) and steering angle (-0.19 rad). Finally, simulation and experimental results show that the errors and steering angle can decrease gradually, and converge to zero with time. Meanwhile, the control input is not saturated. An articulated drum roller can lock into a desired path with the proposed method in uneven fields.

  7. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Gilliam, T.M.; Harrington, E.S.; Youngblood, E.L.; Baer, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Equipment for capping drums, especially with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarik, F.

    1987-01-01

    The equipment consists of a pneumatic cylinder, lever systems with jaws, guide bars, and of securing pins. The top cylinder lid and the bottom cylinder lid provided with openings are slidably attached to a shaft firmly connected to a piston and a support plate. Firmly attached to the bottom lid using brackets are pins holding connecting rods controlling the double-arm levers pivoted on pins, featuring jaws pivoted on forks firmly attached to the support plate and provided with a replaceable spacer insert. The guide bars are firmly attached to the support plate via braces and stiffeners. The securing pins are loaded with springs seated in the braces. The benefits of the equipment include that the lid closing levers with jaws, mechanically controlled using one pneumatic cylinder, thanks to their number and configuration, close the lid around the drum border provided with small recesses which do not reach above the circumference of the drum being closed. The equipment can also be used for carrying closed drums, this also during compressed air failures because the levers with jaws are secured in position with the pneumatic cylinder leg. (J.B.). 1 fig

  9. Monte Carlo method to characterize radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Josenilson B.; Dellamano, Jose C.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive methods for radioactive waste drums characterization have being developed in the Waste Management Department (GRR) at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN. This study was conducted as part of the radioactive wastes characterization program in order to meet specifications and acceptance criteria for final disposal imposed by regulatory control by gamma spectrometry. One of the main difficulties in the detectors calibration process is to obtain the counting efficiencies that can be solved by the use of mathematical techniques. The aim of this work was to develop a methodology to characterize drums using gamma spectrometry and Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo is a widely used mathematical technique, which simulates the radiation transport in the medium, thus obtaining the efficiencies calibration of the detector. The equipment used in this work is a heavily shielded Hyperpure Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with an electronic setup composed of high voltage source, amplifier and multiport multichannel analyzer and MCNP software for Monte Carlo simulation. The developing of this methodology will allow the characterization of solid radioactive wastes packed in drums and stored at GRR. (author)

  10. Transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Siyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating drums are widely used in industry for mixing, milling, coating and drying processes. In the past decades, mixing of granular materials in rotating drums has been extensively investigated, but most of the studies are based on spherical particles. Particle shape has an influence on the flow behaviour and thus mixing behaviour, though the shape effect has as-yet received limited study. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is employed to study the transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum. The effects of aspect ratio and rotating speed on mixing quality and mixing rate are investigated. The results show that mixing index increases exponentially with time for both spheres and ellipsoids. Particles with various aspect ratios are able to reach well-mixed states after sufficient revolutions in the rolling or cascading regime. Ellipsoids show higher mixing rate when rotational speed is set between 25 and 40 rpm. The relationship between mixing rate and aspect ratio of ellipsoids is established, demonstrating that, particles with aspect ratios of 0.5 and 2.0 achieve the highest mixing rates. Increasing rotating speed from 15 rpm to 40 rpm does not necessarily increase the mixing speed of spheres, while monotonous increase is observed for ellipsoids.

  11. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  12. Evaluation of materials and design modifications for aircraft brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, T. L.; Kennedy, F. E.; Peterson, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A test program is described which was carried out to evaluate several proposed design modifications and several high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. The evaluation program was carried out on a specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small het aircraft. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity, and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variable velocity conditions and covered a kinetic energy range similar to that encountered in aircraft brake service. The results of the design evaluation program showed that some improvement in brake performance can be realized by making design changes in the components of the brake containing friction material. The materials evaluation showed that two friction materials show potential for use in aircraft disk brakes. One of the materials is a nickel-based sintered composite, while the other is a molybdenum-based material. Both materials show much lower wear rates than conventional copper-based materials and are better able to withstand the high temperatures encountered during braking. Additional materials improvement is necessary since both materials show a significant negative slope of the friction-velocity curve at low velocities.

  13. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  14. Optimal design of a novel configuration of MR brake with coils placed on the side housings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Nguyen, Ngoc Diep; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that in design of traditional magneto-rheological brake (MRB), coils are placed on the cylindrical housing of the brake. In this study, a new configuration of MR brake with coils placed on the side housings of the brake is proposed and analyzed. After briefly explaining the operating principle of the proposed configuration, the braking torque of the MR brake is analyze based on Bingham-plastic rheological model of MR fluid. The optimization of the proposed and conventional MR brakes is then performed considering maximum braking torque and mass of the brake. Based on the optimal results, a comparison between the proposed MR brakes and the conventional ones is undertaken. In addition, experimental test of the MR brakes is conducted and the results are presented in order to validate the performance characteristics of the proposed MR brake.

  15. A verification calculation of drum and pulley overhead travelling crane on gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Ari Satmoko; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    It has been verified the calculation of drum and pulleys on cranes as facility the gamma irradiator ISG-500. Drum is a device for rolling steel ropes while the pulley is a circular pieces called disks, and both of which are made from metal or non-metal to transmit motion and force. It has been verified the calculation of forces on the drum, drum diameter and length, and pressuring force occurred on the drums. Likewise to the pulley, the pulley diameter calculations verification, size of disc and shaft power pulleys. From the verification results, it will be obtained whether the data drums and pulley device are safe or not safe to be used. (author)

  16. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described

  17. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6' diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently

  18. Variable friction device for structural control based on duo-servo vehicle brake: Modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Taylor, Douglas; Ricles, James

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental damping can be used as a cost-effective method to reduce structural vibrations. In particular, passive systems are now widely accepted and have numerous applications in the field. However, they are typically tuned to specific excitations and their performances are bandwidth-limited. A solution is to use semi-active devices, which have shown to be capable of substantially enhanced mitigation performance. The authors have recently proposed a new type of semi-active device, which consists of a variable friction mechanism based on a vehicle duo-servo drum brake, a mechanically robust and reliable technology. The theoretical performance of the proposed device has been previously demonstrated via numerical simulations. In this paper, we further the understanding of the device, termed Modified Friction Device (MFD) by fabricating a small scale prototype and characterizing its dynamic behavior. While the dynamics of friction is well understood for automotive braking technology, we investigate for the first time the dynamic behavior of this friction mechanism at low displacements and velocities, in both forward and backward directions, under various hydraulic pressures. A modified 3-stage dynamic model is introduced. A LuGre friction model is used to characterize the friction zone (Stage 1), and two pure stiffness regions to characterize the dynamics of the MFD once the rotation is reversed and the braking shoes are sticking to the drum (Stage 2) and the rapid build up of forces once the shoes are held by the anchor pin (Stage 3). The proposed model is identified experimentally by subjecting the prototype to harmonic excitations. It is found that the proposed model can be used to characterize the dynamics of the MFD, and that the largest fitting error arises at low velocity under low pressure input. The model is then verified by subjecting the MFD to two different earthquake excitations under different pressure inputs. The model is capable of tracking the

  19. Safety valve including a hydraulic brake and hydraulic brake that could be fitted into a valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabat-Courrede, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    Making of a safety valve that can be fitted to a containment vessel filled with a non compressible fluid, such as the water system of a nuclear power station. It includes a hydraulic brake located between the valve and the elastic means, close to the valve which completely suppresses the high frequency oscillations of the equipment [fr

  20. Research on Modeling and Control of Regenerative Braking for Brushless DC Machines Driven Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-ping Wen; Chuan-wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV) using brushless DC machine (BLDCM), the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO) to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, ...

  1. Characterization of voic volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-12-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  2. Pentiptycene-derived light-driven molecular brakes: substituent effects of the brake component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Ting; Huang, Yau-Ting; Huang, Guan-Jhih; Lu, Hsiu-Feng; Chao, Ito; Huang, Shou-Ling; Huang, Shing-Jong; Lin, Ying-Chih; Ho, Jinn-Hsuan; Yang, Jye-Shane

    2010-10-11

    Five pentiptycene-derived stilbene systems (1 R; R = H, OM, NO, Pr, and Bu) have been prepared and investigated as light-driven molecular brakes that have different-sized brake components (1 Hbrake component in the trans form ((E)-1 R), which corresponds to the brake-off state. When the brake is turned on by photoisomerization to the cis form ((Z)-1 R), the pentiptycene rotation can be arrested on the NMR spectroscopic timescale at temperatures that depend on the brake component. In the cases of (Z)-1 NO, (Z)-1 Pr, and (Z)-1 Bu, the rotation is nearly blocked (k(rot)=2-6 s(-1)) at 298 K. It is also demonstrated that the rotation is slower in [D(6)]DMSO than in CD(2)Cl(2). A linear relationship between the free energies of the rotational barrier and the steric parameter A values is present only for (Z)-1 H, (Z)-1 OM, and (Z)-1 NO, and it levels off on going from (Z)-1 NO to (Z)-1 Pr and (Z)-1 Bu. DFT calculations provide insights into the substituent effects in the rotational ground and transition states. The molar reversibility of the E-Z photoswitching is up to 46%, and both the E and Z isomers are stable under the irradiation conditions. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. New Structure Design and Simulation of Brake by Wire System Based on Giant-magnetostrictive Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbao CHU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing electronic mechanical brake by wire system has several disadvantages. For instance, system actuators are complex, response speed slower, larger vibration noise, etc. This paper discusses a new type brake by wire system based on giant-magnetostrictive material. The new type brake by wire system model was set up under Matlab/Simulink software environment. PID control method was used to control the brake by wire system. Simulation results shows that the new type brake by wire system achieves better braking performance compared with hydraulic braking system. This work provides a new idea for researching automobile brake by wire system.

  4. Design and development of a connection of a magnetic drum with two computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malriq, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    In the experiment in High Energy Physics 'Hyperons SPS' realized at the CERN 300 GeV the connection between a drum and two computers is studied. One of the two computers is a NORD-10 the other may be anyone if it has a CAMAC interface. The input/output structure of the NORD-10 has been studied, then the interface NORD-drum and the CAMAC-drum interface have been realized. The electronic commutation allowing each computer to be connected on the drum through its specific interface has been built [fr

  5. A model of gas generation and transport within TRU [transuranic] waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.G. III.

    1987-01-01

    Gas generation from the radiolytic decomposition of organic material contaminated with plutonium is modeled. Concentrations of gas throughout the waste drum are determined using a diffusional transport model. The model accurately reproduces experimentally measured gas concentrations. With polyethylene waste in unvented drums, the model predicts that hydrogen gas can accumulate to concentrations greater than 4 mole percent (lower flammable limit) with about 5 Ci of plutonium. Polyethylene provides a worst case for combustible waste material. If the drum liner is punctured and a carbon composite filter vent is installed in the drum lid, the plutonium loading can be increased to 240 Ci without generating flammable gas mixtures. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Braking system for use with an arbor of a microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgren, D.U.

    1984-01-01

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling device causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location

  7. Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications. (paper)

  8. The antilock braking system anomaly: a drinking driver problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harless, David W; Hoffer, George E

    2002-05-01

    Antilock braking systems (ABS) have held promise for reducing the incidence of accidents because they reduce stopping times on slippery surfaces and allow drivers to maintain steering control during emergency braking. Farmer et al. (Accident Anal. Prevent. 29 (1997) 745) provide evidence that antilock brakes are beneficial to nonoccupants: a set of 1992 model General Motors vehicles equipped with antilock brakes were involved in significantly fewer fatal crashes in which occupants of other vehicles, pedestrians, or bicyclists were killed. But, perversely, the risk of death for occupants of vehicles equipped with antilock brakes increased significantly after adoption. Farmer (Accident Anal. Prevent. 33 (2001) 361) updates the analysis for 1996- 1998 and finds a significant attenuation in the ABS anomaly. Researchers have put forward two hypotheses to explain this antilock brake anomaly: risk compensation and improper operation of antilock brake-equipped vehicles. We provide strong evidence for the improper operation hypothesis by showing that the antilock brake anomaly is confined largely to drinking drivers. Further, we show that the attenuation phenomenon occurs consistently after the first three to four years of vehicle service.

  9. Braking system for use with an arbor of a microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, Duane U.

    1984-01-01

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling device causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  10. Modified hydraulic braking system limits angular deceleration to safe values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, R. S.; Council, M.; Green, P. M.

    1966-01-01

    Conventional spring actuated, hydraulically released, fail-safe disk braking system is modified to control the angular deceleration of a massive antenna. The hydraulic system provides an immediate preset pressure to the spring-loaded brake shoes and holds it at this value to decelerate the antenna at the desired rate.

  11. Compressed gas system operates semitrailer brakes during winching operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, W. E.

    1964-01-01

    To move van-type semi-trailers into and out of confined spaces, an auxiliary braking system is mounted on a standard dolly converter. Compressed nitrogen is used to actuate the brakes which are used in conjunction with a power winch.

  12. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  13. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of

  14. 16 CFR 1512.5 - Requirements for braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for braking system. 1512.5 Section 1512.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... dimension between the brake hand lever and the handlebars in the plane containing the centerlines of the...

  15. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....315(a)(1); (3) When previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake test within the... hours) are added to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from the train; and (5) When an... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a pneumatic...

  16. Metal-bending brake facilitates lightweight, close-tolerance fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoline, A. L.; Wilton, K. B.

    1964-01-01

    A lightweight, metal bending brake ensures very accurate bends. Features of the brake that adapt it for making complex reverse bends to close tolerances are a pronounced relief or cutaway of the underside of the bodyplate combined with modification in the leaf design and its suspension.

  17. 14 CFR 25.493 - Braked roll conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Braked roll conditions. 25.493 Section 25.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.493 Braked roll conditions. (a...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19006 - Automatic hoist braking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic hoist braking devices. 57.19006 Section 57.19006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19006 Automatic hoist braking devices. Automatic hoists shall be provided with devices...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19006 - Automatic hoist braking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic hoist braking devices. 56.19006 Section 56.19006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoists § 56.19006 Automatic hoist braking devices. Automatic hoists shall be provided with devices...

  20. IR-camera methods for automotive brake system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Lee, Kwangjin

    1998-03-01

    Automotive brake systems are energy conversion devices that convert kinetic energy into heat energy. Several mechanisms, mostly related to noise and vibration problems, can occur during brake operation and are often related to non-uniform temperature distribution on the brake disk. These problems are of significant cost to the industry and are a quality concern to automotive companies and brake system vendors. One such problem is thermo-elastic instabilities in brake system. During the occurrence of these instabilities several localized hot spots will form around the circumferential direction of the brake disk. The temperature distribution and the time dependence of these hot spots, a critical factor in analyzing this problem and in developing a fundamental understanding of this phenomenon, were recorded. Other modes of non-uniform temperature distributions which include hot banding and extreme localized heating were also observed. All of these modes of non-uniform temperature distributions were observed on automotive brake systems using a high speed IR camera operating in snap-shot mode. The camera was synchronized with the rotation of the brake disk so that the time evolution of hot regions could be studied. This paper discusses the experimental approach in detail.

  1. Investigations with respect to pressure build-up in 200 l drums with supercompacted low level waste (LLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroth, K.; Lammertz, H.

    1988-04-01

    In the drum storage facilities of various nuclear power stations, ballooning effects have recently been observed on a limited number of 200 l drums filled with hypercompacted mixed LLW. The ballooning of the drums lid and bottom is due to internal overpressure caused by gas formation in the waste. The internal drum pressures and the composition of the drum gases were measured on a considerable number of 200 l drums. Hydrogen, formed by chemical reactions between the waste components, was identified as the pressure generating gas. The reasons for the hydrogen formation were investigated on both real and simulated wastes. (orig.) [de

  2. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  3. Low-Level Waste Drum Assay Intercomparison Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greutzmacher, K.; Kuzminski, J.; Myers, S. C.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear waste assay is an integral element of programs such as safeguards, waste management, and waste disposal. The majority of nuclear waste is packaged in drums and analyzed by various nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to identify and quantify the radioactive content. Due to various regulations and the public interest in nuclear issues, the analytical results are required to be of high quality and supported by a rigorous Quality Assurance (QA) program. A valuable QA tool is an intercomparison program in which a known sample is analyzed by a number of different facilities. While transuranic waste (TRU) certified NDA teams are evaluated through the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP), low-level waste (LLW) assay specialists have not been afforded a similar opportunity. NDA specialists from throughout the DOE complex were invited to participate in this voluntary drum assay intercomparison study that was organized and facilitated by the Solid Waste Operations and the Safeguards Science and Technology groups at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and by Eberline Services. Each participating NDA team performed six replicate blind measurements of two 55-gallon drums with relatively low-density matrices (a 19.1 kg shredded paper matrix and a 54.4 kg mixed metal, rubber, paper and plastic matrix). This paper presents the results from this study, with an emphasis on discussing the lessons learned as well as desirable follow up programs for the future. The results will discuss the accuracy and precision of the replicate measurements for each NDA team as well as any issues that arose during the effort

  4. Radial brake assembly for a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekmati, A.; Gibo, E.Y.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a brake assembly for a control rod drive for selectively preventing travel of a control rod in a nuclear reactor vessel. It comprises a shaft having a longitudinal centerline axis; means for selectively rotating the shaft in a first direction and in a second direction, opposite to the first direction; a stationary housing having a central aperture receiving the shaft; a frame fixedly joined to the housing and having a guide hole; a rotor disc fixedly connected to the shaft for rotation therewith and having at least one rotor tooth extending radially outwardly from a perimeter thereof, the rotor tooth having a locking surface and an inclined surface extending therefrom in a circumferential direction; a brake member disposed adjacent to the rotor disc perimeter and including a base, at least one braking tooth having a locking surface extending therefrom in a circumferential direction, and a plunger extending radially outwardly from the base and slidably joined to the frame through the guide hole; the rotor tooth and the braking tooth being complementary to each other; and means for selectively positioning the brake member in a deployed position abutting the rotor disc perimeter for allowing the braking tooth locking surface to contact the rotor tooth locking surface for preventing rotation of the shaft in the first direction, and in a retracted position spaced radially away from the rotor disc for allowing the rotor disc and the shaft to rotate without restraint from the brake member, the positioning means including a tubular solenoid fixedly joined to the frame and having a central bore disposed around the brake member plunger and effective for sliding the brake member plunger relative to the frame for positioning the brake member in the deployed and retracted positions

  5. Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Braking for a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanuri, Jaya Krishna

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to observe the effect of an air brake on the aerodynamics of a ground vehicle and also to study the influence of change in the parameters like the velocity of the vehicle, the angle of inclination, height, and position of the air brake on the aerodynamics of the vehicle body. The test subject used is an Ahmed body which is a generic 3D car body as it retains all the aerodynamic characteristics of a ground vehicle. Numerical investigation has been carried out by RNG k-ɛ turbulence model. Results are presented in terms of streamlines and drag coefficient to understand the influence of pertinent parameters on flow physics. It is found that with the use of an air brake, though the drag coefficient remains more or less constant with velocity, it increases with the increase in height and angle of inclination of the air brake. But the effect of position of air brake on the coefficient of drag is surprising since for certain heights of the air brake the drag coefficient is maximum at the foremost point and as the air brake moves towards the rear it is first observed to decrease and then increase. It is also observed that with the increase in height of the air brake the drag coefficient monotonically decreases as the position of the air brake is moved towards the rear. Taguchi method has been employed with L16 orthogonal array to obtain the optimal configuration for the air brake. For each of the selected parameters, four different levels have been chosen to obtain the maximum drag coefficient value. The study could provide an invaluable database for the optimal design of an airbrake for a ground vehicle.

  6. Color image digitization and analysis for drum inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.C.; Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    A rust inspection system that uses color analysis to find rust spots on drums has been developed. The system is composed of high-resolution color video equipment that permits the inspection of rust spots on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1-in.) in diameter. Because of the modular nature of the system design, the use of open systems software (X11, etc.), the inspection system can be easily integrated into other environmental restoration and waste management programs. The inspection system represents an excellent platform for the integration of other color inspection and color image processing algorithms

  7. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE's technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site

  8. A mathematical model of steam-drum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeck, E.O.; Hinds, H.W.

    1976-12-01

    Mathematical equations describing the dynamic behaviour of pressure, water mass, etc. in a steam drum are derived from basic principles. The resultant model includes such effects as steam superheating and water subcooling as well as spontaneous flashing of liquid and condensation of vapour. Experimental data from a pressurizer are adequately predicted by the model. The pressure rise following a turbine trip can be predicted by the isentropic-compression model but not by the thermodynamic-equilibrium model. The equations are individually linearized and implemented on an analog computer in such a way that their non-linear behaviour is retained for small-perturbation studies. (author)

  9. Study on Abrasive Wear of Brake Pad in the Large-megawatt Wind Turbine Brake Based on Deform Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfang; Hao, Qiang; Sha, Zhihua; Yin, Jian; Ma, Fujian; Liu, Yu

    2017-12-01

    For the friction and wear issues of brake pads in the large-megawatt wind turbine brake during braking, this paper established the micro finite element model of abrasive wear by using Deform-2D software. Based on abrasive wear theory and considered the variation of the velocity and load in the micro friction and wear process, the Archard wear calculation model is developed. The influence rules of relative sliding velocity and friction coefficient in the brake pad and disc is analysed. The simulation results showed that as the relative sliding velocity increases, the wear will be more serious, while the larger friction coefficient lowered the contact pressure which released the wear of the brake pad.

  10. Control of thermoacoustic instability with a drum-like silencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Lei; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical investigation is carried out by a novel method of controlling thermoacoustic instability with a drum-like silencer. It is shown that by decreasing the frequency of thermoacoustic system, the instability can be suppressed with the help of drum-like silencer. The purely reactive silencer, which is composed of a flexible membrane and a backing cavity, is usually known as a noise control device that works effectively in low frequency bandwidth without any aerodynamic loss. In present research, the silencer is exploited in a Rijke tube, as a means of decreasing the natural frequency of the system, and consequently changing the resonance period of the system. The "transfer element method" (TEM) is used to consider the interactions between the acoustic waves and the flexible membranes of the silencer. The effects of all possible properties of the silencer on the growth rate and resonance frequency of the thermoacoustic system are explored. According to the calculation results, it is found that for some properties of the silencer, the resonance frequencies are greatly decreased and then the phase difference between the unsteady heat release and the pressure fluctuation is increased. Consequently, the instability is suppressed with some dissipation that can not be able to control its onset in the original system. Therefore, when the damping is low, but not zero, it is effective to control thermoacoustic instability with this technique.

  11. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods

  12. PRODUKSI DEKSTRIN UBIKAYU MELALUI METODE GELATINISASI SEBAGIAN MENGGUNAKAN ROTARY DRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surfiana Surfiana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to obtain the optimum  condition and characteristics of  dextrin processed  from tapioca(cassava starch by using partial gelatinization using  drum dryer. This experiment was arranged in randomized compelete block design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was (V cassava varieties, which consisted of Cassesart/UJ-5 (V1 and Thailand/UJ-3  (V2. The second factor (K was the concentration which consisted of three levels : 30 % (K1, 35 % (K2, and 40 % (K3. The third factor (T was the temperature of the partial gelatinization which consisted of three temperature levels that were 80o C (T1, 90oC(T2, and 100oC(T3. Characterization was conducted on dextrin  processed from tapioca  included chemical and physical characteristics (water absorption, and water solubility. The results showed that the varieties of cassava, concentration, and temperature have significant effect on dextrin saccharide composition, solubility in water, and swelling power.  Thailand variety, 35 % concentration, and processing temperature of    90o C  produced dextrin with better functional characteristics , which were  24 % of dextrin composition, 77,15 % of solubility, and 6,89 %  of swelling power. Key words : Cassava, dextrin, parsial gelatinazation, rotary drum.

  13. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Rotating drum tests of particle suspensions within a fines dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Gollin, Devis; Kaitna, Roland; Wu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Natural flows like mudflows, debris flow, and hyperconcentrated flows are commonly composed by a matrix of particles suspended in a viscous fluid. The nature of the interactions between particles immersed in a fluid is related to its size. While coarse particles (sand, gravel, and boulders) interact with each other or with the surrounding fluid, a dispersion of fine particles interacts with each other through colloidal forces or Brownian motion effects (Coussot and Piau, 1995, and Ancey and Jorrot, 2001). The predominance of one of the previous interactions defines the rheology of the flow. On this sense, experimental insight is required to validate the limits where the rheology of a dispersion of fines is valid. For this purpose, an experimental program in a rotating drum is performed over samples of sand, loess, and kaolin. The solid concentration and angular velocity of the rotating drum are varied. Height and normal loads are measured during flow. High-speed videos are performed to obtain the flow patterns of the mixtures. The experiments provide new laboratory evidence of granular mixture behaviour within an increased viscous fluid phase and its characterization. The results show an apparent threshold in terms of solid concentration, in which the mixtures started to behave as a shear-dependent material.

  15. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, L.D. [Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY (United States); Rahimi, R.S. [Pall Corp., Cortland, NY (United States); Edling, D. [Edling & Associates, Inc., Russel Springs, KY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  17. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  18. Research Based on the Acoustic Emission of Wind Power Tower Drum Dynamic Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Penglin; Sang, Yuan; Xu, Yaxing; Zhao, Zhiqiang

    Wind power tower drum is one of the key components of the wind power equipment. Whether the wind tower drum performs safety directly affects the efficiency, life, and performance of wind power equipment. Wind power tower drum in the process of manufacture, installation, and operation may lead to injury, and the wind load and gravity load and long-term factors such as poor working environment under the action of crack initiation or distortion, which eventually result in the instability or crack of the wind power tower drum and cause huge economic losses. Thus detecting the wind power tower drum crack damage and instability is especially important. In this chapter, acoustic emission is used to monitor the whole process of wind power tower drum material Q345E steel tensile test at first, and processing and analysis tensile failure signal of the material. And then based on the acoustic emission testing technology to the dynamic monitoring of wind power tower drum, the overall detection and evaluation of the existence of active defects in the whole structure, and the acoustic emission signals collected for processing and analysis, we could preliminarily master the wind tower drum mechanism of acoustic emission source. The acoustic emission is a kind of online, efficient, and economic method, which has very broad prospects for work. The editorial committee of nondestructive testing qualification and certification of personnel teaching material of science and technology industry of national defense, "Acoustic emission testing" (China Machine Press, 2005.1).

  19. Improvement of Algorithms for Pressure Maintenance Systems in Drum-Separators of RBMK-1000 Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksakov, A. N., E-mail: yankovskiy.k@nikiet.ru; Yankovskiy, K. I. [JSC “N. A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET),” (Russian Federation); Dunaev, V. I.; Kushbasov, A. N. [JSC “Diakont,” (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    The main tasks and challenges for pressure regulation in the drum-separators of RBMK-1000 reactors are described. New approaches to constructing algorithms for pressure control in drum-separators by electro-hydraulic turbine control systems are discussed. Results are provided from tests of the operation of modernized pressure regulators during fast transients with reductions in reactor power.

  20. Study on mechanics of driving drum with superelastic convexity surface covering-layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.J.; Sui, X.H.; Miao, D.J. [Shandong University of Science & Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2008-09-15

    Belt conveyor is one of the main transport equipment in coal mine and the driving drum is its key part. With the method of bionic design, the mushroom morphological structure is applied to the design of covering-layer structure of driving drum surface of belt conveyor. Superelastic rubber with large deformation is adopted as the covering-layer material. Nonlinear constitutive model of rubber, which is of superelasticity and large deformation, is established. The stress states and deformation principles of driving drums including both bionic covering-layer and common covering-layer are obtained by static intensity analysis with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software ANSYS. The values of the stress and strain on the driving drum surface are gotten and the dangerous area is determined. FEA results show that the superelastic convexity surface structure can enlarge the contact area between the driving drum and viscoelastic belt. The results also show that in comparison with common driving drum, the bionic surface driving drum can not only increase the friction coefficient between drum and belt but also prolong its service life.

  1. The media, the reconstruction of drumming, and the tradition of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prodigal Ones by Mount Zion Films Production (and other drum music performance in films) shows the media enhancement of the performance of the ensemble serving as accompaniment during a traditional festival. The short scene allocated to a traditional festival reveals the significance of drumming and the input of ...

  2. A method to quantify tritium inside waste drums: He{sup 3} ingrowth method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A.; Lepeytre, C.; Hubinois, J.C. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Traitement Materiaux Nucleaires, Service Analyses- Dechets, Lab. Chimie Analytique, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Arseguel, A.; Daclin, J.P.; Douche, C. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Traitement Materiaux Nucleaires, Service Analyses- Dechets, Lab. de Gestion des Dechets Trities, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    This method enables an indirect, non intrusive and non destructive measurement of the Tritium activity in wastes drums. The amount of tritium enclosed inside a wastes drum can be determined by the measurement of the leak rate of {sup 3}He of this latter. The simulation predicts that a few months are necessary for establishing the equilibrium between the {sup 3}He production inside the drum and the {sup 3}He drum leak. In practice, after one year of storage, sampling {sup 3}He outside the drum can be realized by the mean of a confining chamber that collect the {sup 3}He outflow. The apparatus, the experimental procedure and the calculation of tritium activity from mass spectrometric {sup 3}He measurements are detailed. The industrial device based on a confinement cell and the automated process to measure the {sup 3}He amount at the initial time and after the confinement time is described. Firstly, reference drums containing a certified tritium activity (HTO) in addition to organic materials have been measured to qualify the method and to evaluate its performances. Secondly, tritium activity of organic wastes drums issued from the storage building in Valduc have been determined. Results of the qualification and optimised values of the experimental parameters are reported in order to determine the performances of this industrial device. As a conclusion, the apparatus enables the measurement of an activity as low as 1 GBq of tritium in a 200 liters drum containing organic wastes. (authors)

  3. EEG potentials predict upcoming emergency brakings during simulated driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Treder, Matthias S.; Gugler, Manfred F.; Sagebaum, Max; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Emergency braking assistance has the potential to prevent a large number of car crashes. State-of-the-art systems operate in two stages. Basic safety measures are adopted once external sensors indicate a potential upcoming crash. If further activity at the brake pedal is detected, the system automatically performs emergency braking. Here, we present the results of a driving simulator study indicating that the driver's intention to perform emergency braking can be detected based on muscle activation and cerebral activity prior to the behavioural response. Identical levels of predictive accuracy were attained using electroencephalography (EEG), which worked more quickly than electromyography (EMG), and using EMG, which worked more quickly than pedal dynamics. A simulated assistance system using EEG and EMG was found to detect emergency brakings 130 ms earlier than a system relying only on pedal responses. At 100 km h-1 driving speed, this amounts to reducing the braking distance by 3.66 m. This result motivates a neuroergonomic approach to driving assistance. Our EEG analysis yielded a characteristic event-related potential signature that comprised components related to the sensory registration of a critical traffic situation, mental evaluation of the sensory percept and motor preparation. While all these components should occur often during normal driving, we conjecture that it is their characteristic spatio-temporal superposition in emergency braking situations that leads to the considerable prediction performance we observed.

  4. Electronics and braking systems; Elektronik in Bremssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaupp, W. [Rheinisch-Westfaelischer Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein e.V., Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugtechnik

    2000-02-01

    In addition to the anti-lock braking system ABS, which is now fitted to almost every new passenger car, an increasing number of other control systems which intervene in the vehicle's driving dynamics, such as ASR, DSC or ESP, are being introduced. This article gives an overview of such systems, from their beginnings up to the present-day, and describes future developments. (orig.) [German] Neben das Antiblockiersystem ABS, mit dem heute fast jeder neue Pkw ausgestattet ist, treten zunehmend weitere Regelsysteme, die in die Fahrdynamik des Fahrzeugs eingreifen, wie zum Beispiel ASR, DSC oder ESP. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick von den Anfaengen dieser Systeme bis hin zu zukuenftigen Entwicklungen. (orig.)

  5. Comparisonal Analysis of Manuevering and Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Žukas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the possibility of avoiding a traffic accident considering a car driver who is fallen in a dangerous situation. In such a case, the driver can choose one of the following ways: hard braking or one of the types of maneuvering, including turning off, turning with straightening or changing a line regarding road surface type (dry asphalt, wet asphalt or snowy asphalt. The article also proposes formulas for calculating road distance the car travels till dead stop. Moreover, the tables display theoretical values taking into account various car speeds and road surfaces. The pictures help with determining the most suitable type of action in light of road and weather conditions as well as car speed. The pictures clearly show the dependence of road length on movement speed. At the end of the article, conclusions are proposed.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums - an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine if the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the drum headspace is representative of the VOC concentration in the entire drum void space and to demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. An experimental test plan was developed requiring gas sampling of 66 transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This interim report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement from waste drums sampled and analyzed in FY 1994

  7. Electromechanical dynamic analysis for the drum driving system of the long-wall shearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhao Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The drum driving system is one of the weakest parts of the long-wall shearer, and some methods are also needed to monitor and control the long-wall shearer to adapt to the important trend of unmanned operation in future mining systems. Therefore, it is essential to conduct an electromechanical dynamic analysis for the drum driving system of the long-wall shearer. First, a torsional dynamic model of planetary gears is proposed which is convenient to be connected to the electric motor model for electromechanical dynamic analysis. Next, an electromechanical dynamic model for the drum driving system is constructed including the electric motor, the gear transmission system, and the drum. Then, the electromechanical dynamic characteristics are simulated when the shock loads are acted on the drum driving system. Finally, some advices are proposed for improving the reliability, monitoring the operating state, and choosing the control signals of the long-wall shearer based on the simulation.

  8. Application of artificial neural networks on the characterization of radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens Junior, Ademar Jose; Hiromoto, Goro

    2011-01-01

    The methodology consist of system simulation of drum-detector by Monte Carlo for obtention of counting efficiency. The obtained data were treated and a neural artificial network (RNA) were constructed for evaluation of total activity of drum. For method evaluation measurements were performed in ten position parallel to the drum axis and the results submitted to the RNA. The developed methodology showed to be effective for isotopic characterization of gamma emitter radioactive wastes distributed in a heterogeneous way in a 200 litters drum. The objective of this work as to develop a methodology of analyse for quantification and localization of radionuclides not homogeneous distributed in a 200 liters drum based on the mathematical techniques

  9. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... fully develop improved brake systems and also to ensure vehicle control and stability while braking... [Docket No. NHTSA 2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial improvements in...

  10. 76 FR 55859 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 121; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... during road tests for the braking system, a vehicle equipped with an interlocking axle system or a front... vehicle braking systems, tire characteristics related to lateral force and longitudinal force generation... stopping distance without activating the ABS system by braking the vehicle so that the brake pressure is...

  11. 75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ....121) mandates antilock braking systems (ABS) on all new air-braked vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000...-0116] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Antilock Braking Systems in Heavy Truck Tractors and Trailers AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...

  12. 75 FR 5553 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... NHTSA comments S6.2 Wet Equilibrium Boiling Point... Appendix E of SAE J1703 Appendix E of SAE J1703 No.... Definition of ``Brake Fluid'' To apply FMVSS No. 116 to brake fluid that contacts EPDM rubber, we propose to expand the definition of ``brake fluid'' at S4 of the standard to expressly state that ``brake fluid...

  13. Scania RBS brake system; Das Bremssystem EBS von Scania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterhagen, J.

    1996-09-01

    Scania claims to be the first producer of industrial vehicles to market an electronic braking system (EBS) combined with disc brakes for all axles. The new braking systems for long-distance trailers were presented for the first time at the IAA, Hanover, in September 1996. (orig.) [Deutsch] Scania ist nach eigenen Angaben der erste Lkw-Hersteller, der eine elektronisch geregelte Bremsanlage (EBS) in Kombination mit Scheibenbremsen an allen Achsen auf den Markt bringt. Der Oeffentlichkeit stellt Scania das neue Bremssystem fuer die Fernverkehrs-Zugmaschinen der Baureihe 4 zum ersten Mal auf der IAA in Hannover im September 1996 vor. (orig.)

  14. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripley, Maurice I.; Kirstein, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed

  15. Brake lock mechanism for the two axis pointing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Alan; Clark, Mike; Mignosa, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Six months prior to shipment of the Broadband X-ray Telescope to the Kennedy Space Center for flight aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, a major system failure occurred. During modal survey testing of the telescope's gimbal pointing system, the roll axis brake unexpectedly released. Low level vibration and static preloads present during the modal survey were within the expected flight environment. Brake release during shuttle liftoff or ascent was an unacceptable risk to mission success; thus, a Brake Lock Mechanism (BLM) was developed.

  16. Pre-Extreme Automotive Anti-Lock Brake Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing of systems ensuring active safety of automobiles with intellectual functions requires usage of new control principles for wheel and automobile operation. One of such principles is a preextreme control strategy. Its aim is to ensure wheel work in pre-extreme, stable area of «tire grip coefficient wheel slip coefficient» dependence. The simplest realization of pre-extreme control in automotive anti-lock brake systems consists in the threshold and gradient algorithms. A comparative analysis of these algorithms which has been made on simulation results of bus braking with various anti-lock brake systems has revealed their high efficiency.

  17. Gravitational waves from pulsars with measured braking index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jose C.N. de; Coelho, Jaziel G.; Costa, Cesar A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisao de Astrofisica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    We study the putative emission of gravitational waves (GWs) in particular for pulsars with measured braking index. We show that the appropriate combination of both GW emission and magnetic dipole brakes can naturally explain the measured braking index, when the surface magnetic field and the angle between the magnetic dipole and rotation axes are time dependent. Then we discuss the detectability of these very pulsars by aLIGO and the Einstein Telescope. We call attention to the realistic possibility that aLIGO can detect the GWs generated by at least some of these pulsars, such as Vela, for example. (orig.)

  18. Research on Modeling and Control of Regenerative Braking for Brushless DC Machines Driven Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV using brushless DC machine (BLDCM, the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, the autodisturbances rejection controller (ADRC for controlling the braking current is developed. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives better recovery efficiency and is robust to disturbances.

  19. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces: Hydromechanically controlled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Smith, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The investigation utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC-9 series 10 airplane. The landing-gear strut was replaced by a dynamometer. During maximum braking, average braking behavior indexes based upon brake pressure, brake torque, and drag-force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system were generally higher on dry surfaces than on wet surfaces. The three braking behavior indexes gave similar results but should not be used interchangeably as a measure of the braking of this antiskid sytem. During the transition from a dry to a flooded surface under heavy braking, the wheel entered into a deep skid but the antiskid system reacted quickly by reducing brake pressure and performed normally during the remainder of the run on the flooded surface. The brake-pressure recovery following transition from a flooded to a dry surface was shown to be a function of the antiskid modulating orifice.

  20. Granular flow in a rotating drum: Experiments and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Li, L.; Smith, B.; Grinspun, E.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion at the base of a debris flow fundamentally controls how large the flow will become and how far it will travel. Experimental observations of this important phenomenon are rather limited, and this lack has led theoretical treatments to making ad hoc assumptions about the basal process. In light of this, we carried out a combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis of granular flow in a rotating drum, a canonical example of steady grain motion in which entrainment rates can be precisely controlled. Our main result is that basal sediment is entrained as the velocity profile adjusts to imbalance in the flow of kinetic energy.Our experimental apparatus consisted of a 40cm-diameter drum, 4cm-deep, half-filled with 2.3mm grains. Rotation rates varied from 1-70 rpm. We varied the effective scale by varying effective gravity from 1g to 70g on a geotechnical centrifuge. The field of grain motion was recorded using high-speed video and mapped using particle tracking velocimetry. In tandem we developed a depth-averaged theory using balance equations for mass, momentum and kinetic energy. We assumed a linearized GDR Midi granular rheology [da Cruz, 2005] and a Coulomb friction law along the sidewalls [Jop et al., 2005]. A scaling analysis of our equations yields a dimensionless "entrainment number" En, which neatly parametrizes the flow geometry in the drum for a wide range of variables, e.g., rotation rate and effective gravity. At low En, the flow profile is planar and kinetic energy is balanced locally in the flow layer. At high En, the flow profile is sigmoidal (yin-yang shaped) and the kinetic energy is dominated by longitudinal, streamwise transfer. We observe different scaling behavior under each of these flow regimes, e.g., between En and kinetic energy, surface slope and flow depth. Our theory correctly predicts their scaling exponents and the value of En at which the regime transition takes place. We are also able to make corrections for

  1. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking s...

  2. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Chao Wang; Quanrang Zhang; Xiaolong He

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-dow...

  3. Enhanced Regenerative Braking Strategies for Electric Vehicles: Dynamic Performance and Potential Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boyi Xiao; Huazhong Lu; Hailin Wang; Jiageng Ruan; Nong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    A regenerative braking system and hydraulic braking system are used in conjunction in the majority of electric vehicles worldwide. We propose a new regenerative braking distribution strategy that is based on multi-input fuzzy control logic while considering the influences of the battery’s state of charge, the brake strength and the motor speed. To verify the braking performance and recovery economy, this strategy was applied to a battery electric vehicle model and compared with two other impr...

  4. The intelligent brake: SBS brakes safely and comfortably in all situations; Die intelligente Bremse: SBS verzoegert stets sicher und komfortabel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-07-01

    The Vision SLR study demonstrates the technology with which DaimlerChrysler vehicles will be equipped in the next century. The car that won the Gran Turismo incorporates the Sensortronic Brake System (SBS), an electrohydraulic braking system for optimum safety and comfort even in critical situations. [German] Die Fahrzeugstudie Vision SLR demonstriert eindrucksvoll die Technik, mit der DaimlerChrysler Fahrzeuge des kommenden Jahrhunderts ausstatten wird. Eine Besonderheit des Gran Turismo-Silberpfeils: das Sensortronic Brake System (SBS), ein elektrohydraulisches Bremssystem, das auch in kritischen Situationen optimale Fahrsicherheit und Komfort bietet. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of X-ray System for Nondestructive Testing on Radioactive Waste Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Kil; Maeng, Seong Jun; Lee, Yeon Ee; Hwang, Tae Won

    2008-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste drums, which have been temporarily stored on site, should be characterized before their shipment to a disposal facility in order to prove that the properties meet the acceptance guideline. The investigation of NDT(Nondestructive Test) method was figured out that the contents in drum, the quantitative analysis of free standing water and void fraction can be examined with X-ray NDT techniques. This paper describes the characteristics of X-ray NDT such as its principles, the considerations for selection of X-ray system, etc. And then, the waste drum characteristics such as drum type and dimension, contents in drum, etc. were examined, which are necessary to estimate the optimal X-ray energy for NDT of a drum. The estimation results were that: the proper X-ray energy is under 3 MeV to test the drums of 320 β and less; both X-ray systems of 450 keV and/or 3 MeV might be needed considering the economical efficiency and the realization. The number of drums that can be tested with 450 keV and 3 MeV X-ray system was figured out as 42,327 and 18,105 drums (based on storage of 2006. 12), respectively. Four testing scenarios were derived considering equipment procurement method, outsourcing or not, etc. The economical and feasibility assessment for the scenarios was resulted in that an optimal scenario is dependent on the acceptance guide line, the waste generator's policy on the waste treatment and the delivery to a disposal facility, etc. For example, it might be desirable that a waste generator purchases two 450 keV mobile system to examine the drums containing low density waste, and that outsourcing examination for the high density drums, if all NDT items such as quantitative analysis for 'free standing water' and 'void fraction', and confirmation of contents in drum have to be characterized. However, one 450 keV mobile system seems to be required to test only the contents in 13,000 drums per year.

  6. Experimental investigation of disc brakes for formula Bharat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sheelam; Chandra, Sharad; Bagwadi, Ashutosh

    2018-05-01

    we have made the brake assembly for Formula Student India in which we gathered the information about the force distribution in Master Cylinder, Assembly of Master Cylinder, Disc Brakes, Pedal Assembly has been gathered from various sources in which we come to know about that Vertical Master Cylinder is much better than the Horizontal Master Cylinder because of which we are able to reduce the weight of the Formula Student Car which ultimately affects the performance of the car. In other words, we have considered the various environmental conditions in which this braking system. The dimensions for the Disc Brake rotor is considered according to the space constraints and the material is finalized according to the hunch of calculations and the environmental conditions.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Disc Brake System in Frictional Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belhocine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety aspect in automotive engineering has been considered as a number one priority in development of new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirement. Instead of having air bag, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, there is one most critical system in the vehicle which is brake systems. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyse the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake disc and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor by holding account certain parameters such as; the material used, the geometric design of the disc and the mode of braking. The analysis also gives us, the heat flux distribution for the two discs.

  8. Implementation Of Fuzzy Automated Brake Controller Using TSK Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ruchi; Kaur, Magandeep

    2010-11-01

    In this paper an application of Fuzzy Logic for Automatic Braking system is proposed. Anti-blocking system (ABS) brake controllers pose unique challenges to the designer: a) For optimal performance, the controller must operate at an unstable equilibrium point, b) Depending on road conditions, the maximum braking torque may vary over a wide range, c) The tire slippage measurement signal, crucial for controller performance, is both highly uncertain and noisy. A digital controller design was chosen which combines a fuzzy logic element and a decision logic network. The controller identifies the current road condition and generates a command braking pressure signal Depending upon the speed and distance of train. This paper describes design criteria, and the decision and rule structure of the control system. The simulation results present the system's performance depending upon the varying speed and distance of the train.

  9. Driver Behavioral Changes through Interactions with an Automatic Brake System for Collision Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    This paper discusses driver's behavioral changes as a result of driver's use of an automatic brake system for preventing a rear-end collision from occurring. Three types of automatic brake systems are investigated in this study. Type 1 brake system applies a strong automatic brake when a collision is very imminent. Type 2 brake system initiates brake operation softly when a rear-end crash may be anticipated. Types 1 and 2 are for avoidance of a collision. Type 3 brake system, on the other hand, applies a strong automatic brake to reduce the damage when a collision can not be avoided. An experiment was conducted with a driving simulator in order to analyze the driver's possible behavioral changes. The results showed that the time headway (THW) during car following phase was reduced by use of an automatic brake system of any type. The inverse of time to collision (TTC), which is an index of the driver's brake timing, increased by use of Type 1 brake system when the deceleration rate of the lead vehicle was relatively low. However, the brake timing did not change when the drivers used Type 2 or 3 brake system. As a whole, dangerous behavioral changes, such as overreliance on a brake system, were not observed for either type of brake system.

  10. A study on properties of a cone-type brake for motor vehicle winch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The brake of winch is to prevent the occurrence of reverse slipping at working time. Based on the analysis of two types of brake, this article establishes the relationship model of the brake force and the angle of the screw thread on the brake shaft and builds the model of the relationship of the brake force and the height of the cone and found that the brake force is the largest when the angle of the screw is 45°. Also found that the brake force increases with the increase in the load, and the brake force is positively related to the height of the cone. Two brake mechanisms are manufactured and arranged in the same winch to conduct the experimental performance comparison. The experimental results show that the temperature of the winch with cone brake finally reaches about 60°C, which is 33% lower than the 90°C of the disk brake, and the no-load current of the cone brake winch is under 60 A, while in the disk brake winch it is over 90 A after 7 min, which consumes 33% energy than cone brake. The cone brake can reduce the occurrence of harmful friction and enhance the efficiency of winch and is able to solve the winch safety problem caused by nylon cable damage because of the heat accumulation.

  11. PSLn(q) as operator group of isospectral drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thas, Koen

    2006-01-01

    In a paper by M Kac (1966 Am. Math. Mon. 73 1-23), Kac asked his famous question 'Can one hear the shape of a drum?', which was answered negatively in Gordon et al (1992 Invent. Math. 110 1-22) by construction of planar isospectral pairs. In Buser et al (1994 Int. Math. Res. Not. 9), it is observed that all operator groups associated with the known counter examples are isomorphic to one of PSL 3 (2), PSL 3 (3), PSL 4 (2) and PSL 3 (4). We show that if (D 1 , D 2 ) is a pair of non-congruent planar isospectral domains constructed from unfolding a polygonal base-tile and with associated operator group PSL n (q), then (n, q) belongs to this very restricted list. (letter to the editor)

  12. Dynamic simulation of flash drums using rigorous physical property calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flash drums is simulated using a formulation adequate for phase modeling with equations of state (EOS. The energy and mass balances are written as differential equations for the internal energy and the number of moles of each species. The algebraic equations of the model, solved at each time step, are those of a flash with specified internal energy, volume and mole numbers (UVN flash. A new aspect of our dynamic simulations is the use of direct iterations in phase volumes (instead of pressure for solving the algebraic equations. It was also found that an iterative procedure previously suggested in the literature for UVN flashes becomes unreliable close to phase boundaries and a new alternative is proposed. Another unusual aspect of this work is that the model expressions, including the physical properties and their analytical derivatives, were quickly implemented using computer algebra.

  13. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events

  14. Passive neutron design study for 200-L waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.B.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-09-01

    We have developed a passive neutron counter for the measurement of plutonium in 200-L drums of scrap and waste. The counter incorporates high efficiency for the multiplicity counting in addition to the traditional coincidence counting. The 252 Cf add-a-source feature is used to provide an accurate assay over a wide range of waste matrix materials. The room background neutron rate is reduced by using 30 cm of external polyethylene shielding and the cosmic-ray background is reduced by statistical filtering techniques. Monte Carlo Code calculations were used to determine the optimum detector design, including the gas pressure, size, number, and placement of the 3 He tubes in the moderator. Various moderators, including polyethylene, plastics, teflon, and graphite, were evaluated to obtain the maximum efficiency and minimum detectable mass of plutonium

  15. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection

  16. Research study on antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auselmi, J. A.; Weinberg, L. W.; Yurczyk, R. F.; Nelson, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A research project to investigate antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle vehicle was conducted. System from the Concorde, Boeing 747, Boeing 737, and Lockheed L-1011 were investigated. The characteristics of the Boeing 737 system which caused it to be selected are described. Other subjects which were investigated are: (1) trade studies of brake control concepts, (2) redundancy requirements trade study, (3) laboratory evaluation of antiskid systems, and (4) space shuttle hardware criteria.

  17. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qingzhang; Liu, Youhua; Li, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to...

  18. Study on real-time elevator brake failure predictive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Fan, Jinwei

    2013-10-01

    This paper presented a real-time failure predictive system of the elevator brake. Through inspecting the running state of the coil by a high precision long range laser triangulation non-contact measurement sensor, the displacement curve of the coil is gathered without interfering the original system. By analyzing the displacement data using the diagnostic algorithm, the hidden danger of the brake system can be discovered in time and thus avoid the according accident.

  19. Application of the Monte Carlo method to estimate doses in a radioactive waste drum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Garcia, T.; Burgos, M.C.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    During refuelling operation in a Nuclear Power Plant, filtration is used to remove non-soluble radionuclides contained in the water from reactor pool. Filter cartridges accumulate a high radioactivity, so that they are usually placed into a drum. When the operation ends up, the drum is filled with concrete and stored along with other drums containing radioactive wastes. Operators working in the refuelling plant near these radwaste drums can receive high dose rates. Therefore, it is convenient to estimate those doses to prevent risks in order to apply ALARA criterion for dose reduction to workers. The Monte Carlo method has been applied, using MCNP 4B code, to simulate the drum containing contaminated filters and estimate doses produced in the drum environment. In the paper, an analysis of the results obtained with the MCNP code has been performed. Thus, the influence on the evaluated doses of distance from drum and interposed shielding barriers has been studied. The source term has also been analysed to check the importance of the isotope composition. Two different geometric models have been considered in order to simplify calculations. Results have been compared with dose measurements in plant in order to validate the calculation procedure. This work has been developed at the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Polytechnic University of Valencia in collaboration with IBERINCO in the frame of an RD project sponsored by IBERINCO

  20. Experimental investigation of rotating-drum separators for liquid-metal MHD applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzo, C.S.; Dauzvardis, P.V.; Hantman, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    For the past several years, Argonne National Laboratory has been active in the development of closed-cycle two-phase-flow MHD power systems. One of the key components in such systems is an effective and efficient gas-liquid separator-diffuser. On the basis of an assessment of present technology, it was decided to study the characteristics of a rotating drum type of separator, and a multitask research and development program was initiated within the overall liquid-metal MHD research program. The first task, now completed, centered on the investigation of single-phase flow (liquid) deposited by a flow nozzle on the inner surface of freely-rotating cylinders or drums of 423 mm and 282 mm diam. The tests were designed to study the recovery of energy in the liquid layer deposited on the drum; the torque transmitted to the drum by the liquid as the result of shear stress between the liquid and the drum surface; the characteristics of the liquid layer; and the effects of drum size, nozzle shape and orientation, and nozzle velocity. The test results showed that a stable liquid film was formed on the drum and that the kinetic energy of the liquid layer was high enough to be potentially useful in two-phase-flow MHD power systems

  1. Infrared thermography applied to monitoring of radioactive waste drums; Termografia infravermelha aplicada ao monitoramento de tambores de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmer, P.; Camarano, D.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Calado, F.; Phillip, B.; Viana, C.; Andrade, R.M., E-mail: paulafuziki@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: flavio.arcalado@gmail.com, E-mail: bruno.phil@gmail.com, E-mail: criisviana@hotmail.com, E-mail: rma@ufmg.br, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica

    2013-07-01

    The use of thermography in the inspection of drums containing radioactive waste is being stimulated by the absence of physical contact. In Brazil the majority of radioactive wastes are compacted solids packed in metal drums stored temporarily for decades and requires special attention. These drums have only one qualitative indication of the radionuclides present. However, its structural condition is not followed systematically. The aim of this work is presents a methodology by applying thermography for monitoring the structural condition of drums containing radioactive waste in order to detect degraded regions of the drums. (author)

  2. Braking and cornering studies on an air cushion landing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate several concepts for braking and steering a vehicle equipped with an air cushion landing system (ACLS). The investigation made use of a modified airboat equipped with an ACLS. Braking concepts were characterized by the average deceleration of the vehicle. Reduced lobe flow and cavity venting braking concepts were evaluated in this program. The cavity venting braking concept demonstrated the best performance, producing decelerations on the test vehicle on the same order as moderate braking with conventional wheel brakes. Steering concepts were evaluated by recording the path taken while attempting to follow a prescribed maneuver. The steering concepts evaluated included using rudders only, using differential lobe flow, and using rudders combined with a lightly loaded, nonsteering center wheel. The latter concept proved to be the most accurate means of steering the vehicle on the ACLS, producing translational deviations two to three times higher than those from conventional nose-gear steering. However, this concept was still felt to provide reasonably precise steering control for the ACLS-equipped vehicle.

  3. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  4. Braking distance algorithm for autonomous cars using road surface recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, C.; Ashok, B.; Nanthagopal, K.; Desai, Rohan; Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth

    2017-11-01

    India is yet to accept semi/fully - autonomous cars and one of the reasons, was loss of control on bad roads. For a better handling on these roads we require advanced braking and that can be done by adapting electronics into the conventional type of braking. In Recent years, the automation in braking system led us to various benefits like traction control system, anti-lock braking system etc. This research work describes and experiments the method for recognizing road surface profile and calculating braking distance. An ultra-sonic surface recognition sensor, mounted underneath the car will send a high frequency wave on to the road surface, which is received by a receiver with in the sensor, it calculates the time taken for the wave to rebound and thus calculates the distance from the point where sensor is mounted. A displacement graph will be plotted based on the output of the sensor. A relationship can be derived between the displacement plot and roughness index through which the friction coefficient can be derived in Matlab for continuous calculation throughout the distance travelled. Since it is a non-contact type of profiling, it is non-destructive. The friction coefficient values received in real-time is used to calculate optimum braking distance. This system, when installed on normal cars can also be used to create a database of road surfaces, especially in cities, which can be shared with other cars. This will help in navigation as well as making the cars more efficient.

  5. Development of aircraft brake materials. [evaluation of metal and ceramic materials in sliding tests simulation of aircraft braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements of brake materials were outlined and a survey made to select materials to meet the needs of high temperature brakes. A number of metals and ceramic materials were selected and evaluated in sliding tests which simulated aircraft braking. Nickel, molybdenum tungsten, Zr02, high temperature cements and carbons were tested. Additives were then incorporated into these materials to optimize their wear or strength behavior with particular emphasis on nickel and molybdenum base materials and a high temperature potassium silicate cement. Optimum materials were developed which improved wear behavior over conventional brake materials in the simulated test. The best materials are a nickel, aluminum oxide, lead tungstate composition containing graphite or molybdenum disulphite; a molybdenum base material containing LPA100 (an intermetallic compound of cobalt, molybdenum, and silicon); and a carbon material (P5).

  6. A thermal analysis for the use of cooled rotating drums in electron processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, P.M.; Williams, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal response of rotating drums under an electron beam has been analyzed using a finite difference thermal analysis computer code. Rotating drums are used to convey thin webs or films under the electron beams while controlling their temperature and, in some cases, in dissipating the exotherm involved in curing coatings applied to them. Each portion of the drum surface receives one heat pulse per rotation as it passes under the beam. The drum's thermal behavior shows both an immediate response to each heat pulse and a more gradual response to the average heat acquired over many pulses. After many rotations a steady state is reached where there is only an immediate response to each heat pulse but the gradual heating has tapered off. Nevertheless the steady state temperatures are strongly dependent on the gradual heating that led to them. Slow and fast speeds of rotation are compared showing the effects of both gradual and immediate heating components. The thermal analysis is extended to include the coolant fluid inside the drum shell and the web on the drum surface. The coolant's incoming temperature, volumetric flow rate, flow speed through the coolant channels and film coefficient between the outer shell and fluid are all included in the analysis. The small air gap between the web and drum, the convective cooling of the web to the ambient air, and the exothermic reaction of any chemical reactions on the web are included. The stresses produced in the drum shell (i.e. between the outer surface and the temperature-controlling fluid within the drum) are analyzed in order to define safe e-beam powers and rotating speeds. The analysis provides the basis for many design decisions and can give an end-user a full temperature history for his product for any set of conditions. (author)

  7. Thermal measurement of brake pad lining surfaces during the braking process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowski, Tadeusz; Polakowski, Henryk; Kastek, Mariusz; Baranowski, Pawel; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Małachowski, Jerzy; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the test campaign concept and definition and the analysis of the recorded measurements. One of the most important systems in cars and trucks are brakes. The braking temperature on a lining surface can rise above 500°C. This shows how linings requirements are so strict and, what is more, continuously rising. Besides experimental tests, very supportive method for investigating processes which occur on the brake pad linings are numerical analyses. Experimental tests were conducted on the test machine called IL-68. The main component of IL-68 is so called frictional unit, which consists of: rotational head, which convey a shaft torque and where counter samples are placed and translational head, where samples of coatings are placed and pressed against counter samples. Due to the high rotational speeds and thus the rapid changes in temperature field, the infrared camera was used for testing. The paper presents results of analysis registered thermograms during the tests with different conditions. Furthermore, based on this testing machine, the numerical model was developed. In order to avoid resource demanding analyses only the frictional unit (described above) was taken into consideration. Firstly the geometrical model was performed thanks to CAD techniques, which in the next stage was a base for developing the finite element model. Material properties and boundary conditions exactly correspond to experimental tests. Computations were performed using a dynamic LS-Dyna code where heat generation was estimated assuming full (100%) conversion of mechanical work done by friction forces. Paper presents the results of dynamic thermomechanical analysis too and these results were compared with laboratory tests.

  8. Predict optimize the friction characteristics of brake pads; Brake pad no masatsu tokusei no yosoku to saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saotome, H [Nissin Kogyo Co., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, T [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of the friction and the wear properties of brake pads were experimentally studied using a test rig of scale of 1/10 of the system used in a commercial car. The experimental data were investigated by the Multiple Regression Analysis and the Neural Network, and the effects of volume % of components on the friction and the wear properties were predicted. In addition the components of brake pads are optimized by Genetic Algorithms. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. A Markov chain analysis of the effectiveness of drum-buffer-rope material flow management in job shop environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of constraints is an approach for production planning and control, which emphasizes on the constraints in the system to increase throughput. The theory of constraints is often referred to as Drum-Buffer-Rope developed originally by Goldratt. Drum-Buffer-Rope uses the drum or constraint to create a schedule based on the finite capacity of the first bottleneck. Because of complexity of the job shop environment, Drum-Buffer-Rope material flow management has very little attention to job shop environment. The objective of this paper is to apply the Drum-Buffer-Rope technique in the job shop environment using a Markov chain analysis to compare traditional method with Drum-Buffer-Rope. Four measurement parameters were considered and the result showed the advantage of Drum-Buffer-Rope approach compared with traditional one.

  10. Re-evaluation of the 1995 Hanford Large Scale Drum Fire Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J M

    2007-01-01

    A large-scale drum performance test was conducted at the Hanford Site in June 1995, in which over one hundred (100) 55-gal drums in each of two storage configurations were subjected to severe fuel pool fires. The two storage configurations in the test were pallet storage and rack storage. The description and results of the large-scale drum test at the Hanford Site were reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246, ''Solid Waste Drum Array Fire Performance,'' Rev. 0, 1995. This was one of the main references used to develop the analytical methodology to predict drum failures in WHC-SD-SQA-ANAL-501, 'Fire Protection Guide for Waste Drum Storage Array,'' September 1996. Three drum failure modes were observed from the test reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246. They consisted of seal failure, lid warping, and catastrophic lid ejection. There was no discernible failure criterion that distinguished one failure mode from another. Hence, all three failure modes were treated equally for the purpose of determining the number of failed drums. General observations from the results of the test are as follows: (lg b ullet) Trash expulsion was negligible. (lg b ullet) Flame impingement was identified as the main cause for failure. (lg b ullet) The range of drum temperatures at failure was 600 C to 800 C. This is above the yield strength temperature for steel, approximately 540 C (1,000 F). (lg b ullet) The critical heat flux required for failure is above 45 kW/m 2 . (lg b ullet) Fire propagation from one drum to the next was not observed. The statistical evaluation of the test results using, for example, the student's t-distribution, will demonstrate that the failure criteria for TRU waste drums currently employed at nuclear facilities are very conservative relative to the large-scale test results. Hence, the safety analysis utilizing the general criteria described in the five bullets above will lead to a technically robust and defensible product that bounds the potential consequences from postulated

  11. Composition and activity variations in bulk gas of drum waste packages of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Svingor, E.; Szanto, Zs.; Futo, I.; Ormai, P.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain reliable estimates of the quantities and rates of the gas production a series of measurements was carried out in drum waste packages generated and temporarily stored at the site of Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Paks NPP). Ten drum waste packages were equipped with sampling valves for repeated sampling. Nine times between 04/02/2000 and 19/07/2001 qualitative gas component analyses of bulk gases of drums were executed. Gas samples were delivered to the laboratory of the ATOMKI for tritium and radiocarbon content measurements.(author)

  12. Reconstruction of braking force in vehicles with electromechanically actuated wheel brakes; Rekonstruktion der Bremskraft bei Fahrzeugen mit elektromechanisch betaetigten Radbremsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R.

    1999-07-01

    Modern braking systems have a variety of functions, but implementation of the enhanced functionality with conventional hydraulic systems is difficult because of electronic actuation. The car industry therefore is working on new braking systems in which the braking force is generated individually on the wheels by means of electromechanical actuators. Owing to their nonlinear characteristics and variable braking efficiency, electromechanically actuated wheel brakes must be operated in a closed control loop. The author presents a low-cost method for reconstruction of the braking force which is required for efficient control. [German] Aufgrund des gestiegenen Sicherheits- und Komfortbewusstseins der Fahrzeugkaeufer ist die Funktionsvielfalt moderner Bremssysteme in den letzten Jahren staendig gewachsen. Die Umsetzung der erweiterten Funktionalitaet mittels konventioneller Bremsenhydraulik ist jedoch durch den elektronischen Eingriff sehr aufwendig. - Von der Automobilzulieferindustrie werden daher neuartige Bremssysteme entwickelt, bei denen die Bremskraft an den einzelnen Raedern von elektromechanischen Bremsaktuatoren aufgebracht wird. - Elektromechanisch betaetigte Radbremsen muessen aufgrund ihres nichtlinearen Verhaltens und des veraenderlichen Wirkungsgrades im geschlossenen Regelkreis betrieben werden. In dieser Arbeit wird erstmals ein Verfahren vorgestellt, mit dem die fuer die Regelung benoetigte Rueckfuehrungsgroesse Bremskraft kostenguenstig rekonstruiert werden kann. (orig.)

  13. Airborne asbestos concentrations associated with heavy equipment brake removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, A K; Gaffney, S H; Balzer, J L; Paustenbach, D J

    2009-11-01

    Asbestos-containing brake linings were used in heavy-duty construction equipment such as tractors, backhoes, and bulldozers prior to the 1980s. While several published studies have evaluated exposures to mechanics during brake repair work, most have focused on automobiles and light trucks, not on heavy agricultural or construction vehicles. The purpose of this study is to characterize the airborne concentration of asbestos to workers and bystanders from brake wear debris during brake removal from 12 loader/backhoes and tractors manufactured between 1960 and 1980. Asbestos content in brake lining (average 20% chrysotile by polarized light microscopy) and brake wear debris [average 0.49% chrysotile by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)] was also quantified. Breathing zone samples on the lapel of mechanics (n = 44) and area samples at bystander (n = 34), remote (n = 22), and ambient (n = 12) locations were collected during 12 brake changes and analyzed using phase contrast microscopy (PCM) [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400] and TEM (NIOSH 7402). In addition, the fiber distribution by size and morphology was evaluated according to the International Organization for Standardization method for asbestos. Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results, the average airborne chrysotile concentrations (PCM equivalent) were 0.024 f/cc for the mechanic and 0.009 f/cc for persons standing 1.2-3.1 m from the activity during the period of exposure ( approximately 0.5 to 1 h). Considering the time involved in the activity, and assuming three brake jobs per shift, these results would convert to an average 8-h time-weighted average of 0.009 f/cc for a mechanic and 0.006 f/cc for a bystander. The results indicate that (i) the airborne concentrations for worker and bystander samples were significantly less than the current occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f/cc; (ii

  14. Possible Evolution of the Pulsar Braking Index from Larger than Three to About One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, H.; Kou, F. F.

    2017-01-01

    The coupled evolution of pulsar rotation and inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. The oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment affects its spin-down behavior. As a pulsar evolves from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the particle wind dominated case, the braking index first increases and then decreases. In the early time, the braking index may be larger than three. During the following long time, the braking index is always smaller than three. The minimum braking index is about one. This can explain the existence of a high braking index larger than three and a low braking index simultaneously. The pulsar braking index is expected to evolve from larger than three to about one. The general trend is for the pulsar braking index to evolve from the Crab-like case to the Vela-like case.

  15. Development of nondestructive system for detecting the cracks in KTX brake disk using Rayleigh wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Ho Yong; Yeom, Yun Taek; Park, Jin Hyun; Song, Sung Jing; Kim, Hak Joon; Kwon, Sung Duck

    2017-01-01

    Recently, KTX (Korean Train Express) train stoppage accidents were mainly caused by malfunctioning equipment, aging and cracking of railway vehicles, crack breakages of brake disks, and breakages of brake disks. Breakage of brake disk can cause large-scale casualties such as high-speed collision and concern about derailment by hitting lower axle and wheel. Therefore, in this study, a brake disk with solid and ventilation type, which is the brake disk of a KTX train was modeled, and a dynamometer system was constructed to operate the disk. A Rayleigh wave was used to inspect the surface of the brake disk. An ultrasonic inspection module was developed for the brake disk by using a local immersion method due to the difficulty involved in ultrasonic inspection using an existing immersion method. In addition, the surface defects of the brake disk were evaluated using a dynamometer mock-up system and an ultrasonic inspection module of the brake disk

  16. Possible Evolution of the Pulsar Braking Index from Larger than Three to About One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, H. [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Kou, F. F., E-mail: htong_2005@163.com [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China)

    2017-03-10

    The coupled evolution of pulsar rotation and inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. The oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment affects its spin-down behavior. As a pulsar evolves from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the particle wind dominated case, the braking index first increases and then decreases. In the early time, the braking index may be larger than three. During the following long time, the braking index is always smaller than three. The minimum braking index is about one. This can explain the existence of a high braking index larger than three and a low braking index simultaneously. The pulsar braking index is expected to evolve from larger than three to about one. The general trend is for the pulsar braking index to evolve from the Crab-like case to the Vela-like case.

  17. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-down and motor braking forces. The control strategy of type two is achieved by simultaneously changing the target braking torque during different mode switch stages and controlling the motor to participate in active coordination control. Finally, the torque coordination control strategy is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink, and the results show that the proposed control strategy has a good effect in reducing the braking torque fluctuation and vehicle shocks during braking mode switches.

  18. CFD Modeling and Simulation of Aeorodynamic Cooling of Automotive Brake Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhocien, Ali; Omar, Wan Zaidi Wan

    Braking system is one of the important control systems of an automotive. For many years, the disc brakes have been used in automobiles for the safe retarding of the vehicles. During the braking enormous amount of heat will be generated and for effective braking sufficient heat dissipation is essential. The thermal performance of disc brake depends upon the characteristics of the airflow around the brake rotor and hence the aerodynamics is an important in the region of brake components. A CFD analysis is carried out on the braking system as a case study to make out the behavior of airflow distribution around the disc brake components using ANSYS CFX software. We are interested in the determination of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) on each surface of a ventilated disc rotor varying with time in a transient state using CFD analysis, and then imported the surface film condition data into a corresponding FEM model for disc temperature analysis.

  19. Development of nondestructive system for detecting the cracks in KTX brake disk using Rayleigh wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Ho Yong [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Yun Taek; Park, Jin Hyun; Song, Sung Jing; Kim, Hak Joon [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sung Duck [Dept. of Physics, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently, KTX (Korean Train Express) train stoppage accidents were mainly caused by malfunctioning equipment, aging and cracking of railway vehicles, crack breakages of brake disks, and breakages of brake disks. Breakage of brake disk can cause large-scale casualties such as high-speed collision and concern about derailment by hitting lower axle and wheel. Therefore, in this study, a brake disk with solid and ventilation type, which is the brake disk of a KTX train was modeled, and a dynamometer system was constructed to operate the disk. A Rayleigh wave was used to inspect the surface of the brake disk. An ultrasonic inspection module was developed for the brake disk by using a local immersion method due to the difficulty involved in ultrasonic inspection using an existing immersion method. In addition, the surface defects of the brake disk were evaluated using a dynamometer mock-up system and an ultrasonic inspection module of the brake disk.

  20. Thermal hydraulic aspects of steam drum level control philosophy for the natural circulation based heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Gaikwad, A.J.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    From safety considerations advanced nuclear reactors rely more and more on passive systems such as natural circulation for primary heat removal. A natural circulation based water reactor is relatively larger in size so as to reduce flow losses and channel type for proper flow distribution. From the size of steam drum considerations it has to be multi loop but has a common inlet header. Normally the turbine follows the reactor. This paper addresses the thermal hydraulic aspects of the steam drum pressure and level control philosophy for a four drum, natural circulation based, channel type boiling water advanced reactor. Three philosophies may be followed for drum control viz. individual drum control, one control drum approach and an average of all the four drums. For drum pressure control, the steam flow to the turbine is be regulated. A single point pressure control is better than individual drum pressure control. This is discussed in the paper. But the control point has to be at a place down steam the point where all steam line from individual drum meet. This may lead to different pressure in all the four drums depending on the power produced in the respective loops. The difference in pressure cannot be removed even if the four drums are directly connected through pipes. Also the pressure control scheme with/without interconnection is discussed. For level, the control of individual drum may not be normally possible because of common inlet header. As the frictional pressure drops in the large diameter downcomers are small as compared to elevation pressure drops, the level in all the steam drum tend to equalize. Consequently a single representative drum level may be chosen as a control variable for controlling level in all the four drums. But in case, where all the four loops are producing different powers and single point pressure control is effective, the scheme may not work satisfactorily. the level in a drum may depend on the power produced in the loop

  1. Optimal design for slip deceleration control in anti-lock braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sheelam; Kumar, Pankaj; Rahman, Mohd. Saifur

    2018-05-01

    ABS (Anti-lock Braking System) is the most advanced braking system implemented in modern cars to avoid the slipping or skidding of the vehicle on the road. Moreover, it reduces the stopping distance of the vehicle because it avoids the locking of the wheel during braking. It enables the driver to steer the vehicle during braking. But every system has its downsides and likewise ABS too, it is not efficient during normal braking or snowy conditions. Our aim is to overcome these downsides and optimize Anti-lock Braking System to make it even better.

  2. Identification of the fast and thermal neutron characteristics of transuranic waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, B.H. Jr.; Bramblett, R.L. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States); Hensley, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Fissile and spontaneously fissioning material in transuranic waste drums can be most sensitively assayed using an active and passive neutron assay system such as the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay. Both the active and the passive assays are distorted by the presence of the waste matrix and containerization. For accurate assaying, this distortion must be characterized and accounted for. An External Matrix Probe technique has been developed that accomplishes this task. Correlations between in-drum neutron flux measurements and monitors in the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay chamber with various matrix materials provide a non-invasive means of predicting the thermal neutron flux in waste drums. Similarly, measures of the transmission of fast neutrons emitted from sources in the drum. Results obtained using the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay system are discussed. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  4. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or tapping (Melissodes, Svastra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  5. Improvements in and relating to drums for storing fuel assemblies of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, L.N.; Batjukov, V.I.; Fadeev, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    A specification is given for an improved design of drums used for storing nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is claimed that this new design reduces wear, increases reliability and enables the recharging operation to be speeded up. (UK)

  6. Analytical and empirical evaluation of low-level waste drum response to accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.A.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Baker, W.E.; Hokanson, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on results of tests to date, it was found that the structural response of low-level waste drums to impact environments can be generally predicted, both analytically and with subscale models. As currently represented, only the 1/4 scale models would adequately represent full scale drum deformation; however, additional work has shown that with proper heat treating the strength of the material used in the 1/8 scale containers can be reduced to the correct value. Both analytical models give results that are expected to be within the range of behavior of the full scale drums. Failure of the drum closure can be adequately inferred from the radial deformation results of both subscale tests and computer analyses. 6 figures

  7. Techniques for improving shuffler assay results for 55-gallon waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.; Prettyman, T.H.; Stuenkel, D.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate assays of the fissile contents in waste drums are needed to ensure the most proper and economical handling and disposal of the waste. An improvement of accuracy will mean fewer drums disposed as transuranic waste when they really contain low-level waste, saving both money and burial sites. Shufflers are used for assaying waste drums and are very accurate with nonmoderating matrices (such as iron). In the active mode they count delayed neutrons released after fissions are induced by irradiation neutrons from a 252 Cf source. However, as the hydrogen density from matrices such as paper or gloves increases, the accuracy can suffer without proper attention. The neutron transport and fission probabilities change with the hydrogen density, causing the neutron count rate to vary with the position of the fissile material within the drum. The magnitude of this variation grows with the hydrogen density

  8. Tribological Aspects of the Process of Winding the Steel Rope Around the Winch Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matejić, , , ,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proper winding of the steel rope around the winch drum is great importance, mostly for: prolonging the service life of the rope, reduction of deformations of the body and the sides of the drum if the winding of the rope is multilayered, increasing of the safety factors, easier unwinding of the rope while lowering the load, even running of the drive unit, etc. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of the friction which occurs in the process of winding and unwinding the rope around the winch drum. Friction force is in its highest intensity when the rope passes from one layer to another, if the winding of the rope is multilayered. As the result of the research, certain mechanisms of winding of the rope from the aspects of the friction force were obtained, and the effects of the forces on the sides of the drum were analyzed.

  9. Artificial neural networks in the evaluation of the radioactive waste drums activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, J.R.A.J.; Hiromoto, G.

    2006-01-01

    The mathematical techniques are becoming more important to solve geometry and standard identification problems. The gamma spectrometry of radioactive waste drums would be a complex solution problem. The main difficulty is the detectors calibration for this geometry; the waste is not homogeneously distributed inside the drums, therefore there are many possible combinations between the activity and the position of these radionuclides inside the drums, making the preparation of calibration standards impracticable. This work describes the development of a methodology to estimate the activity of a 200 L radioactive waste drum, as well as a mapping of the waste distribution, using Artificial Neural Network. The neural network data set entry obtaining was based on the possible detection efficiency combination with 10 sources activities varying from 0 to 74 x 10 3 Bq. The set up consists of a 200 L drum divided in 5 layers. Ten detectors were positioned all the way through a parallel line to the drum axis, from 15 cm of its surface. The Cesium -137 radionuclide source was used. The 50 efficiency obtained values (10 detectors and 5 layers), combined with the 10 source intensities resulted in a 100,000 lines for 15 columns matrix, with all the possible combinations of source intensity and the Cs-137 position in the 5 layers of the drum. This archive was divided in 2 parts to compose the set of training: input and target files. The MatLab 7.0 module of neural networks was used for training. The net architecture has 10 neurons in the input layer, 18 in the hidden layer and 5 in the output layer. The training algorithm was the 'traincgb' and after 300 'epoch s' the medium square error was 0.00108172. This methodology allows knowing the detection positions answers in a heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides inside a 200 L waste drum; in consequence it is possible to estimate the total activity of the drum in the training neural network limits. The results accuracy depends

  10. Predictions and implications of a poisson process model to describe corrosion of transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, B.F.; Holmes, J.A.; Wilbert, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    A risk assessment methodology is described in this paper to compare risks associated with immediate or near-term retrieval of transuranic (TRU) waste drums from bermed storage versus delayed retrieval. Assuming a Poisson process adequately describes corrosion, significant breaching of drums is expected to begin at - 15 and 24 yr for pitting and general corrosion, respectively. Because of this breaching, more risk will be incurred by delayed than by immediate retrieval

  11. Comprehensive investigation of the metal in drums of boilers at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhigov, L. S.; Mitrofanov, A. S.; Tolstolutskaya, G. D.; Vasilenko, R. L.; Rudenko, A. G.; Ruzhytskyi, V. V.; Ribalchenko, N. D.; Shramchenko, S. V.

    2017-05-01

    A comparative investigation of the metal of drums of two TP-100 boilers at the Starobeshevskaya and the Lugansk thermal power stations (TPS) was performed. Their operation time was approximately 300000 hours; the shell of one drum was ruptured during a hydraulic test, and the other drum is in operation. According to the results of the technical diagnostics and a strength analysis, both drums comply with the applicable regulatory requirements. The objects of the investigation were fragments of the ruptured drum and a "plug" cut out of the shell during a scheduled inspection. The investigation was carried out by microscopic metallography methods and the scanning electron microscopy technique. Mechanical tests of metal specimens were performed, and the hydrogen content in these specimens was measured. Prior to the material research, the metal was examined using a magnetic memory method. The investigation yielded specifics of the metal microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture patterns of the metal specimens at various temperatures. An investigation performed by the method of thermal-desorption mass spectrometry revealed no considerable difference in the hydrogen content in the metal of both drums, thereby excluding the effect of hydrogenation in analyzing the rupture causes. It was established that the drum at the Starobeshevskaya TPS had been damaged due to its low impact strength at room temperature and high brittle-ductile transition point. Comparison of the metallographic study data with the results obtained using the magnetic memory method suggests that the fracture was caused by local formation of the Widmannstatten pattern at points where accessories are welded to the shell. The prospects are demonstrated of the comprehensive approach to nondestructive examination (NDE) of TPS drums using the magnetic memory technique and metallographic methods.

  12. An integrated control strategy for the composite braking system of an electric vehicle with independently driven axles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengchun; Liu, Wei; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2016-08-01

    For an electric vehicle with independently driven axles, an integrated braking control strategy was proposed to coordinate the regenerative braking and the hydraulic braking. The integrated strategy includes three modes, namely the hybrid composite mode, the parallel composite mode and the pure hydraulic mode. For the hybrid composite mode and the parallel composite mode, the coefficients of distributing the braking force between the hydraulic braking and the two motors' regenerative braking were optimised offline, and the response surfaces related to the driving state parameters were established. Meanwhile, the six-sigma method was applied to deal with the uncertainty problems for reliability. Additionally, the pure hydraulic mode is activated to ensure the braking safety and stability when the predictive failure of the response surfaces occurs. Experimental results under given braking conditions showed that the braking requirements could be well met with high braking stability and energy regeneration rate, and the reliability of the braking strategy was guaranteed on general braking conditions.

  13. Charging valve of the full hydraulic braking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshi Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the full hydraulic braking system has excellent braking performance. As the key component of the full hydraulic braking system, the parameters of the accumulator charging valve have a significant effect on the braking performance. In this article, the key parameters of the charging valve are analyzed through the static theoretical and an Advanced Modeling Environment for performing Simulation of engineering systems (AMESim simulation model of the dual-circuit accumulator charging valve is established based on the real structure parameters first. Second, according to the results of the dynamic simulation, the dynamic characteristics of the charging pressure, the flow rate, and the frequency of the charging valve are studied. The key parameters affecting the serial production are proposed and some technical advices for improving the performance of the full hydraulic system are provided. Finally, the theoretical analysis is validated by the simulation results. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental results indicates that the simulated AMESim model of the charging valve is accurate and credible with the error rate inside 0.5% compared with the experimental result. Hence, the performance of the charging valve meets the request of the full hydraulic braking system exactly.

  14. Simulation and Robust Contol of Antilock Braking System ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jordan DELICHRISTOV

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with simulation and robust control of Antilock Braking System ABS. The briefly are described the main parts of ABS hydraulic system and control algorithm of ABS. Hydraulic system described here is BOSCH ABS 5.x series. The goal of ABS system is vehicle stability and vehicle steering response when braking. If during the braking occurred slip at one or more wheels from any reason, ABS evaluates this by “brake slip” controller. At this moment ABS is trying to use maximal limits of adhesion between tire and road. It means that is necessary control the differences between braking torque and friction torque , which reacts to the wheel via friction reaction tire-road surface. This is realized through the solenoid valves, which are controls (triggered by on the base of PID controller described further in chapter 4. Presented concept is more or less standard for most of the existing ABS systems. The issue should be applied concept of robust ABS control algorithm, which is specific for every type of ABS.

  15. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  16. The design, construction, and operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) Drum Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, B.; Russillo, A.; Frank, D.; Garland, D.

    1989-12-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and the operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment Systems (IRTS) Drum Cell at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The IRTS Drum Cell was designed to provide a shielded, secure storage area for the remote handling and placement of low-level Class C radioactive waste produced in the IRTS. The Drum Cell was designed to contain up to approximately 8,804 drums from decontaminated supernatant processing. This waste is to be poured into 0.27m 3 in a temperature controlled environment to ensure the cement will not be subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. A Temporary Weather Structure (TWS), a pre-engineered building, now encloses the Drum Cell and associated equipment so that remote waste-handling and placement operations can continue without regard to weather conditions. The Drum Cell was designed so that this TWS could be removed and the low-level waste entombed in place. Final disposition of this low-level waste is currently being evaluated in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  17. Study on the dynamic performance of concrete mixer's mixing drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When working, the geometric distribution shape of concrete in concrete mixing truck's rotary drum changes continuously, which cause a great difficulty for studying the dynamic performance of the mixing drum. In this paper, the mixing system of a certain type of concrete mixing truck is studied. A mathematical formulation has been derived through the force analysis to calculate the supporting force. The calculation method of the concrete distribution shape in the rotary drum is developed. A new transfer matrix is built with considering the concrete geometric distribution shape. The effects of rotating speed, inclination angle and concrete liquid level on the vibration performance of the mixing drum are studied with a specific example. Results show that with the increase of rotating speed, the vibration amplitude of the mixing drum decreases. The peak amplitude gradually moves to the right with the inclination angle increasing. The amplitude value of the peak's left side decreases when tilt angle increases, while the right side increases. The maximum unbalanced response amplitude of the drum increases with the decrease of concrete liquid level height, and the vibration peak moves to the left.

  18. Corrosion of steel drums containing simulated radioactive waste of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, S.B.; Schulz Rodríguez, F.; Duffó, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Ion-exchange resins are frequently used during the operation of nuclear power plants and constitute radioactive waste of low and intermediate level. For the final disposal inside the repository the resins are immobilized by cementation and placed inside steel drums. The eventful contamination of the resins with aggressive species may cause corrosion problems to the drums. In order to assess the incidence of this phenomenon and to estimate the lifespan of the steel drums, in the present work, the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different aggressive species was studied. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The corrosion rate of the steel was monitored over a time period of 900 days and a chemical and morphological analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition was performed. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina), it was found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. (author)

  19. The Welding Effect on Mechanical Strength of Low Level Radioactive Waste Drum Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah; Herlan Martono

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of compactable low level solid waste was started by compaction of 100 liter drum containing the waste using 600 kN hydraulic press in 200 liters drum. The 200 liter drum of waste container containing of compacted waste then immobilized with cement and stored in interm storage. The 200 liter drum of waste container made of carbon steel material to comply with a good mechanical strength request in order to be able to retain the waste content for long period. Welding is a one step in a waste drum container fabrication process that has an opportunity in decreasing these mechanical strength. The research is carried out by welding the waste drum container material sample by electric arc welding. Mechanical strength test carried out by measuring the tensile strength by using the tensile strength machine, hardness test by using Vickers hardness test and microstructure observation by using the optic microscope. The result shows that the welding cause the microstructure changes, its meaning of forming ferro oxide phase on welding area that leads to the brittle material, so that the mechanical strength has a decreasing slightly. Nevertheless the decreasing of mechanical strength is still in the range of safety limit. (author)

  20. The Saami drums and the religious encounter in the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Rydving

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the 17th to the middle of the 18th century much of the confrontation between indigenous Saami religion and Christianity was focused on the drums. The Saamis of both Denmark—Norway and Sweden—Finland had been christianized for decade. The main problem for the Church authorities turned out to be that of making the Saamis abandon their indigenous religious customs. From the end of the 17th century, an intense period of propaganda and coercion began to make the Saamis abandon these non Christian elements in their religion. For the Saamis, the drums represented their threatened culture, the resistance against the Christian claim to exclusiveness, and a striving to preserve traditional values. The drums had a twofold role to play in the religious encounter. They were both foci of the confrontation and sources documenting and structuring it. The fight between old and new beliefs is to some extent possible to follow in the records from the district and county courts. These records give us access to Saami arguments and views of the importance of the drums in Saami society. The function of the drums as instruments for a Saami description of the encounter is, however, difficult to make out. The drum figures are difficult to interpret and there are a number of alternative ways of understanding their meaning.

  1. Analysis of force variance for a continuous miner drum using the Design of Experiments method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Somanchi; V.J. Kecojevic; C.J. Bise [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Continuous miners (CMs) are excavating machines designed to extract a variety of minerals by underground mining. The variance in force experienced by the cutting drum is a very important aspect that must be considered during drum design. A uniform variance essentially means that an equal load is applied on the individual cutting bits and this, in turn, enables better cutting action, greater efficiency, and longer bit and machine life. There are certain input parameters used in the drum design whose exact relationships with force variance are not clearly understood. This paper determines (1) the factors that have a significant effect on the force variance of the drum and (2) the values that can be assigned to these factors to minimize the force variance. A computer program, Continuous Miner Drum (CMD), was developed in collaboration with Kennametal, Inc. to facilitate the mechanical design of CM drums. CMD also facilitated data collection for determining significant factors affecting force variance. Six input parameters, including centre pitch, outer pitch, balance angle, shift angle, set angle and relative angle were tested at two levels. Trials were configured using the Design of Experiments (DoE) method where 2{sup 6} full-factorial experimental design was selected to investigate the effect of these factors on force variance. Results from the analysis show that all parameters except balance angle, as well as their interactions, significantly affect the force variance.

  2. Burning test on a storage drum filled with a mixture of sodiumnitrate and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotik, K.; Leichter, P.; Spalek, K.

    1979-01-01

    A burning test on a common storage drum filled with a mixture of sodiumnitrate and bitumen was carried out to show the incinerability of said mixture. A 50 l mild steel drum was filled with 80,7 kg sodiumnitrate/bitumen-mixture. The drum was packed in a 200 l mild steel drum, the remaining space was filled with enough sand to cover the top of the inner drum with 15 cm of sand. The sand packing was then soaked with 70 l of light distillate fuel and ignited. The fuel burned until self-extinguishing occurred. 30 % (22,2 l) of the fuel was burned. 0,7 % of the energy potential was absorbed in the sand layer. The highest measured temperature was 34 0 C at the top of the test drum. It can be concluded, that even under severe external actions the ignition temperature of 400 0 C for bitumen/waste mixtures cannot be reached, providing correct technical storage conditions, which means that the void space in the cavities is filled with unburnable absorbing material like sand or salt. (author)

  3. Optimal design of an automotive magnetorheological brake considering geometric dimensions and zero-field friction heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) brake for a middle-sized passenger car which can replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. In the optimization, the required braking torque, the temperature due to zero-field friction of MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions are considered. After describing the configuration, the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is derived on the basis of the field-dependent Bingham and Herschel–Bulkley rheological model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of the MR brake is then analyzed taking into account available space, mass, braking torque and steady heat generated by zero-field friction torque of the MR brake. The optimization procedure based on the finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is proposed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Based on the proposed procedure, optimal solutions of single and multiple disc-type MR brakes featuring different types of MR fluid are achieved. From the results, the most effective MR brake for the middle-sized passenger car is identified and some discussions on the performance improvement of the optimized MR brake are described

  4. Study on Two-segment Electric-mechanical Composite Braking Strategy of Tracked Vehicle Hybrid Transmission System

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Tian; Gai, Jiangtao; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    In order to lighten abrasion of braking system of hybrid electric tracked vehicle, according to characteristic of hybrid electric transmission, electric-mechanical composite braking method was proposed. By means of analyzing performance of electric braking and mechanical braking and three-segment composite braking strategy, two-segment electric-mechanical composite braking strategy was put forward in this paper. Simulation results of Matlab/Simulink indicated that the two-segment electric-mec...

  5. Performance Evaluation of an Anti-Lock Braking System for Electric Vehicles with a Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Jingang Guo; Xiaoping Jian; Guangyu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional friction braking torque and motor braking torque can be used in braking for electric vehicles (EVs). A sliding mode controller (SMC) based on the exponential reaching law for the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is developed to maintain the optimal slip value. Parameter optimizing is applied to the reaching law by fuzzy logic control (FLC). A regenerative braking algorithm, in which the motor torque is taken full advantage of, is adopted to distribute the braking force between the m...

  6. Intelligent coil drum with electromagnetic force cancellation for MRI equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Jinhao; Tani, Junji; Ohtomo, Kikuo

    1995-01-01

    High-level noise induced in MRI equipment has been a main obstacle for their wide application in medical diagnosis. The noise is caused by the vibration of the cylindrical shell used to support the gradient magnetic field coils in MRI. In this study, a reduced-size model of the coil drum is constructed using polymer films and piezoelectric films. The piezoelectric films are divided into several patches and two patches of them are used as integrated bending actuators in the control of the shell vibration so that no external actuators are needed. The disturbance cancellation method is used since the shell is excited by predetermined forces. The relationships between the size, position and output magnitude of the actuators and control effect are also discussed. Experiment and simulation were carried out for the cases where the shell was excited at resonance frequencies of three main modes. The results show that the disturbance cancellation method in combination with the piezoelectric film actuators can successfully suppress the forced vibration of the shell and that the minimum amplitude of controlled vibration varies with the resonance mode. (author)

  7. Thermal considerations for overpack designs in drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, S.; Gromada, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The design of the overpacks in drum packages, both in terms of thickness and materials of construction, greatly impact the ability of the package to accommodate heat source contents. The optimum overpack thermal protection needed is that which results in the lowest containment vessel temperature during both Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) and Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). For heat source packages, the use of very good or high efficiency insulating materials such as fiberboard and polyurethane results in high containment vessel temperatures during both NCT and HAC. Using a more modest or low efficiency insulating material would reduce the NCT and HAC material such as oak (low efficiency) would maintain a containment vessel with a content of 100 watts at a fraction of the temperature reported for very good or high efficiency insulating materials. Four inches of oak can prevent the containment vessel from exceeding 500 degrees F during both NCT and HAC with 100 watts of contents, whereas using a high efficiency material the vessel would exceed 1000 degrees F. 8 figs., 1 tab

  8. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, Harry E.; Roberson, G. Patrick; Hollerbach, Karin; Logan, Clinton M.; Ashby, Elaine; Bernardi, Richard

    1999-01-01

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have seen increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed, 1.) Our computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. 2.) We are developing NDE and NDA techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity

  9. The effects of drumming on working memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degé, Franziska; Kerkovius, Katharina

    2018-05-04

    Our study investigated the effect of a music training program on working memory (verbal memory, visual memory, and as a part of central executive processing working memory) in older adults. The experimental group was musically trained (drumming and singing), whereas one control group received a literature training program and a second control group was untrained. We randomly assigned 24 participants (all females; M = 77 years and 3 months) to the music group, the literature group, and the untrained group. The training groups were trained for 15 weeks. The three groups did not differ significantly in age, socioeconomic status, music education, musical aptitude, cognitive abilities, or depressive symptoms. We did not find differences in the music group in central executive function. However, we found a potential effect of music training on verbal memory and an impact of music training on visual memory. Musically trained participants remembered more words from a word list than both control groups, and they were able to remember more symbol sequences correctly than the control groups. Our findings show a possible effect of music training on verbal and visual memory in older people. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Experimental and numerical studies of rotating drum grate furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basista Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste material from the meat industry can be taken into account as a biofuel. Studies confirm, that calorific value is higher and ash content is lower comparing to some conventional fuels. EU directives regulate details of thermal disposal of the waste material from the meat industry - especially in range of the process temperature and time of the particle presence in area of the combustion zone. The paper describes design of the rotating drum grate stove, dedicated to thermal disposal of the meat wastes as well as solid biomass (pellet, small bricket, wood chips combustion. Device has been developed in frames of cooperation between AGH University of Science and Technology (Krakow, Poland and producer focused on technologies of energy utilization of biomass in distributed generation. Results of measurements of selected operational parameters performed during startup of the furnace have been presented and discussed. Furthermore, numerical model of the combustion process has been developed to complement experimental results in range of the temperature and oxygen distribution in the area of the combustion chamber. ANSYS CFX solver has been applied to perform simulations including rotational domain related with specifics of operation of the device. Results of numerical modelling and experimental studies have been summarized and compared.

  11. Contact Thermal Analysis and Wear Simulation of a Brake Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Békési

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes an experimental test and a coupled contact-thermal-wear analysis of a railway wheel/brake block system through the braking process. During the test, the friction, the generated heat, and the wear were evaluated. It was found that the contact between the brake block and the wheel occurs in relatively small and slowly moving hot spots, caused by the wear and the thermal effects. A coupled simulation method was developed including numerical frictional contact, transient thermal and incremental wear calculations. In the 3D simulation, the effects of the friction, the thermal expansion, the wear, and the temperature-dependent material properties were also considered. A good agreement was found between the results of the test and the calculations, both for the thermal and wear results. The proposed method is suitable for modelling the slowly oscillating wear caused by the thermal expansions in the contact area.

  12. Product and process innovation of grey cast iron brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorn, M. [Brembo S.P.A. (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The brake disc out of grey cast iron often seems to be playing the role of the ''underdog'' in the technical examinations of the entire brake system. This is also reflected by the 25 year history of the {mu}-club. In a total of 93 presentations in those 25 years, only 3 were related to the topic of grey cast iron discs. This is not a correct relation to the importance of this component within the brake system. The disc, although per definition with a lower specific load than the pad, has the major task to store and dissipate the heat in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is transformed. The disc also has a significant effect on NVH behaviour, particularly in the low frequency range. It also has a permanent fight with its weight as an unsprung mass. (orig.)

  13. Steering redundancy for self-driving vehicles using differential braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, M.; Thor, M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes how differential braking can be used to turn a vehicle in the context of providing fail-operational control for self-driving vehicles. Two vehicle models are developed with differential input. The models are used to explain the bounds of curvature that differential braking provides and they are then validated with measurements in a test vehicle. Particular focus is paid on wheel suspension effects that significantly influence the obtained curvature. The vehicle behaviour and its limitations due to wheel suspension effects are, owing to the vehicle models, defined and explained. Finally, a model-based controller is developed to control the vehicle curvature during a fault by differential braking. The controller is designed to compensate for wheel angle disturbance that is likely to occur during the control event.

  14. Effect of the crone suspension control system on braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, X.; Oustaloup, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique; Nouillant, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique]|[DRIA-PSA Peugeot Citroen, Velizy - Villacoublay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Semi-active or active suspensions not only increase driving comfort, but also permit the control system to be switched over if required in order to improve the transmission of forces at the points of contact between tire and road surface by minimizing the dynamic wheel loads. It may also be possible to use these systems to control wheel load distribution and, thus, influence braking or steering performance by changing the distribution of normal forces between the front and rear axles. This article examines the effect of the CRONE suspension control system on braking. The central idea is to use continuously variable dampers and fast load levelling devices to distribute the normal forces of tire between the front and rear axles. The basis principle is explained using known dynamic properties of active suspension, vehicles and tires. The effect of active suspension on vehicle response during braking is then evaluated using computer simulations from a two-wheel vehicle model. (orig.)

  15. Molecular brake pad hypothesis: pulling off the brakes for emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Wood, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Under basal conditions histone deacetylases(HDACs) and their associated co-repressor complexes serve as molecular 'brake pads' to prevent the gene expression required for long-term memory formation. Following a learning event, HDACs and their co-repressor complexes are removed from a subset of specific gene promoters, allowing the histone acetylation and active gene expression required for long-term memory formation.Inhibition of HDACs increases histone acetylation,extends gene expression profiles, and allows for the formation of persistent long-term memories for training events that are otherwise forgotten. We propose that emotionally salient experiences have utilized this system to form strong and persistent memories for behaviorally significant events. Consequently, the presence or absence of HDACs at a selection of specific gene promoters could serve as a critical barrier for permitting the formation of long-term memories.

  16. Molecular brake pad hypothesis: pulling off the brakes for emotional memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Ciernia, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Under basal conditions histone deacetylases (HDACs) and their associated co-repressor complexes serve as molecular ‘brake pads’ to prevent the gene expression required for long-term memory formation. Following a learning event, HDACs and their co-repressor complexes are removed from a subset of specific gene promoters, allowing the histone acetylation and active gene expression required for long-term memory formation. Inhibition of HDACs increases histone acetylation, extends gene expression profiles, and allows for the formation of persistent long-term memories for training events that are otherwise forgotten. We propose that emotionally salient experiences have utilized this system to form strong and persistent memories for behaviorally significant events. Consequently, the presence or absence of HDACs at a selection of specific gene promoters could serve as a critical barrier for permitting the formation of long-term memories. PMID:23096102

  17. Research on motor braking-based DYC strategy for distributed electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingming; Liao, Weijie; Chen, Lei; Cui, Shumei

    2017-08-01

    In order to bring into full play the advantages of motor braking and enhance the handling stability of distributed electric vehicle, a motor braking-based direct yaw moment control (DYC) strategy was proposed. This strategy could identify whether a vehicle has under-steered or overs-steered, to calculate the direct yaw moment required for vehicle steering correction by taking the corrected yaw velocity deviation and slip-angle deviation as control variables, and exert motor braking moment on the target wheels to perform correction in the manner of differential braking. For validation of the results, a combined simulation platform was set up finally to simulate the motor braking control strategy proposed. As shown by the results, the motor braking-based DYC strategy timely adjusted the motor braking moment and hydraulic braking moment on the target wheels, and corrected the steering deviation and sideslip of the vehicle in unstable state, improving the handling stability.

  18. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  19. Optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake absorber for torsional vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B

    2012-01-01

    This research presents an optimal design of a magneto-rheological (MR) brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft. Firstly, the configuration of an MR brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft system is proposed. Then, the braking torque of the MR brake is derived based on the Bingham plastic model of the MR fluid. By assuming that the behaviour of the MR brake absorber is similar to that of a dry friction torsional damper, the optimal braking torque to control the torsional vibration is determined and validated by simulation. The optimal design problem of the MR brake absorber is then developed and a procedure to solve the optimal problem is proposed. Based on the proposed optimal design procedure, the optimal design of a specific rotating shaft system is performed. Vibration control performance of the shaft system employing the optimized MR brake absorber is then investigated through simulation and discussion on the results is given. (paper)

  20. A low cost, light weight cenosphere–aluminium composite for brake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2. Literature review. Disc brake is often used in automobile transmission system to halt a vehicle. .... components such as brake disc, jet turbines, engines, power plants, etc. ... This section presents an infrared (IR)-based wireless temperature ...