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Sample records for brake drums

  1. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  2. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, D. B., E-mail: rmt.bowo@gmail.com; Haryanto, I., E-mail: ismoyo2001@yahoo.de; Laksono, N. P., E-mail: priyolaksono89@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  3. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.47 Brake actuators... physical characteristics must provide for safe and reliable stopping of the commercial motor vehicle. (b....6 mm (1/16 inch) or less for hydraulic disc, drum and electric brakes. (2) Non-steering axle brakes...

  4. Experimental Method for Analyzing Friction Phenomenon Related to Drum Brake Squeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GLIŠOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Automobile brakes have been intensively developed during past few decades, but the maximum motor’s power, that should amortized in vehicle brakes, has been significantly increased also. Most of the kinetic energy of the moving vehicles is transforming into heat through friction. But the small part of kinetic energy transforms into sound pressure and makes noise. Low frequency squeal of drum brakes is very intense and can lead to customers’ complain. The interaction between the brake system and the vehicle framework and suspension is often very substantial during occurrence of brake noise. Unfortunately, to solve this type of squeal problem is also difficult because of the large number of components involved. The other cause is attributed to self-excited vibration that is induced when the friction material has a negative slope in relation to the relative velocity. This paper illustrates an approach to experimental studies of drum brakes in road conditions in order to monitor changes in the coefficient of friction that can generate drum brake squeal at low frequencies.

  5. The Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Ecological Characteristics of Drum and Disk Wheel Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Revin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that automobile transport as well as industry are the main sources of air pollution. In addition to exhaust gases, the flow of traffic releases a cloud of dust, consisting of over 60% of micro- and ultramicroscopic particles with radius of 10.0–0.25 µm, which are formed due to wheel abrasion (caused by the road grip of a tyre and the use of the brake blocks (in braking. The products formed in the process of wearing of the wheel brake pads are also the sources of the mass of fine dispersed particles over an urban highway. The authors analyse and evaluate ecological characteristics of drum and disk wheel brakes of vehicles.Article in Russian

  6. Effects of cooling rate on vermicular graphite percentage in a brake drum produced by one-step cored wire injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-shuang Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a vermicular graphite cast iron brake drum was produced by cored wire injection in a one-step method. Silica sand and low-density alumina-silicate ceramic were used as molding materials in order to investigate the effect of cooling rate on percentage of vermicular graphite and mechanical properties of the brake drum casting. Several thermocouples were inserted into the casting in the desired positions to measure the temperature change. By means of one-step cored wire injection, the two residual concentrations of Mg and RE were effectively controlled in the ranges of 0.013%-0.017% and 0.019%-0.025%, respectively, which are crucial for the production of vermicular graphite cast iron and the formation of vermicular graphite. In addition, the cooling rate had a significant effect on the vermicular graphite percentage. In the case of the silica mold brake drum casting, there was an obvious difference in the cooling rate with the wall change, leading to a change in vermicular graphite percentage from 70.8% to 90%. In the low-density alumina-silicate ceramic mold casting, no obvious change in temperature was detected by the thermocouples and the percentage of the vermicular graphite was stable at 85%. Therefore, the vermicular graphite cast iron brake drum with a better combination of mechanical properties could be obtained.

  7. Analysis of Failure Causes and the Criticality Degree of Elements of Motor Vehicle’s Drum Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ćatić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the paper gives the basic concepts, historical development of methods of Fault Tree Analysis - FTA and Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis - FMECA for analysis of the reliability and safety of technical systems and importance of applying this method is highlighted. Failure analysis is particularly important for systems whose failures lead to the endangerment of people safety, such as, for example, the braking system of motor vehicles. For the failure analysis of the considered device, it is necessary to know the structure, functioning, working conditions and all factors that have a greater or less influence on its reliability. By formation of the fault tree of drum brakes in braking systems of commercial vehicles, it was established a causal relation between the different events that lead to a reduction in performance or complete failure of the braking system. Based on data from exploitation, using FMECA methods, determination of the criticality degree of drum brake’s elements on the reliable and safe operation of the braking system is performed.

  8. Clutches and brakes design and selection

    CERN Document Server

    Orthwein, William C

    2004-01-01

    FRICTION MATERIALSFriction CodeWearBrake FadeFriction MaterialsNotationReferencesBAND BRAKESDerivation of EquationsApplicationLever-Actuated Band Brake: Backstop DesignExample: Design of a BackstopNotationFormula CollectionReferencesEXTERNALLY AND INTERNALLY PIVOTED SHOE BRAKESPivoted External Drum BrakesPivoted Internal Drum BrakesDesign of Dual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesDual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design ExamplesDesign of Single-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesSingle-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design Exam

  9. Braking, Wheeled Vehicles. Test Operations Procedure (TOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-20

    are as follows: a. Micrometer calipers (inside, outside, and dial types). b. Surface finish gauges. c. Torque wrench. d. Brake shoe...HAZARDOUS CONDITION • The power assist unit fails to operate. 10. Front Drum Brakes Procedure: Equipment needed: Steel scale or Vernier ... Micrometer and dial indicator. Reject the vehicle if: • Rotors are broken or damaged, or cracks on the surface extend to the outer edges. • Two grooves

  10. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  11. Optimal design and selection of magneto-rheological brake types based on braking torque and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Lang, V. T.; Choi, S. B.

    2015-06-01

    In developing magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), it is well known that the braking torque and the mass of the MRBs are important factors that should be considered in the product’s design. This research focuses on the optimal design of different types of MRBs, from which we identify an optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass. In the optimization, common types of MRBs such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-type, and T-shape types are considered. The optimization problem is to find an optimal MRB structure that can produce the required braking torque while minimizing its mass. After a brief description of the configuration of the MRBs, the MRBs’ braking torque is derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of the magnetorheological fluid. Then, the optimal designs of the MRBs are analyzed. The optimization objective is to minimize the mass of the brake while the braking torque is constrained to be greater than a required value. In addition, the power consumption of the MRBs is also considered as a reference parameter in the optimization. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is used to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs with different required braking torque values are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, we discuss the optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass.

  12. Optimal design of a hybrid MR brake for haptic wrist application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Nguyen, Phuong Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    In this work, a new configuration of a magnetorheological (MR) brake is proposed and an optimal design of the proposed MR brake for haptic wrist application is performed considering the required braking torque, the zero-field friction torque, the size and mass of the brake. The proposed MR brake configuration is a combination of disc-type and drum-type which is referred as a hybrid configuration in this study. After the MR brake with the hybrid configuration is proposed, braking torque of the brake is analyzed based on Bingham rheological model of the MR fluid. The zero-field friction torque of the MR brake is also obtained. An optimization procedure based on finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is developed for the MR brake. The purpose of the optimal design is to find the optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake structure that can produce the required braking torque and minimize the uncontrollable torque (passive torque) of the haptic wrist. Based on developed optimization procedure, optimal solution of the proposed MR brake is achieved. The proposed optimized hybrid brake is then compared with conventional types of MR brake and discussions on working performance of the proposed MR brake are described.

  13. Airborne Wear Particles Emissions ofCommercial Disc Brake Materials– Disc Brake Test Stand Simulations at LowContact Pressures and Rotors Pre-conditionedwith Rust

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlström, Jens; Olander, Lars; Olofsson, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    Most modern passenger cars have disc brakes on the front wheels, which unlike drum brakes are not sealed off to the ambient air. During braking, there is wear to both the rotor and the pads. This wear process generates particles, which may become airborne. A problem with measuring airborne wear particles in field tests is to distinguish them from the background noise. Therefore, a disc brake laboratory test stand that allows control of the cleanness of the surrounding air is used. With this t...

  14. Rotary drum separator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Michael R. (Inventor); Murdoch, Karen (Inventor); Scull, Timothy D. (Inventor); Fort, James H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rotary phase separator system generally includes a step-shaped rotary drum separator (RDS) and a motor assembly. The aspect ratio of the stepped drum minimizes power for both the accumulating and pumping functions. The accumulator section of the RDS has a relatively small diameter to minimize power losses within an axial length to define significant volume for accumulation. The pumping section of the RDS has a larger diameter to increase pumping head but has a shorter axial length to minimize power losses. The motor assembly drives the RDS at a low speed for separating and accumulating and a higher speed for pumping.

  15. Emergency braking : research summary.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    This report deals with an investigation concerning braking capacity of trucks if somewhere a failure occurs in the normal service brake. Purpose of research was to get an insight in various secondary braking systems for trucks. It is shown that with almost all of the secondary braking system it was

  16. TGV disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, X.; Foy-Margiocchi, F.; Nguyen, Q. S.; Gautier, P. E.

    2006-06-01

    The discomfort generated by the noise emission of braking systems in trains has aroused recently many studies on the mechanical modelling of brake noise in France. A theoretical and numerical discussion on the phenomenon of brake squeal is given in this paper in relation with some experimental data. This study is based upon a flutter instability analysis giving unstable modes of the brake system under the contact and Coulomb friction.

  17. Roller Locking Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Roller locking brake is normally braking rotary mechanism allowing free rotation when electromagnet in mechanism energized. Well suited to robots and other machinery which automatic braking upon removal of electrical power required. More compact and reliable. Requires little electrical power to maintain free rotation and exhibits minimal buildup of heat.

  18. A parametric FE modeling of brake for non-linear analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed,Ibrahim; Fatouh, Yasser [Automotive and Tractors Technology Department, Faculty of Industrial Education, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt); Aly, Wael [Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology Department, Faculty of Industrial Education, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    A parametric modeling of a drum brake based on 3-D Finite Element Methods (FEM) for non-contact analysis is presented. Many parameters are examined during this study such as the effect of drum-lining interface stiffness, coefficient of friction, and line pressure on the interface contact. Firstly, the modal analysis of the drum brake is also studied to get the natural frequency and instability of the drum to facilitate transforming the modal elements to non-contact elements. It is shown that the Unsymmetric solver of the modal analysis is efficient enough to solve this linear problem after transforming the non-linear behavior of the contact between the drum and the lining to a linear behavior. A SOLID45 which is a linear element is used in the modal analysis and then transferred to non-linear elements which are Targe170 and Conta173 that represent the drum and lining for contact analysis study. The contact analysis problems are highly non-linear and require significant computer resources to solve it, however, the contact problem give two significant difficulties. Firstly, the region of contact is not known based on the boundary conditions such as line pressure, and drum and friction material specs. Secondly, these contact problems need to take the friction into consideration. Finally, it showed a good distribution of the nodal reaction forces on the slotted lining contact surface and existing of the slot in the middle of the lining can help in wear removal due to the friction between the lining and the drum. Accurate contact stiffness can give a good representation for the pressure distribution between the lining and the drum. However, a full contact of the front part of the slotted lining could occur in case of 20, 40, 60 and 80 bar of piston pressure and a partially contact between the drum and lining can occur in the rear part of the slotted lining.

  19. Double pulsed holography used to investigate noisy brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldhouse, J. D.; Newcomb, T. P.

    1996-12-01

    The vibrational characteristics of a noisy passenger car disc brake have been studied using the double pulsed holographic technique which has been developed to allow three orthogonal visual images of a vibrating brake system to be recorded simultaneously. These images show the disc to be vibrating in a bending mode whereas the pad is seen to be excited in a variety of modes such as bending, torsion, and often a combination of both. The development of the technique includes alternative ways of triggering the laser and typical results from the application of these differing methods are also included along with mechanical signals which confirm the visual interpretations. Final results, using a laser trigger delay technique, show that the disc mode waveform rotates about the disc at a rate equivalent to the frequency of vibration divided by the diametral mode order. Early work on a passenger car drum brake is also introduced, this complementing commercial 'noise fix' solutions and a proposed theoretical model.

  20. Talking Drums: Generating drum grooves with neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, P.

    2017-05-01

    Presented is a method of generating a full drum kit part for a provided kick-drum sequence. A sequence to sequence neural network model used in natural language translation was adopted to encode multiple musical styles and an online survey was developed to test different techniques for sampling the output of the softmax function. The strongest results were found using a sampling technique that drew from the three most probable outputs at each subdivision of the drum pattern but the consistency of output was found to be heavily dependent on style.

  1. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalimus, Zaini

    2014-01-01

    .... If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature...

  2. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, David M., E-mail: davidb@itox.ch [Consultant in Toxicology, 1208 Geneva (Switzerland); Rogers, Rick, E-mail: rarogers5@yahoo.com [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA 02494 (United States); Sepulveda, Rosalina [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA 02494 (United States); Kunzendorf, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Kunzendorf@GSA-Ratingen.de [GSA Gesellschaft für Schadstoffanalytik mbH, D-40882 Ratingen (Germany); Bellmann, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Ernst, Heinrich, E-mail: Heinrich.ernst@item.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Phillips, James I., E-mail: jim.phillips@nioh.nhls.ac.za [National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service (South Africa); Department of Biomedical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2014-04-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T{sub 1/2} estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T{sub 1/2} > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d.

  3. Wind Braking of Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Song, L. M.; Qiao, G. J.

    2013-05-01

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L_x{<}-\\dot{E}_rot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  4. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  5. Braking System for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

    1987-01-01

    Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

  6. DRUM DRYER FOR DRYING THE PARTICULATE PRODUCTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I. S. Iurova; I. V. Kuznetsov; S. V. Shakhov; E. Z. Mateev

    2014-01-01

    For raise effectiveness drying process drum-type installation in which drum the mechanism of creation of various zones providing a necessary temperature and hydrodynamic regime of process of drying...

  7. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Haecker, C.F. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided.

  8. Braking, Wheeled Vehicles. Test Operations Procedure (TOP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... Major factors to be considered in the evaluation of vehicle braking systems are stopping and grade holding ability, vehicle stability and control during brake applications, and individual braking...

  9. An excursion on Linneaeus's drum from Sorsele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lundmark

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available When Linnaeus made his journey to Holland in 1735, a Saami drum was included in his baggage. The original owner of the drum was the Saami, Anders Nilsson Pont of Granbyn, who was denounced for the possession and use of drums. In this way Linnaeus received greetings from Lycksele lappmark, where he had never set foot. The most likely explanation is that Linnaeus got the drum from Georg Wallin the younger, who made a visit of inspection in 1715.

  10. Listening to the Shape of a Drum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Listening to the Shape of a Drum. 1. The Mathematics of Vibrating Drums. S Kesavan is with the. Institute of. Mathematical Sciences,. Chennai and has ..... If n were the unit circle in the plane (the familiar circular drum!), the eigenfunctions involve more complicated expres- sions called Bessel functions. It must be mentioned, ...

  11. Nomogram estimates holdup time in steam drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1985-06-01

    If the supply of water to a steam drum is interrupted because of feedpump failure or other reason, steam will continue to be generated and the water level in the drum will start to fall rapidly. This paper offers calculations and illustrates with a nomogram how long it will take under these conditions for the drum to be emptied.

  12. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  13. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake performance. 393.52 Section 393.52... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.52 Brake performance. (a) Upon application of its service brakes... braking force is measured by a performance-based brake tester which meets the requirements of functional...

  14. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D M; Rogers, R A; Sepulveda, R; Kunzendorf, P; Bellmann, B; Ernst, H; Creutzenberg, O; Phillips, J I

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Transnet regenerative braking concept definition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giesler, Achmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transnet has shown an interest in the concept of regenerative braking on their freight trains. Regenerative braking is the capturing, storing and re-using energy currently being wasted during regenerative braking. Currently all the energy is dumped...

  16. Cooperative Control of Regenerative Braking and Antilock Braking for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Guodong Yin; XianJian Jin

    2013-01-01

    A new cooperative braking control strategy (CBCS) is proposed for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with both a regenerative braking system and an antilock braking system (ABS) to achieve improved braking performance and energy regeneration. The braking system of the vehicle is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the antilock braking system work together with the regenerative braking system harmoniously. In the cooperative braking control strategy, a sli...

  17. Research of Motorcycle Braking Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Levulytė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From a technical point of view, in dangerous or emergency situation is very important motorcycle driver reaction and vehicle braking time. Motor-cycle deceleration parameters depend not only on the motorcycle brake system, but also on the driving experience. A significant influence on decel-eration the motorcycle has aerodynamic parameters, pavement type and condition, as well as the technical condition of the motocycle, shock absorb-ers, tire type and their technical condition. This article provides an analysis of the motorcycle longitudinal deceleration, braking modes of the mo-torcycle on a dry asphalt road surface. Motorcycle stopping – deceleration – acceleration efficiency issue, stopping in different modes. First ana-lyzed the dynamics of a motorcycle deceleration braking only the front wheel, then braked front and rear wheels and complex – then braked the front and rear wheels at the same time. The goal of experimental study is to determine the influence of braking modes intense fir motorcycle brak-ing deceleration when braking on dry road pavement, at three different braking modes, and set the braking path of change. Motorcycle decelera-tion in the longitudinal direction is an important parameter for analysis traffic accidents, for accident reconstruction process and the examination of motorcyclists technical possibility to avoid an accident.

  18. Heat distribution in disc brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenda, Frantisek; Soukup, Josef; Kampo, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is deals by the thermal analysis of the disc brake with floating caliper. The issue is solved by numerically. The half 2D model is used for solution in program ADINA 8.8. Two brake discs without the ventilation are solved. One disc is made from cast iron and the second is made from stainless steel. Both materials are an isotropic. By acting the pressure force on the brake pads will be pressing the pads to the brake disc. Speed will be reduced (slowing down). On the contact surface generates the heat, which the disc and pads heats. In the next part of article is comparison the maximum temperature at the time of braking. The temperatures of both materials for brake disc (gray cast iron, stainless steel) are compares. The heat flux during braking for the both materials is shown.

  19. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  20. Hydraulic brake-system for a bicycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Frankenhuyzen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a hydraulic brake system for a bicycle which may or may not be provided with an auxiliary motor, comprising a brake disc and brake claws cooperating with the brake disc, as well as fluid-containing channels (4,6) that extend between an operating organ (1) and the brake

  1. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake systems...

  2. Drum Circles and the National Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The beauty of hand drums is that a child of nearly any age can grab one and get a sound. So how can classroom teachers incorporate this enjoyable activity into something that's actually educational? For young students especially, a drum circle can be liberating. Children can be given various responsibilities--as participants, circle organizers,…

  3. Listening to the Shape of a Drum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 10. Listening to the Shape of a Drum - You Cannot Hear the Shape of a Drum! S Kesavan. General Article Volume 3 Issue 10 October 1998 pp 49-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Listening to the Shape of a Drum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 9. Listening to the Shape of a Drum - The Mathematics of Vibrating Drums. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 3 Issue 9 September 1998 pp 26-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Steam drum design for direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willwerth, Lisa; Müller, Svenja; Krüger, Joachim; Succo, Manuel; Feldhoff, Jan Fabian; Tiedemann, Jörg; Pandian, Yuvaraj; Krüger, Dirk; Hennecke, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    For the direct steam generation in solar fields, the recirculation concept has been demonstrated in several installations. Water masses in the solar field vary during transient phases, such as passing clouds. The volume of the steam drum can serve as a buffer during such transients by taking in excess water and providing water storage. The saturated steam mass flow to the superheating section or the consumer can be maintained almost constant during short transients; therefore the steam drum plays a key role for constant steam supply. Its buffer effect depends on the right sizing of the steam drum for the prevailing situations. Due to missing experiences, steam drums have been sized under conservative assumptions and are thereby usually oversized. With this paper, experiences on the steam drum of the 5 MWel TSE1 power plant are discussed for optimized future plant design. The results are also of relevance for process heat installations, in which saturated steam is produced by the solar field.

  6. Management of radioactive waste packaging drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il-Sik; Shon, Kang J. S.; Lee, Y. H.; Song, I. T.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, K. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    Radioactive waste drums of dismantled equipment and contaminated soil waste generated from KAERI research reactor, Seoul in 1988 were transferred to KAERI in Taejeon and are stored at low and medium level storage building until now. As a result of relatively long term storage, a corrosion on the surface of the drums was progressed and a remedial action was conducted to take a measure for the enhancement of safety. Thus, we examined the corrosion status on the surface of waste drums and studied mostly applicable methods. Resultingly, the seriously corroded drums were repackaged and the slightly corroded drums were painted after removing a corroded part on the surface. 12 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  7. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Di Massa, F.V.; Elliott, D.B.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 2, the Baseline Detail.

  8. Thermal Characterisation of Brake Pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Séverine; Høj, Jakob Weiland; Sørensen, O. T.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical-physical decomposition processes that occur in a brake pad heated to 1000degreesC have been studied. This temperature can be reached when a brake pad is applied. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used in combination with evolved gas analysis, and image analysis...... using a scanning electron microscope.A brake pad is essentially a mixture of iron, carbon and binder. Combined techniques have been used, because of chemical reaction overlap, to determine how and at what temperature the binder decomposes, the coal and graphite combust and the iron oxidises.This work...... enables the development of brake pads that are stable at high temperature....

  9. 14 CFR 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... constructed so that: (1) If any electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, or mechanical connecting or transmitting element fails, or if any single source of hydraulic or other brake operating energy supply is lost, it is... hydraulic system following a failure in, or in the vicinity of, the brakes is insufficient to cause or...

  10. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum...

  11. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily assembled...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... anchor bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum...

  16. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A.; Zeek, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations.

  17. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.M., E-mail: davidb@itox.ch [Consultant in Toxicology, Geneva (Switzerland); Rogers, R.A., E-mail: rarogers5@yahoo.com [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA (United States); Sepulveda, R. [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA (United States); Kunzendorf, P., E-mail: Peter.Kunzendorf@GSA-Ratingen.de [GSA Gesellschaft für Schadstoffanalytik mbH, Ratingen (Germany); Bellmann, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Ernst, H., E-mail: Heinrich.ernst@item.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Creutzenberg, O. [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Phillips, J.I., E-mail: jim.phillips@nioh.nhls.ac.za [National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg South Africa and Department of Biomedical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  18. Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

    2009-07-10

    Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

  19. Selection of magnetorheological brake types via optimal design considering maximum torque and constrained volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on optimal design of different types of magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), from which an optimal selection of MRB types is identified. In the optimization, common types of MRB such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-types, and T-shaped type are considered. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value of significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a maximum braking torque. The MRB is constrained in a cylindrical volume of a specific radius and length. After a brief description of the configuration of MRB types, the braking torques of the MRBs are derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of MRBs constrained in a specific cylindrical volume is then analysed. The objective of the optimization is to maximize the braking torque while the torque ratio (the ratio of maximum braking torque and the zero-field friction torque) is constrained to be greater than a certain value. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions of the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs constrained in different volumes are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, discussions on the optimal selection of MRB types depending on constrained volumes are given.

  20. Buoy-Rope-Drum Wave Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsen Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A buoy-rope-drum wave power system is a new type of floating oscillating buoy wave power device, which absorbs energy from waves by buoy-rope-drum device. Based on the linear deep water wave theory and pure resistive load, with cylinder buoy as an example, the research sets up the theoretical model of direct-drive buoy-rope-drum wave power efficiency and analyzes the influence of the mass and load of the system on its generating efficiency. It points out the two main categories of the efficient buoy-rope-drum wave power system: light thin type and resonance type, and optimal designs of their major parameters are carried out on the basis of the above theoretical model of generating efficiency.

  1. DRUM DRYER FOR DRYING THE PARTICULATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Iurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For raise effectiveness drying process drum-type installation in which drum the mechanism of creation of various zones providing a necessary temperature and hydrodynamic regime of process of drying in process of product passage on a drum and changes in it of a relationship of various forms of communication of a moisture, and also a process intensification at last stage of drying by creation разряжения in a continuous technological stream of drying is provided is offered. The drum provides formation of a zone of separation of heat-transfer agent by means of the dissector, zones of intensive drying by disposing lobate nozzles in chessboard order with a dividing ring, zones of separation of the completed heat-transfer agent from жома as a result of separator installation in which the elliptic disk having cuts on a straight line from edge to the centre places, with formation of the triangular slot for passage dried pulp and heat-transfer agent, and also zones the final drying by performance of a section of a drum matching to a zone perforated on which length are had spring-loaded lobate nozzles representing the blades connected bow-shaped rod with metal plates, had with outer side of a drum and under the form repeating its contour, thus the bow-shaped rod from the interior of a drum which ends are supplied by springs rest against overhead and bottom persistent screw nuts, and blades and metal plates are installed with possibility of twirl concerning a fastening place on a drum and supplied by reinforcing ribs.

  2. 49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake system. 238.431 Section 238.431... Equipment § 238.431 Brake system. (a) A passenger train's brake system shall be capable of stopping the... train is operating under worst-case adhesion conditions. (b) The brake system shall be designed to allow...

  3. Transient switching control strategy from regenerative braking to anti-lock braking with a semi-brake-by-wire system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Xujian; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui; Song, Jian; Ran, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Regenerative braking is an important technology in improving fuel economy of an electric vehicle (EV). However, additional motor braking will change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, leading to braking instability, especially when the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is triggered. In this paper, a novel semi-brake-by-wire system, without the use of a pedal simulator and fail-safe device, is proposed. In order to compensate for the hysteretic characteristics of the designed brake system while ensure braking reliability and fuel economy when the ABS is triggered, a novel switching compensation control strategy using sliding mode control is brought forward. The proposed strategy converts the complex coupling braking process into independent control of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking, through which a balance between braking performance, braking reliability, braking safety and fuel economy is achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective and adaptable in different road conditions while the large wheel slip rate is triggered during a regenerative braking course. The research provides a new possibility of low-cost equipment and better control performance for the regenerative braking in the EV and the hybrid EV.

  4. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  5. Mountain Braking Test Venue Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    FMVSS 105 Inertia Brake Dynamometer Test Procedure for vehicles above 4 540 kg GVWR; FMVSS Test Sequence, 2nd Fade Section,” November 2011.(15) Scope...Test Brake Temperature and Speed The U.S. Department of Defense Army Tank Purchase Description 2354A (ATPD-2354A) includes dynamometer test...11, March 1992. [12] "Performance Requirements for Determining Tow -Vehicle Gross Combination Weight Rating and Trailer Weight Rating", SAE Surface

  6. Nonlinear Coupling Characteristics Analysis of Integrated System of Electromagnetic Brake and Frictional Brake of Car

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ren; Hu, Donghai

    2015-01-01

    Since theoretical guidance is lacking in the design and control of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake, this paper aims to solve this problem and explores the nonlinear coupling characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake. This paper uses the power bond graph method to establish nonlinear coupling mathematical model of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake and c...

  7. Experimental Research on Brake Squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Daniel; Bernsteiner, Stefan

    Since many years experimental researches have been performed in order to get an insight into the issue of brake squeal. This work presents an innovative test setup for analyzing friction-excited vibrations and squeal triggering mechanisms. The investigated brake system showed brake squeal issues at certain operating points. The purpose was to analyse the brake system in detail on a test rig. Because the well-known methods of investigation such as laser vibrometer were not possible, the aim was to develop and generate new measuring points, which are close to the contact area of disc and pad. Therefore the brake calliper has been modified; hence the guide are replaced by modified ones. At these pins the friction force can be measured. Because of an optimized shape it is possible to measure the vibration of the friction force. The measured signal correlates with a parallel measured microphone signal. Next the brake disc will be assembled with triaxial accelerometers. Thus it is possible to determine the operating deflection shape of the disc. With the results of this work a new contact algorithm should be developed which can be used e.g. in Finite Element calculations.

  8. THE EFFECT OF HEAT VARIATION ON DIFFERENT BRAKE DISK BRAKING FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut DÜZGÜN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different ventilated brake discs were manufactured and their braking force performances and heat generations were investigated experimentally together with a solid disc. Braking force outputs were examined in sudden and continuous braking conditions and disc temperatures were simply measured in continuous braking conditions. Fourteen pedal forces were used in sudden braking tests and eight periodic measurements were executed in continuous braking tests. Experiment results showed that ventilation applications not only increased the brake force outputs up to 42.6 %, but also reduced the heat formation on discs up to 31.5 % depending on test conditions.

  9. Thermal analysis on motorcycle disc brake geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Zurin W., S.; Talib, R. J.; Ismail, N. I.

    2017-08-01

    Braking is a phase of slowing and stop the movement of motorcycle. During braking, the frictional heat was generated and the energy was ideally should be faster dissipated to surrounding to prevent the built up of the excessive temperature which may lead to brake fluid vaporization, thermoelastic deformation at the contact surface, material degradation and failure. In this paper, solid and ventilated type of motorcycle disc brake are being analyse using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. The main focus of the analysis is the thermal behaviour during braking for solid and ventilated disc brake. A comparison between both geometries is being discussed to determine the better braking performance in term of temperature distribution. It is found that ventilated disc brake is having better braking performance in terms of heat transfer compare to solid disc.

  10. The Saami shamanic drum in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Y. Pentikäinen

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available What is the history of the drum, which once arrived from the Saami area in northernmost Europe to the collections of an Italian museum, L. Pigorini museum? At the moment, it is the only Saami drum the existence of which is certain in Italy. Saami drums were probably popular objects of export in the 17th and 18th centuries. Missionaries and explorers brought dozens of drums from various parts of Lappmark to be sold and shipped to the private collections of noblemen and other interested people all over Continental Europe. Some of these drums later on found their way to the museums, many became lost or are still somewhere, to be traced by future investigations of local museums and private collections. There clearly has been a special interest towards the most northern corner of the European continent in the Mediterranean countries, particularly in Italy. The correspondence and other descriptions bear evidence about shamanism as the most illuminating and appealing manifestation of the ancient culture and religion of the exotic people living behind the circumpolar zone at the edge of the universe.

  11. The drum in Shamanism: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Hultkrantz

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Shamanism has not been restricted to northern Eurasia and the American Arctic, although it was here that it received its most remarkable forms. It is thus central to consider whether the drum is an integrative part of shamanism and should be examined against a general, and not a regional background. It is important to distinguish Arctic shamanism from other forms of shamanism. Arctic shamanism has a stronger profile than other varieties of shamanism, partly because of its intensity, accentuated to a certain extent by the harsh climate and environment, but also explained by the remarkable position of the shaman in an otherwise unstratified social structure. In the great variety of shamanic forms which exist south of the Arctic Subarctic zone, the drum, with a few exceptions, does not have such a prominent role. The position of the drum in other areas south of the Arctic obviously depends upon the position of shamanism. It is known that the drum is an ancient shamanic symbol in hunting culture, and where horticulture and agriculture supplanted old hunting cultures, shamanism gradually retreated. Priests and cult servants replaced shamans and the way for the trance was no longer necessary. In later shamanism outside the Arctic area the drum has gradually lost its significance.

  12. HANFORD Pu-238 DRUM INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-10-20

    Hanford is presently retrieving contact-handled, transuranic (CH-TRU) waste drums from the site's Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) for processing and disposition. A subgroup of these drums (12 total), referred to as Pu-238 drums, has some unique characteristics that may impact the current drum handling and processing activities. These characteristics include content, shielding, thermal, pressurization and criticality issues. An effort to evaluate these characteristics, for the purpose of developing a specific plan for safe retrieval of the Pu-238 drums, is underway. In addition to the above evaluation, the following integrity assessment of the inner container material and/or confinement properties, with primary emphasis on the Source Capsule (primary confinement barrier) and Shipping Container has been performed. Assessment included review of the inner container materials and the potential impact the service history may have had on material and/or confinement properties. Several environmental degradation mechanisms were considered with the objective of answering the following question: Is it likely the container material and/or confinement properties have been significantly altered as a result of service history?

  13. Brake Performance Analysis of ABS for Eddy Current and Electrohydraulic Hybrid Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an eddy current and electro-hydraulic hybrid brake system to solve problems such as wear, thermal failure, and slow response of traditional vehicle brake system. Mathematical model was built to calculate the torque of the eddy current brake system and hydraulic brake system and analyze the braking force distribution between two types of brake systems. A fuzzy controller on personal computer based on LabVIEW and Matlab was designed and a set of hardware in the loop system was constructed to validate and analyze the performance of the hybrid brake system. Through lots of experiments on dry and wet asphalt roads, the hybrid brake system achieves perfect performance on the experimental bench, the hybrid system reduces abrasion and temperature of the brake disk, response speed is enhanced obviously, fuzzy controller keeps high utilization coefficient due to the optimal slip ratio regulation, and the total brake time has a smaller decrease than traditional hydraulic brake system.

  14. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-06-17

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives.

  15. Experimental Avalanches in a Rotating Drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubard, Aline; O'Hern, Corey; Shattuck, Mark

    We address the question of universality in granular avalanches and the system size effects on it. We set up an experiment made from a quasi-two-dimensional rotating drum half-filled with a monolayer of stainless-steel spheres. We measure the size of the avalanches created by the increased gravitational stress on the pile as we quasi-statically rotate the drum. We find two kinds of avalanches determined by the drum size. The size and duration distributions of the avalanches that do not span the whole system follow a power law and the avalanche shapes are self-similar and nearly parabolic. The distributions of the avalanches that span the whole system are limited by the maximal amount of potential energy stored in the system at the moment of the avalanche. NSF CMMI-1462439, CMMI-1463455.

  16. Brake System Analysis, Reliability Testing And Control Using Bench Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Z.; Yang, B.

    1997-01-01

    In this project, the authors investigated the dynamics and reliability of a brake control system using a test bench which is a Lincoln Town Car brake system. The objectives of the project are to: 1) experimentally characterize the brake system; 2) obtain good nonlinear models of the brake system; 3) perform reliability analysis of the brake control system; and, 4) develop algorithms for brake malfunction detection and brake reliability enhancement. By using the brake test bench, the dynamic c...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design feature means either the manufacturer...

  18. DRUMS: Domain-specific Requirements Modeling for Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Requirements engineering is crucial for many software projects, but formal requirements engineering is often ignored in scientific software projects. This dissertation presents DRUMS, a lightweight framework to support early requirements engineering for scientists. DRUMS has been applied in several scientific domains, such as building performance and seismology. Results show that DRUMS significantly improves the effectiveness of requirements engineering in these domains. Anforderungsmanage...

  19. 49 CFR 393.41 - Parking brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.41 Parking brake system. (a) Hydraulic-braked vehicles... road (free of ice and snow). Hydraulic-braked vehicles which were not subject to the parking brake... spring action. If other energy is used to apply the parking brake, there must be an accumulation of that...

  20. THE STUDY OF BRAKE EFFECTIVENESS HOPPER SYSTEM WITH SEPARATE BRAKING TRUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Je. Nishhenko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of tests of the hopper brake systems for the pellets having typical system and separate braking per each bogie are presented. It is shown that the brake system with separate braking has several advantages as compared to the typical one.

  1. A Demonstration of Car Braking Instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jack; Swinson, Derek

    1990-01-01

    Detailed are the construction of a demonstration car, apparatus and procedures used in the demonstration, and the analysis of the effects of car braking. The cases of rear-wheel and front-wheel braking are considered. (CW)

  2. Metal matrix composites synthesis, wear characteristics, machinability study of MMC brake drum

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Nanjappan; Davim, J Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to composite materials, presenting different synthesis processes, composite properties and their machining behaviour. The book describes also the problems on manufacturing of metal matrix composite components. Among others, it provides procedures for manufacturing of metal matrix composites and case studies.

  3. Brakes, brake control and driver assistance systems function, regulation and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Braking systems have been continuously developed and improved throughout the last years. Major milestones were the introduction of antilock braking system (ABS) and electronic stability program. This reference book provides a detailed description of braking components and how they interact in electronic braking systems. Contents Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Car braking-system components.- Wheel brakes.- Antilock breaking systems.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modulator.- Sensors for brake control.- Sensotronic brake control.- Active steering.- Occupant protection systems.- Driver assistance systems.- Adaptive cruise control.- Parking systems.- Instrumentation.- Orientation methods.- Navigation systems.- Workshop technology. The target groups Motor-vehicle technicians in education and vocational training Master-mechanics and technicians in garage-workshops Teachers and lecturers in vocation...

  4. BRAKING OF HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER TRAINS WITH REGARD TO THE OPERATION OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC RAIL BRAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Je. Naumenko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of the braking process of high-speed passenger train with the use of compressed-air, electropneumatic and electromagnetic track brakes is carried out. The dependences of braking distance on motion speed for vehicles equipped by block or disk brakes as well as for a case of electromagnetic track brakes used in addition to existing braking means.

  5. Deterioration mechanisms of drum winder ropes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, M

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available existed regarding the effectiveness of some of the specifications in the code. These were drum and head sheave sizes, rope layers, and the maximum dynamic rope load range allowed. The objectives of the investigations described in this report were...

  6. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake system. 238.231 Section 238.231... Equipment § 238.231 Brake system. Except as otherwise provided in this section, on or after September 9... train's primary brake system shall be capable of stopping the train with a service application from its...

  7. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DYNAMICS BRAKING BIAXIAL TROLLEYBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Mazanik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the questions of braking of trolleybus by working braking system with connected and disconnected electric drive motor. Main constructive differences of trolleybuses are shown including characteristics of electric drive motor in the mode of braking. Methods of road test are given. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental  research has analyzed. 

  8. Sensotronic brake control. Braking with maximum efficiency; Die Sensotronic Brake Control. Bremsen auf hoechstem Niveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischle, G.; Stoll, U.; Hinrichs, W.

    2002-05-01

    Sensotronic Brake Control (SBC) celebrated its world premiere when it was introduced into standard production along with the new SL in October 2001. This innovative brake system is also fitted as standard in the new E-Class. The design of the system components is identical to those used in the SL-Class. The software control parameters have been adapted to the conditions in the new saloon. (orig.) [German] Die Sensotronic Brake Control (SBC) wurde als Weltneuheit mit dem neuen SL im Oktober 2001 in Serie gebracht. Dieses innovative Bremssystem gehoert ebenfalls zur Serienausstattung der neuen E-Klasse. Die Systemkomponenten sind baugleich mit denen der SL-Klasse. Die Regelparameter der Software sind an die Verhaeltnisse der Limousine angepasst. (orig.)

  9. Cooperative Control of Regenerative Braking and Antilock Braking for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new cooperative braking control strategy (CBCS is proposed for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV with both a regenerative braking system and an antilock braking system (ABS to achieve improved braking performance and energy regeneration. The braking system of the vehicle is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the antilock braking system work together with the regenerative braking system harmoniously. In the cooperative braking control strategy, a sliding mode controller (SMC for ABS is designed to maintain the wheel slip within an optimal range by adjusting the hydraulic braking torque continuously; to reduce the chattering in SMC, a boundary-layer method with moderate tuning of a saturation function is also investigated; based on the wheel slip ratio, battery state of charge (SOC, and the motor speed, a fuzzy logic control strategy (FLC is applied to adjust the regenerative braking torque dynamically. In order to evaluate the performance of the cooperative braking control strategy, the braking system model of a hybrid electric vehicle is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It is found from the simulation that the cooperative braking control strategy suggested in this paper provides satisfactory braking performance, passenger comfort, and high regenerative efficiency.

  10. Brake blending strategy for a hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Evan S.

    2000-12-05

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including a transmission for driving a pair of wheels of a vehicle and a heat engine and an electric motor/generator coupled to the transmission. A friction brake system is provided for applying a braking torque to said vehicle. A controller unit generates control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system for controllably braking the vehicle in response to a drivers brake command. The controller unit determines and amount of regenerative torque available and compares this value to a determined amount of brake torque requested for determining the control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system.

  11. Developing of a software for determining advanced brake failures in brakes test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Köylü

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At present time, the brake test bench conducts the braking and suspension tests of front or rear axles and the test results are evaluated through one axle. The purpose of the brake testing system is to determine braking force and damping coefficient dissymmetry of one axle. Thus, this test system evaluates the performance of service brake, hand brake and suspension systems by considering separately front and rear axle dissymmetry. For this reason, the effects of different braking and damping forces applied by right and left wheels of both axles on braking performance of all vehicle are not determined due to available algorithm of the test bench. Also, the other brake failures are not occurred due to the algorithm of brake test system. In this study, the interface has been developed to determine the other effects of dissymmetry and the other brake failures by using the one axle results of brake test bench. The interface has algorithm computing the parameters according to the interaction between front and rear axles by only using measured test results. Also, it gives the warnings by comparing changes in the parameters with braking performance rules. Braking and suspension tests of three different vehicles have been conducted by using brake test bench to determine the performance of the algorithm. Parameters based on the axle interaction have been calculated by transferring brake test results to the interface and the test results have been evaluated. As a result, the effects of brake and suspension failures on braking performance of both axle and vehicle have been determined thanks to the developed interface.

  12. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  13. Different ways of classifying drums with reference to illustrations and positioning of drum illustrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kjellström

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the traditional Saami hunting in relation to the animal and hunting motifs on their drum, more specifially the southern Saami drums. One may wonder if it is possible for anyone to interpret a picture unconditionally. One has a certain ground of one's own to stand on and the question arises of whether this is the correct position, when -as in the present case — we approach another culture. We naturally include the experiences of our own culture in interpretations of another culture. The animal which is the commonest species on the southern Saami drums, is the reindeer. Other animals that occur are elks, wolves, beavers, foxes, snakes, among others. Considering the Saamis' hunting weapons, the most important of these were the bow and arrow, and the spear or spear shaft. Of these weapons it is the bow which is most often portrayed on drums. Also some trapping implement like a gin may appear on a drum, but in general we have little or no information about hunting or trapping methods at all.

  14. Chipping machines: disc and drum energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Facello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and fossil fuel reserves exhaustion are increasing the importance of the biomass-derived products, in particular wood, as source of clean and renewable energy for the production of electricity or steam. In order to improve the global efficiency and the entire production chain, we have to evaluate the energetic aspects linked to the process of transformation, handling and transport of these materials. This paper reports results on a comparison between two chippers of similar size using different cutting technology: disc and drum tool respectively. During trials, fuel consumption, PTO torque and speed, processing time and weight of processed material were recorded. Power demand, fuel consumption, specific energy and productivity were computed. The machine was fed with four different feedstock types (chestnut logs, poplar logs, poplar branches, poplar sawmill residues. 15 repetitions for each combination of feedstock-tool were carried out. The results of this study show that the disc tool requires, depending on the processed material, from 12 to 18% less fuel per unit of material processed than the drum tool, and consequently, from 12 to 16% less specific energy. In particular, the highest difference between tools was found in branches processing whereas the smallest was in poplar logs. Furthermore the results of the investigation indicate, that, in testing conditions, the productivity of drum tool is higher (8% than disc tool.

  15. Increasing reliability of braking systems in mine hoisting machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalov, N.I.; Kurchenko, E.M.

    1980-05-01

    This article reviews the braking systems used in hoisting machines in vertical and inclined shafts in coal mines. Braking systems used in hoisting machines can generally be divided into two groups: lack of pressure in the braking system cylinder turns on the brakes, or lack of pressure turns the brakes off. Manual operation of the braking system can sometimes create problems as sudden movement of the brake lever into position, i.e. braking, causes intensive braking with all its negative consequences for the installation. Therefore, an electric device is presented which can be included in the electric circuit of the braking system. A scheme of the apparatus is shown. When the proposed apparatus is included in the electric control system of the brakes, moving the lever into position i.e. braking, causes gradual changes in the flow of electric current, and therefore braking is smoother. (In Russian)

  16. The Saami shaman drums: some reflexions from an archaelogical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Zachrisson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saami shaman drums from northern Scandinavia can be discussed from many different points of view. For an archaeologist there are other questions of interest than those which generally occupy the historian of religions. One important question is how old the known Saami drums are. The known drums are as a rule assumed to be from the seventeenth or the eighteenth centuries, when most of them were collected. It has also been thought that, because of the materials they are made of, drums could not have been preserved any longer. Another perhaps more interesting question is how old the known types of Saami drums might be. When did they acquire their 'classical' form? What did the Viking Age Saami drums look like?

  17. The sound picture of the Saami shamanic drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kristoffersson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the Saami shamanic drum has mainly concerned the pictorial world of the drumhead. Therefore, studying the sound picture may give new insights into the Saami Shamanic drum. In my study of the Saami drum I have tried to find the answer to two questions: 1 Is it possible to detect the sound pictogram from some of the drums preserved? 2 Are there marks of usage which might indicate what kind of sounds the users preferred? A comparison of the different drums shows that the signs of usage are surprisingly consistent. The drum sounds reach the receptive organs in the human ear in a range of low but strong tones, with low frequencies but high amplitude. This means that more energy is transferred into the nervous system than with various other types of instrumental sounds.

  18. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  19. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Gerson

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early music perception and cognition.

  20. 49 CFR 238.309 - Periodic brake equipment maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with other than an AB, ABD, ABDX, 26-C, or equivalent brake system. (e) Cab cars. The brake equipment... schedule: (1) Every 1,476 days for that portion of the cab car brake system using brake valves that are identical to the passenger coach 26-C brake system; (2) Every 1,104 days for that portion of the cab car...

  1. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.40 Required brake systems. (a) Each commercial motor vehicle must have brakes adequate to stop and hold the vehicle or combination of motor vehicles. Each commercial..., and 393.52 of this subpart. (4) Electric brake systems. Motor vehicles equipped with electric brake...

  2. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear...) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall be...

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  4. New material technologies for brakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, T.; Rebstock, K.

    2000-07-01

    Brake discs made of grey cast iron are produced today in large quantities in seconds clock pulse. In spite of less tolerance and greater quality demands, extremely small unit costs are realised. On the one hand, the reason for this may be found in the low prices of the raw materials, refined production technology and large production numbers. On the other hand, the technical potential of grey cast-iron has essentially been exhausted. For further technical innovations in the area of brakes, new materials such as Al-MMC and CMC play an important role. The potential has already been demonstrated. In part an assembly installation has already been successful (see rail traffic) or will be shortly (see SLR at the IAA 99). The main hindrance to further assembly installation of a large number of items is the high installation costs. Therefore, in the future, along with the reduction of raw material costs (for example, C-Fibre) the main direction that will need to be taken to further reduce production costs, wil have to be in the realisation of a production technology with reliable processes suitable for large volumes. Otherwise, alternative brake disc material will only have a reduced significance. (orig.)

  5. Design and Analysis of a Novel Centrifugal Braking Device for a Mechanical Antilock Braking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Ping; Yang, Ming-Shien; Liu, Tyng

    2015-06-01

    A new concept for a mechanical antilock braking system (ABS) with a centrifugal braking device (CBD), termed a centrifugal ABS (C-ABS), is presented and developed in this paper. This new CBD functions as a brake in which the output braking torque adjusts itself depending on the speed of the output rotation. First, the structure and mechanical models of the entire braking system are introduced and established. Second, a numerical computer program for simulating the operation of the system is developed. The characteristics of the system can be easily identified and can be designed with better performance by using this program to studying the effects of different design parameters. Finally, the difference in the braking performance between the C-ABS and the braking system with or without a traditional ABS is discussed. The simulation results indicate that the C-ABS can prevent the wheel from locking even if excessive operating force is provided while still maintaining acceptable braking performance.

  6. Coefficient of Friction of a Brake Disc-Brake Pad Friction Couple

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A.W. Orłowicz; M. Mróz; G. Wnuk; O. Markowska; W. Homik; B. Kolbusz

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns evaluation of the coefficient of friction characterising a friction couple comprising a commercial brake disc cast of flake graphite grey iron and a typical brake pad for passenger motor car...

  7. Sound Quality and Striking Position of a Conga Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the location at which a drum membrane was struck and the quality of sound produced was investigated by striking the drum at several distances between the center and the rim. Through analyzing the harmonics of the wave produced from the impact, it was shown that as the striking location changes, the relative amplitudes of different modes of vibration also changes. It was found that sound of a higher pitch is produced at the rim of the drum than anywhere else on the drum head due to higher modes of vibration becoming dominant.

  8. Sound Quality and Striking Position of a Conga Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the location at which a drum membrane was struck and the quality of sound produced was investigated by striking the drum at several distances between the center and the rim. Through analyzing the harmonics of the wave produced from the impact, it was shown that as the striking location changes, the relative amplitudes of different modes of vibration also changes. It was found that sound of a higher pitch is produced at the rim of the drum than anywhere else on the drum head due to higher modes of vibration becoming dominant.

  9. Talking about the Automobile Braking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    With the continuous progress of society, the continuous development of the times, people’s living standards continue to improve, people continue to improve the pursuit. With the rapid development of automobile manufacturing, the car will be all over the tens of thousands of households, the increase in car traffic, a direct result of the incidence of traffic accidents. Brake system is the guarantee of the safety of the car, its technical condition is good or bad, directly affect the operational safety and transportation efficiency, so the brake system is absolutely reliable. The requirements of the car on the braking system is to have a certain braking force to ensure reliable work in all cases, light and flexible operation. Normal braking should be good performance, in addition to a foot sensitive, the emergency brake four rounds can not be too long, not partial, not ring.

  10. STUDY REGARDING THE CAR BRAKE DISC TEMPERATURE VARIATION DURING THE LENGTHY BRAKING

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGOMIR George; PANCU Rares; MITRAN Tudor Adrian; GEORGESCU Liviu; MOCA Sorin; CHIOREANU Catalin

    2015-01-01

    When a car descends a slope with a great length, the thermal stresses resulting from contact between the brake discs and brake pads, there is possible to exceed the maximal limits of the materials resistance, resulting the rapid wear, decreasing performance of braking or the loss control of movement and the road accidents are producing. The study refers to establishment the dependence between the braking intensity and time when the temperature achieves a maximum limit ...

  11. Impact of Brake Pad Structure on Temperature and Stress Fields of Brake Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Guoshun Wang; Rong Fu

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing ABAQUS finite element software, the study established the relationship between a brake pad structure and distributions of temperature and thermal stress on brake disc. By introducing radial structure factor and circular structure factor concepts, the research characterized the effect of friction block radial and circumferential arrangement on temperature field of the brake disc. A method was proposed for improving heat flow distribution of the brake disc through optimizing the posit...

  12. STUDY REGARDING THE CAR BRAKE DISC TEMPERATURE VARIATION DURING THE LENGTHY BRAKING

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGOMIR George; PANCU Rares; MITRAN Tudor Adrian; GEORGESCU Liviu

    2015-01-01

    When a car descends a slope with a great length, the thermal stresses resulting from contact between the brake discs and brake pads, there is possible to exceed the maximal limits of the materials resistance, resulting the rapid wear, decreasing the performance of braking or the loss control of movement and the road accidents are producing. The study refers to establishment the dependence between the braking intensity and time when the temperature achieves a the maximu...

  13. Simple Non-regenerative Deceleration Control of Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Motor for Vibration Control in Drum-type Washer/Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomigashi, Yoshio; Okonogi, Akira; Kishimoto, Keiji

    Drum-type washer/dryers are becoming more common in Japan, but the vibration created by unequally distributed clothes is a significant problem in this type of machine. We have developed a vibration control that prevents this imbalance by re-arranging the balancer fluid on the opposite side of the heavier distribution when there is unequal distribution. The drum, which has a large inertia, must be decelerated rapidly to enable the balancer fluid to shift. When a permanent magnetic synchronous motor is decelerated using an inverter, the machine's energy is converted into electrical energy, which regenerates the power supply. A control method has been developed that adjusts the input power of the motor to zero, thereby eliminating the need for a discharge circuit. However, it is not easy to achieve this method with an inexpensive microcomputer. In this paper, a practical braking method in which energy does not regenerate the power supply is examined. First, a simple method in which non-regenerative braking is possible with low input power is proposed, even though the input power is not zero. The effectiveness of this non-regenerative deceleration control is verified by theoretical numerical analysis and by an experiment. The borderline of the voltage vector for the non-generative braking is affected by dead time, and the experimental results differ from the theoretically calculated results. However, it is experimentally confirmed that the proposed non-regenerative deceleration control can be achieved by correcting the impressed voltage vector based on experimental results. Finally, this control is applied to the vibration control of the drum-type washer/dryer, and it is confirmed that the balancer fluid moves as designed.

  14. Dynamics of Braking Vehicles: From Coulomb Friction to Anti-Lock Braking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and…

  15. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  16. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  17. Chimpanzee drumming : a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, Valerie; Poulin, Nicolas; Cure, Charlotte; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species,

  18. Multiloop control of a drum boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kozáková

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Equivalent Subsystems Method (ESM (Kozáková et al., 2011 is methodology of decentralized controller design in the frequency domain which allows designing local controllers using any SISO frequency domain method. The paper deals with the digital ESM version where digital local PID controllers guaranteeing required performance for the full system are designed for individual equivalent subsystems using the practice-oriented Sine-wave method (Bucz et al., 2012. The proposed decentralized controller design procedure was verified on the nonlinear benchmark drum boiler simulation model (Morilla, 2012.

  19. Laboratory Scale Testing of Thermoelectric Regenerative Braking System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Sevvel; I S Stephan Thangaiah; S Mars Mukesh; G Mohammed Anif

    2015-01-01

      Thermoelectric Regenerative Braking System (TERBS) employs an energy recovery mechanism by utilizing the energy conversion at the time of braking in an automobile to generate electricity accordingly...

  20. Safety of winder disc brakes - a structural approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzinski, S.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes reliability and safety of ASEA disc brakes installed in Polish mine hoist winding units. A theoretical assessment of disc brake safety is made; reliability diagrams for disc brake systems are established. A calculation example of safety assessment is also given, i.e. probability of brake failure of systems equipped with one or two pairs of brake discs. Furthermore, dangerous brake failures are explained as due to oil contaminations originating from hydraulic element leakage. Probability of failure of one-disk or two-disc brake systems is also determined. Schemes of the ASEA hydraulic disc brake system as well as working assembly and control assembly reliability diagrams are provided. 11 refs.

  1. Forecasting temperature fluctuations of brake discs on a hoisting machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barecki, Z.; Jankowski, A.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates a method for forecasting temperature of brake discs on hoists used in underground coal mines. Formulae describing the following phenomena are derived: energy of mechanical braking, density of energy stream absorbed by the friction liners on disc brakes, temperature increase of a disc brake caused by braking, disc cooling intensity, disc temperature during repeated braking, minimum disc mass and surface. Use of the forecasting formulae is explained with the example of disc brake operation on 2 hoists. Temperature increase on disc surface and temperature increase of disc volume are treated as 2 basic indices characterizing disc brake operation. 11 refs.

  2. Research on Heat-Mechanical Coupling of Ventilated Disc Brakes under the Condition of Emergency Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuelong; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Wenxian; Zhang, Yang

    Taking the ventilated disc brake in some company as research object, and using UG to build 3D models of brake disc and pad, and making use of ABAQUS/Standard to set up two parts' finite element model, via the decelerated motion of actual simulation brake disc, which gets ventilated disc brake in the case of emergency breaking in time and space distribution of conditions of temperature and stress field, summarizes the distribution of temperature field and stress field, proves complex coupling between temperature, stress, and supplies the direct basis for brake's fatigue life analysis.

  3. Avoidance of brake squeal by a separation of the brake disc's eigenfrequencies: A structural optimization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Brake squeal is a high-pitched noise in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 16 kHz originating from self-excited vibrations caused by the frictional contact between brake pads and brake disc. Since some decades, it has intensively been studied and many countermeasures have been proposed, including active and passive methods. It is known from experiments and has also been proved mathematically that splitting the eigenfrequencies of the brake rotor has a stabilizing effect and avoids brake sq...

  4. Asbestos fibres in the lungs of an American mechanic who drilled, riveted, and ground brake linings: a case report and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Murray M

    2015-05-01

    In North America and Europe, the use of asbestos in friction products was discontinued before the end of the 20th century. In the developing world, the use of asbestos-containing friction products continues. In 2010, Cely-Garcia and colleagues (Cely-Garcia et al., 2012) sampled three brake repair shops located in Bogota, Colombia. Both asbestos and non-asbestos containing brake linings were sold separately or attached to a shoe. When brake linings are sold separated from the shoe, they must be manipulated to attach them to the shoe before installation. The process starts with the removal of the old brake shoe from the vehicle's brake drum. If the existing brake shoe is to be reused, the old lining needs to be removed and the old shoe must be ground to prepare it for a new lining. Riveting requires drilling holes in the linings and shoes and before installing rivets, the lining must be countersunk. The borders of the lining are bevelled. On some occasions, the entire exposed surface of the lining is ground to make it thinner. Once attached to the shoe, the edges of brake linings may extend beyond the shoe. In this case, it is necessary to cut or grind the edges to match the lining to the shoe before bevelling or grinding. The authors reported that 'the sampling results indicate that the brake mechanics sampled are exposed to extremely high asbestos concentrations (i.e. based on transmission electron microscopy counts), suggesting that this occupational group could be at excess risk of asbestos-related diseases'. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  5. Making music for mental health: how group drumming mediates recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rosie; Ascenso, Sara; Atkins, Louise; Fancourt, Daisy; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    While music-making interventions are increasingly recognised as enhancing mental health, little is known of why music may engender such benefit. The objective of this article is to elucidate the features of a programme of group drumming known to enable mental health recovery. Qualitative research was conducted with 39 mental health patients and carers who had demonstrated recovery following engagement with a programme of group djembe drumming in the UK. Data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews and focus group interviews designed to understand the connection between drumming and recovery and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Results revealed three overarching features of the drumming intervention: (1) the specific features of drumming, including drumming as a form of non-verbal communication, as a connection with life through rhythm, and as a grounding experience that both generates and liberates energy; (2) the specific features of the group, including the group as a space of connection in and through the rhythmic features of the drumming, as well as facilitating feelings of belonging, acceptance, safety and care, and new social interactions; (3) the specific features of the learning, including learning as an inclusive activity in which the concept of mistakes is dissolved and in which there is musical freedom, supported by an embodied learning process expedited by the musical facilitator. The findings provide support for the conceptual notion of 'creative practice as mutual recovery', demonstrating that group drumming provides a creative and mutual learning space in which mental health recovery can take place.

  6. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers and drums. 1434.8 Section 1434.8... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers...

  7. Solar thermal drum drying performance of prune and tomato pomaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable pomaces are co-products of the food processing industry; they are underutilized in part because their high water activity (aw) renders them unstable. Drum drying is one method that can dry/stabilize pomaces, but current drum drying methods utilize conventional, high-environmental...

  8. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN PECULIARITIES PERTAINING TO DRUMS OF CONTINUOUS MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Prushak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers design peculiarities of belt conveyor drums in respect of their operational reliability; their advantages and disadvantages have been analyzed. There are some proposals presenting technical solutions to modernization of belt conveyor drum designs which presuppose reduction of their material consumption while preserving their strength and general rigidity. 

  9. Impact of Brake Pad Structure on Temperature and Stress Fields of Brake Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing ABAQUS finite element software, the study established the relationship between a brake pad structure and distributions of temperature and thermal stress on brake disc. By introducing radial structure factor and circular structure factor concepts, the research characterized the effect of friction block radial and circumferential arrangement on temperature field of the brake disc. A method was proposed for improving heat flow distribution of the brake disc through optimizing the position of the friction block of the brake pad. Structure optimization was conducted on brake pads composed of 5 or 7 circular friction blocks. The result shows that, with the same overall contact area of friction pair, an appropriate brake pad structure can make the friction energy distribute evenly and therefore lowers peak temperature and stress of the brake disc. Compared with a brake pad of 7 friction blocks, an optimized brake pad of 5 friction blocks lowered the peak temperature of the corresponding brake disc by 4.9% and reduced the highest stress by 10.7%.

  10. New technical solutions of using rolling stock electrodynamical braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some theoretical and practical problems associated with the use of traction motor are operating in the generator mode (in braking. Mathematical and graphical relationships of electrodynamic braking, taking into account the requirements raised to braking systems in rail transport are presented. The latter include discontinuity of braking process, braking force regulation, depending on the locomotive speed, mass, type of railway and other parameters. Schematic diagrams of the locomotive braking and ways of controlling the braking force by varying electric circuit parameters are presented. The authors suggested contact-free regulation method of braking resistor for controlling braking force in rheostatic braking, and resistor parameters regulate with pulse regulation mode by semiconductor devices, such as new electrical components for rolling stock – IGBT transistors operating in the key mode. Presenting energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking-returning energy and diesel engine or any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  11. Method and apparatus for electromagnetically braking a motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electromagnetic braking system and method is provided for selectively braking a motor using an electromagnetic brake having an electromagnet, a permanent magnet, a rotor assembly, and a brake pad. The brake assembly applies when the electromagnet is de-energized and releases when the electromagnet is energized. When applied the permanent magnet moves the brake pad into frictional engagement with a housing, and when released the electromagnet cancels the flux of the permanent magnet to allow a leaf spring to move the brake pad away from the housing. A controller has a DC/DC converter for converting a main bus voltage to a lower braking voltage based on certain parameters. The converter utilizes pulse-width modulation (PWM) to regulate the braking voltage. A calibrated gap is defined between the brake pad and permanent magnet when the brake assembly is released, and may be dynamically modified via the controller.

  12. Automotive brake wear: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Syed M S

    2018-01-01

    Road transport systems generate toxic particulate matter (PM) when in motion, that ultimately finds its way to the atmosphere. The PM produced by road transport systems can be broadly classified as exhaust and non-exhaust emissions. Exhaust emission is primarily due to product of combustion, as is the case of internal combustion engines and the PM is released to the atmosphere through the tail. Non-exhaust PM sources can be classified as sources such as emissions due to brake wear, tyre wear, road surface wear and resuspension. Both exhaust and non-exhaust sources generate PM of various sizes and shapes that has an impact on our health. Strict legislations by authorities have led to reduced exhaust emissions; however, due to the nature of complexity of PM generation by non-exhaust sources, effective control of non-exhaust emission still needs to be developed. Thus, as exhaust emissions are being controlled, non-exhaust is becoming a significant source of PM emission. The present paper reviews work done by previous researchers on non-exhaust PM and specifically, brake wear from road transport systems as this is one of the most important non-exhaust source of PM in the environment. The finding of the paper would be beneficial to policy makers and researchers.

  13. Frictional Performance and Temperature Rise of a Mining Nonasbestos Brake Material during Emergency Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Bao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By simulating emergency braking conditions of mine hoisters, tribological experiments of a mining nonasbestos brake material sliding on E355CC steel friction disc investigated a pad-on-disc friction tester. It is shown that, under combined influence of braking velocity and pressure, the lubricating film and micro-convex-apices on wear surface would have complex physicochemical reactions which make the instant friction coefficient rise gradually while the instant surface temperature rises first and then falls. With the antifriction effect from lubricating film and the desquamating of composite materials, the mean friction coefficient decreases first, then rises, and decreases again with the increasing of initial braking velocity. And with the existence of micro-convex-apices and variation from increment ratio of load and actual contacting area, it rises first and then falls with the increasing of braking pressure. However, the mean surface temperature rises obviously with the increasing of both initial braking velocity and braking pressure for growth of transformed kinetic energy. It is considered that the friction coefficient cannot be considered as a constant when designing brake devices for mine hoisters. And special attention should be paid to the serious influence of surface temperature on tribological performance of brake material during emergency braking.

  14. The development of rotary drum dryer for palm fruit sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifarianty, S.; Legwiriyakul, A.; Alimalbari, A.; Nuntadusit, C.; Theppaya, T.; Wae-Hayee, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to design and develop a rotary drum dryer for palm fruit sterilization. In this article, the results of the effect of ventilation hole number on the reduction of moisture content in palm fruit were presented. The experimental set up was a drum dryer which has 57.5 cm in a diameter and 90 cm in a length (the size was similar to 200-littre steel drum container). A driving gear and a gear motor rotated the drum dryer. The ventilation hole were drilled on the lateral side of the drum. The diameter of ventilation hole was 10 mm, and the number of ventilation hole were 18, 36 and 72 hole (each side was 9, 18 and 36 hole, respectively). In the experiment, the palm fruit was dried by using LPG to burn and heat the bottom of the drum. The flow rate of LPG was controlled to keep the temperature inside the drum steadily at 120°C.

  15. Study on Braking Sensation Based on Urban Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi Lanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we researched the vehicle braking sense in three aspects of human, vehicle and environment and analysed their impacts on brake feeling. Through the real vehicle test we analysed the relationship among pedal force, pedal travel and deceleration. We used dynamometer test method to study the brake noise question. We designed a fixture which could imitate the suspension and made the test more close to the true level. Moreover we discussed how to establish the evaluation system of vehicle braking condition. Through real vehicle test of braking, we can test and record the brake system parameters in the braking process under urban working conditions. We recorded the brake frequency, the change of brake speed and brake disc temperature. Meanwhile, based on the analysis of braking condition, we put forward the index of brake load to reflect the city’s traffic conditions. Experiment show that the braking condition and brake feel are related, braking condition also provides theoretical support for the design of brake system.

  16. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER... car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a qualified person in...

  17. 49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... side of each car's brake system responds properly to application and release signals; (2) The brake... applied on each car in the train until a release of the brakes has been initiated on each car in response... operating two-way radio system meets this requirement; (5) Each brake shoe or pad is securely fastened and...

  18. 49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Front brake lines, protection. 393.44 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if... any of the front wheels is broken, the driver can apply the brakes on the rear wheels despite such...

  19. PROVIDING STABLE FRICTION PROPERTIES OF DISC BRAKES FOR RAILWAY VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Y. OSENIN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed to ensure the stability of the coefficient of friction at different braking modes for the entire speed range of braking high-speed ground transport. The new approach is a combination of friction materials with individual effort effects on the brake disc. A brake pad design and its performance are confirmed experimentally.

  20. Biodegradability of unused lubricating brake fluids in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive oil was used as the positive control while sodium azide served as the negative control. The results obtained showed the following rate of biodegradability in fresh water and marine water; Total brake fluid (20, 2.3 percent), Allied brake fluid (40%, 1%), Oando brake fluid (44%, 2.5%), and Ate brake fluid (13.3%, 2.1%).

  1. Dynamic analysis of three autoventilated disc brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. García-León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The braking system of a car must meet several requirements, among which safety is the most important. It is also composed of a set of mechanical parts such as springs, different types of materials (Metallic and Non Metallic, gases and liquids. The brakes must work safely and predictably in all circumstances, which means having a stable level of friction, in any condition of temperature, humidity and salinity of the environment. For a correct design and operation of brake discs, it is necessary to consider different aspects, such as geometry, type of material, mechanical strength, maximum temperature, thermal deformation, cracking resistance, among others. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to analyze the dynamics and kinetics of the brake system from the pedal as the beginning of mathematical calculations to simulate the behavior and Analysis of Finite Elements (FEA, with the help of SolidWorks Simulation Software. The results show that the third brake disc works best in relation to the other two discs in their different working conditions such as speed and displacement in braking, concluding that depending on the geometry of the brake and the cooling channels these systems can be optimized that are of great importance for the automotive industry.

  2. The aesthetic interpretation on Wooden Drum Dancing of Wa people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfeng Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wa nationality, a typical ethnic group in Yunnan province, is an ancient one lives across Yunnan. The main residences of it are border area beside northern Yunnan and the Wa States in Burma. Among all the Wa dances, Wooden Drum Dancing leads a vital position, and it is also a symbolic dancing in the culture of Wa people. The feature of Wooden Drum Dancing is that every action expending by the beats of wooden drum, namely, first the wooden drum, then the Wooden Drum Dancing. Dancing is an important content in the life of Wa people, and the aesthetics of life comes from dancing, so they present their value on worship by the form of dancing. This article is going to interpret the aesthetic standard on Wa people’s Wooden Drum Dancing by the view of aesthetics, and come into a conclude that the inspiration of such dancing came from practice and their worship to nature and ancestor. The Wooden Drum Dancing displays totally the tough air and solidarity of Wa people, which also presents the fair society of them. The Wooden Drum Dancing is an enriched art that Wa People took from particle life, so dancing of Wa is often classified into the aesthetic area of plain. The information of people’s living situation displayed by Wa dancing also conveys their rich emotions. The sense of beauty within Wooden Drum Dancing will give others a solemn feeling. The formal beauty is displayed by the rhythm of upper part of body, and the power beauty is displayed by the rhythm of the lower part of body.

  3. Statistical analysis of brake squeal noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2011-06-01

    Despite substantial research efforts applied to the prediction of brake squeal noise since the early 20th century, the mechanisms behind its generation are still not fully understood. Squealing brakes are of significant concern to the automobile industry, mainly because of the costs associated with warranty claims. In order to remedy the problems inherent in designing quieter brakes and, therefore, to understand the mechanisms, a design of experiments study, using a noise dynamometer, was performed by a brake system manufacturer to determine the influence of geometrical parameters (namely, the number and location of slots) of brake pads on brake squeal noise. The experimental results were evaluated with a noise index and ranked for warm and cold brake stops. These data are analysed here using statistical descriptors based on population distributions, and a correlation analysis, to gain greater insight into the functional dependency between the time-averaged friction coefficient as the input and the peak sound pressure level data as the output quantity. The correlation analysis between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure data is performed by applying a semblance analysis and a joint recurrence quantification analysis. Linear measures are compared with complexity measures (nonlinear) based on statistics from the underlying joint recurrence plots. Results show that linear measures cannot be used to rank the noise performance of the four test pad configurations. On the other hand, the ranking of the noise performance of the test pad configurations based on the noise index agrees with that based on nonlinear measures: the higher the nonlinearity between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure, the worse the squeal. These results highlight the nonlinear character of brake squeal and indicate the potential of using nonlinear statistical analysis tools to analyse disc brake squeal.

  4. Screw-released roller brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  5. Nonlinear Coupling Characteristics Analysis of Integrated System of Electromagnetic Brake and Frictional Brake of Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since theoretical guidance is lacking in the design and control of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake, this paper aims to solve this problem and explores the nonlinear coupling characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake. This paper uses the power bond graph method to establish nonlinear coupling mathematical model of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake and conducts the contrastive analysis on the dynamic characteristics based on this mathematical model. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the nonlinear coupling mathematical model proposed above is verified on the hardware in the loop simulation platform, and nonlinear coupling characteristics of the integrated system are also analyzed through experiments.

  6. Combined braking system for hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulekina, A. V.; Bakholdin, P. A.; Shchurov, N. I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of surface vehicle’s existing braking systems. The technical solution and brake-system design were developed for use of regenerative braking energy. A technical parameters comparison of energy storage devices of various types was made. Based on the comparative analysis, it was decided to use supercapacitor because of its applicability for an electric drive intermittent operation. The calculation methods of retarder key components were proposed. Therefrom, it was made a conclusion that rebuild gasoline-electric vehicles are more efficient than gasoline ones.

  7. Structure Topology Optimization of Brake Pad in Large- megawatt Wind Turbine Brake Considering Thermal- structural Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. F.; Yin, J.; Liu, Y.; Sha, Z. H.; Ma, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    There always exists severe non-uniform wear of brake pad in large-megawatt wind turbine brake during the braking process, which has the brake pad worn out in advance and even threats the safety production of wind turbine. The root cause of this phenomenon is the non-uniform deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect between brake pad and disc while braking under the conditions of both high speed and heavy load. For this problem, mathematical model of thermal-structural coupling analysis is built. Based on the topology optimization method of Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization, SIMP, structure topology optimization of brake pad is developed considering the deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect. The objective function is the minimum flexibility, and the structure topology optimization model of brake pad is established after indirect thermal- structural coupling analysis. Compared with the optimization result considering non-thermal- structural coupling, the conspicuous influence of thermal effect on brake pad wear and deformation is proven as well as the rationality of taking thermal-structural coupling effect as optimization condition. Reconstructed model is built according to the result, meanwhile analysis for verification is carried out with the same working condition. This study provides theoretical foundation for the design of high-speed and heavy-load brake pad. The new structure may provide design reference for improving the stress condition between brake pad and disc, enhancing the use ratio of friction material and increasing the working performance of large-megawatt wind turbine brake.

  8. THE STUDY OF THE TEMPERATURE OF THE HEATING DISC BRAKES OF PASSENGER CAR DURING THE ADJUSTING THE BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. . Ya. Vodiannikov

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of the brake disk heating temperature under the brake shoe lining during the regulating braking of a passenger train are presented. It is established that the greatest temperature in the disk arises at an exit of a brake shoe lining on a direction of the wheel pair rotation, and its value depends on pressure in the brake cylinder (correlation factor 0.556 and braking time (correlation factor 0.331, the correlation factor for speed in the beginning of regulating braking was equal to 0.135.

  9. Dynamics of braking vehicles: from Coulomb friction to anti-lock braking systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, J M [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Avenida Conselheiro EmIdio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: jtavares@dem.isel.ipl.pt

    2009-07-15

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and without sliding. The advantage of using an anti-lock braking system (ABS) is put in evidence, and a quantitative estimate of its efficiency is proposed and discussed.

  10. Validity of a device designed to measure braking power in bicycle disc brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew C; Fink, Philip W; Macdermid, Paul William; Perry, Blake G; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-21

    Real-world cycling performance depends not only on exercise capacities, but also on efficiently traversing the bicycle through the terrain. The aim of this study was to determine if it was possible to quantify the braking done by a cyclist in the field. One cyclist performed 408 braking trials (348 on a flat road; 60 on a flat dirt path) over 5 days on a bicycle fitted with brake torque and angular velocity sensors to measure brake power. Based on Newtonian physics, the sum of brake work, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance was compared with the change in kinetic energy in each braking event. Strong linear relationships between the total energy removed from the bicycle-rider system through braking and the change in kinetic energy were observed on the tar-sealed road (r2 = 0.989; p torque and angular velocity sensors are valid for calculating brake power on the disc brakes of a bicycle in field conditions. Such a device may be useful for investigating cyclists' ability to traverse through various terrains.

  11. Thermal analysis and temperature characteristics of a braking resistor for high-speed trains for changes in the braking current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Dong; Kang, Hyun-Il; Shim, Jae-Myung

    2015-09-01

    Electric brake systems are used in high-speed trains to brake trains by converting the kinetic energy of a railway vehicle to electric energy. The electric brake system consists of a regenerative braking system and a dynamic braking system. When the electric energy generated during the dynamic braking process is changed to heat through the braking resistor, the braking resistor can overheat; thus, failures can occur to the motor block. In this paper, a braking resistor for a high-speed train was used to perform thermal analyses and tests, and the results were analyzed. The analyzed data were used to estimate the dependence of the brake currents and the temperature rises on speed changes up to 300 km/h, at which a test could not be performed.

  12. 30 CFR 57.14101 - Brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carrying hazardous loads, such as explosives. (ii) The approach shall be of sufficient length to allow the... upon other available evidence to determine whether the service brake system meets the performance...

  13. Hunting Plan Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Morgan Brake...

  14. A-Ha. Drum'n'bassi supernimi FABIO

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    7.sept. annab norra menukaim popansambel A-Ha Tallinnas Lauluväljakul kontserdi, kus presenteerib ka oma viimast albumit "Lifelines". 14. sept.tuleb drum'n'bassi spetsialist Fabio Tallinna üritusele Circulation

  15. Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Corneliu [Laguna Hills, CA; Teichmann, Ralph [Nishkayuna, NY; Avagliano, Aaron [Houston, TX; Kammer, Leonardo Cesar [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Pesetsky, David Samuel [Greenville, SC; Gauchel, Peter [Muenster, DE

    2009-02-10

    A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

  16. Automated visual inspection of brake shoe wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengfang; Liu, Zhen; Nan, Guo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-10-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railway, the automated fault inspection is necessary to ensure train's operation safety. Visual technology is paid more attention in trouble detection and maintenance. For a linear CCD camera, Image alignment is the first step in fault detection. To increase the speed of image processing, an improved scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method is presented. The image is divided into multiple levels of different resolution. Then, we do not stop to extract the feature from the lowest resolution to the highest level until we get sufficient SIFT key points. At that level, the image is registered and aligned quickly. In the stage of inspection, we devote our efforts to finding the trouble of brake shoe, which is one of the key components in brake system on electrical multiple units train (EMU). Its pre-warning on wear limitation is very important in fault detection. In this paper, we propose an automatic inspection approach to detect the fault of brake shoe. Firstly, we use multi-resolution pyramid template matching technology to fast locate the brake shoe. Then, we employ Hough transform to detect the circles of bolts in brake region. Due to the rigid characteristic of structure, we can identify whether the brake shoe has a fault. The experiments demonstrate that the way we propose has a good performance, and can meet the need of practical applications.

  17. Design of high performance CMC brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenkel, W.; Henke, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials based on 2D-carbon fibre preforms show high heat-absorption capacities and good tribological as well as thermomechanical properties. To take advantage of the full lightweight potential of these new materials in high performance automotive brake discs, the thermal conductivity transverse to the friction surface has to be high in order to reduce the surface temperature. Experimental tests showed, that lower surface temperatures prevent overheating of the brake`s periphery and stabilizes the friction behaviour. In this study different design approaches with improved transverse heat conductivity have been investigated by finite element analysis. C/C-SiC bolts as well as SiC coatings and combinations of them have been investigated and compared with an orthotropic brake disc, showing a reduction of temperature of up to 50%. Original sized brake discs with C/C-SiC have been manufactured and tested under real conditions which verified the calculations. Using only low-cost CMC materials and avoiding any additional processing steps, the potential of C/C-SiC brake discs are very attractive under tribological as well as under economical aspects. (orig.) 4 refs.

  18. Drum Sound Detection in Polyphonic Music with Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Paulus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for transcribing drums from polyphonic music using a network of connected hidden Markov models (HMMs. The task is to detect the temporal locations of unpitched percussive sounds (such as bass drum or hi-hat and recognise the instruments played. Contrary to many earlier methods, a separate sound event segmentation is not done, but connected HMMs are used to perform the segmentation and recognition jointly. Two ways of using HMMs are studied: modelling combinations of the target drums and a detector-like modelling of each target drum. Acoustic feature parametrisation is done with mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and their first-order temporal derivatives. The effect of lowering the feature dimensionality with principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis is evaluated. Unsupervised acoustic model parameter adaptation with maximum likelihood linear regression is evaluated for compensating the differences between the training and target signals. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a publicly available data set containing signals with and without accompaniment, and compared with two reference methods. The results suggest that the transcription is possible using connected HMMs, and that using detector-like models for each target drum provides a better performance than modelling drum combinations.

  19. Thermal/Mechanical Measurement and Modeling of Bicycle Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Feier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Brake induced heating has become more difficult to control as bicycle component mass has been reduced. High-power braking with insufficient cooling or thermal capacitance can create excessive temperatures, boiling brake fluid, performance degradation, and damage. To better understand component heating, a disc braking dynamometer has been constructed with a motor driven disc, hydraulic braking, and a miniature wind tunnel. Disc temperatures are studied for various braking scenarios using infrared techniques and thermocouples. A transient, numerical, MATLAB, lumped parameter thermal/mechanical model is created to predict the impact of key design parameters on braking performance and to understand the heat loss mechanisms from the brake system components. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations are used to estimate the disc surface convective cooling coefficients for the model. The final model provides transient temperature predictions based on bicycle velocity and braking power, and successfully matches dynamometer experimental data.

  20. FC TIP-BRAKE. Development of a novel aerodynamic brake for the FC-4000; FC TIP-BRAKE. Entwicklung einer neuartigen aerodynamischen brems fuer die FC-4000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohs, C. von [Gesamthochschule Kassel, Universitaet, Kassel (Germany)

    1993-09-01

    A novel brake has been developed for the FC-4000 WindMotor. The FC Tip Brake has been tested on this wind turbine and a computer program for structural improvements has been introduced. A comparison of the previous tip brake construction and the new one is given. (EG)

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF BRAKE PADS THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ON PASSANGER CAR BRAKE SYSTEM EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag D Milenković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase of vehicle braking system designing, besides of mechanical characteristics, it is also necessary to take under consideration the system's thermal features. This is because it is not enough just to achieve proper braking power, for the brake system to be effective but equally important thing is the dissipation of heat to the environment. Heat developed in the friction surfaces dissipate into the environment over the disk in one hand and through the brake linings and caliper, in the other. The striving is to make that greatest amount of heat to dissipate not threw the brake pads but threw disc. The experimental researching of heat transfer process taking place at vehicle brakes was made in the R&D Center of "Zastava automobili" car factory in order to increase the efficiency of brake system. The standard laboratory and road test procedures were used, according to factory quality regulations. The modern equipment such as thermo camera, thermo couples, torque transducers, signal amplifiers, optical speed measuring system and laptop computer were used. In this paper will be shown the part of the experimental researching, which refers to the thermal conductivity of brake pad friction linings.

  2. ABOUT WAVEFORM OF BRAKING CYLINDER FILLING IN FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Ursuliak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. As part of the scientific paper it is necessary to study the waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on longitudinal train dynamics at different modes of braking. At this one should estimate the level of maximum longitudinal forces and braking distance size in freight cars of various lengths. Methodology. In this paper we attempt to approximate the actual diagram of braking cylinders filling with rational functions of varying degrees. In selection of coefficients in the required functions the highest values of the longitudinal forces and braking distances were used as controlled parameters. They were compared with similar values obtained as a result of experimental rides. The level of longitudinal forces and braking distances amount were evaluated by means of mathematical modeling of train longitudinal vibrations, caused by different braking modes. Findings. At mathematical modeling was assumed that the train consists of 60 uniform four-axle gondola cars, weight of 80 tons, equipped with air dispenser No. 483 included in the median operation, composite braking blocks, and one locomotive VL-8. Train before braking has been pre-stretched. Various types of pneumatic braking (emergency, full service and adjusting braking of the freight train on the horizontal section of the track were simulated. As the calculation results were obtained values of the longitudinal forces, braking distances amounts and reduction time in speed at various braking modes. Originality. Waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on the longitudinal forces level and braking distances amount in freight trains were investigated. Also the longitudinal loading of freight trains at various pneumatic braking was investigated. Practical value. Obtained results can be used to assess the level of largest longitudinal forces and braking distances in the freight trains of different lengths by mathematical modeling of different braking modes.

  3. Electromagnetic brake/clutch device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1994-01-01

    An electromagnetic brake/clutch device includes a drive shaft supported by at least one bearing for transmitting torque, a housing, affixed to prevent its rotation, surrounding the drive shaft, and an electromagnetically activated device within the housing to selectively prevent and allow rotation of the drive shaft. The electromagnetically activated device includes a plurality of cammed rollers to prevent counter-clockwise rotation of the drive shaft. The drive shaft includes a circumferential disk and the housing includes a reaction ring for engagement with the plurality of cammed rollers. The plurality of cammed rollers are released from engagement with the circumferential disk and the reaction ring by a plurality of tripping mechanisms within the housing. The tripping action uses the locking force to act as a release force merely by changing the boundary conditions of the roller interface angles. The tripping mechanisms include trippers for disengaging the plurality of cammed rollers and an anvil shaped portion for providing lateral movement of the trippers. The plurality of cammed rollers is preloaded to engagement with the circumferential disk and reaction ring by a spring, and is located with respect to an adjacent tripping mechanism with another spring.

  4. Backup Mechanical Brake System of the Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, E. A.; Solomin, E. V.; Gandzha, S. A.; Kirpichnikova, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    Paper clarifies the necessity of the emergency mechanical brake systems usage for wind turbines. We made a deep analysis of the wind turbine braking methods available on the market, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The electromechanical braking appeared the most technically reasonable and economically attractive. We described the developed combined electromechanical brake system for vertical axis wind turbine driven from electric drive with variable torque enough to brake over the turbine even on the storm wind speed up to 45 m/s. The progress was made due to the development of specific kinematic brake system diagram and intelligent control system managed by special operation algorithm.

  5. Evaluation of Squeal Noise from the WMATA Transit Car Disc Brake System : A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) rail transit car design adopted the use of disc brakes as the primary friction braking system. Unfortunately, while disc brakes are more efficient than the traditional tread brake designs, th...

  6. DRUM-PD: The use of a drum circle to improve the symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease (PD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelyat, Alexander; Syres, Candace; Reichwein, Suzanne; Willis, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical therapy can improve motor function in patients with PD. Music performance may be used to improve motor skills by rhythmic entrainment. Drumming has long been a part of traditional healing rituals worldwide, and is increasingly being utilized as a therapeutic strategy. Methods This pilot controlled prospective cohort trial assessed feasibility and effects of twice-weekly group West African drum circle classes for 6 weeks on PD patients’ quality of life, symptoms, motor findings, cognition, and mood. Ten patients with PD were recruited into the drum circle group. Ten patients with PD were matched pairwise to each of the drum circle participants, and enrolled in a no-intervention control group. Both groups completed the PD-specific Parkinson Disease Questionnaire (PDQ)-39 quality of life assessment and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and underwent motor and cognitive assessments by a rater blinded to group at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Results Drummers had significantly improved PDQ-39 scores from baseline to 6 weeks (−5.8, p=0.042), whereas the control group's scores were unchanged. Walking performance was significantly faster at baseline for controls; after 6 weeks of drumming this difference was no longer significant, and remained non-significant at 12 weeks. The drummers trended (p=0.069) toward improvement in walking from baseline to 12 weeks. Other outcomes did not significantly change from baseline to 6 or 12 weeks. Conclusions Drum circle classes significantly and reversibly improved quality of life in patients with PD. This pilot trial's findings merit larger controlled investigations comparing drumming classes to established interventions in PD, such as physical therapy. PMID:27340683

  7. DRUM-PD: The use of a drum circle to improve the symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelyat, Alexander; Syres, Candace; Reichwein, Suzanne; Willis, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Physical therapy can improve motor function in patients with PD. Music performance may be used to improve motor skills by rhythmic entrainment. Drumming has long been a part of traditional healing rituals worldwide, and is increasingly being utilized as a therapeutic strategy. This pilot controlled prospective cohort trial assessed feasibility and effects of twice-weekly group West African drum circle classes for 6 weeks on PD patients' quality of life, symptoms, motor findings, cognition, and mood. Ten patients with PD were recruited into the drum circle group. Ten patients with PD were matched pairwise to each of the drum circle participants, and enrolled in a no-intervention control group. Both groups completed the PD-specific Parkinson Disease Questionnaire (PDQ)-39 quality of life assessment and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and underwent motor and cognitive assessments by a rater blinded to group at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Drummers had significantly improved PDQ-39 scores from baseline to 6 weeks (-5.8, p=0.042), whereas the control group's scores were unchanged. Walking performance was significantly faster at baseline for controls; after 6 weeks of drumming this difference was no longer significant, and remained non-significant at 12 weeks. The drummers trended (p=0.069) toward improvement in walking from baseline to 12 weeks. Other outcomes did not significantly change from baseline to 6 or 12 weeks. Drum circle classes significantly and reversibly improved quality of life in patients with PD. This pilot trial's findings merit larger controlled investigations comparing drumming classes to established interventions in PD, such as physical therapy.

  8. The Saami shaman's drum and the star horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sommarström

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to examine the possible influences of stellar constellations on the positioning of the drum figures on the drums used by the Saami people during the 17th and 18th centuries. Certain of the drum figures seem to have a similar position to corresponding figures on traditional star maps, both with respect to single star constellations and to some members of the Zodiac circle. The most general correspondences between star maps and the painted designs on drums depend on the existence of a cross for determining the four cardinal points in both cases. The star constellations compared here with the drum-figures are in fact peripheral Saami skies. It is hard to believe that they can have played any vital role in their capacity as star symbols within the frame of the Saamis' own astral cosmology. It is more probable that the earthly meanings of most of the figures were more important to the drummer.

  9. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  10. Fully regenerative braking and improved acceleration for electrical vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Wim J.C.; Chishty, Owais

    2013-01-01

    Generally, car brake systems use hydraulic brake technology, which converts the excess of kinetic energy into heat, effectively resulting in an energy loss. Regenerative braking technology focuses on converting this kinetic energy of the decelerating vehicle back into electrical energy that can then be reused for example during acceleration. Current hybrid vehicles are equipped with such regenerative braking technology, which makes them particularly interesting for situations with frequent de...

  11. HEAT TRANSIENT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF BRAKE DISC /PAD SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Thuppal Vedanta, Srivatsan; Kora, Naga Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Braking is mainly controlled by the engine. Friction between a pair of pads and a rotating disc converts the kinetic energy of the vehicle into heat. High temperatures can be reached in the system which can be detrimental for both, components and passenger safety. Numerical techniques help simulate load cases and compute the temperatures field in brake disc and brake pads. The present work implements a Finite Element (FE) toolbox in Matlab/Simulink able to simulate different braking manoeuvre...

  12. Regenerative Intelligent Brake Control for Electric Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle models whose propulsion system is based on electric motors are increasing in number within the automobile industry. They will soon become a reliable alternative to vehicles with conventional propulsion systems. The main advantages of this type of vehicles are the non-emission of polluting gases and noise and the effectiveness of electric motors compared to combustion engines. Some of the disadvantages that electric vehicle manufacturers still have to solve are their low autonomy due to inefficient energy storage systems, vehicle cost, which is still too high, and reducing the recharging time. Current regenerative systems in motorcycles are designed with a low fixed maximum regeneration rate in order not to cause the rear wheel to slip when braking with the regenerative brake no matter what the road condition is. These types of systems do not make use of all the available regeneration power, since more importance is placed on safety when braking. An optimized regenerative braking strategy for two-wheeled vehicles is described is this work. This system is designed to recover the maximum energy in braking processes while maintaining the vehicle’s stability. In order to develop the previously described regenerative control, tyre forces, vehicle speed and road adhesion are obtained by means of an estimation algorithm. A based-on-fuzzy-logic algorithm is programmed to carry out an optimized control with this information. This system recuperates maximum braking power without compromising the rear wheel slip and safety. Simulations show that the system optimizes energy regeneration on every surface compared to a constant regeneration strategy.

  13. Brake squeal: Linear and nonlinear numerical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Francesco; Baillet, Laurent; Giannini, Oliviero; Sestieri, Aldo

    2007-08-01

    "Brake squeal" groups a large set of high-frequency sound emissions from brake systems. They are generated during the braking phase and are characterized by a harmonic spectrum. The onset of squeal is due to an unstable behaviour occurring in linear conditions during the braking phase, and a general approach used by several authors to determine the system instabilities is the complex eigenvalues analysis. When the brake begins to squeal, the response of the system reaches a new limit cycle where the linear models cannot be used anymore. This paper presents the integration of two different numerical procedures to identify the mechanism bringing to squeal instability and to analyse its dynamics. The first approach is a finite element modal analysis of the brake system and is used to identify its eigenvalues and to relate them to the squeal occurrence. The second one is a specific finite element programme, Plast3, appropriate for nonlinear dynamic analyses in the time domain and is particularly addressed to study contact problems with friction between deformable bodies. This programme computes the contact stresses and permits to determine the dynamics of the system along the contact surface, both in the linear and nonlinear fields. The two models are compared and the onset of squeal is predicted both in the frequency domain by the linear model and in the time domain by the nonlinear one. The instability predictions, obtained by the two models, are discussed. To simplify the dynamics of its components, the study is carried out on a simple model, made of a disc, a small friction pad and a beam supporting the pad. The geometry of the model is related to an experimental set-up used to validate the models and to compare the numerical results with the experiments.

  14. REGRESSIVE ANALYSIS OF BRAKING EFFICIENCY OF M1 CATEGORY VEHICLES WITH ANTI-BLOCKING BRAKE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Sarayev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The problematics of assessing the effectiveness of vehicle braking after road accidentoccurrence is considered. For the first time in relation to the modern models of vehicles equipped with anti-lock brakes there were obtained regression models describing the relationship between the coefficient of traction and a random variable of steady deceleration. This does not contradict the essence of the stochastic physical object, which is the process of vehicle braking, unlike the previously adopted method of formalizing this process, using a deterministic function.

  15. BRAKE DISC PRODUCTION IS OPTIMIZATION POSSIBLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Colditz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares different aspects of brake disc production using vertically parted flaskless molding lines and horizontal parted tight flask molding lines. In the first section the vertical molding process demonstrates advantages in terms of investment costs. Furthermore, annual energy consumption of the molding lines in relation to castings produced is discussed, again demonstrating clear benefits from the Disamatic-technology. In the second section a comparison between two molding technologies for the production of brake discs is made on the basis of production data from the South Korean foundry Hyundai Sungwoo. The Disamatic molding process, however, offers advantages in terms of tooling costs and energy consumption.

  16. Automating friction-testing automotive brake pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, R.; Schwarz, U.

    1984-06-01

    Friction-testing machines are used in the development of brake pad materials and for quality assurance. Automation was applied to three friction-testing machines operated in parallel in order to obtain evidence of consistent, reproducible test condition. The new system avoids lengthy manual evaluation periods coupled with the risk of errors. Other benefits are the ability to draw up test programs more easily and to implement modern evaluation techniques. One can expect friction-testing machines' area of application to be enlarged in the near future to include determination of the wet friction values and corrosion resistance of brake discs and pads.

  17. 49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brakes to be operative. 393.48 Section 393.48 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.48 Brakes to be operative. (a) General rule. Except as provided in...

  18. 49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the following tests. (1) Roller-type or drive-on platform tests. The force applied by the brake on a... shall be tested on a drive-on platform, or a roller-type brake analyzer with the capability of measuring... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service brake system. 570.59 Section 570.59...

  19. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake power unit. 570.6 Section 570.6... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken... brake pedal, the pedal shall fall slightly when the engine is started, demonstrating integrity of the...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic controls and brakes. 77.1401 Section... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and elevators shall be equipped with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable of stopping the elevator...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking systems on railroad cars and locomotives shall be maintained in functional condition. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 56.14102 Section 56...

  2. 49 CFR 232.215 - Transfer train brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coupled between all freight cars; (2) After the brake system is charged to not less than 60 psi as... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER... reduction shall be made; and (3) An inspection shall be made to determine that the brakes on each car apply...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking systems on railroad cars and locomotives shall be maintained in functional condition. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 57.14102 Section 57...

  4. 49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and release of the brakes on the last car in the train; and (6) The communicating signal system is... be used to verify the set and release on cars so equipped. However, the observation of the brake... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake test. 238.315 Section 238.315...

  5. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received, or...

  6. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30 percent...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404... Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. Each locomotive and haulage car used in an underground coal mine... brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar devices...

  8. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  9. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable head...

  10. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site...

  11. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, C.F., [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R., [Hughes Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  12. The Oral Tradition in the Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble is a Ghanaian drum and dance ensemble that focusses on music in the Ewe tradition. It is based in an elementary school in the Greater Toronto Area and consists of students in Grade 4 through Grade 8. Students in the ensemble study Ghanaian traditional Ewe drumming and dancing in the oral tradition. Nine students…

  13. REGRESSIVE ANALYSIS OF BRAKING EFFICIENCY OF M1 CATEGORY VEHICLES WITH ANTI-BLOCKING BRAKE SYSTEM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    О. Sarayev

    2015-01-01

    .... For the first time in relation to the modern models of vehicles equipped with anti-lock brakes there were obtained regression models describing the relationship between the coefficient of traction...

  14. Emergency Braking of a Mine Hoist in the Context of the Braking System Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Stanisław

    2017-03-01

    The paper addresses the selected aspects of the dynamic behaviour of mine hoists during the emergency braking phase. Basing on the model of the hoist and supported by theoretical backgrounds provided by the author (Wolny, 2016), analytical formulas are derived to determine the parameters of the braking system such that during an emergency braking it should guarantee that: - the maximal loading of the hoisting ropes should not exceed the rope breaking force, - deceleration of the conveyances being stopped should not exceed the admissible levels Results of the dynamic analysis of the mine hoist behaviour during an emergency braking phase summarised in this study can be utilised to support the design of conveyance and rope attachments by the fatigue endurance methods, with an aim to adapt it to the specified operational parameters of the hoisting installation (Eurokod 3).

  15. RATIONALE FOR CENTERING CAPACITY OF REDISIGNED BELT CONVEYOR DRUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  16. Parametric Optimization Design of Brake Block Based on Reverse Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hua-wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the key part of automotive brake,the performance of brake block has a direct impact on the safety and comfort of cars. Modeling the brake block of disc brake in reverse parameterization by reverse engineering software, analyzing and optimizing the reconstructed model by CAE software. Processing the scanned point cloud by Geomagic Studio and reconstructing the CAD model of the brake block with the parametric surface function of the software, then analyzing and optimizing it by Wrokbench. The example shows that it is quick to reconstruct the CAD model of parts by using reverse parameterization method and reduce part re-design development cycle significantly.

  17. BRAKING PROCESS OF ENDURO AND HIGHWAY-TOURIST MOTORBIKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł SKRZYPCZYK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the event of an emergency, head of the motorcycle has a split second to decide what to do defensive maneuver. The most common choice is the braking maneuver. Starting motorcycle braking is associated with the selection of additional brake, which uses a driver. It is here to choose to use the front brake, rear or both simultaneously. The paper presents the study of the effects of such decision on the braking process. Tests were carried out for enduro and highway-tourist motorbikes.

  18. BRAKING PROCESS OF ENDURO AND HIGHWAY-TOURIST MOTORBIKES

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł SKRZYPCZYK; Robert KAŁUŻA; Piotr CZECH

    2015-01-01

    In the event of an emergency, head of the motorcycle has a split second to decide what to do defensive maneuver. The most common choice is the braking maneuver. Starting motorcycle braking is associated with the selection of additional brake, which uses a driver. It is here to choose to use the front brake, rear or both simultaneously. The paper presents the study of the effects of such decision on the braking process. Tests were carried out for enduro and highway-tourist motorbikes.

  19. Research to longevity brake lines on the exploitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey TUJRIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brake lines are tested for strength and durability. However, tests of strength are short-term, but tests of durability are durable, since their aim is to assess the effectiveness of the brake linings during operation. Therefore, reduction of time evaluating the durability of brake linings exploitation is urgent. The article describes the results of the research on the longevity of the brake linings of different types of vehicles based on their controllable operation and the method of accelerated estimation of the longevity of brake linings based on the operation of their analogues

  20. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to ...

  1. Use of elastomers in regenerative braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The storage of potential energy as strain energy in elastomers was investigated. The evolution of the preferred stressing scheme is described, and test results on full-size elastomeric energy storage units sized for an automotive regenerative braking system application are presented. The need for elastomeric material improvements is also discussed.

  2. A HIGH BRAKING INDEX FOR A PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, R. F.; Ferdman, R. D.; Kaspi, V. M.; Tendulkar, S. P. [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Gotthelf, E. V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027-6601 (United States); Guillot, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keane, E. F. [SKA Organization, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Pivovaroff, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tomsick, J. A. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We present a phase-coherent timing solution for PSR J1640–4631, a young 206 ms pulsar using X-ray timing observations taken with NuSTAR. Over this timing campaign, we have measured the braking index of PSR J1640–4631 to be n = 3.15 ± 0.03. Using a series of simulations, we argue that this unusually high braking index is not due to timing noise, but is intrinsic to the pulsar's spin-down. We cannot, however, rule out contamination due to an unseen glitch recovery, although the recovery timescale would have to be longer than most yet observed. If this braking index is eventually proven to be stable, it demonstrates that pulsar braking indices greater than three are allowed in nature; hence, other physical mechanisms such as mass or magnetic quadrupoles are important in pulsar spin-down. We also present a 3σ upper limit on the pulsed flux at 1.4 GHz of 0.018 mJy.

  3. Performance requirements for locomotive braking systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vermaak, P

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available of underground locomotives, excluding those used on high speed main haulages. In addition a survey was carried out on the most widely used types of locomotives and the braking systems. The survey gave an insight into the knowledge of the mine personnel...

  4. Braking Distance of Hoist Conveyances Required for Safe Stopping Under the Conditions of Emergency Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Stanisław

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates selected aspects of the dynamic behaviour of mine hoists during the emergency braking in an event of overtravel. Characteristics of the braking force that needs to be applied in the headgear and in the pit bottom to arrest the conveyance in the event of an overtravel are derived from laboratory and industrial test data and recalling the results reported in literature. The real hoist installation is replaced by a model whereby the equations of motion of rope elements are written as for elastic strings, taking into account the variable length of the hoisting rope section between the Koepe pulley and the conveyance being arrested in the head tower. Analytical formulas are provided whereby the displacement of the top conveyance with the payload for the constant elasticity coefficient of the hoisting rope section between the conveyance being arrested in the head tower and the Koepe pulley is expressed as the function of the braking force and of the operational parameters of the hoist gear. The hoist operation is investigated in the event of emergency braking, taking into account the two aspects of the cycle: - the time required for the conveyance to be stopped, - the distance travelled by the conveyance until it is stopped. The results of the dynamic analysis of the hoist installation in the conditions of emergency braking may be utilised in selection of the effective and adequate braking system guaranteeing the safety of the system operation.

  5. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF ROAD RESEARCH OF LANOS CAR, EQUIPPED WITH AN ADVANCED HYDRAULIC BRAKE DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nazarov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of road emergency braking of the car, the brake system equipped with an improved hydraulic brake actuator according to the patent number 76189 Ukraine are analyzed. This drive provides more efficient emergency braking of cars under operating conditions by of installing in each of the contours of the rear brakes one brake-power, each of which provides distribution of braking forces between the wheels of the corresponding side.

  7. A Thermo-elastic Annular Plate Model for the Modeling of Brake Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Perez, Jose Luis; Heckmann, Andreas; Kaiser, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    The friction forces generated during braking between brake pads and discs produce high thermal gradients on the rubbing surfaces. These thermal gradients may cause braking problems such as brake fade, premature wear or hot spotting and the associated hot judder phenomenon in the frequency range below 100 Hz. Further consequences are comfort reductions, a defective braking process, inhomogeneous wear, cutbacks of the brake performance and even damage of brake components. The presen...

  8. Evaluation of an Intergrated / Biocoagulant-sand filter Drum for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... pilot scale up was carried out using 120 L (120,000 ml) of water from Mezam River pretreated with 2400 g of powdered M. oleifera seeds for 15 min retention time and filtered through a sand filter drum made of fine sand, coarse sand, charcoal and gravel for 1 h filtration time. The total mean values of ...

  9. Teaching Ugandan Traditional Dances and Drumming in Summer Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabingo, Alfdaniels

    2017-01-01

    Dances and drum rhythms from African traditions have been integrated into summer camp activities in the United States as a response to the ever-globalized environments in which these camps are located and the diversity of the campers and teachers that they attract. This reflective article draws on critical reflections, observations and experiences…

  10. Aural and written music traditions: a drumming ensemble case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay focuses on a transcription of a recording of 'Creative from Guinea\\', a piece composed and taught to me orally by Atsu Dagadu of Ghana. The transcription is innovative, combining West African drum language mnemonics and the Time Unit Box System in a hybrid transcription system which I devised. I drew on my ...

  11. Assay of heavy water in drums for safeguards purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainberg, A.; Zucker, M.S.; Lemley, J.R.; Weinstock, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines several techniques for rapid nondestructive assay of drums of D/sub 2/O. Five methods have been examined: neutron capture in hydrogen, photodisintegration of deuterium, neutron transmission, neutron die-away time measurements, and acoustic velocity measurements.

  12. Middle School Drum Ensemble: An Unlikely Experience in Classroom Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, James

    2013-01-01

    Though music has a long and successful history within education, it is often one of the first sacrificial lambs when school budgets tighten. Over the course of an academic year, a documentary film sought to tell the story of an American middle school drum ensemble. The context of this group provided an ideal way to examine the nature of student…

  13. 'Sounds of a cowhide drum': challenges facing a new African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After considering some salient aspects of drumming as a practice contributing to a sense of wellbeing and group identity, I examine three elements of musical categorisation (rhythm, syncopation and intonation) in the light of Bourdieu's notion of the cultural field (1993), a useful theoretical concept for bringing to light the ...

  14. Memory Drum Theory's C Movement: Revelations from Franklin Henry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Mark G.; Christina, Robert W.; Anson, J. Greg

    2008-01-01

    Franklin Henry's "memory drum" theory of neuromotor reaction (Henry & Rogers, 1960) was one of the most influential studies of the response programming stage of information processing. The paper is the most-cited study ever published in the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport." However, few people know there is a noteworthy error in the…

  15. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  16. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of an Intergrated / Biocoagulant-sand filter Drum for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... An integrated low-tech biocoagulant-sand filter drum for disinfection of oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii targeted for developing countries was evaluated. Dirty and turbid water (130.3 NTU) from Mezam River and leachates from dump sites and stagnant water in Bamenda, Cameroon, was analyzed ...

  18. Display color affects motion sickness symptoms in an optokinetic drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Frederick; Bubka, Andrea; Alfieri, Louis

    2004-04-01

    Many stationary participants who view the patterned interior of a rotating cylinder (optokinetic drum) experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. Most drum interiors have consisted of black and white patterns. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of chromaticity on MS onset and severity. There were 12 individuals who participated in the experiment (4 men, 8 women, mean age = 25). Keeping rotation speed constant (5 RPM), the color of vertical stripes in an optokinetic drum was manipulated. There were three conditions used: 1) alternating black and white stripes; 2) gray stripes having different luminance values; and 3) chromatic stripes (white, red, yellow, black, green, and blue) that approximately matched the luminance values of the stripes in the gray condition. Every 2 min, eight motion sickness symptoms were assessed (for up to 16 min) using a subjective scale (0 = none, 1 = slight, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe). Overall, MS onset was fastest, and symptoms the most severe, in the chromatic condition. The two major MS symptoms that were significantly affected were headache and dizziness. Chromaticity may affect how much an observer's visual environment appears to be stationary, perhaps because chromaticity is such a common feature of the stationary environment in which our visual system evolved. In an optokinetic drum, the addition of chromaticity may increase the disparity between visual and vestibular inputs, a factor thought by many to contribute to MS onset and severity.

  19. Excitation Method of Linear-Motor-Type Rail Brake without Using Power Sources by Dynamic Braking with Zero Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    The eddy current rail brake is a type of braking system used in railway vehicles. Because of problems such as rail heating and problems associated with ensuring that power is supplied when the feeder malfunctions, this braking system has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of linear induction motor (LIM) technology in eddy current rail brake systems. The LIM rail brake driven by dynamic braking can reduce rail heating and generate the energy required for self-excitation. In this paper, we present an excitation system and control method for the LIM rail brake driven by “dynamic braking with zero electrical output”. The proposed system is based on the concept that the LIM rail brake can be energized without using excitation power sources such as a feeder circuit and that high reliability can be realized by providing an independent excitation system. We have studied this system and conducted verification tests using a prototype LIM rail brake on a roller rig. The results show that the system performance is adequate for commercializing the proposed system, in which the LIM rail brake is driven without using any excitation power source.

  20. Modeling and design of cooperative braking in electric and hybrid vehicles using induction machine and hydraulic brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In mixed-mode braking applications, the electric motor / generator (M/G and hydraulic pressure valve are controlled to meet the driver’s braking demand. Controlling these braking elements is achieved by modulating the current generated by the M/G and adjusting the fluid pressure to the wheel brake cylinders. This paper aims to model and design combined regenerative and hydraulic braking systems which, comprise an induction electric machine, inverter, NiMH battery, controller, a pressure source, pressure control unit, and brake calipers. A 15 kW 1500 rpm induction machine equipped with a reduction gear having a gear ratio of 4 is used. A hydraulic brake capable to produce fluid pressure up to 40 bar is used. Direct torque control and pressure control are chosen as the control criteria in the M/G and the hydraulic solenoid valve. The braking demands for the system are derived from the Federal Testing Procedure (FTP drive cycle. Two simulation models have been developed in Matlab®/Simulink® to analyze the performance of the control strategy in each braking system. The developed model is validated through experiment. It is concluded that the control system does introduce torque ripple and pressure oscillation in the braking system, but these effects do not affect vehicle braking performance due to the high frequency nature of pressure fluctuation and the damping effect of the vehicle inertia. Moreover, experiment results prove the effectiveness of the developed model.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of the Braking System of Wheeled Mainline Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The braking system of the landing gear wheels of a mainline aircraft has to meet mandatory requirements laid out in the Aviation Regulations AP-25 (Para 25.735. «Brakes and brake systems". These requirements are essential when creating the landing gear wheel brake control system (WBCS and are used as main initial data in its mathematical modeling. The WBCS is one of the most important systems to ensure the safe completion of the flight. It is a complex of devices, i.e. units (hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical, connected through piping, wiring, mechanical constraints. This complex should allow optimizing the braking process when a large number of parameters change. The most important of them are the following: runway friction coefficient (RFC, lifting force, weight and of the aircraft, etc. The main structural elements involved in braking the aircraft are: aircraft wheels with pneumatics (air tires and brake discs, WBCS, and cooling system of gear wheels when braking.To consider the aircraft deceleration on the landing run is of essence at the stage of design, development, and improvement of brakes and braking systems. Based on analysis of equation of the aircraft motion and energy balance can be determined energy loading and its basic design parameters, braking distances and braking time.As practice and analysis of energy loading show, they (brake + wheel absorb the aircraftpossessed kinetic energy at the start of braking as much as 60-70%, 70-80%, and 80-90%, respectively, under normal increased, and emergency operating conditions. The paper presents a procedure for the rapid calculation of energy loading of the brake wheel.Currently, the mainline aircrafts use mainly electrohydraulic brake systems in which there are the main, backup, and emergency-parking brake systems. All channels are equipped with automatic anti-skid systems. Their presence in the emergency (the third reserve channel significantly improves the reliability and safety of

  2. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  3. Fatigue behaviour of coke drum materials under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes damage in coke drums in the form of bulging and cracking. There were some studies on the fatigue life estimation for the coke drums, but most of them were based on strain-fatigue life curves at constant temperatures, which do not consider simultaneous cyclic temperature and mechanical loading conditions. In this study, a fatigue testing system is successfully developed to allow performing thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF test similar to the coke drum loading condition. Two commonly used base and one clad materials of coke drums are then experimentally investigated. In addition, a comparative study between isothermal and TMF lives of these materials is conducted. The experimental findings lead to better understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring in coke drums and more accurate prediction of fatigue life of coke drum materials.

  4. A rotary drum dryer for palm sterilization: preliminary study of flow and heat transfer using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifarianty, S.; Legwiriyakul, A.; Alimalbari, A.; Nuntadusit, C.; Theppaya, T.; Wae-Hayee, M.

    2018-01-01

    Preliminary study in this article, the flow and the heat transfer of rotary drum dryer were simulated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). A 3D modelling of rotary drum dryer including ambient air was created by considering transient simulation. The temperature distributions on rotary drum dryer surfaces of experimental setup during heating detected by using infrared camera were given to be boundary conditions of modelling. The average temperature at the surface of the drum lids was 80°C, and the average temperature on the heated surface of the drum was 130°C. The results showed that the internal temperature of air in drum modelling was increased relating on time dependent. The final air temperature inside the drum modelling was similar to the measurement results.

  5. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from experiencing wheel lock and slip phenomena during braking. Then, a fuzzy RBS using the driver’s braking force command, vehicle speed, battery SOC, battery temperature are designed to determine the distribution between friction braking force and regenerative braking force to improve the energy recuperation efficiency. The experimental results on an “LF620” prototype EV validated the feasibility and effectiveness of regenerative braking and showed that the proposed fuzzy RBS was endowed with good control performance. The maximum driving range of LF620 EV was improved by 25.7% compared with non-RBS conditions.

  6. Thermal analysis of disc brakes using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenudin, Jamari, J.; Tauviqirrahman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Disc brakes are components of a vehicle that serve to slow or stop the rotation of the wheel. This paper discusses the phenomenon of heat distribution on the brake disc during braking. Heat distribution on the brake disc is caused by kinetic energy changing into mechanical energy. Energy changes occur during the braking process due to friction between the surface of the disc and a disc pad. The temperature resulting from this friction rises high. This thermal analysis on brake discs is aimed to evaluate the performance of an electric car in the braking process. The aim of this study is to analyze the thermal behavior of the brake discs using the Finite Element Method (FEM) through examining the heat distribution on the brake disc using 3-D modeling. Results obtained from the FEM reflect the effects of high heat due to the friction between the disc pad with the disc rotor. Results of the simulation study are used to identify the effect of the heat distribution that occurred during the braking process.

  7. Effects of tempo, swing density, and listener's drumming experience, on swing detection thresholds for drum rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, Andrew V; Shams, Ladan

    2017-06-01

    Swing, a popular technique in music performance, has been said to enhance the "groove" of the rhythm. Swing works by delaying the onsets of even-numbered subdivisions of each beat (e.g., 16th-note swing delays the onsets of the second and fourth 16th-note subdivisions of each quarter-note beat). The "swing magnitude" (loosely speaking, the amount of delay) is often quite small. And there has been little investigation, using musical stimuli, into what swing magnitudes listeners can detect. To that end, this study presented continually-looped electronic drum rhythms, with 16th-note swing in the hi-hat on every other bar, to drummers and non-drummers. Swing magnitude was adjusted using a staircase procedure, to determine the magnitude where the difference between swinging and not-swinging bars was just-noticeable. Different tempi (60 to 140 quarter-notes per minute) and swing densities (how often notes occurred at even-numbered subdivisions) were used. Results showed that all subjects could detect smaller swing magnitudes when swing density was higher, thus confirming a previous speculation that the perceptual salience of swing increases with swing density. The just-noticeable magnitudes of swing for drummers differed from those of non-drummers, in terms of both overall magnitude and sensitivity to tempo, thus prompting questions for further exploration.

  8. A Transient Dynamic Model of Brake Corner and Subsystems for Brake Creep Groan Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejian Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding of brake creep groan, both experimental and numerical studies are conducted in this paper. Based on a vehicle road test under the condition of downhill, complicated stick-slip type motion of caliper and its correlation with the interior noise were analyzed. In order to duplicate these brake creep groan phenomena, a transient dynamic model including brake corner and subsystems was established using finite element method. In the model, brake components were considered to be flexible body, and the subsystems including driveline, suspension, tire, and vehicle body were considered to be rigid body. Simulation and experimental results of caliper vibration in time and frequency domains were compared. It was demonstrated that the new model is effective for the prediction and analysis of brake creep groan, and it has higher accuracy compared to the previous model without the subsystems. It is also found that the lining and caliper not only have stick-slip motion in each coordinate direction but also have translational and torsional movements in plane, which relate to the microscopic sticking and slipping, friction coefficient, and forces, as well as the contact status at the friction interface.

  9. 49 CFR 232.609 - Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) A freight car equipped with an ECP brake system that is known to have arrived with ineffective or... in a train operating in ECP brake mode. (f) A freight car equipped with an ECP brake system that is... pneumatic brakes shall not operate with freight cars equipped with stand-alone ECP brake systems unless: (1...

  10. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  11. NAC Off-Vehicle Brake Testing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Project Officer ( TIPO ) US Army National Automotive Center (NAC) Warren, MI Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...May 2007 FinalR1 UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public release Leo Miller, Technology Insertion Project Officer ( TIPO ) NAC Off-vehicle Brake Testing

  12. Simulating pneumatic brake systems with AMESIM

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Sebastian;Anton, T.

    2017-01-01

    AMESim is successfully used for the design of braking systems and components by a large number of manufacturers and OEMs. The motivation and the main goals for the research project between the Institute of Product Development and the Knorr-Bremse SfS are to show a tool for the project planning of the systems and to present guidelines for systems, which can support the product developers.

  13. Longitudinal wheel slip during ABS braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Lassi; Petry, Frank; Westermann, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Anti-lock braking system (ABS) braking tests with two subcompact passenger cars were performed on dry and wet asphalt, as well as on snow and ice surfaces. The operating conditions of the tyres in terms of wheel slip were evaluated using histograms of the wheel slip data. The results showed different average slip levels for different road surfaces. It was also found that changes in the tyre tread stiffness affected the slip operating range through a modification of the slip value at which the maximum longitudinal force is achieved. Variation of the tyre footprint length through modifications in the inflation pressure affected the slip operating range as well. Differences in the slip distribution between vehicles with different brake controllers were also observed. The changes in slip operating range in turn modified the relative local sliding speeds between the tyre and the road. The results highlight the importance of the ABS controller's ability to adapt to changing slip-force characteristics of tyres and provide estimates of the magnitude of the effects of different tyre and road operating conditions.

  14. Squeal noise in simple numerical brake models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-09-01

    Since the early 1920s, automotive disc brake squeal has caused warranty issues and customer dissatisfaction. Despite a good deal of progress achieved, predicting brake squeal propensity is as difficult as ever as not all mechanisms and interactions are known owing to their highly fugitive complex nature. In recent years, research has been focused on the prediction of unstable vibration modes by the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) for the mode-coupling type of instability. There has been very limited consideration given to the calculation of the acoustic radiation properties due to friction contact between a pad and a rotor. Recent analyses using a forced response analysis with harmonic contact pressure excitation indicates negative dissipated energy at some pad eigenfrequencies predicted to be stable by the CEA. A transient nonlinear time domain analysis with no external excitation indicates that squeal could develop at these eigenfrequencies. Here, the acoustic radiation characteristics of those pad modes are determined by analysing the acoustic power levels and radiation efficiencies of simplified brake models in the form of a pad rubbing on a plate or on a disc using the acoustic boundary element method based on velocities extracted from the forced response analysis. Results show that unstable pad modes trigger unstable disc vibrations resulting in instantaneous mode squeal similar to those observed experimentally. Changes in the radiation efficiency with pressure variations are smaller than those with friction coefficient variations and are caused by the phase difference of the velocities out-of-plane vibration between the pad and the disc.

  15. In-depth analysis of bicycle hydraulic disc brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Oliver; Györfi, Benedikt; Wrede, Jürgen; Arnold, Timo; Moia, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    Hydraulic Disc Brakes (HDBs) represent the most recent and innovative bicycle braking system. Especially Electric Bicycles (EBs), which are becoming more and more popular, are equipped with this powerful, unaffected by environmental influences, and low-wear type of brakes. As a consequence of the high braking performance, typical bicycle braking errors lead to more serious accidents. This is the starting point for the development of a Braking Dynamics Assistance system (BDA) to prevent front wheel lockup and nose-over (falling over the handlebars). One of the essential prerequisites for the system design is a better understanding of bicycle HDBs' characteristics. A physical simulation model and a test bench have been built for this purpose. The results of the virtual and real experiments conducted show a high correlation and allow valuable insights into HDBs on bicycles, which have not been studied scientifically in any depth so far.

  16. Practical Use of the Braking Attributes Measurements Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondruš Ján

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with issues of braking the passenger car. The measurement of braking deceleration of the vehicle Kia Cee´d 1,6 16 V was carried out by an optical device Correvit system. The measurement was carried out on the airport of the village of Rosina located close to Zilina. 10 drivers of different age, praxis, and kilometers driven participated in the measurement. The measured process was the vehicle full braking with the service brake of the initial speed of approximately 50 km.h-1. Each of the drivers had 10 attempts. In the closure of this contribution the results of the performed measurements, their evaluation and comparison are presented. Practical result from the contribution is mainly the measurement set of braking deceleration of the respective vehicle during intensive braking.

  17. A high performance pneumatic braking system for heavy vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

    2010-12-01

    Current research into reducing actuator delays in pneumatic brake systems is opening the door for advanced anti-lock braking algorithms to be used on heavy goods vehicles. However, these algorithms require the knowledge of variables that are impractical to measure directly. This paper introduces a sliding mode braking force observer to support a sliding mode controller for air-braked heavy vehicles. The performance of the observer is examined through simulations and field testing of an articulated heavy vehicle. The observer operated robustly during single-wheel vehicle simulations, and provided reasonable estimates of surface friction from test data. The effect of brake gain errors on the controller and observer are illustrated, and a recursive least squares estimator is derived for the brake gain. The estimator converged within 0.3 s in simulations and vehicle trials.

  18. Elastoplastic finite element analysis for wet multidisc brake during lasting braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhanling

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressed to serious heat degradation problem of the braking continuously performed in the drag brake application for a long time, finite element analysis for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling is adopted to investigate temperature and stress when material properties are temperature-dependent. Based on the constitutive relations of heat transfer and strain-stress, three-dimensional transient finite element equilibrium equations with many kinds of boundary conditions for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling were derived. And it was originally presented that start time, location, severity and evolution laws of plastic deformation were depicted using dimensionless stress distribution contour with the yield limit related to temperature. The change laws of plastic element number and contact area versus braking time were expressed by plasticity ratio and contact ratio curves, respectively. The laws revealed by the numerical calculation results are in accordance with the objective perception and reasoning.

  19. Investigation of the coatings applied onto brake discs on disc-brake pad pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kiliçaslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available While braking, according to the severity of it, thermal, metallurgical, constructive and tribological occurrences emerge on the brake disc-pad interface. In this study, NiCr was sprayed as bonding layer onto the discs, one ofwhich was coated with Al2O3-TiO2 by plasma spray and the other was coated with NiCr-Cr3C2 by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF. In addition, the discs were tested with inertia dynamometer according to SAE’s J2522 testing procedure. The measurements showed that although the pads of the coated discs were exposed to higher braking temperatures, friction coefficient of the disc coated with NiCr- Cr3C2 was obtained 6 % higher compared to the original disc.

  20. Static Capacitive Pressure Sensing Using a Single Graphene Drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovikj, Dejan; Scheepers, Paul H; van der Zant, Herre S J; Steeneken, Peter G

    2017-12-13

    To realize nanomechanical graphene-based pressure sensors, it is beneficial to have a method to electrically readout the static displacement of a suspended graphene membrane. Capacitive readout, typical in micro-electromechanical systems, gets increasingly challenging as one starts shrinking the dimensions of these devices because the expected responsivity of such devices is below 0.1 aF/Pa. To overcome the challenges of detecting small capacitance changes, we design an electrical readout device fabricated on top of an insulating quartz substrate, maximizing the contribution of the suspended membrane to the total capacitance of the device. The capacitance of the drum is further increased by reducing the gap size to 110 nm. Using an external pressure load, we demonstrate the successful detection of capacitance changes of a single graphene drum down to 50 aF, and pressure differences down to 25 mbar.

  1. Development of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) for Vehicles Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Vu Trieu; Oamen, Godwin; Vassiljeva, Kristina; Teder, Leo

    2016-11-01

    This paper develops a real laboratory of anti-lock braking system (ABS) for vehicle and conducts real experiments to verify the ability of this ABS to prevent the vehicle wheel from being locked while braking. Two controllers of PID and fuzzy logic are tested for analysis and comparison. This ABS laboratory is designed for bachelor and master students to simulate and analyze performances of ABS with different control techniques on various roads and load conditions. This paper provides educational theories and practices on the design of control for system dynamics.

  2. Modernised DC traction substation recuperating energy of braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction substation composed of the 3-phase transformer and the output diode rectifier is still the fundamental device for DC traction supply. In this paper two technical solutions (power electronic converters allowing for braking energy recuperation to the AC mains are discussed. This has been thought as the modernisation of the existing traction substations allowing for high speed trains regenerative braking and braking of heavy train hollers. Such a solution brings some profits: energy recuperation, mechanical brakes saving and enhanced quality of traction vehicle control. For the proposed converters technical and economical advantages and drawbacks are indicated.

  3. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of the Braking System of Wheeled Mainline Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Shumilov

    2016-01-01

    The braking system of the landing gear wheels of a mainline aircraft has to meet mandatory requirements laid out in the Aviation Regulations AP-25 (Para 25.735. «Brakes and brake systems"). These requirements are essential when creating the landing gear wheel brake control system (WBCS) and are used as main initial data in its mathematical modeling. The WBCS is one of the most important systems to ensure the safe completion of the flight. It is a complex of devices, i.e. units (hydraulic, ele...

  5. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  6. Hearing shapes of drums: Mathematical and physical aspects of isospectrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Olivier; Thas, Koen

    2010-07-01

    In a celebrated paper “Can one hear the shape of a drum?” M. Kac [Am. Math. Monthly 73, 1 (1966)]10.2307/2313748 asked his famous question about the existence of nonisometric billiards having the same spectrum of the Laplacian. This question was eventually answered positively in 1992 by the construction of noncongruent planar isospectral pairs. This review highlights mathematical and physical aspects of isospectrality.

  7. The evolution of harmonic Indian musical drums: A mathematical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Samuel; Gauthier, Claude; Léger, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    We explain using mathematics how harmonic musical drums were discovered by Indian artisans and musicians more than 2000 years ago. To this end, we introduce a harmonic error function which measures the quality of the harmonic relationship and degeneracy of the first modes of vibration of a centrally symmetric loaded membrane. We explain that although the tabla configuration found by the ancient Indians is the most natural one, other configurations exist and some are harmonically superior to the classical one.

  8. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  9. ESTIMATION OF DRIVER’S POWER EXPENSES OF CAR BRAKE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    A. Turenko; S. Shuklinov

    2010-01-01

    The estimation method of driver’s power expenses for the brake management is offered. The estimation method takes into account power expenses at driving in action of the brake system and power expenses at holding the pressed brake pedal

  10. Transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Siyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating drums are widely used in industry for mixing, milling, coating and drying processes. In the past decades, mixing of granular materials in rotating drums has been extensively investigated, but most of the studies are based on spherical particles. Particle shape has an influence on the flow behaviour and thus mixing behaviour, though the shape effect has as-yet received limited study. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is employed to study the transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum. The effects of aspect ratio and rotating speed on mixing quality and mixing rate are investigated. The results show that mixing index increases exponentially with time for both spheres and ellipsoids. Particles with various aspect ratios are able to reach well-mixed states after sufficient revolutions in the rolling or cascading regime. Ellipsoids show higher mixing rate when rotational speed is set between 25 and 40 rpm. The relationship between mixing rate and aspect ratio of ellipsoids is established, demonstrating that, particles with aspect ratios of 0.5 and 2.0 achieve the highest mixing rates. Increasing rotating speed from 15 rpm to 40 rpm does not necessarily increase the mixing speed of spheres, while monotonous increase is observed for ellipsoids.

  11. Kinematics and Path Following Control of an Articulated Drum Roller

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIAN, Yongming; YANG, Meng; FANG, Xiaojun; WANG, Xiahui

    2017-07-01

    Automatic navigation of an articulated drum roller, which is an articulated steering type vehicle widely used in the construction industry, is highly expected for operation cost reduction and improvement of work efficiency. In order to achieve the path following control, considering that its steering system is articulated steering and two frames are articulated by an active revolute joint, a kinematic model and an error dynamic state-space equation of an articulated drum roller are proposed. Besides, a state-feedback control law based on Lyapunov stability theory is also designed, which can be proved to achieve the purpose of control by the analysis of stability. What's more, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, simulation under the MATLAB/Simulink and experiments using positioning algorithm and errors correction at the uneven construction site are performed, with initial displacement error (-1.5 m), heading error (-0.11 rad) and steering angle (-0.19 rad). Finally, simulation and experimental results show that the errors and steering angle can decrease gradually, and converge to zero with time. Meanwhile, the control input is not saturated. An articulated drum roller can lock into a desired path with the proposed method in uneven fields.

  12. Research on Modeling and Control of Regenerative Braking for Brushless DC Machines Driven Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-ping Wen; Chuan-wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV) using brushless DC machine (BLDCM), the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO) to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, ...

  13. Research for Electric Brake Using NTC Thermistors on Micro Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Akira; Yamamoto, Kenichi; Yoshimi, Takeshi; Sato, Shingo; Tsurumaki, Akira; Ito, Tsuguru

    2006-01-01

    As a brake system for small wind turbine, mechanical brake and electric brake by the short circuit of 3-phase permanent magnet generator are used. However, an electric braking method may damage the rotor and/or blades by rapid stop of the generator revolution. Moreover, generator winding may also be damaged by large short-circuit current. In this paper, the electric braking method using NTC thermistors (negative temperature coefficient resistors) is proposed as a braking system for a cheaper ...

  14. Optical classification for quality and defect analysis of train brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Stefan; Hausmann, Stefan; Gerke, Sebastian; Warok, Alexander; Spiess, Peter; Witte, Stefan; Lohweg, Volker

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an optical measurement system approach for quality analysis of brakes which are used in high-speed trains. The brakes consist of the so called brake discs and pads. In a deceleration process the discs will be heated up to 500°C. The quality measure is based on the fact that the heated brake discs should not generate hot spots inside the brake material. Instead, the brake disc should be heated homogeneously by the deceleration. Therefore, it makes sense to analyze the number of hot spots and their relative gradients to create a quality measure for train brakes. In this contribution we present a new approach for a quality measurement system which is based on an image analysis and classification of infra-red based heat images. Brake images which are represented in pseudo-color are first transformed in a linear grayscale space by a hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) space. This transform is necessary for the following gradient analysis which is based on gray scale gradient filters. Furthermore, different features based on Haralick's measures are generated from the gray scale and gradient images. A following Fuzzy-Pattern-Classifier is used for the classification of good and bad brakes. It has to be pointed out that the classifier returns a score value for each brake which is between 0 and 100% good quality. This fact guarantees that not only good and bad bakes can be distinguished, but also their quality can be labeled. The results show that all critical thermal patterns of train brakes can be sensed and verified.

  15. Study on the dynamic performance of concrete mixer's mixing drum

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, J.; Zeng, H; Zhu, T.; An, Q.

    2017-01-01

    When working, the geometric distribution shape of concrete in concrete mixing truck's rotary drum changes continuously, which cause a great difficulty for studying the dynamic performance of the mixing drum. In this paper, the mixing system of a certain type of concrete mixing truck is studied. A mathematical formulation has been derived through the force analysis to calculate the supporting force. The calculation method of the concrete distribution shape in the rotary drum ...

  16. Mercedes-Benz`s new Brake Assist active driver support in emergency braking situations; Der neue Brake Assist von Mercedes-Benz - aktive Fahrerunterstuetzung in Notsituationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesewetter, W. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Klinkner, W. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Reichelt, W. [Daimler Benz, Stuttgart (Germany); Steiner, M. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Mercedes-Benz is the first automobile manufacturer in the world to develop an electronically controlled system for reducing stopping distance in emergency situations. It is called Brake Assist (BAS). This system has been standard in S-class and SL-class models since December 1996 and will be available in other Mercedes automobiles by the middle of 1997 - standardly, at no extra cost. The development of Brake Assist is based on the results of research carried out by Daimler-Benz which reveals that in critical situations, car drivers tend to put their foot down fast enough, but not firmly enough, on the brake pedal. In the initial stages of braking, the electronic Brake-Assist system automatically builds up maximum braking pressure within a fraction of a second, thereby considerably reducing the car`s stopping distance. After anti-lock brakes (ABS), airbag, acceleration skid control (ASR) and Electronic Stability Program (ESP), Mercedes-Benz is therefore making a further contribution towards improving road safety and reducing accident figures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Als weltweit erster Automobilhersteller hat Mercedes-Benz ein elektronisch gesteuertes System zur Verkuerzung des Bremsweges in Notsituationen entwickelt. Sein Name: Brake-Assist (BAS). Seit Dezember 1996 gehoert diese Technik bereits zur Serienausstattung der S- und SL-Klasse. Bis Mitte 1997 ist sie auch in den anderen Mercedes-Personenwagen serienmaessig vorhanden. Die Entwicklung des Brake Assist basiert auf Erkenntnissen der Daimler Benz Forschung, wonach Autofahrer in kritischen Situationen zwar schnell aber nicht kraeftig genug aufs Bremspedal treten. Der elektronische Bremsassistent baut schon am Beginn der Bremsung binnen Sekundenbruchteilen automatisch die maximale Bremskraftverstaerkung auf und verkuerzt dadurch den Anhalteweg erheblich. Damit leistet Mercedes-Benz nach Antiblockiersystem (ABS), Airbag, Antriebsschlupfregelung (ASR) und Electronic Stability Program (ESP) einen weiteren Beitrag zur

  17. Quality control of cast brake discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stawarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The largest industrial application so far have the gray cast irons which are characterized by low tensile and bending strength, while at the same time they have good ultimate comprehensive strength. Additionally, the fatigue strength of gray cast irons is comparatively low and they are only to some extend sensitive for the surface waters effects. Cast iron is the material, which is comparatively easy to be processed, and for this reason – it is not expensive. Brake discs are exploited in particularly hard conditions. They must be resistant both against the thermal fatigue and abrasion wearing (at dry friction as well as against seizing, corrosion and mechanical load [1-3]. The gray cast iron, better than other materials, fulfills all the requirements necessary for making the material for the casts resistant against such tough conditions. This work reflects the researches aiming to define the quality of cast brake discs (ventilated and non-ventilated ones upon a period of their exploitation in real conditions. The following researches were performed: evaluations of the disc surface condition, measurement of disc thickness, examination of run – out flank and metallographic analysis. In order to more detailed recognition of mechanisms and reasons of brake discs wearing in real conditions, one should conduct additional examinations: computer analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition analysis, etc., as well as study of the technology of their production in foundries, where they are manufactured [4]. By obtaining the full set of the mentioned above data one can draw final conclusions and remove causes of possible defects.

  18. Rust urine after intense hand drumming is caused by extracorpuscular hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobal, Diego; Olascoaga, Alicia; Moreira, Gabriela; Kurdián, Melania; Sanchez, Fernanda; Roselló, Maria; Alallón, Walter; Martinez, Francisco Gonzalez; Noboa, Oscar

    2008-07-01

    During Carnival, groups of > or =60 drummers go drumming with their hands and marching for periods of 2 to 4 h. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and type of urinary abnormalities after candombe drumming and to evaluate possible pathogenic mechanisms. For analysis of pathogenic mechanisms, a group of individuals were prospectively evaluated before and after candombe drumming. Candombe drummers were recruited in January 2006, 1 wk before prolonged drumming. After clinical evaluation, urine and blood samples were obtained before and immediately after drumming. Forty-five healthy individuals (four women and 41 men), median age 31 yr (14 to 56), were evaluated. Predrumming urine and plasma samples were obtained for 30 individuals. Nineteen (42%) of 45 had a previous history of rust urine emission temporally related with candombe drumming. After drumming, 18 of 26 showed urine abnormalities; six of 26 showed rust urine, eight of 26 had microhematuria, and seven of 26 had proteinuria >1 g/L. The candombe drummers who showed rust urine after heavy drumming presented significantly higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin when compared with those without urine abnormalities. Haptoglobin was significantly lower in the rust urine group. Fragmented red cells were observed in the blood smear of individuals with rust urine. Rust urine after drumming was associated with previous episodes of rust urine and glucosuria. Taken together, these data confirm that rust urine is caused by extracorpuscular hemolysis.

  19. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....315(a)(1); (3) When previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake test within the... hours) are added to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from the train; and (5) When an... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a pneumatic...

  20. DC torque motor actuated anti-lock brake controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, P.D.; Kade, A.

    1989-02-21

    A wheel lock control system is described for limiting the brake pressure applied to the brake of a vehicle wheel traveling over a road surface, the system comprising: an actuator for controlling the brake pressure to the brake of the wheel, the actuator including a torque motor for generating a motor torque in response to motor current to control the applied brake pressure in accordance with the value of the motor torque, the motor torque having a value proportional to the value of the motor current; means for determining the tire torque tending to accelerate the wheel during the application of brake pressure; means for storing the value of motor current corresponding to the maximum determined value of tire torque; means for detecting an incipient wheel lockup condition; and means for establishing the motor current following a detected incipient wheel lockup condition at a value having a predetermined relationship to the stored value of motor current to control the brake pressure at a predetermined braking condition.

  1. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of

  2. 14 CFR 23.493 - Braked roll conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and ground contacts must be those described in § 23.479 for level landings. (c) A drag reaction equal... at the ground contact point of each wheel with brakes, except that the drag reaction need not exceed the maximum value based on limiting brake torque. ...

  3. Perancangan Fixture Proses Gurdi untuk Produksi Komponen Brake Pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Rahmawati

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brake pads is used to stop the rapid of vehicle while braking process is done. In making process if brake pads is needed a tool to make a operator work easier and can produce the brake pads component more precision, especially in making a hole process. A tool which is designed in drilling process in production of brake pads component use locator 3-2-1 principt in a placement the locator, using clamping to grip the component, and construction of jig dan fixture that is designed must be suitable with needs of making a hole process this brake pads component. To produce this tool, the cost must be calculated, such as direct cost, indirect cost and fixed cost to cover the 1200 lot sizes of this brake pads component. Based on design of this tool, it can be concluded that a tool which design of the drilling process can give benefit because it can help the operator in their work and it can produce the brake pads component more precision, and the rejected product can be minimized presisi. In addition, the set up time can be decreased and the cost be reduced.

  4. 49 CFR 393.55 - Antilock brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... March 1, 1998 (except commercial motor vehicles engaged in driveaway-towaway operations), shall be... vehicle, and shall have the means for connection of the electrical circuit to the towed vehicle. The ABS... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.55 Antilock brake systems. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR...

  5. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  6. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2017-08-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  7. Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Braking for a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanuri, Jaya Krishna

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to observe the effect of an air brake on the aerodynamics of a ground vehicle and also to study the influence of change in the parameters like the velocity of the vehicle, the angle of inclination, height, and position of the air brake on the aerodynamics of the vehicle body. The test subject used is an Ahmed body which is a generic 3D car body as it retains all the aerodynamic characteristics of a ground vehicle. Numerical investigation has been carried out by RNG k-ɛ turbulence model. Results are presented in terms of streamlines and drag coefficient to understand the influence of pertinent parameters on flow physics. It is found that with the use of an air brake, though the drag coefficient remains more or less constant with velocity, it increases with the increase in height and angle of inclination of the air brake. But the effect of position of air brake on the coefficient of drag is surprising since for certain heights of the air brake the drag coefficient is maximum at the foremost point and as the air brake moves towards the rear it is first observed to decrease and then increase. It is also observed that with the increase in height of the air brake the drag coefficient monotonically decreases as the position of the air brake is moved towards the rear. Taguchi method has been employed with L16 orthogonal array to obtain the optimal configuration for the air brake. For each of the selected parameters, four different levels have been chosen to obtain the maximum drag coefficient value. The study could provide an invaluable database for the optimal design of an airbrake for a ground vehicle.

  8. Emergency braking is affected by the use of cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Yves; Behr, Michel; Llari, Maxime; Bonicel, Sarah; Weber, Jean Paul; Berdah, Stephane

    2017-08-18

    We compared the differences in the braking response to vehicle collision between an active human emergency braking (control condition) and cruise control (CC) or adaptive cruise control (ACC). In 11 male subjects, age 22 to 67 years, we measured the active emergency braking response during manual driving using the accelerator pedal (control condition) or in condition mimicking CC or ACC. In both conditions, we measured the brake reaction time (BRT), delay to produce the peak braking force (PBD), total emergency braking response (BRT + PBD), and peak braking force (PBF). Electromyograms of leg and thigh muscles were recorded during braking. The tonic vibratory response (TVR), Hoffman reflex (HR), and M-waves were recorded in leg muscles to explore the change in sensorimotor control. No difference in PBF, TVR amplitude, HR latency, and H max /M max ratio were found between the control and CC/ACC conditions. On the other hand, BRT and PBD were significantly lengthened in the CC/ACC condition (240 ± 13 ms and 704 ± 70 ms, respectively) compared to control (183 ± 7 ms and 568 ± 36 ms, respectively). BRT increased with the age of participants and the driving experience shortened PBD and increased PBF. In male subjects, driving in a CC/ACC condition significantly delays the active emergency braking response to vehicle collision. This could result from higher amplitude of leg motion in the CC/ACC condition and/or by the age-related changes in motor control. Car and truck drivers must take account of the significant increase in the braking distance in a CC/ACC condition.

  9. Study on Abrasive Wear of Brake Pad in the Large-megawatt Wind Turbine Brake Based on Deform Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfang; Hao, Qiang; Sha, Zhihua; Yin, Jian; Ma, Fujian; Liu, Yu

    2017-12-01

    For the friction and wear issues of brake pads in the large-megawatt wind turbine brake during braking, this paper established the micro finite element model of abrasive wear by using Deform-2D software. Based on abrasive wear theory and considered the variation of the velocity and load in the micro friction and wear process, the Archard wear calculation model is developed. The influence rules of relative sliding velocity and friction coefficient in the brake pad and disc is analysed. The simulation results showed that as the relative sliding velocity increases, the wear will be more serious, while the larger friction coefficient lowered the contact pressure which released the wear of the brake pad.

  10. Effects of Community African Drumming on Generalised Anxiety in Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    David Akombo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs), such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14) in the State of Utah (USA) participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4) p=.004). A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait...

  11. Color image digitization and analysis for drum inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, R.C.; Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken SC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A rust inspection system that uses color analysis to find rust spots on drums has been developed. The system is composed of high-resolution color video equipment that permits the inspection of rust spots on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1-in.) in diameter. Because of the modular nature of the system design, the use of open systems software (X11, etc.), the inspection system can be easily integrated into other environmental restoration and waste management programs. The inspection system represents an excellent platform for the integration of other color inspection and color image processing algorithms.

  12. Strength in metallurgical coke. Correlations of Micro-Strength indices, industrial Drum Test indices and ultrasonic velocity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, S.; Grint, A.; Marsh, H.

    1981-07-01

    No close correlation between drum and Micro-strength indices of strength of metallurgical coke was found. Neither was a close correlation found between ultrasonic velocities of coke of drum indices. (5 refs.)

  13. A method to quantify tritium inside waste drums: He{sup 3} ingrowth method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A.; Lepeytre, C.; Hubinois, J.C. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Traitement Materiaux Nucleaires, Service Analyses- Dechets, Lab. Chimie Analytique, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Arseguel, A.; Daclin, J.P.; Douche, C. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Traitement Materiaux Nucleaires, Service Analyses- Dechets, Lab. de Gestion des Dechets Trities, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    This method enables an indirect, non intrusive and non destructive measurement of the Tritium activity in wastes drums. The amount of tritium enclosed inside a wastes drum can be determined by the measurement of the leak rate of {sup 3}He of this latter. The simulation predicts that a few months are necessary for establishing the equilibrium between the {sup 3}He production inside the drum and the {sup 3}He drum leak. In practice, after one year of storage, sampling {sup 3}He outside the drum can be realized by the mean of a confining chamber that collect the {sup 3}He outflow. The apparatus, the experimental procedure and the calculation of tritium activity from mass spectrometric {sup 3}He measurements are detailed. The industrial device based on a confinement cell and the automated process to measure the {sup 3}He amount at the initial time and after the confinement time is described. Firstly, reference drums containing a certified tritium activity (HTO) in addition to organic materials have been measured to qualify the method and to evaluate its performances. Secondly, tritium activity of organic wastes drums issued from the storage building in Valduc have been determined. Results of the qualification and optimised values of the experimental parameters are reported in order to determine the performances of this industrial device. As a conclusion, the apparatus enables the measurement of an activity as low as 1 GBq of tritium in a 200 liters drum containing organic wastes. (authors)

  14. Study on mechanics of driving drum with superelastic convexity surface covering-layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.J.; Sui, X.H.; Miao, D.J. [Shandong University of Science & Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2008-09-15

    Belt conveyor is one of the main transport equipment in coal mine and the driving drum is its key part. With the method of bionic design, the mushroom morphological structure is applied to the design of covering-layer structure of driving drum surface of belt conveyor. Superelastic rubber with large deformation is adopted as the covering-layer material. Nonlinear constitutive model of rubber, which is of superelasticity and large deformation, is established. The stress states and deformation principles of driving drums including both bionic covering-layer and common covering-layer are obtained by static intensity analysis with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software ANSYS. The values of the stress and strain on the driving drum surface are gotten and the dangerous area is determined. FEA results show that the superelastic convexity surface structure can enlarge the contact area between the driving drum and viscoelastic belt. The results also show that in comparison with common driving drum, the bionic surface driving drum can not only increase the friction coefficient between drum and belt but also prolong its service life.

  15. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  16. Development of a method utilizing drum headspace VOC concentration as a waste characterization tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Pretest waste characterization for the bin-scale tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) required sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from within transuranic (TRU) waste drums. Although the bin-scale tests have been postponed, the development and demonstration of accurate waste characterization methods continues. The objectives of extensive sampling of waste drums are to obtain a representative sample from each layer of confinement to identify volatile and gaseous constituents, verify process knowledge of the drum contents, and demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. A method to estimate the VOC concentration between layers of confinement from a single headspace sample collected beneath the drum filter of a vented waste drum is investigated. This method of characterizing the void space within a drum could eventually lead to a significant reduction in sampling time and cost. A model based on fundamental principles of transport phenomena is developed to estimate the VOC concentration throughout a waste drum based on the knowledge of the transport properties and the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model and experimental results are compared.

  17. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  18. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  19. 75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Expenses for the Anti-Lock Brake System and Underride Guard for Tractors and Trailers (74 FR 18803...; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Antilock Braking Systems in Heavy Truck Tractors and Trailers... antilock braking systems (ABS) on all new air-braked vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or greater. ABS...

  20. 49 CFR 232.205 - Class I brake test-initial terminal inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the brake system on each car in order to make the determinations and inspections required by this... of the brake system; (7) All parts of the brake equipment shall be properly secured. On cars where...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT...

  1. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In... locomotives in ``work'' trains, where the friction brakes operate in conjunction with the RT2 system of straight air brake employed on PATH cars. The single car air brake test described in Association of...

  2. An appraisal of safety of tractor-trailer braking system | Ogunjirin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tractor-traller braking system was appraised considering the effect of braking the tractor or trailer alone and also braking the combination of tractor and trailer simultaneously. The study became Imperative considering the Influx of trailers that are not equipped with the braking system and the danger It poses to the ...

  3. Vehicle Hybrid Braking Control Using Sliding Mode Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Misawa; Kanai, Yuki; Shiraki, Ryoko; Mori, Yasuchika

    Anti-lock brake system and brake-by-wire are proposed in the vehicle control using a brake, and the braking power is expected to be improved more than ever. The researches such as an application to the ABS of Siliding mode control which considered a actuator dynamics and a hybrid control of the brake using model reference adaptive control are done so far. However, in the former case, speed following that becomes a target exists physically impossible situation by saturation of tire frictional force because only speed following is done. In the latter, the model error is caused because the simulation model and the controller design model are different. Therefore, there is a problem that an accurate follow cannot be done. In this paper, the braking control is performed using the sliding mode control which has high robustness for disturbance that fulfils matching conditions. In so doing, it aims at the achievement of optimal braking control to switch wheel speed following to slip ratio following.

  4. EEG potentials predict upcoming emergency brakings during simulated driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Treder, Matthias S.; Gugler, Manfred F.; Sagebaum, Max; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Emergency braking assistance has the potential to prevent a large number of car crashes. State-of-the-art systems operate in two stages. Basic safety measures are adopted once external sensors indicate a potential upcoming crash. If further activity at the brake pedal is detected, the system automatically performs emergency braking. Here, we present the results of a driving simulator study indicating that the driver's intention to perform emergency braking can be detected based on muscle activation and cerebral activity prior to the behavioural response. Identical levels of predictive accuracy were attained using electroencephalography (EEG), which worked more quickly than electromyography (EMG), and using EMG, which worked more quickly than pedal dynamics. A simulated assistance system using EEG and EMG was found to detect emergency brakings 130 ms earlier than a system relying only on pedal responses. At 100 km h-1 driving speed, this amounts to reducing the braking distance by 3.66 m. This result motivates a neuroergonomic approach to driving assistance. Our EEG analysis yielded a characteristic event-related potential signature that comprised components related to the sensory registration of a critical traffic situation, mental evaluation of the sensory percept and motor preparation. While all these components should occur often during normal driving, we conjecture that it is their characteristic spatio-temporal superposition in emergency braking situations that leads to the considerable prediction performance we observed.

  5. Development of asbestos free brake pads using corn husks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom ASOTAH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of asbestos free brake pads using corn husks as alternative filler was studied with a view to replacing asbestos, which has been known to be carcinogenic. Corn husks was sourced and milled, before been sieved into sieve grades of 100 and 200 μm. The varying proportions of the as-screened corn husk fibres and silicon carbide were mixed with fixed proportions of graphite, steel dust and resin to produce brake pads by using compressional moulding. The hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, wear rate and porosity of the products were then determined. The result obtained showed that the brake pad produced with the corn husk passing the finer 100 μm screen gave better compressive strength, higher hardness, lower porosity and lower rate of wear, consequent on the finer distribution of the corn husks particles in the matrix. The results obtained for the brake pads were then compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad, corn husk based. The results were found to be in close agreement suggesting that corn husk can be used in the production of asbestos-free brake pads.

  6. A Comparative Study Between ABS and Disc Brake System Using Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mobasseri, Saleh; Mobasseri, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This paper, refers to the history of the rise of brake system and describe its importance in passenger's lives. The Anti-lock Braking system (ABS), is the safety of vehicle systems to achieve maximum braking and decelerating in terms of increasing the stability and balance of the car and reduces the braking distance is designed. The performance of disc brake system and the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) are also compared with each other by the kinetic analysis of the braking system and evalua...

  7. Research on Modeling and Control of Regenerative Braking for Brushless DC Machines Driven Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV using brushless DC machine (BLDCM, the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, the autodisturbances rejection controller (ADRC for controlling the braking current is developed. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives better recovery efficiency and is robust to disturbances.

  8. Coefficient of Friction of a Brake Disc-Brake Pad Friction Couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowicz A.W.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns evaluation of the coefficient of friction characterising a friction couple comprising a commercial brake disc cast of flake graphite grey iron and a typical brake pad for passenger motor car. For the applied interaction conditions, the brake pressure of 0.53 MPa and the linear velocity measured on the pad-disc trace axis equalling 15 km/h, evolution of the friction coefficient μ values were observed. It turned out that after a period of 50 minutes, temperature reached the value 270°C and got stabilised. After this time interval, the friction coefficient value also got stabilised on the level of μ = 0.38. In case of a block in its original state, stabilisation of the friction coefficient value occurred after a stage in the course of which a continuous growth of its value was observed up to the level μ = 0.41 and then a decrease to the value μ = 0.38. It can be assumed that occurrence of this stage was an effect of an initial running-in of the friction couple. In consecutive abrasion tests on the same friction couple, the friction coefficient value stabilisation occurred after the stage of a steady increase of its value. It can be stated that the stage corresponded to a secondary running-in of the friction couple. The observed stages lasted for similar periods of time and ended with reaching the stabile level of temperature of the disc-pad contact surface.

  9. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning the Callaway and son Drum Service Superfund Site located in Lake Alfred, Polk County, Florida for.... Submit your comments by Site name Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site by one of the following...

  10. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Di Massa, F.V.; Elliott, D.B.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 2, the Baseline Detail.

  11. Near-unisons in Afro-Cuban Ensemble Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Benadon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Working with an original corpus of Afro-Cuban drumming recordings shared by Andrew McGraw, I examine the nature and extent of non-simultaneous attacks between ensemble players. Quantitative analyses of ~30,000 drum onset times in four- and five-player performances reveal that these non-simultaneities, or near-unisons, are widespread and often sizeable. Their frequency and magnitude depend on selection style, measurement method used, location of the analysis window within the bar cycle, and instruments involved. I show that near-unisons result (in part from the layering of 'idiosyncratically' timed ostinatos, and that the effect can be achieved by layering not only different timing contours but also equivalent contours that are slightly displaced with respect to each other. I also show that near-unison configurations can be either consistent or variable, so that certain leader-follower associations remain stable from cycle to cycle while others vary more freely. Beyond pairwise associations, I explore rhythmic density via the notion of onset clusters: groups of closely spaced attacks produced by up to five different players.

  12. Effects of Community African Drumming on Generalised Anxiety in Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Akombo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs, such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14 in the State of Utah (USA participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4 p=.004. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait anxiety score pre-intervention and the total state anxiety score pre-test (df(4 p=.033. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the reading trait anxiety score post-intervention and the total state anxiety score post-test (df(4 p=.030. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of community music such as drumming for reducing anxiety and also for improving academic performance in adolescents. CMPs are recommended as a non-invasive intervention modality for adolescents.

  13. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-11-17

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods.

  14. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, L.D. [Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY (United States); Rahimi, R.S. [Pall Corp., Cortland, NY (United States); Edling, D. [Edling & Associates, Inc., Russel Springs, KY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Finite element analysis of advanced bicycle precision brake disk forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dyi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bicycle has become an environmentally friendly transportation. The bicycle can be divided into mountain bicycle and highway bicycle. Safe driving is the prior consideration. The bicycle braking system can be divided into oil pressure disk brakes and mechanical disk brakes. The brake disk system is one indispensable component of the safe system. In accordance to overall weight consideration of the bike, the brake disk should also focus on the lightweight design. This paper discussed an innovative brake disk forming technology for 6061 aluminum alloy by the rigid-plastic finite element analysis. The simulation parameters include geometric shapes of the brake disk and mold, die temperature, and friction factors. The stress and strain in forming, brake deformation and vibration modal analysis of brake disk in riding were studied. The paper is expected to offer some precision bicycle brake disk manufacture knowledge for industry.

  16. XXVI. International {mu} symposium - brake conference; XXVI. Internationales {mu}-Symposium - Bremsen-Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, B. (ed.)

    2006-07-01

    The progress of brake technology contributes consistently and considerably to the safety of vehicle occupants, but also to the prevention of vehicle collisions with pedestrians and bikers. The symposia of the {mu} club have for 25 years informed the attendees about the latest findings, methods, developments and products in the field of brakes and promoted the exchange of information and the personal interaction between the experts in many brake related disciplines. Topics of the XXVI{sup th} {mu} symposium are innovation and processes in the field of brake rotors, methods to assess their irregular wear, the determination of the value of friction between brake pads and brakes, an innovative self reinforced disc brake with electronic control, regenerative braking in hybrid vehicles and the fascination of innovation. This year's papers are presented by four brake manufacturers, one brake linings manufacturer and one university. (orig.)

  17. Electronics and braking systems; Elektronik in Bremssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaupp, W. [Rheinisch-Westfaelischer Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein e.V., Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugtechnik

    2000-02-01

    In addition to the anti-lock braking system ABS, which is now fitted to almost every new passenger car, an increasing number of other control systems which intervene in the vehicle's driving dynamics, such as ASR, DSC or ESP, are being introduced. This article gives an overview of such systems, from their beginnings up to the present-day, and describes future developments. (orig.) [German] Neben das Antiblockiersystem ABS, mit dem heute fast jeder neue Pkw ausgestattet ist, treten zunehmend weitere Regelsysteme, die in die Fahrdynamik des Fahrzeugs eingreifen, wie zum Beispiel ASR, DSC oder ESP. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick von den Anfaengen dieser Systeme bis hin zu zukuenftigen Entwicklungen. (orig.)

  18. Comparisonal Analysis of Manuevering and Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Žukas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the possibility of avoiding a traffic accident considering a car driver who is fallen in a dangerous situation. In such a case, the driver can choose one of the following ways: hard braking or one of the types of maneuvering, including turning off, turning with straightening or changing a line regarding road surface type (dry asphalt, wet asphalt or snowy asphalt. The article also proposes formulas for calculating road distance the car travels till dead stop. Moreover, the tables display theoretical values taking into account various car speeds and road surfaces. The pictures help with determining the most suitable type of action in light of road and weather conditions as well as car speed. The pictures clearly show the dependence of road length on movement speed. At the end of the article, conclusions are proposed.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Gravitational waves from pulsars with measured braking index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jose C.N. de; Coelho, Jaziel G.; Costa, Cesar A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisao de Astrofisica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    We study the putative emission of gravitational waves (GWs) in particular for pulsars with measured braking index. We show that the appropriate combination of both GW emission and magnetic dipole brakes can naturally explain the measured braking index, when the surface magnetic field and the angle between the magnetic dipole and rotation axes are time dependent. Then we discuss the detectability of these very pulsars by aLIGO and the Einstein Telescope. We call attention to the realistic possibility that aLIGO can detect the GWs generated by at least some of these pulsars, such as Vela, for example. (orig.)

  20. CARS WEAVE IN THE BRAKING POSITION OF A HUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Serheiev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The work contains a theoretical study of freight car vibrations while a group of the freight cars are under braking by retarder. The purpose is to discover possible causes of derailment. The corresponding analytical description is presented. The solution of the differential equations for the groups of carriages confirms an assumption, according to which a contact between the carriage wheel of and the rail can be lost due to the oscillations induced by braking. The results allow to present recommendation for choosing the safe regime of braking in order to avoid the derailment.

  1. Asbestos exposure during routine brake lining manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Sameti, Mahmod; Kakooei, Ali Akbar

    2007-12-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos fiber and total dust of workers of a major brake lining manufacture plant in a developing country were examined and compared with those in developed countries. Time weighted average of total dust and asbestos fiber concentration in the potential sources of exposure were monitored. All personal air sampling were collected on membrane filters and analyzed by phase contrast optical microscopy (PCM) for comparison with the occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc, 8-h time--weighted average. This study demonstrates that routine mixing, polishing and beveling process in the brake lining production can result in elevated levels of airborne asbestos. Greater releases of airborne asbestos were observed during mixing process and mixer machine. The results also showed that the employees working in the process had the exposure to total dust concentrations ranging from 2.08 to 16.32 mg/m(3) that is higher than OSHA, recommendation. According to OSHA definition of fibers, it has been indicated that from 3,000 counted particles, 90% of particles are in the form of non-fiber and reaming have fiber-shaped. The particle analyze gives the geometric mean diameter as 6.02 mum, and also indicated that the arithmetic mean of the number distribution for the particle population was 8.4 mum. Approximately 60.4% of the counted fibers were lower than 10 mum in length, from which only 8% consists of fibers (>5 mum in length). In conclusion, the analysis showed a presence in the air of only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of other types of asbestos. During an 8-h shift, the average asbestos fiber exposure (0.78 f/cc) were 7.8 time in excess of OSHA PEL. Additional studies in occupational exposure to asbestos are needed.

  2. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hongwen He; Wei Liu; Hongqiang Guo

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking s...

  3. Finite element analysis of advanced bicycle precision brake disk forming technology

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Dyi-Cheng; Kang Jing-Hao; Lai Chia-Chun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the bicycle has become an environmentally friendly transportation. The bicycle can be divided into mountain bicycle and highway bicycle. Safe driving is the prior consideration. The bicycle braking system can be divided into oil pressure disk brakes and mechanical disk brakes. The brake disk system is one indispensable component of the safe system. In accordance to overall weight consideration of the bike, the brake disk should also focus on the lightweight design. This paper...

  4. The Theoretical Analysis of Test Result’s Errors for the Roller Type Automobile Brake Tester

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Zha, Xiaojing; Wu, Dongsheng

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The main testing parameter of the roller brake tester is the braking force. Actually, there are some differences in results even if the same vehicle is tested on the same tester. So it will bring trouble to evaluate the braking performance accurately. Based on force analysis, the mathematical model of the roller opposite force type automobile brake tester is built in this article. And then the factors of influencing braking force value will be analyzed by theoretical c...

  5. Driver Behavioral Changes through Interactions with an Automatic Brake System for Collision Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    This paper discusses driver's behavioral changes as a result of driver's use of an automatic brake system for preventing a rear-end collision from occurring. Three types of automatic brake systems are investigated in this study. Type 1 brake system applies a strong automatic brake when a collision is very imminent. Type 2 brake system initiates brake operation softly when a rear-end crash may be anticipated. Types 1 and 2 are for avoidance of a collision. Type 3 brake system, on the other hand, applies a strong automatic brake to reduce the damage when a collision can not be avoided. An experiment was conducted with a driving simulator in order to analyze the driver's possible behavioral changes. The results showed that the time headway (THW) during car following phase was reduced by use of an automatic brake system of any type. The inverse of time to collision (TTC), which is an index of the driver's brake timing, increased by use of Type 1 brake system when the deceleration rate of the lead vehicle was relatively low. However, the brake timing did not change when the drivers used Type 2 or 3 brake system. As a whole, dangerous behavioral changes, such as overreliance on a brake system, were not observed for either type of brake system.

  6. Numerical Modeling of Disc Brake System in Frictional Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belhocine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety aspect in automotive engineering has been considered as a number one priority in development of new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirement. Instead of having air bag, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, there is one most critical system in the vehicle which is brake systems. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyse the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake disc and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor by holding account certain parameters such as; the material used, the geometric design of the disc and the mode of braking. The analysis also gives us, the heat flux distribution for the two discs.

  7. Research to longevity brake lines on the exploitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergey TUJRIN; Grigory BOYKO; Alexander REVIN; Vitaliy FEDOTOV

    2015-01-01

    .... The article describes the results of the research on the longevity of the brake linings of different types of vehicles based on their controllable operation and the method of accelerated estimation...

  8. Brake System Design Optimization : Volume 2. Supplemental Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Existing freight car braking systems, components, and subsystems are characterized both physically and functionally, and life-cycle costs are examined. Potential improvements to existing systems previously proposed or available are identified and des...

  9. Brake System Design Optimization. Volume II : Supplemental Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Existing freight car braking systems, components, and subsystems are characterized both physically and functionally, and life-cycle costs are examined. Potential improvements to existing systems previously proposed or available are identified and des...

  10. Brake System Design Optimization : Volume 1. A Survey and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    Existing freight car braking systems, components, and subsystems are characterized both physically and functionally, and life-cycle costs are examined. Potential improvements to existing systems previously proposed or available are identified and des...

  11. AIRCRAFT BRAKE TEMPERATURE FROM A SAFETY POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján PIĽA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety is critical throughout all stages of aircraft operation, from air mission to ground operation. One of the most important airframe systems that influences the efficacy of ground safety is a wheel brake system. Aircraft ground speed deceleration requires the dissipation of kinetic energy, which depends on aircraft weight and speed. Significant levels of aircraft kinetic energy must be dissipated in the form of heat energy. The brakes of heavy aircraft are especially prone to overheating during landing and taxiing on the ground. The aim of this paper is to focus on the dangers caused by aircraft brakes when overheating and ways in which to eliminate brake overheating problems from a safety perspective.

  12. Fishery Management Plan for Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan was prepared by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge. Data was provided by the Refuge and Area Office...

  13. Fishery Management Plan for Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan was prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Mathew's Brake National Wildlife Refuge. Data was provided by the refuge and area office...

  14. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc, proposes an SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane mechanism to switch...

  15. Crayfish survey at Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Crayfish sampling on Morgan Brake NWR for vernal crawfish and other species was done for 3 days at five sites. Data are present on species of crawfish and amphibians...

  16. Fishing Plan for Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal calls for the opening of Mathews Brake NWR to sport fishing. General regulations pertaining to licenses, creel limits, and methods of taking fish will...

  17. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes a Phase II SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane...

  18. Fracture Analysis and Material Improvement of Brake Discs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAKAMOTO, Haruo; HIRAKAWA, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    .... This new brake disc, which proved to be satisfactory for Shinkansen vehicles, is capable of running at high speeds of more than 270km/h and therefore suitable for current vehicles such as the Nozomi and Tsubasa.

  19. RETROFIT OF A ROLLER BRAKE TESTER AT FAMENA

    OpenAIRE

    Božić, Mladen; Vučetić, Ante; Ilinčić, Petar; Lulić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The vehicle brake tester described in this paper is placed in the Laboratory for IC Engines and Motor Vehicles at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FAMENA) in Zagreb. As the device, built in 1983, was inoperative, a decision was made for retrofit rather than repair. The retrofit included a reconstruction of some parts and modification of the braking force measurement. Adaptation of monitoring and control was made on electronic components that control the roller set...

  20. Modeling Hydraulic Components for Automated FMEA of a Braking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    to be reusable and, on the other hand, powerful enough to deliver the predictions relevant to FMEA of braking systems. In this paper, we present...context-independent,  analyze how a stimulus in terms of a local pressure change (e.g. pushing a brake pedal ) propagates through the system...mechanical components and the electronic control unit (ECU) and its software. It contains a tandem pedal actuation unit (with two pistons and two

  1. How Drivers Respond to Alarms Adapted to Their Braking Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Genya; Itoh, Makoto

    Determining appropriate alarm timing for Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) may play an important role in enhancing system acceptance by drivers. It is not always true that a common alarm trigger logic is suitable for all drivers, because presented alarms may be differently viewed for each driver, i.e., paying attention or requiring appropriate actions. The current study focused on adaptive alarm timing which was adjusted in response to braking behaviour for collision avoidance for the individual. In Experiment I, the braking performance of individual driver was measured repeatedly to assess the variation of each performance. We utilised the following two indices: elapsed time from the deceleration of the lead car to release of the accelerator (accelerator release time) and elapsed time to application of the brakes (braking response time). Two alarm timings were then determined based on these two indices: (i) the median of the accelerator release time of the driver and (ii) the median of the braking response time of the driver. Experiment II compared the two alarm timings for each driver in order to investigate which timing is more appropriate for enhancing driver trust in the driver-adaptive FCWS and the system effectiveness. The results showed that the timing of the accelerator release time increased the trust ratings more than the timing of braking response. The timing of the braking response time induced a longer response time to application of the brakes. Moreover, the degree to which the response time was longer depended on alarm timing preference of the driver. The possible benefit and drawback of driver-adaptive alarm timing are discussed.

  2. Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.A. [R. Lynette & amp; Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.

  3. Estimation of personal exposure to asbestos of brake repair workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely-García, María Fernanda; Curriero, Frank C; Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio; Breysse, Patrick N; Giraldo, Margarita; Méndez, Lorena; Torres-Duque, Carlos; Durán, Mauricio; González-García, Mauricio; Parada, Patricia; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo

    2017-07-01

    Exposure assessments are key tools to conduct epidemiological studies. Since 2010, 28 riveters from 18 brake repair shops with different characteristics and workloads were sampled for asbestos exposure in Bogotá, Colombia. Short-term personal samples collected during manipulation activities of brake products, and personal samples collected during non-manipulation activities were used to calculate 103 8-h TWA PCM-equivalent personal asbestos concentrations. The aims of this study are to identify exposure determinant variables associated with the 8-h TWA personal asbestos concentrations among brake mechanics, and propose different models to estimate potential asbestos exposure of brake mechanics in an 8-h work-shift. Longitudinal-based multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the association between personal asbestos concentrations in a work-shift with different variables related to work tasks and workload of the mechanics, and some characteristics of the shops. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the 8-h TWA PCM-Eq personal asbestos concentration in work-shifts that had manipulations of brake products or cleaning activities of the manipulation area, using the results of the sampling campaigns. The simulations proposed could be applied for both current and retrospective studies to determine personal asbestos exposures of brake mechanics, without the need of sampling campaigns or historical data of air asbestos concentrations.

  4. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  5. Development and production of brake pad from sawdust composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sius LAWAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research work on new alternative materials for brake pad. A new asbestos free brake pad was developed using an agro waste material of sawdust along with other ingredients. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of sawdust which are largely deposited as waste around sawmills in replacing asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. A brake pad was produced using sawdust as a base material following the standard procedure employed by the manufacturers. The sawdust was sieved into sieve grades of 100μm, 355μm and 710μm. The sieved sawdust was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 55% sawdust, 15% steel dust, 5% graphite, 10% silicon carbide and 15% epoxy resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, ash content, wear rate and water absorption. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and showed a close correlation. Hence sawdust can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  6. Braking distance algorithm for autonomous cars using road surface recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, C.; Ashok, B.; Nanthagopal, K.; Desai, Rohan; Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth

    2017-11-01

    India is yet to accept semi/fully – autonomous cars and one of the reasons, was loss of control on bad roads. For a better handling on these roads we require advanced braking and that can be done by adapting electronics into the conventional type of braking. In Recent years, the automation in braking system led us to various benefits like traction control system, anti-lock braking system etc. This research work describes and experiments the method for recognizing road surface profile and calculating braking distance. An ultra-sonic surface recognition sensor, mounted underneath the car will send a high frequency wave on to the road surface, which is received by a receiver with in the sensor, it calculates the time taken for the wave to rebound and thus calculates the distance from the point where sensor is mounted. A displacement graph will be plotted based on the output of the sensor. A relationship can be derived between the displacement plot and roughness index through which the friction coefficient can be derived in Matlab for continuous calculation throughout the distance travelled. Since it is a non-contact type of profiling, it is non-destructive. The friction coefficient values received in real-time is used to calculate optimum braking distance. This system, when installed on normal cars can also be used to create a database of road surfaces, especially in cities, which can be shared with other cars. This will help in navigation as well as making the cars more efficient.

  7. Materials used for braking; Materiaux pour le freinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricout, J.P.; Guerin, J.D.; Bartys, H.; Watremez, M. [Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis, UMR CNRS 8530, Lab. d' Automatique et de Mecanique Industrielles et Humaines, 59 - Valenciennes (France)

    2001-10-01

    The optimization of disc brakes used in the rail industry induces an increase of the capacity to dissipate energy, a significant lightening of the braking device as well as an improvement of the tribological performance under humidity. Two research studies have then been carried out: 1)the disc brakes with a weak thermal diffusivity and 2)the disc brakes with a high thermal diffusivity. For the systems having a weak thermal diffusivity, the NiCr-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} cermet coatings and the aluminium titanate brake pads are particularly interesting: stability of the friction coefficient, good wear resistance and low sensitivity to humidity. Meanwhile, the relative reliability of the coating having only a mechanical bond have oriented the researches towards coatings having metallurgical bonds as stellite. The tribological results obtained with 'nirec 6' and 'corec 6' stellite are very encouraging and even superiors to those of NiCr-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} cermet. The discs with high diffusivity coupled with organic brake pads have also interesting tribological performance as well as at dry than under humidity, with the advantage of a lightening of 50% to the steel disc having the same thermal capacity. With an equal dissipated power, the friction temperature is inferior to those of the conventional system and of the 'NiCr-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}/aluminium titanate cermet' system. (O.M.)

  8. Infrared characterization of thermal gradients on disc brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panier, Stephane; Dufrenoy, Philippe; Bremond, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    The heat generated in frictional organs like brakes and clutches induces thermal distortions which may lead to localized contact areas and hot spots developments. Hot spots are high thermal gradients on the rubbing surface. They count among the most dangerous phenomena in frictional organs leading to damage, early failure and unacceptable braking performances such as brake fade or undesirable low frequency vibrations called hot judder. In this paper, an experimental study of hot spots occurrence in railway disc brakes is reported on. The aim of this study was to better classify and to explain the thermal gradients appearance on the surface of the disc. Thermograph measurements with an infrared camera have been carried out on the rubbing surface of brake discs on a full-scale test bench. The infrared system was set to take temperature readings in snap shot mode precisely synchronized with the rotation of the disc. Very short integration time allows reducing drastically haziness of thermal images. Based on thermographs, a classification of hot-spots observed in disc brakes is proposed. A detailed investigation of the most damaging thermal gradients, called macroscopic hot spots (MHS) is given. From these experimental researches, a scenario of hot spots occurrence is suggested step by step. Thanks to infrared measurements at high frequency with high resolution, observations give new highlights on the conditions of hot spots appearance. Comparison of the experimental observations with the theoretical approaches is finally discussed.

  9. Control performance of an electrorheological valve based vehicle anti-lock brake system, considering the braking force distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. B.; Lee, T. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the braking control performance of a vehicle anti-lock brake system featuring an electrorheological (ER) fluid. As a first step, a cylindrical type of ER valve is devised and its pressure controllability is experimentally confirmed. Then, a hydraulic booster for amplifying the field-dependent pressure drop obtained from the ER valve is constructed and its pressure amplification is demonstrated by presenting the pressure tracking control performance. Subsequently, the governing equation of the rear wheel model is derived by considering the braking force distribution, and a sliding mode controller for achieving the desired slip rate is designed. The controller is then realized through the hardware-in-the-loop simulation method and controlled responses are presented in the time domain. In addition, computer animations for the braking performance under unladen and laden conditions are presented, and a comparison of the proportioning valve and the proposed ER valve pressure modulator is made.

  10. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events.

  11. Parametric amplification in MoS2drum resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Parmeshwar; Arora, Nishta; Naik, A K

    2017-11-30

    Parametric amplification is widely used in diverse areas from optics to electronic circuits to enhance low level signals by varying relevant system parameters. Parametric amplification has also been performed in several micro-nano resonators including nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) resonators based on a two-dimensional (2D) material. Here, we report the enhancement of mechanical response in a MoS 2 drum resonator using degenerate parametric amplification. We use parametric pumping to modulate the spring constant of the MoS 2 resonator and achieve a 10 dB amplitude gain. We also demonstrate quality factor enhancement in the resonator with parametric amplification. We investigate the effect of cubic nonlinearity on parametric amplification and show that it limits the gain of the mechanical resonator. Amplifying ultra-small displacements at room temperature and understanding the limitations of the amplification in these devices is key for using these devices for practical applications.

  12. Dynamic simulation of flash drums using rigorous physical property calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flash drums is simulated using a formulation adequate for phase modeling with equations of state (EOS. The energy and mass balances are written as differential equations for the internal energy and the number of moles of each species. The algebraic equations of the model, solved at each time step, are those of a flash with specified internal energy, volume and mole numbers (UVN flash. A new aspect of our dynamic simulations is the use of direct iterations in phase volumes (instead of pressure for solving the algebraic equations. It was also found that an iterative procedure previously suggested in the literature for UVN flashes becomes unreliable close to phase boundaries and a new alternative is proposed. Another unusual aspect of this work is that the model expressions, including the physical properties and their analytical derivatives, were quickly implemented using computer algebra.

  13. David C. Drum, DC, FCCS(C): an accomplished, multi-faceted individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas M

    2017-03-01

    Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) is quoted as saying, "The meaning of life is to find your gift. The purpose of life is to give it away." With these few words Picasso captures the essence of David Drum's existence. From his birth in Moncton, NB, through his formal education in Toronto, ON, to his so-called "retirement" in Crystal Beach, ON, this paper spans 72 years, unveiling the broad range of opportunities for growth David Drum has encountered in his life's journey and documenting his acceptance of the obligations for proud philanthropy that accompany them. Dr. Drum's many accomplishments, gifts, and contributions to the profession and world of art are discussed.

  14. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-down and motor braking forces. The control strategy of type two is achieved by simultaneously changing the target braking torque during different mode switch stages and controlling the motor to participate in active coordination control. Finally, the torque coordination control strategy is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink, and the results show that the proposed control strategy has a good effect in reducing the braking torque fluctuation and vehicle shocks during braking mode switches.

  15. Development of nondestructive system for detecting the cracks in KTX brake disk using Rayleigh wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Ho Yong [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Yun Taek; Park, Jin Hyun; Song, Sung Jing; Kim, Hak Joon [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sung Duck [Dept. of Physics, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently, KTX (Korean Train Express) train stoppage accidents were mainly caused by malfunctioning equipment, aging and cracking of railway vehicles, crack breakages of brake disks, and breakages of brake disks. Breakage of brake disk can cause large-scale casualties such as high-speed collision and concern about derailment by hitting lower axle and wheel. Therefore, in this study, a brake disk with solid and ventilation type, which is the brake disk of a KTX train was modeled, and a dynamometer system was constructed to operate the disk. A Rayleigh wave was used to inspect the surface of the brake disk. An ultrasonic inspection module was developed for the brake disk by using a local immersion method due to the difficulty involved in ultrasonic inspection using an existing immersion method. In addition, the surface defects of the brake disk were evaluated using a dynamometer mock-up system and an ultrasonic inspection module of the brake disk.

  16. Wear Modalities and Mechanisms of the Mining Non-asbestos Composite Brake Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jiusheng; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Zhencai; Tong, Minming; Lu, Yuhao; Peng, Yuxing

    2013-08-01

    The mining brake material is generally made of composite materials and its wear has important influences on the braking performance of disc brakes. In order to improve the braking reliability of mine hoisters, this paper did some tribological investigations on the mining brake material to reveal its wear modalities and mechanisms. The mining non-asbestos brake shoe and 16Mn steel were selected as braking pairs and tested on a pad-on-disc friction tester. And a SEM was used to observe the worn surface of the brake shoe. It is shown that the non-asbestos brake material has mainly five wear modalities: adhesive wear, abrasive wear, cutting wear, fatigue wear and high heat wear. At the front period of a single braking the wear modality is mainly composed of some light mechanical wear such as abrasive, cutting and point adhesive. With the temperature rising at the back period it transforms to some heavy mechanical wear such as piece adhesive and fatigue. While in several repeated brakings once the surface temperature rises beyond the thermal-decomposition point of the bonding material, the strong destructive high heat wear takes leading roles on the surface. And a phenomenon called friction catastrophe (FC) occurs easily, which as a result causes a braking failure. It is considered that the friction heat has important influences on the wear modalities of the brake material. And the reduction of friction heat must be an effective technical method for decreasing wear and avoiding braking failures.

  17. The braking performance of a vehicle anti-lock brake system featuring an electro-rheological valve pressure modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Sung, Kum-Gil; Cho, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yang-Sub

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents the braking performances of a vehicle anti-lock brake system (ABS) featuring an electro-rheological (ER) valve pressure modulator. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the ER valve and hydraulic booster are appropriately determined by considering the Bingham property of the ER fluid and the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. An ER fluid composed of chemically treated starch particles and silicone oil is used. An electrically controllable pressure modulator is then constructed and its pressure controllability is empirically evaluated. Subsequently, a quarter-car wheel slip model is established and integrated with the governing equation of the pressure modulator. A sliding mode controller for slip rate control is designed and implemented via the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS). In order to demonstrate the superior braking performance of the proposed ABS, a full car model is derived and a sliding mode controller is formulated to achieve the desired yaw rate. The braking performances in terms of braking distance and step input steering are evaluated and presented in time domain through full car simulations.

  18. Intelligently Controllable Walker with Magnetorheological Fluid Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takehito; Tanida, Sosuke; Tanaka, Toshimasa; Kobayashi, Keigo; Mitobe, Kazuhisa

    Caster walkers are supporting frames with casters and wheels. These tools are regularly utilized as life support tools or walking rehabilitation tools in hospitals, nursing homes and individual residences. Users of the walkers can easily move it thanks to its wheels and casters. However falling accidents often happen when it moves without users. The falling accident is very serious problem and one of leading causes of secondary injuries. In the other case, it is hard to move to desired directions if users have imbalance in their motor functions or sensory functions, e.g., hemiplegic patients. To improve safeness and operability of the walkers, we installed compact MR fluid brakes on the wheels and controlled walking speed and direction of the walker. We named this intelligently controllable walker, “i-Walker” and discussed on the control methods and experimental results in this paper. Preliminary trials for direction control of the first-generation of the i-Walker (i-Walker1) are presented. On the basis of the results, we improved the control method and hardware of the i-Walker1, and developed the second-generation (i-Walker2). System description and experimental results of the i-Walker2 are also described. The i-Walker2 has better operability and lower energy consumption than that of the i-Walker1. The line-tracing controller of the i-Walker2 well controls human motions during walking experiments on the target straight line.

  19. An integrated control strategy for the composite braking system of an electric vehicle with independently driven axles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengchun; Liu, Wei; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2016-08-01

    For an electric vehicle with independently driven axles, an integrated braking control strategy was proposed to coordinate the regenerative braking and the hydraulic braking. The integrated strategy includes three modes, namely the hybrid composite mode, the parallel composite mode and the pure hydraulic mode. For the hybrid composite mode and the parallel composite mode, the coefficients of distributing the braking force between the hydraulic braking and the two motors' regenerative braking were optimised offline, and the response surfaces related to the driving state parameters were established. Meanwhile, the six-sigma method was applied to deal with the uncertainty problems for reliability. Additionally, the pure hydraulic mode is activated to ensure the braking safety and stability when the predictive failure of the response surfaces occurs. Experimental results under given braking conditions showed that the braking requirements could be well met with high braking stability and energy regeneration rate, and the reliability of the braking strategy was guaranteed on general braking conditions.

  20. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  1. Effect of operational parameters on the recovery rate of an oleophilic drum skimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broje, Victoria; Keller, Arturo A

    2007-09-05

    The primary objective of this research was to determine the relationship between operational variables and oil spill recovery rates, by performing a full-scale oil spill recovery test using an oleophilic drum skimmer. Prototype interchangeable oleophilic skimmer drums with aluminum, polyethylene and Neoprene surfaces were fabricated and tested at the field scale at the Ohmsett-National Oil Spill Response Test Facility. This study determined the effect of the recovery surface material, oil properties, oil slick thickness, temperature and drum rotational speed on the oleophilic drum skimmer recovery rates. It was found that the selection of the recovery surface material can increase the recovery rates up to 20%. The increase in oil slick thickness from 10 to 25 mm led to up to two times higher recovery rates for a viscous oil, but did not have any noticeable effect on the recovery rates of light oil.

  2. Identification of the fast and thermal neutron characteristics of transuranic waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, B.H. Jr.; Bramblett, R.L. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States); Hensley, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Fissile and spontaneously fissioning material in transuranic waste drums can be most sensitively assayed using an active and passive neutron assay system such as the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay. Both the active and the passive assays are distorted by the presence of the waste matrix and containerization. For accurate assaying, this distortion must be characterized and accounted for. An External Matrix Probe technique has been developed that accomplishes this task. Correlations between in-drum neutron flux measurements and monitors in the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay chamber with various matrix materials provide a non-invasive means of predicting the thermal neutron flux in waste drums. Similarly, measures of the transmission of fast neutrons emitted from sources in the drum. Results obtained using the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay system are discussed. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Synchronized Drumming Enhances Activity in the Caudate and Facilitates Prosocial Commitment - If the Rhythm Comes Easily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the

  4. Comprehensive investigation of the metal in drums of boilers at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhigov, L. S.; Mitrofanov, A. S.; Tolstolutskaya, G. D.; Vasilenko, R. L.; Rudenko, A. G.; Ruzhytskyi, V. V.; Ribalchenko, N. D.; Shramchenko, S. V.

    2017-05-01

    A comparative investigation of the metal of drums of two TP-100 boilers at the Starobeshevskaya and the Lugansk thermal power stations (TPS) was performed. Their operation time was approximately 300000 hours; the shell of one drum was ruptured during a hydraulic test, and the other drum is in operation. According to the results of the technical diagnostics and a strength analysis, both drums comply with the applicable regulatory requirements. The objects of the investigation were fragments of the ruptured drum and a "plug" cut out of the shell during a scheduled inspection. The investigation was carried out by microscopic metallography methods and the scanning electron microscopy technique. Mechanical tests of metal specimens were performed, and the hydrogen content in these specimens was measured. Prior to the material research, the metal was examined using a magnetic memory method. The investigation yielded specifics of the metal microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture patterns of the metal specimens at various temperatures. An investigation performed by the method of thermal-desorption mass spectrometry revealed no considerable difference in the hydrogen content in the metal of both drums, thereby excluding the effect of hydrogenation in analyzing the rupture causes. It was established that the drum at the Starobeshevskaya TPS had been damaged due to its low impact strength at room temperature and high brittle-ductile transition point. Comparison of the metallographic study data with the results obtained using the magnetic memory method suggests that the fracture was caused by local formation of the Widmannstatten pattern at points where accessories are welded to the shell. The prospects are demonstrated of the comprehensive approach to nondestructive examination (NDE) of TPS drums using the magnetic memory technique and metallographic methods.

  5. Optimal design of an automotive magnetorheological brake considering geometric dimensions and zero-field friction heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) brake for a middle-sized passenger car which can replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. In the optimization, the required braking torque, the temperature due to zero-field friction of MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions are considered. After describing the configuration, the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is derived on the basis of the field-dependent Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of the MR brake is then analyzed taking into account available space, mass, braking torque and steady heat generated by zero-field friction torque of the MR brake. The optimization procedure based on the finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is proposed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Based on the proposed procedure, optimal solutions of single and multiple disc-type MR brakes featuring different types of MR fluid are achieved. From the results, the most effective MR brake for the middle-sized passenger car is identified and some discussions on the performance improvement of the optimized MR brake are described.

  6. A farewell to brake reaction times? Kinematics-dependent brake response in naturalistic rear-end emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Gustav; Engström, Johan; Lodin, Johan; Bärgman, Jonas; Victor, Trent

    2016-10-01

    Driver braking behavior was analyzed using time-series recordings from naturalistic rear-end conflicts (116 crashes and 241 near-crashes), including events with and without visual distraction among drivers of cars, heavy trucks, and buses. A simple piecewise linear model could be successfully fitted, per event, to the observed driver decelerations, allowing a detailed elucidation of when drivers initiated braking and how they controlled it. Most notably, it was found that, across vehicle types, driver braking behavior was strongly dependent on the urgency of the given rear-end scenario's kinematics, quantified in terms of visual looming of the lead vehicle on the driver's retina. In contrast with previous suggestions of brake reaction times (BRTs) of 1.5s or more after onset of an unexpected hazard (e.g., brake light onset), it was found here that braking could be described as typically starting less than a second after the kinematic urgency reached certain threshold levels, with even faster reactions at higher urgencies. The rate at which drivers then increased their deceleration (towards a maximum) was also highly dependent on urgency. Probability distributions are provided that quantitatively capture these various patterns of kinematics-dependent behavioral response. Possible underlying mechanisms are suggested, including looming response thresholds and neural evidence accumulation. These accounts argue that a naturalistic braking response should not be thought of as a slow reaction to some single, researcher-defined "hazard onset", but instead as a relatively fast response to the visual looming cues that build up later on in the evolving traffic scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and Characterization of a Novel Rotating Corrugated Drum Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Meunier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel photoreactor system consisting of a TiO2-coated corrugated drum and a UV light source is experimentally characterized for the treatment of phenol-polluted wastewaters. The design incorporates periodic illumination and increased agitation through the introduction of rotation. The effects ofrent degrees and flat fins to increase surface area, varying rotational speed, initial pollutant concentration, and illumination intensities were studied. The corrugated and finned drums did not exhibit a critical rotational speed, indicating that there is excellent mass transfer in the system. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic analysis was applied to the degradation, and an average adsorption coefficient of K=0.120 L/mg was observed. The overall reaction rate increased with increasing surface area from 0.046 mg/L/min for the annular drum to 0.16 mg/L/min for the 40-fin drum. The apparent photonic efficiency was found to increase with increasing surface area at a faster rate for the corrugations than for the fin additions. The energy efficiency (EE/O found for the drums varied from 380–550 kWh/m3, which is up to 490% more energy-efficient than the annular drum.

  8. The Saami drums and the religious encounter in the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Rydving

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the 17th to the middle of the 18th century much of the confrontation between indigenous Saami religion and Christianity was focused on the drums. The Saamis of both Denmark—Norway and Sweden—Finland had been christianized for decade. The main problem for the Church authorities turned out to be that of making the Saamis abandon their indigenous religious customs. From the end of the 17th century, an intense period of propaganda and coercion began to make the Saamis abandon these non Christian elements in their religion. For the Saamis, the drums represented their threatened culture, the resistance against the Christian claim to exclusiveness, and a striving to preserve traditional values. The drums had a twofold role to play in the religious encounter. They were both foci of the confrontation and sources documenting and structuring it. The fight between old and new beliefs is to some extent possible to follow in the records from the district and county courts. These records give us access to Saami arguments and views of the importance of the drums in Saami society. The function of the drums as instruments for a Saami description of the encounter is, however, difficult to make out. The drum figures are difficult to interpret and there are a number of alternative ways of understanding their meaning.

  9. Lebenszyklus der schamanischen Rahmentrommel - The life cycle of the shamanic frame drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Festini Cucco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Frame drums are among the most common musical instruments in the world. They are present on every continent -except for Australia- featuring different shapes, sizes, materials and aesthetic qualities. The common denominator of all frame drums across the globe is a drumhead spawn over a frame. For many Euro-Asian peoples the frame drum is an important paraphernalia of the shaman. Rather than as a mere musical instrument, they consider it as a living entity and a constant companion of its owner. As such, the shamans’ drum has a manlike life-cycle or biography: it goes through several lifestages such as conception, birth, initiation, adult life, death and in some cases rebirth. During its lifecycle, the shamans’ drum assumes sundry roles and functions, whereas all of them carry cosmological and mythological meanings. This essay is an attempt to outline a biographical model of the shamans’ drum out of a comparative study, which considers different scholars’ insights in various local traditions of so-called Eurasia.

  10. Study on the dynamic performance of concrete mixer's mixing drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When working, the geometric distribution shape of concrete in concrete mixing truck's rotary drum changes continuously, which cause a great difficulty for studying the dynamic performance of the mixing drum. In this paper, the mixing system of a certain type of concrete mixing truck is studied. A mathematical formulation has been derived through the force analysis to calculate the supporting force. The calculation method of the concrete distribution shape in the rotary drum is developed. A new transfer matrix is built with considering the concrete geometric distribution shape. The effects of rotating speed, inclination angle and concrete liquid level on the vibration performance of the mixing drum are studied with a specific example. Results show that with the increase of rotating speed, the vibration amplitude of the mixing drum decreases. The peak amplitude gradually moves to the right with the inclination angle increasing. The amplitude value of the peak's left side decreases when tilt angle increases, while the right side increases. The maximum unbalanced response amplitude of the drum increases with the decrease of concrete liquid level height, and the vibration peak moves to the left.

  11. Research on anti crack mechanism of bionic coupling brake disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lifeng; Yang, Xiao; Zheng, Lingnan; Wu, Can; Ni, Jing

    2017-09-01

    According to the biological function of fatigue resistance possessed by biology, this study designed a Bionic Coupling Brake Disc (BCBD) which can inhibit crack propagation as the result of improving fatigue property. Thermal stress field of brake disc was calculated under emergency working condition, and circumferential and radial stress field which lead to fatigue failure of brake disc were investigated simultaneously. Results showed that the maximum temperature of surface reached 890°C and the maximum residual tensile stress was 207 Mpa when the initial velocity of vehicle was 200 km/h. Based on the theory of elastic plastic fracture mechanics, the crack opening displacement and the crack front J integrals of the BCBD and traditional brake disc (TBD) with pre-cracking were calculated, and the strength of crack front was compared. Results revealed the growth behavior of fatigue crack located on surface of brake disc, and proved the anti fatigue resistance of BCBD was better, and the strength of crack resistance of BCBD was much stronger than that of TBD. This simulation research provided significant references for optimization and manufacturing of BCBD.

  12. Research on HILS Technology Applied on Aircraft Electric Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suying Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing the real-time feature of hardware-in-the-loop simulation of aircraft braking system, a new simulation method based on MATLAB/RTW (Real-Time Workshop and DSP is introduced. The purpose of this research is to develop a digital control unit with antilock brake system control algorithm for aircraft braking system using HILS. DSP is used as simulator. Using this method, a detailed mathematical modeling of system is proposed first. Studies on reducing sampling time with model simplification and modeling for applying to I/O interface of DSP and HILS are conducted. Compared with other methods, this method is low cost and convenient to implement. By using these methods, we can complete HIL simulation of aircraft braking under various experimental conditions, modify its control laws, and test its braking performance. The results have demonstrated that this platform has high reliability. The algorithm is verified by real-time closed loop test with HILS system and the results are presented.

  13. Charging valve of the full hydraulic braking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshi Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the full hydraulic braking system has excellent braking performance. As the key component of the full hydraulic braking system, the parameters of the accumulator charging valve have a significant effect on the braking performance. In this article, the key parameters of the charging valve are analyzed through the static theoretical and an Advanced Modeling Environment for performing Simulation of engineering systems (AMESim simulation model of the dual-circuit accumulator charging valve is established based on the real structure parameters first. Second, according to the results of the dynamic simulation, the dynamic characteristics of the charging pressure, the flow rate, and the frequency of the charging valve are studied. The key parameters affecting the serial production are proposed and some technical advices for improving the performance of the full hydraulic system are provided. Finally, the theoretical analysis is validated by the simulation results. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental results indicates that the simulated AMESim model of the charging valve is accurate and credible with the error rate inside 0.5% compared with the experimental result. Hence, the performance of the charging valve meets the request of the full hydraulic braking system exactly.

  14. Simulation and Robust Contol of Antilock Braking System ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jordan DELICHRISTOV

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with simulation and robust control of Antilock Braking System ABS. The briefly are described the main parts of ABS hydraulic system and control algorithm of ABS. Hydraulic system described here is BOSCH ABS 5.x series. The goal of ABS system is vehicle stability and vehicle steering response when braking. If during the braking occurred slip at one or more wheels from any reason, ABS evaluates this by “brake slip” controller. At this moment ABS is trying to use maximal limits of adhesion between tire and road. It means that is necessary control the differences between braking torque and friction torque , which reacts to the wheel via friction reaction tire-road surface. This is realized through the solenoid valves, which are controls (triggered by on the base of PID controller described further in chapter 4. Presented concept is more or less standard for most of the existing ABS systems. The issue should be applied concept of robust ABS control algorithm, which is specific for every type of ABS.

  15. The contribution of stereo vision to the control of braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijtgat, Pieter; Mazyn, Liesbeth; De Laey, Christophe; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2008-03-01

    In this study the contribution of stereo vision to the control of braking in front of a stationary target vehicle was investigated. Participants with normal (StereoN) and weak (StereoW) stereo vision drove a go-cart along a linear track towards a stationary vehicle. They could start braking from a distance of 4, 7, or 10m from the vehicle. Deceleration patterns were measured by means of a laser. A lack of stereo vision was associated with an earlier onset of braking, but the duration of the braking manoeuvre was similar. During the deceleration, the time of peak deceleration occurred earlier in drivers with weak stereo vision. Stopping distance was greater in those lacking in stereo vision. A lack of stereo vision was associated with a more prudent brake behaviour, in which the driver took into account a larger safety margin. This compensation might be caused either by an unconscious adaptation of the human perceptuo-motor system, or by a systematic underestimation of distance remaining due to the lack of stereo vision. In general, a lack of stereo vision did not seem to increase the risk of rear-end collisions.

  16. Improvement of Response and Efficiency of Railway Air Brake System by Modifying Software for Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NAKAZAWA, Shin-ichi; HIJIKATA, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Air brake systems are essential for the safety operation of railway vehicles. However, a certain amount of time is required to distribute compressed air through the pipe so that the brake cylinders fill...

  17. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  18. Performance of Linear Motor Type Rail Brake Using Roller Rig Test Bench

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAKAMOTO, Yasuaki; KASHIWAGI, Takayuki; HASEGAWA, Hitoshi; SASAKAWA, Takashi; KARINO, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    .... It is necessary however to install this brake between front and rear wheels of the bogie. A prototype rail brake system was designed and built and its electromagnetic characteristics were examined on a test bench with a roller rig...

  19. Development of a Cooperative Braking System for Front-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most electric vehicles adopt cooperative braking systems that can blend friction braking torque with regenerative braking torque to achieve higher energy efficiency while maintaining a certain braking performance and driving safety. This paper presented a new cooperative regenerative braking system that contained a fully-decoupled hydraulic braking mechanism based on a modified electric stability control system. The pressure control algorithm and brake force distribution strategy were also discussed. Dynamic models of a front wheel drive electric car equipped with this system and a simulation platform with a driver model and driving cycles were established. Tests to evaluate the braking performance and energy regeneration were simulated and analyzed on this platform and the simulation results showed the feasibility and effectiveness of this system.

  20. Research on motor braking-based DYC strategy for distributed electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingming; Liao, Weijie; Chen, Lei; Cui, Shumei

    2017-08-01

    In order to bring into full play the advantages of motor braking and enhance the handling stability of distributed electric vehicle, a motor braking-based direct yaw moment control (DYC) strategy was proposed. This strategy could identify whether a vehicle has under-steered or overs-steered, to calculate the direct yaw moment required for vehicle steering correction by taking the corrected yaw velocity deviation and slip-angle deviation as control variables, and exert motor braking moment on the target wheels to perform correction in the manner of differential braking. For validation of the results, a combined simulation platform was set up finally to simulate the motor braking control strategy proposed. As shown by the results, the motor braking-based DYC strategy timely adjusted the motor braking moment and hydraulic braking moment on the target wheels, and corrected the steering deviation and sideslip of the vehicle in unstable state, improving the handling stability.

  1. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  2. Contact Thermal Analysis and Wear Simulation of a Brake Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Békési

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes an experimental test and a coupled contact-thermal-wear analysis of a railway wheel/brake block system through the braking process. During the test, the friction, the generated heat, and the wear were evaluated. It was found that the contact between the brake block and the wheel occurs in relatively small and slowly moving hot spots, caused by the wear and the thermal effects. A coupled simulation method was developed including numerical frictional contact, transient thermal and incremental wear calculations. In the 3D simulation, the effects of the friction, the thermal expansion, the wear, and the temperature-dependent material properties were also considered. A good agreement was found between the results of the test and the calculations, both for the thermal and wear results. The proposed method is suitable for modelling the slowly oscillating wear caused by the thermal expansions in the contact area.

  3. Pulsar Braking Index: A Test of Emission Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.

    2001-11-01

    Pulsar braking torques due to magnetodipole radiation and the unipolar generator are considered, which results in a braking index n of less than 3 and could be employed to test the emission models. Improved equations for the pulsar braking index and magnetic field are presented, which are true if the rotation energy-loss rate equals the sum of the energy-loss rate of dipole radiation and of relativistic particles powered by a unipolar generator. The magnetic field calculated conventionally could be good enough, but only if it were modified by a factor of at most ~0.6. Both inner and outer gaps may coexist in the magnetosphere of the Vela pulsar.

  4. Design optimization of an opposed piston brake caliper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Nicolas; Tirovic, Marko; Voveris, Jeronimas

    2014-11-01

    Successful brake caliper designs must be light and stiff, preventing excessive deformation and extended brake pedal travel. These conflicting requirements are difficult to optimize owing to complex caliper geometry, loading and interaction of individual brake components (pads, disc and caliper). The article studies a fixed, four-pot (piston) caliper, and describes in detail the computer-based topology optimization methodology applied to obtain two optimized designs. At first sight, relatively different designs (named 'Z' and 'W') were obtained by minor changes to the designable volume and boundary conditions. However, on closer inspection, the same main bridge design features could be recognized. Both designs offered considerable reduction of caliper mass, by 19% and 28%, respectively. Further finite element analyses conducted on one of the optimized designs (Z caliper) showed which individual bridge features and their combinations are the most important in maintaining caliper stiffness.

  5. Product and process innovation of grey cast iron brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorn, M. [Brembo S.P.A. (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The brake disc out of grey cast iron often seems to be playing the role of the ''underdog'' in the technical examinations of the entire brake system. This is also reflected by the 25 year history of the {mu}-club. In a total of 93 presentations in those 25 years, only 3 were related to the topic of grey cast iron discs. This is not a correct relation to the importance of this component within the brake system. The disc, although per definition with a lower specific load than the pad, has the major task to store and dissipate the heat in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is transformed. The disc also has a significant effect on NVH behaviour, particularly in the low frequency range. It also has a permanent fight with its weight as an unsprung mass. (orig.)

  6. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale tests of low-level nuclear-waste-drum response to accident environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, M.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Joseph, B.J.; May, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes extensive full-scale and scale-model testing of 55-gallon drums used for shipping low-level radioactive waste materials. The tests conducted include static crush, single-can impact tests, and side impact tests of eight stacked drums. Static crush forces were measured and crush energies calculated. The tests were performed in full-, quarter-, and eighth-scale with different types of waste materials. The full-scale drums were modeled with standard food product cans. The response of the containers is reported in terms of drum deformations and lid behavior. The results of the scale model tests are correlated to the results of the full-scale drums. Two computer techniques for calculating the response of drum stacks are presented. 83 figures, 9 tables.

  7. Characterization of surface morphology and its correlation with friction performance of brake pads

    OpenAIRE

    Neis, Patrick Daniel; Ferreira, Ney Francisco; Sukumaran, Jacob; DE BAETS, Patrick; Ando, Matyas; Matozo, Luciano Tedesco; Masotti, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents the morphology evolution of a brake material surface submitted to braking tests through a laboratory-scale tribometer. Optical microscope images of the material’s surface were obtained for every 10 braking operations. These images were post-processed in appropriate computational software. By means of the image segmentation technique, morphological parameters related to the brake material surface were estimated. The wear rate and also the coefficient of friction resul...

  8. Study of heat transfer on front– and back-vented brake discs

    OpenAIRE

    Supachai Lakkam; Kullayot Suwantaroj; Phupoom Puangcharoenchai; Songwut Mongkonlerdmanee; Saiprasit Koetniyom

    2013-01-01

    A brake disc plays an important role in the automotive industry since it concerns directly with safety. In order to develop proper heat ventilation a wide range of brake discs have been designed. Different types of physical brake disc geometries, as front- and back-vented brake discs, affect the heat ventilation directly. This is a vital factor of the brake’s capability. We recognized the importance of this circumstance and therefore attempted to create a test to investigate the temperature g...

  9. EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE ON BRAKE REACTION TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Reaction time is the time taken to respond to a stimulus or change in the environment. It is a method to assess the time taken from the perception of a stimulus followed by mental processing for a motor response. Reaction time in various day to day activities as in driving a car is very important. Brake reaction time (BRT is the time taken for the driver to respond to visualize an object and to press the brake pedal. It is affected by many features like age, gender, neuromuscular disorders. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Study has been undertaken to compare the BRT in male and female drivers and to analyze the effect of sex difference on Brake reaction time. MATERIALS & METHODS Male and female subjects between the age group of 25 – 35 years with driving license were included. Study is conducted in a stationary car. An in-house built; braking timer is fixed to the electric circuit of the braking system in the car. This device is wirelessly connected to the reaction time software installed in the laptop. The subject is instructed to press the brake pedal when the light changed from red to green in the laptop screen. 5 readings are taken and the mean BRT is recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS & RESULTS Statistical analysis done with unpaired student t test indicates that the BRT was more in the females than the males and was statistically significant (p value - 0007. CONCLUSION Gender difference has a significant effect on BRT and reaction time in female is longer than for the males.

  10. Limitation of tritium outgassing from tritiated solid waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liger, K.; Trabuc, P.; Lefebvre, X.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C. [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STPA/LIPC, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the development of fusion thermonuclear reactors, tritiated solid waste is foreseen and will have to be managed. The management of tritiated waste implies limitations in terms of activity and tritium degassing. The degassing tritium can be under the form of tritiated hydrogen, tritiated water and, in some specific cases, negligible amount of tritiated volatile organic compound. Hence, considering the major forms of degassing tritium, CEA has developed a mixed-compound dedicated to tritium trapping in drums. Based on several experiments, the foreseen mixed compound is composed of MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O, Pt and molecular sieve, the three first species having the ability to convert tritiated hydrogen into tritiated water and the last one acting as a trap for tritiated water. To assess the performance of the trapping mixture, experimental tests were performed at room temperature on tritiated dust composed of beryllium and carbon. It was shown that the metallic oxides mixture used for tritiated hydrogen conversion is efficient and that tritiated water adsorption was limited due to an inefficient regeneration of the molecular sieve prior to its use. Apart from this point, the tritium release from waste was reduced by a factor of 5.5, which can be improved up to 87 if the adsorption step is efficient.

  11. Experimental and numerical studies of rotating drum grate furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basista Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste material from the meat industry can be taken into account as a biofuel. Studies confirm, that calorific value is higher and ash content is lower comparing to some conventional fuels. EU directives regulate details of thermal disposal of the waste material from the meat industry - especially in range of the process temperature and time of the particle presence in area of the combustion zone. The paper describes design of the rotating drum grate stove, dedicated to thermal disposal of the meat wastes as well as solid biomass (pellet, small bricket, wood chips combustion. Device has been developed in frames of cooperation between AGH University of Science and Technology (Krakow, Poland and producer focused on technologies of energy utilization of biomass in distributed generation. Results of measurements of selected operational parameters performed during startup of the furnace have been presented and discussed. Furthermore, numerical model of the combustion process has been developed to complement experimental results in range of the temperature and oxygen distribution in the area of the combustion chamber. ANSYS CFX solver has been applied to perform simulations including rotational domain related with specifics of operation of the device. Results of numerical modelling and experimental studies have been summarized and compared.

  12. Thermal-mechanical coupled analysis of a brake disk rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhocine, Ali; Bouchetara, Mostefa

    2013-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of the dry contact between the brake disk and pads during the braking phase. The simulation strategy is based on computer code ANSYS11. The modeling of transient temperature in the disk is actually used to identify the factor of geometric design of the disk to install the ventilation system in vehicles The thermal-structural analysis is then used with coupling to determine the deformation and the Von Mises stress established in the disk, the contact pressure distribution in pads. The results are satisfactory when compared to those of the specialized literature.

  13. Non-resonant magnetic braking on JET and TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Liang, Y.; Shaing, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    The non-resonant magnetic braking effect induced by a non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation is investigated on JET and TEXTOR. The collisionality dependence of the torque induced by the n = 1, where n is the toroidal mode number, magnetic perturbation generated by the error field correction coils...... in the 1/ν regime. The strongest NTV torque on JET is also located near the plasma core. The magnitude of the NTV torque strongly depends on the plasma response, which is also discussed in this paper. There is no obvious braking effect with n = 2 magnetic perturbation generated by the dynamic ergodic...

  14. NUMERICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A CAR BRAKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Różyło

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study involved performing a numerical thermal analysis of selected components in a car braking system. The primary goal of the study was to determine the regions which are the most susceptible to variations in temperature, and to determine the degree of thermal impact upon them. The analysis was performed using the Abaqus environment. The examined components of the braking system were made of materials reflecting the mechanical properties of the real subassemblies. The FEM analysis enabled determination of the distribution of temperature in the system with respect to the properties of the investigated materials and applied boundary conditions.

  15. Brake deceleration of cars with light luggage trailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan FILIPCZYK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects of employing measurements of deceleration for the technical analysis of the brake process of cars with light luggage trailers. The analysis of the deceleration enables to assess the technical state regarding traffic safety and it can also be used for analysing the course of traffic accidents. The measurements of deceleration enables to determine the influence of load on the brake process for different kinds of cars. This method can be employed as the only way of examining during the periodical inspections and services for some kinds of trailers.

  16. Temperature and Thermal Stresses of Vehicles Gray Cast Brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belhocine

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of the dry contact between the brake disc and pads during the braking phase. The simulation strategy is based on computer code ANSYS11. The modeling of transient temperature in the disc is actually used to identify the factor of geometric design of the disc to install the ventilation system in vehicles. The thermo-structural analysis is then used with coupling to determine the deformation established and the Von Mises stresses in the disc, the contact pressure distribution in pads. The results are satisfactory when compared to those found in previous studies.

  17. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  18. 77 FR 46633 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... risk and removed from revenue service until the brake adjustment problems are resolved. With respect to... RIN 2126-AB28 Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits AGENCY... the operators . The rule provides improved guidance concerning CMV brake adjustment limits. The...

  19. 75 FR 57393 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Antilock Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). II. Abbreviations ABS Anti-lock Braking Systems CMV... for Safe Operation: Antilock Brake Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs) that trailers with antilock brake systems...

  20. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false In-service failure of primary braking system. 214... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total in-service failure of its primary braking system, an on-track roadway maintenance...

  1. Investigations into the Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Behavior of Foreign and Locally Fabricated Brake Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Olufemi Akinnuli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports investigations on mechanical and microstructural properties of foreign and locally fabricated brake disc. From safety point of view, brake disc is a crucial component of the braking system. Foreign brake disc (FBD are known for their long life span and better mechanical properties under service condition. However, locally fabricated brake disc (LFBD may possess similar or better mechanical properties than the foreign one. Therefore, the need to investigate their mechanical properties in order to determine which brake disc has better mechanical properties under the same service condition. It was observed that a high machinability index occurs in the locally fabricated brake disc as compared with the foreign brake disc, noticeable in the softness and weak graphite flakes formation in the matrix. Higher resistance to indentation was noticeable in the foreign brake disc as compared to the locally fabricated disc. The locally fabricated brake disc however, witnesses about 22% reduction in toughness compared to the foreign brake disc. An offshoot from this research will enhance the choice of material selection in the manufacturing of brake disc and assurance of locally made spare parts at affordable prices, and the provision of employment opportunities by establishing spare-parts production and allied industries

  2. 49 CFR 571.122 - Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and one-half times the total fluid displacement resulting when all the wheel cylinders or caliper... approximate center of the facing length and width of the most heavily loaded shoe or disc pad, one per brake... the distance measured from the start of one brake application to the start of the next brake...

  3. 49 CFR 232.209 - Class II brake tests-intermediate inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER... the requirements contained in § 232.205(c)(1); (2) The air brake system shall be charged to the... accurate gauge or end-of-train device at the rear end of train; (3) The brakes on each car added to the...

  4. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT... performed on a train by a qualified person, as defined in § 232.5, to test the train brake system when the... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the cars...

  5. 49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... examine and observe the functioning of all moving parts of the brake system on each car in order to make... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER... Class IA brake test. The most restrictive car or block of cars in the train shall determine the location...

  6. 49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of the single car air brake test...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT... Requirements § 232.307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request. The AAR or other...

  7. 49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use in hydraulic brake systems of motor vehicles. In addition, S5.3 applies to passenger cars.... This standard specifies requirements for fluids for use in hydraulic brake systems of motor vehicles... vehicle hydraulic brake system in which it will contact elastomeric components made of styrene and...

  8. 78 FR 44189 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) per 49 CFR 232.307 to modify the single car air brake test procedures located in AAR Standard S-486, Code of Air Brake System Tests for Freight Equipment-- Single Car... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In...

  9. 49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Testing Requirements § 232.309 Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for correct operation at...

  10. 77 FR 51649 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... passenger cars.\\7\\ \\6\\ Response to Petitions for Reconsideration, Motorcycle Brake Systems, 37 FR 11973... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems; Final Rule #0;#0... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  11. ESTIMATION OF DRIVER’S POWER EXPENSES OF CAR BRAKE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Turenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation method of driver’s power expenses for the brake management is offered. The estimation method takes into account power expenses at driving in action of the brake system and power expenses at holding the pressed brake pedal

  12. 49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Process to introduce new brake system technology... Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the procedures... brake system technology, prior to implementing the plan. (b) Each railroad shall complete a pre-revenue...

  13. Vehicle state estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Boekel, J.J.P. van; Iersel, S.S. van; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the elctric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  14. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved. PMID:26236772

  15. Energy Cost of Active and Sedentary Music Video Games: Drum and Handheld Gaming vs. Walking and Sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Edwin; Overstreet, Brittany S; Fountain, William A; Gutierrez, Vincent; Kolankowski, Michael; Overstreet, Matthew L; Sapp, Ryan M; Wolff, Christopher A; Mazzetti, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    To compare energy expenditure during and after active and handheld video game drumming compared to walking and sitting. Ten experienced, college-aged men performed four protocols (one per week): no-exercise seated control (CTRL), virtual drumming on a handheld gaming device (HANDHELD), active drumming on drum pads (DRUM), and walking on a treadmill at ~30% of VO2max (WALK). Protocols were performed after an overnight fast, and expired air was collected continuously during (30min) and after (30min) exercise. DRUM and HANDHELD song lists, day of the week, and time of day were identical for each participant. Significant differences (p DRUM > HANDHELD. No significant differences in the rates of energy expenditure among groups during recovery were observed. Total energy expenditure was significantly greater (p video game drumming at expert-level significantly increased energy expenditure compared to handheld, but it hardly met moderate-intensity activity standards, and energy expenditure was greatest during walking. Energy expenditure with handheld video game drumming was not different from no-exercise control. Thus, traditional aerobic exercise remains at the forefront for achieving the minimum amount and intensity of physical activity for health, individuals desiring to use video games for achieving weekly physical activity recommendations should choose games that require significant involvement of lower-body musculature, and time spent playing sedentary games should be a limited part of an active lifestyle.

  16. Utilizing Drumming for American Indians/Alaska Natives with Substance Use Disorders: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    Background Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Objectives Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Methods Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Results Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. Conclusions The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Scientific Significance Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs. PMID:22931086

  17. Comparative study on the lateral run-out of friction surfaces measurement of brake discs using a brake roller tester and a dial gauge

    OpenAIRE

    Toma Marius; Andreescu Cristian; Micu Dan

    2017-01-01

    Brake system diagnosis is one of the most common and necessary technical operations applied to the car, regardless of its type and operating phases. Measuring the diagnostic parameters on a roller brake tester is a fast operation with no disassembly necessary. Measuring the run-out of friction surfaces of brake discs with a dial gauge is an action that requires more extensive preparatory operations but it offers a high accuracy of the results. The paper aims to analyze the correlation between...

  18. Investigation into the Use of Water Based Brake Fluid for Light Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Akpan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the possibility of using water based fluid as a brake fluid for light loads. Characterization of both standard and water based braked fluids formulated was carried out. The properties of the latter were compared with that of a standard commercial brake fluid. The actual test of the formulated brake fluid was carried out with a Nissan Sunny vehicle model 1.5 within the speed range of 20km/hr to 80km/hr at the permanent campus of University of Uyo and the braking efficiency obtained attest to its suitability for light loads.

  19. Can dark matter explain the braking index of neutron stars?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Perez-Garcia, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a new mechanism of slowing down the rotation of neutron stars via accretion of millicharged dark matter. We find that this mechanism yields pulsar braking indices that can be substantially smaller than the standard n similar to 3 of the magnetic dipole radiation model for millicharged...... dark matter particles that are not excluded by existing experimental constraints thus accommodating existing observations....

  20. 14 CFR 25.493 - Braked roll conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.493 Braked roll conditions. (a.... (e) In the absence of a more rational analysis, the nose gear vertical reaction prescribed in...

  1. Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process oxygen diffusion was applied to titanium rotors and has shown very encouraging results. The oxygen diffused Ti-6Al-4V (OD-Ti) was tested on a sub-scale brake tester against a flat block of commercial brake lining material and benchmarked against several other Ti-based materials, including untreated Ti-6Al-4V, ceramic particle-reinforced Ti composites (MMCs), and a thermal-spray-coated Ti alloy. With respect to friction, the OD-Ti outperformed all other candidate materials under the imposed test conditions with the friction coefficient remaining within a desirable range of 0.35-0.50, even under the harshest conditions when the disk surface temperature reached nearly 600 C. In addition, the OD-Ti showed significantly improved wear-resistance over the non-treated one and was even better than the Ti-based composite materials.

  2. Smart brake light system would provide more information to drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    You are driving in heavy traffic. The brake lights on the car in front of you come on. Is the car slowing or is it going to stop? It slows to 25 mph and the lights go off. You drop back. The car in front of you stops suddenly! You stop just in time. The car behind you collects your rear bumper.

  3. Evaluation strategy of regenerative braking energy for supercapacitor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhongyue; Cao, Junyi; Cao, Binggang; Chen, Wen

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of energy conversion and increase the driving range of electric vehicles, the regenerative energy captured during braking process is stored in the energy storage devices and then will be re-used. Due to the high power density of supercapacitors, they are employed to withstand high current in the short time and essentially capture more regenerative energy. The measuring methods for regenerative energy should be investigated to estimate the energy conversion efficiency and performance of electric vehicles. Based on the analysis of the regenerative braking energy system of a supercapacitor vehicle, an evaluation system for energy recovery in the braking process is established using USB portable data-acquisition devices. Experiments under various braking conditions are carried out. The results verify the higher efficiency of energy regeneration system using supercapacitors and the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method. It is also demonstrated that the maximum regenerative energy conversion efficiency can reach to 88%. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coke drums inspection and evaluation using stress and strain analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Marcio Issamu [Tricom Tecnologia e Servicos de Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Piquete, SP (Brazil); Samman, Mahmod [Houston Engineering Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Tinoco, Ediberto Bastos; Marangone, Fabio de Castro; Silva, Hezio Rosa da; Barcelos, Gustavo de Carvalho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Coke drums deform due to a complex combination of mechanical and thermal cyclic stresses. Bulges have progressive behavior and represent the main maintenance problem related to these drums. Bulge failure typically result in through-wall cracks, leaks, and sometimes fires. Such failures generally do not represent a great risk to personnel. Repairs needed to maintain reliability of these vessels might require extensive interruption to operation which in turn considerably impacts the profitability of the unit. Therefore the condition, progression and severity of these bulges should be closely monitored. Coke drums can be inspected during turnaround with 3D Laser Scanning and Remote Visual Inspection (RVI) tools, resulting in a detailed dimensional and visual evaluation of the internal surface. A typical project has some goals: inspect the equipment to generate maintenance or inspection recommendations, comparison with previous results and baseline data. Until recently, coke drum structural analysis has been traditionally performed analyzing Stress Concentration Factors (SCF) thought Finite Element Analysis methods; however this technique has some serious technical and practical limitations. To avoid these shortcomings, the new strain analysis technique PSI (Plastic Strain Index) was developed. This method which is based on API 579/ ASME FFS standard failure limit represents the state of the art of coke drum bulging severity assessment has an excellent correlation with failure history. (author)

  5. Motor Learning Induces Plasticity in the Resting Brain-Drumming Up a Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amad, Ali; Seidman, Jade; Draper, Stephen B; Bruchhage, Muriel M K; Lowry, Ruth G; Wheeler, James; Robertson, Andrew; Williams, Steven C R; Smith, Marcus S

    2017-03-01

    Neuroimaging methods have recently been used to investigate plasticity-induced changes in brain structure. However, little is known about the dynamic interactions between different brain regions after extensive coordinated motor learning such as drumming. In this article, we have compared the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in 15 novice healthy participants before and after a course of drumming (30-min drumming sessions, 3 days a week for 8 weeks) and 16 age-matched novice comparison participants. To identify brain regions showing significant FC differences before and after drumming, without a priori regions of interest, a multivariate pattern analysis was performed. Drum training was associated with an increased FC between the posterior part of bilateral superior temporal gyri (pSTG) and the rest of the brain (i.e., all other voxels). These regions were then used to perform seed-to-voxel analysis. The pSTG presented an increased FC with the premotor and motor regions, the right parietal lobe and a decreased FC with the cerebellum. Perspectives and the potential for rehabilitation treatments with exercise-based intervention to overcome impairments due to brain diseases are also discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Traditional Saami hunting in relation to drum motifs of animals and hunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kjellström

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the traditional Saami hunting in relation to the animal and hunting motifs on their drum, more specifially the southern Saami drums. One may wonder if it is possible for anyone to interpret a picture unconditionally. One has a certain ground of one's own to stand on and the question arises of whether this is the correct position, when -as in the present case — we approach another culture. We naturally include the experiences of our own culture in interpretations of another culture. The animal which is the commonest species on the southern Saami drums, is the reindeer. Other animals that occur are elks, wolves, beavers, foxes, snakes, among others. Considering the Saamis' hunting weapons, the most important of these were the bow and arrow, and the spear or spear shaft. Of these weapons it is the bow which is most often portrayed on drums. Also some trapping implement like a gin may appear on a drum, but in general we have little or no information about hunting or trapping methods at all.

  7. Hazards Associated with Legacy Nitrate Salt Waste Drums Managed under the Container Isolation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-07

    At present, there are 29 drums of nitrate waste salts (oxidizers with potentially acidic liquid bearing RCRA characteristics D001 and D002) that are awaiting processing, specifically to eliminate these characteristics and to allow for ultimate disposition at WIPP. As a result of the Feb. 14th, 2014 drum breach at WIPP, and the subsequent identification of the breached drum as a product ofLANL TRU waste disposition on May 15th, 2014, these 29 containers were moved into the Perrnacon in Dome 231 at TA-54 Area G, as part of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved container isolation plan. The plan is designed to mitigate hazards associated with the nitrate salt bearing waste stream. The purpose of this document is to articulate the hazards associated with un-remediated nitrate salts while in storage at LANL. These hazards are distinctly different from the Swheat-remediated nitrate salt bearing drums, and this document is intended to support the request to remove the un-remediated drums from management under the container isolation plan. Plans to remediate and/or treat both of these waste types are being developed separately, and are beyond the scope of this document.

  8. Tool-assisted rhythmic drumming in palm cockatoos shares key elements of human instrumental music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Robert; Zdenek, Christina N.; Cunningham, Ross B.; Endler, John A.; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2017-01-01

    All human societies have music with a rhythmic “beat,” typically produced with percussive instruments such as drums. The set of capacities that allows humans to produce and perceive music appears to be deeply rooted in human biology, but an understanding of its evolutionary origins requires cross-taxa comparisons. We show that drumming by palm cockatoos (Probosciger aterrimus) shares the key rudiments of human instrumental music, including manufacture of a sound tool, performance in a consistent context, regular beat production, repeated components, and individual styles. Over 131 drumming sequences produced by 18 males, the beats occurred at nonrandom, regular intervals, yet individual males differed significantly in the shape parameters describing the distribution of their beat patterns, indicating individual drumming styles. Autocorrelation analyses of the longest drumming sequences further showed that they were highly regular and predictable like human music. These discoveries provide a rare comparative perspective on the evolution of rhythmicity and instrumental music in our own species, and show that a preference for a regular beat can have other origins before being co-opted into group-based music and dance. PMID:28782005

  9. Tool-assisted rhythmic drumming in palm cockatoos shares key elements of human instrumental music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Robert; Zdenek, Christina N; Cunningham, Ross B; Endler, John A; Langmore, Naomi E

    2017-06-01

    All human societies have music with a rhythmic "beat," typically produced with percussive instruments such as drums. The set of capacities that allows humans to produce and perceive music appears to be deeply rooted in human biology, but an understanding of its evolutionary origins requires cross-taxa comparisons. We show that drumming by palm cockatoos (Probosciger aterrimus) shares the key rudiments of human instrumental music, including manufacture of a sound tool, performance in a consistent context, regular beat production, repeated components, and individual styles. Over 131 drumming sequences produced by 18 males, the beats occurred at nonrandom, regular intervals, yet individual males differed significantly in the shape parameters describing the distribution of their beat patterns, indicating individual drumming styles. Autocorrelation analyses of the longest drumming sequences further showed that they were highly regular and predictable like human music. These discoveries provide a rare comparative perspective on the evolution of rhythmicity and instrumental music in our own species, and show that a preference for a regular beat can have other origins before being co-opted into group-based music and dance.

  10. SPECIFICITY AND TRENDS IN IMPROVEMENT OF TRACTOR TRAIN BRAKING DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Tayanovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an important problem in improvement of  braking dynamics potential as part of the overall tractor train dynamics consisting of  an all-wheel drive tractor and heavy-duty trailers which are either locally manufactured or developed with the participation of the paper’s authors. The trailers have a mechanical drive for their wheels from the tractor engine. The trains are intended for transportation peat, organic fertilizers and various loads in  forest exploitation and under other complicated soil and climatic and road conditions where there is justified necessity to activate the trailer wheels.Methodological tools have been developed with the purpose to analyze an influence of the blocked inter-double-reduction axle drive of an active tractor train on distribution of braking forces in double-reduction axles with due account of the heavy-duty peat trailer specificity. Theoretical provisions for wheeled vehicles have been developed with regard to the braking application specificity of active tractor trains with mechanical multi-path drive for wheels of a multi-double-reduction axle propulsion device. The paper presents calculation and theoretical data in order to estimate  distribution of specific braking forces in the double-reduction axle links of the active tractor train when the blocked inter-double-reduction axle drive of the tractor and trailer wheels is switched on and also in the case when the tractor engine is involved in braking process and a clutch coupling is switched-on.Sequence of the calculation formula has been completely carried out in the paper. They represent clear design and operational parameters of the active tractor train. Such approach has made it possible to realize them in the form of a software application which is convenient for analysis of the braking process pertaining to the investigated objects in order to select means for improvement of braking dynamics, rational parameters of multi

  11. Comparative study on the lateral run-out of friction surfaces measurement of brake discs using a brake roller tester and a dial gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Marius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brake system diagnosis is one of the most common and necessary technical operations applied to the car, regardless of its type and operating phases. Measuring the diagnostic parameters on a roller brake tester is a fast operation with no disassembly necessary. Measuring the run-out of friction surfaces of brake discs with a dial gauge is an action that requires more extensive preparatory operations but it offers a high accuracy of the results. The paper aims to analyze the correlation between the dial gauge measured values and the diagnostic obtained using the brake roller tester.

  12. Energy Cost of Active and Sedentary Music Video Games: Drum and Handheld Gaming vs. Walking and Sitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIRANDA, EDWIN; OVERSTREET, BRITTANY S.; FOUNTAIN, WILLIAM A.; GUTIERREZ, VINCENT; KOLANKOWSKI, MICHAEL; OVERSTREET, MATTHEW L.; SAPP, RYAN M.; WOLFF, CHRISTOPHER A.; MAZZETTI, SCOTT A.

    2017-01-01

    To compare energy expenditure during and after active and handheld video game drumming compared to walking and sitting. Ten experienced, college-aged men performed four protocols (one per week): no-exercise seated control (CTRL), virtual drumming on a handheld gaming device (HANDHELD), active drumming on drum pads (DRUM), and walking on a treadmill at ~30% of VO2max (WALK). Protocols were performed after an overnight fast, and expired air was collected continuously during (30min) and after (30min) exercise. DRUM and HANDHELD song lists, day of the week, and time of day were identical for each participant. Significant differences (p DRUM > HANDHELD. No significant differences in the rates of energy expenditure among groups during recovery were observed. Total energy expenditure was significantly greater (p < 0.05) during WALK (149.5 ± 30.6 kcal) compared to DRUM (118.7 ± 18.8 kcal) and HANDHELD (44.9±11.6 kcal), and greater during DRUM compared to HANDHELD. Total energy expenditure was not significantly different between HANDHELD (44.9 ± 11.6 kcal) and CTRL (38.2 ± 6.0 kcal). Active video game drumming at expert-level significantly increased energy expenditure compared to handheld, but it hardly met moderate-intensity activity standards, and energy expenditure was greatest during walking. Energy expenditure with handheld video game drumming was not different from no-exercise control. Thus, traditional aerobic exercise remains at the forefront for achieving the minimum amount and intensity of physical activity for health, individuals desiring to use video games for achieving weekly physical activity recommendations should choose games that require significant involvement of lower-body musculature, and time spent playing sedentary games should be a limited part of an active lifestyle. PMID:29170705

  13. Design, simulation and testing of a novel radial multi-pole multi-layer magnetorheological brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Li, Hua; Jiang, Xuezheng; Yao, Jin

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with design, simulation and experimental testing of a novel radial multi-pole multi-layer magnetorheological (MR) brake. This MR brake has an innovative structural design with superposition principle of two magnetic fields generated by the inner coils and the outer coils. The MR brake has several media layers of magnetorheological (MR) fluid located between the inner coils and the outer coils, and it can provide higher torque and higher torque density than conventional single-disk or multi-disk or multi-pole single-layer MR brakes can. In this paper, a brief introduction to the structure of the proposed MR brake was given first. Then, theoretical analysis of the magnetic circuit and the braking torque was conducted. In addition, a 3D electromagnetic model of the MR brake was developed to simulate and examine the magnetic flux intensity and corresponding braking torque. A prototype of the brake was fabricated and several tests were carried out to validate its torque capacity. The results show that the proposed MR brake can produce a maximum braking torque of 133 N m and achieve a high torque density of 25.0 kN m‑2, a high torque range of 42 and a high torque-to-power ratio of 0.95 N m W‑1.

  14. Enhanced Regenerative Braking Strategies for Electric Vehicles: Dynamic Performance and Potential Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A regenerative braking system and hydraulic braking system are used in conjunction in the majority of electric vehicles worldwide. We propose a new regenerative braking distribution strategy that is based on multi-input fuzzy control logic while considering the influences of the battery’s state of charge, the brake strength and the motor speed. To verify the braking performance and recovery economy, this strategy was applied to a battery electric vehicle model and compared with two other improved regenerative braking strategies. The performance simulation was performed using standard driving cycles (NEDC, LA92, and JP1015 and a real-world-based urban cycle in China. The tested braking strategies satisfied the general safety requirements of Europe (as specified in ECE-13H, and the emergency braking scenario and economic potential were tested. The simulation results demonstrated the differences in the braking force distribution performance of these three regenerative braking strategies, the feasibility of the braking methods for the proposed driving cycles and the energy economic potential of the three strategies.

  15. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Zakaria, Lambang, Lullus; Triyono, Muhayat, Nurul

    2016-03-01

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  16. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo,, E-mail: wibowo-uns@yahoo.com; Zakaria,, E-mail: zakaaria27@gmail.com; Lambang, Lullus, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Triyono,, E-mail: tyon-bila@yahoo.co.id; Muhayat, Nurul, E-mail: nurulmuhayat@ymail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57128 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  17. Guidelines for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of disc brake squeal using simple models of brake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.; Marburg, S.

    2013-04-01

    Brake squeal has become of increasing concern to the automotive industry but guidelines on how to confidently predict squeal propensity are yet to be established. While it is standard practice to use the complex eigenvalue analysis to predict unstable vibration modes, there have been few attempts to calculate their acoustic radiation. Here guidelines are developed for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of brake squeal using models of simplified brake systems with friction contact by considering (1) the selection of appropriate elements, contact and mesh; (2) the extraction of surface velocities via forced response; and (3) the calculation of the acoustic response itself. Results indicate that quadratic tetrahedral elements offer the best option for meshing more realistic geometry. A mesh has to be sufficiently fine especially in the contact region to predict mesh-independent unstable vibration modes. Regarding the vibration response, only the direct, steady-state method with a pressurised pad and finite sliding formulation (allowing contact separation) should be used. Comparison of different numerical methods suggest that a obroadband fast multi-pole boundary element method with the Burton-Miller formulation would efficiently solve the acoustic radiation of a full brake system. Results also suggest that a pad lift-off can amplify the acoustic radiation similar to a horn effect. A horn effect is also observed for chamfered pads which are used in practice to reduce the number and strength of unstable vibration modes. These results highlight the importance of optimising the pad shape to reduce acoustic radiation of unstable vibration modes.

  18. A mechanical brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a railway vehicle that accounts for hysteresis and pneumatic cylinder dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Chan Lee; Chul-Goo Kang

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for a railway vehicle provides an effective platform for testing the braking performance under various dangerous braking conditions. However, in general, four-brake calipers are required to implement a mechanical brake system for one car. In this article, we implement a brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system only with one brake caliper and three air tanks accounting for hysteresis and pneumatic cylinder dynamics, ultimately saving installat...

  19. TRANSITION PHENOMENON INVESTIGATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT FLOW REGIMES IN A ROTARY DRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Rotary drums can show different granular flow regimes each one with its own specific flow behavior, which increase the complexity in their study. The way particles move inside the rotary drum is directly related to the mass and energy transfer rates, and consequently to the process performance. Thus, an experimental investigation regarding the transition between different flow regimes inside a rotary drum was carried out in the present work. To the best of our knowledge, the hysteresis phenomenon was observed for the first time in the transition between cataracting-centrifuging regimes, which was shown to be dependent on the physical properties of the particles such as sphericity, density and particle-wall friction coefficient. A new expression for the centrifuging critical rotation speed was proposed in this work.

  20. Field test of waste oil combustion and empty drum cleaning at Alexandra Fiord, NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCourt, J.; Ross, S.; Buist, I.; Morisson, J. [Ross (S.L.) Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1996-09-01

    The disposal of waste petroleum products in remote Arctic locations was discussed. Thousands of oil drums have been stockpiled and abandoned in the Canadian Arctic over the past 50 years. These drums contain various waste fuels and lubricating oils such as antifreeze and assorted solvents. The waste fuels were tested for contaminants, and it was determined that disposal by flaring was acceptable. A remediation project was carried out to dispose of this waste petroleum. At one infrequently used RCMP site, 10 people safely and cleanly disposed of 40,000 litres of waste fuel in five days, using portable flare burners. The empty fuel drums, several car batteries and the empty metal and plastic 1 qt lube oil containers were removed from the site. Oily water and sorbent pads from the clean up operation that had not passed through the burner were also removed from the site and taken south for disposal. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Feeling the beat where it counts: fostering multi-limb rhythm skills with the haptic drum kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, S.; Bouwer, A.J.; Dalgleish, M.; Hurtig, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a tool known as the Haptic Drum Kit, which employs four computer-controlled vibrotactile devices, one attached to each wrist and ankle. In the applications discussed here, haptic pulses are used to guide the playing, on a drum kit, of rhythmic patterns that require multi-limb

  2. Control law design for the fuel consumption system of steam drum boiler taking into consideration the economy of energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The cascade system for maintaining the level in the steam boiler drum was investigated. Main features of the system are it’s variable structure which changes depending on the load variation relative to its previous value, and the use of the model of the drum level in dependence of the feedwater flow rate.

  3. 7 CFR 160.201 - Fees generally for field inspection and certification of naval stores and drum containers of rosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. 160.201 Section 160.201 Agriculture Regulations of the... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. Except as provided in § 160.204, the following fees...

  4. Drumming as a Medium to Promote Emotional and Social Functioning of Children in Middle Childhood in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Kim; van Niekerk, Caroline; le Roux, Liana

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential of drumming to enhance emotional and social functioning of children in residential care. Fifteen children (aged 7-12) from a child and youth care centre in South Africa attended four months of weekly drumming sessions. Gestalt theory principles informed the workshops' theoretical foundation and interpretation of…

  5. The lug with wedges re-launches the electric braking; L'etrier a coins relance le freinage electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, A.

    2005-10-01

    Electric-powered braking systems are lighter than hydraulic ones but require lot of energy. A system developed by Siemens VDO, named EWB (electronic wedge brake) uses the kinetic energy of the wheel to mechanically move the brake blocks aside and press the pads against the disc. Electric motors are used to move the blocks tangentially and start-up the braking but the main part of the braking energy comes from the system itself. Short paper. (J.S.)

  6. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of Asphaltic Concrete Produced in Dryer Drum Mixers for Airport Pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Novrmen a dsio Adoes 3. Recipen ’ atlg o 16.- 6st165 1 )-- 1 7 . K e y1 W a r d G o v r n.n A c c s r b t o e t t e ViPii 22161Ogniaio eor o Unlasiie...34percent" voids" from (Min) 4; to 3 to 5 401-4.2 BITUMINOUS MIXING PLANT (a) (1) Plant scales - Add final sentence; When drum mixers are used by the...contractor, belt scales may be approved for plant calibration and mix proportions. (a) (3) Feeder for drier - Change to; Feeder for drum or drier. The

  8. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  9. Synchronized drumming enhances activity in the caudate and facilitates prosocial commitment--if the rhythm comes easily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Kokal

    Full Text Available Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter "accidentally" dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system.

  10. Anti-lock brake system: an assessment of training on driver effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, M A; Dingus, T A; Carney, C; Hankey, J M; Jahns, S

    1997-01-01

    When activated correctly, Anti-Lock Brake Systems (ABS) can provide drivers with the ability to stop a vehicle in shorter distances and allow for more vehicle control under heavy braking than conventional brake systems. This is especially true under wet or icy road conditions. However, it is believed that many drivers are either unaware of the correct method of activation or they revert back to the old method of pumping the brakes when they are faced with a hard braking situation. This paper examines the effectiveness of implementing low-cost training methods for alerting drivers to the correct brake activation technique. A 4-page, color training pamphlet was developed and subjects were given a short period of time to read it over before being asked to drive on an icy test track. Results indicated that those subjects who received the training were able to stop in shorter distances in a straight line braking event and more often used the correct brake activation technique than those subjects who did not receive the training. However, the stopping distance benefits were not realized in the curved and surprise braking events. These results suggest that the transfer of verbal knowledge may have value as a means for solving the apparent problem of improper ABS usage. However, some additional research should be done to validate these results. Since this experiment was conducted directly after the material was read, the possibility exists that without reinforcement, the trained braking techniques might become extinct in a short period of time.

  11. Diagnostics monitor of the braking efficiency in the on board diagnostics system for the motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The article presents diagnostics monitor for control of the efficiency of brakes in various road conditions in cars equipped with pressure sensor in brake (ESP) system. Now the brake efficiency of the vehicles is estimated periodically in the stand conditions on the base of brake forces measurement or in the road conditions on the base of the brake deceleration. The presented method allows to complete the stand - periodical tests of the brakes by current on board diagnostics system OBD for brakes. First part of the article presents theoretical dependences between deceleration of the vehicle and brake pressure. The influence of the vehicle mass, initial speed of braking, temperature of brakes, aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, engine resistance, state of the road surface, angle of the road sloping on the deceleration have been analysed. The manner of the appointed of these parameters has been analysed. The results of the initial investigation have been presented. At the end of the article the strategy of the estimation and signalization of the irregular value of the deceleration are presented.

  12. Use of a hydraulic brake as a source of thermal energy for the railway rolling stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.Gabrinets

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this paper the braking issues of passenger trains which have a great speed and frequent stops are examines. Problem statement: These processes are ехpensive and have big energy losses. The proposed solution to the problem: The kinetic energy of braking prosses propose to turn into thermal energy of heating fluid. For this purpose special hydraulic brake is proposed. The brake is connected with the wheel carriage pairs. The process is based on the energy dissipation in liqid when the disks with spikes rotate in it. Because the real liquid has friction and viscosity, it will be heat up, when the mechanical parts of the hydraulic brake are moved in it. The design, operating principle and characteristics of the hydraulic brake are proposed. Transmission of kinetic energy of carriage motion to brake system executed by mechanical clutches. It connected with the wheel pair and transmitting the energy the wheels rotation to hydraulic brake discs. The cylindrical rods are installed on the discs. Rods location fits the profile of the curved centrifugal pump vanes. As result, the fluid heatind prosess by rotatinge discs with rods take place also at the same time with the liquid pumping through the inner volume of brake system.Conclusions: Affordable passenger carriage braking dynamic is achieved by varying the size and number of rods. The heated liquid may be subsequently used for household needs and for heating the passenger carriage.

  13. Braking energy efficiently. Design of self-strengthing electro-hydraulic brake; Energieeffizient bremsen. Auslegung der Selbstverstaerkenden Elektro-Hydraulischen Bremse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewald, Julian; Liermann, Matthias; Murrenhoff, Hubertus [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer fluidtechnische Antriebe und Steuerungen

    2009-05-15

    Part of the project ''intelligent, Integrated mono-wheel-drivebrake-module'', sponsored by the German Research Foundation DFG at RWTH Aachen University is the research on a hydraulic brake with minimized energy consumption. The paper describes the boundary conditions for the development of the integrated brake. Based on the depiction of the new brake principle of self-energizing hydraulic brake, the technical solutions to fulfil the train-specific demands are visualized. To ensure a low consumption of the hydraulic energy gained from the retardation force, leakage-free ABS seat valves are used in the implemented concept. The measurement results from a first prototype verify the effect of hydraulic self-energisation. A second prototype is currently assembled at IFAS. It can be used together with both automotive and train brake discs. (orig./GL)

  14. Thermal design of AOTV heatshields for a conical drag brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented from an on-going study of the thermal performance of thermal protection systems for a conical drag brake type AOTV. Three types of heatshield are considered: rigid ceramic insulation, flexible ceramic blankets, and ceramic cloths. The results for the rigid insulation apply to other types of AOTV as well. Charts are presented in parametric form so that they may be applied to a variety of missions and vehicle configurations. The parameters considered include: braking maneuver heat flux and total heat load, heatshield material and thickness, heatshield thermal mass and conductivity, absorptivity and emissivity of surfaces, thermal mass of support structure, and radiation transmission through thin heatshields. Results of temperature calculations presented show trends with and sensitivities to these parameters. The emphasis is on providing information that will be useful in estimating the minimum required mass of these heatshield materials.

  15. Thermal design of AOTV heatshields for a conical drag brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.

    1985-06-01

    Results are presented from an on-going study of the thermal performance of thermal protection systems for a conical drag brake type AOTV. Three types of heatshield are considered: rigid ceramic insulation, flexible ceramic blankets, and ceramic cloths. The results for the rigid insulation apply to other types of AOTV as well. Charts are presented in parametric form so that they may be applied to a variety of missions and vehicle configurations. The parameters considered include: braking maneuver heat flux and total heat load, heatshield material and thickness, heatshield thermal mass and conductivity, absorptivity and emissivity of surfaces, thermal mass of support structure, and radiation transmission through thin heatshields. Results of temperature calculations presented show trends with and sensitivities to these parameters. The emphasis is on providing information that will be useful in estimating the minimum required mass of these heatshield materials.

  16. Carbon nanotube torsional springs for regenerative braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanwei; Martin, Corbin; Lashmore, David; Schauer, Mark; Livermore, Carol

    2015-10-01

    The modeling and demonstration of large stroke, high energy density and high power density torsional springs based on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns is reported, as well as their application as energy-storing actuators for regenerative braking systems. An originally untwisted CNT yarn is cyclically loaded and unloaded in torsion, with the maximum rotation angle increasing incrementally until failure. The measured average extractable energy density values are 2.9 kJ kg-1  ±  1.2 kJ kg-1 and 3.4 kJ kg-1  ±  0.4 kJ kg-1 for 1-ply CNT yarns and 2-ply CNT yarns, respectively. Additionally, a regenerative braking system is demonstrated to capture the kinetic energy of a wheel and store it as elastic energy in twisted CNT yarns. When the yarn’s twist is released, the stored energy reaccelerates the wheel. The measured energy and mean power densities of the CNT yarns in the simple regenerative braking setup are on average 3.3 kJ kg-1 and 0.67 kW kg-1, respectively, with maximum measured values of up to 4.7 kJ kg-1 and 1.2 kW kg-1, respectively. A slightly lower energy density of up to 1.2 kJ kg-1 and a 0.29 kW kg-1 mean power density are measured for CNT yarns in a more complex setup that mimics a unidirectional rotating regenerative braking mechanism.

  17. Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and Braking Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Blau

    2000-04-26

    This document was prepared to support the primary goals of the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These were recently stated as follows: ''Develop by 2004 the enabling technologies for a class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) which will meet prevailing emission standards. For Class 3-6 trucks operating on an urban driving cycle, develop by 2004 commercially viable vehicles that achieve at least double the fuel economy of comparable current vehicles (1999), and as a research goal, reduce criteria pollutants to 30% below EPA standards. Develop by 2004 the diesel engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of Class 1 and 2 trucks, achieving a 35 % fuel efficiency improvement over comparable gasoline-fueled trucks, while meeting applicable emissions standards.'' The enabling technologies for improving the fuel efficiency of trucks, include not only engine technologies but also technologies involved with lowering the rolling resistance of tires, reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag, improving thermal management, and reducing parasitic frictional losses in drive train components. Opportunities also exist for making better use of the energy that might ordinarily be dissipated during vehicle braking. Braking systems must be included in this evaluation since safety in truck operations is vital, and braking requirements are greater for vehicles having lowered resistance to rolling. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has initiated a program to improve the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles through wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and on-road evaluations. That activity is described in a separate multi-year plan; therefore, emphasis in this document will be on tires, drive trains, and braking systems. Recent, dramatic fluctuations in diesel fuel prices have emphasized the importance of effecting savings in truck fuel economy by implementing new component designs and

  18. Simulation study of the plasma-brake effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma brake is a thin, negatively biased tether that has been proposed as an efficient concept for deorbiting satellites and debris objects from low Earth orbit. We simulate the interaction with the ionospheric plasma ram flow with the plasma-brake tether by a high-performance electrostatic particle in cell code to evaluate the thrust. The tether is assumed to be perpendicular to the flow. We perform runs for different tether voltage, magnetic-field orientation and plasma-ion mass. We show that a simple analytical thrust formula reproduces most of the simulation results well. The interaction with the tether and the plasma flow is laminar (i.e. smooth and not turbulent when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tether and the flow. If the magnetic field is parallel to the tether, the behaviour is unstable and thrust is reduced by a modest factor. The case in which the magnetic field is aligned with the flow can also be unstable, but does not result in notable thrust reduction. We also correct an error in an earlier reference. According to the simulations, the predicted thrust of the plasma brake is large enough to make the method promising for low-Earth-orbit (LEO satellite deorbiting. As a numerical example, we estimate that a 5 km long plasma-brake tether weighing 0.055 kg could produce 0.43 mN breaking force, which is enough to reduce the orbital altitude of a 260 kg object mass by 100 km over 1 year.

  19. Nonlinear transient and chaotic interactions in disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-04-01

    In automotive disc-brake squeal, most numerical studies have been focussed on the prediction of unstable vibration modes in the frequency domain using the complex eigenvalue analysis. However, the magnitude of the positive real part of a complex eigenvalue is an unreliable indicator of squeal occurrence. Although nonlinearities have been shown to play a significant role in brake squeal, transient nonlinear time domain analyses have rarely been applied owing to high computational costs. Here the complex eigenvalue analysis, the direct steady-state analysis and the transient nonlinear time domain analysis are applied to an isotropic pad-on-disc finite element model representing a simple model of a brake system. While in this investigation, in-plane pad-mode instabilities are not detected by the complex eigenvalue analysis, the dissipated energy obtained by the direct steady-state analysis of the model subjected to harmonic contact pressure excitation is negative at frequencies of pad modes, indicating a potential for instabilities. Transient nonlinear time domain analysis of the pad and disc dynamics reveal that in-plane pad vibrations excite a dominant out-of-plane disc mode. For intermittently chaotic pad motion, the disc dynamics is quasi-periodic; and for chaotic motion of the pad, a toroidal attractor is found for the disc's out-of-plane motion. Nonlinear interactions between the pad and the disc highlight that different parts in a brake system display different dynamic behaviour and need to be analysed separately. The type II intermittency route to chaos could be the cause for the experimentally observed instantaneous mode squeal.

  20. Design and multi-physics optimization of rotary MRF brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Okan; Taşcıoğlu, Yiğit; Konukseven, Erhan İlhan

    2018-03-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a popular method to solve the optimization problems. However, calculations for each particle will be excessive when the number of particles and complexity of the problem increases. As a result, the execution speed will be too slow to achieve the optimized solution. Thus, this paper proposes an automated design and optimization method for rotary MRF brakes and similar multi-physics problems. A modified PSO algorithm is developed for solving multi-physics engineering optimization problems. The difference between the proposed method and the conventional PSO is to split up the original single population into several subpopulations according to the division of labor. The distribution of tasks and the transfer of information to the next party have been inspired by behaviors of a hunting party. Simulation results show that the proposed modified PSO algorithm can overcome the problem of heavy computational burden of multi-physics problems while improving the accuracy. Wire type, MR fluid type, magnetic core material, and ideal current inputs have been determined by the optimization process. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this multi-physics approach is novel for optimizing rotary MRF brakes and the developed PSO algorithm is capable of solving other multi-physics engineering optimization problems. The proposed method has showed both better performance compared to the conventional PSO and also has provided small, lightweight, high impedance rotary MRF brake designs.

  1. SPINDOWN OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OR MAGNETIC BRAKING?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff, Jan E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jaikumar, Prashanth; Chan, Vincent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Ouyed, Rachid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2012-05-20

    We study the spindown of isolated neutron stars from initially rapid rotation rates, driven by two factors: (1) gravitational wave emission due to r-modes and (2) magnetic braking. In the context of isolated neutron stars, we present the first study including self-consistently the magnetic damping of r-modes in the spin evolution. We track the spin evolution employing the RNS code, which accounts for the rotating structure of neutron stars for various equations of state. We find that, despite the strong damping due to the magnetic field, r-modes alter the braking rate from pure magnetic braking for B {<=} 10{sup 13} G. For realistic values of the saturation amplitude {alpha}{sub sat}, the r-mode can also decrease the time to reach the threshold central density for quark deconfinement. Within a phenomenological model, we assess the gravitational waveform that would result from r-mode-driven spindown of a magnetized neutron star. To contrast with the persistent signal during the spindown phase, we also present a preliminary estimate of the transient gravitational wave signal from an explosive quark-hadron phase transition, which can be a signal for the deconfinement of quarks inside neutron stars.

  2. Neuroendocrine brake for the treatment of morbid obesity. Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Ludovico de Paula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To demonstrate the preliminary results of a newtechnique named neuroendocrine brake, for surgical treatment ofmorbid obesity. Methods: In November 2003, three patientsunderwent the neuroendocrine brake operation performed by thelaparoscopic approach. The mean age was 46.4 years; all patientswere female. Mean BMI was 42.3 kg/m2. The patients selectedpresented some relative or absolute contraindications to the useof gastrointestinal bypass techniques, including gastric ulcer anda family history of gastric malignancy(1 and chronic anemia (2.All patients had associated diseases, including type II diabetesmellitus (2, hypertension (2, obstructive sleep apnea (1,dyslipidemia (3, cholecystolithiasis (1, gastric ulcer (1 andchronic anemia (2. The laparoscopic technique consisted of anileal interposition at the proximal jejunum and longitudinalgastrectomy. Results: There was no conversion to open surgery orpostoperative complications. Sixteen months later, the meanpercentage of initial body weight loss was 44.6% and the meanBMI was 24.3 kg/m2. Glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levelswere normalized, and sleep apnea showed remission. Conclusion:In spite of the reduced number of patients and short term followup, the good results suggest that the neuroendocrine brake maybecome an option for surgical treatment of morbid obesity in thenear future.

  3. Further experimental studies in wet-brake friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staph, H.E.; Marbach, H.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes further experimental efforts to determine friction characteristics that define the chatter potential in wet-brake systems as used in tractors and other off-road applications. Changes and improvements to a bench facility described at the 1985 Off-Highway Conference are described. Of particular interest is the decision to examine the very low sliding velocity regime, particularly below 0.34 m/s sliding velocity. Interesting and informative data have been obtained by feeding the input of an accelerometer attached in effect to the caliper brake pads to a frequency analyzer. A spectrum of the energy developed by the vibrating pads over the frequency range of 0 to 250 Hz while the sliding velocity is increased from 0 to 0.85 m/s is obtained. Specifically, the area under the composite frequency curve from 70 to 125 Hz shows good correlation to the chatter propensity of the oil. The results of tests on several oils are described. The ultimate purpose of the research is to provide a relatively rapid screening test for evaluating brake oils for the John Deere-type qualification tests. The overall results emphasize the importance of a low ratio between the breakaway friction and the friction at moderate sliding velocities for low or no chatter.

  4. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Österle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear.

  5. Predictive model of squeal noise occurring on a laboratory brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Oliviero; Sestieri, Aldo

    2006-09-01

    This paper on brake squeal instability presents a reduced order model of a laboratory brake considered in a previous paper, and presents a description of the squeal mechanism occurring during experiments. The model uses the modal parameters of the laboratory brake components, the disc and the caliper, when they are not in contact between them. Successively, the caliper and the disc are put in contact through the pad that is modeled as a one degree of freedom system while the Coulomb law models the friction interaction between them. No stick slip motion of the pad is considered, because it was not observed in the experimental tests. As a result the model is linear and particularly suited for a parametric analysis. The stability of the model is studied by a complex eigenvalue analysis and the obtained results show a good agreement with the experimental data, provided that the key parameters of the model are consistent with the experimental set-up. The key role of the disc and the pad dynamics are discussed.

  6. The Application of Vibration Accelerations in the Assessment of Average Friction Coefficient of a Railway Brake Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawczuk Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their wide range of friction characteristics resulting from the application of different friction materials and good heat dissipation conditions, railway disc brakes have long replaced block brakes in many rail vehicles. A block brake still remains in use, however, in low speed cargo trains. The paper presents the assessment of the braking process through the analysis of vibrations generated by the components of the brake system during braking. It presents a possibility of a wider application of vibroacoustic diagnostics (VA, which aside from the assessment of technical conditions (wear of brake pads also enables the determination of the changes of the average friction coefficient as a function of the braking onset speed. Vibration signals of XYZ were measured and analyzed. The analysis of the results has shown that there is a relation between the values of the point measures and the wear of the brake pads.

  7. The Application of Vibration Accelerations in the Assessment of Average Friction Coefficient of a Railway Brake Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczuk, Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Due to their wide range of friction characteristics resulting from the application of different friction materials and good heat dissipation conditions, railway disc brakes have long replaced block brakes in many rail vehicles. A block brake still remains in use, however, in low speed cargo trains. The paper presents the assessment of the braking process through the analysis of vibrations generated by the components of the brake system during braking. It presents a possibility of a wider application of vibroacoustic diagnostics (VA), which aside from the assessment of technical conditions (wear of brake pads) also enables the determination of the changes of the average friction coefficient as a function of the braking onset speed. Vibration signals of XYZ were measured and analyzed. The analysis of the results has shown that there is a relation between the values of the point measures and the wear of the brake pads.

  8. DrumNet : Building a GSM-enabled Information System for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-19

    ... the case of DrumNet in Kenya; paper presented at IAAE eARN Africa Symposium, Beijing, August 19, 2009. Documents. Inventory of innovative farmer advisory services using ICTs. Articles de revue. Farmers turn to SMS to sell their produce. Articles de revue. By cell phone, scientists assist African farmers facing effects of ...

  9. The Rise of African Drumming among Adult Music Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hung Kun

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims at further examining an interesting finding of a recent empirical research on Hong Kong adults' participation in African drumming from a sociological perspective by adopting some Bourdieuan concepts. Results of the semi-structured interviews with 82 informants with diverse musical backgrounds and occupations concur that…

  10. Drums and Poems: An Intervention Promoting Empathic Connection and Literacy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Expressive therapies can be used with groups of children to increase empathy and reduce bullying and violence. When educators feel pressured to focus on standardized tests and basic skills, there is little attention and time for such programs. Drums and Poems is an intervention that counselors and teachers can use to address these problems by…

  11. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Superfund Site located in Atlanta, Dekalb County, Georgia. DATES: The Agency will consider public comments... Superfund Site by one of the following methods: www.epa.gov/region4/waste/sf/enforce.htm . Email. Painter...

  12. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  13. Production of tamarind powder by drum dryer using maltodextrin and Arabic gum as adjuncts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachet Jittanit

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind powder specimens were produced by drum-drying of mixture between juice squeezed from tamarind pulpand drying aid. Two popular drying aids namely maltodextrin (MD and Arabic gum (AG were applied at the ratios of juice(20°Brix and drying aids of 1:0.4, 1:0.8 and 1:1.4. A double drum dryer was employed in this work at the drying temperaturesof 120 and 140°C, drum speed of 0.35 rpm, and the gap between drums of 0.4 mm. The results indicated that in order to obtainthe tamarind powders, the ratio of tamarind juice and MD should be 1:0.8 if drying at 140°C or 1:1.4 if drying at 120-140°C.In case of using AG as a drying carrier the proportion should be 1:0.4 or 1:0.8 for drying temperatures between 120 and 140°C.Sensory evaluation indicated that the tamarind powders with MD were preferred in facet of appearance, color, and overallliking, while those with AG were favored in their aroma and taste. The energy costs of producing tamarind powders werebetween 7.27 and 21.00 Baht/kgpowder whereas the drying aid costs were in the ranges of 208-228 Baht/kgpowder and 640-768Baht/kgpowder if using MD and AG respectively.

  14. Swing once more: Relating timing and tempo in expert jazz drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the 'swing ratio') at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  15. Swing Once More: Relating Timing and Tempo in Expert Jazz Drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841250

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the ‘swing ratio’) at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  16. Effectiveness of Using Floating Drum Bio-Digester to Treat Domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An anaerobic floating drum digester was used in treating domestic sewage. The volumetric capacity of the digester plant was estimated as 258.99 litres with a 250 litre-gas holder tank. The gas holder tank was fitted into the digester tank with a clearance of about 2cm to allow the former rise freely when biogas is generated ...

  17. Combined discrete particle and continuum model predicting solid-state fermentation in a drum fermentor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Briels, Willem J.; Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of mathematical models facilitates industrial (large-scale) application of solid-state fermentation (SSF). In this study, a two-phase model of a drum fermentor is developed that consists of a discrete particle model (solid phase) and a continuum model (gas phase). The continuum model

  18. The effects of porosity in friction performance of brake pad using waste tire dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Mutlu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is focused on the effect of porosity on the friction-wear properties of automotive brake pads. Waste Tire Dust (WTD was used as a new friction material in brake pads. Newly formulated brake pad materials with five different components have been produced by conventional techniques. In the experimental studies, the change of the friction coefficient, the temperature of the friction surface, the specific wear rate, and the hardness, density and porosity were measured. In addition, the micro-structural characterizations of brake pads are determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The mean coefficient of friction, porosity and specific wear are increased due to a WTD rate increases, on the other hand, hardness and density are decreased. As a result, WTD can be considered as an alternative to revalorize this kind of waste products in the brake pads and the amount of porosity of the brake pad affected the friction coefficient and wear behavior of the pad.

  19. COMPARISON OF THERMOELASTIC RESULTS IN TWO TYPES OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED BRAKE DISCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.N. Ismarrubie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermoelastic simulation of functionally graded (FG brake discs is performed using finite element (FE ANSYS. The material properties of two types of FG brake discs are assumed to vary in both radial and thickness directions according to a power law distribution. The brake discs are in contact with one hollow pure pad disc. Dry contact friction is considered as the heat source. The proper thicknesses of pad discs are found to have full-contact status. The behaviour of the thermoelastic results for thickness and radial FG brake discs are compared. The results show that the behaviour of temperature and vertical displacement in these two types of FG brake discs are the same. However, the variations of radial displacement for different grading indices are not the same. The behaviour of other results are quite similar. Thus, it can be concluded that the variation direction of material properties in FG brake discs can affect the results.

  20. The method of feed-in energy on disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dihua; Huang, Jinchun

    2003-03-01

    Brake squeal is studied in this paper by feed-in energy analysis. Based on the brake closed-loop coupling model, a calculation method of feed-in energy for squeal mode is derived. Result of the feed-in energy indicates squeal tendency of the brake system, while formula for calculating it discloses the relation among brake squeal phenomenon and structural parameters, such as frictional coefficient, geometric shape of brake pads, elastic modulus of frictional material, substructure modal shape, etc. The method also helps to analyze the effectiveness of various structural modification schemes attempted to eliminate the squeal noise. Finally, this method is illustrated by application to a typical squealing disc brake.

  1. A Combined Cooperative Braking Model with a Predictive Control Strategy in an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Guo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative braking with regenerative braking and mechanical braking plays an important role in electric vehicles for energy-saving control. Based on the parallel and the series cooperative braking models, a combined model with a predictive control strategy to get a better cooperative braking performance is presented. The balance problem between the maximum regenerative energy recovery efficiency and the optimum braking stability is solved through an off-line process optimization stream with the collaborative optimization algorithm (CO. To carry out the process optimization stream, the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD is presented to discrete the continuous design space. To solve the poor real-time problem of the optimization, a high-precision predictive model based on the off-line optimization data of the combined model is built, and a predictive control strategy is proposed and verified through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the predictive control strategy and the combined model are reasonable and effective.

  2. ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE HYDROGEN DATA & ACCUMULATION OF HYDROGEN IN UNVENTED TRANSURANIC (TRU) DRUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAYLEY, L

    2004-06-24

    This document provides a response to the second action required in the approval for the Justification for Continued Operations (JCO) Assay and Shipment of Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers in 218-W-4C. The Waste Management Project continues to make progress toward shipping certified TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As the existing inventory of TRU waste in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) storage buildings is shipped, and the uncovered inventory is removed from the trenches and prepared for shipment from the Hanford Site, the covered inventory of suspect TRU wastes must be retrieved and prepared for processing for shipment to WIPP. Accumulation of hydrogen in unvented TRU waste containers is a concern due to the possibility of explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. The frequency and consequence of these gas mixtures resulting in an explosion must be addressed. The purpose of this study is to recommend an approach and schedule for venting TRU waste containers in the low-level burial ground (LLBG) trenches in conjunction with TRU Retrieval Project activities. This study provides a detailed analysis of the expected probability of hydrogen gas accumulation in significant quantities in unvented drums. Hydrogen gas accumulation in TRU drums is presented and evaluated in the following three categories: Hydrogen concentrations less than 5 vol%; Hydrogen between 5-15 vol%; and Hydrogen concentrations above 15 vol%. This analysis is based on complex-wide experience with TRU waste drums, available experimental data, and evaluations of storage conditions. Data reviewed in this report includes experience from the Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratories (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratories, (ORNL), Rocky Flats sites, Matrix Depletion Program and the National Transportation and Packaging Program. Based on this analysis, as well as an assessment of the probability and

  3. A UK comparison for measurements of low levels of gamma-emitters in waste drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian

    2009-05-01

    Much of the work of the UK nuclear industry is now concerned with decommissioning many of the existing power stations and other facilities. An important aspect of this work is the accurate measurement of low levels of radioactivity in waste forms such as building materials in order that these materials can be assigned to the correct waste streams. This has led to a call for suitable standards and reference materials, and the specific needs of UK users were identified at an NPL workshop in 2005. One of the highest priorities was for 'soft waste' spiked with gamma-emitters in a 200 L drum format, with an activity concentration of just under 0.4 Bq g(-1). In response, NPL prepared a single reference drum meeting this specification. The low density was achieved by loading the drum with plastic bottles, each partially loaded with ion-exchange resin. The resin in each bottle had been previously spiked with a mixture of (241)Am, (137)Cs and (60)Co, all traceable to national standards. The drum would be used primarily as the basis of a comparison exercise, but feedback on its usefulness as a calibration standard would also be sought. The drum was measured by 17 radioassay groups at 15 UK sites. The monitors used were mostly commercial gamma-spectrometry systems designed to accommodate waste drums. Some groups measured the drum on more than one monitor and some used more than one efficiency calibration. Many of the groups used mathematical modelling to derive their efficiencies. The results of the exercise were discussed at a second NPL workshop (2007), after which the participants were allowed to submit supplementary or replacement results (with reasons for any changes clearly stated). In total, 88 results were submitted. A total of 51 results were in agreement with the NPL values; of the remaining results, 24 were explained by the participants concerned (or were revised to provide supplementary values), but the other 13 results were either clearly discrepant or

  4. Social, contextual, and individual factors affecting the occurrence and acoustic structure of drumming bouts in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiszewska, Magdalena; Schel, Anne Marijke; Wilke, Claudia; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-01-01

    The production of structured and repetitive sounds by striking objects is a behavior found not only in humans, but also in a variety of animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this study we examined individual and social factors that may influence the frequency with which individuals engage in drumming behavior when producing long distance pant hoot vocalizations, and analyzed the temporal structure of those drumming bouts. Male chimpanzees from Budongo Forest, Uganda, drummed significantly more frequently during travel than feeding or resting and older individuals were significantly more likely to produce drumming bouts than younger ones. In contrast, we found no evidence that the presence of estrus females, high ranking males and preferred social partners in the caller's vicinty had an effect on the frequency with which an individual accompanied their pant hoot vocalization with drumming. Through acoustic analyses, we demonstrated that drumming sequences produced with pant hoots may have contained information on individual identity and that qualitatively, there was individual variation in the complexity of the temporal patterns produced. We conclude that drumming patterns may act as individually distinctive long-distance signals that, together with pant hoot vocalizations, function to coordinate the movement and spacing of dispersed individuals within a community, rather than as signals to group members in the immediate audience. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An Extended Prediction Model for Airplane Braking Distance and a Specification for a Total Braking Prediction Systems. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    o this repoi t describes the hardware and antiskid systems used on the brake control simulator as well as the test conditions and parameters used in...Figure 3.-B-52H Locked Wheel anid Skid Detector -7 IiV C)i j I tA IL (n:ZIL i ouo \\r Ix LA-J ji U1L 8sLALJZ -jI B. LOCKED- WHELL AND "TOUCHDOWN PROTE

  6. Design of an innovative bike brake integrated into the wheel hub

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenti, M.; Ortiz Marzo, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The public urban bike services demand more robust mechanical devices to resist misuse and vandalism. An innovative wheel hub integrated bike brake was designed making use of CAD-3D and numerical analysis tools and considering both technological and economical criteria. Unlike the other existing hub integrated bike brakes, the new design ensures an homogeneous pressure distribution on the braking pads, which maximizes its lifespan, reduces the maintenance costs and guarantees an uniform perfor...

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of thermal striping in automotive brake discs

    OpenAIRE

    Augustins, L; Hild, Francois; Billardon, R; Boudevin, S

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In the present study, thermal striping development on friction bands of brake discs is investigated through an experimental and numerical analysis. A test consisting of a series of several hundred severe brakings was carried out on a specific bench at PSA Peugeot Citroën. The experimental observations of the crack network evolution and a numerical analysis of a brake disc with a single crack helped to propose a macroscopic criterion capable of predicting the criticalit...

  8. COMPARISON OF THERMOELASTIC RESULTS IN TWO TYPES OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED BRAKE DISCS

    OpenAIRE

    Z.N. Ismarrubie; M. Bayat; M.M. Shahzamanian; B.B. Sahari; F. Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    A thermoelastic simulation of functionally graded (FG) brake discs is performed using finite element (FE) ANSYS. The material properties of two types of FG brake discs are assumed to vary in both radial and thickness directions according to a power law distribution. The brake discs are in contact with one hollow pure pad disc. Dry contact friction is considered as the heat source. The proper thicknesses of pad discs are found to have full-contact status. The behaviour of the thermoelastic res...

  9. Criticality safety study of Pu contaminated carbon waste stored in 100 L steel drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anno, J.; Simonneau, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Guerre, D. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    1995-12-31

    The notion of the minimum critical areal density (D{sub minca}) used to ensure the Criticality-Safety of poor solid waste is recalled with its deficiencies. D{sub minca} is assumed constant, independent of the fissile material concentration. This assumption is only true for unreflected mediums. Corrective factors are established. Furthermore, the usual norm of the Pu-H{sub 2}O, which is 0.20 g/cm{sup 2}, (concrete reflected) is greater than that for other mediums, such as Pu contaminated graphite waste (Pu-C), which is 0.036 g/cm{sup 2}. D{sub minca} calculated on infinite slabs is confirmed by calculations on infinite planar multilayers arrays of 100 l cubical waste drums. Moreover, d{sub minca} increases linearly with the steel thickness of the drums` walls and goes up to 0.17 g/cm{sup 2} for 0.105 cm of steel. The safety analysis on a real storage case takes into account the limited amount of Pu (100 g) and C (100 kg), the minimum thickness of 0.07 cm of drums` steel, their geometrical arrangement, the heterogeneity and size of contamination and the occurrence of neutronic poison (N and Cl) in the waste. Because of these parameters, the Keff are very less than 0.95 and the taken norm of 0.1 g/cm{sup 2} for the Pu-C waste is fulfilled. Finally, it is demonstrated that the mixing of Pu-C waste drums and Pu-H{sub 2}O wastes drums is allowed. (authors). 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Dynamic performance analysis of a seismically isolated bridge under braking force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Wen, Liuhan ·heisha; Zhou, Fulin; Ye, Lieping

    2012-03-01

    In order to study the dynamic performance of seismically isolated bridges under the most unfavorable loads in the longitudinal direction, a dynamic equation for vehicle braking in the longitudinal direction is established. A four or fiveorder Runge-Kutta method is adopted to obtain the time-history response of a wheel set under braking force. The quadratic discretization method is then used to transform this time-history into a braking and bending force time-history of a structural fixed node, and a dynamic response analysis of the seismically isolated bridge under the vehicle's braking force is carried out using ANSYS, a universal finite element analysis software. According to the results, seismic isolation design results in a more rational distribution of braking force among piers; the influence of the initial braking velocity on the vehicle braking force is negligible; the location where the first wheel set leaves the bridge is the most unfavorable parking location; a seismic isolation bridge bearing constructed according to typical design methods enters into a yield stage under the braking force, while the shearing force at the bottom of the pier declines as the isolation period is extended; the design requirements can be met when the yield displacement of the seismic isolation bearing is less than 5 mm and the yield strength is greater than the braking force.

  11. Brake fault diagnosis using Clonal Selection Classification Algorithm (CSCA – A statistical learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jegadeeshwaran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In automobile, brake system is an essential part responsible for control of the vehicle. Any failure in the brake system impacts the vehicle's motion. It will generate frequent catastrophic effects on the vehicle cum passenger's safety. Thus the brake system plays a vital role in an automobile and hence condition monitoring of the brake system is essential. Vibration based condition monitoring using machine learning techniques are gaining momentum. This study is one such attempt to perform the condition monitoring of a hydraulic brake system through vibration analysis. In this research, the performance of a Clonal Selection Classification Algorithm (CSCA for brake fault diagnosis has been reported. A hydraulic brake system test rig was fabricated. Under good and faulty conditions of a brake system, the vibration signals were acquired using a piezoelectric transducer. The statistical parameters were extracted from the vibration signal. The best feature set was identified for classification using attribute evaluator. The selected features were then classified using CSCA. The classification accuracy of such artificial intelligence technique has been compared with other machine learning approaches and discussed. The Clonal Selection Classification Algorithm performs better and gives the maximum classification accuracy (96% for the fault diagnosis of a hydraulic brake system.

  12. Effectiveness of Flashing Brake and Hazard Systems in Avoiding Rear-End Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofa Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to examine the effectiveness of two forward crash warning systems, a flashing brake system and a flashing hazard system, using an advanced driving simulator. In Experiment 1, 20 subjects followed a lead vehicle with a desired time gap and braked when necessary. Results showed that time gap, velocity, and deceleration of the lead vehicle all significantly affected drivers’ brake response times. In Experiment 2, six brake response times to a sudden lead vehicle deceleration (0.6 g at 80 km/h were measured for six time gaps. Results showed that flashing brake system and flashing hazard system reduced drivers' brake response times by 0.14~0.62 s and 0.03~0.95 s, respectively, in the various situations tested. The effects of flashing color and illuminated size on drivers' brake response times were examined in Experiment 3. Results showed that flashing amber lamps reduced drivers' brake response times significantly by 0.11 s (10% on average compared with red lamps. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of both flashing systems in reducing drivers' brake response times in urgent situations and may warrant further consideration by manufacturers.

  13. Aspects regarding manufacturing technologies of composite materials for brake pad application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, A. L.; Hepuţ, T.; Pinca-Bretotean, C.

    2018-01-01

    Current needs in road safety, requires the development of new technical solutions for automotive braking system. Their safe operation is subject to following factors: concept design, materials used and electronic control. Among the factors previously listed, choice of materials and manufacturing processes are difficult stage but very important for achieving technical performance and getting a relatively small cost of constituting parts of brake system. The choice is based on the promotion of organic composite material, popular in areas where the weight of materials plays an important role. The brake system is composed of many different parts including brake pads, a master cylinder, wheel cylinders and a hydraulic control system. The brake pads are an important component in the braking system of automotive. These are of different types, suitable for different types of automotive and engines. Brake pads are designed for friction stability, durability, minimization of noise and vibration. The typology of the brake pads depends on the material which they are made. The aim of this paper is to presents the manufacturing technologies for ten recipes of composite material used in brake pads applications. In this work will be done: choosing the constituents of the recipes, investigation of their basic characteristics, setting the proportions of components, obtaining the composite materials in laboratory, establishing the parameters of manufacturing technology and technological analysis.

  14. A parametric study of golf car and personal transport vehicle braking stability and their deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seluga, Kristopher J; Baker, Lowell L; Ojalvo, Irving U

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes research and parametric analyses of braking effectiveness and directional stability for golf cars, personal transport vehicles (PTVs) and low speed vehicles (LSVs). It is shown that current designs, which employ brakes on only the rear wheels, can lead to rollovers if the brakes are applied while traveling downhill. After summarizing the current state of existing safety standards and brake system designs, both of which appear deficient from a safety perspective, a previously developed dynamic simulation model is used to identify which parameters have the greatest influence on the vehicles' yaw stability. The simulation results are then used to parametrically quantify which combination of these factors can lead to yaw induced rollover during hard braking. Vehicle velocity, steering input, path slope and tire friction are all identified as important parameters in determining braking stability, the effects of which on rollover propensity are presented graphically. The results further show that when vehicles are equipped with front brakes or four-wheel brakes, the probability of a yaw induced rollover is almost entirely eliminated. Furthermore, the parametric charts provided may be used as an aid in developing guidelines for golf car and PTV path design if rear brake vehicles are used.

  15. Effects of cryogenic treatment on the wear properties of brake discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, D. S.; Shivakumar, P.; Anoop, S.; Chinmay, Kulkarni; Divine, P. V.; Harsha, H. P.

    2017-02-01

    Disc brakes are invariably used in all the automobiles either to reduce the rotational speed of the wheel or to hold the vehicle stationary. During the braking action, the kinetic energy is converted into heat which can result in high temperatures resulting in fading of brake effects. Brake discs produced out of martensite stainless steel (SS410) are expected to exhibit high wear resistance properties with low value of coefficient of friction. These factors increase the useful life of the brake discs with minimal possibilities of brake fade. To study the effects of cryogenic treatment on the wear behaviour, two types of brake discs were cryotreated at 98K for 8 and 24 hours in a specially developed cryotreatment system using liquid nitrogen. Wear properties of the untreated and cryotreated test specimens were experimentally determined using the pin on disc type tribometer (ASTM G99-95). Similarly, the Rockwell hardness (HRC) of the specimens were tested in a hardness tester in accordance with ASTM E18. In this paper, the effects of cryotreatment on the wear and hardness properties of untreated and cryotreated brake discs are presented. Results indicate enhancement of wear properties and hardness after cryogenic treatment compared with the normal brakes discs.

  16. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  17. Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment Proof of Concept Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    This proof-of-concept research was performed to explore the feasibility of using real-world braking data from commercial motor vehicles to make a diagnosis of brake condition similar to that of the performance-based brake tester (PBBT). This was done by determining the relationship between pressure and brake force (P-BF), compensating for the gross vehicle weight (GVW). The nature of this P-BF relationship (e.g., low braking force for a given brake application pressure) may indicate brake system problems. In order to determine the relationship between brake force and brake application pressure, a few key parameters of duty cycle information were collected. Because braking events are often brief, spanning only a few seconds, a sample rate of 10 Hz was needed. The algorithm under development required brake application pressure and speed (from which deceleration was calculated). Accurate weight estimation was also needed to properly derive the braking force from the deceleration. In order to ensure that braking force was the predominant factor in deceleration for the segments of data used in analysis, the data was screened for grade as well. Also, the analysis needed to be based on pressures above the crack pressure. The crack pressure is the pressure below which the individual brakes are not applied due the nature of the mechanical system. This value, which may vary somewhat from one wheel end to another, is approximately 10 psi. Therefore, only pressures 15 psi and above were used in the analysis. The Department of Energy s Medium Truck Duty Cycle research has indicated that under the real-world circumstances of the test vehicle brake pressures of up to approximately 30 psi can be expected. Several different types of data were collected during the testing task of this project. Constant-pressure stopping tests were conducted at several combinations of brake application pressure (15, 20, 25, and 30 psi), load conditions (moderately and fully laden), and speeds (20 and

  18. Control of the Amplitude in a Surging Balling Drum Circuit, a New Approach to an Old Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Rapp

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new method for controlling the balling drums used in the iron ore industry. We suggest that a cluster of drums are controlled collectively rather than individually. Further, we investigate the possibility of using an extended Kalman filter for estimating the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations in such drums. The filters thresholding point is identified, and the area for which the filter is usable is given. Finally a simulation of the proposed control scheme, based on a simple nonlinear model, is presented.

  19. TO THE QUESTION OF PREPARATION OF THE CONCENTRATED FORAGES IN FEEDING DEVICES CARS ON THE BASIS OF RELATIVE SCREW DRUMS

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko A. Y.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that for preparation of the concentrated forages it is expedient to use the vibration principle of mixing with use of big amplitudes of movements of components of forages from 10 to 500 mm. and more which can be done when using relative screw drums at the expense of the flat or curvilinear elements which are discretely located on perimeter of a relative screw drum placed on perimeter at an angle not only to an axis of rotation of a relative screw drum, but also to each other, the ...

  20. An Experimental Study on Hysteresis Characteristics of a Pneumatic Braking System for a Multi-Axle Heavy Vehicle in Emergency Braking Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the hysteresis characteristics of a pneumatic braking system for multi-axle heavy vehicles (MHVs. Hysteresis affects emergency braking performance severely. The fact that MHVs have a large size and complex structure leads to more nonlinear coupling property of the pneumatic braking system compared to normal two-axle vehicles. Thus, theoretical analysis and simulation are not enough when studying hysteresis. In this article, the hysteresis of a pneumatic brake system for an eight-axle vehicle in an emergency braking situation is studied based on a novel test bench. A servo drive device is applied to simulate the driver’s braking intensions normally expressed by opening or moving speed of the brake pedal. With a reasonable arrangement of sensors and the NI LabVIEW platform, both the delay time of eight loops and the response time of each subassembly in a single loop are detected in real time. The outcomes of the experiment show that the delay time of each loop gets longer with the increase of pedal opening, and a quadratic relationship exists between them. Based on this, the pressure transient in the system is fitted to a first-order plus time delay model. Besides, the response time of treadle valve and controlling pipeline accounts for more than 80% of the loop’s total delay time, indicating that these two subassemblies are the main contributors to the hysteresis effect.

  1. A Computational Study on the Use of an Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite and Aramid as Alternative Brake Disc and Brake Pad Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosa Idusuyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational model for the heat generation and dissipation in a disk brake during braking and the following release period has been formulated. The model simulates the braking action by investigating the thermal behaviour occurring on the disc and pad surfaces during this period. A comparative study was made between grey cast iron (GCI, asbestos, Aluminium metal matrix composite (AMC, and aramid as brake pad and disc materials. The braking process and following release period were simulated for four material combinations, GCI disc and Asbestos pad, GCI disc and Aramid pad, AMC disc and Asbestos pad, AMC disc and Aramid pad using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The results show similarity in thermal behaviour at the contact surface for the asbestos and aramid brake pad materials with a temperature difference of 1.8 K after 10 seconds. For the brake disc materials, the thermal behaviour was close, with the highest temperature difference being 9.6 K. The GCI had a peak temperature of 489 K at 1.2 seconds and AMC was 465.5 K but cooling to 406.4 K at 10 seconds, while the GCI was 394.7 K.

  2. Development of Load Characteristic for The Main Engine and Its PLC Compatible Preparation in Cooperation with The Water Brake as The Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Markert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water brake can be used in any application where a load brake is required on a rotational load. In the engine industry, dynamometer is used in conjunction with a power source and instrumentation to determine engine HP, Torque, and Efficiency ratings with a high degree of accuracy. Water brake are proven durable designs which use water flowing through the absorber to create a load on the engine. Only the amount of water necessary to provide the load is required.Precise load control of the dynamometer is as simple as increasing or decreasing water volume flowing through the dynamometer absorption body. The controls ensure engine load remains stable throughout the duration of the test cycle. Torque, horsepower, RPM, and water temperature are displayed on highly accurate digital instrumentation.Computers can perform both sequential control and feedback control, and typically a single computer will do both in an industrial application. Programmable logic controllers are a type of special purpose microprocessor that replaced many hardware components such as timers and drum sequencers used in relay logic type systems. They can also analyze data and create real time graphical displays for operators and run reports for operators, engineers and management.Industrial control systems are usually used in all over in control system. A distributed control system refers to a control system in which the controllers are spread throughout the system and connect by networks. Smaller automation applications can be implemented with programmable logic controllers.This thesis basically is about designing a programmable logic controller compatible for dynamometer to control speed, power and torque of main engine. To test engine performance in the laboratory, the engine is coupled to a dynamometer. In this thesis dynamometer are used to measure speed, power and torque. One of the most essential role of the control engineer is tuning of controller. Hence the

  3. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  4. Effects of Group Drumming Interventions on Anxiety, Depression, Social Resilience and Inflammatory Immune Response among Mental Health Service Users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fancourt, Daisy; Perkins, Rosie; Ascenso, Sara; Carvalho, Livia A; Steptoe, Andrew; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    .... This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group...

  5. Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculational Analysis for Fissile Mass Limits and Spacing Requirements for 55 - Gallon Waste Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Thomas C. [Battelle; Hesse, David J. [Battelle; Tayloe, Jr., Robert W.

    1994-05-01

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis was performed to determine the fissile mass limits and spacing requirements for the storage of 55-gallon waste drums at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS).

  6. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motion sickness and gastric myoelectric activity as a function of speed of rotation of a circular vection drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Senqi; Stern, Robert M.; Vasey, Michael W.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and electrogastrograms (EGGs) were obtained from 60 healthy subjects while they viewed an optokinetic drum rotated at one of four speeds: 15, 30, 60 or 90 deg/s. All subjects experienced vection, illusory self-motion. Motion sickness symptoms increased as drums speed increased up to 60 deg/s. Power, spectral intensity, of the EGG at the tachygastria frequencies (4-9 cpm) was calculated at each drum rotation speed. The correlation between the motion sickness symptoms and the power at 4-9 cpm was significant. Thus, drum rotation speed influenced the spectral power of the EGG at 4-9 cpm, tachygastria, and the intensity of motion sickness symptoms.

  8. Synchronized drumming enhances activity in the caudate and facilitates prosocial commitment--if the rhythm comes easily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the

  9. Brake Reaction Time After Ankle and Subtalar Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittapairoj, Tinnart; Anthony, Chris A; Rungprai, Chamnanni; Gao, Yubo; Barg, Alexej; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate preoperative and postoperative brake reaction time (BRT) of patients undergoing right-sided ankle or subtalar arthroscopy. Patients who underwent right-sided ankle or subtalar arthroscopy were evaluated between May 2015 and February 2017. The inclusion criteria consisted of patients older than 18 years who possessed a valid driver's license, primarily drove vehicles that had automatic transmission, and used their right foot to depress the brake pedal. Patients were excluded if they had medical problems that precluded safe and legal driving. An automotive simulation device was used to calculate BRT from all participants. Each patient underwent testing on a computerized driving simulator preoperatively and then postoperatively at 2, 6, and 12 weeks or until their BRT was equal to or less than 0.7 seconds. BRT was defined as the time from stop stimulus until brake depression of 5%. The study enrolled 17 patients and 19 age-matched normal subjects. Patients showed an average BRT at 2 weeks postoperatively (0.57 ± 0.06 seconds) that was greater than the BRT in the control group (0.55 ± 0.06 seconds, P = .84) and lower than the patients' preoperative BRT (0.59 ± 0.06 seconds, P = .08). These BRTs were lower than the 0.70-second BRT threshold for safe driving in the United States. The results of this study show that emergency BRT after right-sided ankle or subtalar arthroscopy improves by 2 weeks after surgery and is under the previously set benchmark of 0.7 seconds. In patients who undergo right-sided ankle or subtalar arthroscopic procedures, it is not unsafe to drive a vehicle at 2 weeks. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Product Quality Improvement Using FMEA for Electric Parking Brake (EPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, C. D.; Gruber, G. C.; Tişcă, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    One of the most frequently used methods to improve product quality is complex FMEA. (Failure Modes and Effects Analyses). In the literature various FMEA is known, depending on the mode and depending on the targets; we mention here some of these names: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Process, or analysis Failure Mode and Effects Reported (FMECA). Whatever option is supported by the work team, the goal of the method is the same: optimize product design activities in research, design processes, implementation of manufacturing processes, optimization of mining product to beneficiaries. According to a market survey conducted on parts suppliers to vehicle manufacturers FMEA method is used in 75%. One purpose of the application is that after the research and product development is considered resolved, any errors which may be detected; another purpose of applying the method is initiating appropriate measures to avoid mistakes. Achieving these two goals leads to a high level distribution in applying, to avoid errors already in the design phase of the product, thereby avoiding the emergence and development of additional costs in later stages of product manufacturing. During application of FMEA method using standardized forms; with their help will establish the initial assemblies of product structure, in which all components will be viewed without error. The work is an application of the method FMEA quality components to optimize the structure of the electrical parking brake (Electric Parching Brake - E.P.B). This is a component attached to the roller system which ensures automotive replacement of conventional mechanical parking brake while ensuring its comfort, functionality, durability and saves space in the passenger compartment. The paper describes the levels at which they appealed in applying FMEA, working arrangements in the 4 distinct levels of analysis, and how to determine the number of risk (Risk Priority Number); the analysis of risk factors and established

  11. CO-Ordinated Action Design of Rheostatic and Air Brakes on the Electric Railcar Series 6 111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Zavada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the solution for the modification of thebrakes on the electric railcar series 6111 used in suburban traffic.It also gives the results of the performed measurements aswell as their analysis.The mentioned electric railcar is fitted with air and rheostaticbrakes whose activation is mutually independent. Sincesuburban traffic means frequent slopping, and since the enginedriver does not use the rheostatic brake regularly, but only theair brake, the wear of the brake lining and wheels is higher, andthe heat load on the brake elements is substantial. By regularapplication of rheostatic brake, the air brake could be LLSed lessthus contributing to a lower wear of the friction elements.The presented solution for the modification of the brakeconsists of co-ordinated and automatic action of the rheostaticand air brake with every braking

  12. Effect of various pre-crash braking strategies on simulated human kinematic response with varying levels of driver attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van

    2011-01-01

    In this study, human kinematic response resulting from various pre-crash braking scenarios is quantified. The underlying question is what kind of effect do pre-crash braking systems have on the driver or the front seat passenger.

  13. Dynamic Braking System of a Tidal Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Wright, Alan; Gevorgian, Vahan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-08-01

    Renewable energy generation has experienced significant cost reductions during the past decades, and it has become more accepted by the global population. In the beginning, wind generation dominated the development and deployment of renewable energy; however, during recent decades, photovoltaic (PV) generation has grown at a very significant pace due to the tremendous decrease in the cost of PV modules. The focus on renewable energy generation has now expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. The input water flow to these types of resources is more predictable than wind or solar generation. The data used in this paper is representative of a typical river or tidal generator. The analysis is based on a generator with a power rating of 40 kW. The tidal generator under consideration is driven by two sets of helical turbines connected to each side of the generator located in between the turbines. The generator is operated in variable speed, and it is controlled to maximize the energy harvested as well as the operation of the turbine generator. The electrical system consists of a three-phase permanent magnet generator connected to a three-phase passive rectifier. The output of the rectifier is connected to a DC-DC converter to match the rectifier output to the DC bus voltage of the DC-AC inverter. The three-phase inverter is connected to the grid, and it is controlled to provide a good interface with the grid. One important aspect of river and tidal generation is the braking mechanism. In a tidal generator, the braking mechanism is important to avoid a runaway condition in case the connection to the grid is lost when there is a fault in the lines. A runaway condition may lead to an overspeed condition and cause extreme stresses on the turbine blade structure and eventual disintegration of the mechanical structure. In this paper, the concept of the dynamic braking system is developed and investigated for normal

  14. 49 CFR 571.105 - Standard No. 105; Hydraulic and electric brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., shall be capable of stopping a vehicle from 60 mph: (a) In six consecutive stops at an average... causing the first thermocouple to contact the metal rubbing surface of a drum or rotor. For centergrooved...

  15. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  16. DЕTERMINATION OF THE DRUM MILLS’ ENGINE CAPACITY BY USING NEURAL NETWORK WITH SUBORDINATE INPUT PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora HRISTOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A successful experiment has been done to train the neural network to determine the drum mills’ engine capacity by using the program „QwikNet 2.23”. As a result we get a trained neural network with a maximum error of 1.00619.10-5 which can be used for assessing the capacity of the electric motors of drum mills and can be considered an accurate mathematical model

  17. 49 CFR 232.103 - General requirements for all train brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of stopping the train with a service application from its maximum operating speed within the signal...) Reducing valve for high-speed brake (minimum) 50 [66 FR 4193, Jan. 17, 2001, as amended at 67 FR 17581, Apr... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for all train brake systems...

  18. 49 CFR 571.135 - Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is conducted with no electrical power supplied to the vehicle's propulsion motor(s), but with the RBS... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems. 571... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.135 Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems. S1. Scope...

  19. Optimized antilock braking system and traction control system. Antiblockiersystem und Antriebsschlupfregelung der fuenften Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonner, W.D.; Maisch, W.; Mergenthaler, R.; Sigl, A.

    1993-11-01

    The structure and function of the ABS 5 and ABS/ASR 5 hydraulic units are shown here. Using a modified self-priming pump to supply energy for brake intervention and using a small 2/2-solenoid leads to compact, cost-effective hydraulic units. The brake circuits remain closed which provides maximum safety at minimum expense. (orig./HW)

  20. A New Model of Stopping Sight Distance of Curve Braking Based on Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-xia Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with straight-line braking, cornering brake has longer braking distance and poorer stability. Therefore, drivers are more prone to making mistakes. The braking process and the dynamics of vehicles in emergency situations on curves were analyzed. A biaxial four-wheel vehicle was simplified to a single model. Considering the braking process, dynamics, force distribution, and stability, a stopping sight distance of the curve braking calculation model was built. Then a driver-vehicle-road simulation platform was built using multibody dynamic software. The vehicle test of brake-in-turn was realized in this platform. The comparison of experimental and calculated values verified the reliability of the computational model. Eventually, the experimental values and calculated values were compared with the stopping sight distance recommended by the Highway Route Design Specification (JTGD20-2006; the current specification of stopping sight distance does not apply to cornering brake sight distance requirements. In this paper, the general values and limits of the curve stopping sight distance are presented.