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Sample records for brainstem-spinal cord preparation

  1. Effects of a quaternary lidocaine derivative, QX-314, on the respiratory activity in brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Chikara; Onimaru, Hiroshi

    2016-04-21

    In the clinical setting, the use of QX-314 (a quaternary derivative of lidocaine) has been proposed to achieve the selective inhibition of nociceptors that express transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels with fewer motor deficits. However, it has been also reported that QX-314 may produce systemic CNS toxicities with relative potencies that are approximately twice as high as those of lidocaine. There are no reports concerning the effects of extracellular QX-314 on the rhythm-generating neurons in the respiratory center. In the present study, we examined the effects of QX-314 on respiratory rhythm generation in brainstem-spinal cord preparations from newborn rats. The extracellular application of QX-314 (200μM) decreased the C4 burst rate, amplitude and slope during the initial rising phase, and the effects slowly developed with a half-decay time of approximately 20min. The combined application of capsaicin (10 or 100μM) with QX-314 (100μM) showed no additional effect. The intracellular application of QX-314 (100μM) to respiratory neurons depressed the action potentials with a half-decay time of around 5min. Our findings could explain one of the mechanisms underlying the central toxicities that occur after the systemic application of QX-314. PMID:26992939

  2. Studying respiratory rhythm generation in a developing bird: Hatching a new experimental model using the classic in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincen-Brown, Michael A; Whitesitt, Kaitlyn C; Quick, Forrest G; Pilarski, Jason Q

    2016-04-01

    It has been more than thirty years since the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation was first presented as a method to study automatic breathing behaviors in the neonatal rat. This straightforward preparation has led to an incredible burst of information about the location and coordination of several spontaneously active microcircuits that form the ventrolateral respiratory network of the brainstem. Despite these advances, our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate central breathing behaviors is still incomplete. Investigations into the nature of spontaneous breathing rhythmicity have almost exclusively focused on mammals, and there is a need for comparative experimental models to evaluate several unresolved issues from a different perspective. With this in mind, we sought to develop a new avian in vitro model with the long term goal to better understand questions associated with the ontogeny of respiratory rhythm generation, neuroplasticity, and whether multiple, independent oscillators drive the major phases of breathing. The fact that birds develop in ovo provides unparalleled access to central neuronal networks throughout the prenatal period - from embryo to hatchling - that are free from confounding interactions with mother. Previous studies using in vitro avian models have been strictly limited to the early embryonic period. Consequently, the details and even the presence of brainstem derived breathing-related rhythmogenesis in birds have never been described. In the present study, we used the altricial zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and show robust spontaneous motor outflow through cranial motor nerve IX, which is first detectable on embryonic day four and continues through prenatal and early postnatal development without interruption. We also show that brainstem oscillations change dramatically over the course of prenatal development, sometimes within hours, which suggests rapid maturational modifications in growth and connectivity. We propose

  3. Bimodal Respiratory-Locomotor Neurons in the Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Jean-Patrick; Juvin, Laurent; Cardoit, Laura; Morin, Didier

    2016-01-20

    Neural networks that can generate rhythmic motor output in the absence of sensory feedback, commonly called central pattern generators (CPGs), are involved in many vital functions such as locomotion or respiration. In certain circumstances, these neural networks must interact to produce coordinated motor behavior adapted to environmental constraints and to satisfy the basic needs of an organism. In this context, we recently reported the existence of an ascending excitatory influence from lumbar locomotor CPG circuitry to the medullary respiratory networks that is able to depolarize neurons of the parafacial respiratory group during fictive locomotion and to subsequently induce an increased respiratory rhythmicity (Le Gal et al., 2014b). Here, using an isolated in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation from neonatal rat in which the respiratory and the locomotor networks remain intact, we show that during fictive locomotion induced either pharmacologically or by sacrocaudal afferent stimulation, the activity of both thoracolumbar expiratory motoneurons and interneurons is rhythmically modulated with the locomotor activity. Completely absent in spinal inspiratory cells, this rhythmic pattern is highly correlated with the hindlimb ipsilateral flexor activities. Furthermore, silencing brainstem neural circuits by pharmacological manipulation revealed that this locomotor-related drive to expiratory motoneurons is solely dependent on propriospinal pathways. Together these data provide the first evidence in the newborn rat spinal cord for the existence of bimodal respiratory-locomotor motoneurons and interneurons onto which both central efferent expiratory and locomotor drives converge, presumably facilitating the coordination between the rhythmogenic networks responsible for two different motor functions. Significance statement: In freely moving animals, distant regions of the brain and spinal cord controlling distinct motor acts must interact to produce the best

  4. Preparation and characterization of genipin-crosslinked rat acellular spinal cord scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tao [Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Ren, Xian-Jun, E-mail: ren_xianjun@sina.com [Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Tang, Jin-Liang [Department of Pathology, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yin, Hong; Wang, Kai-Jian; Zhou, Chang-Li [Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of rat acellular spinal cord scaffolds for tissue engineering applications was investigated. Fresh rat spinal cords were decellularized and crosslinked with genipin (GP) to improve their structural stability and mechanical properties. The GP-crosslinked spinal cord scaffolds possessed a porous structure with an average pore diameter of 31.1 μm and a porosity of 81.5%. The resultant scaffolds exhibited a water uptake ratio of 229%, and moderate in vitro degradation rates of less than 5% in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and slightly more than 20% in trypsin-containing buffer, within 14 days. The ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus of GP-crosslinked spinal cord scaffolds were determined to be 0.193 ± 0.064 MPa and 1.541 ± 0.082 MPa, respectively. Compared with glutaraldehyde (GA)-crosslinked acellular spinal cord scaffolds, GP-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated similar microstructure and mechanical properties but superior biocompatibility as indicated by cytotoxicity evaluation and rat mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion behavior. Cells were able to penetrate throughout the crosslinked scaffold due to the presence of an interconnected porous structure. The low cytotoxicity of GP facilitated cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion in vitro on the crosslinked scaffolds over 7 days. Thus, these GP-crosslinked spinal cord scaffolds show great promise for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We prepared a modified acellular spinal cord scaffold by crosslinking with genipin. • Genipin-crosslinked scaffold possessed a good 3-dimension porous structure. • Structural stability and mechanical property of scaffold were enhanced by genipin-crosslinking. • Genipin-crosslinked scaffold demonstrated superior biocompatibility. • Genipin-crosslinked scaffold show great promise for tissue engineering applications.

  5. Transcriptional activity of telomerase complex in CD34- stem cells of cord blood in dependence of preparation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bojdys-Szyndlar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of telomerase subunits encoding genes changes during the process of cord blood preparation. It should establish if the commonly accepted 24 hours time interval in stem cells kriopreservation procedure significantly influences their immortalization and so decreases the "quality" of cord blood stem cells. Investigation includes 69 women. Spontaneous labour was the inclusion condition. The material was collected at birth after clamping of umbilical cord by direct vasopuncture. CD34- cells were extracted from cord blood (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec; Bisley, Surrey, UK. The expression profile of telomerase activators and inhibitors encoding genes was determined using HG_U133A oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix. We used a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay to quantify the telomerase TERT, hTR and TP1 subunits mRNA copy numbers in CD34- cells in 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours after cord blood collection. We observed significant decrease of numbers of copies of TERTA+B mRNA within the successive hours of observation. Significant decrease of numbers of TERTA mRNA copies was confirmed after 24 hours. However, we observed significant increase of numbers of copies of TERTB mRNA after 6 hours of observation. Similar level was maintained during another 6h. The significantly lower number of copies of TERTB mRNA was observed after 24h. We also observed significant increase of number of copies of TERT mRNA after 6 hours. Number of copies of TERT mRNA significantly decreased after another 6h, remaining, however, on a higher then initial one. The significant lower number of copies of TERT mRNA was observed 24h after delivery. The possible explanation of those results is discussed in the paper.

  6. 脱细胞脊髓基质支架的制备及生物特性%Acellular spinal cord scaffold: preparation and biological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一鹏; 陈旭义; 朱祥; 卢磊; 涂悦

    2015-01-01

    背景:以脱细胞脊髓基质材料为构架的脊髓生物支架,已被证实可恢复或部分恢复受损的脊髓神经功能.目的:介绍脱细胞脊髓基质支架的制备方法和部分生物特性,对近年来其在脊髓组织工程中的应用及进展作一概述.方法:应用计算机检索 CNKI和 PubMed数据库中 2005年1月至2014年10月关于脱细胞脊髓基质支架材料在脊髓损伤中应用的文章,在主题和摘要中,中文以"脱细胞脊髓,支架材料,脊髓损伤,组织工程学"为检索词检索,英文以"acelular spinal cord;engineering tissue;spinal cord injury;scaffold"为检索词进行检索.结果与结论:脱细胞脊髓基质支架具有较低的抗原性、优良的生物相容性及类似脊髓的三维支架结构,但存在力学性能差及结构不稳定等缺点.通过京尼平、戊二醛等交联剂改性后可明显提高支架的生物性能.目前国内外已对脱细胞脊髓基质支架在神经修复再生方面的应用做了一些探索,为脊髓组织工程学打下了基础.由于脱细胞脊髓基质支架的诸多优点,脱细胞脊髓基质材料有望成为脊髓组织工程学的理想材料.%BACKGROUND:Acelular spinal cord matrix material for framework of spinal cord scaffold has been shown to restore the neurologic function of the damaged spinal cord completely or partialy. OBJECTIVE:To introduce the preparation and biological characteristics of acelular matrix scaffold for the spinal cord and to do an overview of its application and progress in spinal cord tissue engineering. METHODS:A computer-based search of CNKI and PubMed was performed for articles related to acelular spinal cord scaffolds published from January 2005 to October 2014. The keywords were "acelular spinal cord; scaffold; spinal cord injury; tissue engineering" in Chinese and English, appearing in the title and abstract. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The acelular spinal cord scaffold has low antigenicity, excelent biocompatibility

  7. Plateau-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    1. In transverse slices of the spinal cord of the turtle, intracellular recordings were used to characterize and analyse the responses to injected current and activation of primary afferents in dorsal horn neurones. 2. A subpopulation of neurones, with cell bodies located laterally in the deep do...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  10. SIMS depth profiling of rubber-tyre cord bonding layers prepared using 64Zn depleted ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide and copper/zinc sulphide layers are formed during vulcanisation and moulding of rubber to brass-coated steel tyre reinforcing cords. Previous studies have described how zinc diffuses through the rubber-brass interface to form zinc sulphide, and combines with oxygen to create zinc oxide during dezincification. The zinc is usually assumed to originate in the brass of the tyre cord, however, zinc oxide is also present in the rubber formulation. We reveal how zinc from these sources is distributed within the interfacial bonding layers, before and after heat and humidity ageing. Zinc oxide produced using 64Zn-isotope depleted zinc was mixed in the rubber formulation in place of the natural ZnO and the zinc isotope ratios within the interfacial layers were followed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiling. Variations in the relative ratios of the zinc isotopes during depth profiling were measured for unaged, heat-aged and humidity-aged wire samples and in each case a relatively large proportion of the zinc incorporated into the interfacial layer as zinc sulphide was shown to have originated from ZnO in the rubber compound

  11. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  12. Remote Control of Respiratory Neural Network by Spinal Locomotor Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gal, Jean-Patrick; Juvin, Laurent; Cardoit, Laura; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Morin, Didier

    2014-01-01

    During exercise and locomotion, breathing rate rapidly increases to meet the suddenly enhanced oxygen demand. The extent to which direct central interactions between the spinal networks controlling locomotion and the brainstem networks controlling breathing are involved in this rhythm modulation remains unknown. Here, we show that in isolated neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations, the increase in respiratory rate observed during fictive locomotion is associated with an increase in t...

  13. Respiratory activity in medulla oblongata and its modulation by adenosine and opioids

    OpenAIRE

    Herlenius, Eric

    1998-01-01

    From the moment of birth the complex neuronal networks generating breathing has to function continuously and adapt to the new postnatal environmental demands. This thesis aims at studying the perinatal development of respiratory control and its modulation by adenosine and opioids. Respiratory activity was studied in vitro using brainstem spinal cord preparations and in vivo with a barometric plethysmograph. In vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings of respiratory related ne...

  14. Airway inflammation and central respiratory control: results from in vivo and in vitro neonatal rat

    OpenAIRE

    Gresham, Kenneth; Boyer, Brooke; Mayer, Catherine; Foglyano, Ryan; Martin, Richard; Wilson, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    In infants, respiratory infection elicits tachypnea. To begin to evaluate the role of brainstem cytokine expression in modulation of breathing pattern changes, we compared the pattern generated after endotracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in in vivo rat pups to local pro-inflammatory cytokine injection in the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) in an in vitro en bloc brainstem spinal cord preparation. We hypothesized that both challenges would elicit similar changes in patterning ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  17. The effects of a series of omega-phosphonic alpha-carboxylic amino acids on electrically evoked and excitant amino acid-induced responses in isolated spinal cord preparations.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, R H; Francis, A. A.; Jones, A W; Smith, D. A.; Watkins, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    1 The depressant actions on evoked electrical activity and the excitant amino acid antagonist properties of a range of omega-phosphonic alpha-carboxylic amino acids have been investigated in the isolated spinal cord preparations of the frog or immature rat. 2 When tested on dorsal root-evoked ventral root potentials, members of the homologous series from 2- amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid to 2-amino-8-phosphonooctanoic acid showed depressant actions which correlated with the ability of the subs...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available Experts \\ Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... in countries outside the US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury How does the spinal cord work? What is a spinal cord injury? Why is the level of a spinal cord ... stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  2. Spinal-, brainstem- and cerebrally mediated responses at- and below-level of a spinal cord contusion in rats: evaluation of pain-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baastrup, Cathrine; Maersk-Moller, Camilla Charlotte; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2010-12-01

    Pain is a frequent consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) which may profoundly impair the patients' quality of life. Valid experimental models and methods are therefore desirable in the search for better treatments. Usually, experimental pain assays depend on stimulus-evoked withdrawal responses; however, this spinal-mediated reflex response may be particularly problematic when evaluating below-level SCI pain due to the development of hyperactive reflex circuitries. In this study, we applied and compared assays measuring cold (acetone), static (von Frey filaments), and dynamic mechanical (soft brush) hypersensitivity at different levels of the neuroaxis at and below the level of injury in a rat model of SCI. We induced an experimental SCI (MASCIS 25 mm weight-drop) and evaluated the development of spinal reflexes (withdrawal), spinal-brainstem-spinal reflexes (licking, guarding, struggling, vocalizing, jumping, and biting) and cerebral-dependent behavior (place escape/avoidance paradigm (PEAP)). We demonstrated increased brainstem reflexes and cerebrally mediated aversive reactions to stimuli applied at the level of SCI, suggesting development of at-level evoked pain behavior. Furthermore, stimulation below-level increased innate reflex responses without increasing brainstem reflexes or aversive behavior in the PEAP, suggesting development of the spasticity syndrome rather than pain-like behavior. While spinal reflex measures are acceptable for studying changes in the spinal reflex pathways and spinal cord, they are not suited as nociceptive behavioral measures. Measuring brainstem organized responses eliminates the bias associated with the spastic syndrome, but pain requires cortical involvement. Methods depending on cortical structures, as the PEAP, are therefore optimal endpoints in animal models of central pain. PMID:20863621

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work ...

  5. Preparation and Biological Characteristics of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Medium%人脐带血间充质干细胞条件培养基的制备及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅帅; 沈霞; 崔桂云; 叶新春; 万美蓉

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨人脐带血(human umbilical cord blood,hUCB)来源间充质干细胞(mesenchymal stem cells,MSCs)条件培养基(conditioned medium,CM)的制备方法,并分析MSCs的旁分泌作用。方法无菌条件下收集足月健康新生儿的脐带血,经肝素抗凝,离心后分离、培养、传代hUCB-MSCs,用倒置显微镜观察不同时期细胞的生长情况和形态特征,并用酶标仪检测细胞增殖情况,待细胞融合达80%时更换培养基,再继续培养24h后收集培养上清液即为人脐带血间充质干细胞条件培养基(hUCB-MSCs-CM)。结果经过传代后,人脐带血间充质干细胞形态趋于均一,为梭形或成纤维样、体积较大、单个核,呈漩涡样生长,且增殖能力较强,能较好的制备出其条件培养基。结论能通过此方法成功制备人脐带血间充质干细胞条件培养基,其中含有MSCs旁分泌的各种生物活性因子,可以作为一种新的治疗来源应用于临床。%  Objective Discussion on human umbilical cord blood (hUCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) conditioned medium (CM) of the preparation method, and analyses the paracrine action of MSCs. Method Collection of neonatal cord blood under sterile conditions, the anticoagulant heparin, after centrifugation separation, culture, passage of hUCB-MSCs, to observe the growth and morphological characteristics of different periods of cells by inverted microscope, And with the enzyme labeled cell proliferation detection instrument for cell fusion, up to 80%when changing the culture medium, and then continue to develop after 24 hours of culture supernatant was collected for human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (hUCB-MSCs-CM). Results After passage, human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells tend to be homogeneous, fusiform or fibroblast-like, large volume, mononuclear, swirl like growth, and proliferation ability, can

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? What is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... injury? What is the "Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems" program? ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ...

  8. Spinal Cord Diseases

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    ... this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such as meningitis and polio Inflammatory diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral ...

  9. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

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    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  13. 30 CFR 56.6303 - Initiation preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... well. (c) When using detonating cord to initiate another explosive, a connection shall be prepared with the detonating cord threaded through, attached securely to, or otherwise in contact with the explosive....

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... after an injury? What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? What are the ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information ... spinal cord injuries and the members of their families. Our website has more than 1,500 videos ...

  17. Split Cord Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Gezercan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Split cord malformations are rare form of occult spinal dysraphism in children. Split cord malformations are characterized by septum that cleaves the spinal canal in sagittal plane within the single or duplicated thecal sac. Although their precise incidence is unknown, split cord malformations are exceedingly rare and represent %3.8-5 of all congenital spinal anomalies. Characteristic neurological, urological, orthopedic clinical manifestations are variable and asymptomatic course is possible. Earlier diagnosis and surgical intervention for split cord malformations is associated with better long-term fuctional outcome. For this reason, diagnostic imaging is indicated for children with associated cutaneous and orthopedic signs. Additional congenital anomalies usually to accompany the split cord malformations. Earlier diagnosis, meticuolus surgical therapy and interdisciplinary careful evaluation and follow-up should be made for good prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 199-207

  18. Modeling spinal cord biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.

  19. Spinal cord trauma

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    ... and other rehabilitation after the injury has healed. Rehabilitation will help you cope with the disability from your spinal cord injury. Support Groups Seek out organizations for additional information ...

  20. Spinal Cord Infarction

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    ... treatments Functional and Dysfunctional Spinal Circuitry: Role for Rehabilitation and Neural Prostheses Summary of NINDS New Strategies in Spinal Cord Injury workshop held June, 2000. NINDS Workshop on Re- ...

  1. Central Cord Syndrome

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    ... MRI) is used to indicate the degree of spinal cord compression and vertebral instability. Vertebral instability due to acute traumatic injury or cervical disc herniation is often treated by surgery to ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury Map

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    ... Videos Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Experts Resources The Short List Government ... Home Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Spinal Cord Experts Resources Forums Peer ...

  3. Cord-Blood Banking

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    ... cord blood mainly because of the promise that stem cell research holds for the future. Most of us would have little use for stem cells now, but research into using them to treat diseases is ongoing — ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we expect stem-cell ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... for spinal cord injuries? What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ... provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  7. Spinal cord abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abscess: Back injuries or trauma, including minor ones Boils on the skin, especially on the back or ... of spinal cord abscess. Prevention Thorough treatment of boils, tuberculosis, and other infections decreases the risk. Early ...

  8. Umbilical cord avulsion in waterbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Umbilical cord avulsion (or "cord snapping") is often cited as a risk associated with waterbirth. This article discusses a case study in which a cord avulsed during a waterbirth and uses it as a basis to explore the incidence, etiology, and associated risk factors of umbilical cord avulsion. The diagnosis, clinical presentation, and management of cord avulsion in waterbirth is presented along with a thorough review of the literature and relevant professional standards. This article offers recommendations for clinical practice to minimize the risk of a cord avulsion and highlights the need for additional research and provider education to ensure optimal care of women and newborns. PMID:24588881

  9. Spinal cord injury pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beric, Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Awareness that SCI pain is common emerged during the past decade. However, there are a number of unresolved issues. There is a need for variety of experimental models to reflect diversity of SCI pains. Current classification is not as user-friendly as it should be. More attention should be given to a condition of the spinal cord below and above the SCI lesion. A consensus for what is an optimal SCI functional assessment for patients with sensory complaints and pain should be developed. Further extensive SCI pain research is needed prior to spinal cord regeneration trials in order to be able to cope with a potential for newly developed pains that may appear during incomplete spinal cord regenerative attempts. PMID:12821403

  10. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  11. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  12. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...... controversial. SCS is not effective in relieving central neuropathic pain states....

  13. Fixed cord in spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates patients with cervical spinal canal compromise due to congenital anomalies (achondroplasia, Chiari malformation) and degenerative diseases using MR cord motion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow studies. Pulsatile longitudinal motion of the cervical cord was determined by means of cardiac-gated velocity phase contrast methods, including cine. Pathology included dwarfism (n = 15), Chiari malformation (n = 10), spondylosis (n = 10), and acute cord compression (n = 9). Symptomatic cases of congenital cervical stenosis had decreased cord motion, although CSF flow was not always significantly compromised. Postoperative cases demonstrated good cord and CSF motion, unless compression or obstruction was present

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Spinal Cord Experts Resources Forums Peer Counseling Blog About Us Contact Donate Sitemap Privacy ... © 2011 – 2016 Hill Foundation for Families Living With Disabilities FacingDisability.com is an informational ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries and the ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Spinal Cord Experts Resources Forums Peer Counseling Blog About Us Contact Donate Sitemap Privacy Statement Terms of Use © 2011 – 2016 Hill Foundation for Families Living With Disabilities FacingDisability.com is an informational ...

  18. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to evaluate the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( ... means you have a blood infection (septicemia). High levels of blood sugar (glucose) in the cord blood may be found ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How much do you know about taking good care of yourself? Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Illness & disability Types of ... Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric rehabilitation specialist at the Children’s National Medical Center. ...

  1. Complications of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dursun, Erbil; Hamamci, Nigar; Ozbey, Aydan; Cakci, Aytul

    2004-01-01

    Spinal cord injury and its complications cause important physical, psychosocial and economical problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications resulting from spinal cord injury, to show their adverse effects on the rehabilitation program, and to make related clinicians to call attention especially to preventable complications. Sixty-two spinal cord injured patients were included in the study. All the patients were evaluated regarding age, gender, etiology, time since inj...

  2. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  3. Tethered cord syndrome: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tethered cord syndrome is one of the filum terminale congenital defects. It can coexist with anomalies of the spinal canal and column, as well as with anorectal defects. The authors present a case of tethered cord syndrome diagnosed in a 45-year-old woman. She showed typical lumbo-sacral radicular syndrome with no neurological deficits and no bowel/bladder dysfunction. The anomaly coexisted with fibrolipoma, spina bifida and Tarlov cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice in diagnostics of tethered cord syndrome. It provides crucial information, which is necessary for planning surgical treatment of the anomaly. (author)

  4. The spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinal cord develops initially as an invagination of the thickened ectodermal neural plate to form the neural groove. This is then closed over by the neural folds, which fuse first in the thoracic region, then progressively rostrad and caudad to form the neural tube. The neural tube is completely formed by the fourth fetal week and is separated from the overlying ectoderm by intervening mesoderm, part of which has simultaneously segmented into somites to become the vertebral column. The cartilaginous and ossifying neural arches of the vertebral column are completely developed and fused by the third month of fetal life. The fetal spine can be detected by US by 12 weeks of gestational age

  5. Effect of pressure on the release of radioactive glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid from spinal cord synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, S.C.; Colton, J.S.; Dutka, A.J.

    1987-11-01

    Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure produces neurological changes referred to as the high-pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS). Manifestations of HPNS include tremor, EEG changes, and convulsions. These symptoms suggest an alteration in synaptic transmission, particularly with inhibitory neural pathways. Because spinal cord transmission has been implicated in HPNS, this study investigated inhibitory neurotransmitter function in the cord at high pressure. Guinea pig spinal cord synaptosome preparations were used to study the effect of compression to 67.7 atmospheres. This study suggest that decreased tonic inhibitory regulation at the level of the spinal cord contributes to the hyperexcitability observed in animals with compression to high pressure.

  6. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 325 9th Ave., Seattle WA 98104 Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age 1 should not be carried on a bicycle, because their necks are not strong enough to ... may contribute to falls. Secure rugs and loose electrical cords, put away toys, use safety gates, and ...

  8. Inherited neuroaxonal dystrophy in dogs causing lethal, fetal-onset motor system dysfunction and cerebellar hypoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Fyfe, John C.; Al-Tamimi, Raba' A.; Castellani, Rudy J.; Rosenstein, Diana; Goldowitz, Daniel; Henthorn, Paula S.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroaxonal dystrophy in brainstem, spinal cord tracts, and spinal nerves accompanied by cerebellar hypoplasia was observed in a colony of laboratory dogs. Fetal akinesia was documented by ultrasonographic examination. At birth, affected puppies exhibited stereotypical positioning of limbs, scoliosis, arthrogryposis, pulmonary hypoplasia, and respiratory failure. Regional hypoplasia in the central nervous system was apparent grossly, most strikingly as underdeveloped cerebellum and spinal cor...

  9. Transplantation of an Acutely Isolated Bone Marrow Fraction Repairs Demyelinated Adult Rat Spinal Cord Axons

    OpenAIRE

    SASAKI, MASANORI; HONMOU, OSAMU; Akiyama, Yukinori; Uede,Teiji; Hashi,Kazuo; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2001-01-01

    The potential of bone marrow cells to differentiate into myelin-forming cells and to repair the demyelinated rat spinal cord in vivo was studied using cell transplantation techniques. The dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord was demyelinated by x-irradiation treatment, followed by microinjection of ethidium bromide. Suspensions of a bone marrow cell fraction acutely isolated from femoral bones in LacZ transgenic mice were prepared by centrifugation on a density gradient (Ficoll-Paque) to remov...

  10. The Development of a Myeloablative, Reduced-Toxicity, Conditioning Regimen for Cord Blood Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Rohtesh S.; Di Stasi, Antonio; Andersson, Borje S.; Nieto, Yago; Jones, Roy; Lima, Marcos; Hosing, Chitra; Popat, Uday; Kebriaei, Partow; Oran, Betul; Alousi, Amin; Rezvani, Katayoun; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Bashir, Qaiser; Bollard, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Cord blood transplantation is being used with increasing frequency for patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies. Myeloablative preparative regimens provide anti-tumor efficacy and facilitate engraftment but are associated with higher morbidity and non-relapse mortality than nonablative regimens. We evaluated three sequential myeloablative regimens in the cord blood transplant setting. Regimen-1 melphalan, fludarabine and thiotepa produced prompt engraftment and minimal engraftment fai...

  11. Visual patch clamp recording of neurons in thick portions of the adult spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders Sonne; Smith, Morten; Moldovan, Mihai; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2010-01-01

    enlargement of the spinal cord. With a conventional upright microscope in which the light condenser was carefully adjusted, we could visualize neurons present at the surface of the slice and record them with the whole-cell patch clamp technique. We show that neurons present in the middle of the preparation...... currents (IPSCs) remains constant. These preliminary data suggest that inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections are balanced locally while excitation dominates long-range connections in the spinal cord....

  12. Leptomeningeal metastasis of spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten patients with leptomeningeal metastases of spinal cord were studied with a 1.5-T MR imager. Six patients had primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and the other four had their primary tumor outside of the CNS. All patients had positive CSF cytologic findings, and cervical cords were generally examined. MR findings on T1-weighted images before and after gadolinium-DTPA administration were divided into three types. Type 1, the diffuse form (four cases), was characterized by (1) increased CSF intensity, (2) poor cord-CSF interface, and (3) perimedullary enhancement; type 2, the nodular form (one case) by discrete nodules adherent to the cord surface; and type 3, predominance of intramedullary metastases (three cases), by localized cord swelling with central enhancement. In two cases, no significant findings were found. In conclusion, T1-weighted images with Gd-DTPA enhancement were valuable in the MR imaging of spinal meningeal metastasis. The main route of intramedullary tumor spread is believed to be via arterial seeding, but the authors study suggests that intramedullary metastases resulting from direct extension from the CSF were not infrequent

  13. Percutaneous absorption of chlorhexidine in neonatal cord care.

    OpenAIRE

    Aggett, P J; Cooper, L. V.; Ellis, S H; McAinsh, J

    1981-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of chlorhexidine during its routine use in topical antiseptic preparations used in umbilical cord care was investigated by determining plasma chlorhexidine concentrations at ages 5 and 9 days. These showed that percutaneous absorption of chlorhexidine occurred in preterm neonates treated with a 1% solution of chlorhexidine in ethanol, but not in term infants similarly treated, or in preterm infants treated only with a dusting powder containing 1% chlorhexidine and ...

  14. Suicide in a spinal cord injured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, A; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Seidenschnur, A M;

    1998-01-01

    To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).......To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)....

  15. Transplant Outcomes (Bone Marrow and Cord Blood)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports show patient survival and transplant data of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood transplants in the transplant ... Data by Center Report —View the number of bone marrow and cord blood transplants performed at a specific ...

  16. FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Care? Emergency Medical Services Hospital (Acute) Care Rehabilitation More FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) If you or a loved one is ... spinal cord injury? What recovery is expected following spinal cord injury? Where is the ... on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR grant number 90SI5005). NIDILRR is a ...

  17. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhang; Marong Fang; Haohao Chen; Fangming Gou; Mingxing Ding

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies.

  18. Isolated intramedullary spinal cord cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of epilepsy in developing countries. Cysticercal involvement of the spinal cord is rare even in endemic areas and accounts for 0.7 to 5.85% of all cases. We present a 19-year-old man who presented with weakness of both lower limbs and urinary complaints in the form of straining of micturition with increased frequency, in whom preoperative MRI revealed a well-defined cystic lesion in dorso-lumber cord extending from D11 to L1 level, which on pathological examination was found to be intramedullary cysticercosis.

  19. Local perceptions, cultural beliefs and practices that shape umbilical cord care: a qualitative study in Southern Province, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Herlihy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust, lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces. Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers. CONCLUSION: Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural

  20. Muscle after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Kjaer, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    The morphological and contractile changes of muscles below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI) are dramatic. In humans with SCI, a fiber-type transformation away from type I begins 4-7 months post-SCI and reaches a new steady state with predominantly fast glycolytic IIX fibers...

  1. What Is Spinal Cord Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back. Generally speaking, SCI is damage to the spinal nerves, the body's central and most important nerve bundle, ... This, in turn, damages the axons—the long nerve cell "wires" that pass through ... point on the spinal cord below which sensory feeling and motor movement ...

  2. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common brain parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Spinal cord localizations are still rare (2 cases with cerebral involvement, 2 cases without). A case of both spinal cord and cerebral involvement is reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) was performed because of sensory level (L 1). A focal conus medullaris enlargement was seen, iso intense on T 1 weighted images. This lesion was hyperintense on T 2 weighted sequence, and was homogeneously enhanced after Gadolinium on T 1 weighted images. A medullary oedema was noted. A toxoplasmosis treatment was initiated, without cortico therapy. MR imaging performed one month later (D 30), while important clinical improvements were seen, pointed out normal thickness of conus medullaris, without enhancement after Gadolinium. Disease lesions in AIDS with focal spinal cord processes are reviewed, and diagnostic work-up is discussed. Spinal cord single lesion, associated or not with brain involvements should be treated as a toxoplasmic infection, with MR imaging follow up. This work up should avoid medullary biopsy, still required in case of treatment failure. Cerebral involvements, with multiples lesions can mask medullary localization. (authors). 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Advances in umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballen, Karen K

    2006-09-01

    The first successful cord blood transplant was reported in 1989. In the last sixteen years, there has been a substantial increase in the use of cord blood as an alternative stem cell source for patients without matched related or unrelated bone marrow donors. Approximately 5000 cord blood transplants have been performed worldwide. Recently, the results in adult cord blood transplantation appear promising. In this review, the preclinical background, cord blood banking, and ethical issues will be briefly addressed. Outcome data for both pediatric and adult transplantation will be reviewed, with an emphasis on new strategies for adult cord blood transplantation. New indications for cord blood use outside of hematology/oncology will also be explored. PMID:18220876

  4. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: adjuvants for human cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robb; Betancur, Monica; Boissel, Laurent; Tuncer, Hande; Cetrulo, Curtis; Klingemann, Hans

    2007-12-01

    The Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord is rich in mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) that fulfill the criteria for MSCs. Here we describe a novel, simple method of obtaining and cryopreserving UC-MSCs by extracting the Wharton's jelly from a small piece of cord, followed by mincing the tissue and cryopreserving it in autologous cord plasma to prevent exposure to allogeneic or animal serum. This direct freezing of cord microparticles without previous culture expansion allows the processing and freezing of umbilical cord blood (UCB) and UC-MSCs from the same individual on the same day on arrival in the laboratory. UC-MSCs produce significant concentrations of hematopoietic growth factors in culture and augment hematopoietic colony formation when co-cultured with UCB mononuclear cells. Mice undergoing transplantation with limited numbers of human UCB cells or CD34(+) selected cells demonstrated augmented engraftment when UC-MSCs were co-transplanted. We also explored whether UC-MSCs could be further manipulated by transfection with plasmid-based vectors. Electroporation was used to introduce cDNA and mRNA constructs for GFP into the UC-MSCs. Transfection efficiency was 31% for cDNA and 90% for mRNA. These data show that UC-MSCs represent a reliable, easily accessible, noncontroversial source of MSCs. They can be prepared and cryopreserved under good manufacturing practices (GMP) conditions and are able to enhance human hematopoietic engraftment in SCID mice. Considering their cytokine production and their ability to be easily transfected with plasmid-based vectors, these cells should have broad applicability in human cell-based therapies. PMID:18022578

  5. International bowel function basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, K; Perkash, I; Stiens, S A;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: International expert working group. OBJECTIVE: To develop an International Bowel Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in daily practice or in research....... SETTING: Working group consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). METHODS: A draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, and later by ISCo......S Scientific Committee, Council and ASIA Board received the data set for final review and approval. RESULTS: The International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set includes the following 12 items: date of data collection, gastrointestinal or anal sphincter dysfunction unrelated to SCI, surgical procedures on the...

  6. International bowel function extended spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, K; Perkash, I; Stiens, S A;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: International expert working group.Objective:To develop an International Bowel Function Extended Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of an extended amount of information on bowel function. SETTING: Working group...... consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). METHODS: A draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets and later by the ISCoS Scientific Committee...... or segmental colorectal transit times. CONCLUSION: An International Bowel Function Extended SCI Data Set has been developed. This Data Set is mainly for research purposes and it should be used in combination with the information obtained from the International SCI Core Data Set and the International...

  7. Bancos de cordón umbilical Umbilical cord banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Madero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de sangre de cordón como fuente de precursores hematológicos se remonta a 1983 cuando Boyse apuntó el potencial en progenitores existente en la sangre de cordón, realizándose un año más tarde las primeras experiencias sobre modelos murinos. Tuvieron que pasar más de cinco años para que Gluckman realizara la primera experiencia en humanos. Un niño afecto de anemia de Fanconi fue trasplantado con progenitores de sangre de cordón umbilical de su hermana HLA idéntica, realizándose todos los estudios de compatibilidad intraútero. Actualmente, veinte años más tarde, el paciente se encuentra libre de enfermedad y con la hematopoyesis del donante, demostrándose así la capacidad de persistencia del injerto a largo plazo.

  8. Cord blood transplant: current and future issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, S

    1998-01-01

    Cord blood as the source of hematopoietic stem cells has several advantages over bone marrow cells for transplant purpose. It is readily available, and causes no physical harm or inconveniences to the donor in the processing of harvesting cells. Waiting time between initiating the search and the time to transplant from an unrelated donor is much shorter with cord blood than with unrelated donor bone marrow. The incidence of graft-versus-host diseases is much less. Because of these advantages, cord blood has been increasingly used as the source of stem cells. As of this writing, more than 200 cord blood transplants have been done in patients with hematological malignancies, solid tumors, hematological diseases, immunodeficiency syndromes, and metabolic diseases. One of the limitations inherent in the cord blood is its limited number of hematopoietic stem cells. Thus it has been primarily used for pediatric patients, though more recently, adult patients also have been transplanted with cord blood as people have become more experienced in harvesting cord blood thus yielding a larger number of stem cells in a given specimen. Efforts have been made to amplify stem cells in vitro following harvesting cord blood stem cells, so that adult recipients also would routinely benefit from this resource. Cord blood lymphocytes are functionally "naive", do not generate vigorous mixed lymphocyte culture reactivities. The low incidence of graft-versus-host disease in the recipients of cord blood is due to this particular property. It is highly desirable that the world wide cord blood registry, similar to the international bone marrow registry would be instituted, but there are logistic, ethical and financial problems that need to be resolved. Cord blood is one of the best stem cell sources, and its application is quite wide. PMID:10771961

  9. Antenatal umbilical cord parameters and perinatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Athira Narayanan; Priya Ballal; Nikil Shetty; Pralhad Kushtagi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to study the association between antenatally determined umbilical cord thickness and coiling index at/after 34 weeks of gestation and the measures of perinatal outcome. Methods: Umbilical cord thickness and coiling index were determined sonographically at or after 34 weeks of gestation in 100 singleton pregnancies. The influence of the antenatal cord findings was analyzed for their associations with measures of perinatal outcome in high and low ri...

  10. Nanomedicine for Treating Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent use...

  11. Management of acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F C

    1977-06-01

    Based on the experience with 58 patients with acute spinal cord injuries, a system for rapidly evaluating such patients has been developed. With the knowledge that has been acquired clinically and experimentally of spinal cord injury and with the information provided by laminography and by either air or Pantopaque myelography, a reasonably certain diagnosis of the type of spinal cord injury may be made. Treatment designed to restore neurological function may then be instituted promptly. PMID:882906

  12. Management of the Nuchal Cord at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David JR Hutchon FRCOG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Although nuchal cord is a common occurrence at birth, there is little attention to its importance or management at birth, and teaching includes premature clamping and cutting of the cord as the common option.  Although grade 1 evidence is lacking, the optimal management of the nuchal cord,  the Somersault manoeuvre  is not taught or included in any current guidelines. What evidence there is, presented in this review.

  13. Use of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow for the Treatment of Naturally Injured Spinal Cord in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Euler Moraes Penha; Cássio Santana Meira; Elisalva Teixeira Guimarães; Marcus Vinícius Pinheiro Mendonça; Faye Alice Gravely; Cláudia Maria Bahia Pinheiro; Taiana Maria Bahia Pinheiro; Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo; Ricardo Ribeiro-dos-Santos; Milena Botelho Pereira Soares

    2014-01-01

    The use of stem cells in injury repair has been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the therapeutic effects of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation in four dogs with natural traumatic spinal cord injuries. MSC were cultured in vitro, and proliferation rate and cell viability were evaluated. Cell suspensions were prepared and surgically administered into the spinal cord. The animals were clinically evaluated and examined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Ten...

  14. Cellular Scaling Rules for Primate Spinal Cords

    OpenAIRE

    Burish, Mark J.; Peebles, J. Klint; Baldwin, Mary K.; Tavares, Luciano; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2010-01-01

    The spinal cord can be considered a major sensorimotor interface between the body and the brain. How does the spinal cord scale with body and brain mass, and how are its numbers of neurons related to the number of neurons in the brain across species of different body and brain sizes? Here we determine the cellular composition of the spinal cord in eight primate species and find that its number of neurons varies as a linear function of cord length, and accompanies body mass raised to an expone...

  15. Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Spinal Cord Injury; Spinal Cord Injuries; Trauma, Nervous System; Wounds and Injuries; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Spinal Cord Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Endocrine System Diseases; Hypogonadism; Genital Diseases, Male

  16. Migration and distribution of bone marrow stromal cells in injured spinal cord with different transplantation techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li; DU Fei; CHENG Bang-chang; PENG Hao; LIU Shi-qing

    2008-01-01

    To study the regularity of migration and distribution of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)in iniured spinal cord with intradural space transplantation.Methods:Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups. The spinal cord injury,model was prepared according to the modified Allen method. BMSCs were labeled by CM-Dil. And 5.0×10 6 cells were transplanted by different channels including intraventricular injection(Group A),injured spinal cord intrathecally injection(Group B),remote intrathecally injection at the L3-L4 level(Group C),and intravenous injection(Group D). Spinal cord was dissected at 24 hours,1,2,3 and 4 weeks after transplantation.Sections of 4 μm were cut on a cryostat and observed under fluorescence microscopy.Results:No fluorescence was observed 24 hours after transplantation in spinal cord injury parenchyma except Group B. One week later,BMSCs in Groups A and C began to migrate to the injured parenchyma;2-4 weeks later,BMSCs penetrated into the injured parenchyma except Group D.The number of BMSCS decreased at 3-4 weeks after transplantation. The number of cells in Group B decreased faster than that of Groups A and C.Conclusions:BMSCs transplanted through intraventricular injection,injured spinal cord intrathecally injection and remote intrathecal injection could migrate to the injured parenchyma of spinal cord effectively. The number of BMSCs migrated into injured spinal cord parenchyma is rare by intravenous injection.

  17. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi; Mahmood Eydi; Samad EJ Golzari; Mohammad Reza Ghaffari; Nashmil Parvizian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such a...

  18. Spatial integration of local transmitter responses in motoneurones of the turtle spinal cord in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Hounsgaard, J

    1994-01-01

    1. Integration of responses to local activation of transmitter receptors in the dendrites of motoneurones was investigated in a slice preparation of the turtle spinal cord. Membrane-active substances were applied from up to three independent iontophoresis electrodes during intracellular recording...

  19. Multiple actions of iontophoretically applied serotonin on motorneurones in the turtle spinal cord in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    The effects of focal activation of serotonergic receptors in motorneurones were investigated in a slice preparation of the turtle spinal cord. The test response to glutamate evoked from a dendrite by iontophoresis was attenuated by serotonin or 8-hydroxy-dipropyl-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) applied...

  20. Inhibition of motoneurons during the cutaneous silent period in the spinal cord of the turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær; Alaburda, Aidas

    2012-01-01

    motoneurons in the isolated carapace-spinal cord preparation from adult turtles during rhythmic scratch-like reflex. Electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves induced CSP-like suppression of motor nerve firing during rhythmic network activity. The stimulus that generated the CSP-like suppression of motor...

  1. The excitatory and inhibitory modulation of primary afferent fibre-evoked responses of ventral roots in the neonatal rat spinal cord exerted by nitric oxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurihara, T.; Yoshioka, K.

    1996-01-01

    1. We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in modulating spinal synaptic responses evoked by electrical and noxious sensory stimuli in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro. 2. Potentials were recorded extracellularly from a ventral root (L3-L5) of the isolated spinal cord preparation or spinal cord-saphenous nerve-skin preparation of 0- to 2-day-old rats. Spinal reflexes were elicited by electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral dorsal root or by noxious skin stimulation. 3. In the spi...

  2. Subarachnoid disseminative hemangiopericytoma of the spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Guo-zhong; WANG Zhen-yu; LI Zhen-dong; ZHONG Yan-feng; WANG Lei-ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) originating from central nervous system were increasingly reported recently.1 Intravertebral HPCs are predominantly epidural. Primary intradural HPCs of spinal cord are rare.2-5 Little subarachnoid dissemination has been reported. We reported a HPC of the cervical spinal cord with subarachnoid dissemination.

  3. The rationale behind collecting umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas H. Zech

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood (UCB is an increasingly important and rich source of stem cells. These cells can be used for the treatment of many diseases, including cancers and immune and genetic disorders. For patients for whom no suitable related donor is available, this source of hematopoietic stem cells offers substantial advantages, notably the relative ease of procurement, the absence of risk to the donor, the small likelihood of transmitting clinically important infections, the low risk of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD and the rapid availability of placental blood for transplantation centers. Even though almost 80 diseases are treatable with cord blood stem cells, 97 percent of cord blood is still disposed of after birth and lost for patients in need! To improve availability of stem cells to a broader community, efforts should be undertaken to collect cord blood and expectant parents should be properly informed of their options with regard to cord blood banking.

  4. Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fogaça Cristante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a ''disease that should not be treated.'' Over the last biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life.

  5. Curcumin protects against ischemic spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Zhang; Hao Wei; Meimei Lin; Chunmei Chen; Chunhua Wang; Maobai Liu

    2013-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors have been shown to participate in nerve cellinjury during spinal cord ischemia. This study observed a protective effect of curcumin on ischemic spinal cord injury. Models of spinal cord ischemia were established by ligating the lumbar artery from the left renal artery to the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. At 24 hours after model establishment, the rats were intraperitoneal y injected with curcumin. Reverse transcrip-tion-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical results demonstrated that after spinal cord ischemia, inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mRNA and protein expression significantly increased. However, curcumin significantly decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mRNA and protein expression in the ischemic spinal cord. Tarlov scale results showed that curcumin significantly improved motor function of the rat hind limb after spinal cord ischemia. The results demonstrate that curcumin exerts a neuroprotective ef-fect against ischemic spinal cord injury by decreasing inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression.

  6. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Fu-jiang; FENG Shi-qing

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the recent studies about human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and advances in the treatment of spinal cord injury, Data sources Published articles (1983-2007) about hUCMSCs and spinal cord injury were selected using Medline. Study selection Articles selected were relevant to development of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation in spinal cord injury therapy. Of 258 originally identifiied arises 51 were selected that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Results Recent work has revealed that hUCMSCs share most of the characteristics with MSCs derived from bone marrow and are more appropriate to transplantation for cell based therapies. Conclusions Human umbilical cord could be regarded as a source of MSCs for experimental and clinical needs. In addition, as a peculiar source of stem cells, hUCMSCs may play an important role in the treatment of spinal cord injury.

  7. Advance in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury: Blood-spinal cord barrier and remote ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qijing; Huang, Jinxiu; Hu, Ji; Zhu, Hongfei

    2016-06-01

    The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is the physiological and metabolic substance diffusion barrier between blood circulation and spinal cord tissues. This barrier plays a vital role in maintaining the microenvironment stability of the spinal cord. When the spinal cord is subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the structure and function of the BSCB is disrupted, further destroying the spinal cord homeostasis and ultimately leading to neurological deficit. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an approach in which interspersed cycles of preconditioning ischemia is followed by reperfusion to tissues/organs to protect the distant target tissues/organs against subsequent lethal ischemic injuries. RIPC is an innovation of the treatment strategies that protect the organ from I/R injury. In this study, we review the morphological structure and function of the BSCB, the injury mechanism of BSCB resulting from spinal cord I/R, and the effect of RIPC on it. PMID:27060223

  8. Patterns of motor activity in the isolated nerve cord of the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Matzner, Henry; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-12-01

    The extremely flexible octopus arm provides a unique opportunity for studying movement control in a highly redundant motor system. We describe a novel preparation that allows analysis of the peripheral nervous system of the octopus arm and its interaction with the muscular and mechanosensory elements of the arm's intrinsic muscular system. First we examined the synaptic responses in muscle fibers to identify the motor pathways from the axial nerve cord of the arm to the surrounding musculature. We show that the motor axons project to the muscles via nerve roots originating laterally from the arm nerve cord. The motor field of each nerve is limited to the region where the nerve enters the arm musculature. The same roots also carry afferent mechanosensory information from the intrinsic muscle to the axial nerve cord. Next, we characterized the pattern of activity generated in the dorsal roots by electrically stimulating the axial nerve cord. The evoked activity, although far reaching and long lasting, cannot alone account for the arm extension movements generated by similar electrical stimulation. The mismatch between patterns of activity in the isolated cord and in an intact arm may stem from the involvement of mechanosensory feedback in natural arm extension. PMID:17179381

  9. Detrusor function in suprasacral spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, J K; Beric, A

    1992-08-01

    A total of 21 patients with chronic, stable suprasacral spinal cord injuries underwent a comprehensive neurological evaluation. A second lumbosacral lesion was excluded. The urodynamic findings were relatively constant as 95% of the patients showed detrusor hyperreflexia with elevated pressures, sphincteric dyssynergia and a competent bladder neck during the filling phase. The urodynamic findings of unexpected detrusor function in high spinal cord injury, for example areflexia and hypocontractility, should raise the clinician's suspicion that there is a lesion or dysfunction involving the sacral cord. PMID:1635134

  10. MR imaging evaluation of tethered spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven cases of tethered cord underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The associated findings included the following: case 1: caudal regression, inperforated anus, cutaneovesical fistula, and diverticulum of the bladder; case 2: Arnold-Chiari malformation, hydromyelia, and urinary reflux; case 3; lipoma; case 4: postoperative syringomyelia and residual lipoma; case 5: diastematomyelia and spinal bifida; case 6: dysraphism, diastematomyelia, and myelomeningocele; and case 7: postoperative split cord T1-weighted axial and sagittal images are sufficient for evaluation of tethered cord and associated anomalies and are also useful for postoperative follow-up and the detection of possible complications

  11. Teaching nonlinear dynamics through elastic cords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, R; Galan, C A; Sanchez-Bajo, F, E-mail: rchacon@unex.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela de IngenierIas Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Apartado Postal 382, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    We experimentally studied the restoring force of a length of stretched elastic cord. A simple analytical expression for the restoring force was found to fit all the experimental results for different elastic materials. Remarkably, this analytical expression depends upon an elastic-cord characteristic parameter which exhibits two limiting values corresponding to two nonlinear springs with different Hooke's elastic constants. Additionally, the simplest model of elastic cord dynamics is capable of exhibiting a great diversity of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations and chaos, thus providing a suitable alternative model system for discussing the basic essentials of nonlinear dynamics in the context of intermediate physics courses at university level.

  12. Teaching nonlinear dynamics through elastic cords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally studied the restoring force of a length of stretched elastic cord. A simple analytical expression for the restoring force was found to fit all the experimental results for different elastic materials. Remarkably, this analytical expression depends upon an elastic-cord characteristic parameter which exhibits two limiting values corresponding to two nonlinear springs with different Hooke's elastic constants. Additionally, the simplest model of elastic cord dynamics is capable of exhibiting a great diversity of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations and chaos, thus providing a suitable alternative model system for discussing the basic essentials of nonlinear dynamics in the context of intermediate physics courses at university level.

  13. Ependymomas of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many patients with spinal cord ependymomas (SCE) undoubtedly benefit from post-operative radiation therapy; however, because of the wide variability in the total doses given, the optimal post-operative dose for SCE remains unclear. Several recent papers recommend total doses of 4000 rad to 5000 rad in 4-1/2 to 6 weeks. Unfortunately, only a small number of patients reported in the literature have been consistently treated to these high dose recommendations. Nine consecutive adult patients with SCE have been treated in a consistent way at Yale-New Haven Hospital with total doses of approximately 4500 rad to 5000 rad at 180 rad to 200 rad per day. The acute and chronic morbidity from such treatment has been minimal and no patient has had a local recurrence at 8 months to 8 years following treatment

  14. Pain in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baastrup, Cathrine; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY An important and detrimental effect of spinal cord injury (SCI) is pain, which develops in approximately two-thirds of all SCI patients, while approximately half of SCI patients develop chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Thus far, there is no cure for SCI NP, and oral pharmacological intervention is often inadequate, commonly resulting in a pain reduction of only 20-30%. In this short review, we will present an overview of the important features of SCI pain including taxonomy, epidemiology and classification, as well as a suggested oral pharmacological treatment strategy for SCI NP and the current evidence available from randomized placebo-controlled trials. Considerations and evidence for the nonpharmacological treatment of SCI will be discussed briefly. PMID:24654622

  15. Outcome after incomplete spinal cord injury: central cord versus Brown-Sequard syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz, M.; Zörner, B; Rupp, R; Dietz, V.

    2010-01-01

    Study design : A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.Objective:A hemisection of the spinal cord is a frequently used animal model for spinal cord injury (SCI), the corresponding human condition, that is, the Brown-Sequard syndrome (BS), is relatively rare as compared with the central cord syndrome (CC). The time course of neurological deficit, functional recovery, impulse conductivity and rehabilitation length of stay in BS and CC subjects were compared.Setting:Nine Europea...

  16. Spinal cord decompression reduces rat neural cell apoptosis secondary to spinal cord injury*

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Kan; Chen, Qi-xin; Li, Fang-cai; Chen, Wei-Shan; Lin, Min; Wu, Qiong-hua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether spinal cord decompression plays a role in neural cell apoptosis after spinal cord injury. Study design: We used an animal model of compressive spinal cord injury with incomplete paraparesis to evaluate neural cell apoptosis after decompression. Apoptosis and cellular damage were assessed by staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and immunostaining for caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax. Meth...

  17. Spinal cord ischaemia complicating meningococcal meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, S. S.; Pye, I F

    1980-01-01

    An extensive ischaemic cord syndrome developed in a patient with meningococcal meningitis complicated by 2 respiratory arrests but not by any period of prolonged hypotension or other signs of cardiovascular collapse. Excellent functional recovery occurred after intensive rehabilitation.

  18. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  19. Extramedullary haematopoeisis causing spinal cord compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ismail

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary haematopoeisis (EMH is a rare cause of spinal cord compression. However, in a patient with a haematological disorder and in particular thalassaemia, EMH with paraspinal masses should be considered and imaging planned appropriately.

  20. Antenatal umbilical cord parameters and perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athira Narayanan

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: No association between antenatal umbilical cord characteristics and perinatal outcome was found in pregnancies at high risk for poor perinatal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1211-1215

  1. What Is Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your vocal cords. The breathing test is called spirometry and must include a flow-volume loop. This ... be so hard. To learn more about the spirometry test, see the ATS Patient Information Series fact ...

  2. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Anil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality is rare in adults. Below we present a case report of 20 yrs old male with isolated cervical cord injury, without accompanying vertebral dislocation or fracture involving the spinal canal rim. He fell down on plain and smooth ground while carrying 40 kg weight overhead and developed quadriparesis with difficulty in respiration. Plain radiographs of the neck revealed no fractures or dislocations. MRI showed bulky spinal cord and an abnormal hyper intense signal on the T2W image from C2 vertebral body level to C3/4 intervertebral disc level predominantly in the anterior aspect of the cord The patient was managed conservatively with head halter traction and invasive ventilatory support for the initial 7 days period in the ICU. In our patient recovery was good and most of the neurological deficit improved over 4 weeks with conservative management.

  3. Acute Hydrocephalus Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Seong; Lee, Sang Gu; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to cervical spinal cord injury in a patient with diffuse ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A 75-year-old male patient visited the emergency department with tetraparesis and spinal shock. Imaging studies showed cervical spinal cord injury with hemorrhage and diffuse OPLL from C1 to C4. We performed decompressive laminectomy and occipitocervical fusion. Two days after surgery, his mental status had deteriorated to drow...

  4. Early treatment of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of society, the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) is increasing year by year, and the treatment is very difficult with a high disability rate. Correct prehospital first aid transportation can greatly reduce secondary injury of spinal cord caused by improper transportation. Early application of high dose methylprednisolone, internal fixation by using screw-rod system, as well as intramedually and extramedually decompression can protect the residual neurolog...

  5. Umbilical Cord Segmental Hemorrhage and Fetal Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Larciprete, Giovanni; Romanini, Maria Elisabetta; Arduini, Domenico; Cirese, Elio; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We describe an unexplained case of umbilical cord segmental hemorrhage linked with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. A severely asphyxiated infant was delivered at term by Caesarean section. There were poor prognostic signs on fetal cardiotocography with rupture of membranes with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The pathophysiologic mechanism in this case is still unknown, even if we argued a possible role of the umbilical cord shortness.

  6. Evaluation of the vocal cords by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Akira [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    Radiological evaluation of the dynamics of the vocal cords has been done by fluoroscopy, tomography or contrast laryngography. Open and closed condition of the vocal cords can be easily seen by optical laryngography. In most institutions, radiological imaging of the cords is made by conventional tomography, with timing exposures in the phases of quiet respiration and in phonation. Satisfactory images are not always obtained due to mis-timing, incorrect tomographic level or due to other technical factors. I then attempted to visualize laryngeal motion by fast sequence MRI (MR fluoroscopy). AIRIS-II, an open type permanent magnetic unit by Hitachi Corporation (Tokyo, Japan) was used. Scans were made with RF-Spoiled SARGE/EPI-PAPE sequences. Scanning time was 1.7-4.0 sec. The movement and configuration of the vocal cord structure during inspiration and phonation were determined in 22 asymptomatic healthy volunteers and 44 symptomatic patients. Normal changes in the configuration of the vocal cords are clearly visualized by fast sequence MRI. The vocal cords were best seen on the plane slightly tilted angle to the plane perpendicular to the laryngeal ventricle and the plane slightly anterior to the middle of the ventricle. Coronal views were the most useful. Disturbed motion of the cords due to laryngeal trauma and neoplasm are well evaluated. Pathological changes of the surrounding structure could be demonstrated. Evaluation of the vocal cords by MRI has a great deal of potentials. Prime advantages are characteristics of non-radiation and patient comfort. Shorter scanning time is preferred for better visualization of the anatomical details. When the time comes for this examination to be performed more frequently, the real value of this examination could be fully accepted, although the cost of the MRI examination is greater than that of other conventional studies at present time. (author)

  7. Male infertility in spinal cord trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Utida; Jose C. Truzzi; Homero Bruschini; Rogerio Simonetti; Cedenho, Agnaldo P.; Miguel Srougi; Valdemar Ortiz

    2005-01-01

    Every year there are 10 thousand new cases of patients victimized by spinal cord trauma (SCT) in the United States and it is estimated that there are 7 thousand new cases in Brazil. Eighty percent of patients are fertile males. Infertility in this patient group is due to 3 main factors resulting from spinal cord lesions: erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorder and low sperm counts. Erectile dysfunction has been successfully treated with oral and injectable medications, use of vacuum device...

  8. A regeneration strategy for spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nordblom, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A severe traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently leads to a devastating and permanent disability. Due to glial scarring and an inhibitory local environment, regrowth of disrupted axons in the injured spinal cord beyond a lesion is obstructed, thus preventing reconnection with neurons at the other side. Many experimental strategies have been presented to limit the damage and improve outcome after SCI, but few options are available for the patient. Neurons in the central nervous sys...

  9. Tuberculosis of the Spermatic Cord: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Benjelloun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spermatic cord tuberculoma is uncommon, especially in its lower portion. Most cases were described in Japanese literature. We report a case of tuberculosis of the spermatic cord in a sexually active young man, revealed by a scrotal mass mimicking a tumor of the testicle and discuss the suitable diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, with preservation of the testes and the other sexual organs.

  10. Acute rehabilitation of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    KIDRIČ-SIVEC, Urška; SEDEJ, Bogdana; Marolt, Melita

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury presents with loss of function of neuromuscular and other systems below the level of injury. Patients may suffer from minor loss of strength to complete quadriplegia with respiratory distress. All the patients with traumatic spinal cord injury who are admitted and treated in University Medical Centre Ljubljana are evaluated after admission and individualized plan of rehabilitation is made. The neurological level of injury is documented with international standa...

  11. Intramedullary sarcoidosis of the cervical spinal cord.

    OpenAIRE

    Vighetto, A; Fischer, G.; Collet, P.; Bady, B; Trillet, M

    1985-01-01

    A 26-year-old male with a history of pulmonary sarcoidosis showed clinical, myelographic and intra-operative evidence of a C5-C6 spinal cord tumour, which was diagnosed by biopsy as a pure intramedullary granuloma. Among the 29 published cases of histologically proven cord sarcoidosis, only five presented with pure parenchymatous infiltration without meningeal involvement. Corticosteroids are the most useful therapy, and surgery is indicated only for minimal biopsy when the parenchyma is inva...

  12. Perturbed cholesterol homeostasis in aging spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gemma M; Dayas, Christopher V; Smith, Doug W

    2016-09-01

    The spinal cord is vital for the processing of sensorimotor information and for its propagation to and from both the brain and the periphery. Spinal cord function is affected by aging, however, the mechanisms involved are not well-understood. To characterize molecular mechanisms of spinal cord aging, microarray analyses of gene expression were performed on cervical spinal cords of aging rats. Of the metabolic and signaling pathways affected, cholesterol-associated pathways were the most comprehensively altered, including significant downregulation of cholesterol synthesis-related genes and upregulation of cholesterol transport and metabolism genes. Paradoxically, a significant increase in total cholesterol content was observed-likely associated with cholesterol ester accumulation. To investigate potential mechanisms for the perturbed cholesterol homeostasis, we quantified the expression of myelin and neuroinflammation-associated genes and proteins. Although there was minimal change in myelin-related expression, there was an increase in phagocytic microglial and astrogliosis markers, particularly in the white matter. Together, these results suggest that perturbed cholesterol homeostasis, possibly as a result of increased inflammatory activation in spinal cord white matter, may contribute to impaired spinal cord function with aging. PMID:27459933

  13. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  14. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  15. MRI in spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord decompression sickness (DCS) is a rare condition that can lead to spinal cord infarction. Despite the low incidence of diving-related DCS, we have managed to collect the data and MRI findings of seven patients who have been diagnosed with and treated for DCS in our local hyperbaric facility. This study describes the clinical presentation, MRI spinal cord findings, treatment administered and outcome of these patients. The patient medical records, from 1997 to 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients with a final diagnosis of DCS and who underwent examination were included. The images were independently reviewed by two radiologists who recorded the location and number of lesions within the spinal cord. The Frankel grading was used to assess the initial and clinical outcome response. Patchy-increased T2W changes affecting several levels at the same time were found. Contrary to the popular notion that venous infarction is the leading cause of DCS, most of our patients also demonstrated affliction of grey matter, which is typically seen in an arterial pattern of infarction. Initial involvement of multiple (>6) spinal cord levels was associated with a poor outcome. Patients who continued to have multiple neurological sequelae with less than 50% resolution of symptoms despite recompression treatment were also those who had onset of symptoms within 30 min of resurfacing. DCS is probably a combination of both arterial and venous infarction. Short latency to the onset of neurological symptoms and multilevel cord involvement may be associated with a poorer outcome.

  16. Umbilical cord blood gases in newborns with or without nuchal cord: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabani Zanjani M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Entanglement of the umbilical cord around fetal neck has been reported to be associated with birth asphyxia. On the other hand, current evidence suggests that umbilical arterial pH analysis provides the most sensitive reflection of birth asphyxia. In this study we aimed to evaluate and compare the umbilical arterial hydrogen-ion concentration (pH and to analyze the blood gases of neonates with or without nuchal cord."n "nMethods: In this cohort study, 92 newborns with and 95 without nuchal cords were enrolled at Shahid Akbar Abadi Hospital in Tehran, Iran between the years 2009 and 2010. From each newborn an umbilical arterial blood sample was collected to measure pH, base excess and blood gases."n "nResults: There were no statistically significant differences between newborns with or without nuchal cord regarding maternal age, gestational age, and history of pregnancy. The mean pH in the newborns with nuchal cord (7.21±0.1 was significantly less than the value in the newborns without the cord (7.28±0.1, (P<0.001. In contrast, the mean base excess in the newborns with nuchal cord was more than the ones without the cord (P<0.001. Seven newborns (7.9% in the group with nuchal cord passed meconium during labor while only one (1% newborn did so in the other group."n "nConclusion: Our finding showed that nuchal cord had a significant relationship with acidosis in newborns with nuchal cord. However, this finding needs further investigation to reach a common conclusion. "n 

  17. Cord blood transplantation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Naoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Cord blood transplantation (CBT) has increasingly been used in Japan and the annual number of CBT now exceeds 1,200. The cumulative number of CBT reached 12,853 in 2015, accounting for almost 1/3 of total CBT performed worldwide. It is true that smaller body size and lower costs, as compared to western countries, have been advantages for Japanese people in using CB as graft alternative. In addition, several novel findings regarding serious issues following CBT have been obtained, which further enhanced the use of CB. First, several mechanisms of engraftment failure following CBT other than cell dose have been reported, such as the presence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies or the development of hemophagocytic syndrome. Second, unique profiles of infectious complications following CBT have been reported, such as higher incidences of early bacterial infections and HHV-6 encephalitis, as compared to those following bone marrow (BM)/peripheral blood (PB) transplants. Third, the incidence of disease relapse was comparable to those following BM/PB transplants. Novel pre-transplant conditioning regimens using intravenous busulfan have been investigated with promising results being obtained to date. A recent analysis of Japanese transplant registry data revealed similar survival following CBT to HLA-matched unrelated BM/PB transplants. PMID:27263776

  18. Radiation effects in brain and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitivity of both the brain and spinal cord in prenatal and postnatal stages, in infancy and adult age is represented also in consideration of a combined treatment with methotrexate. In adults, application of important doses of high-energy radiation increases the risk of injurious effects to the central nervous system. If the spinal cord is involved, more than 60% of the radiolesions have a progredient course ending with death. The pathogenesis and disposing factors are referred to, and the incidence of radiation necrosis with regard to age and sex, the degrees of injury and their frequence within different ranges of dosage are analyzed on the basis of data from universal literature. An examination of 'tolerance doses' for the spinal cord is made by means of Strandquist-diagrams and of the Ellis-formula. The slopes of regression lines are reported for various 'degrees of response' in skin, brain and spinal cord following radiation therapy. In the Strandquist-diagram, slopes of regression lines are dependent on the 'degree of response', flattening if skin and spinal cord are affected by radiation in the same degree, necroses having the same slope for both the organs. (orig./MG)

  19. Ethanol tachyphylaxis in spinal cord motorneurons: role of metabotropic glutamate receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui-Fang; Wang, Meng-Ya; Knape, Jessica; Kendig, Joan J

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) tachyphylaxis (acute tolerance), a time-dependent decrease in apparent potency, is known in vivo and in some neuronal preparations. The present studies characterize EtOH tachyphylaxis in spinal motorneurons and test the hypothesis that metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play a role.Patch clamp studies were carried out in motorneurons in rat spinal cord slices. Currents were evoked by pulses of glutamate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) or ...

  20. Vocational Rehabilitation of Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, Charles R.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews historical development of organized vocational rehabilitation programming for the spinal cord injured in the United States. Significant factors that affect vocational rehabilitation outcomes with spinal cord injured persons are listed and discussed. (Author)

  1. Mechanisms of symptomatic spinal cord ischemia after TEVAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czerny, Martin; Eggebrecht, Holger; Sodeck, Gottfried; Verzini, Fabio; Cao, Piergiorgio; Maritati, Gabriele; Riambau, Vicente; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Rylski, Bartosz; Funovics, Martin; Loewe, Christian; Schmidli, Jürg; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Weigang, Ernst; Kuratani, Toru; Livi, Ugolino; Esposito, Giampiero; Trimarchi, Santi; van den Berg, Jos C; Fu, Weiguo; Chiesa, Roberto; Melissano, Germano; Bertoglio, Luca; Lönn, Lars; Schuster, Ingrid; Grimm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that simultaneous closure of at least 2 independent vascular territories supplying the spinal cord and/or prolonged hypotension may be associated with symptomatic spinal cord ischemia (SCI) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR)....

  2. Spinal-cord swelling in acute multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the frequent involvement of the spinal cord by multiple sclerosis, reports concerning neuroradiological findings regarding these lesions have been limited; most of them have demonstrated a normal or small spinal cord. Two cases of acute paraparesis showed evidence of spinal-cord swelling on myelography and CT myelography, initially suggesting the diagnosis of an intramedullary tumor. Spinal-cord swelling was demonstrated more clearly on CT myelography than on conventional myelography. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made with the aid of the CSF findings, the clinical course, and the contracting-cord sign. The ''contracting-cord sign'' means the diminution of the spinal-cord diameter in the chronic stage. Since acute multiple sclerosis may produce spinal-cord swelling simulating a tumor, careful investigations are necessary to avoid unwarranted surgical interventions. (author)

  3. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low....... The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results: Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media...

  4. Acute care management of spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcho, K; Yanko, J R

    1999-08-01

    Meeting the health care needs of the spinal cord-injured patient is an immense challenge for the acute care multidisciplinary team. The critical care nurse clinician, as well as other members of the team, needs to maintain a comprehensive knowledge base to provide the care management that is essential to the care of the spinal cord-injured patient. With the active participation of the patient and family in care delivery decisions, the health care professionals can help to meet the psychosocial and physical needs of the patient/family unit. This article provides an evidence-based, comprehensive review of the needs of the spinal cord-injured patient in the acute care setting including optimal patient outcomes, methods to prevent complications, and a plan that provides an expeditious transition to rehabilitation. PMID:10646444

  5. Radioisotope scanning for the spinal cord tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope scanning with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate or 67Ga-citrate for the spinal cord tumors are reported. Six patients with spinal cord tumors including 2 ependymomas, 1 neurinoma, 1 metastatic medulloblastoma, 1 metastatic astrocytoma, and 1 metastatic pinealoma as well as 6 patients with non-neoplastic lesions were examined by this method. Two out of 6 cases with tumors showed positive scans, and two showed equivocal scans. This new method is different from myeloscintigraphy or radioisotope angiography as already reported. It directly demonstrates the tumor itself like brain scanning does and is very useful as a nontraumatic method for screening spinal cord lesions, especially in poor risk patients. Both the usefulness and the limitations of this method are discussed. (auth.)

  6. Radiation-induced spinal cord hemorrhage (hematomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agarwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraspinal hemorrhage is very rare and intramedullary hemorrhage, also called hematomyelia, is the rarest form of intraspinal hemorrhage, usually related to trauma. Spinal vascular malformations such intradural arteriovenous malformations are the most common cause of atraumatic hematomyelia. Other considerations include warfarin or heparin anticoagulation, bleeding disorders, spinal cord tumors. Radiation-induced hematomyelia of the cord is exceedingly rare with only one case in literature to date. We report the case of an 8 year old girl with Ewing’s sarcoma of the thoracic vertebra, under radiation therapy, presenting with hematomyelia. We describe the clinical course, the findings on imaging studies and the available information in the literature. Recognition of the clinical pattern of spinal cord injury should lead clinicians to perform imaging studies to evaluate for compressive etiologies.

  7. Vocal cord paralysis caused by stingray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Foreign bodies in the oral cavity and pharynx are commonly encountered in the emergency room and outpatient departments, and the most frequently observed of these foreign bodies are fish bones. Among the possible complications resulting from a pharyngeal foreign body, vocal cord fixation is extremely rare, with only three cases previously reported in the English literature. The mechanisms of vocal cord fixation can be classified into mechanical articular fixation, direct injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis secondary to inflammation. The case discussed here is different from previous cases. We report a rare case of vocal cord paralysis caused by the venom of a stingray tail in the hypopharynx. PMID:24077868

  8. Primary multifocal gliosarcoma of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh M. Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gliosarcoma (GS is a rare and exceedingly malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system. It displays clinical features similar to glioblastoma, yet is histologically unique as it harbors both gliomatous and sarcomatous cellular components. Involvement of the neuroaxis is predominantly limited to the cerebral parenchyma and meninges. Primary GS of the spinal cord is rarely encountered. We report a case of a 54 year old male who presented with 2 months of progressive, bilateral lower extremity sensory deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neuro-axis revealed multiple intradural lesions involving the cervical and thoracic spinal cord without evidence of intracranial involvement. Surgical resection of a dural based, extramedullary cervical lesion and two exophytic, intramedullary thoracic lesions revealed gliosarcoma, WHO grade IV. The patient died approximately 11 months after presentation. This report confirms that GS is not limited to supratentorial involvement and can primarily affect the spinal cord.

  9. Making Human Neurons from Stem Cells after Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yan; Leyan Xu; Welsh, Annie M; Glen Hatfield; Thomas Hazel; Karl Johe; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Every year, spinal cord injuries, many caused by road traffic accidents, paralyze about 11,000 people in the US. This paralysis occurs because the spinal cord is the main communication highway between the body and the brain. Information from the skin and other sensory organs is transmitted to the brain along the spinal cord by bundles of neurons, nervous system cells that transmit and receive messages. The brain then sends information back down the spinal cord to ...

  10. Characteristics and rehabilitation for patients with spinal cord stab injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fangyong; Zhang, Junwei; Tang, Hehu; LI, XIANG; Jiang, Shudong; Lv, Zhen; Liu, Shujia; Chen, Shizheng; Liu, Jiesheng; Hong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of the study was to compare the incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of patients with spinal cord stab injury to those with the more common spinal cord contusion injury. [Subjects] Of patients hospitalized in China Rehabilitation Research Center from 1994 to 2014, 40 of those having a spinal cord stab injury and 50 with spinal cord contusion were selected. [Methods] The data of all patients were analyzed retrospectively. The cases were evaluated by collecting...

  11. Ethical considerations in umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nathan S; Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant patients have the option at delivery of having their cord blood collected and stored for future use. At many hospitals, they have the option of donating their cord blood to the public banking system for future use by anyone who is an appropriate match (public banking). Patients also have the option of having their cord blood stored for a fee with a commercial/private company for future use within their family (private banking). Currently, private banking is not recommended by major obstetric and pediatric professional organizations. We applied current evidence of the risks and benefits of private and public cord blood banking and accepted ethical principles to answer the following two related questions: 1) Do obstetricians have an ethical obligation to comply with a request for private banking? and 2) Do obstetricians have an ethical obligation to routinely offer private banking to women who do not request it? The only situation where there is a known benefit to private banking is when public banking is not available and the patient currently has an affected family member who may benefit from cord blood therapy. We conclude that when presented with a request for private banking, obstetricians have an ethical obligation to explain the lack of proven benefit of this procedure. If the patient still requests private banking, it would be appropriate to comply, because there is minimal or no risk to the procedure. However, obstetricians are not ethically obligated to offer private banking, even when public banking is not available, except in the limited circumstance when the patient currently has an affected family member who may benefit from cord blood therapy. PMID:18165407

  12. Calcium Imaging of Living Astrocytes in the Mouse Spinal Cord following Sensory Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cirillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytic Ca2+ dynamics have been extensively studied in ex vivo models; however, the recent development of two-photon microscopy and astrocyte-specific labeling has allowed the study of Ca2+ signaling in living central nervous system. Ca2+ waves in astrocytes have been described in cultured cells and slice preparations, but evidence for astrocytic activation during sensory activity is lacking. There are currently few methods to image living spinal cord: breathing and heart-beating artifacts have impeded the widespread application of this technique. We here imaged the living spinal cord by two-photon microscopy in C57BL6/J mice. Through pressurized injection, we specifically loaded spinal astrocytes using the red fluorescent dye sulforhodamine 101 (SR101 and imaged astrocytic Ca2+ levels with Oregon-Green BAPTA-1 (OGB. Then, we studied astrocytic Ca2+ levels at rest and after right electrical hind paw stimulation. Sensory stimulation significantly increased astrocytic Ca2+ levels within the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to rest. In conclusion, in vivo morphofunctional imaging of living astrocytes in spinal cord revealed that astrocytes actively participate to sensory stimulation.

  13. Advances in the management of infertility in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Emad; Brackett, Nancy L; Lynne, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Couples with a spinal cord injured male partner require assisted ejaculation techniques to collect semen that can then be further used in various assisted reproductive technology methods to achieve a pregnancy. The majority of men sustaining a spinal cord injury regardless of the cause or the level of injury cannot ejaculate during sexual intercourse. Only a small minority can ejaculate by masturbation. Penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are the two most common methods used to retrieve sperm. Other techniques such as prostatic massage and the adjunct application of other medications can be used, but the results are inconsistent. Surgical sperm retrieval should be considered as a last resort if all other methods fail. Special attention must be paid to patients with T6 and rostral levels of injury due to the risk of autonomic dysreflexia resulting from stimulation below the level of injury. Bladder preparation should be performed before stimulation if retrograde ejaculation is anticipated. Erectile dysfunction is ubiquitous in the spinal cord injured population but is usually easily managed and does not pose a barrier to semen retrieval in these men. Semen analysis parameters of men with spinal cord injury are unique for this population regardless of the method of retrieval, generally presenting as normal sperm concentration but abnormally low sperm motility and viability. When sperm retrieval is desired in this population, emphasis should be placed on initially trying the simple methods of penile vibratory stimulation or electroejaculation before resorting to more advanced and invasive surgical procedures. PMID:27048781

  14. Advances in the management of infertility in men with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Couples with a spinal cord injured male partner require assisted ejaculation techniques to collect semen that can then be further used in various assisted reproductive technology methods to achieve a pregnancy. The majority of men sustaining a spinal cord injury regardless of the cause or the level of injury cannot ejaculate during sexual intercourse. Only a small minority can ejaculate by masturbation. Penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are the two most common methods used to retrieve sperm. Other techniques such as prostatic massage and the adjunct application of other medications can be used, but the results are inconsistent. Surgical sperm retrieval should be considered as a last resort if all other methods fail. Special attention must be paid to patients with T6 and rostral levels of injury due to the risk of autonomic dysreflexia resulting from stimulation below the level of injury. Bladder preparation should be performed before stimulation if retrograde ejaculation is anticipated. Erectile dysfunction is ubiquitous in the spinal cord injured population but is usually easily managed and does not pose a barrier to semen retrieval in these men. Semen analysis parameters of men with spinal cord injury are unique for this population regardless of the method of retrieval, generally presenting as normal sperm concentration but abnormally low sperm motility and viability. When sperm retrieval is desired in this population, emphasis should be placed on initially trying the simple methods of penile vibratory stimulation or electroejaculation before resorting to more advanced and invasive surgical procedures.

  15. Turkish Adaptation of Spinal Cord Independence Measure--Version III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesiktas, Nur; Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Sencan, Sureyya; Karan, Ayse; Muslumanoglu, Lutfiye

    2012-01-01

    Various rating scales have been used to assess ability in individuals with spinal cord injury. There is no specific functional assessment scale for Turkish patients with spinal cord injury. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) is a specific test, which has become popular in the last decade. A study was conducted to validate and evaluate the…

  16. Spontaneous herniation of the thoracic spinal cord : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous herniation of the spinal cord is a rare disease entity in which spinal cord substance is herniated through a previously uninjured and/or untouched dural. It is a cause of myelopathy that is treatable but difficult to diagnose. We report the CT and MR findings of a case of spontaneous thoracic spinal cord through a dural defect

  17. Clinical observation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in treatment for sequelae of thoracolumbar spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hongbin; Liu, Xuebin; Hua, Rongrong; Dai, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jianhua; An, Yihua

    2014-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) have a considerable advantage and potential in treating for central nervous system diseases and have become a novel alternative treatment for spinal cord injury. This study aims to compare the neurological function outcome of stem cell transplantation, rehabilitation therapy, and self-healing for sequelae of spinal cord injury. Methods Thirty-four cases of thoracolumbar spinal cord injury were randomly divided into three groups: the st...

  18. Melatonin lowers edema after spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Li; Xiao Chen; Suchi Qiao; Xinwei Liu; Chang Liu; Degang Zhu; Jiacan Su; Zhiwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin has been shown to diminish edema in rats. Melatonin can be used to treat spinal cord injury. This study presumed that melatonin could relieve spinal cord edema and examined how it might act. Our experiments found that melatonin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) could reduce the water content of the spinal cord, and suppress the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial ifbrillary acidic protein after spinal cord injury. This suggests that the mechanism by which melatonin alleviates the damage to the spinal cord by edema might be related to the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial ifbrillary acidic protein.

  19. Symptomatic epidural lipomatosis of the spinal cord in a child: MR demonstration of spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, 505 Parnassus Av, L-371, University of California-San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Seccion de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barkovich, James A. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, 505 Parnassus Av, L-371, University of California-San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Mateos, Fernando; Simon, Rogelio [Seccion de Neurpediatria, Servicio de Neurologia, Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , 28041 Madrid (Spain)

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of symptomatic epidural lipomatosis in an 8-year-old girl with Cushing's syndrome secondary to longstanding high-dose steroid therapy for Crohn's disease. MR imaging of the spine revealed massive diffuse epidural fat compressing the entire spinal cord with T2 prolongation in the central gray matter of the cord suggesting ischemic myelopathy. This finding has not been previously demonstrated on imaging. A proposed mechanism underlying these findings is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Symptomatic epidural lipomatosis of the spinal cord in a child: MR demonstration of spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of symptomatic epidural lipomatosis in an 8-year-old girl with Cushing's syndrome secondary to longstanding high-dose steroid therapy for Crohn's disease. MR imaging of the spine revealed massive diffuse epidural fat compressing the entire spinal cord with T2 prolongation in the central gray matter of the cord suggesting ischemic myelopathy. This finding has not been previously demonstrated on imaging. A proposed mechanism underlying these findings is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Spinal cord stimulation in chronic pain syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Vaarwerk, IAM; Staal, MJ

    1998-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used for more than 30 years now, and although it has shown to be effective under certain well-described conditions of chronic pain, conclusive evidence on its effectiveness is still sparse. There is a need for more prospective and methodological good studies, i

  2. Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  3. Cord entanglement in monoamniotic twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyndrup, J; Schouenborg, Lars Øland

    1987-01-01

    Monoamniotic twin pregnancy involves a heavy risk of fatal umbilical cord entanglement. Two cases are reported. In the first case, both twins were found dead in the 36th week, and the monoamnionicity was recognized at birth. In the second case, the monoamnionicity was discovered during an...

  4. New trends in spinal cord tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-145. ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : biomaterial * cell therapy * regenerative medicine * spinal cord injury * stem cells scaffold * tissue engineering Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  5. Spinal Cord Involvement in Brachial Plexus Injury

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-01-01

    The role of spinal cord plasticity after birth injury and recovery from obstetric brachial plexus lesions was investigated in newborn rats with selective crush injury to spinal roots C5 and C6, in a study at University Clinics of Vienna School of Medicine, Austria.

  6. Male infertility in spinal cord trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Utida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every year there are 10 thousand new cases of patients victimized by spinal cord trauma (SCT in the United States and it is estimated that there are 7 thousand new cases in Brazil. Eighty percent of patients are fertile males. Infertility in this patient group is due to 3 main factors resulting from spinal cord lesions: erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorder and low sperm counts. Erectile dysfunction has been successfully treated with oral and injectable medications, use of vacuum devices and penile prosthesis implants. The technological improvement in penile vibratory stimulation devices (PVS and rectal probe electro-ejaculation (RPE has made such procedures safer and accessible to patients with ejaculatory dysfunction. Despite the normal number of spermatozoa found in semen of spinal cord-injured patients, their motility is abnormal. This change does not seem to be related to changes in scrotal thermal regulation, frequency of ejaculation or duration of spinal cord damage but to factors related to the seminal plasma. Despite the poor seminal quality, increasingly more men with SCT have become fathers through techniques ranging from simple homologous insemination to sophisticated assisted reproduction techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI.

  7. Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Berić, A; Light, J K

    1993-01-01

    Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm.

  8. Solitary fibrous tumour of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordani, J.P. [City General Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Haq, I.U. [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Singh, J. [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2000-09-01

    We report an intramedullary primary solitary fibrous tumour of the cervical spinal cord in a 33-year-old man. The tumour predominantly consisted of monomorphic spindle cells with a storiform pattern. MRI demonstrated an inhomogeneously enhancing cervical intramedullary tumour. The patient was well without recurrence 18 months after surgery. (orig.)

  9. Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord

    CERN Document Server

    Fratini, Michela; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spadon, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    Defaults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal systems is a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with neither contrast agent nor a destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is a crucial tool for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries. In particular, it s...

  10. Autoregulation of spinal cord blood flow: is the cord a microcosm of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoregulatory capability of regional areas of the brain and spinal cord was demonstrated in 18 rats anesthetized with a continuous infusion of intravenous pentothal. Blood flow was measured by the injection of radioactive microspheres (Co57, Sn113, Ru103, Sc46). Blood flow measurements were made at varying levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) which was altered by neosynephrine to raise MAP or trimethaphan to lower MAP. Autoregulation of the spinal cord mirrored that of the brain, with an autoregulatory range of 60 to 120 mm Hg for both tissues. Within this range, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was 59.2 +/- 3.2 ml/100 g/min (SEM) and spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) was 61.1 +/- 3.6. There was no significant difference in CBF and SCBF in the autoregulatory range. Autoregulation was also demonstrated regionally in the left cortex, right cortex, brainstem, thalamus, cerebellum, hippocampus and cervical, thoracic and lumbar cord. This data provides a coherent reference point in establishing autoregulatory curves under barbiturate anesthesia. Further investigation of the effects of other anesthetic agents on autoregulation of the spinal cord is needed. It is possible that intraspinal cord compliance, like intracranial compliance, might be adversely affected by the effects of anesthetics on autoregulation

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of tyre cords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation of high tenacity Nylon 6.6 (Ny 66) and polyester (PET) tyre cords was investigated. The untreated and treated tyre cords with different twist levels were irradiated at different dose rates in air. The effects of irradiation on both Ny 66 and PET cords were not found to be depending on the twist levels of the cords. The changes in the mechanical and thermal properties with absorbed dose at two different dose rates were measured. The mechanical properties were observed to deteriorate with increasing dose for Ny 66 cords, whereas remained almost unchanged for PET cords both in greige and dipped forms. Hot shrinkage value for the greige Ny 66 cords was found to be improved, i.e. decreased. This decrease was much lower for greige PET than Ny 66 cords. It is concluded that PET cord has higher radiation resistance than Ny 66 cord and the effects of high energy irradiation on tyre cords have to be taken into consideration during tyre design if pre-vulcanization with high energy radiation is to be applied

  12. Simplified spinal cord phantom for evaluation of SQUID magnetospinography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Y.; Oyama, D.; Somchai, N.; Kawabata, S.; Uehara, G.

    2014-05-01

    Spinal cord functional imaging by magnetospinography (MSG) is a noninvasive diagnostic method for spinal cord diseases. However, the accuracy and spatial resolution of lesion localization by MSG have barely been evaluated in detail so far. We developed a simplified spinal cord phantom for MSG evaluation. The spinal cord phantom is composed of a cylindrical vessel filled with saline water, which acts as a model of a neck. A set of modeled vertebrae is arranged in the cylindrical vessel, which has a neural current model made from catheter electrodes. The neural current model emulates the current distribution around the activated site along the axon of the spinal cord nerve. Our MSG system was used to observe the magnetic field from the phantom; a quadrupole-like pattern of the magnetic field distribution, which is a typical distribution pattern for spinal cord magnetic fields, was successfully reproduced by the phantom. Hence, the developed spinal cord phantom can be used to evaluate MSG source analysis methods.

  13. Development and Treatments of Inflammatory Cells and Cytokines in Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Zhuang; Xiao-Kang Li; Masayuki Fujino; Ping Zhu; Jia-xin Li

    2013-01-01

    During aortic surgery, interruption of spinal cord blood flow might cause spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The incidence of spinal cord IRI after aortic surgery is up to 28%, and patients with spinal cord IRI might suffer from postoperative paraplegia or paraparesis. Spinal cord IRI includes two phases. The immediate spinal cord injury is related to acute ischemia. And the delayed spinal cord injury involves both ischemic cellular death and reperfusion injury. Inflammation is a ...

  14. Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Eva Maria Meier; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2014-01-01

    Spinal neuronal networks are essential for motor function. They are involved in the integration of sensory inputs and the generation of rhythmic motor outputs. They continuously adapt their activity to the internal state of the organism and to the environment. This plasticity can be provided by...... different neuromodulators. These substances are usually thought of being released by dedicated neurons. However, in other networks from the central nervous system synaptic transmission is also modulated by transmitters released from astrocytes. The star-shaped glial cell responds to neurotransmitters by...... releasing gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic transmission. Here we investigated if astrocytes present in the ventral horn of the spinal cord modulate synaptic transmission. We evoked synaptic inputs in ventral horn neurons recorded in a slice preparation from the spinal cord of neonatal mice...

  15. Gene therapy approaches for spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Corinne

    As the biomedical engineering field expands, combination technologies are demonstrating enormous potential for treating human disease. In particular, intersections between the rapidly developing fields of gene therapy and tissue engineering hold promise to achieve tissue regeneration. Nonviral gene therapy uses plasmid DNA to deliver therapeutic proteins in vivo for extended periods of time. Tissue engineering employs biomedical materials, such as polymers, to support the regrowth of injured tissue. In this thesis, a combination strategy to deliver genes and drugs in a polymeric scaffold was applied to a spinal cord injury model. In order to develop a platform technology to treat spinal cord injury, several nonviral gene delivery systems and polymeric scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Nonviral vector trafficking was evaluated in primary neuronal culture to develop an understanding of the barriers to gene transfer in neurons and their supporting glia. Although the most efficient gene carrier in vitro differed from the optimal gene carrier in vivo, confocal and electron microscopy of these nonviral vectors provided insights into the interaction of these vectors with the nucleus. A novel pathway for delivering nanoparticles into the nuclei of neurons and Schwann cells via vesicle trafficking was observed in this study. Reporter gene expression levels were evaluated after direct and remote delivery to the spinal cord, and the optimal nonviral vector, dose, and delivery strategy were applied to deliver the gene encoding the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the spinal cord. An injectable and biocompatible gel, composed of the amphiphillic polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) was evaluated as a drug and gene delivery system in vitro, and combined with the optimized nonviral gene delivery system to treat spinal cord injury. Plasmid DNA encoding the bFGF gene and the therapeutic NEP1--40 peptide

  16. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is...... dependent on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve...

  17. Radiation tolerance of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 109 patients were studied after receiving radiation therapy that included a dose to the spinal cord. In addition to irradiation of the primary site, 59 patients received radiation to the lower neck. Transverse myelopathy developed in three patients; all three had been treated with fields to the lower neck. The dose to the spinal cord at the site of junctional fields was thought to be considerably higher because of the beam divergence from multiple fields employed. The authors stress that prolonged fractionation of treatment, fixation of the head during treatment, precise dosimetry, and close surveillance of the patient are important factors in avoiding radiation myelitis. The authors also stress the importance of controlling divergence of multiple beams by employing appropriate shields

  18. Radiation tolerance of the cervical spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.H.; Fayos, J.V.

    1981-05-01

    A total of 109 patients were studied after receiving radiation therapy that included a dose to the spinal cord. In addition to irradiation of the primary site, 59 patients received radiation to the lower neck. Transverse myelopathy developed in three patients; all three had been treated with fields to the lower neck. The dose to the spinal cord at the site of junctional fields was thought to be considerably higher because of the beam divergence from multiple fields employed. The authors stress that prolonged fractionation of treatment, fixation of the head during treatment, precise dosimetry, and close surveillance of the patient are important factors in avoiding radiation myelitis. The authors also stress the importance of controlling divergence of multiple beams by employing appropriate shields.

  19. Spinal cord cysticercosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouree, Patrice; Dumazedier, Deborah; Bisaro, Francine; Resende, Paula; Comoy, Jean; Aghakhani, Nozar

    2006-12-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the infection with the larva of Taenia solium, common through out the world, is located in the muscles, the eyes and the central nervous system, but mostly in the brain. Spinal cord infection is rare. The authors report a case of a young girl, living in Paris who had traveled in Latin America, and complained of back pains and troublesome walking. MRI showed a cyst in spinal cord, but other examinations were normal. Diagnosis was confirmed by a pathologist. It was a pure intramedullary cysticercosis, the check-up to find other locations was negative. Only approximately 130 cases are reported in the literature, with motor and sensory disorders. The diagnosis was based on MRI and pathological examination. Antiparasitic medical treatment was useful when combined with surgery. PMID:17153691

  20. Neural plasticity after spinal cord injury☆

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian; Yang, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Lianying; Wang, Chunxin; Yang, Maoguang

    2012-01-01

    Plasticity changes of uninjured nerves can result in a novel neural circuit after spinal cord injury, which can restore sensory and motor functions to different degrees. Although processes of neural plasticity have been studied, the mechanism and treatment to effectively improve neural plasticity changes remain controversial. The present study reviewed studies regarding plasticity of the central nervous system and methods for promoting plasticity to improve repair of injured central nerves. T...

  1. Imaging Techniques in Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingson, BM; Salamon, N.; Holly, LT

    2012-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Background Spinal imaging plays a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). In recent years there has been increasing interest in the development of advanced imaging techniques to provide pertinent microstructural and metabolic information that is not provided by conventional modalities. Methods This review details the pathophysiological structural changes that accompany SCI, as well as their imaging correlate...

  2. Chronic complications of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sezer, Nebahat; Akkuş, Selami; Uğurlu, Fatma Gülçin

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition that causes functional, psychological and socioeconomic disorder. Therefore, patients with SCI experience significant impairments in various aspects of their life. The goals of rehabilitation and other treatment approaches in SCI are to improve functional level, decrease secondary morbidity and enhance health-related quality of life. Acute and long-term secondary medical complications are common in patients with SCI. However, chronic com...

  3. Volume reduction in routine cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solves, Pilar; Mirabet, Vicente; Roig, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an alternative source of hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation in the treatment of haematological malignancies, marrow failure, immunodeficiencies, hemoglobinopathies and inherited metabolic diseases. It has greatly contributed to increase the feasibility to transplantation for many patients in need. To date, more than 20,000 UCB transplants have been performed on children and adults, and more than 400,000 UCB units are available in more than 50 public CB banks. One of the most important objectives of banks is to cryopreserve and store high quality UCB units. Volume reduction is a usual process in cord blood banking that has some advantages as reducing the storage space and the DMSO quantity in final product. Volume reduction methodology must guarantee high cell recovery and red blood cell (RBC) depletion by reducing the UCB units to a standard volume. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) sedimentation was the first method developed for this purpose by the New York Cord Blood Bank and implemented in many banks worldwide. The semi-automated top and bottom system, usually used for blood fractionation was further developed to simplify and short the process. Later, automatic devices as SEPAX and AXP have been developed in last years specifically for UCB volume reduction purpose. This review critically analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the different procedures. All of them have been used in Valencia Cord Blood Bank along 10 years. In general, automatic devices are preferred because of compliance with cGTP, closed systems, higher reproducibility and less influence of technician. PMID:20528760

  4. Percutaneous ultrasound guided umbilical cord blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a technique and the result of percutaneous ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood sampling and its potential use in the management of diagnostic problems in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. This method has been employed in the prenatal assessment of 19 fetuses at risk for chromosomal disorders, fetal hypoxia and hematologic disorders. This simple and rapid procedure offers a safe access to the fetal circulation

  5. Biocompatible hydrogels in spinal cord injury repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejčl, Aleš; Lesný, Petr; Přádný, Martin; Michálek, Jiří; Jendelová, Pavla; Štulík, J.; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, Suppl.3 (2008), S121-S132. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/06/1246 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) 1A8697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Spinal cord injury * Hydrogel * Tissue engineering Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  6. Two cases of high cervical cord tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of high cervical cord tumor are presented. Case 1 is an intradural extramedullary meningioma located at the foramen magnum. Case 2 is an extradural neurinoma originated from left C2 spinal nerve root. In each case high resolution computed tomography and myelography, especially that of axial view, visualized extramedullary mass lesion.FIn recent years it has been stressed that high resolution computed tomography is useful in the diagnosis of high cervical cord lesion, and this idea is quite reasonable from our experiences. On the other hand, it has been mentioned that myelography often gives false negative results as far as high cervical cord lesion is concerned, which is mainly because relative width of the subarachnoid space in the region of the foramen magnum.FOur experience indicated that in myelographic examination of foramen magnum tumor it is advisable to add axial view to ordinary P-A and lateral views. Bacause axial high cervical myelography gives an image similar to computed tomogram of this region, this technique not only increases the diagnostic value of myelography but also, in some cases, substitutes for computed tomography which costs very much. (author)

  7. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumorsin the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomasare benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology thatarise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. Thistype also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, isthe more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usuallyin subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngealhemangioma in adults is a very rare conditionand main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties.Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locationssuch as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoidsand false and true vocal cords. They are more oftenof cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this reportwe present an adult patient with hemangioma ofthe left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnosticinvestigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extendedfrom the anterior comissure to the posterior partof true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventriculeand extending to supraglottic region. Directlaryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excisedbecause of its widespread extension in the larynx. JClin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 91-94

  8. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waleed Al Taweel, Raouf SeyamDepartment of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.Keywords: neurogenic bladder, spinal cord injury, urodynamics, intestine, intermittent catheterization

  9. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  10. Spermatic cord and scrotal tunic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the paratesticular tumors, the spermatic cord and the scrotal tunic tumors are the most frequent and benign. This paper updated this topic, making emphasis in diagnosis and treatment issues. A literature search was made in books and in Hinari, PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS databases and in Goggle in the period of 2009 through 2013. The MeSH terms in English and Spanish were used: paratesticular tumors, intrascrotal tumors, spermatic cord tumors and scrotal tunic tumors. From the clinical viewpoint, it is fundamental to make the differential diagnosis with the inguinal hernia and hydrocele. The US testing is the imaging study of choice for initial assessment, although its lack of specificity makes specialists to resort to computer axial tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance to have more details of the case. For the purpose of reaching a precise diagnosis, the trans operative freezing biopsy through inguinotomy was recommended. The fine needle aspiration cytology is a reliable option to classify them if the case is suspected of benignancy preoperatively. It is possible to perform tumorectomy in the benign tumors, thus avoiding radical orchiectomy with upper ligature of the spermatic cord, which is the indicated approach to the malignant ones. Once the histological diagnosis and the staging are confirmed, the management should be oncological and urological in order to decide whether the adjuvant treatments are convenient or not. The malignant tumors recurred very frequently and sometimes in later phases, so these patients must be strictly followed-up for a long time

  11. Umbilical cord blood mercury levels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqin Wu,; Chonghuai Yan; Jian Xu; Wei Wu; Hui Li; Xin Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a well-known neurotoxicant.Hg exposure at high levels can harm individuals of all ages.Even low level exposure to Hg can damage the brain of fetuses and young children,and affect their central nervous system and cognitive development.The aims of our study were to measure total Hg levels in infant umbilical cord blood and to investigate the risk factors associated with total Hg cord blood levels in various cities in China.Our goal was to provide clues for the prevention of Hg exposure in utero.The results indicated that the average cord blood mercury levels (CBMLs) were (1.81 ± 1.93) μg/L,which were lower than those found in most previous studies.The concentrations also differed according to geographic region.The CBMLs were not only associated with family economic and living conditions,but also with diet in pregnant women,especially the intake of marine fish,shellfish,poultry,formula milk and fruits.

  12. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumors in the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology that arise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. This type also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, is the more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usually in subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngeal hemangioma in adults is a very rare condition and main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties. Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locations such as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoids and false and true vocal cords. They are more often of cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this report we present an adult patient with hemangioma of the left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnostic investigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extended from the anterior comissure to the posterior part of true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventricule and extending to supraglottic region. Direct laryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excised because of its widespread extension in the larynx. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(3: 323-326.

  13. Private cord blood banking: current use and clinical future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Peter; McCauley, Catherina

    2009-09-01

    International private umbilical cord blood banking has expanded rapidly in recent years since the first cord blood transplant which was 20 years ago. Private companies offer parents the opportunity to store umbilical cord blood for the possible future use by their child or other family members. The private cord blood industry has been criticised by a number of professional bodies including the EU Ethics Committee, the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, the Royal College of Midwives and the US College of Paediatrics. This review presents the arguments from the opponents of private cord blood banking, and then makes the case for private cord banking based on the latest scientific and clinical evidence. PMID:19603288

  14. 45 Gy - tolerance dose spinal cord - dogma or the facts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose of 45 Gy as a tolerance dose for spinal cord was questioned based on review of clinical data. Some data show that for conventional fractionation with the dose per fraction of less than 2.0 Gy spinal cord tolerance dose may arise up to 50-55 Gy. This was the base for round-table discussion and the importance of clinical and physical risk factors of postirradiation spinal cord injury was discussed and previous diseases of spinal cord, size of dose per fraction and length of irradiated spinal cord were pointed out as high risk factors. It was concluded that from clinical point of view there is no reason and on need to verify and to increase tolerance dose for spinal cord. (author)

  15. Bone marrow stromal cell: mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    OpenAIRE

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic factors, enabling neuroprotection/tissue sparing in a rat model of spinal cord injury. In this model system, bone marrow stromal cell-mediated tissue sparing leads to motor and sensory function impr...

  16. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging in suspected multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the value of spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostic work-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). Forty patients suspected of having MS were examined within 24 months after the start of symptoms. Disability was assessed, and symptoms were categorized as either brain or spinal cord. Work-up further included cerebrospinal fluid analysis and standard proton-density, T2-, and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced brain and spinal cord MRI. Patients were categorized as either clinically definite MS (n = 13), laboratory-supported definite MS (n = 14), or clinically probable MS (n = 4); four patients had clinically probable MS, and in nine MS was suspected. Spinal cord abnormalities were found in 35 of 40 patients (87.5 %), consisting of focal lesions in 31, only diffuse abnormalities in two, and both in two. Asymptomatic spinal cord lesions occurred in six patients. All patients with diffuse spinal cord abnormality had clear spinal cord symptoms and a primary progressive disease course. In clinically definite MS, the inclusion of spinal imaging increased the sensitivity of MRI to 100 %. Seven patients without a definite diagnosis had clinically isolated syndromes involving the spinal cord. Brain MRI was inconclusive, while all had focal spinal cord lesions which explained symptoms and ruled out other causes. Two other patients had atypical brain abnormalities suggesting ischemic/vascular disease. No spinal cord abnormalities were found, and during follow-up MS was ruled out. Spinal cord abnormalities are common in suspected MS, and may occur asymptomatic. Although diagnostic classification is seldom changed, spinal cord imaging increases diagnostic sensitivity of MRI in patients with suspected MS. In addition, patients with primary progressive MS may possibly be earlier diagnosed. Finally, differentiation with atypical lesions may be improved. (orig.)

  17. A Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord Compression Injury Model

    OpenAIRE

    Züchner, Mark; Glover, Joel C.; Boulland, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) typically causes devastating neurological deficits, particularly through damage to fibers descending from the brain to the spinal cord. A major current area of research is focused on the mechanisms of adaptive plasticity that underlie spontaneous or induced functional recovery following SCI. Spontaneous functional recovery is reported to be greater early in life, raising interesting questions about how adaptive plasticity changes as the spinal cord develops. To facili...

  18. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis.Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies.Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8% and aspiration (37.8% in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%, tumors (31.11%, surgery (28.89%, trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%.Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis.

  19. Aquaporin 1 – a novel player in spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nesic, O.; Lee, J.; Unabia, G. C.; Johnson, K.; Z. Ye; Vergara, L.; Hulsebosch, C. E.; Perez-Polo, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) in uninjured or injured spinal cords is unknown. AQP-1 is weakly expressed in neurons and gray matter astrocytes, and more so in white matter astrocytes in uninjured spinal cords, a novel finding. As reported before, AQP-1 is also present in ependymal cells, but most abundantly in small diameter sensory fibers of the dorsal horn. Rat contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) induced persistent and significant four- to eightfold increases in AQP-1 levels ...

  20. Non-enhancing pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, David B. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiology A-030, Denver, CO (United States); Hedlund, Gary L. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are among the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in the pediatric age group. The presence of contrast enhancement is a major factor used to distinguish these tumors from other spinal cord lesions. We present a case of histologically proved non-enhancing intramedullary spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma in a 12-year-old girl. This case represents an exception to the conventional wisdom that pediatric spinal neoplasms enhance with administration of intravenous contrast material. (orig.)

  1. Non-enhancing pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are among the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in the pediatric age group. The presence of contrast enhancement is a major factor used to distinguish these tumors from other spinal cord lesions. We present a case of histologically proved non-enhancing intramedullary spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma in a 12-year-old girl. This case represents an exception to the conventional wisdom that pediatric spinal neoplasms enhance with administration of intravenous contrast material. (orig.)

  2. Spinal cord decompression reduces rat neural cell apoptosis secondary to spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan XU; Qi-xin CHEN; Fang-cai LI; Wei-shan CHEN; Min LIN; Qiong-hua WET

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether spinal cord decompression plays a role in neural cell apoptosis after spinal cord injury. Study design: We used an animal model of compressive spinal cord injury with incomplete paraparesis to evaluate neural cell apoptosis after decompression. Apoptosis and cellular damage were assessed by staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and immunostaining for caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax. Methods: Experiments were conducted in male Spragne-Dawley rats (n=78) weighing 300-400 g. The spinal cord was compressed posteriorly at T10 level using a custom-made screw for 6 h, 24 h or continuously, followed by decompression by removal of the screw. The rats were sacrificed on Day 1 or 3 or in Week 1 or 4 post-decompression. The spinal cord was removed en bloc and examined at lesion site, rostral site and caudal site (7.5 mm away from the lesion). Results: The numbers of TUNEL-positive cells were significantly lower at the site of decompression on Day l, and also at the rostral and caudal sites between Day 3 and Week 4 post-decompression, compared with the persistently compressed group. The numbers of cells between Day 1 and Week 4 were immunoreactive to caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X-protein (Bax), but not to Bcl-2, correlated with those of TUNEL-positive cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that decompression reduces neural cell apoptosis following spinal cord injury.

  3. Spinal cord diffusion imaging: Challenging characterization and prognostic value

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the potential of quantitative imaging mark¬ers derived from diffusion-weighted MRI (DW MRI) in the spinal cord to char¬acterise healthy white matter pathways and provide sensitivity to axonal dam¬age, regeneration and collateral sprouting in spinal cord disease. With new innovative treatment strategies emerging for spinal cord patholo¬gies such as spinal cord injury and Multiple Sclerosis, there is a need for new in-vivo biomarkers that can be specific ...

  4. Cord blood transplantation: can we make it better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland eMetheny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood is an established source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. It enjoys several advantages over bone marrow or peripheral blood, including increased tolerance for Human Leukocyte Antigen mismatches, decreased incidence of graft-versus-host disease, and easy availability. Unrelated cord blood does have limitations, however, especially in the treatment of adults. In the 24 years since the first umbilical cord blood transplant was performed, significant progress has been made, but delayed hematopoietic engraftment and increased treatment related mortality remain obstacles to widespread use. Here we summarize the latest results of unrelated cord blood transplants, and review strategies under investigation to improve clinical outcomes.

  5. Umbilical cord rupture: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Madhusudhan; Nama, Vivek; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Kakumani, Vijayasri; Worth, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The umbilical cord acts as a mechanical conduit between the fetus and placenta, allowing movement of water and nutrient substances between the fetal circulation and the amniotic fluid. Complications can occur antenatally or intranatally and are usually acute events that require immediate delivery to prevent intrauterine death. Even though the majority of the cord complications are unpreventable, significant improvement in perinatal mortality and morbidity can be achieved if such an event can be predicted. Umbilical cord rupture is not uncommon, but significantly underreported. We present an unusual cause of umbilical cord rupture and a review of literature. PMID:18320869

  6. Spinal cord motion. Influence of respiration and cardiac cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, S. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Schoth, F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Stolzmann, P. [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Krings, T. [Toronto Western Hospital, ON (Canada). Div. of Neuroradiology; Mull, M.; Wiesmann, M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Stracke, C.P. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Alfried-Krupp-Hospital, Essen (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2014-11-15

    To assess physiological spinal cord motion during the cardiac cycle compared with the influence of respiration based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. Anterior-posterior spinal cord motion within the spinal canal was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers (median age, 25 years) by cardiac-triggered and cardiac-gated gradient echo pulse sequence MRI. Image acquisition was performed during breath-holding, normal breathing, and forced breathing. Normal spinal cord motion values were computed using descriptive statistics. Breathing-dependent differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with the cardiac-based cord motion. A normal value table was set up for the spinal cord motion of each vertebral cervico-thoracic-lumbar segment. Significant differences in cord motion were found between cardiac-based motion while breath-holding and the two breathing modalities (P < 0.01 each). Spinal cord motion was found to be highest during forced breathing, with a maximum in the lower cervical spinal segments (C5; mean, 2.1 mm ± 1.17). Image acquisition during breath-holding revealed the lowest motion. MRI permits the demonstration and evaluation of cardiac and respiration-dependent spinal cord motion within the spinal canal from the cervical to lumbar segments. Breathing conditions have a considerably greater impact than cardiac activity on spinal cord motion.

  7. Does repair of spinal cord injury follow the evolutionary theory?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhicheng Zhang; Fang Li; Tiansheng Sun

    2012-01-01

    Lower vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, and higher vertebrates in embryonic development can acquire complete regeneration of complex body structures, including the spinal cord, an important part of the central nervous system. However, with species evolution and development, this regenerative capacity gradually weakens and even disappears, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We explored the differences in mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration capability between lower and higher vertebrates, investigated differences in their cellular and molecular mechanisms and between the spinal cord structures of lower vertebrates and mammals, such as rat and monkey, to search for theoretical evidence and therapeutic targets for nerve regeneration in human spinal cord.

  8. Umbilical cord blood: a guide for primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul L; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Hesse, Brett

    2011-09-15

    Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants are used to treat a variety of oncologic, genetic, hematologic, and immunodeficiency disorders. Physicians have an important role in educating, counseling, and offering umbilical cord blood donation and storage options to patients. Parents may donate their infant's cord blood to a public bank, pay to store it in a private bank, or have it discarded. The federal government and many state governments have passed laws and issued regulations regarding umbilical cord blood, and some states require physicians to discuss cord blood options with pregnant women. Five prominent medical organizations have published recommendations about cord blood donation and storage. Current guidelines recommend donation of umbilical cord blood to public banks when possible, or storage through the Related Donor Cord Blood Program when a sibling has a disease that may require a stem cell transplant. Experts do not currently recommend private banking for unidentified possible future use. Step-by-step guidance and electronic resources are available to physicians whose patients are considering saving or donating their infant's umbilical cord blood. PMID:21916391

  9. Spinal cord motion. Influence of respiration and cardiac cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess physiological spinal cord motion during the cardiac cycle compared with the influence of respiration based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. Anterior-posterior spinal cord motion within the spinal canal was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers (median age, 25 years) by cardiac-triggered and cardiac-gated gradient echo pulse sequence MRI. Image acquisition was performed during breath-holding, normal breathing, and forced breathing. Normal spinal cord motion values were computed using descriptive statistics. Breathing-dependent differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with the cardiac-based cord motion. A normal value table was set up for the spinal cord motion of each vertebral cervico-thoracic-lumbar segment. Significant differences in cord motion were found between cardiac-based motion while breath-holding and the two breathing modalities (P < 0.01 each). Spinal cord motion was found to be highest during forced breathing, with a maximum in the lower cervical spinal segments (C5; mean, 2.1 mm ± 1.17). Image acquisition during breath-holding revealed the lowest motion. MRI permits the demonstration and evaluation of cardiac and respiration-dependent spinal cord motion within the spinal canal from the cervical to lumbar segments. Breathing conditions have a considerably greater impact than cardiac activity on spinal cord motion.

  10. GIANT LIPOMA OF THE SPERMATIC CORD: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipoma is a common soft tissue benign tumor. Lipomas of the spermatic cord are rare. We present here a case of giant lipoma of the spermatic cord presented as an irreducible inguinal hernia and its surgical management. The giant lipoma was completely excised and removed in toto. Giant lipoma of the spermatic cord is a large, irreducible, complete, sac-less and indirect fatty inguinal hernia. So, to avoid medico-legal consequences, giant lipoma of the spermatic cord should also be considered as hernias. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 170-171

  11. Simultaneous Brain-Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Vahdat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning. Specifically, we show learning-related modulation of activity in the C6-C8 spinal region, which is independent from that of related supraspinal sensorimotor structures. Moreover, a brain-spinal cord functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that the initial linear relationship between the spinal cord and sensorimotor cortex gradually fades away over the course of motor sequence learning, while the connectivity between spinal activity and cerebellum gains strength. These data suggest that the spinal cord not only constitutes an active functional component of the human motor learning network but also contributes distinctively from the brain to the learning process. The present findings open new avenues for rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, as they demonstrate that this part of the central nervous system is much more plastic than assumed before. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this intrinsic functional plasticity in the spinal cord warrant further investigations.

  12. CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION AND PROGNOSIS OF BRONCHOPULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN ACUTE AND EARLY PERIODS OF SPINAL CORD TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Norkin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated 50 cytological preparations after fibro-optic bronchoscopy of 10 patients with cervical spinal cord injuries. The dynamics of broncho-pulmonary complications of spinal cord injuries was estimated on the basis of cytological broncho-alveolar lavage fluid investigations. In the work there were used clinico-neurologic methods, radiological (computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic (fibro-optic bronchoscopy and cytomorphological investigations. Cytomorphological investigations of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were carried out on the 3-4, 7, 14, 30th days. Cellular composition of the broncho-alveolar wash-out (endopulmonary cytogramme was estimated by calculation of more than 100 cells in 3 fields of the immersion microscope coverage. Quantitative changes of cellular elements were taken into account with respect to normal cell amount. The results were analyzed according to the average out method. Quantitative changes of inflammatory elements in endopulmonary cytogramme were determined by the degree of endobronchitic manifestations and were corresponding to clinico-radiological picture of development of broncho-pulmonary complications in different periods of spinal cord injury

  13. Multiple sclerosis risk loci correlate with cervical cord atrophy and may explain the course of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkad, Denis A; Bellenberg, Barbara; Esser, Sarika; Weiler, Florian; Epplen, Jörg T; Gold, Ralf; Lukas, Carsten; Haghikia, Aiden

    2015-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) underscore the genetic basis of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, only few of the newly reported genetic variations relevant in MS have been replicated or correlated for clinical/paraclinical phenotypes such as spinal cord atrophy in independent patient cohorts. We genotyped 141 MS patients for 58 variations reported to reach significance in GWAS. Expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and disease duration (DD) are available from regular clinical examinations. MRI included sagittal high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo of the cervical cord region used for volumetry. Due dependency of mean upper cervical cord area (MUCCA) with EDSS and/or DD, correction operations were performed compensating for EDSS/DD. We assessed each MS risk locus for possible MUCCA association. We identified twelve risk loci that significantly correlated with MUCCA. For nine loci-BATF, CYP27B1, IL12B, NFKB1, IL7, PLEK, EVI5, TAGAP and nrs669607-patients revealed significantly higher degree of atrophy; TYK2, RGS1 and CLEC16A revealed inverse effects. The weighted genetic risk score over the twelve loci showed significant correlation with MUCCA. Our data reveal a risk gene depending paraclinical/clinical phenotype. Since MUCCA clearly correlates with disability, the candidates identified here may serve as prognostic markers for disability progression. PMID:25620546

  14. Prevention against diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma: can the Notch pathway be a novel treatment target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-jun Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether the Notch pathway is involved in the development of diffuse spinal cord astrocytomas. BALB/c nude mice received injections of CD133 + and CD133− cell suspensions prepared using human recurrent diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma tissue through administration into the right parietal lobe. After 7-11 weeks, magnetic resonance imaging was performed weekly. Xenografts were observed on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133 + cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expression was observed in the xenografts. By contrast, no xenografts appeared in the identical position on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133− cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expression was hardly detected either. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining revealed xenografts on the convex surfaces of the brains of mice that underwent CD133 + astrocytoma transplantation. Some sporadic astroglioma cells showed pseudopodium-like structures, which extended into the cerebral white matter. However, it should be emphasized that the subcortex xenograft with Notch-immunopositive expression was found in the fourth mouse received injection of CD133− astrocytoma cells. However, these findings suggest that the Notch pathway plays an important role in the formation of astrocytomas, and can be considered a novel treatment target for diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma.

  15. Prevention against diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma:can the Notch pathway be a novel treatment target?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-jun Sun; Jin-long Mao; Xiao-hui Lou; Zhen-yu Wang; Ling-song Li; Hai-yan Yu; Yong-sheng Xu; Hai-bo Wu; Yi Luo; Bin Liu; Mei Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the Notch pathway is involved in the develop-ment of diffuse spinal cord astrocytomas. BALB/c nude mice received injections of CD133+and CD133− cell suspensions prepared using human recurrent diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma tissue through administration into the right parietal lobe. After 7–11 weeks, magnetic resonance imaging was performed weekly. Xenografts were observed on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133+ cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expression was observed in the xenografts. By contrast, no xenografts appeared in the identical position on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133− cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expres-sion was hardly detected either. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining revealed xenografts on the convex surfaces of the brains of mice that underwent CD133+ astro-cytoma transplantation. Some sporadic astroglioma cells showed pseudopodium-like structures, which extended into the cerebral white matter. However,it should be emphasized that the sub-cortex xenograft with Notch-immunopositive expression was found in the fourth mouse received injection of CD133− astrocytoma cells. However, these ifndings suggest that the Notch pathway plays an important role in the formation of astrocytomas, and can be considered a novel treat-ment target for diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma.

  16. Noradrenergic modulation of intrinsic and synaptic properties of lumbar motoneurons in the neonatal rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylis Tartas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that noradrenaline powerfully controls spinal motor networks, few data are available regarding the noradrenergic modulation of intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons in motor networks. Our work explores the cellular basis of noradrenergic modulation in the rat motor spinal cord. We first show that lumbar motoneurons express the three classes of adrenergic receptors at birth. Using patch-clamp recordings in the newborn rat spinal cord preparation, we characterized the effects of noradrenaline and of specific agonists of the three classes of adrenoreceptors on motoneuron membrane properties. Noradrenaline increases the motoneuron excitability partly via the inhibition of a KIR like current. Methoxamine (α1, clonidine (α2 and isoproterenol (β differentially modulate the motoneuron membrane potential but also increase motoneuron excitability, these effects being respectively inhibited by the antagonists prazosin (α1, yohimbine (α2 and propranolol (β. We show that the glutamatergic synaptic drive arising from the T13-L2 network is enhanced in motoneurons by noradrenaline, methoxamine and isoproterenol. On the other hand, noradrenaline, isoproterenol and clonidine inhibit both the frequency and amplitude of miniature glutamatergic EPSCs while methoxamine increases their frequency. The T13-L2 synaptic drive is thereby differentially modulated from the other glutamatergic synapses converging onto motoneurons and enhanced by presynaptic α1 and β receptor activation. Our data thus show that the noradrenergic system exerts a powerful and complex neuromodulation of lumbar motor networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

  17. Identification of the main generator source of longitudinal muscle contraction in the earthworm ventral nerve cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C. Chang

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The main generator source of a longitudinal muscle contraction was identified as an M (mechanical-stimulus-sensitive circuit composed of a presynaptic M-1 neuron and a postsynaptic M-2 neuron in the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Amynthas hawayanus, by simultaneous intracellular response recording and Lucifer Yellow-CH injection with two microelectrodes. Five-peaked responses were evoked in both neurons by a mechanical, but not by an electrical, stimulus to the mechanoreceptor in the shaft of a seta at the opposite side of an epidermis-muscle-nerve-cord preparation. This response was correlated to 84% of the amplitude, 73% of the rising rate and 81% of the duration of a longitudinal muscle contraction recorded by a mechano-electrical transducer after eliminating the other possible generator sources by partitioning the epidermis-muscle piece of this preparation. The pre- and postsynaptic relationship between these two neurons was determined by alternately stimulating and recording with two microelectrodes. Images of the Lucifer Yellow-CH-filled M-1 and M-2 neurons showed that both of them are composed of bundles of longitudinal processes situated on the side of the nerve cord opposite to stimulation. The M-1 neuron has an afferent process (A1 in the first nerve at the stimulated side of this preparation and the M-2 neuron has two efferent processes (E1 and E3 in the first and third nerves at the recording side where their effector muscle cell was identified by a third microelectrode.

  18. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  19. Autonomic consequences of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shaoping; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2014-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results not only in motor and sensory deficits but also in autonomic dysfunctions. The disruption of connections between higher brain centers and the spinal cord, or the impaired autonomic nervous system itself, manifests a broad range of autonomic abnormalities. This includes compromised cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, gastrointestinal, thermoregulatory, and sexual activities. These disabilities evoke potentially life-threatening symptoms that severely interfere with the daily living of those with SCI. In particular, high thoracic or cervical SCI often causes disordered hemodynamics due to deregulated sympathetic outflow. Episodic hypertension associated with autonomic dysreflexia develops as a result of massive sympathetic discharge often triggered by unpleasant visceral or sensory stimuli below the injury level. In the pelvic floor, bladder and urethral dysfunctions are classified according to upper motor neuron versus lower motor neuron injuries; this is dependent on the level of lesion. Most impairments of the lower urinary tract manifest in two interrelated complications: bladder storage and emptying. Inadequate or excessive detrusor and sphincter functions as well as detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia are examples of micturition abnormalities stemming from SCI. Gastrointestinal motility disorders in spinal cord injured-individuals are comprised of gastric dilation, delayed gastric emptying, and diminished propulsive transit along the entire gastrointestinal tract. As a critical consequence of SCI, neurogenic bowel dysfunction exhibits constipation and/or incontinence. Thus, it is essential to recognize neural mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying various complications of autonomic dysfunctions after SCI. This overview provides both vital information for better understanding these disorders and guides to pursue novel therapeutic approaches to alleviate secondary complications. PMID:25428850

  20. Volume effects in Rhesus monkey spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to test for the existence of a volume effect in radiation myelopathy using Rhesus monkeys treated with clinically relevant field sizes and fractionation schedules. Five groups of Rhesus monkeys were irradiated using 2.2 Gy per fraction to their spinal cords. Three groups were irradiated with 8 cm fields to total doses of 70.4, 77, and 83.6 Gy. Two additional groups were irradiated to 70.4 Gy using 4 and 16 cm fields. The incidence of paresis expressed within 2 years following the completion of treatment was determined for each group. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to determine parameters of a logistic dose response function. The volume effect was modeled using the probability model in which the probability of producing a lesion in an irradiated volume is governed by the probability of the occurrence of independent events. This is a two parameter model requiring only the estimates of the parameters of the dose-response function for the reference volume, but not needing any additional parameters for describing the volume effect. The probability model using a logistic dose-response function fits the data well with the D50 = 75.8 Gy for the 8-cm field. No evidence was seen for a difference in sensitivities for different anatomical levels of the spinal cord. Most lesions were type 3, combined white matter parenchymal and vascular lesions. Latent periods did not differ significantly from those of type 3 lesions in humans. The spinal cord exhibits a volume effect that is well described by the probability model. Because the dose response function for radiation myelopathy is steep, the volume effect is modest. The Rhesus monkey remains the animal model most similar to humans in dose response, histopathology, and latency for radiation myelopathy. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Prognosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic factors for spinal cord astrocytoma and determine the effects of surgery and radiotherapy on outcome. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study reviewed the cases of consecutive patients with spinal cord astrocytoma treated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1962 and 2005. Results: A total of 136 consecutive patients were identified. Of these 136 patients, 69 had pilocytic and 67 had infiltrative astrocytoma. The median follow-up for living patients was 8.2 years (range, 0.08-37.6), and the median survival for deceased patients was 1.15 years (range, 0.01-39.9). The extent of surgery included incisional biopsy only (59%), subtotal resection (25%), and gross total resection (16%). Patients with pilocytic tumors survived significantly longer than those with infiltrative astrocytomas (median overall survival, 39.9 vs. 1.85 years; p < 0.001). Patients who underwent resection had a worse, although nonsignificant, median survival than those who underwent biopsy only (pilocytic, 18.1 vs. 39.9 years, p = 0.07; infiltrative, 19 vs. 30 months, p = 0.14). Postoperative radiotherapy, delivered in 75% of cases, gave no significant survival benefit for those with pilocytic tumors (39.9 vs. 18.1 years, p = 0.33) but did for those with infiltrative astrocytomas (24 vs. 3 months; Wilcoxon p = 0.006). On multivariate analysis, pilocytic histologic type, diagnosis after 1984, longer symptom duration, younger age, minimal surgical extent, and postoperative radiotherapy predicted better outcome. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that histologic type is the most important prognostic variable affecting the outcome of spinal cord astrocytomas. Surgical resection was associated with shorter survival and thus remains an unproven treatment. Postoperative radiotherapy significantly improved survival for patients with infiltrative astrocytomas but not for those with pilocytic tumors

  2. MR diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of neural progenitor cells transplantation to acute injured canine spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the effect of transplantation of telomerase immortalized human neural progenitor cells to acute injured canine spinal cord by using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: Telomerase immortalized human neural progenitor cells with expression of green fluorescent protein were prepared for transplantation. Eight adult canines with left spinal cord hemisection at the level of T13 were examined by MR diffusion tensor imaging four times sequentially: prior to injury, one week after injury, one week after transplantation (two weeks after injury), and four weeks after transplantation. Results: The ADC values of the injured spinal cord were (1.00 ± 0.15) x 10-3 mm2/s, (1.65 ± 0.45) x 10-3 mm2/s, (1.44 ± 0.48) xl0-3 mm2/s, and (1.43 ± 0.26) x 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F= 6.038, P=0.005). The FA values of the injured spinal cord were 0.59±0.11, 0.30±0.17, 0.36±0.25, and 0.34±0.11, respectively. There was also statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F=5.221, P=0.009). The ADC values of the intact spinal cord were (1.01±0.17) x 10-3 mm2/s, (1.32±0.06) x 10-3 mm2/s, (1.10±0.24) x 10-3 mm2/s, and (1.14±0.22) x 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F=1.303, P=0.306). The FA values of the intact spinal cord were 0.60 ± 0.09, 0.38 ± 0.25, 0.46 ± 0.15, and 0.50 ± 0.21, respectively. There was also no statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F=2.797, P=0.072). Conclusion: DTI can provide useful information for spinal cord injury and regeneration in experimental spinal cord injury. (authors)

  3. Histamine release from cord blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent Windelborg; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Herlin, Troels;

    1990-01-01

    The histamine release (HR) after challenge with anti-IgE, concanavalin A, N-formyl-met-leu-phe and the calcium ionophore A23187 from 97 cord blood samples was determined by a microfiber-based assay. Maximum HR with anti-IgE showed great inter-individual variation (median: 20.5; range: 1-104 ng...... stimulated by the calcium ionophore A 23187 was found to be highly dependent on the storage time of the EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples, which should be carefully controlled....

  4. Upper limb rehabilitation after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dimbwadyo Terrer, Iris; Trincado-Alonso, Fernando; Reyes-Guzmán, Ana de los; Aznar, Miguel A.; Alcubilla, Cesar; Pérez Nombela, Soraya; Ama Espinosa, Antonio del; Polonio López, Begoña; Gil-Agudo, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose state: The aim of this preliminary study was to test a data glove, CyberTouch ,combined with a virtual reality (VR) environment, for using in therapeutic training of reaching movements after spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: Nine patients with thoracic SCI were selected to perform a pilot study by comparing two treatments: patients in the intervention group (IG)conducted a VR training based on the use of a data glove, CyberTouch for 2 weeks, while patients in the control group (CG...

  5. [Bilateral vocal cord paresis after total thyroidectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, H; Neu, J; Musholt, T J; Nies, C

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old female patient complained of hoarseness and dyspnea under exertion following total thyroidectomy. Due to a faulty operating technique both nerves to the vocal cords were damaged. From the operation report it emerged that the dissection was carried out by protecting the border lamellae but the recurrent laryngeal nerve could not be found on both sides. This article presents the external expert opinion, the decision of the arbitration board and the assessment of the case by two specialist physicians. PMID:26683653

  6. Cell transplantation for spinal cord injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Nataliya; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2012 - (Morganti-Kossman, C. - Raghupathi, R. - Maas, A.), s. 280-291 ISBN 9781107007437 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390902; GA MŠk 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA203/09/1242 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/1560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : spinal cord injury * stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. Experimental reconstruction of the injured spinal cord

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejčl, Aleš; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    Vol. Part 1. Wien : Springer-Verlag/Wien, 2011 - (Pickard, J.), s. 65-95 ISBN 978-3-7091-0672-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR IAA500390902 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1242; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : spinal cord injury * neurotrophic factors * stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  8. Treadmill step training promotes spinal cord neural plasticity after incomplete spinal cord injury**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiansheng Sun; Chaoqun Ye; Jun Wu; Zhicheng Zhang; Yanhua Cai; Feng Yue

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that spinal circuits are significantly affected by training, and that intrinsic circuits that drive locomotor tasks are located in lumbosacral spinal segments in rats with complete spinal cord transection. However, after incomplete lesions, the effect of treadmil training has been debated, which is likely because of the difficulty of separating spontaneous stepping from specific training-induced effects. In this study, rats with moderate spinal cord contusion were sub-jected to either step training on a treadmil or used in the model (control) group. The treadmil training began at day 7 post-injury and lasted 20 ± 10 minutes per day, 5 days per week for 10 weeks. The speed of the treadmil was set to 3 m/min and was increased on a daily basis according to the tolerance of each rat. After 3 weeks of step training, the step training group exhibited a sig-nificantly greater improvement in the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score than the model group. The expression of growth-associated protein-43 in the spinal cord lesion site and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive ventral neurons in the second lumbar spinal segment were greater in the step training group than in the model group at 11 weeks post-injury, while the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in the spinal cord lesion site showed no difference between the two groups. These results suggest that treadmil training significantly improves functional re-covery and neural plasticity after incomplete spinal cord injury.

  9. Building bridges with astrocytes for spinal cord repair

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous suppression of glial scarring and a general enhancement of axonal outgrowth has now been accomplished in an adult rat model of spinal cord transection. Transplantation of a novel astrocyte cell type derived from glial-restricted precursors in vitro raise the eventual possibility of cellular therapy for spinal cord injury.

  10. Bone marrow stromal cell : mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic f

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... membranes are surrounded by the vertebrae (back bones). Spinal cord nerves carry messages between the brain and the rest ... of questions and tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, ...

  12. Shriners Hospital Spinal Cord Injury Self Care Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Carol

    This manual is intended for young people with spinal cord injuries who are receiving rehabilitation services within the Spinal Cord Injury Unit at Shriners Hospital (San Francisco, California). An introduction describes the rehabilitation program, which includes family conferences, an individualized program, an independent living program,…

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury in chronic stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, Haruki; Nihei, Ryuichi; Kimura, Tetsuhiko; Yano, Hideo; Touyama, Tetsuo; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Suyama, Naoto; Yoshino, Yasumasa (National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a total of 195 patients with cervical (125) or thoracic (70) spinal cord injury were reviewed. The imaging studies of the spinal cord lesions were correlated with clinical manifestations. Sequential MR imaging revealed hypointensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in all patients, except for five patients showing no signal changes and two showing isointensity, suggesting gliosis, myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. Spinal cord lesions were classified into four types: small lesions, large lesions, complete transverse, and longitudinal rupture. These lesions were well correlated with the severity of injury and paralysis. Complete paralysis was frequently associated with enlarged, complete transverse for cervical spinal cord injury, and longitudinal ruptured or thinned complete transverse for thoracic spinal cord injury. The height of paralysis was well in agreement with that of lesions. For incomplete paralysis, localized lesions were seen within the spinal cord, coinciding with the paralysis or severity. Traumatic syringomyelia was seen in 17 patients (8.7%)-- for the cervical site (10 patients, 8%) and the thoracic site (7 patients, 10%). When homogeneous and marginally clear hypointensity is shown on T1-weighted images and vacuolated hyperintensity is shown on T2-weighted images, in addition to lesions spreading two or more cords or 1.5 or more cords above the nervous root level of paralysis, traumatic syringomyelia is strongly suspected, requiring the follow up observation. (N.K.).

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a total of 195 patients with cervical (125) or thoracic (70) spinal cord injury were reviewed. The imaging studies of the spinal cord lesions were correlated with clinical manifestations. Sequential MR imaging revealed hypointensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in all patients, except for five patients showing no signal changes and two showing isointensity, suggesting gliosis, myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. Spinal cord lesions were classified into four types: small lesions, large lesions, complete transverse, and longitudinal rupture. These lesions were well correlated with the severity of injury and paralysis. Complete paralysis was frequently associated with enlarged, complete transverse for cervical spinal cord injury, and longitudinal ruptured or thinned complete transverse for thoracic spinal cord injury. The height of paralysis was well in agreement with that of lesions. For incomplete paralysis, localized lesions were seen within the spinal cord, coinciding with the paralysis or severity. Traumatic syringomyelia was seen in 17 patients (8.7%)-- for the cervical site (10 patients, 8%) and the thoracic site (7 patients, 10%). When homogeneous and marginally clear hypointensity is shown on T1-weighted images and vacuolated hyperintensity is shown on T2-weighted images, in addition to lesions spreading two or more cords or 1.5 or more cords above the nervous root level of paralysis, traumatic syringomyelia is strongly suspected, requiring the follow up observation. (N.K.)

  15. Chemo-port insertion: A cause of vocal cord palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzawi, Sarmad; Hindi, Khalid; Malik, Ausama; Wee, Chong Aun; Prepageran, Narayanan

    2015-11-01

    We describe extremely rare cases of vocal cord palsy following surgical insertion of a chemo port. Our cohort consisted of patients with cancer who developed hoarseness immediately after central venous line placement for the administration of chemotherapy, with vocal cord palsy confirmed with flexible laryngoscopy. Given the timing, central venous line placement appears to be the most likely cause. PMID:26108861

  16. Spinal Cord Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Spinal Cord Diseases URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Spinal Cord Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. Cerebral and spinal cord involvement resulting from invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although central nervous system involvement in disseminated aspergillosis is known to occur in immunocompromised patients, particularly after bone marrow transplantation, localized involvement of the spinal cord is exceedingly rare. In this report we present and illustrate detailed imaging findings of central nervous system invasion by Aspergillus fumigatus in a 30-year-old woman, with emphasis on the spinal cord involvement. (orig.)

  18. Late effects of radiation on the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes experiments concerned with the mechanisms of the development of late radiation damage in the spinal cord. Male rats were used in most of the experiments. The effects of 300 kV X-rays or 15 MeV neutrons were evaluated for different regions of the spinal cord. (Auth.)

  19. High-field MR imaging of spinal cord multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-one high-field MR imaging studies (1.5 T, General Electric Signa) of the spinal cord were performed in 42 patients (27 female, 15 male; mean age, 40 years) with clinically definitive (n = 34) or probable (n = 8) multiple sclerosis and suspected spinal cord lesions. MR imaging showed focal spinal cord abnormalities in 38 (75%) of 51 studies. T2-weighted images were abnormal (showing foci of high signal intensity) in 38 studies, T1-weighted images were abnormal (showing areas of low signal intensity or mass effect) in 16 (42%) of 38, and GRASS images were abnormal (showing foci of high signal intensity) in 9 (82%) of 11 cases. Brain MR imaging showed periventricular lesions typical of multiple sclerosis in 34 (81%) of 42 studies. Spinal cord studies were positive in eight cases with normal brain MR images, and brain studies were positive in 13 instances of normal spinal cord MR images. Four lesions were at the cervicomedullary junction, 44 in the cervical spinal cord, and three in the thoracic cord. Mass effect in cord lesions, simulating neoplasm, was seen in seven patients during the acute symptomatic phase. Serial studies in three patients with decreasing symptoms showed a reduction after 3-4 weeks and resolution of the mass effect after 2-6 months

  20. Transactivating-transduction protein-polyethylene glycol modified liposomes traverse the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianhu Zhou; Chunyuan Wang; Shiqing Feng; Jin Chang; Xiaohong Kong; Yang Liu; Shijie Gao

    2012-01-01

    Naive liposomes can cross the blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier in small amounts. Liposomes modified by a transactivating-transduction protein can deliver antibiotics for the treatment of acute bacterial infection-induced brain inflammation. Liposomes conjugated with polyethylene glycol have the capability of long-term circulation. In this study we prepared transactivating-transduction protein-polyethylene glycol-modified liposomes labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Thus, liposomes were characterized by transmembrane, long-term circulation and fluorescence tracing. Uptake, cytotoxicity, and the ability of traversing blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers were observed following coculture with human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). Results demonstrated that the liposomes had good biocompatibility, and low cytotoxicity when cocultured with human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Liposomes could traverse cell membranes and entered the central nervous system and neurocytes through the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers of rats via the systemic circulation. These results verified that fluorescein isothiocyanate-modified transactivating-transduction protein-polyethylene glycol liposomes have the ability to traverse the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers.

  1. Umbilical Cord Serum Erythropoietin Levels and Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Sazak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on levels of umbilical cord erythropoietin. Methods. Erythropoietin levels were measured in umbilical cord sera of 60 newborns who were delivered vaginally at term. There were 20 (33% smoking and 40 (67% nonsmoking mothers. Results. Mean cord serum erythropoietin levels were significantly lower in the nonsmokers (nonsmokers, 24 ± 9 IU/L; smokers, 61 ± 46 IU/L; P<.001. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and cord serum erythropoietin levels (r, 0.58; P≤.05. Conclusions. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased levels of umbilical cord erythropoietin at birth. This may indicate a risk of fetal hypoxia and growth restriction. Education and encouragement of cessation of smoking during pregnancy are important to avoid associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

  2. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  3. RhoA/Rho kinase in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A spinal cord injury refers to an injury to the spinal cord that is caused by a trauma instead of diseases. Spinal cord injury includes a primary mechanical injury and a much more complex secondary injury process involving inflammation, oxidation, excitotoxicity, and cell death. During the secondary injury, many signal pathways are activated and play important roles in mediating the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury. Among them, the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway plays a particular role in mediating spinal degeneration and regeneration. In this review, we will discuss the role and mechanism of RhoA/Rho kinase-mediated spinal cord pathogenesis, as well as the potential of targeting RhoA/Rho kinase as a strategy for promoting both neuroprotection and axonal regeneration.

  4. MR findings of spinal cord in decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the MR imaging findings of spinal cord decompression sickness. We retrospectively analysed the spinal MR images of eight patients (M : 6, F : 2) with decompression sickness affecting the cervical spine (n=1) or thoracic spine (n=7). The observed extent, location, continuity, signal intensity and contrast enhancement pattern of spinal cord lesions were analysed. The chief MR finding was continuous (n=2) or non-continuous (n=3) high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the posterior paramedian spinal cord. In three cases, additional T2 signal abnormality in the ventral horn of the gray matter was observed. There was no signal intensity abnormality on T1-weighted images or abnormal enhancement of post-Gadolinium T1-weighted images. In one case, cord swelling in addition to T2 signal abnormality was observed. MR imaging is useful for evaluating spinal cord lesions in patients with decompression sickness

  5. MRI diagnosis of acute spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness. Methods: MRI findings of 5 cases with clinical definite acute spinal cord decompression sickness were retrospectively analyzed. The main clinical informations included underwater performance history against regulations, short-term complete or incomplete spinal cord injury symptoms after fast going out of water, sensory disability and urinary and fecal incontinence, etc. Results: Spinal cord vacuole sign was found in all 5 cases. Iso-signal intensity (n=3), high signal intensity (n=1), and low signal intensity (n=1) was demonstrated on T1WI, and high signal intensity (n=5) was found on T2WI. Owl eye sign was detected in 3 cases, and lacune foci were seen in 2 cases. Conclusion: MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness had some characteristics, and it was easy to diagnose by combining diving history with clinical manifestations. (authors)

  6. RhoA/Rho kinase in spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangbing Wu; Xiao-ming Xu

    2016-01-01

    A spinal cord injury refers to an injury to the spinal cord that is caused by a trauma instead of diseases. Spinal cord injury includes a primary mechanical injury and a much more complex secondary injury pro-cess involving inlfammation, oxidation, excitotoxicity, and cell death. During the secondary injury, many signal pathways are activated and play important roles in mediating the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury. Among them, the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway plays a particular role in mediating spinal degeneration and regeneration. In this review, we will discuss the role and mechanism of RhoA/Rho kinase-mediated spinal cord pathogenesis, as well as the potential of targeting RhoA/Rho kinase as a strategy for promoting both neuroprotection and axonal regeneration.

  7. Spinal cord stimulation therapy for localized central pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the pathophysiology of localized central pain and the surgical result of spinal cord stimulation. There were 10 cases; 7 males and 3 females from 24 to 77 years old. Pain was caused by peripheral nerve injury in one case, spinal cord injury in two cases and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (thalamic pain) in 7 cases. All cases were treated by epidural spinal cord stimulation and followed from 0.8 to 8.8 years. Sufficient pain relief was achieved in one case of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury and in 4 cases of CVD. Moderate pain control was achieved in 2 cases of CVD. In one each case of spinal cord injury and of CVD, pain control was ineffective. In cases with thalamic pain, we studied the correlation between the surgical result of spinal cord stimulation and the clinical features, MRI, fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) findings before operation. MRI revealed a small to moderate sized lesion on the thalamus or putamen in each case. PET also showed decreased accumulation of FDG on the affected thalamus. In all cases without one fair responder to spinal cord stimulation, we could recognize definite SEP originating in the sensory cortex ipsilateral side to the CVD lesion during contralateral median or posterior tibial nerve stimulation. In the good responders, we could recognize SEP originating in the sensory cortex of the lesion side with less delayed latency or decreased amplitude than in the moderate responders. In this group, test stimulation with low voltage on the spinal cord evoked a sensory effect (paresthesia) over the painful part of the body. Spinal cord stimulation proved to be an effective treatment for localized central pain. In cases with localized central pain after CVD, we could expect to ameliorate the intractable pain in those cases in which SEP or spinal cord test stimulation revealed that the thalamo-cortical system was preserved. (author)

  8. Mercury concentrations in human placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid and their relations with body parameters of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on samples taken from giving birth women (n = 40) living in Poland, representing three age groups: 19–25, 26–30 and 31–38 years old. Mercury concentrations were measured with CV-AAS in placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid. The placentas weight did not exceed the 750 g value and was heavier than 310 g. Mean values of Hg concentrations in blood, placenta and umbilical cord were similar (c.a. 9 μg/g). High levels of mercury were noted in cord blood which in 75% of all observations exceeded (up to 17 μg/L) the safe dose set by US EPA (5.8 μg/L). No statistically significant differences in medium level of Hg in all the studied tissues among age groups of women were observed. Positive correlations between Hg concentrations in placenta and umbilical cord and cord blood were revealed as well as some negative ones between mercury concentrations and pregnancy parameters. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of mercury in cord blood exceed the safety threshold level. •Maternal age was not an influential factor of Hg concentrations in studied samples. •Positive correlations between Hg levels in different tissues were observed. •Negative correlation between Hg concentrations and pregnancy parameters were noted. -- Maternal age was not an influential factor of mercury concentrations in studied samples. 75% of cord blood samples exceeded the Hg threshold concentration

  9. Treatments of intramedullary spinal cord tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish a treatment for intramedullary spinal cord tumors, histology, symptoms (preoperative, upon discharge from the hospital, and at the final follow-up examination), postoperative combination therapy, postoperative complications, and recurrence were assessed in patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors treated in the author's hospital during the past 19 years. There were 26 subjects (astrocytoma in 8, ependymoma in 6, intramedullary neurinoma in 3, lipoma in 3, hemangioblastoma in 3, cavernous angioma in 1, capillary hemangioma in 1, and enterogenous cyst in 1). Surgery had been performed in 24 of them, and 7 of the tumors were completely resected, 6 were incompletely resected, and 3 were partially resected. Radiotherapy had been performed to treat 7 astrocytomas and 2 ependymomas. Kyphosis was noted as a postoperative complication in 1 patient with an astrocytoma who had received postoperative radiotherapy. Postoperative improvement was better in the patients who had the ependymomas, lipoma, and angioma, and in 1 patient with an astrocytoma. The astrocytomas were very difficult to completely remove surgically, and postoperative radiotherapy was thought to be indispensable. The ependymomas, hemangioblastomas, and angiomas could be surgically resected, but the surgeon must has to exercise sufficient care during the operation. The lipomas were also difficult to resect surgically and intratumoral decompression or decompression should be performed. For adolescents spinal deformity should be considered as one of the postoperative complications. (K.H.)

  10. Effects of Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation and Treadmill Training on Locomotion Function and Ultrastructure of Spinal Cord Anterior Horn after Moderate Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yizhao; HUANG Xiaolin; XU Jiang; XU Tao; FANG Zhengyu; XU Qi; TU Xikai; YANG Peipei

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) and treadmill training on the locomotion function and ultrastructure of spinal cord anterior horn after moderate spinal cord injury in rats. (IT, n=3). All rats received a moderate spinal cord injury surgery. Four weeks after surgery, rats in SE group received an electrode implantation procedure, with the electrode field covering spinal cord segments L2-S1. Four weeks after electrode implantation, rats received subthreshold ESCS for 30 min/d. Rats in TY group received 4cm/s treadmill training for 30min/d. Rats in SI group received no intervention, as a control group. All procedures in these three groups lasted four weeks.The open field Basso,Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale was used before and after intervention to evaluate rats' hindlimb motor function. Result:After four weeks intervention, rats in TT group improved their open field locomotion scores to 20. In contrast, no significant improvement was observed in groups SI and SE. The morphology of synapses and neurons were similar regardless of whether rats had undergone ESCS, treadmill training or not. Conclusion:ESCS alone was not sufficient to improve the walking ability of spinal cord injured rats. ESCS or treadmill training alone might not contribute to the changes of ultrastructure in anterior horn of spinal cord that underlie the recovery of walking ability. Further research is needed to understand the contributions of combination of ESCS and treadmill training to the rehabilitation of spinal cord injured rats.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for normal development of the central respiratory rhythm in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkowiec, A; Katz, D M

    1998-07-15

    1. Molecular mechanisms underlying maturation of the central respiratory rhythm are largely unknown. Previously, we found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for expression of normal breathing behaviour in newborn mice, raising the possibility that maturation of central respiratory output is dependent on BDNF. 2. Respiratory activity was recorded in vitro from cervical ventral roots (C1 or C4) using the isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation from postnatal day (P) 0.5-2.0 and P4.5 wild-type mice and mice lacking functional bdnf alleles. 3. Loss of one or both bdnf alleles resulted in an approximately 50% depression of central respiratory frequency compared with wild-type controls. In addition, respiratory cycle length variability was 214% higher in bdnf null (bdnf-/-) animals compared with controls at P4.5. In contrast, respiratory burst duration was unaffected by bdnf gene mutation. 4. These derangements of central respiratory rhythm paralleled the ventilatory depression and irregular breathing characteristic of bdnf mutants in vivo, indicating that central deficits can largely account for the abnormalities in resting ventilation produced by genetic loss of BDNF. BDNF is thus the first growth factor identified that is required for normal development of the central respiratory rhythm, including the stabilization of central respiratory output that occurs after birth. PMID:9706001

  12. Adhesion of RFL-treated cords to rubber : new insights into interfacial phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wennekes, Wilco Bernardus

    2008-01-01

    Reinforcement of rubber by cords is crucial for many applications such as high-pressure hoses and conveyor belts. However, the largest application of cord-rubber composites is the tyre. The carcass of the tyre contains a network of cords that gives the tyre its strength. Not only the type of cord ma

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves local microenvironment after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Shuquan Zhang; Min Luo; Yajun Li

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves motor function in patients with spinal cord injury. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms associated with the recovery of neurological function after hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a rat model of spinal cord injury. We established an acute spinal cord injury model using a modiifcation of the free-falling object method, and treated the animals with oxygen at 0.2 MPa for 45 minutes, 4 hours after injury. The treatment was administered four times per day, for 3 days. Compared with model rats that did not receive the treatment, rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen had fewer apoptotic cells in spinal cord tissue, lower expression levels of aquaporin 4/9 mRNA and protein, and more NF-200 positive nerve ifbers. Furthermore, they had smaller spinal cord cavities, rapid recovery of somatosensory and motor evoked potentials, and notably better recovery of hindlimb motor function than model rats. Our ifndings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces apop-tosis, downregulates aquaporin 4/9 mRNA and protein expression in injured spinal cord tissue, improves the local microenvironment for nerve regeneration, and protects and repairs the spinal cord after injury.

  14. Malondialdehyde Level in the Cord Blood of Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Arıca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In this study, we aim to demonstrate that measurement of themalondialdehyde (MDA level in the umbilical cord blood of newborn infants born via cesarean section (C/S and normal vaginal delivery (NVD is indicative of oxidative stress during the perinatal period.Methods:The study was conducted at Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital between January 2006 and April 2006 on 15 newborns born via elective C/S, 15 newborns born via emergency C/S, and 15 newborns born via normal vaginal delivery. Complete blood count, total bilirubin, glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK, uric acid, iron, blood gas, and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the umbilical cord bloodFindings:Malondialdehyde levels in the umbilical cord blood in the emergency C/S and NVD groups were found to be statistically and significantly higher than those in the elective C/S group. In the emergency C/S group, it was determined that the malondialdehyde level increased as the oxygen saturation of the umbilical cord blood increased. In the NVD group, a positive correlation was detected between the total bilirubin and malondialdehyde levels in the umbilical cord blood. In the emergency C/S group, the malondialdehyde level was recorded to be high in the infants with high level of uric acid in the umbilical cord blood.Conclusion:We concluded that the malondialdehyde level in umbilical cord blood could serve as an indication of perinatal oxidative stress and that it could thus help in preventing permanent damage.

  15. Malondialdehyde Level in the Cord Blood of Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Arıca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In this study, we aim to demonstrate that measurement of the malondialdehyde (MDA level in the umbilical cord blood of newborn infants born via cesarean section (C/S and normal vaginal delivery (NVD is indicative of oxidative stress during the perinatal period. Methods:The study was conducted at Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital between January 2006 and April 2006 on 15 newborns born via elective C/S, 15 newborns born via emergency C/S, and 15 newborns born via normal vaginal delivery. Complete blood count, total bilirubin, glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK, uric acid, iron, blood gas, and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the umbilical cord blood Findings:Malondialdehyde levels in the umbilical cord blood in the emergency C/S and NVD groups were found to be statistically and significantly higher than those in the elective C/S group. In the emergency C/S group, it was determined that the malondialdehyde level increased as the oxygen saturation of the umbilical cord blood increased. In the NVD group, a positive correlation was detected between the total bilirubin and malondialdehyde levels in the umbilical cord blood. In the emergency C/S group, the malondialdehyde level was recorded to be high in the infants with high level of uric acid in the umbilical cord blood. Conclusion:We concluded that the malondialdehyde level in umbilical cord blood could serve as an indication of perinatal oxidative stress and that it could thus help in preventing permanent damage.

  16. Intralesional Application of Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells with Scaffold in Canine for Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin William B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A three year old male non-descriptive companion dog was presented to the Small Animal Orthopedic Unit of Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital (MVC with paraplegia of fourth degree neurological deficit of hind limbs due to automobile trauma. Radiographic views were suggestive of dislocation at T8-T9 vertebral segment with fracture of L2 vertebra. Myelography confirmed the signs of abrupt stoppage of the contrast column cranial to dislocated area and was interpretive of transected spinal cord at L2 level. Construct was prepared with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC isolated from bone marrow aspirate of femur and the cells were seeded in Thermoreversible Gelatin Polymer (TGP at the cell processing facility of Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM as per GMP protocols and was engrafted after hemilaminectomy and durotomy procedures in the MVC. Postoperatively the animal was clinically stable; however the animal died on the 7th day. Autopsy revealed co-morbid conditions like cystitis, nephritis and transmissible venereal tumor. Histopathology of the engrafted area revealed sustainability of aggregated stem cells that were transplanted revealing an ideal biocompatibility of the construct prepared with bone marrow mononuclear cells and polymer hydrogel for spinal cord regeneration in dogs. Further studies in similar cases will have to be undertaken to prove the long term efficacy.

  17. POLYCYTHEMIA RISK IN NEONATES WITH DELAYED CORD CLAMPING

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Agung Ayu Sri Wulandari Pramana; Ketut Putera Kemara; I Wayan Megadhana

    2013-01-01

    Delayed Cord Clamping is still a controversial issue in the world of medicine. Until recently, the perfect times to do a Delayed Cord Clamping in various parts of the Earth in the world are still very diverse. There are a few things that became a major concern associated with Delayed Cord Clamping, one of which is the increase in blood volume due to an increase in the number of erythrocytes which led to occurrence of neonatal polycythemia which later can lead to various complications. Polycy...

  18. MR imaging of diseases of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord lesions are infrequently encountered in daily diagnostic imaging practice, although the spinal cord can be affected by various diseases. MR findings of diseases that can affect the spinal cord, including syringomyelia, vascular diseases, arteriovenous malformation, and demyelinating and inflammatory diseases, are reviewed. Because intramedullary lesions can be visualized on MR images, that imaging modality plays an important role in the diagnosis of these diseases. However, MR findings are sometimes nonspecific. Therefore integration of clinical history and laboratory data with MR findings is essential in making the final diagnosis. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin Gündüz; Salih Baran; Belgin Erhan; Ayşe Nur Bardak; Feride Savaş

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Spinal cord injuries affect sexual function and cause problems in erection, ejaculation, orgasm and fertility; erectile dysfunction is the most important one. The aim of this study is to evaluate the erectile dysfunction seen after spinal cord injury.Materials and Method: Sixty male patients with spinal cord injury, 20 above the level of T10, 20 between T11 and L2, 20 with conus/cauda equina lesions were included in this study. The patients were evaluated according to the American ...

  20. [Pre-hospital care management of acute spinal cord injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thorsten; Hirschfeld, Sven; Thietje, Roland; Lönnecker, Stefan; Kerner, Thoralf; Stuhr, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Acute injury to the spine and spinal cord can occur both in isolation as also in the context of multiple injuries. Whereas a few decades ago, the cause of paraplegia was almost exclusively traumatic, the ratio of traumatic to non-traumatic causes in Germany is currently almost equivalent. In acute treatment of spinal cord injury, restoration and maintenance of vital functions, selective control of circulation parameters, and avoidance of positioning or transport-related additional damage are in the foreground. This article provides information on the guideline for emergency treatment of patients with acute injury of the spine and spinal cord in the preclinical phase. PMID:27070515

  1. Primary spinal cord glioblastoma multiforme presenting with transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhan Cerci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary spinal cord tumors are rarely encountered in childhood period. Ependymomas and pilocytic astrocytomas comprise the majority of spinal cord tumors in children. Spinal glioblastoma multiforme (GM (grade IV astrocytoma is a rare clinical entity accounting for only 1-3% of all pediatric intramedullary tumors. We report a 3- year-8- month-old male with primary spinal cord GM who presented with back pain, paraparesis, gait disturbance and loss of sphincter control and initially diagnosed as transverse myelitis. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 606-610

  2. Parents with a spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasul, A; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional questionnaire. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the impact of parenting young children with a spinal cord injury (SCI) on various life situations (for example, personal, vocational and social). SETTING: Community; Denmark. METHODS: A...... postal survey was designed to collect data in persons with SCI regarding the following: (1) socio-demographics, injury characteristics and parental status; (2) employment status; (3) environmental adjustments to support parenting roles; (4) childcare institution use and experiences; (5) network support...... for parenting; and (6) parenting advice for others. RESULTS: A total of 62 persons (58% men) responded to the survey, with 56% having paraplegia and 44% having tetraplegia. The majority of men (83%) and women (62%) were employed during the first 10 years of their child's lives. Half of the sample (50...

  3. Calcified fibrous pseudotumor of spermatic cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paratesticular tumors are infrequent and most are benigns. This a case presentation of a patient aged 24 with a history of good health coming to our consultation by presence of a hard and painless 4 cm tumor in right scrotum with a 6 months course. Scrotal ultrasound (US) showed a well circumscribed heterogeneous lesion separate of epididymis and the testis. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was not possible by hardness of tumor. A inguinal surgery was performed and the total tumor exeresis using freezing biopsy negative of malignancy. Final histopathological report was: calcified fibrous pseudotumor of spermatic cord. Patient's course has been satisfactory. Significance of inguinal surgery was confirmed for the paratesticular tumor approach, even more when FNAB it is not conclusive for diagnosis.(author)

  4. Spinal cord injury pain: mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Baastrup, Cathrine

    2012-06-01

    Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience several types of chronic pain, including peripheral and central neuropathic pain, pain secondary to overuse, painful muscle spasms, and visceral pain. An accurate classification of the patient's pain is important for choosing the optimal treatment strategy. In particular, neuropathic pain appears to be persistent despite various treatment attempts. In recent years, we have gained increasing knowledge of SCI pain mechanisms from experimental models and clinical studies. Nevertheless, treatment remains difficult and inadequate. In line with the recommendations for peripheral neuropathic pain, evidence from randomized controlled treatment trials suggests that tricyclic antidepressants and pregabalin are first-line treatments. This review highlights the diagnosis and classification of SCI pain and recent improvements in the understanding of underlying mechanisms, and provides an update on treatment of SCI pain. PMID:22392531

  5. Spinal cord stimulation: Background and clinical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    treatment include pregnancy, coagulopathy, severe addiction to psychoactive substances, and lack of ability to cooperate (e.g. due to active psychosis or cognitive impairment). Most common complications to the treatment include lead migration, lead breakage, infection, pain over the implant, and dural......Background Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain refractory to conventional treatment. SCS treatment consists of one or more leads implanted in the epidural space of the spinal canal, connected to an implantable pulse generator (IPG). Each lead carries a...... pain syndrome (CRPS I), angina pectoris, and radicular pain after failed back surgery syndrome, and the treatment is also used to treat stump pain after amputation, and pain due to peripheral nerve injury, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Recommended contraindications for the...

  6. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hector, Sven Magnus; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVES: To review the current literature to reveal the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and its relation to spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Data source: MEDLINE database, 304 hits, and 32 articles were found to be relevant. The relevant articles all met the inclusion criteria: (1......) contained original data (2) on cardiac arrhythmias (3) in humans with (4) traumatic SCI. RESULTS: In the acute phase of SCI (1-14 days after injury) more cranial as well as more severe injuries seemed to increase the incidence of bradycardia. Articles not covering the first 14 days after injury, thus...... describing the chronic phase of SCI, showed that individuals with SCI did not have a higher incidence of cardiac arrhythmias compared with able-bodied controls. Furthermore, their heart rate did not differ significantly. Penile vibro-stimulation was the procedure investigated most likely to cause bradycardia...

  7. Allergen specific responses in cord and adult blood are differentially modulated in the presence of endotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiwegger, T.; Mayer, E.; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Schabussova, I.; Dehlink, E.; Bohle, B.; Barkholt, Vibeke; Szépfalusi, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    (LPS)-free allergens were evaluated at different time-points. Fractions of contaminated BLG were generated and assayed on their immuno-stimulatory capacity. The involvement of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 was investigated by blocking antibodies and TLR-transfected human embryonic kidney cells....... Results The proliferative response of cord blood (CB)-derived mononuclear cells towards allergen-preparations at day 3 was related to the level of LPS contamination. At day 7, proliferation was also detected in the absence of endotoxin. Cytokine production in CB was strongly affected by the content of...... endotoxin, TLR-4 dependent and not related to the allergen content. Allergen- and endotoxin-induced proliferative responses were generally significantly higher in CB than in adult blood. Conclusion Endotoxins in allergen preparations confound allergen-specific cellular responses. The impact of these...

  8. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the lower spinal cord: application to diastematomyelia and tethered cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Christopher G.; Gonyea, Jay V.; Linnell, Grant [University of Vermont College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fletcher Allen Healthcare, Burlington, VT (United States); Andrews, Trevor [University of Vermont College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fletcher Allen Healthcare, Burlington, VT (United States); Philips Healthcare, Highland Heights, OH (United States); Cauley, Keith A. [University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To investigate the feasibility of routine clinical DTI of the lower spinal cord using high-field-strength MRI and parallel imaging, and to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging and tractography as tools for study of lower cord pathology. Three patients with diastematomyelia, one patient with tethered cord, and six normal volunteers underwent MR imaging of the lower spine at 3 T. A 15-channel spine coil and parallel imaging were used with a six-direction single-shot echo-planar gradient echo technique. In normal volunteers, tractography delineated the conus and cauda equina. Tractography software permitted assessment of fractional anisotropy of the distal cord and nerve roots. In cases of tethered cord, tractography correlated with anatomical imaging. Tractography also correlated with the anatomical pathological findings in cases of diastematomyelia. The methods described enable routine DTI and tractography of the lower spinal cord at 3 T. Compared with conventional imaging, tractography offers additional information that may prove useful in the characterization and surgical planning for congenital lesions involving the lower spinal cord. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of toxicity of various nanoparticles on cord originated mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ersöz, Melike; Allahverdiyev, Adil

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Some of the commonly used stem cell components are bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood and cord matrix. Isolated cord derived using various methods (cord matrix ) high proliferation potential of mesenchymal stem cells can be applied to toxicity studies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide, titanium silver, silver and zinc on mesencyhmal stem cells obtained from cord matrix in order to be used in tissue engineering.

  10. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta...

  11. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Therapeutic Benefits of Their Inhibition in Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haoqian; Chang, Mayland; Hansen, Christopher N; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary This review will focus on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors in the context of spinal cord injury (SCI). MMPs have a specific cellular and temporal pattern of expression in the injured spinal cord. Here we consider their diverse functions in the acutely injured cord and during wound healing. Excessive activity of MMPs, and in particular gelatinase B (MMP-9), in the acutely injured cord contributes to disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier, and the influx of leu...

  12. Umbilical cord leptin predicts neonatal bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, M K; Godfrey, K M; Taylor, P; Robinson, S M; Crozier, S R; Dennison, E M; Robinson, J S; Breier, B R; Arden, N K; Cooper, C

    2005-05-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the risk of osteoporosis in later life may be determined in part by environmental influences on bone development during intrauterine and early postnatal life. A potential role for fetal leptin in mediating these effects is suggested by animal studies showing that leptin influences prenatal osteoblast growth and development, and that fetal leptin concentrations are altered by changes in maternal nutrition. In a group of term human infants we reported previously that maternal birthweight, smoking, fat mass, and exercise during late pregnancy independently predict neonatal bone mass. To investigate the potential role of leptin in mediating these effects, we now relate leptin concentrations in umbilical venous serum to neonatal bone mass and body composition in 117 infants. There were strong positive associations between umbilical venous leptin concentration and each of whole body bone mineral contents (BMC) (r = 0.42, P < or = 0.001) and estimated volumetric bone density (r = 0.21, P = 0.02); whole body lean mass (r = 0.21, P < or = 0.024); and whole body fat mass (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). The associations with neonatal BMC and fat mass, but not with lean mass, were independent of associations that we have reported previously between cord serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations and neonatal body composition. Among the maternal determinants of neonatal bone mass, cord leptin explained the relationship with maternal fat stores, but not those with the mother's own birthweight, smoking, or physical activity. We conclude that umbilical venous leptin predicts both the size of the neonatal skeleton and its estimated volumetric mineral density. In addition, among previously documented maternal determinants of neonatal bone mass in healthy pregnancies, maternal fat stores may mediate their effect on fetal bone accrual through variation in fetal leptin concentrations. PMID:15864467

  13. Microsurgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical characteristics, diagnostic imaging by MRI, histological diagnosis, and clinical outcome of intramedullary spinal cord tumors were investigated, and problems in diagnosis and treatment were assessed. The subjects were 45 patients surgically treated for intramedullary spinal cord tumors between 1983 and 2000 (males 25, females 20; age 2-80 years; ependymoma in 11, astrocytoma in 11, hemangioma in 7, schwannoma in 4, hemangioblastoma in 3, ganglioma in 2, others in 7). Radiotherapy had been used in combination to treat 7 astrocytomas and 1 glioblastoma. Numbness was the initial symptom in many of the patients with ependymoma and hemangioma, and dyskinesia was the initial symptom in many of the astrocytoma patients. The duration of morbidity was significantly shorter in the astrocytoma and hemangioma patients than in the ependymoma patients. These results were useful for qualitative diagnosis. Preoperative MRI was performed in 24 patients. The rate of diagnosis by MRI was 37.5%, and the rate of agreement with the intra- and post-operative histological diagnosis was 58.1%. Some of the cases were difficult to diagnose, and as a result the diagnostic rate was low. The ependymomas and vascular tumors were able to be completely removed by surgery, and the surgical outcome was good in those patients, with no deterioration of motor function. None of the astrocytoma patients improved, and 6 ≥ grade II patients died an average of 14.2 months postoperatively. Diagnosis and treatment with close cooperation between radiologists and pathologists as well as progress in surgical technique appeared to be important in improving diagnosis and treatment outcome. (K.H.)

  14. CORRELATION OF UMBILICAL CORD LENGTH WITH FOETAL A ND MATERNAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The cord disposition and length of umbilical cord in the amniotic cavity remain unrecognised till the birth of the ba by.Cord complications remain one of the major causes of foetal death. OBJECTIVES: To study 1. Length of umbilical cord in new-born babies 2. The outcome of pregnancy with abnormal length of umb ilical cord 3. The relation between umbilical cord length and cord abnormalities 4. Relation between umbilical cord abnormalities and pe rinatal outcome METHODS: This study of 200 cases was carried out in S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai over a period of 6 months from Jan 2011 to Jun 2011. 100 cases belonged to control group (cord length 50-60 cm. Study group had short cord (i.e. c ord length less than 50 cm comprising 20 cases and long cord (i.e. cord length above 60 cm comprising 80 cases. Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes after birth were recorded. Birth weight and sex of all babies were noted. Number of loops of cord and position noted. Cord loop tight or l oose noted (only for LSCS cases. RESULTS: Maximum numbers of cases were from age group 20-24 years. Parity was not found to affect cord length. Maximum cases (31.25% of fo etal distress were found in group with cord length more than 60 cm. Significantly low APGAR sco re at 5 mins noted in long cord group (15% than control group. Cord length in control and study group in relation to the sex of the foetus was found to be statistically insignificant. 30 cases from long cord group required caesarean section and most of them for foetal distr ess. Cord entanglement (88.75% was the most common complication in long cord group. CONCLUSION: Minimum observed cord length in this study was 28 c m and maximum cord length was 98 cm. There was no relation between mat ernal age, parity, sex of the foetus with the umbilical cord length. Cord abnormalities were obse rved in long cord group only. Higher percentage of caesarean section and perinatal mortali ty was more in long

  15. Independent spinal cord atrophy measures correlate to motor and sensory deficits in individuals with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Hans Magnus Henrik; Barthelemy, Dorothy; Skimminge, A.;

    2011-01-01

    sensory and motor outcome in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Danish study on human SCI.Methods:We included 19 individuals with chronic incomplete SCI and 16 healthy controls. Participants underwent MRI and a neurological examination including sensory testing for light...... touch and pinprick, and muscle strength. Antero-posterior width (APW), left-right width (LRW) and cross-sectional spinal cord area (SCA) were extracted from MRI at the spinal level of C2. The angular variation of the spinal cord radius over the full circle was also extracted and compared with the...

  16. Features of spinal cord injury in Taiwan (1977-1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y S; Lee, S T; Lui, T N; Fairholm, D J; Chen, W J; Wong, M K

    1993-09-01

    In order to establish an etiological and statistical base for spinal cord injuries, 1,617 spinal cord injured patients admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan during the period of 1977 to 1989 were reviewed. The most common causes of injury were pedestrian (29.31%) and motorcycle (28.88%) accidents. The greatest incidence of injury was in the 26-35 year age group. The complete tetraplegic patients had the highest mortality rate (26.5%). Additional features studied were the time of occurrence and pattern of injury. Information gathered from this study suggest the need to establish a Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Program, to develop a Prehospital Care System and set up comprehensive Spinal Cord Injury Units in Taiwan. We expect this study to be adaptable to other similar developing countries. PMID:8221290

  17. Saving the leftovers: models for banking cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Kimberly J

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over four million live births in the United States. Each birth produces umbilical cord blood stem cells, which are usually discarded. The author argues that rather than discarding the umbilical cord, this valuable resource of cord blood should be banked and used for research and therapeutic purposes. Umbilical cord blood could provide a solution to the critical need to find matching donors for hematopoietic transplants in patients who have no matching bone marrow donors. Creating a system of universal donation to a public bank will greatlyincrease the number of donors and therefore, the number of matches for patients. Such a system will facilitate the development and use of new technologies and transplant procedures, while providing an opportunity for treatment to individuals who would otherwise not be able to find suitable donors. PMID:20101907

  18. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

  19. Imaging of demyelinating and neoplastic diseases of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical symptoms of myelopathy are variable and non-specific. Demyelinating as well as neoplastic spinal cord diseases can cause paresthesia, progressive sensomotoric deficits and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Imaging of the spine, especially with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is an essential component in the diagnostic assessment of myelopathy and makes a substantial contribution to achieving the correct diagnosis. Although intramedullary neoplasms are far less common than demyelinating spinal cord diseases, radiologists should be familiar with the three most common entities, astrocytoma, ependymoma and hemangioblastoma, which represent over 70% of all spinal cord neoplasms. An early diagnosis and therapy is essential with neoplastic and demyelinating spinal cord diseases to hold residual neurological deficits as low as possible. (orig.)

  20. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran P. Sajadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  1. Syrinx of the Spinal Cord and Brain Stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imaging (MRI) of the entire spinal cord and brain is done after paramagnetic contrast agent, such as ... neurosurgeon may make a hole in a syrinx to drain it and prevent it from expanding, but surgery ...

  2. The value of contrast media in spinal cord abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are intramedullary tumors, inflammatry lesions, demyelinating diseases - multiple sclerosis (MS), radiation myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM); vascular lesions - spinal cord infarct, arteriovenous malformation, cavernous haemangioma (24 refs.)

  3. Ultrastructural characterization of bovine umbilical cord blood cells Caracterização ultra-estrutural das células sanguíneas do cordão umbilical bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The umbilical cord blood (UCB is an important source of pluripotent stem cells, which motivated researches on ontogeny and transplantation. The morphological characterization of umbilical cord cells is the first step to establish subsequent experiments on these areas. Although some information on humans can be found, no data on UCB is available for bovines. Therefore, this work is the first attempt to conduct an ultrastructural characterization of bovine umbilical cord blood. Blood was collected from the umbilical cord of twenty fetuses by punction of the umbilical vein. Samples were processed for whole leucocytes observation by centrifugation and the buffy coat was collected. Cells were washed and pelleted and prepared according to the standard protocol of the transmission electron microscopy. The presence of cells with morphologic characteristics compatible with the precursors from the erythrocytic, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, basophilic, and lymphocytic lineages was observed. Atypical cells with peculiar morphological features, strongly similar to apoptotic cells, were seen. Bovine neutrophils with three types of cytoplasmic granules were also found in the blood. The ultrastructural characteristics of observed bovine UCB cells where similar to those found in other species, suggesting that bovines could possibly constitute an experimental model for approaches on UCB cells research.O sangue de cordão umbilical (SCU é uma importante fonte de células progenitoras pluripotentes, que motiva pesquisas em ontogenia e transplantes. A caracterização morfológica das células de cordão umbilical é o primeiro passo para se estabelecer experimentos subsequentes nessas áreas. Embora algumas informações sobre SCU em humanos possam ser encontradas, não existe nenhuma informação disponível sobre elas em bovinos. Portanto, este trabalho é a primeira tentativa de se conduzir uma caracterização ultra-estrutural do sangue de cordão umbilical

  4. Epidemiologic Change of Patients With Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Dae Hyun; Yu, Su Jin; Yang, Hea Eun; Yoon, Seo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiologic change of patients with spinal cord injury who were admitted to a Rehabilitation Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, during 1987-1996 and 2004-2008. Methods Medical records of 629 patients with spinal cord injury admitted to the Rehabilitation Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, from 2004 to 2008 were collected and reviewed retrospectively. Results The male-to-female ratio decreased to 2.86:1, the mean age at injury increased, ...

  5. Spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation adds life to years.

    OpenAIRE

    De Vivo, M. J.; Richards, J S; Stover, S. L.; Go, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center data base contains information collected prospectively on 13,763 persons injured since 1973 and treated at model systems of care throughout the United States. These data clearly demonstrate improved neurologic status and independent function in activities of daily living following acute care and rehabilitation for most persons with spinal cord injuries. Decreased lengths of initial and subsequent hospital stays and increased survival rates ar...

  6. Clinical and Experimental Advances in Regeneration of Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Keun Hyun; Hae-Won Kim

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the major disabilities dealt with in clinical rehabilitation settings and is multifactorial in that the patients suffer from motor and sensory impairments as well as many other complications throughout their lifetimes. Many clinical trials have been documented during the last two decades to restore damaged spinal cords. However, only a few pharmacological therapies used in clinical settings which still have only limited effects on the regeneration, recovery ...

  7. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M;

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research....

  8. Modelling the connectome of a simple spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Borisyuk; Deborah Conte

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a computational model of the anatomy of a spinal cord. We address a long-standing ambition of neuroscience to understand the structure-function problem by modelling the complete spinal cord connectome map in the two-day old hatchling Xenopus tadpole. Our approach to modelling neuronal connectivity is based on developmental processes of axon growth. A simple mathematical model of axon growth allows us to reconstruct a biologically realistic connectome of the tadpole ...

  9. Modeling the Connectome of a Simple Spinal Cord

    OpenAIRE

    Borisyuk, Roman; al Azad, Abul Kalam; Conte, Deborah; Roberts, Alan; Soffe, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a computational model of the anatomy of a spinal cord. We address a long-standing ambition of neuroscience to understand the structure–function problem by modeling the complete spinal cord connectome map in the 2-day old hatchling Xenopus tadpole. Our approach to modeling neuronal connectivity is based on developmental processes of axon growth. A simple mathematical model of axon growth allows us to reconstruct a biologically realistic connectome of the tadpole spinal...

  10. Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).

  11. International spinal cord injury pulmonary function basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Donovan, W; Karlsson, A-K; Mueller, G; Perkash, I; William Sheel, A; Wecht, J; Schilero, G J

    2012-01-01

    To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets in order to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic bronchopulmonary findings in the SCI population.......To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets in order to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic bronchopulmonary findings in the SCI population....

  12. Traumatic spinal cord lesions: impact of comprehensive nursing care

    OpenAIRE

    Roshanpour, Farah; Pourmirza, Reza; Khodarahmi, Reza; Saleki, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: In the United States, about 12,000 spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are reported each year. The mean age of involved individuals is 39.5 years and 80 percent of victims are men. Most of spinal cord injuries are accompanied with brain traumatic lesions. In this way, nursing care may be important in preventing of undesired injuries. Methods: In this paper, relevant literature published in various periodicals as well as book resources are reviewed. Results: The main goal of SCI ...

  13. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of the spinal cord was performed in 6 patients using selective intra-arterial injections of contrast material. Two arteriovenous malformations of the spinal cord, 1 dural fistula, and 1 case of multiple hemangioblastomas were studied. Contrast and spatial resolution were satisfactory for defining normal and abnormal vascularity while reducing examination time, contrast dosage, patient discomfort, and film cost. The only significant limitation was misregistration artifacts seen on lateral views encompassing the diaphragm

  14. Spinal Cord Doses in Palliative Lung Radiotherapy Schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: We aim to check the safety of the standard palliative radiotherapy techniques by using the Linear quadratic model for a careful estimation of the doses received by the spinal cord, in all standard palliative lung radiotherapy fields and fractionation. Material and Methods: All patients surveyed at this prospective audit were treated with palliative chest radio-therapy for lung cancer over a period from January to June 2005 by different clinical oncology specialists within the department. Radiotherapy field criteria were recorded and compared with the recommended limits of the MRC trial protocols for the dose and fractionation prescribed. Doses delivered to structures off the field central axis were estimated using a standard CT scan of the chest. Dose estimates were made using an SLPLAN planning system. As unexpected spinal cord toxicity has been reported after hypo fractionated chest radiotherapy, a sagittal view was used to calculate the isodoses along the length of the spinal cord that could lie within the RT field. Equivalent dose estimates are made using the Linear Quadratic Equivalent Dose formula (LQED). The relative radiation sensitivity of spinal cord for myelopathy (the a/b dose) cord has been estimated as a/b = 1 Gy. Results: 17 Gy in 2 fraction and 39 Gy in 13 fraction protocols have spinal cord equivalent doses (using the linear-quadratic model) that lie within the conventional safe limits of 50 Gy in 25 fractions for the 100% isodose. However when the dosimetry is modelled for a 6 MV 100 cm isocentric linac in 3 dimensions, and altered separations and air space inhomogeneity are considered, the D-Max doses consistently fall above this limit on our 3 model patients. Conclusion: The 17 Gy in 2 fraction and 39 Gy in 13 fraction protocol would risk spinal cord damage if the radio therapist was unaware of the potential spinal cord doses. Alterative doses are suggested below 15.5 Gy/ 2 fractions (7 days apart) would be most acceptable

  15. Caesarean section in a parturient with a spinal cord stimulator.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sommerfield, D

    2010-01-01

    A 35-year-old G2P1 parturient at 32 weeks of gestation with an implanted spinal cord stimulator was admitted for urgent caesarean section. Spinal anaesthesia was performed below the spinal cord stimulator leads at the L4-5 level, and a healthy female infant was delivered. A basic description of the technology and resulting implications for the parturient are discussed.

  16. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  17. Comparing the Effect of Topical Application of Maternal Milk, 96% Ethyl Alcohol, and Dry Cord Care on Umbilical Cord Separation Time in Healthy Full-Term Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eghbalian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Umbilical cord infections are of main causes for neonatal morbidities and mortalities. Different methods are used for umbilical cord care with multifarious efficien-cies. The aim of this study was to compare three methods of local use of maternal milk, local use of 96% ethyl alcohol, and dry cord care. Materials & Methods: In this prospective, randomized, clinical trial, 207 healthy full-term neo-nates were randomly assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups, mothers rubbed her milk and 96% ethyl alcohol on umbilical cord until two days after its separation, respec-tively. In the third group, they only kept the cord clean and dry. The length of umbilical cord separation was compared among the groups with ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. Results: The difference among lengths of umbilical cord separation in three groups was statis-tically significant. For alcohol users group, this time was significantly longer than that for the other two groups. The difference between cord separation time in maternal milk users and dry cord care groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Usage of maternal milk on umbilical cord and keeping the cord dry are acceptable methods but alcohol is not recommended for cord care in healthy term neonates with home care and in normal state. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1:5-10

  18. MRI and clinical symptoms in chronic cervical cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Shuichi; Maruiwa, Hirofumi; Yokoi, Masahiro; Saitoh, Seiya (Tsukigase Rehabilitation Center, Shizuoka (Japan)); Yamauchi, Kenji

    1992-08-01

    To assess the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine the prognosis of spinal cord injury in the chronic stage and to detect the injured myelomere, 39 patients were examined with MR images obtained by T1-weighted spin echo method 5 months to 4 years and 8 months (mean, one year and 5 months) after they had sustained spinal cord injury. According to hypointensity area of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord, MR images were classified as non-hypointensity (I), discrete (II), central (III), large cavity (IV), and transverse (V). The most common type was III (25%), followed by IV (26%), II (18%), V (15%), and I (13%). In 21 patients with bone injury, 14 (67%) had type IV or V, in contrast to 2 (11%) of 18 patients without bone injury. Increased hypointensity on MR images was associated with severer injury of the spinal cord. When hypointensity accounted for less than 1/2 of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord, walking ability was recovered in more than 80% of the patients. When less than 1/3 of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord was seen as hypointensity, arm function was well preserved, and the anterior horn of gray matter was found less injured. In 60% of the patients, there was difference in the injured level of myelomere between MR images and the neurological examination; the injured level of myelomere tended to be more cephalad level in the neurological examination than MR appearance.(N.K.).

  19. MRI and clinical symptoms in chronic cervical cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine the prognosis of spinal cord injury in the chronic stage and to detect the injured myelomere, 39 patients were examined with MR images obtained by T1-weighted spin echo method 5 months to 4 years and 8 months (mean, one year and 5 months) after they had sustained spinal cord injury. According to hypointensity area of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord, MR images were classified as non-hypointensity (I), discrete (II), central (III), large cavity (IV), and transverse (V). The most common type was III (25%), followed by IV (26%), II (18%), V (15%), and I (13%). In 21 patients with bone injury, 14 (67%) had type IV or V, in contrast to 2 (11%) of 18 patients without bone injury. Increased hypointensity on MR images was associated with severer injury of the spinal cord. When hypointensity accounted for less than 1/2 of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord, walking ability was recovered in more than 80% of the patients. When less than 1/3 of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord was seen as hypointensity, arm function was well preserved, and the anterior horn of gray matter was found less injured. In 60% of the patients, there was difference in the injured level of myelomere between MR images and the neurological examination; the injured level of myelomere tended to be more cephalad level in the neurological examination than MR appearance.(N.K.)

  20. A Surgery Protocol for Adult Zebrafish Spinal Cord Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Fang; Jin-Fei Lin; Hong-Chao Pan; Yan-Qin Shen; Melitta Schachner

    2012-01-01

    Adult zebrafish has a remarkable capability to recover from spinal cord injury,providing an excellent model for studying neuroregeneration.Here we list equipment and reagents,and give a detailed protocol for complete transection of the adult zebrafish spinal cord.In this protocol,potential problems and their solutions are described so that the zebrafish spinal cord injury model can be more easily and reproducibly performed.In addition,two assessments are introduced to monitor the success of the surgery and functional recovery:one test to assess free swimming capability and the other test to assess extent of neuroregeneration by in vivo anterograde axonal tracing.In the swimming behavior test,successful complete spinal cord transection is monitored by the inability of zebrafish to swim freely for 1 week after spinal cord injury,followed by the gradual reacquisition of full locomotor ability within 6 weeks after injury.As a morphometric correlate,anterograde axonal tracing allows the investigator to monitor the ability of regenerated axons to cross the lesion site and increasingly extend into the gray and white matter with time after injury,confirming functional recovery.This zebrafish model provides a paradigm for recovery from spinal cord injury,enabling the identification of pathways and components of neuroregeneration.

  1. Effects of smoking on the elderly people's vocal cords dimensions

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    Vasconcelos, Sandrelli Virginio de

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is highly aggressive and the vocal tract is one of the main risk factors for cancer of the larynx. The tobacco may lead to irritation of the vocal tract, edema in the vocal cords, hoarseness, coughing, increased secretion and infections. Objective: To evaluate the dimensions of the vocal cords in elderly smokers and male non-smokers. Method: We studied 15 male corpses, aged from 60 to 90 years, 8 of whom were non-smokers and 7 smokers. For data collection, four sequential steps were followed: 1st Clinical history of the corpse; 2nd Removal of the larynx, 3rd Dissection of the larynx and 4th Morphometry of the vocal cords dimensions. Results: There was no statistically significant difference as for the morphology of the vocal cords dimensions between elderly smokers and nonsmokers, and the length (p = 0.58, width (p = 0.72 and thickness (p = 0.65 were equivalent between both groups. Conclusion: We confirmed it's macroscopically impossible to find differences caused by smoking in the three dimensions of the vocal cords, however, in the histology, smokers are proved to be more susceptible to findings regarding dysplasia and neoplasms in the vocal cords tissue with problems in voice quality.

  2. Acute traumatic cervical cord injury in patients with os odontoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Jian; Chu, Tongwei; Li, Changqing; Ren, Xianjun; Wang, Weidong

    2010-10-01

    We retrospectively reviewed acute cervical cord injury after minor trauma in 10 patients with os odontoideum. Their clinical history, neurological symptoms, radiological investigations, follow-up period, American Spinal Injury Association impairment classification and motor score were reviewed. Before their traumatic injury, three patients were asymptomatic and seven reported myelopathic symptoms, including four patients with neck pain, two patients with unsteadiness and one patient with dizziness. Falls were the most common cause of injury (n=6), followed by minor motor vehicle accidents (n=3) and assault (n=1). MRI and dynamic cervical lateral radiographs showed that all patients had atlantoaxial instability and cord compression. Most patients had spinal cord thinning and hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI. Spinal cord compression was posterior (n=5), or both anterior and posterior (n=5). All patients underwent posterior rigid screw fixation and fusion, including atlantoaxial fusion (n=8) and occipitocervical fusion (n=2). We conclude that patients with asymptomatic or myelopathic atlantoaxial instability secondary to os odontoideum are at risk for acute spinal cord injury after minor traumatic injury. Fixation and fusion should be undertaken as prophylactic treatment for patients at risk of developing myelopathy and to avoid the neurological deterioration associated with acute traumatic cervical cord injury. PMID:20655229

  3. Central nociceptive sensitization vs. spinal cord training: opposing forms of plasticity that dictate function after complete spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The spinal cord demonstrates several forms of plasticity that resemble brain-dependent learning and memory. Among the most studied form of spinal plasticity is spinal memory for noxious (nociceptive) stimulation. Numerous papers have described central pain as a spinally-stored memory that enhances future responses to cutaneous stimulation. This phenomenon, known as central sensitization, has broad relevance to a range of pathological conditions. Work from the spinal cord injury (SCI) field in...

  4. Changes in activity after a complete spinal cord injury as measured by the Spinal Cord Independence Measure II (SCIM II)

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, B.; van Hedel, H J A; Kometer, B; Dietz, V.; Curt, A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The assessment of rehabilitation efficacy in spinal cord injury (SCI) should be based on a combination of neurological and functional outcome measures. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure II (SCIM II) is an independence scale that was specifically developed for subjects with SCI. However, little is known about the changes in SCIM II scores during and after rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in functional recovery during the first year after...

  5. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation

  6. Ventilation onset prior to umbilical cord clamping (physiological-based cord clamping improves systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Polglase

    Full Text Available As measurement of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 is common in the delivery room, target SpO2 ranges allow clinicians to titrate oxygen therapy for preterm infants in order to achieve saturation levels similar to those seen in normal term infants in the first minutes of life. However, the influence of the onset of ventilation and the timing of cord clamping on systemic and cerebral oxygenation is not known.We investigated whether the initiation of ventilation, prior to, or after umbilical cord clamping, altered systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.Systemic and cerebral blood-flows, pressures and peripheral SpO2 and regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (SctO2 were measured continuously in apnoeic preterm lambs (126±1 day gestation. Positive pressure ventilation was initiated either 1 prior to umbilical cord clamping, or 2 after umbilical cord clamping. Lambs were monitored intensively prior to intervention, and for 10 minutes following umbilical cord clamping.Clamping the umbilical cord prior to ventilation resulted in a rapid decrease in SpO2 and SctO2, and an increase in arterial pressure, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen extraction. Ventilation restored oxygenation and haemodynamics by 5-6 minutes. No such disturbances in peripheral or cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics were observed when ventilation was initiated prior to cord clamping.The establishment of ventilation prior to umbilical cord clamping facilitated a smooth transition to systemic and cerebral oxygenation following birth. SpO2 nomograms may need to be re-evaluated to reflect physiological management of preterm infants in the delivery room.

  7. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of normal spinal cord: Evaluating cord visualization and conus medullaris position by T2-weighted sequences

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    Yen-Ling Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR imaging demonstration of the normal spinal cord and the conus medullaris location has not been well studied. We compared balanced fast field echo (bFFE with single-shot turbo spin-echo (SSh-TSE MR sequences for visualizing the normal spinal cord and position of conus medullaris in fetuses. Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Chang Gung Medical Foundation. We reviewed the MR images of 141 fetuses aged between 16 and 39 gestational weeks, to determine the position of the conus and visualize the spinal cord by using a signal intensity ratio of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF to the spinal cord. Results: Of the 75 subjects having normal spinal cord and being examined by both bFFE and SSh-TSE studies, the signal intensity ratio of CSF/cord was greater on bFFE images (2.18 ± 0.53 than that on SSh-TSE images (1.21 ± 0.13 (p < 0.05. The conus level identified in the 50 subjects, in whom the lumbosacral spine was appropriately imaged, was located from L1 to L5 levels. The ascendance of the conus correlated moderately with gestational age. Conclusions: With greater signal contrast ratio of CSF to spinal cord, bFFE sequence, when compared with SSh-TSE sequence, provides better visualization of normal spinal cord. The fetal conus medullaris ascends from L5 to L1 levels as the gestational age increases.

  8. Central nociceptive sensitization vs. spinal cord training: Opposing forms of plasticity that dictate function after complete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord demonstrates several forms of plasticity that resemble brain-dependent learning and memory. Among the most studied form of spinal plasticity is spinal memory for noxious (nociceptive stimulation. Numerous papers have described central pain as a spinally-stored memory that enhances future responses to cutaneous stimulation. This phenomenon, known as central sensitization, has broad relevance to a range of pathological conditions. Work from the spinal cord injury (SCI field indicates that the lumbar spinal cord demonstrates several other forms of plasticity, including formal learning and memory. After complete thoracic SCI, the lumbar spinal cord can be trained by delivering stimulation to the hindleg when the leg is extended. In the presence of this response-contingent stimulation the spinal cord rapidly learns to hold the leg in a flexed position, a centrally mediated effect that meets the formal criteria for instrumental (response-outcome learning. Instrumental flexion training produces a central change in spinal plasticity that enables future spinal learning on both the ipsilateral and contralateral leg. However, if stimulation is given in a response-independent manner, the spinal cord develops central maladaptive plasticity that undermines future spinal learning on both legs. The present paper tests for interactions between spinal cord training and central nociceptive sensitization after complete spinal cord transection. We found that spinal training alters future central sensitization by intradermal formalin (24 h post-training. Conversely intradermal formalin impaired future spinal learning (24 h post-injection. Because the NMDA receptor has been implicated in formalin-induced central sensitization, we tested whether pretreatment with NMDA affects spinal learning. We found intrathecal NMDA impaired learning in a dose-dependent fashion, and that this effect endures for at least 24h. These data provide strong evidence for an

  9. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.P. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Iglesias, D. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nicola, F.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Steffens, D. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Achaval, M. [Departamento de Ciências Morfológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pranke, P. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Netto, C.A. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-12-23

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 10{sup 6} cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 10{sup 6} cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation.

  10. Influence of Spinal Cord Integrity on Gait Control in Human Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awai, Lea; Bolliger, Marc; Ferguson, Adam R; Courtine, Grégoire; Curt, Armin

    2016-07-01

    Background Clinical trials in spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily rely on simplified outcome metrics (ie, speed, distance) to obtain a global surrogate for the complex alterations of gait control. However, these assessments lack sufficient sensitivity to identify specific patterns of underlying impairment and to target more specific treatment interventions. Objective To disentangle the differential control of gait patterns following SCI beyond measures of time and distance. Methods The gait of 22 individuals with motor-incomplete SCI and 21 healthy controls was assessed using a high-resolution 3-dimensional motion tracking system and complemented by clinical and electrophysiological evaluations applying unbiased multivariate analysis. Results Motor-incomplete SCI patients showed varying degrees of spinal cord integrity (spinal conductivity) with severe limitations in walking speed and altered gait patterns. Principal component (PC) analysis applied on all the collected data uncovered robust coherence between parameters related to walking speed, distortion of intralimb coordination, and spinal cord integrity, explaining 45% of outcome variance (PC 1). Distinct from the first PC, the modulation of gait-cycle variables (step length, gait-cycle phases, cadence; PC 2) remained normal with respect to regained walking speed, whereas hip and knee ranges of motion were distinctly altered with respect to walking speed (PC 3). Conclusions In motor-incomplete SCI, distinct clusters of discretely controlled gait parameters can be discerned that refine the evaluation of gait impairment beyond outcomes of walking speed and distance. These findings are specifically different from that in other neurological disorders (stroke, Parkinson) and are more discrete at targeting and disentangling the complex effects of interventions to improve walking outcome following motor-incomplete SCI. PMID:26428035

  11. Enhanced Engraftment of a Very Low-Dose Cord Blood Unit in an Adult Haemopoietic Transplant by Addition of Six Mismatched Viable Cord Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Proctor

    2010-01-01

    , supported by six mismatched cord blood units (one unit per 10 kg recipient weight. No adverse reaction occurred following the infusion of mismatched units and engraftment of the suboptimal-dose matched unit occurred rapidly, with no molecular evidence of engraftment of mismatched cords. Early molecular remission of ALL was demonstrated using a novel PCR for a mitochondrial DNA mutation in the leukaemic clone. The cell dose of the matched cord was well below that recommended to engraft a 70 kg recipient. We suggest that a factor or factors in the mismatched cords enhanced/supported engraftment of the matched cord.

  12. Detection of gene expression pattern in the early stage after spinal cord injury by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成龙; 靳安民; 童斌辉

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the gene expression pattern of spinal cord tissues in the early stage after injury by DNA microarray (gene chip). Methods: The contusion model of rat spinal cord was established according to Allen's falling strike method and the gene expression patterns of normal and injured spinal cord tissues were studied by gene chip. Results: The expression of 45 genes was significantly changed in the early stage after spinal cord injury, in which 22 genes up-regulated and 23 genes down-regulated. Conclusions: The expression of some genes changes significantly in the early stage after spinal cord injury, which indicates the complexity of secondary spinal cord injury.

  13. Acute complications of spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ellen Merete

    2015-01-18

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of acute complications of spinal cord injury (SCI). Along with motor and sensory deficits, instabilities of the cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and broncho-pulmonary system are common after a SCI. Disturbances of the urinary and gastrointestinal systems are typical as well as sexual dysfunction. Frequent complications of cervical and high thoracic SCI are neurogenic shock, bradyarrhythmias, hypotension, ectopic beats, abnormal temperature control and disturbance of sweating, vasodilatation and autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia is an abrupt, uncontrolled sympathetic response, elicited by stimuli below the level of injury. The symptoms may be mild like skin rash or slight headache, but can cause severe hypertension, cerebral haemorrhage and death. All personnel caring for the patient should be able to recognize the symptoms and be able to intervene promptly. Disturbance of respiratory function are frequent in tetraplegia and a primary cause of both short and long-term morbidity and mortality is pulmonary complications. Due to physical inactivity and altered haemostasis, patients with SCI have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism and pressure ulcers. Spasticity and pain are frequent complications which need to be addressed. The psychological stress associated with SCI may lead to anxiety and depression. Knowledge of possible complications during the acute phase is important because they may be life threatening and/ or may lead to prolonged rehabilitation. PMID:25621207

  14. Cord Compression Secondary to Enterobius Vermicularis Infestation

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    P. Kamali

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available An eight-year-old boy presented with a history of sever neck pain radiating to the right shoulder for one week. A well circumferential intra-dural extra-medullary mass arising from the dura on the right antero-lateral side of the spinal cord was seen on magnetic resonance imaging. There was a high intensity dural tail above and below the mass associated and eccentric thickening of adjacent dura of persisting low signal in different images. Surgical exploration revealed a firm pinkish gray, hypovascular mass abutted the dura extending into the right C4 foramina .The dura was thickened not only at the origin of the mass but also a few segment above then and below the lesion. Pathological examination of the tumor revealed enterobius vermicularis inflamatory mass .This report is to our knowledge the first intradural–extramedullary presentation of oxyuriasis .Possible hematogenous mode of involvement of the CSF may further be supported by the present case.

  15. Endovascular embolization for spinal cord vascular malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of endovascular embolization for the treatment of spinal cord vascular malformation (SCVM). Methods: During the past ten years endovascular embolization was performed in 32 consecutive patients with SCVM, including 19 males and 13 females with a mean age of 47.2 years. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were followed up for 10 months to 6 years. The clinical efficacy was evaluated and the results were graded as full recovery, improvement, unchanged and aggravation. Results: The SCVMs in our series included spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF, n = 16), perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (PMAVF, n = 9) and spinal arteriovenous malformation(SAVM, n = 7). Complete embolization was achieved in 20 cases and partial embolization in 12 cases, among them pure arterial aneurysm or venous aneurysm was occluded in 4. During an average follow-up period of 48 months, complete recovery was seen in 5 cases, marked improvement in 16 cases, unchanged condition in 8 cases and clinical aggravation in 3 cases. Recurrence was observed in 2 of the improved cases. No bleeding or re-bleeding occurred. Conclusion: Endovascular embolization is an effective and minimally-invasive treatment for SCVM with fewer complications. (J Intervent Radiol, 2010, 19: 933-935) (authors)

  16. 76 FR 33734 - Applications for New Awards; Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems (SCIMS) Centers and SCIMS Multi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRPs) and Special Projects and Demonstrations for Spinal Cord Injury Program... that provide comprehensive rehabilitation services to individuals with spinal cord injuries and... Applications for New Awards; Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems (SCIMS) Centers and SCIMS...

  17. Collagen-omental graft in experimental spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, J C; Goldsmith, H S

    1990-01-01

    Spinal cord transection was induced in 3 groups of cats. The gap was surgically reconstructed using a collagen matrix bridge (Group COL), collagen matrix + pedicled omentum graft (Group COM), or gelfoam (Group GEF). After a variable observation period, animals underwent distal cord horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) injections, somatosensory evoked potentials recordings and polarographic measurement of local spinal cord blood flow (1SCBF) using the hydrogen clearance technique. The cord tissue was removed for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Results showed retrograde HRP labelling of proximal segmental cord neurons and somatosensory evoked potentials were present in group COM but not in COL or GEF treated animals. Local SCBF was 66% and 87% higher in COM than COL or GEF animals respectively but this increase could be reversed if flow from the pedicled omentum was clamped-off. Histologic examination of cord tissue after 45 days revealed the presence of catecholaminergic axons distal to the transection site in COM but not COL or GEF groups. Moreover, after 90 days, the rate and density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR) axons was 10-fold higher in COM than COL group and this was accompanied by a proportionate increase in the vascular density between the two groups. GEF treated animals showed no regeneration of transected fibers and poor blood flow pattern. These findings indicate that the placement of a pedicled omentum on a collagen matrix bridge results in near restoration of normal SCBF to the reconstructed cord region and is associated with marked regeneration of axons below the lesion site. PMID:2336984

  18. Skin Recurrence of Transformed Mycosis Fungoides Postumbilical Cord Blood Transplant despite Complete Donor Chimerism

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    Rahul Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allogeneic stem cell transplant is the treatment of choice for systemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL which provides graft-versus-lymphoma effect. Herein we discuss a case of recurrence of CTCL skin lesions after cord blood transplant in a patient who continued to have 100% donor chimerism in bone marrow. Case Presentation. A 48-year-old female with history of mycosis fungoides (MF presented with biopsy proven large cell transformation of MF. PET scan revealed multiple adenopathy in abdomen and chest suspicious for lymphoma and skin biopsy showed large cell transformation. She was treated with multiple cycles of chemotherapy. Posttherapy PET scan showed resolution of lymphadenopathy. Later she underwent ablative preparative regimen followed by single cord blood transplant. Bone marrow chimerism studies at day +60 after transplant showed 100% donor cells without presence of lymphoma. However 5 months after transplant she had recurrence of MF with the same genotype as prior skin lesion. Bone marrow chimerism study continued to show 100% donor cells. Conclusion. A differential graft-versus-lymphoma effect in our case prevented lymphoma recurrence systemically but failed to do so in skin. We hypothesize that this response may be due to presence of other factors in the bone marrow and lymph node microenvironments preventing recurrence in these sites.

  19. Preclinical evidence supporting the clinical development of central pattern generator-modulating therapies for chronic spinal cord-injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eGuertin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambulation or walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion. In terrestrial animals, it may be defined as a series of rhythmic and bilaterally coordinated movement of the limbs which creates a forward movement of the body. This applies regardless of the number of limbs - from arthropods with six or more limbs to bipedal primates. These fundamental similarities among species may explain why comparable neural systems and cellular properties have been found, thus far, to control in similar ways locomotor rhythm generation in most animal models. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the known structural and functional features associated with central nervous system (CNS networks that are involved in the control of ambulation and other stereotyped motor patterns - specifically Central Pattern Generators (CPGs that produce basic rhythmic patterned outputs for locomotion, micturition, ejaculation, and defecation. Although there is compelling evidence of their existence in humans, CPGs have been most studied in reduced models including in vitro isolated preparations, genetically-engineered mice and spinal cord-transected animals. Compared with other structures of the CNS, the spinal cord is generally considered as being well-preserved phylogenetically. As such, most animal models of SCI should be considered as valuable tools for the development of novel pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating spinal activity and restoring corresponding functions in chronic spinal cord-injured patients.

  20. Infraclavicular brachial plexus block: Comparison of posterior cord stimulation with lateral or medial cord stimulation, a prospective double blinded study

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    Dushyant Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus sheath provides anesthesia for surgery on the distal arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. It has been found that evoked distal motor response or radial nerve-type motor response has influenced the success rate of single-injection infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Aim: We conducted this study to compare the extent and effectiveness of infraclavicular brachial plexus block achieved by injecting a local anesthetic drug after finding specific muscle action due to neural stimulator guided posterior cord stimulation and lateral cord/medial cord stimulation. Methods: After ethical committee approval, patients were randomly assigned to one of the two study groups of 30 patients each. In group 1, posterior cord stimulation was used and in group 2 lateral/medial cord stimulation was used for infraclavicular brachial plexus block. The extent of motor block and effectiveness of sensory block were assessed. Results: All four motor nerves that were selected for the extent of block were blocked in 23 cases (76.7% in group 1 and in 15 cases (50.0% in group 2 (P:0.032. The two groups did not differ significantly in the number of cases in which 0, 1, 2, and 3 nerves were blocked (P>0.05. In group 1, significantly lesser number of patients had pain on surgical manipulation compared with patients of group 2 (P:0.037. Conclusion: Stimulating the posterior cord guided by a nerve stimulator before local anesthetic injection is associated with greater extent of block (in the number of motor nerves blocked and effectiveness of block (in reporting no pain during the surgery than stimulation of either the lateral or medial cord.

  1. In vivo NIRS monitoring in pig Spinal Cord tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiakaka, Olivier; Terosiet, Mehdi; Romain, Olivier; Histace, Aymeric; Benali, Habib; Pradat, Pierre-Franois; Vallette, Farouk; Feher, Michael; Feruglio, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the processes occurring after Spinal Cord damage. Whether permanent or recoverable, those processes have not been precisely characterized because their mechanism is complex and information on the functioning of this organ are partial. This study demonstrates the feasibility of Spinal Cord activity monitoring using Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy in a pig animal model. This animal has been chosen because of its comparable size and its similarities with humans. In the first step, optical characterization of the Spinal Cord tissues was performed in different conditions using a spectrophotometer. Optical Density was evaluated between 3.5 and 6.5 in the [500; 950] nm range. Secondly, adapted light sources with custom probes were used to observe autonomic functions in the spine. Results on the measured haemodynamics at rest and under stimulation show in real time the impact of a global stimulus on a local section of the Spinal Cord. The photoplethysmogram signal of the Spinal Cord showed low AC-to-DC ratio (below to 1 %). PMID:26737236

  2. Protein composition and synthesis in the adult mouse spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of spinal cord proteins were studied in adult mice subjected to unilateral crush or electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve. The protein composition of spinal tissue was determined using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with subcellular fractionation. Comparisons of mouse spinal cord and brain revealed similarities in the types but differences in the concentrations of myelin associated proteins, nuclear histones and other proteins. Comparisons with sciatic nerve proteins demonstrated differences in types of proteins but similarities in the concentration of myelin proteins and nuclear histones. The short term (less than 2 hrs.) incorporation of radioactive amino acids into spinal cord proteins revealed heterogeneous rates of incorporation. Neither nerve crush six days prior to testing nor sciatic nerve stimulation had a significant effect on the protein composition or amino acid incorporation rates of spinal cord tissue. These observations suggest that known differences in spinal cord function following alterations in nerve input may be dependent upon different mechanisms than have been found in the brain

  3. Acute traumatic central cord syndrome: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molliqaj, G; Payer, M; Schaller, K; Tessitore, E

    2014-01-01

    Acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS) is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord injury, characterized by predominant upper extremity weakness, and less severe sensory and bladder dysfunction. ATCCS is thought to result from post-traumatic centro-medullary hemorrhage and edema, or, as more recently proposed, from a Wallerian degeneration, as a consequence of spinal cord pinching in a narrowed canal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the method of choice for diagnosis, showing a typical intramedullary hypersignal on T2 sequences. Non-surgical treatment relies on external cervical immobilization, maintenance of a sufficient systolic blood pressure, and early rehabilitation, and should be reserved for patients suffering from mild ATCCS. Surgical management of ATCCS consists of posterior, anterior or combined approaches, in order to achieve spinal cord decompression, with or without stabilization. The benefits of early surgical decompression in the setting of ATCCS remain controversial due to the lack of clinical randomized trials; recent studies suggest that early surgery (less than 72hours after trauma) appears to be safe and effective, especially for patients with evidence of focal anatomical cord compression. PMID:24613283

  4. CORD SERUM FERRITIN AS BIOCHEMICAL MARKER IN IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is by far the most frequent type of anemia seen in pregnancy, accounting for 90% or more of all cases. Iron deficiency anemia has adverse consequences on infant development. Therefore maternal anemia should be prevented and treated. Serum ferritin is the single best non-invasive test and is a very useful and reliable index of iron stores especially during pregnancy, with low levels indicating iron deficiency. While infants born to anemic mother are themselves not anemic, they do not suffer from low iron stores. The main aim of the study is to establish cord serum ferritin as a biochemical marker in iron deficiency anemia. The specific objectives of this study is to estimate cord and maternal serum ferritin in the last trimester of pregnancy and to correlate it with hematological parameters. Cord serum ferritin levels were normal in the patients under study, even when the maternal serum ferritin levels were decreased. The mean level of cord serum ferritin was 134.06ng/ml and maternal serum ferritin was 41.65ng/ml and was statistically significant. The hematological parameters like hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and MCHC were also decreased in the patients with low serum ferritin and were found to be statistically significant. Hence estimation of cord serum ferritin can be used as a biochemical marker to assess iron deficiency in the early stages itself and thereby neurodevelopmental complications in children can be prevented.

  5. Neuroprotection and its molecular mechanism following spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-Kui Liu; Xiao-Ming Xu

    2012-01-01

    Acute spinal cord injury initiates a complex cascade of molecular events termed 'secondary injury', which leads to progressive degeneration ranging from early neuronal apoptosis at the lesion site to delayed degeneration of intact white matter tracts, and, ultimately, expansion of the initial injury. These secondary injury processes include, but are not limited to, inflammation, free radical-induced cell death, glutamate excitotoxicity, phospholipase A2 activation, and induction of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, which are important targets in developing neuroprotective strategies for treatment of spinal cord injury. Recently, a number of studies have shown promising results on neuroprotection and recovery of function in rodent models of spinal cord injury using treatments that target secondary injury processes including inflammation, phospholipase A2 activation, and manipulation of the PTEN-Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The present review outlines our ongoing research on the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection in experimental spinal cord injury and briefly summarizes our earlier findings on the therapeutic potential of pharmacological treatments in spinal cord injury.

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in spinal cord ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord infarction is a rare clinical diagnosis characterized by a sudden onset of paralysis, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and loss of pain and temperature perception, with preservation of proprioception and vibration sense. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usually demonstrates intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images with cord enlargement. However, in approximately 45% of patients, MR shows no abnormality. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been widely used for the evaluation of a variety of brain disorders, especially for acute stroke. Preliminary data suggest that DWI has the potential to be useful in the early detection of spinal infarction. We performed DWI, using navigated, interleaved, multishot echo planar imaging (IEPI), in a series of six patients with a clinical suspicion of acute spinal cord ischemia. In all patients, high signal was observed on isotropic DWI images with low ADC values (0.23 and 0.86 x 10-3 cm2/s), indicative of restricted diffusion. We analyzed the imaging findings from conventional MR sequences and diffusion-weighted MR sequences in six patients with spinal cord infarction, compared the findings with those in published series, and discuss the value of DWI in spinal cord ischemia based on current experience. Although the number of patients with described DWI findings totals only 23, the results of previously published studies and those of our study suggest that DWI has the potential to be a useful and feasible technique for the detection of spinal infarction. (orig.)

  7. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in spinal cord ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [Stanford University, Lucas MRS/I Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Spinal cord infarction is a rare clinical diagnosis characterized by a sudden onset of paralysis, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and loss of pain and temperature perception, with preservation of proprioception and vibration sense. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usually demonstrates intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images with cord enlargement. However, in approximately 45% of patients, MR shows no abnormality. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been widely used for the evaluation of a variety of brain disorders, especially for acute stroke. Preliminary data suggest that DWI has the potential to be useful in the early detection of spinal infarction. We performed DWI, using navigated, interleaved, multishot echo planar imaging (IEPI), in a series of six patients with a clinical suspicion of acute spinal cord ischemia. In all patients, high signal was observed on isotropic DWI images with low ADC values (0.23 and 0.86 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/s), indicative of restricted diffusion. We analyzed the imaging findings from conventional MR sequences and diffusion-weighted MR sequences in six patients with spinal cord infarction, compared the findings with those in published series, and discuss the value of DWI in spinal cord ischemia based on current experience. Although the number of patients with described DWI findings totals only 23, the results of previously published studies and those of our study suggest that DWI has the potential to be a useful and feasible technique for the detection of spinal infarction. (orig.)

  8. Spinal cord evolution in early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marc R; Haeusler, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The discovery at Nariokotome of the Homo erectus skeleton KNM-WT 15000, with a narrow spinal canal, seemed to show that this relatively large-brained hominin retained the primitive spinal cord size of African apes and that brain size expansion preceded postcranial neurological evolution. Here we compare the size and shape of the KNM-WT 15000 spinal canal with modern and fossil taxa including H. erectus from Dmanisi, Homo antecessor, the European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, and Pan troglodytes. In terms of shape and absolute and relative size of the spinal canal, we find all of the Dmanisi and most of the vertebrae of KNM-WT 15000 are within the human range of variation except for the C7, T2, and T3 of KNM-WT 15000, which are constricted, suggesting spinal stenosis. While additional fossils might definitively indicate whether H. erectus had evolved a human-like enlarged spinal canal, the evidence from the Dmanisi spinal canal and the unaffected levels of KNM-WT 15000 show that unlike Australopithecus, H. erectus had a spinal canal size and shape equivalent to that of modern humans. Subadult status is unlikely to affect our results, as spinal canal growth is complete in both individuals. We contest the notion that vertebrae yield information about respiratory control or language evolution, but suggest that, like H. antecessor and European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, early Homo possessed a postcranial neurological endowment roughly commensurate to modern humans, with implications for neurological, structural, and vascular improvements over Pan and Australopithecus. PMID:26553817

  9. Hypocretinergic control of spinal cord motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuy, Jack; Fung, Simon J; Xi, Mingchu; Chase, Michael H

    2004-06-01

    Hypocretinergic (orexinergic) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project to motor columns in the lumbar spinal cord. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the hypocretinergic system modulates the electrical activity of motoneurons. Using in vivo intracellular recording techniques, we examined the response of spinal motoneurons in the cat to electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. In addition, we examined the membrane potential response to orthodromic stimulation and intracellular current injection before and after both hypothalamic stimulation and the juxtacellular application of hypocretin-1. It was found that (1) hypothalamic stimulation produced a complex sequence of depolarizing- hyperpolarizing potentials in spinal motoneurons; (2) the depolarizing potentials decreased in amplitude after the application of SB-334867, a hypocretin type 1 receptor antagonist; (3) the EPSP induced by dorsal root stimulation was not affected by the application of SB-334867; (4) subthreshold stimulation of dorsal roots and intracellular depolarizing current steps produced spike potentials when applied in concert to stimulation of the hypothalamus or after the local application of hypocretin-1; (5) the juxtacellular application of hypocretin-1 induced motoneuron depolarization and, frequently, high-frequency discharge; (6) hypocretin-1 produced a significant decrease in rheobase (36%), membrane time constant (16.4%), and the equalizing time constant (23.3%); (7) in a small number of motoneurons, hypocretin-1 produced an increase in the synaptic noise; and (8) the input resistance was not affected after hypocretin-1. The juxtacellular application of vehicle (saline) and denatured hypocretin-1 did not produce changes in the preceding electrophysiological properties. We conclude that hypothalamic hypocretinergic neurons are capable of modulating the activity of lumbar motoneurons through presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. The lack of hypocretin

  10. Actions of the GABAB agonist, (-)-baclofen, on neurones in deep dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Allerton, C. A.; Boden, P. R.; Hill, R G

    1989-01-01

    1. The electrophysiological actions of the GABAB agonist, (-)-baclofen, on deep dorsal horn neurones were studied using an in vitro preparation of the spinal cord of 9-16 day old rat. 2. On all neurones tested, (-)-baclofen (100 nM-30 microM) had a hyperpolarizing action which was associated with a reduction in apparent membrane input resistance. The increase in membrane conductance was dose-dependent and had a Hill coefficient of 1.0. 3. The (-)-baclofen-activated hyperpolarization persisted...

  11. Pregnancy after assisted ejaculation procedures in men with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønksen, J; Sommer, P; Biering-Sørensen, F;

    1997-01-01

    To present the results of fertility treatment in 28 men with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their partners.......To present the results of fertility treatment in 28 men with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their partners....

  12. Antispastic effect of penile vibration in men with spinal cord lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Line; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Biering-Sørensen, F.;

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the possible antispastic effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in men with spinal cord lesion (SCL).......To evaluate the possible antispastic effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in men with spinal cord lesion (SCL)....

  13. Effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laessøe, Line; Sønksen, Jens; Bagi, Per; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Ohl, Dana A; McGuire, Edward J; Kristensen, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions.......We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions....

  14. A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare; Scherer, Christian; Rosenlund, Christina; Gulisano, Helga Angela; Enggaard, Thomas Peter; Willumsen, Lisette; Knudsen, Anne Lene Høst; Rasmusson, Mattias; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

    A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database......A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database...

  15. Microtubule stabilization reduces scarring and causes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Hellal (Farida); A. Hurtado (Andres); J. Ruschel (Jörg); K.C. Flynn (Kevin); C.J. Laskowski (Claudia); M. Umlauf (Martina); L.C. Kapitein (Lukas); D. Strikis (Dinara); V. Lemmon (Vance); J. Bixby (John); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper); F. Bradke (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHypertrophic scarring and poor intrinsic axon growth capacity constitute major obstacles for spinal cord repair. These processes are tightly regulated by microtubule dynamics. Here, moderate microtubule stabilization decreased scar formation after spinal cord injury in rodents through va

  16. How Do I Deal with Depression and Adjustment to My Spinal Cord Injury?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... yourself with information on what a spinal cord injury is, and what it means in terms of ... thoughts. Depression is common in the spinal cord injury population -- affecting about 1 in 5 people. There ...

  17. PROBLEMS OF WIRES MIGRATION OF INLAYS OF METAL CORD OF COMPACT STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vedeneyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at manufacture of metal cord of compact constructions there is a possibility to control by various processing methods the inclination of metal cord layers to migration.

  18. 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen;

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI...

  19. Spinal cord blood flow measured by 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography during and after graded spinal cord compression in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relations between degree of thoracic spinal cord compression causing myelographic block, reversible paraparesis, and extinction of the sensory evoked potential on one hand, and spinal cord blood flow on the other, were investigated. This was done in rats using the blocking weight-technique and 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. A load of 9 g caused myelographic block. Five minutes of compression with that load caused a reduction of spinal cord blood flow to about 25%, but 5 and 60 minutes after the compression spinal cord blood flow was restored to 60% of the pretrauma value. A load of 35 g for 5 minutes caused transient paraparesis. Recovery to about 30% was observed 5 and 60 minutes thereafter. During compression at a load of 55 g, which caused almost total extinction of sensory evoked potential and irreversible paraplegia, spinal cord blood flow under the load ceased. The results indicate that myelographic block occurs at a load which does not cause irreversible paraparesis and that a load which permits sensory evoked potential to be elicited results in potentially salvageable damage

  20. Interfacial microanalysis of rubber-tyre-cord adhesion and the influence of cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of cobalt-containing adhesion promoters on the structure and morphology of rubber-brass and rubber-tyre-cord interfaces before and after ageing has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect the cobalt adhesion promoters had upon the interface morphology as they suppressed the growth of crystalline dendrites normally associated with the ageing process was imaged in TEM using samples prepared by the focused ion beam (FIB) milling technique. XPS depth profiling through the interfaces revealed that different types of adhesion promoter influenced the amount and distribution of cobalt ions in the bonding layer. XRD demonstrated the influence that cobalt had upon the structure of the interface and subsequent crystallinity, with a lesser degree of crystallinity being associated with better adhesion performance. From the results a model for the effect of the Co chemistry of the adhesion promotor has been developed

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord trauma: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, Philippe [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-04-15

    Assessing a patient with clinical signs of acute spinal cord trauma is an emergency. A radiological work-up is crucial in determining management, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice. It should therefore be performed immediately, preferably within 3 hours, even when plain radiography does not show an abnormality. By choosing an appropriate imaging protocol, it is possible to assess the spinal cord, joints, muscles, ligaments and bone marrow of the spine. Moreover, early MRI findings assist in determining functional prognosis. A major limitation to early MRI is that the examination is usually restricted to stable trauma patients because of the difficulties in monitoring ventilated patients during scanning. However, when an anaesthesiologist with experience in MRI and MR-compatible monitoring equipment is available, even these patients can be safely examined. MRI is also indicated for the evaluation of patients with late complications and sequelae following spinal cord trauma, since many of these chronic lesions are potentially treatable. (orig.)

  2. Double-level Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bin Ayaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Séquard Syndrome is a type of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury characterized by a relatively greater ipsilateral loss of proprioception and motor function, with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations. The residual deficits in balance produced by such injury may render a person liable to fall that may result in vertebral fracture and another injury to the spinal cord. We present here a case who initially had Brown-Séquard Syndrome due to penetrating knife injury to the neck and later on developed Cauda Equina Syndrome (another Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury due to fractured LV1 following a fall. The fracture was fixed through Pedicle Screws and the patient underwent effective rehabilitation to gain maximum achievable independence in functional activities. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 392-398

  3. Vocal Cord Dysfunction Masquerading as Astma Like Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ozturk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD is a nonorganic disorder of the larynx that involves unintentional paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords while breathing. VCD is a relatively rare condition that may mimic asthma or upper airway obstruction. VCD often coexists with asthma, and should be suspected in any patient in whom asthma treatment fails. Confirming the diagnosis involves direct visualization of abnormal vocal cord motion, and this usually only occurs during symptoms. In this report, we describe a 65-years-old male patient who has psychological problems due to a relative loss, and a military collage student who experiencing respiratory problems during vigorous exercises. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 148-150

  4. Nursing rehabilitation of patients with spin and spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The injury of the Spine cord is a major problem because of the high mortality and morbidity in patients. Despite the advanced medical care and specialized rehabilitation the life expectancy of people with injuries of the spinal cord is lower than the general population. Hospitalization in modern rehabilitation centers reduces the mortality and severity of the complications with comprehensive programs which include the prevention of complications. It also educates the patient and his carer with psychological and social support. The nursing interventions have perhaps the most significant impact on the area of functional independence, rehabilitation and the quality of the patients life. The development of better rehabilitation programs will improve the life of people with injury of the spine and Spinal Cord.

  5. Spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolter T

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tilman Wolter Interdisciplinary Pain Centre, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Abstract: Neuropathic pain constitutes a significant portion of chronic pain. Patients with neuropathic pain are usually more heavily burdened than patients with nociceptive pain. They suffer more often from insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Moreover, analgesic medication often has an insufficient effect on neuropathic pain. Spinal cord stimulation constitutes a therapy alternative that, to date, remains underused. In the last 10 to 15 years, it has undergone constant technical advancement. This review gives an overview of the present practice of spinal cord stimulation for chronic neuropathic pain and current developments such as high-frequency stimulation and peripheral nerve field stimulation. Keywords: spinal cord stimulation, neuropathic pain, neurostimulation

  6. Microglia and Spinal Cord Synaptic Plasticity in Persistent Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Taves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are regarded as macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS and play an important role in neuroinflammation in the CNS. Microglial activation has been strongly implicated in neurodegeneration in the brain. Increasing evidence also suggests an important role of spinal cord microglia in the genesis of persistent pain, by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, Interleukine-1beta (IL-1β, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. In this review, we discuss the recent findings illustrating the importance of microglial mediators in regulating synaptic plasticity of the excitatory and inhibitory pain circuits in the spinal cord, leading to enhanced pain states. Insights into microglial-neuronal interactions in the spinal cord dorsal horn will not only further our understanding of neural plasticity but may also lead to novel therapeutics for chronic pain management.

  7. Syphilitic myelitis with diffuse spinal cord abnormality on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphilitic myelitis is a very rare manifestation of neurosyphilis. The MRI appearance of syphilitic myelitis is not well documented and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 52-year-old woman with acute onset of paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed diffuse high signal intensity in the whole spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Focal enhancement was observed in the dorsal aspect of the thoracic cord on T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced images. To our knowledge, diffuse spinal cord abnormality in syphilitic myelitis has not been reported in the international literature. Disappearance of the diffuse high-signal lesions with residual focal enhancement was noted after antibiotic therapy. The patient suffered significant neurological deficit despite improvement in the MR images. In this article we present the imaging findings and review the literature of this rare condition. (orig.)

  8. Hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina nerve injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina nerve injuries are very uncommon. Since 19 96, we have received and treated 4 patients with hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina injuries. This report gives a detail description. Four patients with hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina nerve injuries, male: 3, female: 1, aging 13-56 years have been treated in our hospital since 1996. E xtradural blocking injury was in 1 patient, extradural anaesthesia injury in 1 p atient and intraspinal canal myelography injury in 2 patients; the segments of i ntraspinal canal were L2-3 and L3-4. One patient was accompanied b y femoral fracture, 2 patients by intraspinal tumor and 1 patient had operat ion because of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc.

  9. Malnutrition in spinal cord injury: more than nutritional deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    Denervation of the spinal cord below the level of injury leads to complications producing malnutrition. Nutritional status affects mortality and pathology of injured subjects and it has been reported that two thirds of individuals enrolled in rehabilitation units are malnourished. Therefore, the aim should be either to maintain an optimal nutritional status, or supplement these subjects in order to overcome deficiencies in nutrients or prevent obesity. This paper reviews methods of nutritional assessment and describes the physiopathological mechanisms of malnutrition based on the assumption that spinal cord injured subjects need to receive adequate nutrition to promote optimal recovery, placing nutrition as a first line treatment and not an afterthought in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury. PMID:22870169

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord trauma: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing a patient with clinical signs of acute spinal cord trauma is an emergency. A radiological work-up is crucial in determining management, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice. It should therefore be performed immediately, preferably within 3 hours, even when plain radiography does not show an abnormality. By choosing an appropriate imaging protocol, it is possible to assess the spinal cord, joints, muscles, ligaments and bone marrow of the spine. Moreover, early MRI findings assist in determining functional prognosis. A major limitation to early MRI is that the examination is usually restricted to stable trauma patients because of the difficulties in monitoring ventilated patients during scanning. However, when an anaesthesiologist with experience in MRI and MR-compatible monitoring equipment is available, even these patients can be safely examined. MRI is also indicated for the evaluation of patients with late complications and sequelae following spinal cord trauma, since many of these chronic lesions are potentially treatable. (orig.)

  11. Optical measurement of blood flow changes in spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P; Kyriacou, P A [Biomedical Engineering Research Group, City University London, Northampton Square, London (United Kingdom); George, K J [Neuroscience Centre, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End, London (United Kingdom); Langford, R M, E-mail: justin.phillips.1@city.ac.u [Pain and Anaesthesia Research Centre, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about cell death in spinal cord tissue following compression injury, despite compression being a key component of spinal injuries. Currently models are used to mimic compression injury in animals and the effects of the compression evaluated by observing the extent and duration of recovery of normal motor function in the days and weeks following the injury. A fibreoptic photoplethysmography system was used to investigate whether pulsation of the small arteries in the spinal cord occurred before, during and after compressive loads were applied to the tissue. It was found that the signal amplitudes were reduced and this reduction persisted for at least five minutes after the compression ceased. It is hoped that results from this preliminary study may improve knowledge of the mechanism of spinal cord injury.

  12. Optical measurement of blood flow changes in spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about cell death in spinal cord tissue following compression injury, despite compression being a key component of spinal injuries. Currently models are used to mimic compression injury in animals and the effects of the compression evaluated by observing the extent and duration of recovery of normal motor function in the days and weeks following the injury. A fibreoptic photoplethysmography system was used to investigate whether pulsation of the small arteries in the spinal cord occurred before, during and after compressive loads were applied to the tissue. It was found that the signal amplitudes were reduced and this reduction persisted for at least five minutes after the compression ceased. It is hoped that results from this preliminary study may improve knowledge of the mechanism of spinal cord injury.

  13. Visual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the repair of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rui-ping Zhang; Cheng Xu; Yin Liu; Jian-ding Li; Jun Xie

    2015-01-01

    An important factor in improving functional recovery from spinal cord injury using stem cells is maximizing the number of transplanted cells at the lesion site. Here, we established a contusion model of spinal cord injury by dropping a weight onto the spinal cord at T 7-8 . Superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord via the subarachnoid space. An outer magnetic field was used to successfully guide the labeled cells to...

  14. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-jing Zhou; Jian-min Liu; Shu-ming Wei; Yun-hao Zhang; Zhen-hua Qu; Shu-bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administration via the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve fibers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-l...

  15. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE TIME OF SEPARATION OF UMBILICAL CORD

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesha; Anil

    2014-01-01

    : BACKGROUND: The umbilical cord usually shrivels and falls off at around 5 to 15days of life. It is important to know timing of separation, so that parents may be advised on proper cord care and ally any misconceptions about the cord separation; early discharge has increased the need for women to receive accurate, relevant information on how to care for themselves and their newborns when discharged from the hospital. Delay in separation of the umbilical cord, umbilical discha...

  16. MR imaging findings in subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause neurologic complications in the spinal cord, brain, and optic and peripheral nerves. Subacute combined degeneration is a rare disease of demyelinating lesions of the spinal cord, affecting mainly the posterior and lateral columns of the thoracic cord. We report the MR imaging findings of a case of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency and mega loblastic anemia. (author)

  17. IMRT for Image-Guided Single Vocal Cord Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Sarah O.S., E-mail: s.osman@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Keskin-Cambay, Fatma; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Voet, Peter; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: We have been developing an image-guided single vocal cord irradiation technique to treat patients with stage T1a glottic carcinoma. In the present study, we compared the dose coverage to the affected vocal cord and the dose delivered to the organs at risk using conventional, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) coplanar, and IMRT non-coplanar techniques. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients, conventional treatment plans using two laterally opposed wedged 6-MV photon beams were calculated in XiO (Elekta-CMS treatment planning system). An in-house IMRT/beam angle optimization algorithm was used to obtain the coplanar and non-coplanar optimized beam angles. Using these angles, the IMRT plans were generated in Monaco (IMRT treatment planning system, Elekta-CMS) with the implemented Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. The organs at risk included the contralateral vocal cord, arytenoids, swallowing muscles, carotid arteries, and spinal cord. The prescription dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Results: For the conventional plans and coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, the population-averaged mean dose {+-} standard deviation to the planning target volume was 67 {+-} 1 Gy. The contralateral vocal cord dose was reduced from 66 {+-} 1 Gy in the conventional plans to 39 {+-} 8 Gy and 36 {+-} 6 Gy in the coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, respectively. IMRT consistently reduced the doses to the other organs at risk. Conclusions: Single vocal cord irradiation with IMRT resulted in good target coverage and provided significant sparing of the critical structures. This has the potential to improve the quality-of-life outcomes after RT and maintain the same local control rates.

  18. Injectable hydrogel materials for spinal cord regeneration: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) presents a complex regenerative problem due to the multiple facets of growth inhibition that occur following trauma to the cord parenchyma and stroma. Clinically, SCI is further complicated by the heterogeneity in the size, shape and extent of human injuries. Many of these injuries do not breach the dura mater and have continuous viable axons through the injury site that can later lead to some degree of functional recovery. In these cases, surgical manipulation of the spinal cord by implanting a preformed scaffold or drug delivery device may lead to further damage. Given these circumstances, in situ-forming scaffolds are an attractive approach for SCI regeneration. These synthetic and natural polymers undergo a rapid transformation from liquid to gel upon injection into the cord tissue, conforming to the individual lesion site and directly integrating with the host tissue. Injectable materials can be formulated to have mechanical properties that closely match the native spinal cord extracellular matrix, and this may enhance axonal ingrowth. Such materials can also be loaded with cellular and molecular therapeutics to modulate the wound environment and enhance regeneration. This review will focus on the current status of in situ-forming materials for spinal cord repair. The advantages of, and requirements for, such polymers will be presented, and examples of the behavior of such systems in vitro and in vivo will be presented. There are helpful lessons to be learned from the investigations of injectable hydrogels for the treatment of SCI that apply to the use of these biomaterials for the treatment of lesions in other central nervous system tissues and in organs comprising other tissue types. (topical review)

  19. Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

  20. Antioxidation of melatonin against spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦波; 唐天驷; 杨惠林; 肖德生

    2004-01-01

    Background The iron catalyzed lipid peroxidation plays an important role in the autodestruction of the injured spinal cord. This study was to detect the antioxidation of melatonin against spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats.Methods Sity Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: group A (n = 15) for laminectomyanly, group B (n = 15) for laminectomy with SCI, group C (n = 15) for SCI and intraperitoneal injection of a bolus of 100 mg/kg melatonin, and group D (n = 15) for SCI and intraperitoneal injection of saline containing 5% ethanol. The SCI of animal model was made using modified Allen's method on T12. Six rats of each group were sacrificed 4 hours after injury, and the levels of free iron and malondialdehyde (MDA) of the involved spinal cord segments were measured by the bleomycin assay and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) separately. Functional recovery of the spinal cord was assessed by Modified Tarlov's scale and the inclined plane method at 1,3, 7, 14, 21 days after SCI. The histologic changes of the damaged spinal cord were also examined at 7 days after SCl.Results After SCI, the levels of free iron and MDA were increased significantly and the modified Tarlov's score and inclined plane angle decreased significantly in groups B and D. In group C, the Tarlov's score and inclined plane angle were increased significantly at 7, 14 and 21 days, with histological improvement.Conclusion: Melatonin can reduce the level of lipid peroxidation and prevent damage to the spinal cord of rat.

  1. Aquaporin 1 - a novel player in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesic, O; Lee, J; Unabia, G C; Johnson, K; Ye, Z; Vergara, L; Hulsebosch, C E; Perez-Polo, J R

    2008-05-01

    The role of water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) in uninjured or injured spinal cords is unknown. AQP-1 is weakly expressed in neurons and gray matter astrocytes, and more so in white matter astrocytes in uninjured spinal cords, a novel finding. As reported before, AQP-1 is also present in ependymal cells, but most abundantly in small diameter sensory fibers of the dorsal horn. Rat contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) induced persistent and significant four- to eightfold increases in AQP-1 levels at the site of injury (T10) persisting up to 11 months post-contusion, a novel finding. Delayed AQP-1 increases were also found in cervical and lumbar segments, suggesting the spreading of AQP-1 changes over time after SCI. Given that the antioxidant melatonin significantly decreased SCI-induced AQP-1 increases and that hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha was increased in acutely and chronically injured spinal cords, we propose that chronic hypoxia contributes to persistent AQP-1 increases after SCI. Interestingly; AQP-1 levels were not affected by long-lasting hypertonicity that significantly increased astrocytic AQP-4, suggesting that the primary role of AQP-1 is not regulating isotonicity in spinal cords. Based on our results we propose possible novel roles for AQP-1 in the injured spinal cords: (i) in neuronal and astrocytic swelling, as AQP-1 was increased in all surviving neurons and reactive astrocytes after SCI and (ii) in the development of the neuropathic pain after SCI. We have shown that decreased AQP-1 in melatonin-treated SCI rats correlated with decreased AQP-1 immunolabeling in the dorsal horns sensory afferents, and with significantly decreased mechanical allodynia, suggesting a possible link between AQP-1 and chronic neuropathic pain after SCI. PMID:18248364

  2. Electrophysiological and Anatomical Correlates of Spinal Cord Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maurizio; Krstajic, Nikola; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the continuous improvement in medical imaging technology, visualizing the spinal cord poses severe problems due to structural or incidental causes, such as small access space and motion artifacts. In addition, positional guidance on the spinal cord is not commonly available during surgery, with the exception of neuronavigation techniques based on static pre-surgical data and of radiation-based methods, such as fluoroscopy. A fast, bedside, intraoperative real-time imaging, particularly necessary during the positioning of endoscopic probes or tools, is an unsolved issue. The objective of our work, performed on experimental rats, is to demonstrate potential intraoperative spinal cord imaging and probe guidance by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Concurrently, we aimed to demonstrate that the electromagnetic OCT irradiation exerted no particular effect at the neuronal and synaptic levels. OCT is a user-friendly, low-cost and endoscopy-compatible photonics-based imaging technique. In particular, by using a Fourier-domain OCT imager, operating at 850 nm wavelength and scanning transversally with respect to the spinal cord, we have been able to: 1) accurately image tissue structures in an animal model (muscle, spine bone, cerebro-spinal fluid, dura mater and spinal cord), and 2) identify the position of a recording microelectrode approaching and inserting into the cord tissue 3) check that the infrared radiation has no actual effect on the electrophysiological activity of spinal neurons. The technique, potentially extendable to full three-dimensional image reconstruction, shows prospective further application not only in endoscopic intraoperative analyses and for probe insertion guidance, but also in emergency and adverse situations (e.g. after trauma) for damage recognition, diagnosis and fast image-guided intervention. PMID:27050096

  3. The early effects of delayed cord clamping in term infants born to Libyan mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emhamed, Musbah Omar; van Rheenen, Patrick; Brabin, Bernard J

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the haematological effects of the timing of umbilical cord clamping in term infants 24 h after birth in Libya. Mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned to early cord clamping (within 10s after delivery) or delayed clamping (after the cord stopped pulsating). Ma

  4. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Umbilical_cord_blood [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. Spinal cord compression due to epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis in thalassaemia: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis is very rare in thalassaemia. A 27-year-old man with thalassaemia intermedia presented with symptoms and signs of spinal cord compression. MRI showed a thoracic spinal epidural mass, representing extramedullary haematopoietic tissue, compressing the spinal cord. Following radiotherapy, serial MRI revealed regression of the epidural mass and gradual resolution of spinal cord oedema. (orig.)

  8. The natural history of transdural herniation of the spinal cord: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a patient with a Brown-Sequard syndrome who developed ventral transdural spinal cord herniation, showing the imaging findings changing over time from two thoracic disc protrusions with a normal spinal cord to a cord trapped within a bony defect in a thoracic vertebra. (orig.)

  9. Computed tomographic myelography characteristics of spinal cord atrophy in juvenile muscular atrophy of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord in juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity has been reported, the atrophic patterns of the cord, especially in the transverse section, have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to clarify the atrophic patterns of the cord by CT myelography (CTM) and to discuss the pathogenesis of cord atrophy. Sixteen patients with juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity were examined by CTM. Atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord, consistent with the segmental weakness, was seen in all patients. Flattening of the ventral convexity was a characteristic atrophic pattern of the cord. Bilateral cord atrophy was commonly observed; 8/12 patients with unilateral clinical form and all 4 patients with bilateral form showed bilateral cord atrophy with dominance on the clinical side. There was no correlation between the degree of cord atrophy and duration of symptoms. Flattening of the ventral convexity, associated with purely motor disturbances, reflects selective atrophy of the anterior horns in the cord, which is attributable to chronic ischemia. Cord atrophy proved to precede clinical manifestations. The characteristic atrophy of the cord provides useful information to confirm the diagnosis without long-term observation. (author). 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Traumatic spinal cord injury in MR imaging; Urazowe przerwanie ciaglosci rdzenia kregowego w obrazie MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronarski, J.; Wozniak, E. [Stoleczne Centrum Rehabilitacji, Konstancin (Poland)]|[Inst. Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Spinal cord injuries in tetraplegics were briefly discussed on the basis of MR imaging. It was found that severe cervical spine trauma usually results in concussion - the complete transection of the cord is rare. A case of 19 years old male with total cord transection confirmed by MR imaging is described. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  11. Functional electrical stimulation for incomplete spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fazio, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the early use of functional electrical stimulation on an individual with an incomplete spinal cord injury to assist with motor recovery and a return to ambulation. A 32-year-old woman sustained a C7 burst fracture after a fall, requiring anterior cervical fixation from C6 to T1 prior to transfer to acute rehabilitation. She presented as a C8 AIS B spinal cord injury, meaning she had some sensory function spared below the level of injury but not motor function. At di...

  12. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  13. Tumefactive demyelinating disease with isolated spinal cord involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumefactive multiple sclerosis (TMS) is an unusual variant of demyelinating disease. TMS has a variable and unknown progression and presents with features similar to a neoplasm making the determination a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. This report presents one of the very few reported cases of isolated spinal cord TMS, and the second case to describe TMS of the lower spinal cord, given that the lesions are typically cervical. This case study presents a diagnostic approach based on clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics, as well as sheds some light on the response to therapy and disease evolution

  14. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 deg. C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields. (note)

  15. [Spinal cord stimulation for the management of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchoud, Christophe; Mariotti, Nicolas

    2016-06-22

    Neuromodulation techniques modify the activity of the central or peripheral nervous system. Spinal cord stimulation is a reversible and minimally invasive treatment whose efficacy and cost effectiveness are recognized for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain or ischemic pain. Spinal cord stimulation is not the option of last resort and should be considered among other options before prescribing long-term opioids or considering reoperation. The selection and regular follow-up of patients are crucial to the success of the therapy. PMID:27506068

  16. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  17. Alfa-fetoprotein secreting ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum D Jashnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are relatively infrequent neoplasms that account for approximately 8% of all primary ovarian tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms composed of cells derived from gonadal sex cords (granulosa and Sertoli cells, specialized gonadal stroma (theca and Leydig cells, and fibroblasts. They may show androgenic or estrogenic manifestations. We report such a tumor associated with markedly raised serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in a young female presenting with a mass and defeminising symptoms. Serum AFP levels returned to normal on removal of tumor.

  18. Tethered spinal cord syndrome with symptomatic onset in adulthood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shi-sheng; ZHAO Ying-chuan; SHI Zhi-cai; LI Ming; HOU Tie-sheng; ZHANG Ye; WU Yun-gang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Tethered spinal cord syndrome(TCS)is a condition of overstretching or compression of the caudal part of the spinal cord caused by various spinal lesions,such as a tight filum terminale or an intraspinal lipoma.~(1-9) Though it is a well-recognized cause of neurological deterioration in childhood,its symptomatic onset in adulthood is uncommon.~(10-23) Eleven cases of TCS are presented here.In addition,their related clinical features,surgical procedures and outcomes are investigated.

  19. Spinal cord response to laser treatment of injured peripheral nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochkind, S.; Vogler, I.; Barr-Nea, L. (Ichilov Hospital, Tel-Aviv Medical Center (Israel))

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the changes occurring in the spinal cord of rats subjected to crush injury of the sciatic nerve followed by low-power laser irradiation of the injured nerve. Such laser treatment of the crushed peripheral nerve has been found to mitigate the degenerative changes in the corresponding neurons of the spinal cord and induce proliferation of neuroglia both in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. This suggests a higher metabolism in neurons and a better ability for myelin production under the influence of laser treatment.

  20. Split cord malformation as a cause of tethered cord syndrome in a 78-Year-old female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallatroni, Henry F; Ball, Perry A; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2004-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman presented for evaluation of back pain, urinary dysfunction, leg weakness and progressive equinovarus foot deformity. She reported that shortly after her birth in 1924, she underwent resection of a subcutaneous 'cyst' in the lower lumbar area. Seven years prior to evaluation at our institution, she had undergone bilateral total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. After the procedure, she began to experience severe low back pain that radiated into her legs. Weakness of the foot inverters, urinary dysfunction and worsening bilateral equinovarus foot deformity developed in the years following the surgery. MRI revealed a split cord malformation with a tethered spinal cord. Because of the patient's age and poor medical condition, her symptoms were managed conservatively. This case demonstrates symptomatic deterioration in an elderly patient with a tethered spinal cord after many years of clinical stability. PMID:15292638

  1. Multifocal spinal hemangioblastoma in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome: A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemangioblastoma is a benign vascular neoplasm of the central nervous system that occurs frequently in the cerebellum and other areas of the central nervous system including spinal cord and brainstem. Spinal hemangioblastoma can present as a sporadic isolated lesion or as a component of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. The author presents a case of 32-year-old man with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and spinal hemangioblastomas represented by multiple small spinal lesions, with an emphasis on the magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical characteristics of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome-associated spinal hemangioblastomas.

  2. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.103. 2 claims

  3. Sparing of descending axons rescues interneuron plasticity in the lumbar cord to allow adaptive learning after thoracic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Nelson Hansen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the role of spared axons on structural and behavioral neuroplasticity in the lumbar enlargement after a thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI. Previous work has demonstrated that recovery in the presence of spared axons after an incomplete lesion increases behavioral output after a subsequent complete spinal cord transection (TX. This suggests that spared axons direct adaptive changes in below-level neuronal networks of the lumbar cord. In response to spared fibers, we postulate that lumbar neuron networks support behavioral gains by preventing aberrant plasticity. As such, the present study measured histological and functional changes in the isolated lumbar cord after complete TX or incomplete contusion (SCI. To measure functional plasticity in the lumbar cord, we used an established instrumental learning paradigm. In this paradigm, neural circuits within isolated lumbar segments demonstrate learning by an increase in flexion duration that reduces exposure to a noxious leg shock. We employed this model using a proof-of-principle design to evaluate the role of sparing on lumbar learning and plasticity early (7 days or late (42 days after midthoracic SCI in a rodent model. Early after SCI or TX at 7d, spinal learning was unattainable regardless of whether the animal recovered with or without axonal substrate. Failed learning occurred alongside measures of cell soma atrophy and aberrant dendritic spine expression within interneuron populations responsible for sensorimotor integration and learning. Alternatively, exposure of the lumbar cord to a small amount of spared axons for 6 weeks produced near-normal learning late after SCI. This coincided with greater cell soma volume and fewer aberrant dendritic spines on interneurons. Thus, an opportunity to influence activity-based learning in locomotor networks depends on spared axons limiting maladaptive plasticity. Together, this work identifies a time dependent interaction between

  4. [MR imaging of the spinal cord--with special emphasis on the factors influencing spinal cord measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, K

    1992-03-01

    On MR images the spinal cord is seen differently in size depending on imaging parameters and displaying window; consequently the findings may be interpreted erroneously as swelling or atrophy of the spinal cord. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate factors influencing spinal cord size on images and to determine the optimal condition estimating the size of the spinal cord. At first we selected 4 cases suspected of cervical spinal disorders which had been examined by both MRI and myelography with tomography. Sagittal diameter of the spinal cord was measured on a film and it was significantly different of those three. That is, the measurement value was greater on T1 weighted image (T1WI) and smaller on T2 weighted image (T2WI) than myelo-tomography. To evaluate the effect of imaging parameters, image reconstruction and image displaying window quantitatively, studied were the cadaveric cervical spinal cord and gelatin phantom tube with a diameter of 13 mm and 9 mm placed in a saline-filled plastic tube. The measurement value was significantly greater on T1WI and smaller on T2WI than true size of the objects. Numbers of phase encoding (128 and 256) significantly affected the measurement value, both on T1WI and T2WI, as well. Ringing artifact of high or low signal was observed at the boundary area of the objects and saline (so-called truncation artifact). However, when the window-level of displaying image was raised stepwisely the measurement value was proportionally decreased and it reached to real value when the level was adjusted at the mean MR signal intensity of the object and saline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1591101

  5. Cerebral activation is correlated to regional atrophy of the spinal cord and functional motor disability in spinal cord injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Christensen, Mark Schram; Barthélemy, Dorothy;

    2011-01-01

    the width of the spinal cord in the left-right direction, where the corticospinal tract is located, but not in the antero-posterior direction. There was a tendency for a negative correlation between cerebral activation in ipsilateral S1, M1 and PMC and the amplitude of motor evoked potentials in the...... tibialis anterior muscle elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no correlation between motor score or spinal cord dimensions and the volume of the cortical motor areas. The observations show that lesion of descending tracts in the lateral...

  6. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on the Properties of Tyre Cords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial cord fabrics are used for reinforcing of tyre carcass. Tyre reinforcing elements carry the major share of the structural load of the automobiles. For the better service life of a tyre, the reinforcing material should exhibit excellent strength properties, fatigue resistance, modulus, cord-tyre adhesion level, and dimensional stability. The tyre cord fabrics can be produced with different type of materials. Yarns offered at the market, are namely, Polyamide 6 and 66, Polyester, Rayon and Aramid. One of the successful industrial application of radiation processing has been the pre-vulcanization of tyres imparting shapes stability prior to final vulcanization. Since tyre is a composite of reinforcing materials and rubber compounds, the influence of high energy irradiation on the reinforcing materials, i.e. on the textile cord needs to be investigated. In this study, gamma irradiation of high tenacity nylon 66 and polyester tyre cords was investigated. The untreated tyre cords with different twist levels were irradiated in air. The changes in the mechanical and thermal properties with absorbed dose were measured. The mechanical properties were deteriorated with increasing dose for nylon 66 cords, while almost unchanged for polyester cords. Hot shrinkage for the nylon cords was found to be improved, i.e. decreased. A slight decrease in the hot shrinkage of irradiated polyester cords was also observed. It has been found that the effect of irradiation on both nylon 66 and polyester cords was not dependent on the twist levels of the cords. It is also concluded that polyester cord has higher radiation resistance than nylon 66 cord, and polyester cord seems to be more suitable reinforcing material for pre-vulcanization of tyres with high energy radiation

  7. Comparing the Effect of Topical Application of Maternal Milk, 96% Ethyl Alcohol, and Dry Cord Care on Umbilical Cord Separation Time in Healthy Full-Term Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    F. Eghbalian; M. Shokohi; . Ghoreyshi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Umbilical cord infections are of main causes for neonatal morbidities and mortalities. Different methods are used for umbilical cord care with multifarious efficien-cies. The aim of this study was to compare three methods of local use of maternal milk, local use of 96% ethyl alcohol, and dry cord care. Materials & Methods: In this prospective, randomized, clinical trial, 207 healthy full-term neo-nates were randomly assigned to three groups. In the first and second g...

  8. Timing of Decompressive Surgery of Spinal Cord after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: An Evidence-Based Examination of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Julio C.; Noonan, Vanessa; Cadotte, David W.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    While the recommendations for spine surgery in specific cases of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) are well recognized, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the role of the timing of surgical decompression of the spinal cord in the management of patients with SCI. Given this, we sought to critically review the literature regarding the pre-clinical and clinical evidence on the potential impact of timing of surgical decompression of the spinal cord on outcomes after traumatic SCI....

  9. The International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widerstrom-Noga, E.; Bryce, T.; Cardenas, D.D.;

    2008-01-01

    classification and questions related to the temporal pattern of pain for each specific pain problem. The impact of pain on physical, social and emotional function, and sleep is evaluated for each pain.Spinal Cord (2008) 46, 818-823; doi:10.1038/sc.2008.64; published online 3 June 2008 Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  10. Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

  11. ADAM10 negatively regulates neuronal differentiation during spinal cord development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yan

    Full Text Available Members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease family are involved in embryogenesis and tissue formation via their proteolytic function, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. ADAM10 is expressed temporally and spatially in the developing chicken spinal cord, but its function remains elusive. In the present study, we address this question by electroporating ADAM10 specific morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (ADAM10-mo or dominant-negative ADAM10 (dn-ADAM10 plasmid into the developing chicken spinal cord as well as by in vitro cell culture investigation. Our results show that downregulation of ADAM10 drives precocious differentiation of neural progenitor cells and radial glial cells, resulting in an increase of neurons in the developing spinal cord, even in the prospective ventricular zone. Remarkably, overexpression of the dn-ADAM10 plasmid mutated in the metalloprotease domain (dn-ADAM10-me mimics the phenotype as found by the ADAM10-mo transfection. Furthermore, in vitro experiments on cultured cells demonstrate that downregulation of ADAM10 decreases the amount of the cleaved intracellular part of Notch1 receptor and its target, and increases the number of βIII-tubulin-positive cells during neural progenitor cell differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that ADAM10 negatively regulates neuronal differentiation, possibly via its proteolytic effect on the Notch signaling during development of the spinal cord.

  12. Competition effects in the dynamics of tumor cords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalerandi, M.; Sansone, B. Capogrosso; Benati, C.; Condat, C. A.

    2002-05-01

    A general feature of cancer growth is the cellular competition for available nutrients. This is also the case for tumor cords, neoplasms forming cylindrical structures around blood vessels. Experimental data show that, in their avascular phase, cords grow up to a limit radius of about 100 μm, reaching a quasi-steady-state characterized by a necrotized area separating the tumor from the surrounding healthy tissue. Here we use a set of rules to formulate a model that describes how the dynamics of cord growth is controlled by the competition of tumor cells among themselves and with healthy cells for the acquisition of essential nutrients. The model takes into account the mechanical effects resulting from the interaction between the multiplying cancer cells and the surrounding tissue. We explore the influence of the relevant parameters on the tumor growth and on its final state. The model is also applied to investigate cord deformation in a region containing multiple nutrient sources and to predict the further complex growth of the tumor.

  13. Spinal Cord Injury: Facts and Figures at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,517,806 $1,071,309 Data Source: Economic Impact of SCI published in the journal Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Volume 16 ... South, SRC 515, Birmingham, AL 35233-7330 For Statistics: (205) 934-3342; For Business: (205) 934-3320; TDD: (205) 934-4642; FAX: ( ...

  14. Vocational reintegration following spinal cord injury : expectations, participation and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönherr, M.C.; Groothoff, J.W.; Mulder, G.A.; Schoppen, T.; Eisma, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Study design: Survey. Objectives: To explore the process of reintegration in paid work following a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), including the role of early expectations of individual patients regarding return to work, indicators of success of job reintegration and a description of reintegrati

  15. CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pafumi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relation between umbilical cord clamping time and two different enrichment system of CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood with the proliferative ability and bone marrow reconstitution of the stem cells obtained. After an obstetrician performed the cord blood collection, the purification of stem cells was performed either with a combination of monoclonal antibodies (negative selections using the Stem Sep method, or with a positive cells selection based on their surface CD34 antigens using the Mini Macs system. An excellent recovery of haematopoietic progenitors [Burst Forming Unit Erythroids (BFUE; Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GM; and Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes, Erythroids, Monocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GME], inversely related to the increase in clamping time, was performed with the Mini Macs system (54% of colonies, with 90% purity. With Stem Sep method, haematopoietic progenitor’s recovery was 35% (with 80% purity. By applying early clamping of umbilical cord blood we obtained a greater number of CD34+ cells and their clonogenic activity was increased with enrichment. This is a useful technique considering that the number of CD34+ stem cells usually contained from a unit of placental blood is enough for the transplant to a child, but not for an adult. Thus, using these methods, we can get a larger number of CD34+ stem cells which reduces the risk of Graft versus Host Disease also in adult patients, producing survival rates similar to those obtained with transplantation of bone marrow from unrelated donors.

  16. POLYCYTHEMIA RISK IN NEONATES WITH DELAYED CORD CLAMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Agung Ayu Sri Wulandari Pramana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Delayed Cord Clamping is still a controversial issue in the world of medicine. Until recently, the perfect times to do a Delayed Cord Clamping in various parts of the Earth in the world are still very diverse. There are a few things that became a major concern associated with Delayed Cord Clamping, one of which is the increase in blood volume due to an increase in the number of erythrocytes which led to occurrence of neonatal polycythemia which later can lead to various complications. Polycythemia in neonates is a situation where the value of venous blood hematokrit over 65% (0.65 or the amount of hemoglobin more than 22gr/Dl. However, to date the data from a variety of the latest research and analysis of the studies mention that the polycythemia that occurs in neonates with umbilical cord pinching the flush delay was mild polycythemia that can improve after 48 to 72 hours after the baby is born.

  17. CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfio D’Agati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relation between umbilical cord clamping time and two different enrichment system of CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood with the proliferative ability and bone marrow reconstitution of the stem cells obtained. After an obstetrician performed the cord blood collection, the purification of stem cells was performed either with a combination of monoclonal antibodies (negative selections using the Stem Sep method, or with a positive cells selection based on their surface CD34 antigens using the Mini Macs system. An excellent recovery of haematopoietic progenitors [Burst Forming Unit Erythroids (BFUE; Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GM; and Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes, Erythroids, Monocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GME], inversely related to the increase in clamping time, was performed with the Mini Macs system (54% of colonies, with 90% purity. With Stem Sep method, haematopoietic progenitor’s recovery was 35% (with 80% purity. By applying early clamping of umbilical cord blood we obtained a greater number of CD34+ cells and their clonogenic activity was increased with enrichment. This is a useful technique considering that the number of CD34+ stem cells usually contained from a unit of placental blood is enough for the transplant to a child, but not for an adult. Thus, using these methods, we can get a larger number of CD34+ stem cells which reduces the risk of Graft versus Host Disease also in adult patients, producing survival rates similar to those obtained with transplantation of bone marrow from unrelated donors.

  18. Acute traumatic central cord syndrome: MRI-pathological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS) is commonly stated to result from an injury which affects primarily the center of the spinal cord and is frequently hemorrhagic. To test the validity of this widely disseminated hypothesis, the magnetic resonance images [MRI] of 11 consecutive cases of ATCCS caused by closed injury to the spine were analyzed and correlated with the gross pathological and histological features of 3 cervical spinal cords obtained at post mortem from patients with ATCCS, including 2 of patients studied by MRI. In this study, the MRI and pathological observations indicate that ATCCS is predominantly a white matter injury and that intramedullary hemorrhage is not a necessary feature of the syndrome; indeed, it is probably an uncommon event in ATCCS. We suggest that the most common mechanism of injury in ATCCS may be direct compression of the cervical spinal cord by buckling of the ligamenta flava into an already narrowed cervical spinal canal; this would explain the predominance of axonal injury in the white matter of the lateral columns. (orig./GDG)

  19. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the spermatic cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    1994-01-01

    Primary lymphomas of the spermatic cord (LSC) are rare and have only been described in 10 cases in the literature. The present study is a review of the clinicopathological features of LSC described in the cases reported in the literature and presents a new case. LSC is a tumour affecting middle...

  20. Acute traumatic central cord syndrome: MRI-pathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quencer, R.M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Miami MRI Center, FL (United States) Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, FL (United States)); Bunge, R.P.; Egnor, M.; Green, B.A. (Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, FL (United States) Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (United States)); Puckett, W. (Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, FL (United States)); Naidich, T.P. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Miami MRI Center, FL (United States) Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, FL (United States) Baptist Hospital of Greater Miami, FL (United States)); Post, M.J.D. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Miami MRI Center, FL (United States)); Norenberg, M. (Dept. of Neuropathology, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS) is commonly stated to result from an injury which affects primarily the center of the spinal cord and is frequently hemorrhagic. To test the validity of this widely disseminated hypothesis, the magnetic resonance images [MRI] of 11 consecutive cases of ATCCS caused by closed injury to the spine were analyzed and correlated with the gross pathological and histological features of 3 cervical spinal cords obtained at post mortem from patients with ATCCS, including 2 of patients studied by MRI. In this study, the MRI and pathological observations indicate that ATCCS is predominantly a white matter injury and that intramedullary hemorrhage is not a necessary feature of the syndrome; indeed, it is probably an uncommon event in ATCCS. We suggest that the most common mechanism of injury in ATCCS may be direct compression of the cervical spinal cord by buckling of the ligamenta flava into an already narrowed cervical spinal canal; this would explain the predominance of axonal injury in the white matter of the lateral columns. (orig./GDG).

  1. Alterations of Spinal Cord in Japanese B Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kishikawa, Masao

    1993-01-01

    The cytopathologic changes of Japanese B encephalitis (JBE) are basically similar to those of other forms of arbovirus encephalitis. Because the entire central nervous system including the spinal cord is involved to varying degrees, the nomenclature of JBE should actually be Japanese B panencephalomyelitis.

  2. Spinal Cord Meningioma: A Treatable Cause of Paraplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Manoj K; Rabinstein, Alejandro A.

    2012-01-01

    Chondrocalcinosis associated with Gitelman syndrome (GS) presents in young adults with either no symptoms or joint pain, muscle weakness, muscle cramps, paresthesias, episodes of tetany, or hypokalemic paralysis. Spinal cord meningiomas present with gradual onset of lower extremities weakness, numbness, pain, or balance problem. We report a 76 year old gentleman who presented with gradually progressive leg weakness puzzling the treating physicians.

  3. Peripheral nervous system involvement in chronic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankisi, Hatice; Pugdahl, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Upper motor neuron disorders are believed to leave the peripheral nervous system (PNS) intact. In this study we examined whether there is evidence of PNS involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Twelve subjects with chronic low cervical or thoracic SCI were included...

  4. Experimental studies on the tensile properties of human umbilical cords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Rothschild, Markus A; Valter, Markus; Michael, Joern; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2014-03-01

    When tried in court, mothers accused of neonaticide may claim that the umbilical cord just broke during birth and the newborn child bled to death accordingly. To evaluate the possibility of a breakage of the umbilical cord is the goal of this work. Therefore 25 umbilical cords from neonates of both sexes born at term were stretched using an electrically operated material testing machine and the energy necessary to break them was measured. This experimental set-up equals a static strain, not a dynamic one. The maximum force endured (F max) ranged from 37.24 N to 150.04 N. The average force endured was 79.87 N with a standard deviation of 27.39. The elongation at break varied from 13.24% to a maximum of 119.93%. We found no relationship between the force endured and any of the following parameters: birth weight, pH of the venous umbilical blood, diameter of cord, free length under testing, duration of pregnancy or the mother's age. We performed a literature research and tried to define the circumstances in which a break is more likely to occur, these being malformations, entanglement or disease, e.g. inflammation. PMID:24529770

  5. Myasthenia gravis presenting as acute vocal cord paresis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad Kamaal; Powell, Steven M.; Hartley, Chris; Cleland, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a condition rarely seen by otolaryngologists. We present a case of bilateral vocal cord paresis caused by previously undiagnosed myasthenia gravis. A tracheostomy was required after initial presentation and after a relapse. The airway management, neurological diagnosis and medical treatment are discussed.

  6. The McCord-Christian medical Fellowship vocational training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S J

    1999-07-01

    The first 3 years' experience of a vocational training programme for doctors based at McCord Hospital in Durban is described and reviewed. The stated aim of the programme is to equip doctors to 'serve the under-served according to the example of Christ' and to produce caring, competent and committed doctors for areas of need. PMID:10470314

  7. Non-dysraphic intramedullary spinal cord lipoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Eun; Lee, Sang Ho [Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Tae Hong [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Spinal cord lipomas are rare tumors with a reported incidence of 1% of all intraspinal tumors. We recently experienced a case of intramedullary lipoma without spinal dysraphism in a 58-year-old woman. MRI, CT, myelography and CT myelography showed the characteristic findings of a lipoma.

  8. What Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissues and cells, which can develop into different types of tumors. Neurons (nerve cells): These are the most important cells ... as long as several feet. Unlike many other types of cells that can grow and divide to repair damage from injury or disease, neurons in the brain and spinal cord largely stop ...

  9. High resolution CT of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution CT demonstrates the anatomy of the spine, spinal canal and spinal cord. In many cases, the non-contrast HRCT images provide enough information to guide patient management. Where necessary, intravenously-enhanced HRCT and metrizamide HRCT may be employed to gain additional data. Other studies may be obviated in many cases. (orig.)

  10. Congenital Hypothyroidism Screening with Umbilical Cord Blood: Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M R; Ramesh, Preetha; Nath, Divia

    2015-05-01

    Incidence of congenital hypothyroidism varies across countries and different geographic regions. A retrospective analysis of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone values, and their subsequent follow-up, was done in a tertiary-care center in Kerala, India. Congenital hypothyroidism was found at the rate of 1 in 244, which is higher than reported incidence from other centers. PMID:26061935

  11. Cecal bascule after spinal cord injury: A case series report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuichi; McLean, Susan F.; Tyroch, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cecal bascule is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction associated with upward and anterior folding of the ascending colon. We report three patients who presented with spinal cord injury complicated with a cecal bascule. Diagnosis and management of cecal bascule is discussed. Presentation of cases Patient 1: 59-year-old male sustained a traumatic brain injury and cervical spinal cord injury after a motorcycle crash. He had abdominal distension and the diagnosis of cecal bascule was made. Cecopexy was performed. Patient 2: 51-year-old male sustained an unstable C7 vertebral fracture with a cord contusion and quadriplegia after a diving incident. After an unsuccessful medical management of the colonic distension, the patient was taken for a laparotomy and cecal bascule was found. A cecostomy and a cecopexy were performed. Patient 3: 63-year-old male was transferred after a fall. He had diffuse degenerative changes in the thoracic and lumbar spine. He was found to have a perforated cecal bascule. He had a right hemicolectomy with an ileocolic anastomosis. Discussion We suggest the possibility of spinal cord injury being a risk factor for cecal bascule. Currently, right hemicolectomy is recommended for the treatment of cecal bascule. Cecopexy is also acceptable treatment option for a case in which the patient will be undergoing an operation with an insertion of hardware. Conclusion The diagnosis of cecal bascule should be considered for trauma patients with cecal distention without delay in order to prevent disastrous complications. PMID:27077698

  12. Human umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation for the treatment of chronic spinal cord injury Electrophysiological changes and long-term efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqing Yao; Chuan He; Ying Zhao; Jirong Wang; Mei Tang; Jun Li; Ying Wu; Lijuan Ao; Xiang Hu

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation can promote functional restoration following acute spinal cord injury (injury time 6 months) were treated with human umbilical cord blood stem cells via intravenous and intrathecal injection. The follow-up period was 12 months after transplantation. Results found that autonomic nerve functions were restored and the latent period of somatosensory evoked potentials was reduced. There were no severe adverse reactions in patients following stem cell transplantation. These experimental findings suggest that the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells is a safe and effective treatment for patients with traumatic spinal cord injury.

  13. Efficacy of a metalloproteinase inhibitor in spinal cord injured dogs.

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    Jonathan M Levine

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is elevated within the acutely injured murine spinal cord and blockade of this early proteolytic activity with GM6001, a broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, results in improved recovery after spinal cord injury. As matrix metalloproteinase-9 is likewise acutely elevated in dogs with naturally occurring spinal cord injuries, we evaluated efficacy of GM6001 solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide in this second species. Safety and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in naïve dogs. After confirming safety, subsequent pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that a 100 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of GM6001 resulted in plasma concentrations that peaked shortly after administration and were sustained for at least 4 days at levels that produced robust in vitro inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study was then conducted to assess efficacy of GM6001 given within 48 hours of spinal cord injury. Dogs were enrolled in 3 groups: GM6001 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (n = 35, dimethyl sulfoxide (n = 37, or saline (n = 41. Matrix metalloproteinase activity was increased in the serum of injured dogs and GM6001 reduced this serum protease activity compared to the other two groups. To assess recovery, dogs were a priori stratified into a severely injured group and a mild-to-moderate injured group, using a Modified Frankel Scale. The Texas Spinal Cord Injury Score was then used to assess long-term motor/sensory function. In dogs with severe spinal cord injuries, those treated with saline had a mean motor score of 2 (95% CI 0-4.0 that was significantly (P<0.05; generalized linear model less than the estimated mean motor score for dogs receiving dimethyl sulfoxide (mean, 5; 95% CI 2.0-8.0 or GM6001 (mean, 5; 95% CI 2.0-8.0. As there was no independent effect of GM6001, we attribute improved neurological outcomes to dimethyl sulfoxide, a pleotropic agent that may target diverse

  14. Triple dye plus rubbing alcohol versus triple dye alone for umbilical cord care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Alawia K; Watts, Heidi; Beiler, Jessica; King, Tonya S; Khan, Sana; Carnuccio, Marybeth; Paul, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    Current practices for umbilical cord care vary across centers, but the evidence regarding these practices and their impact on cord separation, complications, and health care use are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of triple dye alone (brilliant green, crystal violet, and proflavine hemisulfate) versus triple dye plus rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) twice daily on time to umbilical cord separation, complications, and health care use. For the 90 newborns who completed the study, there were no significant differences between treatment groups for time to cord separation, cord-related morbidities, or cord-related urgent care. Based on these study results, there does not appear to be significant benefit to the addition of twice daily applications of rubbing alcohol to neonatal umbilical cords following triple dye treatment after birth. PMID:20034947

  15. MRI monitoring of pathological changes in the spinal cord in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gass, Achim; Rocca, Maria A; Agosta, Federica; Ciccarelli, Olga; Chard, Declan; Valsasina, Paola; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Bischof, Antje; Eisele, Philipp; Kappos, Ludwig; Barkhof, Frederik; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    techniques, findings of cord atrophy, intrinsic cord damage, and adaptation are shown to occur largely independently of focal spinal cord lesion load, which emphasises their relevance in depiction of the true burden of disease. Combinations of magnetisation transfer ratio or diffusion tension imaging indices......The spinal cord is a clinically important site that is affected by pathological changes in most patients with multiple sclerosis; however, imaging of the spinal cord with conventional MRI can be difficult. Improvements in MRI provide a major advantage for spinal cord imaging, with better signal......-to-noise ratio and improved spatial resolution. Through the use of multiplanar MRI, identification of diffuse and focal changes in the whole spinal cord is now routinely possible. Corroborated by related histopathological analyses, several new techniques, such as magnetisation transfer, diffusion tension imaging...

  16. Evidence-based treatment for acute spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhouming Deng; Jiajia Su; Lin Cai; Ansong Ping; Wei Jin; Renxiong Wei; Yan Zhan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To formulate an evidence-based treatment for one patient with acute spinal cord injury and summarize evidence for evaluating acute spinal cord injury treatment. METHODS: Studies related to the treatment for acute spinal cord injury were identified via a search of National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC, 2000-11), the Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2011), TRIP Database (2000-11), and PubMed (1966-2011). Treatment strategies were formulated according to three basic principles: best evidence, doctor's professional experience, and wishes of the patient. RESULTS: A total of 34 articles were selected, including 1 NGC guideline, 22 systematic reviews, and 11 randomized controlled trials. Based on our review, we arrived at the following recommendations: no clinical evidence exists definitively to recommend the use of any of neuroprotective pharmaceuticals; surgery should be undertaken early; mechanical compression devices and low-molecular weight heparin should be employed to prevent thrombosis; respiratory muscle training is beneficial for pulmonary function and quality of life; and functional electrical stimulation and acupuncture can promote functional recovery. The patient accordingly underwent surgery 6 hours after trauma without receiving any neuroprotective pharmaceuticals; low-molecular weight heparin and intermittent pneumatic compression were applied to prevent thrombosis. He also underwent respiratory muscle training daily for 8 weeks and received functional electrical stimulation for 15 minutes and acupuncture for 30 minutes every day. After follow-up for 3 months, the above therapeutic regimen was confirmed efficacious for acute spinal cord injury.CONCLUSION: Evidence-based medicine provides an individualized treatment protocol for acute spinal cord injury, which can significantly improve the therapeutic effect and prognosis.

  17. Causes of Acquired Vocal Cord Palsy in Indian Scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Sebastian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord paresis or paralysis occurs due to lesion in the vagus nerve. Vocal cord paralysis can lead to dysphonia as well as dysphagia which lead the patient to frustration and emotional problems. The literature available on the etiology and the problems faced by them in Indian population is very scanty. Hence a prospective study was done on 41 Patients with vocal cord palsy who were referred to the Department of ENT for voice assessment and management from March 1st 2012 till 1st August 2012. The medical and surgical reports were examined. They were evaluated by an otorhinolaryngologist, and a Speech Language Pathologist. Diagnosis was made based on video stroboscopic findings. We also examined voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL outcomes in these patients. In this study, endo-tracheal intubation (15/41; 36.5% was the major cause of vocal cord palsy. The second major cause for vocal cord palsy in our study was surgical trauma (iatrogenic which constituted 26.8% (11/41, out of which thyroidectomy contributed to 81.81% (9/11 and cardiac surgery (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG contributed to 18.18% (2/11. Neurological problems caused 14.63% (6/41 of the total cases. Non-surgical trauma constituted 9.75% (4/41 of the total patients. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis was found as a complication of heart disease in 7.3%(3/41. Tuberculosis of lungs and cancer of lungs accounted to be the rarest causes. Hoarseness of voice was the most common symptom with associated dysphagia in a few. The voice related quality of life of these patients was found to be poor. They were found to have problems in the social-emotional domain and physical functioning domain.

  18. A Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord Compression Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züchner, Mark; Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) typically causes devastating neurological deficits, particularly through damage to fibers descending from the brain to the spinal cord. A major current area of research is focused on the mechanisms of adaptive plasticity that underlie spontaneous or induced functional recovery following SCI. Spontaneous functional recovery is reported to be greater early in life, raising interesting questions about how adaptive plasticity changes as the spinal cord develops. To facilitate investigation of this dynamic, we have developed a SCI model in the neonatal mouse. The model has relevance for pediatric SCI, which is too little studied. Because neural plasticity in the adult involves some of the same mechanisms as neural plasticity in early life(1), this model may potentially have some relevance also for adult SCI. Here we describe the entire procedure for generating a reproducible spinal cord compression (SCC) injury in the neonatal mouse as early as postnatal (P) day 1. SCC is achieved by performing a laminectomy at a given spinal level (here described at thoracic levels 9-11) and then using a modified Yasargil aneurysm mini-clip to rapidly compress and decompress the spinal cord. As previously described, the injured neonatal mice can be tested for behavioral deficits or sacrificed for ex vivo physiological analysis of synaptic connectivity using electrophysiological and high-throughput optical recording techniques(1). Earlier and ongoing studies using behavioral and physiological assessment have demonstrated a dramatic, acute impairment of hindlimb motility followed by a complete functional recovery within 2 weeks, and the first evidence of changes in functional circuitry at the level of identified descending synaptic connections(1). PMID:27078037

  19. A COMPARISON STUDY: CORD SERUM ALBUMIN IS COMPARED WITH CORD SERUM BILIRUBIN AS A RISK INDICATOR IN PREDICTING NEONATAL JAUNDICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatamurthy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVE: 1. Comparing Cord Serum Albumin level (CSA with Cord Serum Bilirubin (CSB in predicting neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. 2. To know the sensitivity, specificity, Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CSA and CSB in predicting neonatal jaundice in term neonates. METHOD: Prospective study was performed on 174 healthy term neonates. Relevant maternal history is collected. Cord blood was collected from the healthy term neonates at birth, CSA and CSB measured. Neonate was assessed clinically every day. Total Serum Bilirubin (TSB and blood group were assessed in neonate during 72-96 hours of life. TSB value ≥17mg/dl is considered Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia (NH which requires intervention like phototherapy (PT or Exchange transfusion (ExT. RESULT: Study cohort is grouped in Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 based on Cord Serum Albumin level ≤2.8g/dl, 2.9-3.3g/dl and ≥3.4g/dl, respectively. Based on CSB, study cohort divided into neonates with CSB ≤ 2mg/dl and CSB ≥ 2.1mg/dl. Statistical analysis done for correlation of CSA and CSB with NH. Statistical significance is seen for both CSA and CSB. CONCLUSION: Both CSA and CSB are equally effective in predicting NH at birth. These study variables can be considered as neonatal screening tool for NH for term neonates.

  20. Are subjects with spondylotic cervical cord encroachment at increased risk of cervical spinal cord injury after minor trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednařík, Josef; Sládková, Dagmar; Kadaňka, Zdeněk; Dušek, Ladislav; Keřkovský, Miloš; Voháňka, Stanislav; Novotný, Oldřich; Urbánek, Igor; Němec, Martin

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the risk of symptomatic myelopathy after minor trauma in patients with asymptomatic spondylotic cervical spinal cord encroachment (ASCCE). In a cohort of 199 patients with ASCCE, previously followed prospectively in a study investigating progression into symptomatic myelopathy, the authors looked retrospectively for traumatic episodes that may have involved injury to the cervical spine. A questionnaire and data file analysis were employed to highlight whatever hypothetical relationship might emerge with the development of symptomatic myelopathy. Fourteen traumatic episodes in the course of a follow-up of 44 months (median) were recorded in our group (who had been instructed to avoid risky activities), with no significant association with the development of symptomatic myelopathy (found in 45 cases). Only three minor traumatic events without fracture of the cervical spine were found among the symptomatic myelopathy cases, with no chronological relationship between trauma and myelopathy. Furthermore, 56 traumatic spinal cord events were found before the diagnosis of cervical cord encroachment was established, with no correlation to either type of compression (discogenic vs osteophytic). In conclusion, the risk of spinal cord injury after minor trauma of the cervical spine in patients with ASCCE appeared to be low in our cohort provided risky activities in these individuals are restricted. Implementation of preventive surgical decompression surgery into clinical practice in these individuals should be postponed until better-designed studies provide proof enough for it to take precedence over a conservative approach. PMID:20587498

  1. Impact of length of cryopreservation and origin of cord blood units on hematologic recovery following cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, N; Frassoni, F; Chiba, S; Podestà, M

    2015-06-01

    As the history of the cord blood banking system has lengthened, the number of cord blood units (CBUs) cryopreserved for years has increased. The global expansion of cord blood banking resulted in active international exchange of CBUs. To determine whether long-term cryopreservation and international shipment of CBUs affect the quality of the units and outcome after transplantation, we retrospectively analyzed the quality of 95 CBUs and the hematologic recovery of 127 patients with hematological malignancy following single-unit cord blood transplantation. Of the 127 CBUs used to transplant, 42 units were cryopreserved for long periods (5-11.8 years), and 44 units were shipped from distant countries. We found that length of cryopreservation and origin of CBUs did not affect the ratio of viable total-nucleated cells after thawing. Also, neutrophil engraftment was not affected by long-term cryopreservation (> 5 years) or origin (from distant countries), (hazard ratio, 0.91 and 1.2; P=0.65 and 0.41; respectively). The number of CD34(+) cells before freezing (> 1.4 cells/kg recipient) was the only factor that enhanced neutrophil engraftment (hazard ratio, 1.8; P<0.01). This suggests that length of cryopreservation and origin need not be prioritized over the CD34(+) cell dose when selecting CBUs. PMID:25798681

  2. Towards a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) for restoration of function after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdoost, Shahab; Frost, Shawn; Van Acker, Gustaf; DeJong, Stacey; Dunham, Caleb; Barbay, Scott; Nudo, Randolph; Mohseni, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 6 million people in the United States are currently living with paralysis in which 23% of the cases are related to spinal cord injury (SCI). Miniaturized closed-loop neural interfaces have the potential for restoring function and mobility lost to debilitating neural injuries such as SCI by leveraging recent advancements in bioelectronics and a better understanding of the processes that underlie functional and anatomical reorganization in an injured nervous system. This paper describes our current progress towards developing a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) that is envisioned to convert in real time the neural command signals recorded from the brain to electrical stimuli delivered to the spinal cord below the injury level. Specifically, the paper reports on a corticospinal interface integrated circuit (IC) as a core building block for such a BMSI that is capable of low-noise recording of extracellular neural spikes from the cerebral cortex as well as muscle activation using intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) in a rat with contusion injury to the thoracic spinal cord. The paper further presents results from a neurobiological study conducted in both normal and SCI rats to investigate the effect of various ISMS parameters on movement thresholds in the rat hindlimb. Coupled with proper signal-processing algorithms in the future for the transformation between the cortically recorded data and ISMS parameters, such a BMSI has the potential to facilitate functional recovery after an SCI by re-establishing corticospinal communication channels lost due to the injury. PMID:25570002

  3. Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Using a Myeloablative Preparative Regimen for Hematological Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL); Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Plasma Cell Leukemia; Myelofibrosis; Myelodysplasia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle-Cell Lymphoma; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma; Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Burkitt's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma

  4. Differentiation of human bone marrow precursor cells into neuronal-like cells after transplantation into canine spinal cord organotypic slice cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Zhi-qiang; XIONG Jian-yi; CHEN Lei; SHEN Hui-yong; Ngo Stephanie; Wang Jeffrey; WANG Da-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatments to regenerate different tissue involving the transplantation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal precursor cells are anticipated.Using an alternative methods,in vitro organotypic slice culture method,would be useful to transplant cells and assessing the effects.This study was to determine the possibility of differentiating human bone marrow precursor cells into cells of the neuronal lineage by transplanting into canine spinal cord organotypic slice cultures.Methods Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from posterior superior iliac spine(PSIS)of patients that had undergone spinal fusion due to a degenerative spinal disorder.For cell imaging,mesenchymal precursor cells(MPCs)were pre-stained with PKH-26 just before transplantation to canine spinal cord slices.Canine spinal cord tissues were obtained from three adult beagle dogs.Spinal cords were cut into transverse slices of 1 mm using tissue chopper.Two slices were transferred into 6-well plate containing 3 ml DMEM with antibiotics.Prepared MPCs(1×104)were transplanted into spinal cord slices.On days 0,3,7,14,MPCs were observed for morphological changes and expression of neuronal markers through immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).Results The morphological study showed:spherical cells in the control and experiment groups on day 0;and on day 3,cells in the control group had one or two thick,short processes and ones in the experiment group had three or four thin,long processes.On day 7,these variously-sized processes contacted each other in the experiment group,but showed typical spindle-shaped cells in the control group.Immunofluorescence showed that PKH-26(+)MPCs stained positive for NeuN(+)and GFAP(+)in experimental group only.Also RT-PCR showed weak expression of β-tubulinⅢ?and GFAP.Conclusions Human bone marrow mesenchymal precursor cells(hMPCs)have the potential to differentiate into the neuronal like cells in this canine spinal cord organotypic

  5. [Acute ischemic spinal cord disease. Spinal cord infarction. A clinical study and MRI in 8 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau Serradell, A

    1994-01-01

    Acute spinal cord infarction (ASCI) occurs infrequently and may have diverse causes. The diagnosis of ASCI, and particularly of an anterior spinal artery syndrome (ASAS) can be confirmed nowadays by MRI, whereas in the past only necropsy confirmation was possible. Pathophysiology and long-term prognosis may be better known at present and treatments more consistent. We present the longitudinal study and clinical features of 8 patients suffering from ASCI. All of them were personally studied and had MRI examinations, often with sequential studies. three groups must be considered: one included 4 cases of ASAS at cervical level, the second 2 cases of ASAS at thoracic level and the third group with infarction of the conus medullaris (ICM), one of them developed during surgical repair of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Motor and sensory sequelae were assessed in each case together with possible etiological factors. In conclusion, recovery after ASAS tends to be dependent on the severity of the initial deficit. At cervical level, clinical and morphological findings argue in favour of an extrinsic selective compression of the C7 right radiculo-medullary artery as responsible for the ASA. At thoracic level, the artery preferentially occluded seems to be the sulco-commisural artery as a consequence of disc compression. Finally, an underlying peculiarity of the pattern of arterial supply is a probable predisposing factor for ICM. Generally, the long-term prognosis of ASCI is not necessarily bad. PMID:7801036

  6. Cord around neck in singleton term pregnancies and its outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enlist the complications with nuchal cord in singleton term pregnancies and to determine maternal and fetal outcome in singleton term pregnancies. Design: Descriptive study. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out at Gynaecology and Obstetric department Combined Military Hospital Quetta from Nov 2007 to May 2008. Patients and methods: One hundred women irrespective of parity with healthy, singleton term pregnancy and cephalic presentation, labouring or not labouring, were selected from outpatient department. A total of 41 patients were booked with Doppler ultrasound done in antenatal period. Other 59 were poorly booked and diagnosed with cord around neck by clinical criteria e.g. high head at term, fetal distress, meconium discharge, slow progress in labour leading to prolonged labour. All patients signed well informed written proforma regarding study and its outcome. Vigilant feto maternal monitoring was done during labour. All events during labour were mentioned in proformas which were attached with patients case notes. Data was interperated in term of frequency and percentages. Results: Complications with cord around neck found were still birth 3%, fetal distress 15%, intrauterine death 1%. Prolonged labour was seen in 14%, Meconium discharge in 5%, and high presenting part was found in 11% of cases. Maternal outcome were elective caesarean section in 6%, emergency caesarean-section in 32%, spontaneous vaginal delivery in 54% and instrumental vaginal delivery in 8% of the cases. Different fetal outcomes seen were intrauterine death, stillbirth in 1%, and 3% patients respectively. Regarding neonatal outcome, 31% stayed in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for less than 48 hours, 69% stayed in NICU for more than 48 hours out of which 4% had early neonatal deaths (ENND). Fifty nine percent patients detected and suspected during labour were with, high head, slow progress in labour, decreased fetal movements, intra partum fetal distress, meconium

  7. Conversion of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood into hepatocyte-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fang-ting; FANG Jia-zhi; YU Jie; WAN Hui-juan; YE Jing; LONG Xia; YIN Mei-jun; HUANG Chun-qiao

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the differentiation of human umbilical cord blood cells into hepatocyte-like cells. Methods: Mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from human umbilical cord blood were isolated using Ficoll. The experiment was derived into 3 categories: (1) MNCs co-cultured with 50 mg minced liver tissue separated by a trans-well membrane and then collected at 0 h,24 h,48 h and 72 h; (2) MNCs cultured along supplemented with 100 ml/L FBS, 100 μ/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 4. 7 μg/ml linoleic acid, 1×ITS, 10-4 mol/L L-Ascorbic acid 2-P and a combination of FGF4 (100 ng/ml) and HGF (20 ng/Ml). Cells were then collected at 0 d and 16 d to examine the expression profile of hepatocyte correlating markers; (3) 0.2-0.3 ml of MNCs with a cell density of 2×107/ml were transplanted into prepared recipient mice [n= 12, injected with 0.4 ml/kg (20%) CCl4 and 150 ng/kg 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) prior the transplant 24 h and 48 h, respectively] via injection through tail vein. Mice were sacrificed 4 weeks after transplantation. The hepatocyte correlating mRNAs and proteins were determined by RTPCR, immunohistochemical analysis and immunoflurence technique. Results: (1) After 72 h, a number of glycogen positive stained cells were observed with MNCs co-cultured with damaged mouse liver tissues.The expression of hepatocyte markers, human albumin (ALB), α-fetal protein (AFP) and human GATA4 Mrna and proteins were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry as well. For the confirmation,the DNA sequencing of PCR products was performed. In control groups, MNCs co-cultured with normal mouse hepatocytes or MNCs cultured alone, all markers remained negative. (2) In growth factor supplemented culture system, MNCs developed into larger volume with richer cytoplasm and binucleation after 16 d. Positive expression of ALB, AFP, CK18 and CK19 Mrna were detected with RT-PCR, and ALB positive staining was observed by immunocytochemistry as well. In contrast, MNCs cultured without

  8. Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Perrier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal neuronal networks are essential for motor function. They are involved in the integration of sensory inputs and the generation of rhythmic motor outputs. They continuously adapt their activity to the internal state of the organism and to the environment. This plasticity can be provided by different neuromodulators. These substances are usually thought of being released by dedicated neurons. However, in other networks from the central nervous system synaptic transmission is also modulated by transmitters released from astrocytes. The star-shaped glial cell responds to neurotransmitters by releasing gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic transmission. Here we investigated if astrocytes present in the ventral horn of the spinal cord modulate synaptic transmission. We evoked synaptic inputs in ventral horn neurons recorded in a slice preparation from the spinal cord of neonatal mice. Neurons responded to electrical stimulation by monosynaptic EPSCs. We used mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the glial fibrillary acidic protein to identify astrocytes. Chelating calcium with BAPTA in a single neighboring astrocyte increased the amplitude of synaptic currents. In contrast, when we selectively stimulated astrocytes by activating PAR-1 receptors with the peptide TFLLR, the amplitude of EPSCs evoked by a paired stimulation protocol was reduced. The paired-pulse ratio was increased, suggesting an inhibition occurring at the presynaptic side of synapses. In the presence of blockers for extracellular ectonucleotidases, TFLLR did not induce presynaptic inhibition. Puffing adenosine reproduced the effect of TFLLR and blocking adenosine A1 receptors with DPCPX prevented it. Altogether our results show that ventral horn astrocytes are responsible for a tonic and a phasic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by releasing ATP, which gets converted into adenosine that binds to inhibitory

  9. Multiple monoaminergic modulation of posturo-locomotor network activity in the newborn rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane eBeliez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies devoted to understanding locomotor control have mainly addressed the functioning of the neural circuits controlling leg movements and relatively little is known of the operation of networks that activate trunk muscles in coordination with limb movements. The aim of the present work was (1 to identify the exogenous neurotransmitter cocktail that most strongly activates postural thoracic circuitry; (2 to investigate how the biogenic amines serotonin (5-HT, dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA modulate the coordination between limb and axial motor networks. Experiments were carried out on in vitro isolated spinal cord preparations from newborn rats. We recorded from ventral roots to monitor hindlimb locomotor and axial postural network activity. Each combination of the three amines with excitatory amino acids (EAAs elicited coordinated rhythmic motor activity at all segmental levels with specific characteristics. The variability in cycle period was similar with 5-HT and DA while it was significantly higher with NA. DA elicited motor bursts of smaller amplitude in thoracic segments compared to 5-HT and NA, while both DA and NA elicited motor bursts of higher amplitude than 5-HT in the lumbar and sacral segments. The amines modulated the phase relationships of bursts in various segments with respect to the reference lumbar segment. At the thoracic level there was a phase lag between all recorded segments in the presence of 5-HT, while DA and NA elicited synchronous bursting. At the sacral level, 5-HT and DA induced an intersegmental phase shift while relationships became phase-locked with NA. Various combinations of EAAs with two or even all three amines elicited rhythmic motor output that was more variable than with one amine alone. Our results provide new data on the coordinating processes between spinal cord networks, demonstrating that each amine has a characteristic signature regarding its specific effect on intersegmental phase

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging of the spinal cord at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The feasibility of highly resolved diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the human cervical spinal cord was tested on a clinical MR unit operating at 3.0 Tesla. DTI parametrical maps and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were compared to results recorded at 1.5 Tesla. Materials and Methods: Eight healthy volunteers and one patient participated in the study. A transverse oriented single-shot ECG-triggered echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence with double spin-echo diffusion preparation was applied for highly resolved DTI of the spinal cord. The signal yield, fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD) were compared for both field strengths. The clinical applicability of the protocol was also tested in one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at 3.0 T. Results: A mean increase in SNR of 95.7 ± 4.6% was found at 3.0 Tesla compared to 1.5 Tesla. Improved quality of the DTI parametrical maps was observed at higher field strength (p < 0.02). Comparable FA and MD (reported in units of 10 - 3 mm2/s) values were computed in the dorsal white matter at both field strengths (1.5 T: FA = 0.75 ± 0.08, MD = 0.84 ± 0.12, 3.0 T: FA 0.74 ± 0.04, MD = 0.93 ± 0.14). The DTI images exhibited diagnostic image quality in the patient. At the site of the diseased corticospinal tract, a decrease of 46.0 ± 3.8% in FA (0.40 ± 0.03) and an increase of 50.3 ± 5.6% in MD (1.40 ± 0.05) were found in the ALS patient. (orig.)

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging of the spinal cord at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, C. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie; CNR-INFM CRS-Soft, La Sapienza-Univ. Roma (Italy); Enrico Fern Center, Roma (Italy); Boss, A.; Martirosian, P.; Steidle, G.; Schick, F. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie; Lindig, T.M. [Enrico Fern Center, Roma (Italy); Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Kernspinresonanz des ZNS; Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Neurologie und Hertie-Inst. fuer klinische Hirnforschung; Maetzler, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Neurologie und Hertie-Inst. fuer klinische Hirnforschung; Claussen, C.D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Klose, U. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Kernspinresonanz des ZNS

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of highly resolved diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the human cervical spinal cord was tested on a clinical MR unit operating at 3.0 Tesla. DTI parametrical maps and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were compared to results recorded at 1.5 Tesla. Materials and Methods: Eight healthy volunteers and one patient participated in the study. A transverse oriented single-shot ECG-triggered echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence with double spin-echo diffusion preparation was applied for highly resolved DTI of the spinal cord. The signal yield, fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD) were compared for both field strengths. The clinical applicability of the protocol was also tested in one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at 3.0 T. Results: A mean increase in SNR of 95.7 {+-} 4.6% was found at 3.0 Tesla compared to 1.5 Tesla. Improved quality of the DTI parametrical maps was observed at higher field strength (p < 0.02). Comparable FA and MD (reported in units of 10 - 3 mm2/s) values were computed in the dorsal white matter at both field strengths (1.5 T: FA = 0.75 {+-} 0.08, MD = 0.84 {+-} 0.12, 3.0 T: FA = 0.74 {+-} 0.04, MD = 0.93 {+-} 0.14). The DTI images exhibited diagnostic image quality in the patient. At the site of the diseased corticospinal tract, a decrease of 46.0 {+-} 3.8% in FA (0.40 {+-} 0.03) and an increase of 50.3 {+-} 5.6% in MD (1.40 {+-} 0.05) were found in the ALS patient. (orig.)

  12. The effect of nuchal cord on nuchal fold thickness measured in the second trimester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To find out whether nuchal cord causes an effect on the nuchal skin fold thickness (NFT) measurements, or not. Patients and methods: A total of 242 fetuses with normal outcomes that had undergone detailed second trimester US scan between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation were included in the study. NFT measurements were made on axial cranial US images passing through the cerebellum and cavum septi pellucidum. To detect nuchal cord, color Doppler imaging was performed on the axial views of the fetal neck. To investigate the differences in NFT measurements of the fetuses with or without nuchal cord, statistical analysis was performed using Mann–Whitney test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The study group was divided into two groups: nuchal cord (+) (n: 26) and nuchal cord (−) (n: 216) fetuses. Mean NFT measurements were 4.66 ± 0.64 mm and 4.36 ± 0.79 mm for nuchal cord (+) and nuchal cord (−) fetuses, respectively. Median NFT measurement for nuchal cord (+) fetuses was 4.6 mm, whereas it was 4.4 mm for nuchal cord (−) fetuses. Statistically significant difference was denoted between two groups, in terms of NFT measurements (P = 0.049). Conclusion: NFT measurements of fetuses with nuchal cord are higher than the NFT measurements of fetuses without nuchal cord. One can conclude that the nuchal cord (+) fetuses with no other anomalies but increased NFT should be re-scanned to see if the increased NFT resolves in the absence of nuchal cord.

  13. Spinal cord compression due to primary intramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord presenting as paraplegia: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case illustrates the risk of misdiagnosis and the importance of histological confirmation of a pathological lesion as spinal cord tuberculoma prior to surgical therapy, which should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis of the intramedullary spinal cord tumors.

  14. Oligodendrocyte-like cell transplantation for acute spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongtao Xu; Anmin Chen; Feng Li; Hougeng Lu

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used insulin-like growth factor-1 to induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into oligodendrocyte-like cells. Cell surface marker identification showed that they expressed myelin basic protein and galactosylceramide, two specific markers of oligodendrocytes. These cells were transplanted into rats with acute spinal cord injury at T10. At 8 weeks post-implantation, oligodendrocyte-like cells were observed to have survived at the injury site. The critical angle of the inclined plane, and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores were all increased. Furthermore, latencies of motion-evoked and somatosensory-evoked potentials were decreased. These results demonstrate that transplantation of oligodendrocytic-induced MSCs promote functional recovery of injured spinal cord.

  15. Photoplethysmographic sensors for perfusion measurements in spinal cord tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P; Kyriacou, P A, E-mail: Justin.Phillips.1@city.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    Sensors for recording photoplethysmographic signals from the nervous tissue of the spinal cord are described. The purpose of these sensors is to establish whether perfusion is compromised in various states of injury which occur in certain animal models of spinal cord injury, for example compression injury. Various measures of perfusion are applicable such as the amplitude of the photoplethysmograph signal and the oxygen saturation, measured using a dual wavelength configuration. Signals are usually compared to baseline measurements made in uninjured subjects. This paper describes two types of probe, one based on optical fibres, and one in which optotes are placed in direct contact with the tissue surface. Results from a study based on a compression model utilising a fibreoptic sensor are presented.

  16. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation outcome: the impact of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkony, G M; Roth, E J; Heinemann, A W; Lovell, L L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of age on self-care and mobility skill performance after spinal cord injury was studied using a 15-task modified Barthel Index (MBI) to score functional abilities for 708 patients aged 6 through 88 years. Analysis of covariance showed no relationship between age and discharge MBI score; however, patients with paraplegia, incomplete lesions, and greater admission functional ratings had greater discharge functional scores than did those with quadriplegia, complete lesions, and lower admission scores, respectively. Advancing age was associated with increased dependence in only seven functional skills (bathing, upper and lower body dressing, stair climbing, and transfers to chair, toilet and bath) and only for patients with complete paraplegia. Other MBI component tasks and patients with complete quadriplegia, incomplete paraplegia and incomplete quadriplegia demonstrated no relationship between age and skill performance. Results of this study support the practice of providing comprehensive rehabilitation services to all patients following spinal cord injury regardless of age. PMID:3335882

  17. International urodynamic basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craggs, M.; Kennelly, M.; Schick, E.; Wyndaele, J.J.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create the International Urodynamic Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: The draft of the data set was developed by a working group consisting of members appointed by the...... Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version...... of the data set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested (international) organizations and societies (around 40) and persons and the ISCoS Council...

  18. Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schenk, Désirée; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F

    2015-01-01

    Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach. PMID:25673988

  19. Stem Cells: New Hope For Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazdic Marina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy offers several attractive strategies for spinal cord repair. The regenerative potential of pluripotent stem cells was confirmed in an animal model of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI; nevertheless, optimized growth and differentiation protocols along with reliable safety assays should be established prior to the clinical application of hESCs and iPSCs. Th e therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in SCI result from neurotrophin secretion, angiogenesis, and antiinflammatory actions. Several preclinical SCI studies have reported that the occurrence of axonal extension, remyelination and neuroprotection occur after the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs. The transplantation of neural stem cells NSCs (NSCs promotes partial functional improvement after SCI because of their potential to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. The ideal source of stem cells for safe and efficient cell-based therapy for SCI remains a challenging issue that requires further investigation.

  20. Fostering public cord blood banking and research in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Rosario; Dalpe, Gratien; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2013-12-01

    In June 2013, Canadian Blood Services (CBS) established the National Public Cord Blood Bank (NPCBB) accessible to Canadian and international patients and researchers. The NPCBB promotes efforts that contribute to research and improved clinical care by making units not suitable for banking or transplantation available for research. In the context of the NPCBB of the CBS, this article will focus on the practical tools (e.g., consent protocols) developed to optimize umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking and research while enabling ethical provenance of UCB stem cells. The Canadian approach represents an ideal model for comparison as it is a country in which the national public bank (and other regional/provincial public banks) coexists with private companies. PMID:24304072

  1. A clinicopathological analysis of unusual extraventricular neurocytoma of spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Extraventricular neurocytoma (EVN is an unusual tumor and has been recently accepted as a new brain tumor entity by World Health Organization (WHO classification. It has been reported in several locations outside the typical supratentorial ventricular system, including the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, pons, spinal cord, cauda equine and retina. Only a few cases have been described in the spinal cord in the literature. It is a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and histopathologists to differentiate EVN from other spinal tumors because of its similarities in histological and immunohistochemical findings, as well as its non-specific radiological manifestation. Herein we describe a case of unusual intramedullary EVN in spinal cord. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary EVN occurring C6-T3 level of spinal cord was presented retrospectively. Gross totally resected mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako EnVision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including vimentin (Vim, cytokeratin (CK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, S-100 protein (S-100, synaptophysin (Syn, chromogranin (CgA, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, Neuronal nuclei (NeuN, oligodendrocytes transcription factor-2 (Oligo-2 and Ki-67. Results A 47-year-old male patient presented with 1 year history of weakness in both upper limbs associated with an increasing neck back pain. There was no paraesthesia in limbs. MRI of the whole spine revealed a heterogeneous intramedullary mass resembling an ependymoma extending from the C6 to T3 level with heterogeneous enhancement after contrast administration. Laminectomy and midline opening of the dura were performed. The spinal lesion appeared to have no capsule and locate intramedullary. The lesion did not

  2. Cervical spine cord compression by eosinophilic granuloma. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Silva, E B; Noujaim J el-K; Carnevale, F

    1999-06-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a term reserved for the most often and benign form of disorder known as Langerhans cells histiocytosis. It is a disease of children and adolescents that very rarely affects adults, representing the localized form of a pathological proliferation of histiocytes in bones, like skull and long bones. Vertebral involvement is uncommon, approximately 8% of the cases, being the cervical localization the least affected. Moreover, the involvement of the spinal cord and roots remains a rare occurrence. Only five cases characterized by signs of cervical spinal cord compression have been reported. We report the sixth case in a 42-year-old-man who evolved with resolution of symptoms, and has remained asymptomatic after treatment. The clinical, radiological and histological features and, also, the value, in selected cases, of surgical treatment followed by low-dose radiation therapy is discussed. A review of the pertinent literature is also presented. PMID:10450361

  3. In Vivo Reprogramming for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wernig, Marius; Berninger, Benedikt; Nakafuku, Masato; Parmar, Malin; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Cell reprogramming technologies have enabled the generation of various specific cell types including neurons from readily accessible patient cells, such as skin fibroblasts, providing an intriguing novel cell source for autologous cell transplantation. However, cell transplantation faces several difficult hurdles such as cell production and purification, long-term survival, and functional integration after transplantation. Recently, in vivo reprogramming, which makes use of endogenous cells for regeneration purpose, emerged as a new approach to circumvent cell transplantation. There has been evidence for in vivo reprogramming in the mouse pancreas, heart, and brain and spinal cord with various degrees of success. This mini review summarizes the latest developments presented in the first symposium on in vivo reprogramming glial cells into functional neurons in the brain and spinal cord, held at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in Washington, DC. PMID:26730402

  4. Molecular Imaging in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahuan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious disease of the center nervous system (CNS. It is a devastating injury with sudden loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function distal to the level of trauma and produces great personal and societal costs. Currently, there are no remarkable effective therapies for the treatment of SCI. Compared to traditional treatment methods, stem cell transplantation therapy holds potential for repair and functional plasticity after SCI. However, the mechanism of stem cell therapy for SCI remains largely unknown and obscure partly due to the lack of efficient stem cell trafficking methods. Molecular imaging technology including positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, optical imaging (i.e., bioluminescence imaging (BLI gives the hope to complete the knowledge concerning basic stem cell biology survival, migration, differentiation, and integration in real time when transplanted into damaged spinal cord. In this paper, we mainly review the molecular imaging technology in stem cell therapy for SCI.

  5. Glycoconjugates Distribution during Developing Mouse Spinal Cord Motor Organizers

    OpenAIRE

    Vojoudi, Elham; Ebrahimi, Vahid; Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Alireza; Fazel, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to study the distribution and changes of glycoconjugates particularly their terminal sugars by using lectin histochemistry during mouse spinal cord development. Methods: Formalin-fixed sections of mouse embryo (10-16 fetal days) were processed for lectin histochemical method. In this study, two groups of horseradish peroxidase -labeled specific lectins were used: N-acetylgalactosamine, including Dolichos biflorus, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), ...

  6. Emerging Role of Spinal Cord TRPV1 in Pain Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-In Choi; Ji Yeon Lim; Sungjae Yoo; Hyun Kim; Sun Wook Hwang

    2016-01-01

    TRPV1 is well known as a sensor ion channel that transduces a potentially harmful environment into electrical depolarization of the peripheral terminal of the nociceptive primary afferents. Although TRPV1 is also expressed in central regions of the nervous system, its roles in the area remain unclear. A series of recent reports on the spinal cord synapses have provided evidence that TRPV1 plays an important role in synaptic transmission in the pain pathway. Particularly, in pathologic pain st...

  7. Neurological Outcome in Road Traffic Accidents with Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Moslavac, Saša; DŽIDIĆ, Ivan; Kejla, Zvonko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate neurological outcome in road traffic accidents (RTA) with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was undertaken in National Spinal Unit of Special Medical Rehabilitation Hospital, in Vara`dinske Toplice, Croatia. Hospital records of 154 inpatient RTA SCI patients, in years 1991–2001 were reviewed. Six groups of patients were formed: car drivers, co-drivers, back seat passengers, motorcycle drivers, bicycle drivers and pedestrians. Neurological ...

  8. Training a Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Team in Motivational Interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Lusilla-Palacios; Carmina Castellano-Tejedor

    2015-01-01

    Background. An acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) is a severe condition that requires extensive and very specialized management of both physical and psychological dimensions of injured patients. Objective. The aim of the part of the study reported here was twofold: (1) to describe burnout, empathy, and satisfaction at work of these professionals and (2) to explore whether a tailored program based on motivational interviewing (MI) techniques modifies and improves such features. Methods. This pape...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury and Osteoporosis: Causes, Mechanisms, and Rehabilitation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Can Ozan; Battaglino, Ricardo A; Morse, Leslie R.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) has a huge impact on the individual, society and the economy. Though advances in acute care resulted in greatly reduced co-morbidities, there has been much less progress preventing long-term sequelae of SCI. Among the long-term consequences of SCI is bone loss (osteoporosis) due to the mechanical unloading of the paralyzed limbs and vascular dysfunction below the level of injury. Though osteoporosis may be partially prevented via pharmacologic interventions during the...

  10. Malnutrition in Spinal Cord Injury: More Than Nutritional Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Denervation of the spinal cord below the level of injury leads to complications producing malnutrition. Nutritional status affects mortality and pathology of injured subjects and it has been reported that two thirds of individuals enrolled in rehabilitation units are malnourished. Therefore, the aim should be either to maintain an optimal nutritional status, or supplement these subjects in order to overcome deficiencies in nutrients or prevent obesity. This paper reviews methods of nutritiona...

  11. FITNESS AND CONDITIONING DURING SPINAL CORD INJURY (SCI) REHABILITATION.

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Woude, Lucas HV; de Groot, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Little is known of the outcome and effectiveness of clinical rehabilitation on physical activity, mobility, fitness, functioning in society or quality of life. A multi-disciplinary research collaboration and multicenter prospective cohort study (www.scionn.nl) was conducted and studied the course of restoration of mobility of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) served as a conceptual framework. A total of 225 SCI ...

  12. Spinal cord involvement in a child with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gokce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL has known to be limited to the brain, brain stem, and cerebellum. Herein, we report an 11-year-old boy who presented with neurological symptoms and was diagnosed as FHL by molecular diagnosis. The hemophagocytic lesions in the CNS were shown to extend to the thoracal level of spinal cord which completely disappeared after the completion of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol.

  13. Modulation by Substance P in the Lamprey Spinal Cord

    OpenAIRE

    Thörn Pérez, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Neuromodulation is a key element for animal adaptation to environmental circumstances. Neuromodulators can alter the output of a physiological system by acting on the motor circuit by transforming intrinsic firing properties and altering synaptic strength. Substance P belongs to the family of tachykinin, which are peptidergic neuromodulators. The main focus of this thesis has been to characterize the effects of substance P in neurons and networks in the lamprey spinal cord. ...

  14. Sexual Health of Women with Spinal Cord Injury in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Huib Cornielje; Reshma Parvin Nuri; Noortje Pauline Maria Lubbers; van Brakel, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify factors influencing the sexual health of women with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Bangladesh.Methods: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative part used a case-control design. Cases were women with SCI and controls were age-matched women without SCI.  Questionnaires were used to collect data concerning the sexual health status of women. Multivariate logistic regression was done to determine which factors had an independent effect on sexual...

  15. Spinal cord injury and its association with blunt head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva WS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wellingson S Paiva, Arthur MP Oliveira, Almir F Andrade, Robson LO Amorim, Leonardo JO Lourenço, Manoel J TeixeiraDivision of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Severe and moderate head injury can cause misdiagnosis of a spinal cord injury, leading to devastating long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors involving spine trauma and moderate-to-severe brain injury.Methods: A prospective study involving 1617 patients admitted in the emergency unit was carried out. Of these patients, 180 with moderate or severe head injury were enrolled. All patients were submitted to three-view spine series X-ray and thin cut axial CT scans for spine trauma investigations.Results: 112 male patients and 78 female patients, whose ages ranged from 11 to 76 years (mean age, 34 years. The most common causes of brain trauma were pedestrians struck by motor vehicles (31.1%, car crashes (27.7%, and falls (25%. Systemic lesions were present in 80 (44.4% patients and the most common were fractures, and lung and spleen injuries. 52.8% had severe and 47.2% moderate head trauma. Fourteen patients (7.8% suffered spinal cord injury (12 in cervical spine, one in lumbar, and one thoracic spine. In elderly patients, the presence of associated lesions and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS < 9 were statistically significant as risk factors (P < 0.05 for spine injury.Conclusion: Spinal cord injury related to moderate and severe brain trauma usually affects the cervical spine. The incidence of spinal lesions and GCS < 9 points were related to greater incidence of spinal cord injury.Keywords: head injury, spine trauma, risk factors

  16. Retinoic Acid Signaling during Early Spinal Cord Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Diez del Corral; Morales, Aixa V

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid signaling is required at several steps during the development of the spinal cord, from the specification of generic properties to the final acquisition of neuronal subtype identities, including its role in trunk neural crest development. These functions are associated with the production of retinoic acid in specific tissues and are highly dependent on context. Here, we review the defects associated with retinoic acid signaling manipulations, mostly in chick and mouse models, tr...

  17. Transient Spinal Cord Ischemia as Presenting Manifestation of Polycythemia Vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Costa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Spinal arterial vascularization is supplied by a large anastomotic net, making spinal ischemic events far less common than ischemic cerebral strokes. Polycythemia vera, due to blood hyperviscosity and activated platelet aggregation, is associated with a higher risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. We report a patient with spinal cord transient ischemic attacks, a rarely presenting manifestation, and polycythemia vera, which highlights the thrombotic potential of this disease, and the requirement of exhaustive diagnostic workout of a spinal ischemic event.

  18. Transient Spinal Cord Ischemia as Presenting Manifestation of Polycythemia Vera

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Sónia; Marques, Joana; Barradas, Anabela; Valverde, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Spinal arterial vascularization is supplied by a large anastomotic net, making spinal ischemic events far less common than ischemic cerebral strokes. Polycythemia vera, due to blood hyperviscosity and activated platelet aggregation, is associated with a higher risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. We report a patient with spinal cord transient ischemic attacks, a rarely presenting manifestation, and polycythemia vera, which highlights the thrombotic potential of this disease, and the...

  19. Respiratory Management in the Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Galeiras Vázquez; Pedro Rascado Sedes; Mónica Mourelo Fariña; Antonio Montoto Marqués; M. Elena Ferreiro Velasco

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC) is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with s...

  20. Morphine Self-Administration following Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Woller, Sarah A.; Malik, Jamal S.; Aceves, Miriam; Hook, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain develops in up to two-thirds of people following spinal cord injury (SCI). Opioids are among the most effective treatments for this pain and are commonly prescribed. There is concern surrounding the use of these analgesics, however, because use is often associated with the development of addiction. Previous data suggests that this concern may not be relevant in the presence of neuropathic pain. Yet, despite the common prescription of opioids for the treatment of SCI-related p...

  1. Provocative Testing for Embolization of Spinal Cord AVMs

    OpenAIRE

    Niimi, Y.; Sala, F; Deletis, V; Berenstein, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate efficacy and reliability of chemical provocative testing using neurophysiological monitoring prior to embolization of spinal cord AVMs (SCAVMs). We performed retrospective analysis of provocative testing using sodium amytal and lidocaine injected superselectively in 41 angiography and/ or embolization procedures in 26 patients with a SCAVM, including 23 amytal and 26 lidocaine injections. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia using neu...

  2. Neurotoxic effects of levobupivacaine and fentanyl on rat spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to compare the neurotoxic effects of intrathecally administered levobupivacaine, fentanyl and their mixture on rat spinal cord. METHODS: In experiment, there were four groups with medication and a control group. Rats were injected 15 µL saline or fentanyl 0.0005 µg/15 µL, levobupivacaine 0.25%/15 µL and fentanyl 0.0005 µg + le...

  3. Neurotoxic effects of levobupivacaine and fentanyl on rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Cokay Abut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to compare the neurotoxic effects of intrathecally administered levobupivacaine, fentanyl and their mixture on rat spinal cord. METHODS: In experiment, there were four groups with medication and a control group. Rats were injected 15 µL saline or fentanyl 0.0005 µg/15 µL, levobupivacaine 0.25%/15 µL and fentanyl 0.0005 µg + levobupivacaine 0.25%/15 µL intrathecally for four days. Hot plate test was performed to assess neurologic function after each injection at 5th, 30th and 60th min. Five days after last lumbal injection, spinal cord sections between the T5 and T6 vertebral levels were obtained for histologic analysis. A score based on subjective assessment of number of eosinophilic neurons - Red neuron - which means irreversible neuronal degeneration. They reflect the approximate number of degenerating neurons present in the affected neuroanatomic areas as follows: 1, none; 2, 1-20%; 3, 21-40%; 4, 41-60%; and 5, 61-100% dead neurons. An overall neuropathologic score was calculated for each rat by summating the pathologic scores for all spinal cord areas examined. RESULTS: In the results of HPT, comparing the control group, analgesic latency statistically prolonged for all four groups.In neuropathologic investment, the fentanyl and fentanyl + levobupivacaine groups have statistically significant high degenerative neuron counts than control and saline groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, when administered intrathecally in rats, fentanyl and levobupivacaine behave similar for analgesic action, but fentanyl may be neurotoxic for spinal cord. There was no significant degeneration with levobupivacaine, but fentanyl group has had significant degeneration.

  4. Microglia and Spinal Cord Synaptic Plasticity in Persistent Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Taves; Temugin Berta; Gang Chen; Ru-Rong Ji

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are regarded as macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in neuroinflammation in the CNS. Microglial activation has been strongly implicated in neurodegeneration in the brain. Increasing evidence also suggests an important role of spinal cord microglia in the genesis of persistent pain, by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α ), Interleukine-1beta (IL-1 β ), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In this ...

  5. A review of spinal cord injury decompression in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is major permanent sequelae of trauma with high burden and low frequency. In the setting of SCI is there any correlation between the timing of surgical decompression and sensory-motor improvement.Material and Methods: A literature review was performed using PUBMED from 1966 to 25th January 2010. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also reviewed.Results: The results of animal studies have shown that aside from the kind of procedure and s...

  6. Primitive roles for inhibitory interneurons in developing frog spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W-C; Higashijima, S-I; Parry, DM; Roberts, A.; Soffe, SR

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the neuronal networks in the mammal spinal cord is hampered by the diversity of neurons and their connections. The simpler networks in developing lower vertebrates may offer insights into basic organization. To investigate the function of spinal inhibitory interneurons in Xenopus tadpoles, paired whole-cell recordings were used.We show directly that one class of interneuron, with distinctive anatomy, produces lycinergic, negative feedback inhibition that can limit firing in moto...

  7. Amitriptyline pharmacokinetics in experimental spinal cord injury in the rabbit

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    Reihanikermani H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that pharmacokinetic behavior of several drugs such as paracetamol, theophylline, and aminoglycosides are significantly altered in spinal cord injured patients. No pharmacokinetic study of amitriptyline has been performed in patients and experimental models of spinal cord injury. Pharmacokinetic parameters of amitriptyline in orally treated rabbits subjected to laminectomy and spinal cord injury compared with those underwent laminectomy alone. Among twenty four male rabbits were included in this study, nine of them subjected to spinal cord injury at the 8 th thoracic level by knife severance method and six rabbits underwent laminectomy alone (sham group and nine rabbits treated as control. All received a single oral dose of amitriptyline (20 mg/kg 24 h after injury. Blood sampling were done at predetermined times to 36 h after drug administration. Amitriptyline concentration in serum samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters including maximum concentration (C max , time to reach maximum concentration (T max , half life, and the area under the curve to last detectable concentration time point (AUC 0-t were directly determined from the concentration-time curve. Maximum concentration was observed at 6.5 h after administration in sham group with a concentration of 439.6 ng/ml, whereas in SCI group T max was at 2.7 h with a concentration of 2763.9 ng/ml. In control group it was 3.3 h and 396 ng/ml, respectively. In SCI group, AUC was 9465.6 ng.h/ml and half life was 6 h and for control group it was 2817.4 ng.h/ml and 6.4 h, respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed that SCI didn′t induce significant changes in amitriptyline pharmacokinetic parameters.

  8. Cellular Transplantation Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury and Translational Neurobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Reier, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Basic science advances in spinal cord injury and regeneration research have led to a variety of novel experimental therapeutics designed to promote functionally effective axonal regrowth and sprouting. Among these interventions are cell-based approaches involving transplantation of neural and non-neural tissue elements that have potential for restoring damaged neural pathways or reconstructing intraspinal synaptic circuitries by either regeneration or neuronal/glial replacement. Nota...

  9. Spinal cord compression secondary to malignant disease (Superior sulcus tumour)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord compression from malignant disease is a complication of cancer. A high index of suspicion is required to make an early clinical diagnosis, which can be confirmed by appropriate radiological investigation. Quality of life particularly ambulation can be preserved with radiotherapy and in some situations surgery. In few instances paralysis can be reversed with treatment. This may delay as long as 15 months. (author)

  10. A Neural Model of Demyelination of the Mouse Spinal Cord

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska, Biljana; Yovel, Yossi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network model of demyelination of the mouse motor pathways, coupled to a central pattern generation (CPG) model for quadruped walking. Demyelination is the degradation of the myelin layer covering the axons which can be caused by several neurodegenerative autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We use this model - to our knowledge first of its kind - to investigate the locomotion deficits that appear following demyelination of axons in the spinal cord. Our...

  11. Impact of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Reactivation After Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Jill C.; Wagner, John E.; DeFor, Todd E.; Brunstein, Claudio G.; Schleiss, Mark R.; Young, Jo-Anne; Weisdorf, Daniel H.; Cooley, Sarah; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Verneris, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of pre-transplant CMV serostatus and post-transplant CMV reactivation and disease on umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) outcomes. Between 1994 and 2007, 332 patients with hematologic malignancies underwent UCBT and 54% were CMV seropositive. Pre-transplant recipient CMV serostatus had no impact on acute or chronic GVHD, relapse, DFS or OS. There was a trend toward greater day 100 TRM in CMV seropositive recipients (p=0.07). CMV reactivation occurred in 5...

  12. Low Rate of Infusional Toxicity following Expanded Cord Blood Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bear, Adham S.; Hanley, Patrick J; Bosque, Doyle M; Cruz, Conrad R.; Kaur, Indresh; Liu, Hao; Kebriaei, Partow; Hosing, Chitra; Rezvani, Katayoun; Oran, Betul; de Lima, Marcos J.; Bollard, Catherine M.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) is utilized with increasing frequency to restore hematopoiesis in bone marrow transplant patients lacking a suitable HLA-matched donor. CB transplantation is limited by low cell doses and delays in neutrophil and platelet engraftment. CB progenitors expanded ex vivo prior to transplantation provide more rapid hematopoietic and immune reconstitution, as well as less engraftment failure compared to unmanipulated CB. However, the safety of infusing double and ex vivo ex...

  13. Acute ketoprofen neurotoxicity in spinal cord of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Roger Wroclawski; Maria Tereza Gianotti Galupo; Irimar de Paula Posso; Desiré Carlos Callegari

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate possible spinal cord injury in rats followingdifferent doses of intrathecal ketoprofen. Methods: Animalswere divided into four groups of five rats each; 10 μl of anintrathecal solution were injected into the L6-S1 intervertebralspace. Ketoprofen 1% was injected in the first group; ketoprofen0.1% was injected in the second group; ketoprofen 0.01% wasinjected in the third group; and a sodium chloride 0.9% solutionwas injected in the Control Group. Histological sections of...

  14. The Potential of Curcumin in Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra Sanivarapu; Vijayalakshmi Vallabhaneni; Vivek Verma

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) is supportive at best; despite great efforts, the lack of better treatment solutions looms large on neurological science and medicine. Curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, a spice known for its medicinal and anti-inflammatory properties, has been validated to harbor immense effects for a multitude of inflammatory-based diseases. However, to date there has not been a review on curcumin's effects on SCI. Herein, we systematically review all...

  15. Stimulation-induced optical signals in rat spinal cord slices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2002), s. 34. ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glial Cell Function in Health and Disease.. Rome - Italy, 21.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:MSM 111300004; CEZ:MSM 5011112 Keywords : spinal cord Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.600, year: 2002

  16. The design of an embedded spinal cord stimulator

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇINKAYA, Fikret; ERBAŞ, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation is a physical therapy methodology utilizing electrical impulses, pulses, or a combination of various standard electrical waveforms to block pain. However, standard forms are not functioning effectively for each illness due to the unique conditions of the patient. Therefore, patient-specific waveforms (or user-defined waveforms) integrated with nondestructive, complete, or partially noninvasive and effective medical instruments to help relieve pain are required. In the ...

  17. The puerperium alters spinal cord plasticity following peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Silvia; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue and nerve damage can result in chronic pain. Yet, chronic pain after cesarean delivery is remarkably rare in women and hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury in rats resolves rapidly if the injury occurs in the puerperium. Little is known regarding the mechanisms of this protection except for a reliance on central nervous system oxytocin signaling. Here we show that density of inhibitory noradrenergic fibers in the spinal cord is greater when nerve injury is performed in rats du...

  18. Spatial organization and state-dependent mechanisms for respiratory rhythm and pattern generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Ilya A; Abdala, Ana P L; Markin, Sergey N; Paton, Julian F R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2007-01-01

    The brainstem respiratory network can operate in multiple functional states engaging different state-dependent neural mechanisms. These mechanisms were studied in the in situ perfused rat brainstem-spinal cord preparation using sequential brainstem transections and administration of riluzole, a pharmacological blocker of persistent sodium current (INaP). Dramatic transformations in the rhythmogenic mechanisms and respiratory motor pattern were observed after removal of the pons and subsequent medullary transactions down to the rostral end of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC). A computational model of the brainstem respiratory network was developed to reproduce and explain these experimental findings. The model incorporates several interacting neuronal compartments, including the ventral respiratory group (VRG), pre-BötC, Bötzinger complex (BötC), and pons. Simulations mimicking the removal of circuit components following transections closely reproduce the respiratory motor output patterns recorded from the intact and sequentially reduced brainstem preparations. The model suggests that both the operating rhythmogenic mechanism (i.e., network-based or pacemaker-driven) and the respiratory pattern generated (e.g., three-phase, two-phase, or one-phase) depend on the state of the pre-BötC (expression of INaP-dependent intrinsic rhythmogenic mechanisms) and the BötC (providing expiratory inhibition in the network). At the same time, tonic drives from pons and multiple medullary chemoreceptive sites appear to control the state of these compartments and hence the operating rhythmogenic mechanism and motor pattern. Our results suggest that the brainstem respiratory network has a spatial (rostral-to-caudal) organization extending from the rostral pons to the VRG, in which each functional compartment is controlled by more rostral compartments. The model predicts a continuum of respiratory network states relying on different contributions of intrinsic cellular properties

  19. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F.; Zhang, Ruli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal populations are functionally equivalent to glutamatergic neurons with regard to rhythm generation. To address these problems, we comparatively investigated, by optogenetic approaches, the roles of pre-BötC glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, and Sst-expressing neurons in respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal transgenic mouse medullary slices in vitro and also more intact adult perfused brainstem-spinal cord preparations in situ. We established three different triple-transgenic mouse lines with Cre-driven Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) expression selectively in glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, or Sst-expressing neurons for targeted photoinhibition. In each line, we identified subpopulations of rhythmically active, Arch-expressing pre-BötC inspiratory neurons by whole-cell recordings in medullary slice preparations in vitro, and established that Arch-mediated hyperpolarization of these inspiratory neurons was laser power dependent with equal efficacy. By site- and population-specific graded photoinhibition, we then demonstrated that inspiratory frequency was reduced by each population with the same neuronal voltage-dependent frequency control mechanism in each state of the respiratory network examined. We infer that enough of the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons also have the Dbx1 and Sst expression phenotypes, and thus all three phenotypes share the same voltage-dependent frequency control property. PMID:27275007

  20. The coding of cutaneous temperature in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chen; Hoon, Mark A; Chen, Xiaoke

    2016-09-01

    The spinal cord is the initial stage that integrates temperature information from peripheral inputs. Here we used molecular genetics and in vivo calcium imaging to investigate the coding of cutaneous temperature in the spinal cord in mice. We found that heating or cooling the skin evoked robust calcium responses in spinal neurons, and their activation threshold temperatures distributed smoothly over the entire range of stimulation temperatures. Once activated, heat-responding neurons encoded the absolute skin temperature without adaptation and received major inputs from transient receptor potential (TRP) channel V1 (TRPV1)-positive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. By contrast, cold-responding neurons rapidly adapted to ambient temperature and selectively encoded temperature changes. These neurons received TRP channel M8 (TRPM8)-positive DRG inputs as well as novel TRPV1(+) DRG inputs that were selectively activated by intense cooling. Our results provide a comprehensive examination of the temperature representation in the spinal cord and reveal fundamental differences in the coding of heat and cold. PMID:27455110