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Sample records for brainstem circuitry regulating

  1. Brainstem circuitry regulating phasic activation of trigeminal motoneurons during REM sleep.

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    Christelle Anaclet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is characterized by activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG and atonia of non-respiratory muscles with superimposed phasic activity or twitching, particularly of cranial muscles such as those of the eye, tongue, face and jaw. While phasic activity is a characteristic feature of REMS, the neural substrates driving this activity remain unresolved. Here we investigated the neural circuits underlying masseter (jaw phasic activity during REMS. The trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5, which controls masseter motor function, receives glutamatergic inputs mainly from the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt, but also from the adjacent paramedian reticular area (PMnR. On the other hand, the Mo5 and PCRt do not receive direct input from the sublaterodorsal (SLD nucleus, a brainstem region critical for REMS atonia of postural muscles. We hypothesized that the PCRt-PMnR, but not the SLD, regulates masseter phasic activity during REMS.To test our hypothesis, we measured masseter electromyogram (EMG, neck muscle EMG, electrooculogram (EOG and EEG in rats with cell-body specific lesions of the SLD, PMnR, and PCRt. Bilateral lesions of the PMnR and rostral PCRt (rPCRt, but not the caudal PCRt or SLD, reduced and eliminated REMS phasic activity of the masseter, respectively. Lesions of the PMnR and rPCRt did not, however, alter the neck EMG or EOG. To determine if rPCRt neurons use glutamate to control masseter phasic movements, we selectively blocked glutamate release by rPCRt neurons using a Cre-lox mouse system. Genetic disruption of glutamate neurotransmission by rPCRt neurons blocked masseter phasic activity during REMS.These results indicate that (1 premotor glutamatergic neurons in the medullary rPCRt and PMnR are involved in generating phasic activity in the masseter muscles, but not phasic eye movements, during REMS; and (2 separate brainstem neural circuits control postural and cranial muscle

  2. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pommy, Jessica M; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-04-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  3. Non-homeostatic body weight regulation through a brainstem-restricted receptor for GDF15

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    Hsu, Jer-Yuan; Crawley, Suzanne; Chen, Michael; Ayupova, Dina A.; Lindhout, Darrin A.; Higbee, Jared; Kutach, Alan; Joo, William; Gao, Zhengyu; Fu, Diana; To, Carmen; Mondal, Kalyani; Li, Betty; Kekatpure, Avantika; Wang, Marilyn; Laird, Teresa; Horner, Geoffrey; Chan, Jackie; McEntee, Michele; Lopez, Manuel; Lakshminarasimhan, Damodharan; White, Andre; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Yao, Jun; Yie, Junming; Matern, Hugo; Solloway, Mark; Haldankar, Raj; Parsons, Thomas; Tang, Jie; Shen, Wenyan D.; Alice Chen, Yu; Tian, Hui; Allan, Bernard B.

    2017-09-27

    Under homeostatic conditions, animals use well-defined hypothalamic neural circuits to help maintain stable body weight, by integrating metabolic and hormonal signals from the periphery to balance food consumption and energy expenditure1,2. In stressed or disease conditions, however, animals use alternative neuronal pathways to adapt to the metabolic challenges of altered energy demand3. Recent studies have identified brain areas outside the hypothalamus that are activated under these ‘non-homeostatic’ conditions4,5,6, but the molecular nature of the peripheral signals and brain-localized receptors that activate these circuits remains elusive. Here we identify glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor alpha-like (GFRAL) as a brainstem-restricted receptor for growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). GDF15 regulates food intake, energy expenditure and body weight in response to metabolic and toxin-induced stresses; we show that Gfral knockout mice are hyperphagic under stressed conditions and are resistant to chemotherapy-induced anorexia and body weight loss. GDF15 activates GFRAL-expressing neurons localized exclusively in the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarius of the mouse brainstem. It then triggers the activation of neurons localized within the parabrachial nucleus and central amygdala, which constitute part of the ‘emergency circuit’ that shapes feeding responses to stressful conditions7. GDF15 levels increase in response to tissue stress and injury, and elevated levels are associated with body weight loss in numerous chronic human diseases8,9. By isolating GFRAL as the receptor for GDF15-induced anorexia and weight loss, we identify a mechanistic basis for the non-homeostatic regulation of neural circuitry by a peripheral signal associated with tissue damage and stress. These findings provide opportunities to develop therapeutic agents for the treatment of disorders with altered energy demand.

  4. Evidence that BDNF regulates heart rate by a mechanism involving increased brainstem parasympathetic neuron excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Ruiqian; Weigand, Letitia A.; Bateman, Ryan; Griffioen, Kathleen; Mendelowitz, David; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic control of heart rate is mediated by cardioinhibitory parasympathetic cholinergic neurons located in the brainstem and stimulatory sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. During embryonic development the survival and cholinergic phenotype of brainstem autonomic neurons is promoted by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We now provide evidence that BDNF regulates heart rate by a mechanism involving increased brainstem cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity. Mice with a BDNF haplo...

  5. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking

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    Kalivas, Benjamin C.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumben...

  6. PirB regulates asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

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    Hikari Ukai

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain structure; however, the molecular basis of brain asymmetry remains unclear. We recently identified structural and functional asymmetries in mouse hippocampal circuitry that result from the asymmetrical distribution of two distinct populations of pyramidal cell synapses that differ in the density of the NMDA receptor subunit GluRε2 (also known as NR2B, GRIN2B or GluN2B. By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we previously found that β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, which lack cell surface expression of the vast majority of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI proteins, do not exhibit circuit asymmetry. In the present study, we conducted electrophysiological and anatomical analyses on the hippocampal circuitry of mice with a knockout of the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB, an MHCI receptor. As in β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, the PirB-deficient hippocampus lacked circuit asymmetries. This finding that MHCI loss-of-function mice and PirB knockout mice have identical phenotypes suggests that MHCI signals that produce hippocampal asymmetries are transduced through PirB. Our results provide evidence for a critical role of the MHCI/PirB signaling system in the generation of asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

  7. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression.

  8. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions

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    Elisa M. Nabel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development –the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity- actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins– endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions.

  9. Sensitive Periods of Emotion Regulation: Influences of Parental Care on Frontoamygdala Circuitry and Plasticity

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    Gee, Dylan G.

    2016-01-01

    Early caregiving experiences play a central role in shaping emotional development, stress physiology, and refinement of limbic circuitry. Converging evidence across species delineates a sensitive period of heightened neuroplasticity when frontoamygdala circuitry is especially amenable to caregiver inputs early in life. During this period, parental…

  10. AMPD2 regulates GTP synthesis and is mutated in a potentially treatable neurodegenerative brainstem disorder.

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    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K; Van Vleet, Jeremy; Fenstermaker, Ali G; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Scheliga, Judith S; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma M; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa A; Saleh, Mohammed A M; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2013-08-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acid synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. AMPD2 Regulates GTP Synthesis and is Mutated in a Potentially-Treatable Neurodegenerative Brainstem Disorder

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    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K.; Vleet, Jeremy Van; Fenstermaker, Ali G.; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Scheliga, Judith S.; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S.; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa; Saleh, Mohammad; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acids synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a new distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH), due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a new, potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23911318

  12. Central dopaminergic circuitry controlling food intake and reward: implications for the regulation of obesity.

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    Vucetic, Zivjena; Reyes, Teresa M

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity in the general population has increased in the past 15 years from 15% to 35%. With increasing obesity, the coincident medical and social consequences are becoming more alarming. Control over food intake is crucial for the maintenance of body weight and represents an important target for the treatment of obesity. Central nervous system mechanisms responsible for control of food intake have evolved to sense the nutrient and energy levels in the organism and to coordinate appropriate responses to adjust energy intake and expenditure. This homeostatic system is crucial for maintenance of stable body weight over long periods of time of uneven energy availability. However, not only the caloric and nutritional value of food but also hedonic and emotional aspects of feeding affect food intake. In modern society, the increased availability of highly palatable and rewarding (fat, sweet) food can significantly affect homeostatic balance, resulting in dysregulated food intake. This review will focus on the role of hypothalamic and mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic (DA) circuitry in coding homeostatic and hedonic signals for the regulation of food intake and maintenance of caloric balance. The interaction of dopamine with peripheral and central indices of nutritional status (e.g., leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y), and the susceptibility of the dopamine system to prenatal insults will be discussed. Additionally, the importance of alterations in dopamine signaling that occur coincidently with obesity will be addressed.

  13. Role of basal ganglia in sleep-wake regulation: neural circuitry and clinical significance

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    Ramalingam Vetrivelan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers over the last decade have made substantial progress towards understanding the roles of dopamine and the basal ganglia in the control of sleep-wake behavior. In this review, we outline recent advancements regarding dopaminergic modulation of sleep through the basal ganglia (BG and extra-BG sites. Our main hypothesis is that dopamine promotes sleep by its action on the D2 receptors in the BG and promotes wakefulness by its action on D1 and D2 receptors in the extra-BG sites. This hypothesis implicates dopamine depletion in the BG (such as in Parkinson’s disease in causing frequent nighttime arousal and overall insomnia. Furthermore, the arousal effects of psychostimulants (methamphetamine, cocaine and modafinil may be linked to the ventral periaquductal grey (vPAG dopaminergic circuitry targeting the extra-BG sleep-wake network.

  14. Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: effects of meditative expertise.

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    Antoine Lutz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have implicated insula and anterior cingulate cortices in the empathic response to another's pain. However, virtually nothing is known about the impact of the voluntary generation of compassion on this network. To investigate these questions we assessed brain activity using fMRI while novice and expert meditation practitioners generated a loving-kindness-compassion meditation state. To probe affective reactivity, we presented emotional and neutral sounds during the meditation and comparison periods. Our main hypothesis was that the concern for others cultivated during this form of meditation enhances affective processing, in particular in response to sounds of distress, and that this response to emotional sounds is modulated by the degree of meditation training. The presentation of the emotional sounds was associated with increased pupil diameter and activation of limbic regions (insula and cingulate cortices during meditation (versus rest. During meditation, activation in insula was greater during presentation of negative sounds than positive or neutral sounds in expert than it was in novice meditators. The strength of activation in insula was also associated with self-reported intensity of the meditation for both groups. These results support the role of the limbic circuitry in emotion sharing. The comparison between meditation vs. rest states between experts and novices also showed increased activation in amygdala, right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS in response to all sounds, suggesting, greater detection of the emotional sounds, and enhanced mentation in response to emotional human vocalizations for experts than novices during meditation. Together these data indicate that the mental expertise to cultivate positive emotion alters the activation of circuitries previously linked to empathy and theory of mind in

  15. Brainstem disconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, Curtis; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Jocson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Brainstem disconnection is a very rare neonatal abnormality, with only seven cases reported. We report a unique case of a neonate who presented at delivery with hypertonia, dysmorphic facial features, and respiratory distress, as well as numerous musculoskeletal and genitourinary abnormalities. MRI of the brain showed disconnection between the pons and medulla with cerebellar hypoplasia and absent cerebellar peduncles. It aided in the description of the neurological and vascular anomalies associated with this diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Brainstem disconnection

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    Duffield, Curtis; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L. [University of California Davis, Medical Center and UC Davis Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Jocson, Jennifer [University of California Davis, Medical Center and UC Davis Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Brainstem disconnection is a very rare neonatal abnormality, with only seven cases reported. We report a unique case of a neonate who presented at delivery with hypertonia, dysmorphic facial features, and respiratory distress, as well as numerous musculoskeletal and genitourinary abnormalities. MRI of the brain showed disconnection between the pons and medulla with cerebellar hypoplasia and absent cerebellar peduncles. It aided in the description of the neurological and vascular anomalies associated with this diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Regulation of the galanin system in the brainstem and hypothalamus by electroconvulsive stimulation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, S H

    2011-01-01

    Induction of seizures by electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) is amongst the most efficacious treatments for major depression. However, the working mechanism by which ECS exerts its antidepressant effects remains elusive. The galanin system is regulated by ECS in seizure-prone brain regions and ha...... in brain regions involved in monoaminergic neurotransmission and stress modulation thus indicating a possible role of the galanin system in the therapeutic effects of ECS.......Induction of seizures by electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) is amongst the most efficacious treatments for major depression. However, the working mechanism by which ECS exerts its antidepressant effects remains elusive. The galanin system is regulated by ECS in seizure-prone brain regions and has...... been shown to modulate depression-like behaviour. To further explore its potential role in the antidepressant effects of ECS the galanin system was investigated by in situ hybridisation and [(125)I]-galanin receptor binding during repeated ECS in the locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe and discrete nuclei...

  18. Signals from the brainstem sleep/wake centers regulate behavioral timing via the circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra M Abbott

    Full Text Available Sleep-wake cycling is controlled by the complex interplay between two brain systems, one which controls vigilance state, regulating the transition between sleep and wake, and the other circadian, which communicates time-of-day. Together, they align sleep appropriately with energetic need and the day-night cycle. Neural circuits connect brain stem sites that regulate vigilance state with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master circadian clock, but the function of these connections has been unknown. Coupling discrete stimulation of pontine nuclei controlling vigilance state with analytical chemical measurements of intra-SCN microdialysates in mouse, we found significant neurotransmitter release at the SCN and, concomitantly, resetting of behavioral circadian rhythms. Depending upon stimulus conditions and time-of-day, SCN acetylcholine and/or glutamate levels were augmented and generated shifts of behavioral rhythms. These results establish modes of neurochemical communication from brain regions controlling vigilance state to the central circadian clock, with behavioral consequences. They suggest a basis for dynamic integration across brain systems that regulate vigilance states, and a potential vulnerability to altered communication in sleep disorders.

  19. Signals from the brainstem sleep/wake centers regulate behavioral timing via the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sabra M; Arnold, Jennifer M; Chang, Qing; Miao, Hai; Ota, Nobutoshi; Cecala, Christine; Gold, Paul E; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Gillette, Martha U

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-wake cycling is controlled by the complex interplay between two brain systems, one which controls vigilance state, regulating the transition between sleep and wake, and the other circadian, which communicates time-of-day. Together, they align sleep appropriately with energetic need and the day-night cycle. Neural circuits connect brain stem sites that regulate vigilance state with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock, but the function of these connections has been unknown. Coupling discrete stimulation of pontine nuclei controlling vigilance state with analytical chemical measurements of intra-SCN microdialysates in mouse, we found significant neurotransmitter release at the SCN and, concomitantly, resetting of behavioral circadian rhythms. Depending upon stimulus conditions and time-of-day, SCN acetylcholine and/or glutamate levels were augmented and generated shifts of behavioral rhythms. These results establish modes of neurochemical communication from brain regions controlling vigilance state to the central circadian clock, with behavioral consequences. They suggest a basis for dynamic integration across brain systems that regulate vigilance states, and a potential vulnerability to altered communication in sleep disorders.

  20. Identification of a brainstem circuit regulating visual cortical state in parallel with locomotion.

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    Lee, A Moses; Hoy, Jennifer L; Bonci, Antonello; Wilbrecht, Linda; Stryker, Michael P; Niell, Cristopher M

    2014-07-16

    Sensory processing is dependent upon behavioral state. In mice, locomotion is accompanied by changes in cortical state and enhanced visual responses. Although recent studies have begun to elucidate intrinsic cortical mechanisms underlying this effect, the neural circuits that initially couple locomotion to cortical processing are unknown. The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) has been shown to be capable of initiating running and is associated with the ascending reticular activating system. Here, we find that optogenetic stimulation of the MLR in awake, head-fixed mice can induce both locomotion and increases in the gain of cortical responses. MLR stimulation below the threshold for overt movement similarly changed cortical processing, revealing that MLR's effects on cortex are dissociable from locomotion. Likewise, stimulation of MLR projections to the basal forebrain also enhanced cortical responses, suggesting a pathway linking the MLR to cortex. These studies demonstrate that the MLR regulates cortical state in parallel with locomotion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural circuitry and immunity

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    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuroimmune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases defines the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  2. PKC signaling regulates drug resistance of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans via circuitry comprised of Mkc1, calcineurin, and Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle L LaFayette

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens exploit diverse mechanisms to survive exposure to antifungal drugs. This poses concern given the limited number of clinically useful antifungals and the growing population of immunocompromised individuals vulnerable to life-threatening fungal infection. To identify molecules that abrogate resistance to the most widely deployed class of antifungals, the azoles, we conducted a screen of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds. Three out of seven hits that abolished azole resistance of a resistant mutant of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a clinical isolate of the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans were inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC, which regulates cell wall integrity during growth, morphogenesis, and response to cell wall stress. Pharmacological or genetic impairment of Pkc1 conferred hypersensitivity to multiple drugs that target synthesis of the key cell membrane sterol ergosterol, including azoles, allylamines, and morpholines. Pkc1 enabled survival of cell membrane stress at least in part via the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade in both species, though through distinct downstream effectors. Strikingly, inhibition of Pkc1 phenocopied inhibition of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 or its client protein calcineurin. PKC signaling was required for calcineurin activation in response to drug exposure in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, Pkc1 and calcineurin independently regulate drug resistance via a common target in C. albicans. We identified an additional level of regulatory control in the C. albicans circuitry linking PKC signaling, Hsp90, and calcineurin as genetic reduction of Hsp90 led to depletion of the terminal MAPK, Mkc1. Deletion of C. albicans PKC1 rendered fungistatic ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors fungicidal and attenuated virulence in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. This work establishes a new role for PKC signaling in drug resistance, novel circuitry through which

  3. Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle

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    Goldstein, Jill M.; Jerram, Matthew; Abbs, Brandon; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic medical disorders associated with stress response circuitry. In this fMRI study, we demonstrated that significant sex differences in brain activity in stress response circuitry were dependent on women's menstrual cycle phase. Twelve healthy Caucasian premenopausal women were compared to a group of healthy men from the same population, based on age, ethnicity, education, and right-handedness. Subjects were scanned using negative valence/high arousal versus neutral visual stimuli that we demonstrated activated stress response circuitry (amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices (OFC and mPFC), and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Women were scanned twice based on normal variation in menstrual cycle hormones (i.e., early follicular (EF) compared with late follicular-midcycle menstrual phases (LF/MC)). Using SPM8b, there were few significant differences in BOLD signal changes in men compared to EF women, except ventromedial (VMN) and lateral (LHA) hypothalamus, left amygdala, and ACG. In contrast, men exhibited significantly greater BOLD signal changes compared to LF/MC women on bilateral ACG and OFC, mPFC, LHA, VMN, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray, with largest effect sizes in mPFC and OFC. Findings suggest that sex differences in stress response circuitry are hormonally regulated via the impact of subcortical brain activity on the cortical control of arousal, and demonstrate that females have been endowed with a natural hormonal capacity to regulate the stress response that differs from males. PMID:20071507

  4. NPR-9, a Galanin-Like G-Protein Coupled Receptor, and GLR-1 Regulate Interneuronal Circuitry Underlying Multisensory Integration of Environmental Cues in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Jason C Campbell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available C. elegans inhabit environments that require detection of diverse stimuli to modulate locomotion in order to avoid unfavourable conditions. In a mammalian context, a failure to appropriately integrate environmental signals can lead to Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and epilepsy. Provided that the circuitry underlying mammalian sensory integration can be prohibitively complex, we analyzed nematode behavioral responses in differing environmental contexts to evaluate the regulation of context dependent circuit reconfiguration and sensorimotor control. Our work has added to the complexity of a known parallel circuit, mediated by interneurons AVA and AIB, that integrates sensory cues and is responsible for the initiation of backwards locomotion. Our analysis of the galanin-like G-protein coupled receptor NPR-9 in C. elegans revealed that upregulation of galanin signaling impedes the integration of sensory evoked neuronal signals. Although the expression pattern of npr-9 is limited to AIB, upregulation of the receptor appears to impede AIB and AVA circuits to broadly prevent backwards locomotion, i.e. reversals, suggesting that these two pathways functionally interact. Galanin signaling similarly plays a broadly inhibitory role in mammalian models. Moreover, our identification of a mutant, which rarely initiates backwards movement, allowed us to interrogate locomotory mechanisms underlying chemotaxis. In support of the pirouette model of chemotaxis, organisms that did not exhibit reversal behavior were unable to navigate towards an attractant peak. We also assessed ionotropic glutamate receptor GLR-1 cell-specifically within AIB and determined that GLR-1 fine-tunes AIB activity to modify locomotion following reversal events. Our research highlights that signal integration underlying the initiation and fine-tuning of backwards locomotion is AIB and NPR-9 dependent, and has demonstrated the suitability of C. elegans for analysis of multisensory integration

  5. Reward Circuitry in Addiction.

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    Cooper, Sarah; Robison, A J; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving. The ability to observe and manipulate neuronal activity within specific cell types and circuits has led to new insight into not only the basic connections between brain regions, but also the molecular changes within these specific microcircuits, such as neurotrophic factor and GTPase signaling or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor function, that underlie synaptic and structural plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse. Excitingly, these insights from preclinical rodent work are now being translated into the clinic, where transcranial magnetic simulation and deep brain stimulation therapies are being piloted in human cocaine dependence. Thus, this review seeks to summarize current understanding of the major brain regions implicated in drug-related behaviors and the molecular mechanisms that contribute to altered connectivity between these regions, with the postulation that increased knowledge of the plasticity within the drug reward circuit will lead to new and improved treatments for addiction.

  6. A brainstem anosognosia of hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Abe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A woman had anosognosia for hemiplegia as a manifestation of brainstem infarction. She had no mental or neuropsychological disturbances, and had involvement of the brainstem in the frontal/parietal-subcortical circuits to the right cerebral hemisphere. Brainstem lesions that disrupt frontal/parietal-subcortical areas may affect anosognosia for hemiplegia.

  7. Pediatric brainstem oligodendroglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Mohindra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the first report of pediatric brainstem oligodendroglioma, infiltrating midbrain, and medulla oblongata. The report details clinical features, radiological findings, and surgical steps. As this entity is exceedingly uncommon, the overall epidemiology, prognosis, and long-term outcome remain far from established.

  8. Hippo-independent activation of YAP by the GNAQ uveal melanoma oncogene through a trio-regulated rho GTPase signaling circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaodong; Degese, Maria Sol; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Vaque, Jose P; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Rodrigues, Murilo; Zaidi, M Raza; Ksander, Bruce R; Merlino, Glenn; Sodhi, Akrit; Chen, Qianming; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2014-06-16

    Mutually exclusive activating mutations in the GNAQ and GNA11 oncogenes, encoding heterotrimeric Gαq family members, have been identified in ∼ 83% and ∼ 6% of uveal and skin melanomas, respectively. However, the molecular events underlying these GNAQ-driven malignancies are not yet defined, thus limiting the ability to develop cancer-targeted therapies. Here, we focused on the transcriptional coactivator YAP, a critical component of the Hippo signaling pathway that controls organ size. We found that Gαq stimulates YAP through a Trio-Rho/Rac signaling circuitry promoting actin polymerization, independently of phospholipase Cβ and the canonical Hippo pathway. Furthermore, we show that Gαq promotes the YAP-dependent growth of uveal melanoma cells, thereby identifying YAP as a suitable therapeutic target in uveal melanoma, a GNAQ/GNA11-initiated human malignancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Craniofacial Pain: Brainstem Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J Sessle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research advances in animals that have identified critical neural elements in the brainstem receiving and transmitting craniofacial nociceptive inputs, as well as some of the mechanisms involved in the modulation and plasticity of nociceptive transmission. Nociceptive neurones in the trigeminal (V brainstem sensory nuclear complex can be classified as nociceptive-specific (NS or wide dynamic range (WDR. Some of these neurones respond exclusively to sensory inputs evoked by stimulation of facial skin or oral mucosa and have features suggesting that they are critical neural elements involved in the ability to localize an acute superficial pain and sense its intensity and duration. Many of the V brainstem nociceptive neurones, however, receive convergent inputs from afferents supplying deep craniofacial tissues (eg, dural vessel, muscle and skin or mucosa. These neurones are likely involved in deep pain, including headache, because few nociceptive neurones receive inputs exclusively from afferents supplying these tissues. These extensive convergent input patterns also appear to be important factors in pain spread and referral, and in central mechanisms underlying neuroplastic changes in V neuronal properties that may occur with injury and inflammation. For example, application of the small fibre excitant and inflammatory irritant mustard oil into the temporomandibular joint, masseter or tongue musculature induces a prolonged but reversible enhancement of responses to cutaneous and deep afferent inputs of most WDR and NS neurones. These effects may be accompanied by increased electromyographic activity reflexly induced in the masticatory muscles by mustard oil, and involve endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate and opioid neurochemical mechanisms. Such peripherally induced modulation of brainstem nociceptive neuronal properties reflects the functional plasticity of the central V system, and may be involved in the development of

  10. Brainstem Tuberculoma in Pregnancy

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    Dana A. Muin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a Somali refugee who presented in the second trimester of her first pregnancy with a four-week history of gradual right-sided sensomotoric hemisyndrome including facial palsy and left-sided paresis of the oculomotorius nerve causing drooping of the left eyelid and double vision. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solitary brainstem lesion. Upon detection of hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray (CXR, the diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis with involvement of the central nervous system was confirmed by PCR and treatment induced with rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. The patient had a steady neurological improvement and a favorable pregnancy outcome.

  11. MR findings of brainstem injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Man Soo; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Park, Choong Ki [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Dae Chul [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon [Dankook University of College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-15

    To analyze the characteristics of traumatic brainstem injury by CT and MR. CT and MR studies of 10 patients with traumatic brainstem lesion in MR were retrospectively reviewed, particularly attended to location, signal intensity and associated lesions. CT failed to depict 8 of 10 brainstem lesions. All lesions were detected in MR images with T2-weighted images showing higher detection rate (n = 10) (100%) than T1-weighted images (n = 3) (30%) or CT (n = 2) (20%). The brainstem lesions located in the dorsolateral aspects of the rostral brainstem (mid brain and upper pons) in 7 (70%) cases, in ventral aspects of rostral brain in 2 (20%) cases and in median portion of pons in 1 (10%) case. Corpus callosal (n = 5), lobar white matter (n = 5) diffuse axonal injury, and 2 hemorrhagic lesions in basal ganglia were the associated findings. MR imaging is more helpful than CT in the detection of brainstem injury, especially T2 weighted images. Primary brainstem lesions were typically located in the dorsolateral aspect of rostral brainstem (midbrain and upper pons). Corpus callosum and white matter lesions were frequently associated.

  12. Synaptic plasticity in drug reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Danny G; Egli, Regula E; Schramm, Nicole L; Matthews, Robert T

    2002-11-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health issue worldwide. The persistence of drug craving coupled with the known recruitment of learning and memory centers in the brain has led investigators to hypothesize that the alterations in glutamatergic synaptic efficacy brought on by synaptic plasticity may play key roles in the addiction process. Here we review the present literature, examining the properties of synaptic plasticity within drug reward circuitry, and the effects that drugs of abuse have on these forms of plasticity. Interestingly, multiple forms of synaptic plasticity can be induced at glutamatergic synapses within the dorsal striatum, its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens, and the ventral tegmental area, and at least some of these forms of plasticity are regulated by behaviorally meaningful administration of cocaine and/or amphetamine. Thus, the present data suggest that regulation of synaptic plasticity in reward circuits is a tractable candidate mechanism underlying aspects of addiction.

  13. Evidence for altered basal ganglia-brainstem connections in cervical dystonia.

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    Anne J Blood

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the interaction of the basal ganglia with the cerebellum and the brainstem in motor control and movement disorders. In addition, it has been suggested that these subcortical connections with the basal ganglia may help to coordinate a network of regions involved in mediating posture and stabilization. While studies in animal models support a role for this circuitry in the pathophysiology of the movement disorder dystonia, thus far, there is only indirect evidence for this in humans with dystonia.In the current study we investigated probabilistic diffusion tractography in DYT1-negative patients with cervical dystonia and matched healthy control subjects, with the goal of showing that patients exhibit altered microstructure in the connectivity between the pallidum and brainstem. The brainstem regions investigated included nuclei that are known to exhibit strong connections with the cerebellum. We observed large clusters of tractography differences in patients relative to healthy controls, between the pallidum and the brainstem. Tractography was decreased in the left hemisphere and increased in the right hemisphere in patients, suggesting a potential basis for the left/right white matter asymmetry we previously observed in focal dystonia patients.These findings support the hypothesis that connections between the basal ganglia and brainstem play a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia.

  14. Brainstem evoked potentials in infantile spasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Masahito; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Tayama, Masanobu; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    In ten patients with infantile spasms, brainstem evoked potentials and MRI examinations were performed to evaluate the brainstem involvement. The result of short latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) following the right median nerve stimulation revealed abnormal findings including the absence or low amplitudes of the waves below wave P3 and delayed central conduction time in 7 of the ten patients. The result of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) revealed abnormal findings including low amplitudes of wave V, prolonged interpeak latency of waves I-V and absence of the waves below wave IV in 5 of the ten patients. The result of the MRI examinations revealed various degrees of the brainstem atrophy in 6 of the ten patients, all of whom showed abnormal brainstem evoked potentials. The result of this study demonstrates that patients with infantile spasms are frequently associated with brainstem dysfunction and raises the possibility that brainstem atrophy might be a cause of infantile spasms. (author)

  15. Lyme disease of the brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Decker, Andrew [Northern Westchester Hospital Center, Department of Neurology, Mt. Kisco, NY (United States); Kornel, Ezriel [Northern Westchester Hospital Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Mt. Kisco, NY (United States); Halperin, John J. [North Shore University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Manhasset, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease caused by the tick-borne spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement typically causes local inflammation, most commonly meningitis, but rarely parenchymal brain involvement. We describe a patient who presented with clinical findings suggesting a brainstem process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) suggested a brainstem neoplasm. Prior to biopsy, laboratory evaluation led to the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Clinical and imaging abnormalities improved markedly following antimicrobial therapy. We describe Lyme disease involvement of the cerebellar peduncles with hypermetabolism on PET. Although MRI is the primary imaging modality for most suspected CNS pathology, the practical applications of PET continue to expand. (orig.)

  16. Lyme disease of the brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, Peter; Decker, Andrew; Kornel, Ezriel; Halperin, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease caused by the tick-borne spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement typically causes local inflammation, most commonly meningitis, but rarely parenchymal brain involvement. We describe a patient who presented with clinical findings suggesting a brainstem process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) suggested a brainstem neoplasm. Prior to biopsy, laboratory evaluation led to the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Clinical and imaging abnormalities improved markedly following antimicrobial therapy. We describe Lyme disease involvement of the cerebellar peduncles with hypermetabolism on PET. Although MRI is the primary imaging modality for most suspected CNS pathology, the practical applications of PET continue to expand. (orig.)

  17. Right-sided dominance of the bilateral vestibular system in the upper brainstem and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Marianne; Kirsch, V; Brandt, T

    2017-10-01

    MRI diffusion tensor imaging tractography was performed on the bilateral vestibular brainstem pathways, which run from the vestibular nuclei via the paramedian and posterolateral thalamic subnuclei to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex. Twenty-one right-handed healthy subjects participated. Quantitative analysis revealed a rope-ladder-like system of vestibular pathways in the brainstem with crossings at pontine and mesencephalic levels. Three structural types of right-left fiber distributions could be delineated: (1) evenly distributed pathways at the lower pontine level from the vestibular nuclei to the pontine crossing, (2) a moderate, pontomesencephalic right-sided lateralization between the pontine and mesencephalic crossings, and (3) a further increase of the right-sided lateralization above the mesencephalic crossing leading to the thalamic vestibular subnuclei. The increasing lateralization along the brainstem was the result of an asymmetric number of pontine and mesencephalic crossing fibers which was higher for left-to-right crossings. The dominance of the right vestibular meso-diencephalic circuitry in right-handers corresponds to the right-hemispheric dominance of the vestibular cortical network. The structural asymmetry apparent in the upper brainstem might be interpreted in relation to the different functions of the vestibular system depending on their anatomical level: a symmetrical sensorimotor reflex control of eye, head, and body mediated by the lower brainstem; a lateralized right-sided upper brainstem-thalamic function as part of the dominant right-sided cortical/subcortical vestibular system that enables a global percept of body motion and orientation in space.

  18. Interictal dysfunction of a brainstem descending modulatory center in migraine patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Moulton

    Full Text Available The brainstem contains descending circuitry that can modulate nociceptive processing (neural signals associated with pain in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the medullary dorsal horn. In migraineurs, abnormal brainstem function during attacks suggest that dysfunction of descending modulation may facilitate migraine attacks, either by reducing descending inhibition or increasing facilitation. To determine whether a brainstem dysfunction could play a role in facilitating migraine attacks, we measured brainstem function in migraineurs when they were not having an attack (i.e. the interictal phase.Using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging, we mapped brainstem activity to heat stimuli in 12 episodic migraine patients during the interictal phase. Separate scans were collected to measure responses to 41 degrees C and noxious heat (pain threshold+1 degrees C. Stimuli were either applied to the forehead on the affected side (as reported during an attack or the dorsum of the hand. This was repeated in 12 age-gender-matched control subjects, and the side tested corresponded to that in the matched migraine patients. Nucleus cuneiformis (NCF, a component of brainstem pain modulatory circuits, appears to be hypofunctional in migraineurs. 3 out of the 4 thermal stimulus conditions showed significantly greater NCF activation in control subjects than the migraine patients.Altered descending modulation has been postulated to contribute to migraine, leading to loss of inhibition or enhanced facilitation resulting in hyperexcitability of trigeminovascular neurons. NCF function could potentially serve as a diagnostic measure in migraine patients, even when not experiencing an attack. This has important implications for the evaluation of therapies for migraine.

  19. Brainstem pathology in spasmodic dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Ludlow, Christy L.; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.

    2009-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a primary focal dystonia of unknown pathophysiology, characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. We examined two rare cases of postmortem brainstem tissue from SD patients compared to four controls. In SD patients, small clusters of inflammation were found in the reticular formation surrounding solitary tract, spinal trigeminal and ambigual nuclei, inferior olive and pyramids. Mild neuronal degeneration and depigmentation were observed in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus. No abnormal protein accumulations and no demyelination or axonal degeneration were found. These neuropathological findings may provide insights into the pathophysiology of SD. PMID:19795469

  20. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  1. Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Bela, E-mail: purohitbela@yahoo.co.in; Kamli, Ali A.; Kollias, Spyros S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •BSG are classified on MRI into diffuse low-grade, malignant, focal tectal and exophytic subtypes. •Their prognosis and treatment is variable and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. •This article illustrates the imaging of adult BSGs on MRI and FET-PET. •We also describe prognostic factors and the treatment options of these tumours. -- Abstract: Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/other subtypes. The prognosis and treatment is variable for the different types and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. Radiotherapy (RT) with adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment of diffuse low-grade and malignant BSGs, whereas, surgical resection is limited to the exophytic subtypes. Review of previous literature shows that the detailed imaging of adult BSGs has not received significant attention. This review illustrates in detail the imaging features of adult BSGs using conventional and advanced MR techniques like diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), as well as {sup 18}F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FET/PET). We have discussed the pertinent differences between childhood and adult BSGs, imaging mimics, prognostic factors and briefly reviewed the treatment options of these tumours.

  2. Delayed neuronal cell death in brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia in gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakuba Nobuhiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the lack of reproducible brainstem ischemia models in rodents, the temporal profile of ischemic lesions in the brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia has not been evaluated intensively. Previously, we produced a reproducible brainstem ischemia model of Mongolian gerbils. Here, we showed the temporal profile of ischemic lesions after transient brainstem ischemia. Results Brainstem ischemia was produced by occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries just before their entry into the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae of Mongolian gerbils. Animals were subjected to brainstem ischemia for 15 min, and then reperfused for 0 d (just after ischemia, 1 d, 3 d and 7 d (n = 4 in each group. Sham-operated animals (n = 4 were used as control. After deep anesthesia, the gerbils were perfused with fixative for immunohistochemical investigation. Ischemic lesions were detected by immunostaining for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2. Just after 15-min brainstem ischemia, ischemic lesions were detected in the lateral vestibular nucleus and the ventral part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and these ischemic lesions disappeared one day after reperfusion in all animals examined. However, 3 days and 7 days after reperfusion, ischemic lesions appeared again and clusters of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1(IBA-1-positive cells were detected in the same areas in all animals. Conclusion These results suggest that delayed neuronal cell death took place in the brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia in gerbils.

  3. Lighting up the brain's reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Mary Kay

    2012-07-01

    The brain's reward circuit is critical for mediating natural reward behaviors including food, sex, and social interaction. Drugs of abuse take over this circuit and produce persistent molecular and cellular alterations in the brain regions and their neural circuitry that make up the reward pathway. Recent use of optogenetic technologies has provided novel insights into the functional and molecular role of the circuitry and cell subtypes within these circuits that constitute this pathway. This perspective will address the current and future use of light-activated proteins, including those involved in modulating neuronal activity, cellular signaling, and molecular properties in the neural circuitry mediating rewarding stimuli and maladaptive responses to drugs of abuse. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  5. Packaging and interconnection for superconductive circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacker, W.

    1976-01-01

    A three dimensional microelectronic module packaged for reduced signal propagation delay times including a plurality of circuit carrying means, which may comprise unbacked chips, with integrated superconductive circuitry thereon is described. The circuit carrying means are supported on their edges and have contact lands in the vicinity of, or at, the edges to provide for interconnecting circuitry. The circuit carrying means are supported by supporting means which include slots to provide a path for interconnection wiring to contact the lands of the circuit carrying means. Further interconnecting wiring may take the form of integrated circuit wiring on the reverse side of the supporting means. The low heat dissipation of the superconductive circuitry allows the circuit carrying means to be spaced approximately no less than 30 mils apart. The three dimensional arrangement provides lower random propagation delays than would a planar array of circuits

  6. Detection of brainstem involvemetn in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, V.; Comi, G.; Filippi, M.; Sora, M.G.N.; Magnani, G.; Locatelli, T.; Visciani, A.; Scotti, G.; Canal, N.

    1989-01-01

    The Gradient Refocusing Technique, which seppresses the influence of cerebrospinal fluis (GSF) and vascular motion artifact on MRI sensitivity, is applied combined with Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) and median Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs) in the evaluation of the brainstem in 30 MS patients with clinical signs of involvement of this structure in order to reevaluate the sensitivity of these techniques. (Author). 2 refs.; 1 tab

  7. A probabilistic atlas of human brainstem pathways based on connectome imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuchun; Sun, Wei; Toga, Arthur W; Ringman, John M; Shi, Yonggang

    2018-04-01

    The brainstem is a critical structure that regulates vital autonomic functions, houses the cranial nerves and their nuclei, relays motor and sensory information between the brain and spinal cord, and modulates cognition, mood, and emotions. As a primary relay center, the fiber pathways of the brainstem include efferent and afferent connections among the cerebral cortex, spinal cord, and cerebellum. While diffusion MRI has been successfully applied to map various brain pathways, its application for the in vivo imaging of the brainstem pathways has been limited due to inadequate resolution and large susceptibility-induced distortion artifacts. With the release of high-resolution data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), there is increasing interest in mapping human brainstem pathways. Previous works relying on HCP data to study brainstem pathways, however, did not consider the prevalence (>80%) of large distortions in the brainstem even after the application of correction procedures from the HCP-Pipeline. They were also limited in the lack of adequate consideration of subject variability in either fiber pathways or region of interests (ROIs) used for bundle reconstruction. To overcome these limitations, we develop in this work a probabilistic atlas of 23 major brainstem bundles using high-quality HCP data passing rigorous quality control. For the large-scale data from the 500-Subject release of HCP, we conducted extensive quality controls to exclude subjects with severe distortions in the brainstem area. After that, we developed a systematic protocol to manually delineate 1300 ROIs on 20 HCP subjects (10 males; 10 females) for the reconstruction of fiber bundles using tractography techniques. Finally, we leveraged our novel connectome modeling techniques including high order fiber orientation distribution (FOD) reconstruction from multi-shell diffusion imaging and topography-preserving tract filtering algorithms to successfully reconstruct the 23 fiber bundles

  8. Gamma Knife Treatment of Brainstem Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Halloran E.; Larson, Erik W.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; MacKay, Alexander R.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Call, Jason A.; Carlson, Jonathan D.; Ling, Benjamin C.; Demakas, John J.; Cooke, Barton S.; Peressini, Ben; Lee, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The management of brainstem metastases is challenging. Surgical treatment is usually not an option, and chemotherapy is of limited utility. Stereotactic radiosurgery has emerged as a promising palliative treatment modality in these cases. The goal of this study is to assess our single institution experience treating brainstem metastases with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). This retrospective chart review studied 41 patients with brainstem metastases treated with GKRS. The most common primary tumors were lung, breast, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Median age at initial treatment was 59 years. Nineteen (46%) of the patients received whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) prior to or concurrent with GKRS treatment. Thirty (73%) of the patients had a single brainstem metastasis. The average GKRS dose was 17 Gy. Post-GKRS overall survival at six months was 42%, at 12 months was 22%, and at 24 months was 13%. Local tumor control was achieved in 91% of patients, and there was one patient who had a fatal brain hemorrhage after treatment. Karnofsky performance score (KPS) >80 and the absence of prior WBRT were predictors for improved survival on multivariate analysis (HR 0.60 (p = 0.02), and HR 0.28 (p = 0.02), respectively). GKRS was an effective treatment for brainstem metastases, with excellent local tumor control. PMID:24886816

  9. Brainstem tumors: Current management and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F Recinos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors arising in the brainstem comprise 10-20% of all pediatric central nervous system (CNS tumors and account for a small percentage in adults. The prognosis for these tumors was considered uniformly poor prior to the era of modern neuroimaging and the location was fraught with disaster being considered a ′no man′s land′ for neurosurgeons. Following the introduction of advanced imaging modalities and neurophysiological monitoring, striking progress has occurred in the management of these lesions. Brainstem tumors are presently classified based on their anatomic location, focality, and histopathology. This article reviews the current classification of brainstem tumors, current management options, and future directions in the treatment for these rare tumors.

  10. Is enhanced MRI helpful in brainstem infarction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. M.; Shin, G. H.; Choi, W. S. [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To determine the role of MR contrast enhancement in evaluating time course of brainstem infarction. MR imaging with IV administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine was retrospectively reviewed in 43 patients with clinically and radiologically documented brainstem infarctions. The pattern of infarction was classified into spotty and patchy. Presence of parenchymal enhancement in infarction was evaluated. By location, there were 34 pontine, 3 midbrain, 6 medullary infarctions. The age of the infarctions ranged from 1 day to 9 months, with 5 patients scanned within 3 days and 10 scanned within 2 weeks of clinical ictus. Abnormalities on T2-weighted images were encountered in every case, with spotty pattern in 14 cases and patchy pattern in 29 cases. Parenchymal contrast enhancement was seen in 9 cases(20%), primarily occurring between days 8 and 20. MR contrast enhancement in brainstem infarction was infrequent that it may not be useful in the estimation of the age of infarction.

  11. Giant tubercular brainstem abscess: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubercular brain abscesses are uncommon and tubercular brainstem abscesses are rarely reported. Most of these cases occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of giant brainstem abscess in a 5-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative female child who presented with complaints of headache, diplopia and unsteadiness of gait since 6 months. Diagnosis was made by a magnetic resonance imaging scan of brain. The patient demonstrated a remarkable clinical recovery after microsurgery combined with a course of antituberculous therapy. Microbiological and histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of a tuberculous abscess.

  12. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunzhu Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs, piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs, surface acoustic wave (SAW gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs, magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs, micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs, micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs, micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs, and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail.

  13. Circuitry and plasticity of the dorsal horn--toward a better understanding of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S J; Bannister, K; Dickenson, A H; Bennett, D L

    2015-08-06

    Maladaptive plasticity within the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord is a key substrate for development of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. Advances in genetic engineering, tracing techniques and opto-genetics are leading to a much better understanding of the complex circuitry of the spinal DH and the radical changes evoked in such circuitry by nerve injury. These changes can be viewed at multiple levels including: synaptic remodeling including enhanced excitatory and reduced inhibitory drive, morphological and electrophysiological changes which are observed both to primary afferent inputs as well as DH neurons, and ultimately circuit-level rewiring which leads to altered connectivity and aberrant processing of sensory inputs in the DH. The DH should not be seen in isolation but is subject to important descending modulation from the brainstem, which is further dysregulated by nerve injury. Understanding which changes relate to specific disease-states is essential, and recent work has aimed to stratify patient populations in a mechanistic fashion. In this review we will discuss how such pathophysiological mechanisms may lead to the distressing sensory phenomena experienced by patients suffering neuropathic pain, and the relationship of such mechanisms to current and potential future treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bayesian segmentation of brainstem structures in MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Bhatt, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    the brainstem structures in novel scans. Thanks to the generative nature of the scheme, the segmentation method is robust to changes in MRI contrast or acquisition hardware. Using cross validation, we show that the algorithm can segment the structures in previously unseen T1 and FLAIR scans with great accuracy...

  15. Neuromyelitis Optica Lesion Mimicking Brainstem Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old girl who presented with weakness of the left extremities and right sided sixth cranial nerve palsy had neuromyelitis optica (NMO mistaken for brainstem glioma on MRI, in a report from Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine,Seoul, Republic of KoreaNeuromyelitis Optica, Optic-Spinal Syndrome, Spectroscopy.

  16. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-06-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3±8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p7.501; p<0.0001), consisting with delayed central conduction time of brainstem neural transmission. Highly exposed children showed significant evidence of inflammatory markers and their auditory and vestibular nuclei accumulated α synuclein and/or β amyloid(1-42). Medial superior olive neurons, critically involved in BAEPs, displayed significant pathology. Children's exposure to urban air pollution increases their risk for auditory and vestibular impairment. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional Maps of Neocortical Local Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alex M.; Lamy, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to summarize data obtained with different techniques to provide a functional map of the local circuit connections made by neocortical neurones, a reference for those interested in cortical circuitry and the numerical information required by those wishing to model the circuit. A brief description of the main techniques used to study circuitry is followed by outline descriptions of the major classes of neocortical excitatory and inhibitory neurones and the connections that each layer makes with other cortical and subcortical regions. Maps summarizing the projection patterns of each class of neurone within the local circuit and tables of the properties of these local circuit connections are provided. This review relies primarily on anatomical studies that have identified the classes of neurones and their local and long distance connections and on paired intracellular and whole-cell recordings which have documented the properties of the connections between them. A large number of different types of synaptic connections have been described, but for some there are only a few published examples and for others the details that can only be obtained with paired recordings and dye-filling are lacking. A further complication is provided by the range of species, technical approaches and age groups used in these studies. Wherever possible the range of available data are summarised and compared. To fill some of the more obvious gaps for the less well-documented cases, data obtained with other methods are also summarized. PMID:18982117

  18. Presbycusis and auditory brainstem responses: a review

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    Shilpa Khullar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss or presbycusis is a complex phenomenon consisting of elevation of hearing levels as well as changes in the auditory processing. It is commonly classified into four categories depending on the cause. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs are a type of early evoked potentials recorded within the first 10 ms of stimulation. They represent the synchronized activity of the auditory nerve and the brainstem. Some of the changes that occur in the aging auditory system may significantly influence the interpretation of the ABRs in comparison with the ABRs of the young adults. The waves of ABRs are described in terms of amplitude, latencies and interpeak latency of the different waves. There is a tendency of the amplitude to decrease and the absolute latencies to increase with advancing age but these trends are not always clear due to increase in threshold with advancing age that act a major confounding factor in the interpretation of ABRs.

  19. Singing modulates parvalbumin interneurons throughout songbird forebrain vocal control circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Toktas, Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Across species, the performance of vocal signals can be modulated by the social environment. Zebra finches, for example, adjust their song performance when singing to females (‘female-directed’ or FD song) compared to when singing in isolation (‘undirected’ or UD song). These changes are salient, as females prefer the FD song over the UD song. Despite the importance of these performance changes, the neural mechanisms underlying this social modulation remain poorly understood. Previous work in finches has established that expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 is increased during singing and modulated by social context within the vocal control circuitry. Here, we examined whether particular neural subpopulations within those vocal control regions exhibit similar modulations of EGR1 expression. We compared EGR1 expression in neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer that modulates network plasticity and homeostasis, among males that performed FD song, males that produced UD song, or males that did not sing. We found that, overall, singing but not social context significantly affected EGR1 expression in PV neurons throughout the vocal control nuclei. We observed differences in EGR1 expression between two classes of PV interneurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X. Additionally, we found that singing altered the amount of PV expression in neurons in HVC and Area X and that distinct PV interneuron types in Area X exhibited different patterns of modulation by singing. These data indicate that throughout the vocal control circuitry the singing-related regulation of EGR1 expression in PV neurons may be less influenced by social context than in other neuron types and raise the possibility of cell-type specific differences in plasticity and calcium buffering. PMID:28235074

  20. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

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    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  1. Optogenetic deconstruction of sleep-wake circuitry in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Adamantidis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain regulate the sleep-wake cycle? What are the temporal codes of sleep- and wake-promoting neural circuits? How do these circuits interact with each other across the light/dark cycle? Over the past few decades, many studies from a variety of disciplines have made substantial progress in answering these fundamental questions. For example, neurobiologists have identified multiple, redundant wake-promoting circuits in the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain. Sleep-promoting circuits have been found in the preoptic area and hypothalamus. One of the greatest challenges in recent years has been to selectively record and manipulate these sleep-wake centers in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolution. Recent developments in microbial opsin-based neuromodulation tools, collectively referred to as “optogenetics,” have provided a novel method to demonstrate causal links between neural activity and specific behaviors. Here, we propose to use optogenetics as a fundamental tool to probe the necessity, sufficiency, and connectivity of defined neural circuits in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

  2. Serotonergic Regulation of Prefrontal Cortical Circuitries Involved in Cognitive Processing: A Review of Individual 5-HT Receptor Mechanisms and Concerted Effects of 5-HT Receptors Exemplified by the Multimodal Antidepressant Vortioxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Steven C; Li, Yan; Pehrson, Alan L; Dale, Elena; Smagin, Gennady; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-07-15

    It has been known for several decades that serotonergic neurotransmission is a key regulator of cognitive function, mood, and sleep. Yet with the relatively recent discoveries of novel serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes, as well as an expanding knowledge of their expression level in certain brain regions and localization on certain cell types, their involvement in cognitive processes is still emerging. Of particular interest are cognitive processes impacted in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical to normal cognitive processes, including attention, impulsivity, planning, decision-making, working memory, and learning or recall of learned memories. Furthermore, serotonergic dysregulation within the PFC is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders associated with prominent symptoms of cognitive dysfunction. Thus, it is important to better understand the overall makeup of serotonergic receptors in the PFC and on which cell types these receptors mediate their actions. In this Review, we focus on 5-HT receptor expression patterns within the PFC and how they influence cognitive behavior and neurotransmission. We further discuss the net effects of vortioxetine, an antidepressant acting through multiple serotonergic targets given the recent findings that vortioxetine improves cognition by modulating multiple neurotransmitter systems.

  3. Involvement of a chromatin modifier in response to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell injury: Probably an indirect action via the regulation of NFκB/FasL circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shiwei [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China); Dong, Yushu [Department of Neurosurgery, 463rd Hospital of PLA, Shenyang 110042 (China); Xu, Chun; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Yongjie; Jiang, Cheng [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China); Hou, Wugang, E-mail: gangwuhou@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: liweipepeyato@163.com [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •MTA1 expression is upregulated in SCs upon MEHP treatment. •Knockdown of MTA1 in SCs impairs the MEHP-induced NFκB signaling activation. •Knockdown of MTA1 inhibits recruitment of NFκB onto FasL promoter in MEHP-treated SCs. -- Abstract: The Fas/FasL signaling pathway, controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) at the transcriptional level, is critical for triggering germ cell apoptosis in response to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell (SC) injury, but the exact regulation mechanism remain unknown. Here, we discovered that expression level of Metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1), a component of the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex, was upregulated in SCs during the early recovery after MEHP exposure. This expression change was in line with the dynamic changes in germ cell apoptosis in response to MEHP treatment. Furthermore, a knockdown of MTA1 by RNAi in SCs was found to impair the MEHP-induced early activation of NFκB pathway and abolish the recruitment of NFκB onto FasL promoter, which consequently diminished the MEHP-triggered FasL induction. Considering that Fas/FasL is a well characterized apoptosis initiating signaling during SCs injury, our results point to a potential “switch on” effect of MTA1, which may govern the activation of NFκB/FasL cascade in MEHP-insulted SCs. Overall, the MTA1/NFκB/FasL circuit may serve as an important defensive/repairing mechanism to help to control the germ cell quality after SCs injury.

  4. Involvement of a chromatin modifier in response to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell injury: Probably an indirect action via the regulation of NFκB/FasL circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shiwei; Dong, Yushu; Xu, Chun; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Yongjie; Jiang, Cheng; Hou, Wugang; Li, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •MTA1 expression is upregulated in SCs upon MEHP treatment. •Knockdown of MTA1 in SCs impairs the MEHP-induced NFκB signaling activation. •Knockdown of MTA1 inhibits recruitment of NFκB onto FasL promoter in MEHP-treated SCs. -- Abstract: The Fas/FasL signaling pathway, controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) at the transcriptional level, is critical for triggering germ cell apoptosis in response to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell (SC) injury, but the exact regulation mechanism remain unknown. Here, we discovered that expression level of Metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1), a component of the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex, was upregulated in SCs during the early recovery after MEHP exposure. This expression change was in line with the dynamic changes in germ cell apoptosis in response to MEHP treatment. Furthermore, a knockdown of MTA1 by RNAi in SCs was found to impair the MEHP-induced early activation of NFκB pathway and abolish the recruitment of NFκB onto FasL promoter, which consequently diminished the MEHP-triggered FasL induction. Considering that Fas/FasL is a well characterized apoptosis initiating signaling during SCs injury, our results point to a potential “switch on” effect of MTA1, which may govern the activation of NFκB/FasL cascade in MEHP-insulted SCs. Overall, the MTA1/NFκB/FasL circuit may serve as an important defensive/repairing mechanism to help to control the germ cell quality after SCs injury

  5. How plastic are human spinal cord motor circuitries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Perez, Monica A

    2017-01-01

    Human and animal studies have documented that neural circuitries in the spinal cord show adaptive changes caused by altered supraspinal and/or afferent input to the spinal circuitry in relation to learning, immobilization, injury and neurorehabilitation. Reversible adaptations following, e.g. the...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.S.; Bonstelle, C.T.; Kaufman, B.; Benson, J.E.; Alfidi, R.J.; Clampitt, M.; Van Dyke, C.; Huss, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brainstem region from 100 normal or asymptomatic individuals were reviewed in addition to those of 17 patients with intra-axial brainstem lesions and 15 patients with extra-axial masses around the brainstem. MR was able to demonstrate consistently the normal anatomy of the brainstem and adjacent cisterns, though the distinction between gray and white matter was seldom possible with the present technology. Masses in and around the brainstem were all accurately identified on MR and its sensitivity was superior to that of x-ray computed tomography (CT). These study results show that despite its technical limitations, MR is presently the examination of choice for the evaluation of brainstem abnormalities and eventually it will undoubtedly replace metrizamide CT cisternography

  7. Developmental study of vitamin C distribution in children's brainstems by immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveñas, R; González-Fuentes, J; Rivas-Infante, E; Lagartos-Donate, M J; Mangas, A; Geffard, M; Arroyo-Jiménez, M M; Cebada-Sánchez, S; Insausti, R; Marcos, P

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin C (Vit C) is an important antioxidant, exerts powerful neuroprotective brain effects and plays a role in neuronal development and maturation. Vit C is present in brain tissue at higher concentrations than in other organs, but its detailed distribution in brain is unknown. Immunohistochemical detection of this vitamin has been performed by using a highly specific antibody against Vit C. The aim of the present work was to analyze the distribution of Vit C in children's brainstems during postnatal development, comparing two groups of ages: younger and older than one year of life. In general, the same areas showing neurons with Vit C in young cases are also immunostained at older ages. The distribution of neurons containing Vit C was broader in the brainstems of older children, suggesting that brainstem neurons maintain or even increase their ability to retain Vit C along the life span. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed only cell bodies containing this vitamin, and no immunoreactive fibers were observed. The distribution pattern of Vit C in children's brainstems suggests a possible role of Vit C in brain homeostatic regulation. In addition, the constant presence of Vit C in neurons of locus coeruleus supports the important role of Vit C in noradrenaline synthesis, which seemed to be maintained along postnatal development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced Excitatory Connectivity and Disturbed Sound Processing in the Auditory Brainstem of Fragile X Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Gessele, Nikodemus; Koch, Ursula

    2017-08-02

    Hypersensitivity to sounds is one of the prevalent symptoms in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS). It manifests behaviorally early during development and is often used as a landmark for treatment efficacy. However, the physiological mechanisms and circuit-level alterations underlying this aberrant behavior remain poorly understood. Using the mouse model of FXS ( Fmr1 KO ), we demonstrate that functional maturation of auditory brainstem synapses is impaired in FXS. Fmr1 KO mice showed a greatly enhanced excitatory synaptic input strength in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO), a prominent auditory brainstem nucleus, which integrates ipsilateral excitation and contralateral inhibition to compute interaural level differences. Conversely, the glycinergic, inhibitory input properties remained unaffected. The enhanced excitation was the result of an increased number of cochlear nucleus fibers converging onto one LSO neuron, without changing individual synapse properties. Concomitantly, immunolabeling of excitatory ending markers revealed an increase in the immunolabeled area, supporting abnormally elevated excitatory input numbers. Intrinsic firing properties were only slightly enhanced. In line with the disturbed development of LSO circuitry, auditory processing was also affected in adult Fmr1 KO mice as shown with single-unit recordings of LSO neurons. These processing deficits manifested as an increase in firing rate, a broadening of the frequency response area, and a shift in the interaural level difference function of LSO neurons. Our results suggest that this aberrant synaptic development of auditory brainstem circuits might be a major underlying cause of the auditory processing deficits in FXS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inheritable form of intellectual impairment, including autism. A core symptom of FXS is extreme sensitivity to loud sounds. This is one reason why individuals with FXS tend to avoid social

  9. Brainstem tolerance to conformal radiotherapy of skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debus, J.; Hug, E.B.; Liebsch, N.J.; O'Farrel, D.; Finkelstein, D.; Efird, J.; Munzenrider, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term incidence of brainstem toxicity in patients treated for skull base tumors with high dose conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 1995, 367 patients with chordomas (n = 195) and chondrosarcomas (n = 172) of the base of skull have been treated with combined megavoltage photon and 160 MeV proton radiotherapy. Following 3D treatment planning with delineation of target volumes and critical nontarget structures dose distributions and dose-volume histograms were calculated. Radiotherapy was given an 1.8 Gy or CGE (=Cobalt Gray Equivalent) dose per fraction, with prescribed target doses ranging from 63 CGE to 79.2 CGE (mean = 67.8 CGE). Doses to the brainstem surface were limited to ≤64 CGE and to the brainstem center to ≤53 CGE. Results: Follow-up time ranged from 6 months to 21.4 years (mean = 42.5 months). Brainstem toxicity was observed in 17 of 367 patients attributable to treatment, resulting in death of three patients. Actuarial rates of 5 and 10-year high-grade toxicity-free survival were 94 and 88%, respectively. Increased risk of brainstem toxicity was significantly associated with maximum dose to brainstem, volume of brainstem receiving ≥50 CGE, ≥55 CGE, and ≥60 CGE, number of surgical procedures, and prevalence of diabetes or high blood pressure. Multivariate analysis identified three independent factors as important prognosticators: number of surgical procedures (p < 0.001), volume of the brainstem receiving 60 CGE (p < 0.001), and prevalence of diabetes (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Tolerance of brainstem to fractionated radiotherapy appears to be a steep function of tissue volume included in high dose regions rather than the maximum dose of brainstem alone. In addition, presence of predisposing factors as well as extent of surgical manipulation can significantly lower brainstem tolerance in the individual patient

  10. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  11. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Nogueira da Gama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP evaluates the integrity of the auditory pathways to the brainstem. The aim of this study was to evoke BAEPs in 21 clinically normal horses. The animals were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.013mg.kg-1 BW. Earphones were inserted and rarefaction clicks at 90 dB and noise masking at 40 dB were used. After performing the test, the latencies of waves (I, II, III, IV, and V and interpeaks(I-III, III-V, and I-V were identified. The mean latencies of the waves were as follows: wave I, 2.4 ms; wave II, 2.24 ms; wave III, 3.61ms; wave IV, 4.61ms; and wave V, 5.49ms. The mean latencies of the interpeaks were as follows: I-III, 1.37ms; III-V, 1.88ms; and I-V, 3.26ms. This is the first study using BAEPs in horses in Brazil, and the observed latencies will be used as normative data for the interpretation of tests performed on horses with changes related to auditory system or neurologic abnormalities.

  12. Disrupted Working Memory Circuitry in Adolescent Psychosis

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    Ariel Eckfeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ consistently show deficits in spatial working memory (WM and associated atypical patterns of neural activity within key WM regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC and parietal cortices. However, little research has focused on adolescent psychosis (AP and potential age-associated disruptions of WM circuitry that may occur in youth with this severe form of illness. Here we utilized each subject’s individual spatial WM capacity to investigate task-based neural dysfunction in 17 patients with AP (16.58 ± 2.60 years old as compared to 17 typically developing, demographically comparable adolescents (18.07 ± 3.26 years old. AP patients showed lower behavioral performance at higher WM loads and lower overall WM capacity compared to healthy controls. Whole-brain activation analyses revealed greater bilateral precentral and right postcentral activity in controls relative to AP patients, when controlling for individual WM capacity. Seed-based psychophysiological interaction (PPI analyses revealed significantly greater co-activation between the left dlPFC and left frontal pole in controls relative to AP patients. Significant group-by-age interactions were observed in both whole-brain and PPI analyses, with AP patients showing atypically greater neural activity and stronger coupling between WM task activated brain regions as a function of increasing age. Additionally, AP patients demonstrated positive relationships between right dlPFC neural activity and task performance, but unlike healthy controls, failed to show associations between neural activity and out-of-scanner neurocognitive performance. Collectively, these findings are consistent with atypical WM-related functioning and disrupted developmental processes in youth with AP.

  13. Circuitry for use with an ionizing-radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.H. III; Harrington, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    An improved system of circuitry for use in combination with an ionizing-radiation detector over a wide range of radiation levels includes a current-to-frequency converter together with a digital data processor for respectively producing and measuring a pulse repetition frequency which is proportional to the output current of the ionizing-radiation detector, a dc-to-dc converter for providing closely regulated operating voltages from a rechargeable battery and a bias supply for providing high voltage to the ionization chamber. The ionizing-radiation detector operating as a part of this system produces a signal responsive to the level of ionizing radiation in the vicinity of the detector, and this signal is converted into a pulse frequency which will vary in direct proportion to such level of ionizing-radiation. The data processor, by counting the number of pulses from the converter over a selected integration interval, provides a digital indication of radiation dose rate, and by accumulating the total of all such pulses provides a digital indication of total integrated dose. Ordinary frequency-to-voltage conversion devices or digital display techniques can be used as a means for providing audible and visible indications of dose and dose-rate levels

  14. Nanocantilever based mass sensor integrated with cmos circuitry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Abadal, G.; Campabadal, F.

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated the successful integration of a cantilever based mass detector with standard CMOS circuitry. The purpose of the circuitry is to facilitate the readout of the cantilever's deflection in order to measure resonant frequency shifts of the cantilever. The principle and design...... of the mass detector are presented showing that miniaturization of such cantilever based resonant devices leads to highly sensitive mass sensors, which have the potential to detect single molecules. The design of the readout circuitry used for the first electrical characterization of an integrated cantilever...... with CMOS circuitry is demonstrated. The electrical characterization of the device shows that the resonant behavior of the cantilever depends on the applied voltages, which corresponds to theory....

  15. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C

    2015-10-20

    To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment - research groups I and II, respectively - and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment.

  16. Clinical Approach to Supranuclear Brainstem Saccadic Gaze Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lloyd-Smith Sequeira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Failure of brainstem supranuclear centers for saccadic eye movements results in the clinical presence of a brainstem-mediated supranuclear saccadic gaze palsy (SGP, which is manifested as slowing of saccades with or without range of motion limitation of eye movements and as loss of quick phases of optokinetic nystagmus. Limitation in the range of motion of eye movements is typically worse with saccades than with smooth pursuit and is overcome with vestibular–ocular reflexive eye movements. The differential diagnosis of SGPs is broad, although acute-onset SGP is most often from brainstem infarction and chronic vertical SGP is most commonly caused by the neurodegenerative condition progressive supranuclear palsy. In this review, we discuss the brainstem anatomy and physiology of the brainstem saccade-generating network; we discuss the clinical features of SGPs, with an emphasis on insights from quantitative ocular motor recordings; and we consider the broad differential diagnosis of SGPs.

  17. Transitional circuitry for studying the properties of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubochkina, N.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to a new view of the structure of DNA as an intellectual scheme possessing the properties of logic and memory. The theory of transient circuitry, developed by the author for optimal computer circuits, revealed an amazing structural similarity between mathematical models of transition silicon elements and logic and memory circuits of solid state transient circuitry and atomic models of parts of DNA.

  18. MRI findings of multiple sclerosis involving the brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Hae Woong; Kim, Hyun Jin; Cho, Jae Kwoeng; Kim, Chang Soo

    2001-01-01

    To describe MRI findings of multiple sclerosis involving the brainstem. Among 35 cases of clinically definite multiple sclerosis, the authors retrospectively analysed 20 in which the brainstem was involved. MR images were analysed with regard to involvement sites in the brainstem or other locations, signal intensity, multiplicity, shape, enhancement pattern, and contiguity of brainstem lesions with cisternal or ventricular CSF space. The brainstem was the only site of involvement in five cases (25%), while simultaneous involvement of the brainstem and other sites was observed in 15 cases (75%). No case involved only the midbrain or medulla oblongata, and simultaneous involvement of the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata was noted in 12 cases (60%). The most frequently involved region of the brainstem was the medulla oblongata (n=13; 90%), followed by the pons (n=17; 85%) and the midbrain (n=16; 80%). Compared with normal white matter, brainstem lesions showed low signal intensity on T1 weighted images, and high signal intensity on T2 weighted, proton density weighted, and FLAIR images. In 17 cases (85%), multiple intensity was observed, and the shape of lesions varied: oval, round, elliptical, patchy, crescentic, confluent or amorphous were seen on axial MR images, and in 14 cases (82%), coronal or sagittal scanning showed that lesions were long and tubular. Contiguity between brainstem lesions and cisternal or ventricular CSF space was seen in all cases (100%) involving midbrain (16/16) and medulla oblongata (18/18) and in 15 of 17 (88%) involving the pons. Contrast enhancement was apparent in 7 of 12 cases (58%). In the brainstem, MRI demonstrated partial or total contiguity between lesions and cisternal or ventricular CSF space, and coronal or sagittal images showed that lesions were long and tubuler

  19. Circuitry linking the Csr and stringent response global regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I; Fields, Joshua A; Thompson, Stuart A; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-06-01

    CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Intracranial neurenteric cyst traversing the brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurenteric cysts (NECs, also called enterogenous cysts, are rare benign endodermal lesions of the central nervous system that probably result from separation failure of the notochord and upper gastrointestinal tract. Most frequently they are found in the lower cervical spine or the upper thoracic spine. Intracranial occurrence is rare and mostly confined to infratentorial compartment, in prepontine region [51%]. Other common locations are fourth ventricle and cerebellopontine angle. There are few reports of NEC in medulla or the cerebellum. Because of the rarity of the disease and common radiological findings, they are misinterpreted as arachnoid or simple cysts until the histopathological confirmation, unless suspected preoperatively. We herein report a rare yet interesting case of intracranial NEC traversing across the brainstem.

  1. A brainstem variant of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaguchi, H.; Tomimoto, H.; Terada, K. [Kyoto University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Miki, Y.; Yamamoto, A. [Kyoto University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Satoi, H.; Kanda, M. [Ijinkai Takeda General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuyama, H. [Kyoto University, Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2005-09-01

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is caused by various heterogeneous factors, the commonest being hypertension, followed by nonhypertensive causes such as eclampsia, renal diseases and immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with RPLS exhibit bilateral white and gray matter abnormalities in the posterior aspects of the cerebral hemispheres. However, this syndrome may affect the brainstem predominantly, and these cases are designated as hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. We present here two patients with reversible brainstem encephalopathy: one with hypertension and the other without hypertension. These patients presented with swelling and diffuse hyperintensities of the brainstem in fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted MRI, but with relatively mild clinical symptoms. They recovered without major neurological deficits, but had residual lacunar lesions in the pons. Reversible brainstem encephalopathy with characteristic MRI features was found in both hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients. These patients were diagnosed with a brainstem variant of RPLS, which is potentially fully reversible after an adequate treatment, and therefore should be carefully differentiated from other brainstem disease conditions. (orig.)

  2. A brainstem variant of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaguchi, H.; Tomimoto, H.; Terada, K.; Miki, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Satoi, H.; Kanda, M.; Fukuyama, H.

    2005-01-01

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is caused by various heterogeneous factors, the commonest being hypertension, followed by nonhypertensive causes such as eclampsia, renal diseases and immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with RPLS exhibit bilateral white and gray matter abnormalities in the posterior aspects of the cerebral hemispheres. However, this syndrome may affect the brainstem predominantly, and these cases are designated as hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. We present here two patients with reversible brainstem encephalopathy: one with hypertension and the other without hypertension. These patients presented with swelling and diffuse hyperintensities of the brainstem in fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted MRI, but with relatively mild clinical symptoms. They recovered without major neurological deficits, but had residual lacunar lesions in the pons. Reversible brainstem encephalopathy with characteristic MRI features was found in both hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients. These patients were diagnosed with a brainstem variant of RPLS, which is potentially fully reversible after an adequate treatment, and therefore should be carefully differentiated from other brainstem disease conditions. (orig.)

  3. A Developmental Shift from Positive to Negative Connectivity in Human Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Dylan G.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Telzer, Eva H.; Shapiro, Mor; Hare, Todd A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Recent human imaging and animal studies highlight the importance of frontoamygdala circuitry in the regulation of emotional behavior and its disruption in anxiety-related disorders. While tracing studies have suggested changes in amygdala-cortical connectivity through the adolescent period in rodents, less is known about the reciprocal connections within this circuitry across human development, when these circuits are being fine-tuned and substantial changes in emotional control are observed. The present study examined developmental changes in amygdala-prefrontal circuitry across the ages of 4 to 22 years using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results suggest positive amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in early childhood that switches to negative functional connectivity during the transition to adolescence. Amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was significantly positive (greater than zero) among participants younger than ten, whereas functional connectivity was significantly negative (less than zero) among participants ten years and older, over and above the effect of amygdala reactivity. The developmental switch in functional connectivity was paralleled by a steady decline in amygdala reactivity. Moreover, the valence switch might explain age-related improvement in task performance and a developmentally normative decline in anxiety. Initial positive connectivity followed by a valence shift to negative connectivity provides a neurobiological basis for regulatory development and may present novel insight into a more general process of developing regulatory connections. PMID:23467374

  4. Direction-selective circuitry in rat retina develops independently of GABAergic, cholinergic and action potential activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Sun

    Full Text Available The ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs in the mammalian retina code image motion by responding much more strongly to movement in one direction. They do so by receiving inhibitory inputs selectively from a particular sector of processes of the overlapping starburst amacrine cells, a type of retinal interneuron. The mechanisms of establishment and regulation of this selective connection are unknown. Here, we report that in the rat retina, the morphology, physiology of the ON-OFF DSGCs and the circuitry for coding motion directions develop normally with pharmacological blockade of GABAergic, cholinergic activity and/or action potentials for over two weeks from birth. With recent results demonstrating light independent formation of the retinal DS circuitry, our results strongly suggest the formation of the circuitry, i.e., the connections between the second and third order neurons in the visual system, can be genetically programmed, although emergence of direction selectivity in the visual cortex appears to require visual experience.

  5. Arterial territories of human brain: brainstem and cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatu, L.; Moulin, T.; Bogousslavsky, J.; Duvernoy, H.

    1997-01-01

    The development of neuroimaging has allowed clinicians to improve clinico-anatomic correlations in patients with strokes. Brainstem and cerebellum structures are well delineated on MRI, but there is a lack of standardization in their arterial supply. We present a system of 12 brainstem and cerebellum axial sections, depicting the dominant arterial territories and the most important anatomic structures. These sections may be used as a practical tool to determine arterial territories on MRI, and may help establish consistent clinico-anatomic correlations in patients with brainstem and cerebellar ischemic strokes. (authors)

  6. Enterovirus 71 Brainstem Encephalitis and Cognitive and Motor Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Follow-up studies were conducted in 63 previously healthy children with enterovirus 71 brainstem encephalitis (49 stage II, 7 stage Ilia, and 7 stage Illb at National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.

  7. Brainstem and cerebellar changes after cerebrovascular accidents: magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, A.; Takase, Y.; Nomiyama, K.; Egashira, R.; Kudo, S.

    2006-01-01

    We illustrate the various types of secondary degeneration in the brainstem and/or cerebellum detected on magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained after cerebrovascular accidents. The changes include: (a) ipsilateral nigral degeneration after striatal infarction; (b) Wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract in the brainstem after supratentorial pyramidal tract or motor cortex injury; (c) Wallerian degeneration of the corticopontine tract in the brainstem after frontal lobe infarction; (d) ipsilateral brainstem atrophy and crossed cerebellar atrophy due to an extensive supratentorial lesion; (e) ipsilateral superior cerebellar peduncle atrophy, contralateral rubral degeneration, contralateral inferior olivary degeneration and ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy after dentate nucleus hemorrhage; (f) ipsilateral inferior olivary degeneration after pontine tegmentum hemorrhage; (g) bilateral wallerian degeneration of the pontocerebellar tracts after ventromedial pontine infarction or basis pontis hemorrhage; and (h) ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy after middle cerebellar peduncle hemorrhage. (orig.)

  8. Brainstem and cerebellar changes after cerebrovascular accidents: magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Takase, Y.; Nomiyama, K.; Egashira, R.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    We illustrate the various types of secondary degeneration in the brainstem and/or cerebellum detected on magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained after cerebrovascular accidents. The changes include: (a) ipsilateral nigral degeneration after striatal infarction; (b) Wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract in the brainstem after supratentorial pyramidal tract or motor cortex injury; (c) Wallerian degeneration of the corticopontine tract in the brainstem after frontal lobe infarction; (d) ipsilateral brainstem atrophy and crossed cerebellar atrophy due to an extensive supratentorial lesion; (e) ipsilateral superior cerebellar peduncle atrophy, contralateral rubral degeneration, contralateral inferior olivary degeneration and ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy after dentate nucleus hemorrhage; (f) ipsilateral inferior olivary degeneration after pontine tegmentum hemorrhage; (g) bilateral wallerian degeneration of the pontocerebellar tracts after ventromedial pontine infarction or basis pontis hemorrhage; and (h) ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy after middle cerebellar peduncle hemorrhage. (orig.)

  9. Challenge-driven attention: interacting frontal and brainstem systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is an unpredictable place, presenting challenges that fl uctuate from moment to moment. However, the neural systems for responding to such challenges are far from fully understood. Using fMRI, we studied an audiovisual task in which the trials' diffi culty and onset times varied unpredictably. Two regions were found to increase their activation for challenging trials, with their activities strongly correlated: right frontal cortex and the brainstem. The frontal area matched regions found in previous human studies of cognitive control, and activated in a graded manner with increasing task diffi culty. The brainstem responded only to the most diffi cult trials, showing a phasic activity pattern paralleling locus coeruleus recordings in monkeys. These results reveal a bridge between animal and human studies, and suggest interacting roles for the brainstem and right frontal cortex: the brainstem may signal that an attentional challenge is occurring, while right frontal cortex allocates cognitive resources in response.

  10. Reducing Ripple In A Switching Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, John; Rodriguez, G. Ernest

    1994-01-01

    Ripple voltage in output of switching voltage regulator reduced substantially by simple additional circuitry adding little to overall weight and size of regulator. Heretofore, additional filtering circuitry needed to obtain comparable reductions in ripple typically as large and heavy as original regulator. Current opposing ripple current injected into filter capacitor.

  11. Development and aging of human spinal cord circuitries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    development and to what extent they are shaped according to the demands of the body that they control and the environment that the body has to interact with. We also discuss how ageing processes and physiological changes in our body are reflected in adaptations of activity in the spinal cord motor circuitries....... The complex, multi-facetted connectivity of the spinal cord motor circuitries allow that they can be used to generate vastly different movements and that their activity can be adapted to meet new challenges imposed by bodily changes or a changing environment. There are thus plenty of possibilities...

  12. The Monoamine Brainstem Reticular Formation as a Paradigm for Re-Defining Various Phenotypes of Parkinson's Disease Owing Genetic and Anatomical Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Stefano; Ferese, Rosangela; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Campopiano, Rosa; Griguoli, Anna M P; Limanaqi, Fiona; Novelli, Giuseppe; Storto, Marianna; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The functional anatomy of the reticular formation (RF) encompasses a constellation of brain regions which are reciprocally connected to sub-serve a variety of functions. Recent evidence indicates that neuronal degeneration within one of these regions spreads synaptically along brainstem circuitries. This is exemplified by the recruitment of various brainstem reticular nuclei in specific Parkinson's disease (PD) phenotypes, and by retrospective analysis of lethargic post-encephalitic parkinsonism. In fact, the spreading to various monoamine reticular nuclei can be associated with occurrence of specific motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). This led to re-consider PD as a brainstem monoamine disorder (BMD). This definition surpasses the anatomy of meso-striatal motor control to include a variety of non-motor domains. This concept clearly emerges from the quite specific clinical-anatomical correlation which can be drawn in specific paradigms of PD genotypes. Therefore, this review article focuses on the genetics and neuroanatomy of three PD genotypes/phenotypes which can be selected as prototype paradigms for a differential recruitment of the RF leading to differential occurrence of NMS: (i) Parkin-PD, where NMS are rarely reported; (ii) LRRK2-PD and slight SNC point mutations, where the prevalence of NMS resembles idiopathic PD; (iii) Severe SNCA point mutations and multiplications, where NMS are highly represented.

  13. The Monoamine Brainstem Reticular Formation as a Paradigm for Re-Defining Various Phenotypes of Parkinson’s Disease Owing Genetic and Anatomical Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Stefano; Ferese, Rosangela; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L.; Campopiano, Rosa; Griguoli, Anna M. P.; Limanaqi, Fiona; Novelli, Giuseppe; Storto, Marianna; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The functional anatomy of the reticular formation (RF) encompasses a constellation of brain regions which are reciprocally connected to sub-serve a variety of functions. Recent evidence indicates that neuronal degeneration within one of these regions spreads synaptically along brainstem circuitries. This is exemplified by the recruitment of various brainstem reticular nuclei in specific Parkinson’s disease (PD) phenotypes, and by retrospective analysis of lethargic post-encephalitic parkinsonism. In fact, the spreading to various monoamine reticular nuclei can be associated with occurrence of specific motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). This led to re-consider PD as a brainstem monoamine disorder (BMD). This definition surpasses the anatomy of meso-striatal motor control to include a variety of non-motor domains. This concept clearly emerges from the quite specific clinical-anatomical correlation which can be drawn in specific paradigms of PD genotypes. Therefore, this review article focuses on the genetics and neuroanatomy of three PD genotypes/phenotypes which can be selected as prototype paradigms for a differential recruitment of the RF leading to differential occurrence of NMS: (i) Parkin-PD, where NMS are rarely reported; (ii) LRRK2-PD and slight SNC point mutations, where the prevalence of NMS resembles idiopathic PD; (iii) Severe SNCA point mutations and multiplications, where NMS are highly represented. PMID:28458632

  14. Postmortem diffusion MRI of the human brainstem and thalamus for deep brain stimulator electrode localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Evan; Hickey, Patrick; Hulette, Christine; Zhang, Jingxian; Parente, Beth; Lad, Shivanand P.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established surgical therapy for medically refractory tremor disorders including essential tremor (ET) and is currently under investigation for use in a variety of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. There is growing evidence that the anti-tremor effects of DBS for ET are directly related to modulation of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT), a white matter pathway that connects the cerebellum, red nucleus, and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus. Emerging white matter targets for DBS, like the DRT, will require improved 3D reference maps of deep brain anatomy and structural connectivity for accurate electrode targeting. High-resolution diffusion MRI of postmortem brain specimens can provide detailed volumetric images of important deep brain nuclei and 3D reconstructions of white matter pathways with probabilistic tractography techniques. We present a high spatial and angular resolution diffusion MRI template of the postmortem human brainstem and thalamus with 3D reconstructions of the nuclei and white matter tracts involved in ET circuitry. We demonstrate accurate registration of these data to in vivo, clinical images from patients receiving DBS therapy, and correlate electrode proximity to tractography of the DRT with improvement of ET symptoms. PMID:26043869

  15. Reward Circuitry Function in Autism during Face Anticipation and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Richey, J. Anthony; Rittenberg, Alison M.; Sabatino, Antoinette; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for monetary and social rewards. During monetary anticipation, participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) showed hypoactivation in right nucleus accumbens and hyperactivation in right hippocampus, whereas during monetary…

  16. Progress toward the maintenance and repair of degenerating retinal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugler, Anthony A

    2010-01-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa remain major causes of severe vision loss in humans. Clinical trials for treatment of retinal degenerations are underway and advancements in our understanding of retinal biology in health/disease have implications for novel therapies. A review of retinal biology is used to inform a discussion of current strategies to maintain/repair neural circuitry in age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis. In age-related macular degeneration/retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive loss of rods/cones results in corruption of bipolar cell circuitry, although retinal output neurons/photoreceptive melanopsin cells survive. Visual function can be stabilized/enhanced after treatment in age-related macular degeneration, but in advanced degenerations, reorganization of retinal circuitry may preclude attempts to restore cone function. In Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis, useful vision can be restored by gene therapy where central cones survive. Remarkable progress has been made in restoring vision to rodents using light-responsive ion channels inserted into bipolar cells/retinal ganglion cells. Advances in genetic, cellular, and prosthetic therapies show varying degrees of promise for treating retinal degenerations. While functional benefits can be obtained after early therapeutic interventions, efforts should be made to minimize circuitry changes as soon as possible after rod/cone loss. Advances in retinal anatomy/physiology and genetic technologies should allow refinement of future reparative strategies.

  17. The origin of behavioral bursts in decision-making circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sorribes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From ants to humans, the timing of many animal behaviors comes in bursts of activity separated by long periods of inactivity. Recently, mathematical modeling has shown that simple algorithms of priority-driven behavioral choice can result in bursty behavior. To experimentally test this link between decision-making circuitry and bursty dynamics, we have turned to Drosophila melanogaster. We have found that the statistics of intervals between activity periods in endogenous activity-rest switches of wild-type Drosophila are very well described by the Weibull distribution, a common distribution of bursty dynamics in complex systems. The bursty dynamics of wild-type Drosophila walking activity are shown to be determined by this inter-event distribution alone and not by memory effects, thus resembling human dynamics. Further, using mutant flies that disrupt dopaminergic signaling or the mushroom body, circuitry implicated in decision-making, we show that the degree of behavioral burstiness can be modified. These results are thus consistent with the proposed link between decision-making circuitry and bursty dynamics, and highlight the importance of using simple experimental systems to test general theoretical models of behavior. The findings further suggest that analysis of bursts could prove useful for the study and evaluation of decision-making circuitry.

  18. Brainstem tolerance to conformal radiotherapy of skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debus, J.; Hug, E.B.; Munzenrider, J.E.; Liebsch, N.J.; O'Farrell, D.; Efird, J.; Daly, W.; Suit, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Brainstem tolerance to inhomogenous radiation doses applied by modern conformal radiotherapy has not yet been examined. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of brainstem toxicity in patients treated for skull base tumors with high dose conformal radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Between 1974 and 1995, 367 patients with chordomas (n=195) and chondrosarcomas (n=172) of the base of skull have been treated with combined megavoltage photon and 160 MeV proton radiotherapy. All patients had previously undergone biopsy, subtotal or total tumor removal. 104 patients had two or more surgical procedures before radiotherapy. Following 3D treatment planning with delineation of target volumes and critical non-target structures, dose distributions and dose volume histograms were calculated [at the time of treatment delivery]. Radiotherapy was given once a day, 1.8 Gy or CGE (Cobalt Gy Equivalent: Proton Gy X 1.1) per fraction, 5 fractions per week, with prescribed target doses ranging from 63 CGE to 79.2 CGE (mean = 67.8 CGE). Doses to the brainstem surface were limited to ≤64 CGE and to the brainstem center to ≤53 CGE. Dose distributions were developed to limit dose to brainstem surface and center; current plans limit dose to surface and center to ≤64 CGE and ≤53 CGE, respectively. Brainstem toxicity was scored according to the RTOG grading system. Results: Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 21.4 years (mean = 42.5 months). Brainstem symptoms, attributable to the treatment, developed in 17 of 282 patients with local tumor control (6.0%), resulting in death of three patients. The mean time to onset of symptoms was 17 months (range: 4.5 to 177 months). These symptoms appeared in 89.5% within 3 years. Grading of the brainstem toxicity is listed in table 1. Actuarial rates of 5 and 10 year toxicity free survival were 87% and 82% respectively. Increased risk of brainstem toxicity was significantly associated with maximum brainstem dose

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans Male Copulation Circuitry Incorporates Sex-Shared Defecation Components To Promote Intromission and Sperm Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L. Rene

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including sex-specific circuits and sex-specific function of shared circuits, though how these work together to produce sexually dimorphic behaviors requires further investigation. Here, we explore how components of the sex-shared defecation circuitry are incorporated into the sex-specific male mating circuitry in Caenorhabditis elegans to produce successful copulation. Using behavioral studies, calcium imaging, and genetic manipulation, we show that aspects of the defecation system are coopted by the male copulatory circuitry to facilitate intromission and ejaculation. Similar to hermaphrodites, male defecation is initiated by an intestinal calcium wave, but circuit activity is coordinated differently during mating. In hermaphrodites, the tail neuron DVB promotes expulsion of gut contents through the release of the neurotransmitter GABA onto the anal depressor muscle. However, in the male, both neuron and muscle take on modified functions to promote successful copulation. Males require calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS)/unc-31, a dense core vesicle exocytosis activator protein, in the DVB to regulate copulatory spicule insertion, while the anal depressor is remodeled to promote release of sperm into the hermaphrodite. This work shows how sex-shared circuitry is modified in multiple ways to contribute to sex-specific mating. PMID:28031243

  20. Do cognitive measures and brain circuitry predict outcomes of exercise in Parkinson Disease: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Peterson, D S; Mancini, M; Carlson-Kuhta, P; Fling, B W; Smulders, K; Nutt, J G; Dale, M; Carter, J; Winters-Stone, K M; Horak, F B

    2015-10-24

    There is emerging research detailing the relationship between balance/gait/falls and cognition. Imaging studies also suggest a link between structural and functional changes in the frontal lobe (a region commonly associated with cognitive function) and mobility. People with Parkinson's disease have important changes in cognitive function that may impact rehabilitation efficacy. Our underlying hypothesis is that cognitive function and frontal lobe connections with the basal ganglia and brainstem posture/locomotor centers are responsible for postural deficits in people with Parkinson's disease and play a role in rehabilitation efficacy. The purpose of this study is to 1) determine if people with Parkinson's disease can improve mobility and/or cognition after partaking in a cognitively challenging mobility exercise program and 2) determine if cognition and brain circuitry deficits predict responsiveness to exercise rehabilitation. This study is a randomized cross-over controlled intervention to take place at a University Balance Disorders Laboratory. The study participants will be people with Parkinson's disease who meet inclusion criteria for the study. The intervention will be 6 weeks of group exercise (case) and 6 weeks of group education (control). The exercise is a cognitively challenging program based on the Agility Boot Camp for people with PD. The education program is a 6-week program to teach people how to better live with a chronic disease. The primary outcome measure is the MiniBESTest and the secondary outcomes are measures of mobility, cognition and neural imaging. The results from this study will further our understanding of the relationship between cognition and mobility with a focus on brain circuitry as it relates to rehabilitation potential. This trial is registered at clinical trials.gov (NCT02231073).

  1. Vestibular myogenic and acoustical brainstem evoked potentials in neurological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Korepina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the inspection of acoustical cortex and brainstem EP in neurologic, otoneurologic and audiologic practice recently start to use so-called vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP. It is shown, that at ear stimulation by a loud sound and record of sterno-cleidomastoid contraction is possible to estimate function of the inferior vestibular nerve and vestibulospinal pathways, a sacculo-cervical reflex. In article some methodical and clinical questions of application of these kinds are presented. Combine research acoustic brainstem EP and VEMP allows to confirm effectively lesions of acoustical and vestibular ways at brainstem. The conclusion becomes, that this kind of inspection is important for revealing demielinisation and defeats in vestibulospinal tract, that quite often happens at MS, and at estimation of efficiency of treatment

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in brain-stem tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Mikio; Saito, Hisazumi; Akino, Minoru; Abe, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with brain-stem tumors underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after radiotherapy. The brain-stem tumors were seen as a low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and as a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. A tumor and its anatomic involvement were more clearly visualized on MRI than on cuncurrently performed CT. Changes in tumor before and after radiotherapy could be determined by measuring the diameter of tumor on sagittal and coronal images. This allowed quantitative evaluation of the reduction of tumor in association with improvement of symptoms. The mean T1 value in the central part of tumors was shortened in all patients after radiotherapy. The results indicate that MRI may assist in determining the effect of radiotherapy for brain-stem tumors. (Namekawa, K)

  3. Clinical and radiological features of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qiu LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. Methods  The clinical and imaging data of 3 cases of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy were summarized and analyzed for the purpose of improving the acumen in diagnosis and treatment. Results All the 3 patients showed relatively mild clinical symptoms, and they were misdiagnosed in different degrees during the treatment, but their clinical symptoms were improved by rapid and effective antihypertensive therapy. Cerebral CT and MRI scans revealed extensive abnormal signals in brain stem, with or without supratentorial lesions and brain stem hemorrhage. The lesions as revealed by imaging were improved significantly after treatment. Conclusions Clinical-radiographic dissociation is the classic feature of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. The clinical symptoms and lesions as shown by imaging could be improved after active treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.03

  4. Systematic Morphometry of Catecholamine Nuclei in the Brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Domenico; Busceti, Carla L; Calierno, Maria T; Di Pietro, Paola; Madonna, Michele; Biagioni, Francesca; Ryskalin, Larisa; Limanaqi, Fiona; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Catecholamine nuclei within the brainstem reticular formation (RF) play a pivotal role in a variety of brain functions. However, a systematic characterization of these nuclei in the very same experimental conditions is missing so far. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immune-positive cells of the brainstem correspond to dopamine (DA)-, norepinephrine (NE)-, and epinephrine (E)-containing cells. Here, we report a systematic count of TH-positive neurons in the RF of the mouse brainstem by using stereological morphometry. All these nuclei were analyzed for anatomical localization, rostro-caudal extension, volume, neuron number, neuron density, and mean neuronal area for each nucleus. The present data apart from inherent informative value wish to represent a reference for neuronal mapping in those studies investigating the functional anatomy of the brainstem RF. These include: the sleep-wake cycle, movement control, muscle tone modulation, mood control, novelty orienting stimuli, attention, archaic responses to internal and external stressful stimuli, anxiety, breathing, blood pressure, and innumerable activities modulated by the archaic iso-dendritic hard core of the brainstem RF. Most TH-immune-positive cells fill the lateral part of the RF, which indeed possesses a high catecholamine content. A few nuclei are medial, although conventional nosography considers all these nuclei as part of the lateral column of the RF. Despite the key role of these nuclei in psychiatric and neurological disorders, only a few of them aspired a great attention in biomedical investigation, while most of them remain largely obscure although intense research is currently in progress. A simultaneous description of all these nuclei is not simply key to comprehend the variety of brainstem catecholamine reticular neurons, but probably represents an intrinsically key base for understanding brain physiology and physiopathology.

  5. Systematic Morphometry of Catecholamine Nuclei in the Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Bucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Catecholamine nuclei within the brainstem reticular formation (RF play a pivotal role in a variety of brain functions. However, a systematic characterization of these nuclei in the very same experimental conditions is missing so far. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immune-positive cells of the brainstem correspond to dopamine (DA-, norepinephrine (NE-, and epinephrine (E-containing cells. Here, we report a systematic count of TH-positive neurons in the RF of the mouse brainstem by using stereological morphometry. All these nuclei were analyzed for anatomical localization, rostro-caudal extension, volume, neuron number, neuron density, and mean neuronal area for each nucleus. The present data apart from inherent informative value wish to represent a reference for neuronal mapping in those studies investigating the functional anatomy of the brainstem RF. These include: the sleep-wake cycle, movement control, muscle tone modulation, mood control, novelty orienting stimuli, attention, archaic responses to internal and external stressful stimuli, anxiety, breathing, blood pressure, and innumerable activities modulated by the archaic iso-dendritic hard core of the brainstem RF. Most TH-immune-positive cells fill the lateral part of the RF, which indeed possesses a high catecholamine content. A few nuclei are medial, although conventional nosography considers all these nuclei as part of the lateral column of the RF. Despite the key role of these nuclei in psychiatric and neurological disorders, only a few of them aspired a great attention in biomedical investigation, while most of them remain largely obscure although intense research is currently in progress. A simultaneous description of all these nuclei is not simply key to comprehend the variety of brainstem catecholamine reticular neurons, but probably represents an intrinsically key base for understanding brain physiology and physiopathology.

  6. Low Power/Low Voltage Interface Circuitry for Capacitive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furst, Claus Efdmann

    This thesis focuses mainly on low power/low voltage interface circuits, implemented in CMOS, for capacitive sensors. A brief discussion of demands and possibilities for analog signal processing in the future is presented. Techniques for low power design is presented. This is done by analyzing power...... power consumption. It is shown that the Sigma-Delta modulator is advantageous when embedded in a feedback loop with a mechanical sensor. Here a micro mechanical capacitive microphone. Feedback and detection circuitry for a capacitive microphone is presented. Practical implementations of low power....../low voltage interface circuitry is presented. It is demonstrated that an amplifier optimized for a capacitive microphone implemented in a standard 0.7 micron CMOS technology competes well with a traditional JFET amplifier. Furthermore a low power/low voltage 3rd order Sigma-Delta modulator is presented...

  7. A critical appraisal of neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder: toward a new conceptualization of underlying neural circuitry and roadmap for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Swartz, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This critical review appraises neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder in emotion processing, emotion regulation, and reward processing neural circuitry, to synthesize current knowledge of the neural underpinnings of bipolar disorder, and provide a neuroimaging research “roadmap” for future studies. Method We examined findings from all major studies in bipolar disorder that used fMRI, volumetric analyses, diffusion imaging, and resting state techniques, to inform current conceptual models of larger-scale neural circuitry abnormalities in bipolar disorder Results Bipolar disorder can be conceptualized in neural circuitry terms as parallel dysfunction in bilateral prefrontal cortical (especially ventrolateral prefrontal cortical)-hippocampal-amygdala emotion processing and emotion regulation neural circuitries, together with an “overactive” left-sided ventral striatal-ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortical reward processing circuitry, that result in characteristic behavioral abnormalities associated with bipolar disorder: emotional lability, emotional dysregulation and heightened reward sensitivity. A potential structural basis for these functional abnormalities are gray matter decreases in prefrontal and temporal cortices, amygdala and hippocampus, and fractional anisotropy decreases in white matter tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical regions. Conclusion Neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder clearly demonstrate abnormalities in neural circuitries supporting emotion processing, emotion regulation and reward processing, although there are several limitations to these studies. Future neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder should include studies adopting dimensional approaches; larger studies examining neurodevelopmental trajectories in bipolar disorder and at-risk youth; multimodal neuroimaging studies using integrated systems approaches; and studies using pattern recognition approaches to provide clinically useful, individual

  8. Stance disturbance in multiple sclerosis: brainstem lesions and posturographic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. Balance disorders are commonly evidenced during the course of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study is to report characteristics of MS patient stance control disorders, measured by means of posturography and related to the brainstem lesions.

    Methods. Thirty-eight patients affected by MS, mildly to moderately disable according to Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Scale, underwent a complete clinical neurological and vestibular evaluation and brain MRI scanning. All patients were then tested on a static posturography platform (Tetrax, Israel in four conditions: eyes open and closed standing on a firm surface and on a foam pad.

    Results. Clinical and/or MRI evidence of brainstem involvement was observed in 55.3 % of patients. When brainstem lesion was detected, Fourier analysis showed a typical pattern characterized by inversion of the  0- 0.1 Hz and  0.1 - 0.25 Hz. frequency bands.

    Conclusions. MS leads to pervasive postural disturbances in the majority of subjects, including the visuo-vestibular loops and proprioception involving vestibulo-spinal pathways in at least 55.3 % of patients. Our results may also suggest the presence of Fourier inversion in patients with brainstem lesions.


  9. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Beynon, Andy J; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The present study investigates binaural interaction at the level of the auditory brainstem. It is hypothesized that brainstem binaural interaction deteriorates with advancing age. Forty-two subjects of various age participated in the study. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded using clicks and 500 Hz tone-bursts. ABRs were elicited by monaural right, monaural left, and binaural stimulation. Binaural interaction was investigated in two ways. First, grand averages of the binaural interaction component were computed for each age group. Second, wave V characteristics of the binaural ABR were compared with those of the summed left and right ABRs. Binaural interaction in the click ABR was demonstrated by shorter latencies and smaller amplitudes in the binaural compared with the summed monaural responses. For 500 Hz tone-burst ABR, no latency differences were found. However, amplitudes were significantly smaller in the binaural than summed monaural condition. An age-effect was found for 500 Hz tone-burst, but not for click ABR. Brainstem binaural interaction seems to decline with age. Interestingly, these changes seem to be stimulus-dependent.

  10. Intraparenchymal papillary meningioma of brainstem: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiao-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Both intraparenchymal papillary meningioma and papillary meningioma with cyst formation of brainstem have never been reported. The authors present an extremely rare case of patient with intraparenchymal papillary meningioma of brainstem. A 23-year-old Chinese male presented with a 4-month history of progressive left upper limb and facial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic-solid, heterogeneously enhancing mass in pons and right cerebral peduncle with no dural attachment. The tumor was totally removed via subtemporal approach. During surgery, the lesion was found to be completely intraparenchymal. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations were compatible with the diagnosis of papillary meningioma. The lesion recurred nine months after primary surgery, a second surgery followed by radiotherapy was performed. Till to now (nearly 2 years after the treatment, the patient is tumor free survival. Intraparenchymal meningioma of brainstem with cystic formation is very rare, however, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a brainstem neoplasm. The present case strongly recommended that postoperative radiotherapy was essential for the patients with papillary meningiomas.

  11. The Structural, Functional and Molecular Organization of the Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf eNieuwenhuys

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Wilhelm His (1891, 1893 the brainstem consists of two longitudinal zones, the dorsal alar plate (sensory in nature and the ventral basal plate (motor in nature. Johnston and Herrick indicated that both plates can be subdivided into separate somatic and visceral zones, distinguishing somatosensory and viscerosensory zones within the alar plate, and visceromotor and somatomotor zones within the basal plate. To test the validity of this ‘four-functional-zones’ concept, I developed a topological procedure, surveying the spatial relationships of the various cell masses in the brainstem in a single figure. Brainstems of 16 different anamniote species were analyzed, and revealed that the brainstems are clearly divisible into four morphological zones, which correspond largely with the functional zones of Johnston and Herrick. Exceptions include (1 the magnocellular vestibular nucleus situated in the viscerosensory zone; (2 the basal plate containing a number of evidently non-motor centres (superior and inferior olives. Nevertheless the ‘functional zonal model’ has explanatory value. Thus, it is possible to interpret certain brain specializations related to particular behavioural profiles, as ‘local hypertrophies’ of one or two functional columns. Recent developmental molecular studies on brains of birds and mammals confirmed the presence of longitudinal zones, and also showed molecularly defined transverse bands or neuromeres throughout development. The intersecting boundaries of the longitudinal zones and the transverse bands appeared to delimit radially arranged histogenetic domains. Because neuromeres have been observed in embryonic and larval stages of numerous anamniote species, it may be hypothesized that the brainstems of all vertebrates share a basic organizational plan, in which intersecting longitudinal and transverse zones form fundamental histogenetic and genoarchitectonic units.

  12. Implementing size-optimal discrete neural networks require analog circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-01

    This paper starts by overviewing results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on a constructive solution for Kolmogorov`s superpositions the authors show that implementing Boolean functions can be done using neurons having an identity transfer function. Because in this case the size of the network is minimized, it follows that size-optimal solutions for implementing Boolean functions can be obtained using analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  13. Immunohistochemical Mapping of TRK-Fused Gene Products in the Rat Brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shigeko; Masuda, Chiaki; Maebayashi, Hisae; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    The TRK-fused gene (TFG in human, Tfg in rat) was originally identified in human papillary thyroid cancer as a chimeric form of the NTRK1 gene. It was since reported that the gene product (TFG) plays a role in regulating phosphotyrosine-specific phosphatase-1 activity. As shown in the accompanying paper, we produced an antibody to rat TFG and used it to localize TFG to selected neurons in specific regions. In the present study, we mapped the TFG-positive neurons in the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord of rats. In the brainstem, neurons intensely positive for TFG were distributed in the raphe nuclei, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus, the reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons, and some cranial nerve nuclei such as the trigeminal nuclei, the vestibulocochlear nuclei, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and motor neurons in the spinal anterior horn were also positive for TFG. These results provide fundamental data for studying the functions of TFG in the brain

  14. Modeling disease risk through analysis of physical interactions between genetic variants within chromatin regulatory circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradin, Olivia; Cohen, Andrea J; Luppino, Jennifer M; Bayles, Ian M; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scacheri, Peter C

    2016-11-01

    SNPs associated with disease susceptibility often reside in enhancer clusters, or super-enhancers. Constituents of these enhancer clusters cooperate to regulate target genes and often extend beyond the linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks containing risk SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified 'outside variants', defined as SNPs in weak LD with GWAS risk SNPs that physically interact with risk SNPs as part of a target gene's regulatory circuitry. These outside variants further explain variation in target gene expression beyond that explained by GWAS-associated SNPs. Additionally, the clinical risk associated with GWAS SNPs is considerably modified by the genotype of outside variants. Collectively, these findings suggest a potential model in which outside variants and GWAS SNPs that physically interact in 3D chromatin collude to influence target transcript levels as well as clinical risk. This model offers an additional hypothesis for the source of missing heritability for complex traits.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging of the brainstem in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Carson, Kathryn A; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brainstem, microstructural integrity of the white matter in children with achondroplasia and age-matched participants and to correlate the severity of craniocervical junction (CCJ) narrowing and neurological findings with DTI scalars in children with achondroplasia. This study also aimed to assess the potential role of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 on white matter microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed using a 1.5T magnetic resonance scanner and balanced pairs of diffusion gradients along 20 non-collinear directions. Measurements were obtained from regions of interest, sampled in each pontine corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus, and middle cerebellar peduncle, as well as in the lower brainstem and centrum semiovale, for fractional anisotropy and for mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. In addition, a severity score for achondroplasia was assessed by measuring CCJ narrowing. Eight patients with achondroplasia (seven males, one female; mean age 5y 6mo, range 1y 1mo-15y 1mo) and eight age- and sex-matched comparison participants (mean age 5y 2mo, range 1y 1mo-14y 11mo) were included in this study. Fractional anisotropy was lower and mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity were higher in the lower brainstem of patients with achondroplasia than in age-matched comparison participants. The CST and middle cerebellar peduncle of the participants showed increases in mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. Fractional anisotropy in the lower brainstem was negatively correlated with the degree of CCJ narrowing. No differences in the DTI metrics of the centrum semiovale were observed between the two groups. The reduction in fractional anisotropy and increase in diffusivities in the lower brainstem of participants with achondroplasia may reflect secondary encephalomalacic degeneration and cavitation of the affected white matter tracts as shown by histology. In

  16. Role of the Brain's Reward Circuitry in Depression: Transcriptional Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports an important role for the brain's reward circuitry in controlling mood under normal conditions and contributing importantly to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of a range of mood disorders, such as depression. Here we focus on the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical component of the brain's reward circuitry, in depression and other stress-related disorders. The prominence of anhedonia, reduced motivation, and decreased energy level in most individuals with depression supports the involvement of the NAc in these conditions. We concentrate on several transcription factors (CREB, ΔFosB, SRF, NFκB, and β-catenin), which are altered in the NAc in rodent depression models--and in some cases in the NAc of depressed humans, and which produce robust depression- or antidepressant-like effects when manipulated in the NAc in animal models. These studies of the NAc have established novel approaches toward modeling key symptoms of depression in animals and could enable the development of antidepressant medications with fundamentally new mechanisms of action. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. DNA-based random number generation in security circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearheart, Christy M; Arazi, Benjamin; Rouchka, Eric C

    2010-06-01

    DNA-based circuit design is an area of research in which traditional silicon-based technologies are replaced by naturally occurring phenomena taken from biochemistry and molecular biology. This research focuses on further developing DNA-based methodologies to mimic digital data manipulation. While exhibiting fundamental principles, this work was done in conjunction with the vision that DNA-based circuitry, when the technology matures, will form the basis for a tamper-proof security module, revolutionizing the meaning and concept of tamper-proofing and possibly preventing it altogether based on accurate scientific observations. A paramount part of such a solution would be self-generation of random numbers. A novel prototype schema employs solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides for random construction of DNA sequences; temporary storage and retrieval is achieved through plasmid vectors. A discussion of how to evaluate sequence randomness is included, as well as how these techniques are applied to a simulation of the random number generation circuitry. Simulation results show generated sequences successfully pass three selected NIST random number generation tests specified for security applications.

  18. Mosaic Evolution of Brainstem Motor Nuclei in Catarrhine Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Dobson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial motor nucleus volume coevolves with both social group size and primary visual cortex volume in catarrhine primates as part of a specialized neuroethological system for communication using facial expressions. Here, we examine whether facial nucleus volume also coevolves with functionally unrelated brainstem motor nuclei (trigeminal motor and hypoglossal due to developmental constraints. Using phylogenetically informed multiple regression analyses of previously published brain component data, we demonstrate that facial nucleus volume is not correlated with the volume of other motor nuclei after controlling for medulla volume. Our results show that brainstem motor nuclei can evolve independently of other developmentally linked structures in association with specific behavioral ecological conditions. This finding provides additional support for the mosaic view of brain evolution.

  19. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldonate, J; Mercuri, C; Reta, J; Biurrun, J; Bonell, C; Gentiletti, G; Escobar, S; Acevedo, R

    2007-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory

  20. Thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar glucose metabolism in the hemiplegic monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, I.; Dauth, G.W.; Gilman, S.; Frey, K.A.; Penney, J.B. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    Unilateral ablation of cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 of Brodmann in the macaque monkey results in a contralateral hemiplegia that resolves partially with time. During the phase of dense hemiplegia, local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (1CMRG1c) is decreased significantly in most of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation, and there are slight contralateral decreases. The lCMRGlc is reduced bilaterally in most of the brainstem nuclei and bilaterally in the deep cerebellar nuclei, but only in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. During the phase of partial motor recovery, lCMRGlc is incompletely restored in many of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation and completely restored in the contralateral nuclei. In the brainstem and deep cerebellar nuclei, poor to moderate recovery occurs bilaterally. Moderate recovery occurs in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. The findings demonstrate that a unilateral cerebral cortical lesion strongly affects lCMRGlc in the thalamus ipsilaterally and in the cerebellar cortex contralaterally, but in the brainstem bilaterally. Partial recovery of lCMRGlc accompanies the progressive motor recovery. The structures affected include those with direct, and also those with indirect, connections to the areas ablated.

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of a child with an auditory brainstem implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Laurie S; Johnson, Karen C; Martinez, Amy S; DesJardin, Jean L; Stika, Carren J; Dzubak, Danielle; Mahalak, Mandy Lutz; Rector, Emily P

    2008-02-01

    We had an opportunity to evaluate an American child whose family traveled to Italy to receive an auditory brainstem implant (ABI). The goal of this evaluation was to obtain insight into possible benefits derived from the ABI and to begin developing assessment protocols for pediatric clinical trials. Case study. Tertiary referral center. Pediatric ABI Patient 1 was born with auditory nerve agenesis. Auditory brainstem implant surgery was performed in December, 2005, in Verona, Italy. The child was assessed at the House Ear Institute, Los Angeles, in July 2006 at the age of 3 years 11 months. Follow-up assessment has continued at the HEAR Center in Birmingham, Alabama. Auditory brainstem implant. Performance was assessed for the domains of audition, speech and language, intelligence and behavior, quality of life, and parental factors. Patient 1 demonstrated detection of sound, speech pattern perception with visual cues, and inconsistent auditory-only vowel discrimination. Language age with signs was approximately 2 years, and vocalizations were increasing. Of normal intelligence, he exhibited attention deficits with difficulty completing structured tasks. Twelve months later, this child was able to identify speech patterns consistently; closed-set word identification was emerging. These results were within the range of performance for a small sample of similarly aged pediatric cochlear implant users. Pediatric ABI assessment with a group of well-selected children is needed to examine risk versus benefit in this population and to analyze whether open-set speech recognition is achievable.

  2. Signal processing circuitry for CMOS-based SAW gas sensors with low power and area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd-Yasin, F.; Tye, K.F.; Reaz, M.B.I.

    2009-06-01

    The design and development of interface circuitries for CMOS-based SAW gas sensor is presented in this paper. The SAW gas sensor devices typically run at RF, requiring most designs to have complex signal conditioning circuitry. The proposed approach attempts to design a simple architecture with reduced power consumption. The SAW gas sensors operate at 354MHz. Simulation data show that the interface circuitries are ten times smaller with lower power supply, comparing to existing work. (author)

  3. Effects of myelin or cell body brainstem lesions on 3-channel Lissajous' trajectories of feline auditory brainstem evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, H; Zaaroor, M; Bleich, N; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEP) were recorded from 16 awake cats to obtain 3-Channel Lissajous' Trajectories (3CLTs) using three orthogonal differential electrode configurations (nasion - midline nuchal ridge, left - right mastoids, vertex - midline under the mandible). Potentials, evoked by monaural 80 dBnHL (re. human threshold) clicks, were studied before, and up to 7 weeks after inducing neuronal lesions localized to the cochlear nucleus (CN) or the superior olivary complex (S...

  4. Stimulation of entorhinal cortex-dentate gyrus circuitry is antidepressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sanghee; Reynolds, Ryan P; Petrof, Iraklis; White, Alicia; Rivera, Phillip D; Segev, Amir; Gibson, Adam D; Suarez, Maiko; DeSalle, Matthew J; Ito, Naoki; Mukherjee, Shibani; Richardson, Devon R; Kang, Catherine E; Ahrens-Nicklas, Rebecca C; Soler, Ivan; Chetkovich, Dane M; Kourrich, Saïd; Coulter, Douglas A; Eisch, Amelia J

    2018-04-16

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is considered a 'circuitopathy', and brain stimulation therapies hold promise for ameliorating MDD symptoms, including hippocampal dysfunction. It is unknown whether stimulation of upstream hippocampal circuitry, such as the entorhinal cortex (Ent), is antidepressive, although Ent stimulation improves learning and memory in mice and humans. Here we show that molecular targeting (Ent-specific knockdown of a psychosocial stress-induced protein) and chemogenetic stimulation of Ent neurons induce antidepressive-like effects in mice. Mechanistically, we show that Ent-stimulation-induced antidepressive-like behavior relies on the generation of new hippocampal neurons. Thus, controlled stimulation of Ent hippocampal afferents is antidepressive via increased hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings emphasize the power and potential of Ent glutamatergic afferent stimulation-previously well-known for its ability to influence learning and memory-for MDD treatment.

  5. Focusing on optic tectum circuitry through the lens of genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Linda M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The visual pathway is tasked with processing incoming signals from the retina and converting this information into adaptive behavior. Recent studies of the larval zebrafish tectum have begun to clarify how the 'micro-circuitry' of this highly organized midbrain structure filters visual input, which arrives in the superficial layers and directs motor output through efferent projections from its deep layers. The new emphasis has been on the specific function of neuronal cell types, which can now be reproducibly labeled, imaged and manipulated using genetic and optical techniques. Here, we discuss recent advances and emerging experimental approaches for studying tectal circuits as models for visual processing and sensorimotor transformation by the vertebrate brain.

  6. Silent Synapse-Based Circuitry Remodeling in Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to cocaine, and likely other drugs of abuse, generates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-silent glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens. These immature synaptic contacts evolve after drug withdrawal to redefine the neurocircuital properties. These results raise at least three critical questions: (1) what are the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate drug-induced generation of silent synapses; (2) how are neurocircuits remodeled upon generation and evolution of drug-generated silent synapses; and (3) what behavioral consequences are produced by silent synapse-based circuitry remodeling? This short review analyzes related experimental results, and extends them to some speculations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  7. Metal Chelation as a Powerful Strategy to Probe Cellular Circuitry Governing Fungal Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Polvi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to sense host-relevant cues and coordinate cellular responses, which enable virulence and drug resistance. Defining circuitry controlling these traits opens new opportunities for chemical diversity in therapeutics, as the cognate inhibitors are rarely explored by conventional screening approaches. This has great potential to address the pressing need for new therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections, which have a staggering impact on human health. To explore this approach, we focused on a leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that potentiate the activity of echinocandins, which are front-line therapeutics that target fungal cell wall synthesis. We identified 19 compounds that enhance activity of the echinocandin caspofungin against an echinocandin-resistant clinical isolate, with the broad-spectrum chelator DTPA demonstrating the greatest synergistic activity. We found that DTPA increases susceptibility to echinocandins via chelation of magnesium. Whole genome sequencing of mutants resistant to the combination of DTPA and caspofungin identified mutations in the histidine kinase gene NIK1 that confer resistance to the combination. Functional analyses demonstrated that DTPA activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1, and that NIK1 mutations block Hog1 activation in response to both caspofungin and DTPA. The combination has therapeutic relevance as DTPA enhanced the efficacy of caspofungin in a mouse model of echinocandin-resistant candidiasis. We found that DTPA not only reduces drug resistance but also modulates morphogenesis, a key virulence trait that is normally regulated by environmental cues. DTPA induced filamentation via depletion of zinc, in a manner that is contingent upon Ras1-PKA signaling, as well as the transcription factors Brg1 and Rob1. Thus, we establish a new mechanism by which

  8. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian; MacPherson, Cameron R; Essack, Magbubah; Kaur, Mandeep; Schaefer, Ulf; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  9. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2009-12-10

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  10. Intrinsic brainstem schwannoma – A rare clinical entity and a histological enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraparenchymal schwannomas arising in the brainstem are very rare, and only eight cases have been reported in literature till now. We report an intraparenchymal brainstem schwannoma presenting with the classical clinical presentation of an intrinsic brainstem lesion, and discuss its clinicoradiological characteristics and histological origins. We highlight the importance of an intraoperative frozen section diagnosis in such cases. Intraoperative tissue diagnosis significantly may alter the surgical strategy, which should be aimed at near total intracapsular decompression of the schwannoma.

  11. The anorectic actions of the TGFβ cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 require an intact brainstem area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15 modulates food intake and body weight under physiological and pathological conditions by acting on the hypothalamus and brainstem. When overexpressed in disease, such as in advanced cancer, elevated serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels lead to an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. To gain a better understanding of its actions in the brainstem we studied MIC-1/GDF15 induced neuronal activation identified by induction of Fos protein. Intraperitoneal injection of human MIC-1/GDF15 in mice activated brainstem neurons in the area postrema (AP and the medial (m portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, which did not stain with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. To determine the importance of these brainstem nuclei in the anorexigenic effect of MIC-1/GDF15, we ablated the AP alone or the AP and the NTS. The latter combined lesion completely reversed the anorexigenic effects of MIC-1/GDF15. Altogether, this study identified neurons in the AP and/or NTS, as being critical for the regulation of food intake and body weight by MIC-1/GDF15.

  12. Mapping the Brain’s Metaphor Circuitry:Is Abstract Thought Metaphorical Thought?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eLakoff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.

  13. Herpes simplex encephalitis with thalamic, brainstem and cerebellar involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meenal; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Udwadia Hegde, Anaita

    2018-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a common and treatable cause of acute encephalitis in all age groups. Certain radiological features such as temporal parenchymal involvement facilitate the diagnosis. The use of herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction has expanded the clinical and imaging spectrum. We report the case of a young patient who presented with a movement disorder and predominant involvement of thalami, brainstem and cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging, and was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Differentiation from Japanese encephalitis may be difficult in these patients, especially in endemic areas, and may necessitate the use of relevant investigations in all patients.

  14. Descending Command Neurons in the Brainstem that Halt Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvier, Julien; Caggiano, Vittorio; Leiras, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    identifiable brainstem populations to a potential locomotor stop signal, we used developmental genetics and considered a discrete neuronal population in the reticular formation: the V2a neurons. We find that those neurons constitute a major excitatory pathway to locomotor areas of the ventral spinal cord....... Selective activation of V2a neurons of the rostral medulla stops ongoing locomotor activity, owing to an inhibition of premotor locomotor networks in the spinal cord. Moreover, inactivation of such neurons decreases spontaneous stopping in vivo. Therefore, the V2a "stop neurons" represent a glutamatergic...

  15. Brainstem and limbic encephalitis with paraneoplastic neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussawi, Khaled; Lin, David J; Matiello, Marcelo; Chew, Sheena; Morganstern, Daniel; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of disorders associated with anti-neuromyelitis optica (NMO) antibody is being extended to include infrequent instances associated with cancer. We describe a patient with brainstem and limbic encephalitis from NMO-immunoglobulin G in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the context of newly diagnosed breast cancer. The neurological features markedly improved with excision of her breast cancer and immune suppressive therapy. This case further broadens the NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) by an association between NMOSD and cancer and raises the question of coincidental occurrence and the appropriate circumstances to search for a tumor in certain instances of NMO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A computational framework for ultrastructural mapping of neural circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Anderson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Circuitry mapping of metazoan neural systems is difficult because canonical neural regions (regions containing one or more copies of all components are large, regional borders are uncertain, neuronal diversity is high, and potential network topologies so numerous that only anatomical ground truth can resolve them. Complete mapping of a specific network requires synaptic resolution, canonical region coverage, and robust neuronal classification. Though transmission electron microscopy (TEM remains the optimal tool for network mapping, the process of building large serial section TEM (ssTEM image volumes is rendered difficult by the need to precisely mosaic distorted image tiles and register distorted mosaics. Moreover, most molecular neuronal class markers are poorly compatible with optimal TEM imaging. Our objective was to build a complete framework for ultrastructural circuitry mapping. This framework combines strong TEM-compliant small molecule profiling with automated image tile mosaicking, automated slice-to-slice image registration, and gigabyte-scale image browsing for volume annotation. Specifically we show how ultrathin molecular profiling datasets and their resultant classification maps can be embedded into ssTEM datasets and how scripted acquisition tools (SerialEM, mosaicking and registration (ir-tools, and large slice viewers (MosaicBuilder, Viking can be used to manage terabyte-scale volumes. These methods enable large-scale connectivity analyses of new and legacy data. In well-posed tasks (e.g., complete network mapping in retina, terabyte-scale image volumes that previously would require decades of assembly can now be completed in months. Perhaps more importantly, the fusion of molecular profiling, image acquisition by SerialEM, ir-tools volume assembly, and data viewers/annotators also allow ssTEM to be used as a prospective tool for discovery in nonneural systems and a practical screening methodology for neurogenetics. Finally

  17. A CREB-Sirt1-Hes1 Circuitry Mediates Neural Stem Cell Response to Glucose Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Fusco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adult neurogenesis plays increasingly recognized roles in brain homeostasis and repair and is profoundly affected by energy balance and nutrients. We found that the expression of Hes-1 (hairy and enhancer of split 1 is modulated in neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs by extracellular glucose through the coordinated action of CREB (cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein and Sirt-1 (Sirtuin 1, two cellular nutrient sensors. Excess glucose reduced CREB-activated Hes-1 expression and results in impaired cell proliferation. CREB-deficient NSCs expanded poorly in vitro and did not respond to glucose availability. Elevated glucose also promoted Sirt-1-dependent repression of the Hes-1 promoter. Conversely, in low glucose, CREB replaced Sirt-1 on the chromatin associated with the Hes-1 promoter enhancing Hes-1 expression and cell proliferation. Thus, the glucose-regulated antagonism between CREB and Sirt-1 for Hes-1 transcription participates in the metabolic regulation of neurogenesis. : Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, Fusco et al. find that excess glucose impairs the self-renewal capacity of neural stem cells through a molecular circuit that involves the transcription factor CREB and Sirtuin 1. The authors suggest that this circuitry may link nutrient excess with neurodegeneration and brain aging. Keywords: neural stem cells, adult neurogenesis, CREB, Sirt-1, nutrients, metabolism, diabetes

  18. Involvement of ERK phosphorylation in brainstem neurons in modulation of swallowing reflex in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Kondo, Masahiro; Kitagawa, Junichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Kimiko; Tohara, Haruka; Ueda, Koichiro; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the neuronal mechanisms underlying functional abnormalities of swallowing in orofacial pain patients, this study investigated the effects of noxious orofacial stimulation on the swallowing reflex, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunohistochemical features in brainstem neurons, and also analysed the effects of brainstem lesioning and of microinjection of GABA receptor agonist or antagonist into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) on the swallowing reflex in anaesthetized rats. The swallowing reflex elicited by topical administration of distilled water to the pharyngolaryngeal region was inhibited after capsaicin injection into the facial (whisker pad) skin or lingual muscle. The capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect on the swallowing reflex was itself depressed after the intrathecal administration of MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor. No change in the capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect was observed after trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis lesioning, but the inhibitory effect was diminished by paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) lesioning. Many pERK-like immunoreactive neurons in the NTS showed GABA immunoreactivity. The local microinjection of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the NTS produced a significant reduction in swallowing reflex, and the capsaicin-induced depression of the swallowing reflex was abolished by microinjection of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline into the NTS. The present findings suggest that facial skin–NTS, lingual muscle–NTS and lingual muscle–Pa5–NTS pathways are involved in the modulation of swallowing reflex by facial and lingual pain, respectively, and that the activation of GABAergic NTS neurons is involved in the inhibition of the swallowing reflex following noxious stimulation of facial and intraoral structures. PMID:19124539

  19. Involvement of ERK phosphorylation in brainstem neurons in modulation of swallowing reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Kondo, Masahiro; Kitagawa, Junichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Kimiko; Tohara, Haruka; Ueda, Koichiro; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2009-02-15

    In order to evaluate the neuronal mechanisms underlying functional abnormalities of swallowing in orofacial pain patients, this study investigated the effects of noxious orofacial stimulation on the swallowing reflex, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunohistochemical features in brainstem neurons, and also analysed the effects of brainstem lesioning and of microinjection of GABA receptor agonist or antagonist into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) on the swallowing reflex in anaesthetized rats. The swallowing reflex elicited by topical administration of distilled water to the pharyngolaryngeal region was inhibited after capsaicin injection into the facial (whisker pad) skin or lingual muscle. The capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect on the swallowing reflex was itself depressed after the intrathecal administration of MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor. No change in the capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect was observed after trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis lesioning, but the inhibitory effect was diminished by paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) lesioning. Many pERK-like immunoreactive neurons in the NTS showed GABA immunoreactivity. The local microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol into the NTS produced a significant reduction in swallowing reflex, and the capsaicin-induced depression of the swallowing reflex was abolished by microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline into the NTS. The present findings suggest that facial skin-NTS, lingual muscle-NTS and lingual muscle-Pa5-NTS pathways are involved in the modulation of swallowing reflex by facial and lingual pain, respectively, and that the activation of GABAergic NTS neurons is involved in the inhibition of the swallowing reflex following noxious stimulation of facial and intraoral structures.

  20. Epigenetic Regulation of Monocyte and Macrophage Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Marten A.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are key players in tissue homeostasis and immune responses. Epigenetic processes tightly regulate cellular functioning in health and disease. Recent Advances: Recent technical developments have allowed detailed characterizations of the transcriptional circuitry underlying

  1. Dentate Gyrus circuitry features improve performance of sparse approximation algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis C Petrantonakis

    Full Text Available Memory-related activity in the Dentate Gyrus (DG is characterized by sparsity. Memory representations are seen as activated neuronal populations of granule cells, the main encoding cells in DG, which are estimated to engage 2-4% of the total population. This sparsity is assumed to enhance the ability of DG to perform pattern separation, one of the most valuable contributions of DG during memory formation. In this work, we investigate how features of the DG such as its excitatory and inhibitory connectivity diagram can be used to develop theoretical algorithms performing Sparse Approximation, a widely used strategy in the Signal Processing field. Sparse approximation stands for the algorithmic identification of few components from a dictionary that approximate a certain signal. The ability of DG to achieve pattern separation by sparsifing its representations is exploited here to improve the performance of the state of the art sparse approximation algorithm "Iterative Soft Thresholding" (IST by adding new algorithmic features inspired by the DG circuitry. Lateral inhibition of granule cells, either direct or indirect, via mossy cells, is shown to enhance the performance of the IST. Apart from revealing the potential of DG-inspired theoretical algorithms, this work presents new insights regarding the function of particular cell types in the pattern separation task of the DG.

  2. Cost-benefit decision circuitry: proposed modulatory role for acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobbs, Wambura C; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2014-01-01

    In order to select which action should be taken, an animal must weigh the costs and benefits of possible outcomes associate with each action. Such decisions, called cost-benefit decisions, likely involve several cognitive processes (including memory) and a vast neural circuitry. Rodent models have allowed research to begin to probe the neural basis of three forms of cost-benefit decision making: effort-, delay-, and risk-based decision making. In this review, we detail the current understanding of the functional circuits that subserve each form of decision making. We highlight the extensive literature by detailing the ability of dopamine to influence decisions by modulating structures within these circuits. Since acetylcholine projects to all of the same important structures, we propose several ways in which the cholinergic system may play a local modulatory role that will allow it to shape these behaviors. A greater understanding of the contribution of the cholinergic system to cost-benefit decisions will permit us to better link the decision and memory processes, and this will help us to better understand and/or treat individuals with deficits in a number of higher cognitive functions including decision making, learning, memory, and language. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. NeuronBank: a tool for cataloging neuronal circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Katz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models.

  4. Genomic Circuitry Underlying Immunological Response to Pediatric Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Sarah E; Manne, Sasikanth; Dolfi, Douglas V; Mansfield, Kathleen D; Parkhouse, Kaela; Mistry, Rakesh D; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Hensley, Scott E; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Coffin, Susan E; Wherry, E John

    2018-01-09

    Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection. Network analysis linked changes to severity of infection, asthma, sex, and age. An influenza pediatric signature (IPS) distinguished acute influenza from other ARTIs and outperformed other influenza prediction gene lists. The IPS allowed a deeper investigation of the connection between transcriptional alterations and clinical characteristics of acute illness, including age-based differences in circuits connecting the STAT1/2 pathway to ISGs. A CD8 T cell-focused systems immunology approach in pediatrics identified age-based alterations in ARTI host response pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heterogeneity of neuroblastoma cell identity defined by transcriptional circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeva, Valentina; Louis-Brennetot, Caroline; Peltier, Agathe; Durand, Simon; Pierre-Eugène, Cécile; Raynal, Virginie; Etchevers, Heather C; Thomas, Sophie; Lermine, Alban; Daudigeos-Dubus, Estelle; Geoerger, Birgit; Orth, Martin F; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Diaz, Elise; Ducos, Bertrand; Surdez, Didier; Carcaboso, Angel M; Medvedeva, Irina; Deller, Thomas; Combaret, Valérie; Lapouble, Eve; Pierron, Gaelle; Grossetête-Lalami, Sandrine; Baulande, Sylvain; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Barillot, Emmanuel; Rohrer, Hermann; Delattre, Olivier; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is a tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, derived from multipotent neural crest cells (NCCs). To define core regulatory circuitries (CRCs) controlling the gene expression program of neuroblastoma, we established and analyzed the neuroblastoma super-enhancer landscape. We discovered three types of identity in neuroblastoma cell lines: a sympathetic noradrenergic identity, defined by a CRC module including the PHOX2B, HAND2 and GATA3 transcription factors (TFs); an NCC-like identity, driven by a CRC module containing AP-1 TFs; and a mixed type, further deconvoluted at the single-cell level. Treatment of the mixed type with chemotherapeutic agents resulted in enrichment of NCC-like cells. The noradrenergic module was validated by ChIP-seq. Functional studies demonstrated dependency of neuroblastoma with noradrenergic identity on PHOX2B, evocative of lineage addiction. Most neuroblastoma primary tumors express TFs from the noradrenergic and NCC-like modules. Our data demonstrate a previously unknown aspect of tumor heterogeneity relevant for neuroblastoma treatment strategies.

  6. HIV-1 proteins dysregulate motivational processes and dopamine circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sarah J; Mactutus, Charles F; Harrod, Steven B; Moran, Landhing M; Booze, Rosemarie M

    2018-05-18

    Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC 50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor. Cocaine-maintained responding was attenuated in HIV-1 Tg rats (FR1 0.33 mg/kg/infusion and PR 1.0 mg/kg/infusion). Dose-response tests (PR) revealed that HIV-1 Tg animals responded significantly less than F344 control rats and failed to earn significantly more infusions of cocaine as the unit dose increased. When choosing between cocaine and sucrose, control rats initially chose sucrose but with time shifted to a cocaine preference. In contrast, HIV-1 disrupted choice behaviors. DAT function was altered in the striatum of HIV-1 Tg rats; however, prior cocaine self-administration produced a unique effect on dopamine homeostasis in the HIV-1 Tg striatum. These findings of altered goal directed behaviors may determine neurobiological mechanisms of apathy in HIV-1+ patients.

  7. Thin Film Transistor Control Circuitry for MEMS Acoustic Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Robin

    This work seeks to develop a practical solution for short range ultrasonic communications and produce an integrated array of acoustic transmitters on a flexible substrate. This is done using flexible thin film transistor (TFT) and micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal is to develop a flexible system capable of communicating in the ultrasonic frequency range at a distance of 10-100 meters. This requires a great deal of innovation on the part of the FDC team developing the TFT driving circuitry and the MEMS team adapting the technology for fabrication on a flexible substrate. The technologies required for this research are independently developed. The TFT development is driven primarily by research into flexible displays. The MEMS development is driving by research in biosensors and micro actuators. This project involves the integration of TFT flexible circuit capabilities with MEMS micro actuators in the novel area of flexible acoustic transmitter arrays. This thesis focuses on the design, testing and analysis of the circuit components required for this project.

  8. Brain-stem evoked potentials and noise effects in seagulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S A

    1985-01-01

    Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) recorded from the seagull were large-amplitude, short-latency, vertex-positive deflections which originate in the eighth nerve and several brain-stem nuclei. BAEP waveforms were similar in latency and configurations to that reported for certain other lower vertebrates and some mammals. BAEP recorded at several pure tone frequencies throughout the seagull's auditory spectrum showed an area of heightened auditory sensitivity between 1 and 3 kHz. This range was also found to be the primary bandwidth of the vocalization output of young seagulls. Masking by white noise and pure tones had remarkable effects on several parameters of the BAEP. In general, the tone- and click-induced BAEP were either reduced or obliterated by both pure tone and white noise maskers of specific signal to noise ratios and high intensity levels. The masking effects observed in this study may be related to the manner in which seagulls respond to intense environmental noise. One possible conclusion is that intense environmental noise, such as aircraft engine noise, may severely alter the seagull's localization apparatus and induce sonogenic stress, both of which could cause collisions with low-flying aircraft.

  9. Dopamine and the Brainstem Locomotor Networks: From Lamprey to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Ryczko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion via their ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project to brainstem locomotor networks. An increased dopaminergic tone is associated with increase in locomotor activity. In pathological conditions where dopamine cells are lost, such as in Parkinson's disease, locomotor deficits are traditionally associated with the reduced ascending dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia. However, a descending dopaminergic pathway originating from the substantia nigra pars compacta was recently discovered. It innervates the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR from basal vertebrates to mammals. This pathway was shown to increase locomotor output in lampreys, and could very well play an important role in mammals. Here, we provide a detailed account on the newly found dopaminergic pathway in lamprey, salamander, rat, monkey, and human. In lampreys and salamanders, dopamine release in the MLR is associated with the activation of reticulospinal neurons that carry the locomotor command to the spinal cord. Dopamine release in the MLR potentiates locomotor movements through a D1-receptor mechanism in lampreys. In rats, stimulation of the substantia nigra pars compacta elicited dopamine release in the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known part of the MLR. In a monkey model of Parkinson's disease, a reduced dopaminergic innervation of the brainstem locomotor networks was reported. Dopaminergic fibers are also present in human pedunculopontine nucleus. We discuss the conserved locomotor role of this pathway from lamprey to mammals, and the hypothesis that this pathway could play a role in the locomotor deficits reported in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Clinical analysis of the outcome of patients with brainstem hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Hirohiko; Takasato, Yoshio; Masaoka, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    To identify prognostic factors in patients with brainstem hemorrhage, we analyzed their clinical symptoms and laboratory data on admission to our hospital. In 70 patients with brainstem hemorrhage (51 men and 19 women aged 29-93, with a mean of 59 gears) who had been admitted to our hospital from 1995 to 2000, we statistically evaluated the association of the outcome with their age and clinical symptoms on admission, blood glucose levels and white blood counts within 6 hours of admission, and the volume and extent of hematoma, concomitant hydrocephalus, and intraventricular perforation on admission CT scans. The mortality tended to be higher, but not significantly (P=0.07), in patients aged 70 years or older (83%) than in those aged less than 70 years (55%). Quadriplegia or decerebrate rigidity (P 2 or higher (P<0.01) on admission were significantly correlated with the prognosis. Hematoma volumes of 6 ml or larger on CT scans were most strongly correlated with the prognosis (P<0.001). Central hematoma and hematoma with extension to the midbrain, thalamus, or medulla oblongata (P<0.05), as well as hemorrhage complicated by hydrocephalus or intraventricular perforation (P<0.01), were correlated with the prognosis. (author)

  11. Brainstem encephalitis and acute polyneuropathy associated with hepatitis E infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Omar Jabbar; Davidson, Amy; Li, Kathy; Leach, John Paul; Heath, Craig

    2017-09-11

    A 59-year-old man presented with feverish illness. His Glasgow Coma Scale was 15, had reduced visual acuity in the left eye with partial left ptosis and mild left hemiparesis with an extensor left plantar. Over 48 hours, he accrued multiple cranial nerves palsies and progressed to a flaccid paralysis necessitating admission to an intensive care unit.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study showed 20 lymphocytes and raised protein. Viral and bacterial PCRs were negative. Samples for Lyme, blood-borne viruses, syphilis and autoantibodies were also negative. MRI brain showed T2 abnormalities within the brainstem. Nerve conduction studies revealed an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy pattern of Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS). The patient was treated for both infective and inflammatory causes of brainstem encephalitis and GBS.Retrospective studies confirmed the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA in CSF and serum studies showed positive HEV IgG and IgM prior to intravenous infusion. After 3 months of intensive rehabilitation, the patient was discharged home walking with a frame. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Development of Brainstem-Evoked Responses in Congenital Auditory Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tillein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the development of the auditory system in hearing and completely acoustically deprived animals, naive congenitally deaf white cats (CDCs and hearing controls (HCs were investigated at different developmental stages from birth till adulthood. The CDCs had no hearing experience before the acute experiment. In both groups of animals, responses to cochlear implant stimulation were acutely assessed. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (E-ABRs were recorded with monopolar stimulation at different current levels. CDCs demonstrated extensive development of E-ABRs, from first signs of responses at postnatal (p.n. day 3 through appearance of all waves of brainstem response at day 8 p.n. to mature responses around day 90 p.n.. Wave I of E-ABRs could not be distinguished from the artifact in majority of CDCs, whereas in HCs, it was clearly separated from the stimulus artifact. Waves II, III, and IV demonstrated higher thresholds in CDCs, whereas this difference was not found for wave V. Amplitudes of wave III were significantly higher in HCs, whereas wave V amplitudes were significantly higher in CDCs. No differences in latencies were observed between the animal groups. These data demonstrate significant postnatal subcortical development in absence of hearing, and also divergent effects of deafness on early waves II–IV and wave V of the E-ABR.

  13. Comparison of sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging and evoked potentials in the detection of brainstem involvement in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comi, G.; Martinelli, V.; Medaglini, S.; Locatelli, T.; Magnani, G.; Poggi, A.; Triulzi, F.

    1988-01-01

    A comparison was made of the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging and the combined use of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential and Median Somatosensory Evoked Potential in the detection of brainstem dysfunction in 54 multiple sclerosis patients. 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  14. The human auditory brainstem response to running speech reveals a subcortical mechanism for selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Antonio Elia; Etard, Octave; Reichenbach, Tobias

    2017-10-10

    Humans excel at selectively listening to a target speaker in background noise such as competing voices. While the encoding of speech in the auditory cortex is modulated by selective attention, it remains debated whether such modulation occurs already in subcortical auditory structures. Investigating the contribution of the human brainstem to attention has, in particular, been hindered by the tiny amplitude of the brainstem response. Its measurement normally requires a large number of repetitions of the same short sound stimuli, which may lead to a loss of attention and to neural adaptation. Here we develop a mathematical method to measure the auditory brainstem response to running speech, an acoustic stimulus that does not repeat and that has a high ecological validity. We employ this method to assess the brainstem's activity when a subject listens to one of two competing speakers, and show that the brainstem response is consistently modulated by attention.

  15. The Neural Circuitry of Expertise: Perceptual Learning and Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHarre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is likely a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviourally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations. Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and

  16. Intensity of anxiety is modified via complex integrative stress circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin P; Prince, Melissa A; Achua, Justin K; Robertson, James M; Anderson, Raymond T; Ronan, Patrick J; Summers, Cliff H

    2016-01-01

    Escalation of anxious behavior while environmentally and socially relevant contextual events amplify the intensity of emotional response produces a testable gradient of anxiety shaped by integrative circuitries. Apprehension of the Stress-Alternatives Model apparatus (SAM) oval open field (OF) is measured by the active latency to escape, and is delayed by unfamiliarity with the passageway. Familiar OF escape is the least anxious behavior along the continuum, which can be reduced by anxiolytics such as icv neuropeptide S (NPS). Social aggression increases anxiousness in the SAM, reducing the number of mice willing to escape by 50%. The apprehension accompanying escape during social aggression is diminished by anxiolytics, such as exercise and corticotropin releasing-factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonism, but exacerbated by anxiogenic treatment, like antagonism of α2-adrenoreceptors. What is more, the anxiolytic CRF1 and anxiogenic α2-adrenoreceptor antagonists also modify behavioral phenotypes, with CRF1 antagonism allowing escape by previously submissive animals, and α2-adrenoreceptor antagonism hindering escape in mice that previously engaged in it. Gene expression of NPS and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as corticosterone secretion, increased concomitantly with the escalating anxious content of the mouse-specific anxiety continuum. The general trend of CeA NPS and BDNF expression suggested that NPS production was promoted by increasing anxiousness, and that BDNF synthesis was associated with learning about ever-more anxious conditions. The intensity gradient for anxious behavior resulting from varying contextual conditions may yield an improved conceptualization of the complexity of mechanisms producing the natural continuum of human anxious conditions, and potential therapies that arise therefrom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tractography of the brainstem in major depressive disorder using diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Yun Ju C Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brainstem is the main region that innervates neurotransmitter release to the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal (HPA axis and fronto-limbic circuits, two key brain circuits found to be dysfunctional in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. However, the brainstem's role in MDD has only been evaluated in limited reports. Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, we investigated whether major brainstem white matter tracts that relate to these two circuits differ in MDD patients compared to healthy controls. METHODS: MDD patients (n = 95 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 34 were assessed using probabilistic tractography of DTI to delineate three distinct brainstem tracts: the nigrostriatal tract (connecting brainstem to striatum, solitary tract (connecting brainstem to amygdala and corticospinal tract (connecting brainstem to precentral cortex. Fractional anisotropy (FA was used to measure the white matter integrity of these tracts, and measures were compared between MDD and control participants. RESULTS: MDD participants were characterized by a significant and specific decrease in white matter integrity of the right solitary tract (p<0.009 using independent t-test, which is a "bottom up" afferent pathway that connects the brainstem to the amygdala. This decrease was not related to symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide new evidence to suggest that structural connectivity between the brainstem and the amygdala is altered in MDD. These results are interesting in light of predominant theories regarding amygdala-mediated emotional reactivity observed in functional imaging studies of MDD. The characterization of altered white matter integrity in the solitary tract in MDD supports the possibility of dysfunctional brainstem-amygdala connectivity impacting vulnerable circuits in MDD.

  18. Synaptic reorganization of inhibitory hilar interneuron circuitry after traumatic brain injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robert F.; Scheff, Stephen W.; Smith, Bret N.

    2011-01-01

    Functional plasticity of synaptic networks in the dentate gyrus has been implicated in the development of posttraumatic epilepsy and in cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury, but little is known about potentially pathogenic changes in inhibitory circuits. We examined synaptic inhibition of dentate granule cells and excitability of surviving GABAergic hilar interneurons 8–13 weeks after cortical contusion brain injury in transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in a subpopulation of inhibitory neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in granule cells revealed a reduction in spontaneous and miniature IPSC frequency after head injury; no concurrent change in paired-pulse ratio was found in granule cells after paired electrical stimulation of the hilus. Despite reduced inhibitory input to granule cells, action potential and EPSC frequencies were increased in hilar GABA neurons from slices ipsilateral to the injury, versus those from control or contralateral slices. Further, increased excitatory synaptic activity was detected in hilar GABA neurons ipsilateral to the injury after glutamate photostimulation of either the granule cell or CA3 pyramidal cell layers. Together, these findings suggest that excitatory drive to surviving hilar GABA neurons is enhanced by convergent input from both pyramidal and granule cells, but synaptic inhibition of granule cells is not fully restored after injury. This rewiring of circuitry regulating hilar inhibitory neurons may reflect an important compensatory mechanism, but it may also contribute to network destabilization by increasing the relative impact of surviving individual interneurons in controlling granule cell excitability in the posttraumatic dentate gyrus. PMID:21543618

  19. Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhenji; Rumsey, John; Hazen, Bethany C; Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C; Vega, Rick B; Xie, Hui; Conley, Kevin E; Auwerx, Johan; Smith, Steven R; Olson, Eric N; Kralli, Anastasia; Kelly, Daniel P

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure.

  20. Corticospinal tract insult alters GABAergic circuitry in the mammalian spinal cord

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    Jeffrey B. Russ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During perinatal development, corticospinal tract (CST projections into the spinal cord help refine spinal circuitry. Although the normal developmental processes that are controlled by the arrival of corticospinal input are becoming clear, little is known about how perinatal cortical damage impacts specific aspects of spinal circuit development, particularly the inhibitory microcircuitry that regulates spinal reflex circuits. In this study, we sought to determine how ischemic cortical damage impacts the synaptic attributes of a well-characterized population of inhibitory, GABAergic interneurons, called GABApre neurons, which modulates the efficiency of proprioceptive sensory terminals in the sensorimotor reflex circuit. We found that putative GABApre interneurons receive CST input and, using an established mouse model of perinatal stroke, that cortical ischemic injury results in a reduction of CST density within the intermediate region of the spinal cord, where these interneurons reside. Importantly, CST alterations were restricted to the side contralateral to the injury. Within the synaptic terminals of the GABApre interneurons, we observed a dramatic upregulation of the 65-isoform of the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65. In accordance with the CST density reduction, GAD65 was elevated on the side of the spinal cord contralateral to cortical injury. This effect was not seen for other GABApre synaptic markers or in animals that received sham surgery. Our data reveal a novel effect of perinatal stroke that involves severe deficits in the architecture of descending spinal pathways, which in turn appear to promote molecular alterations in a specific spinal GABAergic circuit.

  1. Distinct projection targets define subpopulations of mouse brainstem vagal neurons that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitakahara, Anna; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Levitt, Pat

    2017-12-15

    Detailed anatomical tracing and mapping of the viscerotopic organization of the vagal motor nuclei has provided insight into autonomic function in health and disease. To further define specific cellular identities, we paired information based on visceral connectivity with a cell-type specific marker of a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase. As gastrointestinal disturbances are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we sought to define the relationship between MET-expressing (MET+) neurons in the DMV and nAmb, and the gastrointestinal tract. Using wholemount tissue staining and clearing, or retrograde tracing in a MET EGFP transgenic mouse, we identify three novel subpopulations of EGFP+ vagal brainstem neurons: (a) EGFP+ neurons in the nAmb projecting to the esophagus or laryngeal muscles, (b) EGFP+ neurons in the medial DMV projecting to the stomach, and (b) EGFP+ neurons in the lateral DMV projecting to the cecum and/or proximal colon. Expression of the MET ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), by tissues innervated by vagal motor neurons during fetal development reveal potential sites of HGF-MET interaction. Furthermore, similar cellular expression patterns of MET in the brainstem of both the mouse and nonhuman primate suggests that MET expression at these sites is evolutionarily conserved. Together, the data suggest that MET+ neurons in the brainstem vagal motor nuclei are anatomically positioned to regulate distinct portions of the gastrointestinal tract, with implications for the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal comorbidities of ASD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Combined laryngeal inflammation and trauma mediate long-lasting immunoreactivity response in the brainstem sensory nuclei in the rat

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    Kristina eSimonyan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory feedback from the larynx plays a critical role in regulation of normal upper airway functions, such as breathing, deglutition and voice production, while altered laryngeal sensory feedback is known to elicit a variety of pathological reflex responses, including persistent coughing, dysphonia and laryngospasm. Despite its clinical impact, the central mechanisms underlying the development of pathological laryngeal responses remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of persistent vocal fold (VF inflammation and trauma, as frequent causes of long-lasting modulation of laryngeal sensory feedback, on brainstem immunoreactivity in the rat. Combined VF inflammation and trauma were induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS solution and compared to VF trauma alone from injection of vehicle solution and to controls without any VF manipulations. Using a c-fos marker, we found significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI in the bilateral intermediate/parvicellular reticular formation (IRF/PCRF with a trend in the left solitary tract nucleus (NTS only in animals with LPS-induced VF inflammation and trauma. Further, FLI in the right NTS was significantly correlated with the severity of LPS-induced VF changes. However, increased brainstem FLI response was not associated with FLI changes in the first-order neurons of the laryngeal afferents located in the nodose and jugular ganglia in either group. Our data indicate that complex VF alterations (i.e., inflammation/trauma vs. trauma alone may cause prolonged excitability of the brainstem nuclei receiving a direct sensory input from the larynx, which, in turn, may lead to (malplastic changes within the laryngeal central sensory control.

  3. The auditory brainstem response in two lizard species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Yezhong

    2010-01-01

    Although lizards have highly sensitive ears, it is difficult to condition them to sound, making standard psychophysical assays of hearing sensitivity impractical. This paper describes non-invasive measurements of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in both Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko; nocturnal...... animals, known for their loud vocalizations) and the green anole (Anolis carolinensis, diurnal, non-vocal animals). Hearing sensitivity was measured in 5 geckos and 7 anoles. The lizards were sedated with isoflurane, and ABRs were measured at levels of 1 and 3% isoflurane. The typical ABR waveform......). Above 5 kHz, however, anoles were more than 20 dB more sensitive than geckos and showed a wider range of sensitivity (1-7 kHz). Generally, thresholds from ABR audiograms were comparable to those of small birds. Best hearing sensitivity, however, extended over a larger frequency range in lizards than...

  4. Neurobiological Programming of Early Life Stress: Functional Development of Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry and Vulnerability for Stress-Related Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTieghem, Michelle R; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-04-25

    Early adverse experiences are associated with heighted vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology across the lifespan. While extensive work has investigated the effects of early adversity on neurobiology in adulthood, developmental approaches can provide further insight on the neurobiological mechanisms that link early experiences and long-term mental health outcomes. In the current review, we discuss the role of emotion regulation circuitry implicated in stress-related psychopathology from a developmental and transdiagnostic perspective. We highlight converging evidence suggesting that multiple forms of early adverse experiences impact the functional development of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry. Next, we discuss how adversity-induced alterations in amygdala-prefrontal development are associated with symptoms of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Additionally, we discuss potential mechanisms through which protective factors may buffer the effects of early adversity on amygdala-prefrontal development to confer more adaptive long-term outcomes. Finally, we consider limitations of the existing literature and make suggestions for future longitudinal and translational research that can better elucidate the mechanisms linking early adversity, neurobiology, and emotional phenotypes. Together, these findings may provide further insight into the neuro-developmental mechanisms underlying the emergence of adversity-related emotional disorders and facilitate the development of targeted interventions that can ameliorate risk for psychopathology in youth exposed to early life stress.

  5. United in Diversity : A Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Subpopulations in the Basal Ganglia Circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Viereckel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia consist of a number of different nuclei that form a diverse circuitry of GABAergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurons. This complex network is further organized in subcircuits that govern limbic and motor functions in humans and other vertebrates. Due to the interconnection of the individual structures, dysfunction in one area or cell population can affect the entire network, leading to synaptic and molecular alterations in the circuitry as a whole. The studies in this ...

  6. A Clinical Research Study of Cognitive Dysfunction and Affective Impairment after Isolated Brainstem Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the function of the cerebellum in neurocognition has been well-documented, the similar role of the brainstem has yet to be fully elucidated. This clinical research study aimed to combine data relating to neuropsychological assessments and P300 to explore cognitive dysfunction and affective impairment following brainstem stroke. Thirty-four patients with isolated brainstem stroke and twenty-six healthy controls were recruited; for each patient, we collated data pertaining to the P300, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III, Montreal Cognitive Assessment Chinese version (MoCA, trail-making test (TMT, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Digit Spans (DS, Stroop test, Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS, and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS. Significance was analyzed using an independent T-test or the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation was analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis or Spearman's correlation analysis. Collectively, data revealed that brainstem stroke caused mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and that visuospatial, attention, linguistic, and emotional disturbances may occur after isolated brainstem stroke. Cognitive decline was linked to P300 latency, ACE-III, and MoCA; P300 latency was correlated with ACE-III. Patients with right brainstem lesions were more likely to suffer memory decline. The present study provides initial data relating to the role of the brainstem in neurocognition, and will be useful for further understanding of vascular cognitive and affective impairment.

  7. A Clinical Research Study of Cognitive Dysfunction and Affective Impairment after Isolated Brainstem Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiujuan; Lu, Zuneng; Wang, Yan; Huang, Lifang; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Hong; Xiao, Zheman

    2017-01-01

    Although the function of the cerebellum in neurocognition has been well-documented, the similar role of the brainstem has yet to be fully elucidated. This clinical research study aimed to combine data relating to neuropsychological assessments and P300 to explore cognitive dysfunction and affective impairment following brainstem stroke. Thirty-four patients with isolated brainstem stroke and twenty-six healthy controls were recruited; for each patient, we collated data pertaining to the P300, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III), Montreal Cognitive Assessment Chinese version (MoCA), trail-making test (TMT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Digit Spans (DS), Stroop test, Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Significance was analyzed using an independent T-test or the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation was analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis or Spearman's correlation analysis. Collectively, data revealed that brainstem stroke caused mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and that visuospatial, attention, linguistic, and emotional disturbances may occur after isolated brainstem stroke. Cognitive decline was linked to P300 latency, ACE-III, and MoCA; P300 latency was correlated with ACE-III. Patients with right brainstem lesions were more likely to suffer memory decline. The present study provides initial data relating to the role of the brainstem in neurocognition, and will be useful for further understanding of vascular cognitive and affective impairment. PMID:29311895

  8. Synaptic plasticity in the medial vestibular nuclei: role of glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers in rat brainstem slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E

    2001-08-01

    The analysis of cellular-molecular events mediating synaptic plasticity within vestibular nuclei is an attempt to explain the mechanisms underlying vestibular plasticity phenomena. The present review is meant to illustrate the main results, obtained in vitro, on the mechanisms underlying long-term changes in synaptic strength within the medial vestibular nuclei. The synaptic plasticity phenomena taking place at the level of vestibular nuclei could be useful for adapting and consolidating the efficacy of vestibular neuron responsiveness to environmental requirements, as during visuo-vestibular recalibration and vestibular compensation. Following a general introduction on the most salient features of vestibular compensation and visuo-vestibular adaptation, which are two plastic events involving neuronal circuitry within the medial vestibular nuclei, the second and third sections describe the results from rat brainstem slice studies, demonstrating the possibility to induce long-term potentiation and depression in the medial vestibular nuclei, following high frequency stimulation of the primary vestibular afferents. In particular the mechanisms sustaining the induction and expression of vestibular long-term potentiation and depression, such as the role of various glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers have been described. The relevant role of the interaction between the platelet-activating factor, acting as a retrograde messenger, and the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors, in determining the full expression of vestibular long-term potentiation is also underlined. In addition, the mechanisms involved in vestibular long-term potentiation have been compared with those leading to long-term potentiation in the hippocampus to emphasize the most significant differences emerging from vestibular studies. The fourth part, describes recent results demonstrating the essential role of nitric oxide, another retrograde messenger, in the induction of vestibular

  9. Effects of myelin or cell body brainstem lesions on 3-channel Lissajous' trajectories of feline auditory brainstem evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, H; Zaaroor, M; Bleich, N; Starr, A

    1991-06-01

    Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEP) were recorded from 16 awake cats to obtain 3-Channel Lissajous' Trajectories (3CLTs) using three orthogonal differential electrode configurations (nasion-midline nuchal ridge, left-right mastoids, vertex-midline under the mandible). Potentials, evoked by monaural 80 dBnHL (re, human threshold) clicks, were studied before, and up to 7 weeks after inducing neuronal lesions localized to the cochlear nucleus (CN) or the superior olivary complex (SOC), or myelin lesions localized to the fibers of the trapezoid body connecting these two structures. Neuronal lesions were induced by injection of kainic acid (KA), while myelin lesions were induced by injection of L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). With CN neuronal lesions the major changes in 3CLT were in the time domain of 'b', 'c' and 'd' (components P2, P3 and P4 of single-channel ABEP). With SOC neuronal lesions the major changes were in 'c' and 'd' of 3CLT (P3 and P4 of ABEP). With trapezoid body lesions the major change was in 'c' (P3 of ABEP). The results are compatible with the peripheral generation of the first ABEP components (P1a and P1b). The second component (P2) is generated by ipsilateral CN neurones and their outputs. The third component (P3) is generated primarily by ipsilateral SOC neurones and their outputs, with the ipsilateral CN providing input. The The fourth component (P4) is generated bilaterally by the SOC neurones and their outputs, receiving their inputs from ipsilateral CN. The fifth ABEP component (P5) is generated by structures central to the SOCs and their immediate outputs. Neither focal neuronal nor myelin lesions were sufficient to produce obliteration of any component, consistent with a set of generators for each of the ABEP components, consisting of both cell bodies and their output fibers, that is distributed spatially in the brainstem.

  10. Lessons from sleeping flies: insights from Drosophila melanogaster on the neuronal circuitry and importance of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Sheetal; Sheeba, Vasu

    2013-06-01

    Sleep is a highly conserved behavior whose role is as yet unknown, although it is widely acknowledged as being important. Here we provide an overview of many vital questions regarding this behavior, that have been addressed in recent years using the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila melanogaster in several laboratories around the world. Rest in D. melanogaster has been compared to mammalian sleep and its homeostatic and circadian regulation have been shown to be controlled by intricate neuronal circuitry involving circadian clock neurons, mushroom bodies, and pars intercerebralis, although their exact roles are not entirely clear. We draw attention to the yet unanswered questions and contradictions regarding the nature of the interactions between the brain regions implicated in the control of sleep. Dopamine, octopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and serotonin are the chief neurotransmitters identified as functioning in different limbs of this circuit, either promoting arousal or sleep by modulating membrane excitability of underlying neurons. Some studies have suggested that certain brain areas may contribute towards both sleep and arousal depending on activation of specific subsets of neurons. Signaling pathways implicated in the sleep circuit include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and epidermal growth factor receptor-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (EGFR-ERK) signaling pathways that operate on different neural substrates. Thus, this field of research appears to be on the cusp of many new and exciting findings that may eventually help in understanding how this complex physiological phenomenon is modulated by various neuronal circuits in the brain. Finally, some efforts to approach the "Holy Grail" of why we sleep have been summarized.

  11. Binaural interaction in the auditory brainstem response: a normative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2015-04-01

    Binaural interaction can be investigated using auditory evoked potentials. A binaural interaction component can be derived from the auditory brainstem response (ABR-BIC) and is considered evidence for binaural interaction at the level of the brainstem. Although click ABR-BIC has been investigated thoroughly, data on 500 Hz tone-burst (TB) ABR-BICs are scarce. In this study, characteristics of click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs are described. Furthermore, reliability of both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are investigated. Eighteen normal hearing young adults (eight women, ten men) were included. ABRs were recorded in response to clicks and 500 Hz TBs. ABR-BICs were derived by subtracting the binaural response from the sum of the monaural responses measured in opposite ears. Good inter-rater reliability is obtained for both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at a mean latency of 6.06 ms (SD 0.354 ms). Reliable 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are obtained with a mean latency of 9.47 ms (SD 0.678 ms). Amplitudes are larger for 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC than for clicks. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at the downslope of wave V. Five hundred Hertz TB ABR-BIC is characterized by a broad positivity occurring at the level of wave V. The ABR-BIC is a useful technique to investigate binaural interaction in certain populations. Examples are bilateral hearing aid users, bilateral cochlear implant users and bimodal listeners. The latter refers to the combination of unilateral cochlear implantation and contralateral residual hearing. The majority of these patients have residual hearing in the low frequencies. The current study suggests that 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC may be a suitable technique to assess binaural interaction in this specific population of cochlear implant users. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Herpetic brainstem encephalitis: report of a post-mortem case studied electron microscopically and immunohisiochemically

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    José Eymard Homem Pitella

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available A post-mortem examined case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis is presented. Clinically, the patient had cephalea followed by ataxia, drowsiness and multiple palsies of some cranial nerves, developing into death in eight days. The pathologic examination of the brain showed necrotizing encephalitis in multiple foci limited to the brainstem, more distinctly in the pons and medula oblongata. The technique of immunoperoxidase revealed rare glial cells with intranuclear immunoreactivity for herpes antigen. Rare viral particles with the morphological characteristics of the herpesvirus were identified in the nuclei of neurons in 10% formol fixed material. This is the second reported case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis confirmed by post-mortem examination. The pathway used by the virus to reach the central nervous system and its posterior dissemination to the oral cavity, the orbitofrontal region and the temporal lobes as well as to the brainstem, after a period of latency and reactivation, are discussed.

  13. Leucoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and high lactate: quantitative magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenweg, M.E.; Pouwels, P.J.W.; Wolf, N.I.; van Wieringen, W.N.; Barkhof, F.; van der Knaap, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Leucoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and elevated lactate is a white matter disorder caused by DARS2 mutations. The pathology is unknown. We observed striking discrepancies between improvement on longitudinal conventional magnetic resonance images and clinical deterioration

  14. Organization of diencephalic and brainstem afferent projections to the lateral septum in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, Paul G.M.; Kuipers, Folkert; Schuitmaker, Hans

    1982-01-01

    Ascending diencephalic and brainstem afferents to the lateral septal column were studied by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase following microiontophoretic injections in the various subdivisions of the lateral septal area. Predominantly ispilateral cells, of which several coincide with

  15. Purinergic receptors are involved in tooth-pulp evoked nocifensive behavior and brainstem neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sessle Barry J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether P2X receptors are involved in responses to noxious pulp stimulation, the P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor agonist α,β-methyleneATP (α,β-meATP was applied to the molar tooth pulp and nocifensive behavior and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc, trigeminal spinal subnucleus interpolaris (Vi, upper cervical spinal cord (C1/C2 and paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5 neurons were analyzed in rats. Results Genioglossus (GG muscle activity was evoked by pulpal application of 100 mM α,β-meATP and was significantly larger than GG activity following vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline PBS application (p 1, P2X3 and, P2X2/3 antagonist. A large number of pERK-LI cells were expressed in the Vc, Vi/Vc, C1/C2 and Pa5 at 5 min following pulpal application of 100 mM α,β-meATP compared to PBS application to the pulp (p Conclusions The present findings suggest that activation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors in the tooth pulp is sufficient to elicit nociceptive behavioral responses and trigeminal brainstem neuronal activity.

  16. Direct projections from hypothalamic orexin neurons to brainstem cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Schwartz, Alan R; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Mendelowitz, David

    2016-12-17

    Orexin neurons are known to augment the sympathetic control of cardiovascular function, however the role of orexin neurons in parasympathetic cardiac regulation remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that orexin neurons contribute to parasympathetic control we selectively expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in orexin neurons in orexin-Cre transgenic rats and examined postsynaptic currents in cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Simultaneous photostimulation and recording in ChR2-expressing orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus resulted in reliable action potential firing as well as large whole-cell currents suggesting a strong expression of ChR2 and reliable optogenetic excitation. Photostimulation of ChR2-expressing fibers in the DMV elicited short-latency (ranging from 3.2ms to 8.5ms) postsynaptic currents in 16 out of 44 CVNs tested. These responses were heterogeneous and included excitatory glutamatergic (63%) and inhibitory GABAergic (37%) postsynaptic currents. The results from this study suggest different sub-population of orexin neurons may exert diverse influences on brainstem CVNs and therefore may play distinct functional roles in parasympathetic control of the heart. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined CMV- and HSV-1 brainstem encephalitis restricted to medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchanov, J; Branding, G; Stocker, H

    2014-04-15

    We report a very rare case of a combined CMV- and HSV-1 isolated brainstem encephalitis restricted to medulla oblongata in a patient with advanced HIV disease. Neither limbic nor general ventricular involvement was detected on neuroimaging. The case highlights the importance of testing for HSV-1 and CMV in HIV-infected patients presenting with an isolated brainstem syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Newborn hearing screening with transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and automatic auditory brainstem response

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Mota Mamede de Carvallo; Carla Gentile Matas; Isabela de Souza Jardim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to check Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response tests applied together in regular nurseries and Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICU), as well as to describe and compare the results obtained in both groups. Methods: We tested 150 newborns from regular nurseries and 70 from NICU. Rresults: The newborn hearing screening results using Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Automatic Auditory Brainstem...

  19. Prodominant hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy with supratentorial involvement: Case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Park, Sung Tae; Lim, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Soonchunhyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae; Cha, Ji Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Hypertensive encephalopathy typically presents with bilateral parietooccipital vasogenic edema. Brainstem and cerebellar edema are uncommon in association with typical supratentorial changes. We experienced three cases of atypical hypertensive encephalopathy involving brainstem and cerebellum as well as cerebral white matter, which showed characteristic alternating linear bright and low signals in the pons, the so-called 'stripe sign'. We report these cases here with a brief literature review.

  20. Auditory Brainstem Responses and EMFs Generated by Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khullar, Shilpa; Sood, Archana; Sood, Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    There has been a manifold increase in the number of mobile phone users throughout the world with the current number of users exceeding 2 billion. However this advancement in technology like many others is accompanied by a progressive increase in the frequency and intensity of electromagnetic waves without consideration of the health consequences. The aim of our study was to advance our understanding of the potential adverse effects of GSM mobile phones on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). 60 subjects were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 20 each based on their usage of mobile phones. Their ABRs were recorded and analysed for latency of waves I-V as well as interpeak latencies I-III, I-V and III-V (in ms). Results revealed no significant difference in the ABR parameters between group A (control group) and group B (subjects using mobile phones for maximum 30 min/day for 5 years). However the latency of waves was significantly prolonged in group C (subjects using mobile phones for 10 years for a maximum of 30 min/day) as compared to the control group. Based on our findings we concluded that long term exposure to mobile phones may affect conduction in the peripheral portion of the auditory pathway. However more research needs to be done to study the long term effects of mobile phones particularly of newer technologies like smart phones and 3G.

  1. The auditory brainstem response in two lizard species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Yezhong; Carr, Catherine; Dooling, Robert J

    2010-08-01

    Although lizards have highly sensitive ears, it is difficult to condition them to sound, making standard psychophysical assays of hearing sensitivity impractical. This paper describes non-invasive measurements of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in both Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko; nocturnal animals, known for their loud vocalizations) and the green anole (Anolis carolinensis, diurnal, non-vocal animals). Hearing sensitivity was measured in 5 geckos and 7 anoles. The lizards were sedated with isoflurane, and ABRs were measured at levels of 1 and 3% isoflurane. The typical ABR waveform in response to click stimulation showed one prominent and several smaller peaks occurring within 10 ms of the stimulus onset. ABRs to brief tone bursts revealed that geckos and anoles were most sensitive between 1.6-2 kHz and had similar hearing sensitivity up to about 5 kHz (thresholds typically 20-50 dB SPL). Above 5 kHz, however, anoles were more than 20 dB more sensitive than geckos and showed a wider range of sensitivity (1-7 kHz). Generally, thresholds from ABR audiograms were comparable to those of small birds. Best hearing sensitivity, however, extended over a larger frequency range in lizards than in most bird species.

  2. Modeling Parkinson's disease falls associated with brainstem cholinergic systems decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinski, Aaron; Sarter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In addition to the primary disease-defining symptoms, approximately half of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from postural instability, impairments in gait control and a propensity for falls. Consistent with evidence from patients, we previously demonstrated that combined striatal dopamine (DA) and basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic cell loss causes falls in rats traversing dynamic surfaces. Because evidence suggests that degeneration of brainstem cholinergic neurons arising from the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) also contributes to impaired gait and falls, here we assessed the effects of selective cholinergic PPN lesions in combination with striatal DA loss or BF cholinergic cells loss as well as losses in all 3 regions. Results indicate that all combination losses that included the BF cholinergic system slowed traversal and increased slips and falls. However, the performance of rats with losses in all 3 regions (PPN, BF, and DA) was not more severely impaired than following combined BF cholinergic and striatal DA lesions. These results confirm the hypothesis that BF cholinergic-striatal disruption of attentional-motor interactions is a primary source of falls. Additional losses of PPN cholinergic neurons may worsen posture and gait control in situations not captured by the current testing conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. CT findings of traumatic primary brain-stem injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Yasuaki; Hatashita, Shizuo; Bandou, Kuniaki; Ueki, Yasuyuki; Abe, Kouzou; Koga, Nobunori; Sugimura, Jun; Sakakibara, Tokiwa; Takagi, Suguru

    1984-01-01

    A series of 27 consecutive patients with traumatic primary brain stem injuries was studied. They were diagnosed by means of clinical signs, neurological examination, and computerized tomography (CT). The CT findings of the brain-stem lesions were classified into 4 types: Type H, spotty, high-density; Type H and L, high- and low-densities; Type L, low-density; Type I, isodensity. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS), neurological findings on admission, CT findings (findings in the brain stem, obliteration of perimesencephalic cistern (PMC), and other findings), and the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) were examined. In the 9 cases of Type H, there was a correlation between the GCS and the GOS, and the spotty, high-density lesions were localized mainly in the dorsal and/or ventral midbrain parenchyma, but these lesions did not show focal signs and symptoms. Without an obliteration of the PMC, Type-H patients did not always have a bad outcome. In the 4 cases of Type H and L, the 2 cases of Type L, and the 12 cases of Type I, there was an obliteration of the PMC. All of the these cases had a bad outcome (1 case of moderate disability, 3 cases of severe disability, and 14 cases of death). The mechanism producing a spotty, high-density area was discussed. The weaker impact (than the other types) and individual anatomical differences weresupposed to make for a spotty, high-density are in the brain stem. (author)

  4. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Matveev

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study is to typify BAEPs configurations of patients with different location of lesions caused by subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH and the ensuing complications, in view of assessing the auditory-brainstem system disturbance.Methods. The typization was performed by comparing BAEPs with standard patterns from two sets of types of BAEPs by ipsilateral and binaural stimulation and by cross-stimulation.Results. 94 BAEPs were used for collection of normal referential values: for the absolute latencies and the absolute amplitudes of waves I, II, III, IV and V; for inter-peak latencies I-III, II-III, III-V, I-V and II-V; for amplitude ratios I/V and III/V. 146 BAEPs of patients with mild SAH and 55 from patients with severe SAH, were typified. In 5 types of BAEPs out of a total of 11, the percentage of the potentials in patients with mild SAH and severe SAH differed significantly (p<0.01.Conclusions. The use of sets of types of BAEPs by ipsilateral, binaural and cross-stimulation correctly classifies the potentials in patients with mild and severe SAH.

  5. A comparison of auditory brainstem responses across diving bird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sara E.; Berlin, Alicia; Carr, Catherine E.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Therrien, Ronald E.; Yannuzzi, Sally E.; Ketten, Darlene R.

    2015-01-01

    There is little biological data available for diving birds because many live in hard-to-study, remote habitats. Only one species of diving bird, the black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), has been studied in respect to auditory capabilities (Wever et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 63:676–680, 1969). We, therefore, measured in-air auditory threshold in ten species of diving birds, using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The average audiogram obtained for each species followed the U-shape typical of birds and many other animals. All species tested shared a common region of the greatest sensitivity, from 1000 to 3000 Hz, although audiograms differed significantly across species. Thresholds of all duck species tested were more similar to each other than to the two non-duck species tested. The red-throated loon (Gavia stellata) and northern gannet (Morus bassanus) exhibited the highest thresholds while the lowest thresholds belonged to the duck species, specifically the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis). Vocalization parameters were also measured for each species, and showed that with the exception of the common eider (Somateria mollisima), the peak frequency, i.e., frequency at the greatest intensity, of all species' vocalizations measured here fell between 1000 and 3000 Hz, matching the bandwidth of the most sensitive hearing range.

  6. Auditory brainstem activity and development evoked by apical versus basal cochlear implant electrode stimulation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K A; Papsin, B C; Harrison, R V

    2007-08-01

    The role of apical versus basal cochlear implant electrode stimulation on central auditory development was examined. We hypothesized that, in children with early onset deafness, auditory development evoked by basal electrode stimulation would differ from that evoked more apically. Responses of the auditory nerve and brainstem, evoked by an apical and a basal implant electrode, were measured over the first year of cochlear implant use in 50 children with early onset severe to profound deafness who used hearing aids prior to implantation. Responses at initial stimulation were of larger amplitude and shorter latency when evoked by the apical electrode. No significant effects of residual hearing or age were found on initial response amplitudes or latencies. With implant use, responses evoked by both electrodes showed decreases in wave and interwave latencies reflecting decreased neural conduction time through the brainstem. Apical versus basal differences persisted with implant experience with one exception; eIII-eV interlatency differences decreased with implant use. Acute stimulation shows prolongation of basally versus apically evoked auditory nerve and brainstem responses in children with severe to profound deafness. Interwave latencies reflecting neural conduction along the caudal and rostral portions of the brainstem decreased over the first year of implant use. Differences in neural conduction times evoked by apical versus basal electrode stimulation persisted in the caudal but not rostral brainstem. Activity-dependent changes of the auditory brainstem occur in response to both apical and basal cochlear implant electrode stimulation.

  7. Analysis of diffuse brain injury with primary brainstem lesion on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Masayoshi; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Shimoda, Masami; Ishizaka, Hideo; Shiramizu, Hideki; Morita, Seiji; Tsugane, Ryuichi

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that diffuse brain injury patients with primary brainstem lesions have a poor prognosis. Predicting the existence of brainstem injury at hospital arrival is problematic in actual clinical practice. We conducted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to visualize brainstem lesions clearly, and retrospectively analyzed predictive factors of brainstem lesions by stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis of patient characteristics, neurological findings, laboratory data, and CT findings at arrival in each case. We compared 24 patients with brainstem lesion and 60 without using MRI obtained less than 3 weeks after admission. Items investigated were blood pressure immediately after hospital arrival, arterial blood gas analysis, existence of abnormal respiration, blow direction, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), light reflex, oculocephalic reflex, corneal reflex, intracranial pressure, jugular venous oxygen saturation, and CT findings such as existence of subarachnoid hemorrhage at the suprasellar cistern, perimesencephalic cistern and convexity, lesions on the thalamus and basal ganglia, gliding contusion, intraventricular hemorrhage and Traumatic Coma Data Bank classification. Independent predictive factors of primary brainstem lesion included impaired light reflex (odds ratio: 2.269), subarachnoid hemorrhage at convexity (odds ratio: 3.592) and suprasellar cistern (odds ratio: 2.458), and Traumatic Coma Data Bank group III (odds ratio: 11.062). (author)

  8. Newborn hearing screening with transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and automatic auditory brainstem response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mota Mamede de Carvallo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to check Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response tests applied together in regular nurseries and Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICU, as well as to describe and compare the results obtained in both groups. Methods: We tested 150 newborns from regular nurseries and 70 from NICU. Rresults: The newborn hearing screening results using Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response tests could be applied to all babies. The “pass” result for the group of babies from the nursery was 94.7% using Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and 96% using Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response. The newborn intensive care unit group obtained 87.1% on Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and 80% on the Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response, and there was no statistical difference between the procedures when the groups were evaluated individually. However, comparing the groups, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions were presented in 94.7% of the nursery babies and in 87.1% in the group from the newborn intensive care unit. Considering the Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response, we found 96 and 87%, respectively. Cconclusions: Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response had similar “pass” and “fail” results when the procedures were applied to neonates from the regular nursery, and the combined tests were more precise to detect hearing impairment in the newborn intensive care unit babies.

  9. A clinical study of brainstem infarction identified on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro

    1993-04-01

    We conducted a clinical study of 155 cases that were confirmed to have brainstem infarctions on MRI (T[sub 1]-weighted image showed a low signal and T[sub 2]-weighted image showed a high signal, measuring in excess of 2 x 2 mm). The majority of the brainstem infarction was located in the pontine base in 132 cases (85.2%). Of these, 19 cases had double lesions including infarctions in the pontine base. Second infarctions frequently occurred in the cerebral peduncle or medical medulla oblongata, unilateral to the pontine infarctions. In addition to 98 symptomatic cases, there were 57 cases of 'asymptomatic' brainstem infarction. They comprised 24 cases accompanying other symptomatic cerebrovascular diseases in the supratentorium and 33 cases of transient subjective complaints such as headache or vertigo-dizziness. Complication by supratentorial infarctions was significantly frequent in cases of brainstem infarction (p<0.001), 122 of 155 cases (78.7%), especially in the pontine base (88.6%); while in the control cases (without brainstem infarction) only 65 of 221 cases (29.4%). These findings are considered to show the widespread progress of arteriosclerosis in brainstem infarction, especially in ones in the pontine base. (author).

  10. [Distribution of human enterovirus 71 in brainstem of infants with brain stem encephalitis and infection mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bo; Gao, Di; Tang, Da-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Shui-Ping; Kong, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jing-Lu; Bi, Qi-Ming; Quan, Li; Luo, Bin

    2012-04-01

    To explore the mechanism that how human enterovirus 71 (EV71) invades the brainstem and how intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1) participates by analyzing the expression and distribution of human EV71, and ICAM-1 in brainstem of infants with brain stem encephalitis. Twenty-two brainstem of infants with brain stem encephalitis were collected as the experimental group and 10 brainstems of fatal congenital heart disease were selected as the control group. The sections with perivascular cuffings were selected to observe EV71-VP1 expression by immunohistochemistry method and ICAM-1 expression was detected for the sections with EV71-VP1 positive expression. The staining image analysis and statistics analysis were performed. The experiment and control groups were compared. (1) EV71-VP1 positive cells in the experimental group were mainly astrocytes in brainstem with nigger-brown particles, and the control group was negative. (2) ICAM-1 positive cells showed nigger-brown. The expression in inflammatory cells (around blood vessels of brain stem and in glial nodules) and gliocytes increased. The results showed statistical difference comparing with control group (P diagnose fatal EV71 infection in infants. EV71 can invade the brainstem via hematogenous route. ICAM-1 may play an important role in the pathogenic process.

  11. Long-term potentiation in hilar circuitry modulates gating by the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brandon J; Jackson, Meyer B

    2014-07-16

    The dentate gyrus serves as a gateway to the hippocampus, filtering and processing sensory inputs as an animal explores its environment. The hilus occupies a strategic position within the dentate gyrus from which it can play a pivotal role in these functions. Inputs from dentate granule cells converge on the hilus, and excitatory hilar mossy cells redistribute these signals back to granule cells to transform a pattern of cortical input into a new pattern of output to the hippocampal CA3 region. Using voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices, we explored how long-term potentiation (LTP) of different excitatory synapses modifies the flow of information. Theta burst stimulation of the perforant path potentiated responses throughout the molecular layer, but left responses in the CA3 region unchanged. By contrast, theta burst stimulation of the granule cell layer potentiated responses throughout the molecular layer, as well as in the CA3 region. Theta burst stimulation of the granule cell layer potentiated CA3 responses not only to granule cell layer stimulation but also to perforant path stimulation. Potentiation of responses in the CA3 region reflected NMDA receptor-dependent LTP of upstream synapses between granule cells and mossy cells, with no detectable contribution from NMDA receptor-independent LTP of local CA3 mossy fiber synapses. Potentiation of transmission to the CA3 region required LTP in both granule cell→mossy cell and mossy cell→granule cell synapses. This bidirectional plasticity enables hilar circuitry to regulate the flow of information through the dentate gyrus and on to the hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349743-11$15.00/0.

  12. A brain-liver circuit regulates glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocai, Alessandro; Obici, Silvana; Schwartz, Gary J; Rossetti, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    Increased glucose production (GP) is the major determinant of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Previous studies suggested that lipid metabolism within specific hypothalamic nuclei is a biochemical sensor for nutrient availability that exerts negative feedback on GP. Here we show that central inhibition of fat oxidation leads to selective activation of brainstem neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and markedly decreases liver gluconeogenesis, expression of gluconeogenic enzymes, and GP. These effects require central activation of ATP-dependent potassium channels (K(ATP)) and descending fibers within the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve. Thus, hypothalamic lipid sensing potently modulates glucose metabolism via neural circuitry that requires the activation of K(ATP) and selective brainstem neurons and intact vagal input to the liver. This crosstalk between brain and liver couples central nutrient sensing to peripheral nutrient production and its disruption may lead to hyperglycemia.

  13. DNA-decorated carbon-nanotube-based chemical sensors on complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Yang, Chih-Feng; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Agarwal, Vinay; Sonkusale, Sameer; Kim, Taehoon; Busnaina, Ahmed; Chen, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We present integration of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) onto complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry as nanoscale chemical sensors. SWNTs were assembled onto CMOS circuitry via a low voltage dielectrophoretic (DEP) process. Besides, bare SWNTs are reported to be sensitive to various chemicals, and functionalization of SWNTs with biomolecular complexes further enhances the sensing specificity and sensitivity. After decorating ss-DNA on SWNTs, we have found that the sensing response of the gas sensor was enhanced (up to ∼ 300% and ∼ 250% for methanol vapor and isopropanol alcohol vapor, respectively) compared with bare SWNTs. The SWNTs coupled with ss-DNA and their integration on CMOS circuitry demonstrates a step towards realizing ultra-sensitive electronic nose applications.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide excites medial pontine reticular formation neurons in the brainstem rapid eye movement sleep-induction zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Reiner, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although it has long been known that microinjection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) induces a state that resembles rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, it is likely that other transmitters contribute to mPRF regulation of behavioral states. A key...... candidate is the peptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which innervates the mPRF and induces REM sleep when injected into this region of the brainstem. To begin understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we examined the effects of VIP on mPRF cells using whole-cell patch...... conclude that VIP excites mPRF neurons by activation of a sodium current. This effect is mediated at least in part by G-protein stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and protein kinase A. These data suggest that VIP may play a physiological role in REM induction by its actions on mPRF neurons....

  15. Design and implementation of high-precision and low-jitter programmable delay circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Cui Ke; Zhang Hongfei; Luo Chunli; Yang Dongxu; Liang Hao; Wang Jian

    2011-01-01

    A programmable delay circuit design which has characteristics of high-precision, low-jitter, wide-programmable-range and low power is introduced. The delay circuitry uses the scheme which has two parts: the coarse delay and the fine delay that could be controlled separately. Using different coarse delay chip can reach different maximum programmable range. And the fine delay programmable chip has the minimum step which is down to 10 ps. The whole circuitry jitter will be less than 100 ps. The design has been successfully applied in Quantum Key Distribution experiment. (authors)

  16. Developmental changes in GABAergic neurotransmission to presympathetic and cardiac parasympathetic neurons in the brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Boychuk, Carie R; Mendelowitz, David

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular function is regulated by a dynamic balance composed of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Sympathoexcitatory presympathetic neurons (PSNs) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla project directly to cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. In proximity to the PSNs in the medulla, there are preganglionic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) within the nucleus ambiguus, which are critical for parasympathetic control of heart rate. Both CVNs and PSNs receive GABAergic synaptic inputs that change with challenges such as hypoxia and hypercapnia (H/H). Autonomic control of cardiovascular function undergoes significant changes during early postnatal development; however, little is known regarding postnatal maturation of GABAergic neurotransmission to these neurons. In this study, we compared changes in GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in CVNs and PSNs under control conditions and during H/H in postnatal day 2-5 (P5), 16-20 (P20), and 27-30 (P30) rats using an in vitro brainstem slice preparation. There was a significant enhancement in GABAergic neurotransmission to both CVNs and PSNs at age P20 compared with P5 and P30, with a more pronounced increase in PSNs. H/H did not significantly alter this enhanced GABAergic neurotransmission to PSNs in P20 animals. However, the frequency of GABAergic IPSCs in PSNs was reduced by H/H in P5 and P30 animals. In CVNs, H/H elicited an inhibition of GABAergic neurotransmission in all ages studied, with the most pronounced inhibition occurring at P20. In conclusion, there are critical development periods at which significant rearrangement occurs in the central regulation of cardiovascular function.

  17. Experiences from Auditory Brainstem Implantation (ABIs) in four paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Karin; Stillesjö, Fredrik; Nyberg, Gunnar; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-01-01

    Indications for auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been widened from patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) to paediatric patients with congenital cochlear malformations, cochlear nerve hypoplasia/aplasia, or cochlear ossification after meningitis. We present four ABI surgeries performed in children at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden since 2009. Three children were implanted with implants from Cochlear Ltd. (Lane Cove, Australia) and one child with an implant from MedEl GMBH (Innsbruck, Austria). A boy with Goldenhar syndrome was implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus ABI24M at age 2 years (patient 1). Another boy with CHARGE syndrome was implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus ABI541 at age 2.5 years (patient 2). Another boy with post-ossification meningitis was implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus ABI24M at age 4 years (patient 3). A girl with cochlear aplasia was implanted with a MedEl Synchrony ABI at age 3 years (patient 4). In patients 1, 2, and 3, the trans-labyrinthine approach was used, and in patient 4 the retro-sigmoid approach was used. Three of the four children benefited from their ABIs and use it full time. Two of the full time users had categories of auditory performance (CAP) score of 4 at their last follow up visit (6 and 2.5 years postoperative) which means they can discriminate consistently any combination of two of Ling's sounds. One child has not been fully evaluated yet, but is a full time user and had CAP 2 (responds to speech sounds) after 3 months of ABI use. No severe side or unpleasant stimulation effects have been observed so far. There was one case of immediate electrode migration and one case of implant device failure after 6.5 years. ABI should be considered as an option in the rehabilitation of children with similar diagnoses.

  18. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential in Boxer dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP has been widely used for different purposes in veterinary practice and is commonly used to identify inherited deafness and presbycusis. In this study, 43 Boxer dogs were evaluated using the BAEP. Deafness was diagnosed in 3 dogs (2 bilateral and 1 unilateral allowing the remaining 40 Boxers to be included for normative data analysis including an evaluation on the influence of age on the BAEP. The animals were divided into 2 groups of 20 Boxers each based on age. The mean age was 4.54 years (range, 1-8 in group I, and 9.83 years (range, 8.5-12 in group II. The mean latency for I, III, and V waves were 1.14 (±0.07, 2.64 (±0.11, and 3.48 (±0.10 ms in group I, and 1.20 (±0.12, 2.73 (±0.15, and 3.58 (±0.22 ms in group II, respectively. The mean inter-peak latencies for the I-III, III-V and I-V intervals were 1.50 (±0.15, 0.84 (±0.15, and 2.34 (±0.11 ms in group I, and 1.53 (±0.16, 0.85 (±0.15, and 2.38 (±0.19 ms in group II, respectively. Latencies of waves I and III were significant different between group I and II. For the I-III, III-V and I-V intervals, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. As far as we know, this is the first normative study of BAEP obtained from Boxer dogs.

  19. Localization of the brainstem GABAergic neurons controlling paradoxical (REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sapin

    Full Text Available Paradoxical sleep (PS is a state characterized by cortical activation, rapid eye movements and muscle atonia. Fifty years after its discovery, the neuronal network responsible for the genesis of PS has been only partially identified. We recently proposed that GABAergic neurons would have a pivotal role in that network. To localize these GABAergic neurons, we combined immunohistochemical detection of Fos with non-radioactive in situ hybridization of GAD67 mRNA (GABA synthesis enzyme in control rats, rats deprived of PS for 72 h and rats allowed to recover after such deprivation. Here we show that GABAergic neurons gating PS (PS-off neurons are principally located in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG and the dorsal part of the deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus immediately ventral to it (dDpMe. Furthermore, iontophoretic application of muscimol for 20 min in this area in head-restrained rats induced a strong and significant increase in PS quantities compared to saline. In addition, we found a large number of GABAergic PS-on neurons in the vlPAG/dDPMe region and the medullary reticular nuclei known to generate muscle atonia during PS. Finally, we showed that PS-on neurons triggering PS localized in the SLD are not GABAergic. Altogether, our results indicate that multiple populations of PS-on GABAergic neurons are distributed in the brainstem while only one population of PS-off GABAergic neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDpMe region exist. From these results, we propose a revised model for PS control in which GABAergic PS-on and PS-off neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDPMe region play leading roles.

  20. Gender differences in binaural speech-evoked auditory brainstem response: are they clinically significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaei, Bahram; Azmi, Mohd Hafiz Afifi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Normani

    2018-05-17

    Binaurally evoked auditory evoked potentials have good diagnostic values when testing subjects with central auditory deficits. The literature on speech-evoked auditory brainstem response evoked by binaural stimulation is in fact limited. Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results have been consistently noted but the magnitude of gender difference has not been reported. The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of gender difference in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results between monaural and binaural stimulations. A total of 34 healthy Asian adults aged 19-30 years participated in this comparative study. Eighteen of them were females (mean age=23.6±2.3 years) and the remaining sixteen were males (mean age=22.0±2.3 years). For each subject, speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was recorded with the synthesized syllable /da/ presented monaurally and binaurally. While latencies were not affected (p>0.05), the binaural stimulation produced statistically higher speech-evoked auditory brainstem response amplitudes than the monaural stimulation (p0.80), substantive gender differences were noted in most of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response peaks for both stimulation modes. The magnitude of gender difference between the two stimulation modes revealed some distinct patterns. Based on these clinically significant results, gender-specific normative data are highly recommended when using speech-evoked auditory brainstem response for clinical and future applications. The preliminary normative data provided in the present study can serve as the reference for future studies on this test among Asian adults. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Group Membership Modulates the Neural Circuitry Underlying Third Party Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morese, Rosalba; Rabellino, Daniela; Sambataro, Fabio; Perussia, Felice; Valentini, Maria Consuelo; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore the neural correlates involved in altruistic punishment, parochial altruism and anti-social punishment, using the Third-Party Punishment (TPP) game. In particular, this study considered these punishment behaviors in in-group vs. out-group game settings, to compare how people behave with members of their own national group and with members of another national group. The results showed that participants act altruistically to protect in-group members. This study indicates that norm violation in in-group (but not in out-group) settings results in increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction, brain regions involved in the mentalizing network, as the third-party attempts to understand or justify in-group members' behavior. Finally, exploratory analysis during anti-social punishment behavior showed brain activation recruitment of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area associated with altered regulation of emotions.

  2. Sleep and metabolism: role of hypothalamic neuronal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Asya; Schaich Borg, Jana; de Lecea, Luis

    2010-10-01

    Sleep and metabolism are intertwined physiologically and behaviorally, but the neural systems underlying their coordination are still poorly understood. The hypothalamus is likely to play a major role in the regulation sleep, metabolism, and their interaction. And increasing evidence suggests that hypocretin cells in the lateral hypothalamus may provide particularly important contributions. Here we review: 1) direct interactions between biological arousal and metabolic systems in the hypothalamus, and 2) indirect interactions between these two systems mediated by stress or reward, emphasizing the role of hypocretins. An increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying these interactions may provide novel approaches for the treatment of patients with sleep disorders and obesity, as well as suggest new therapeutic strategies for symptoms of aging, stress, or addiction. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Alteration of glycine receptor immunoreactivity in the auditory brainstem of mice following three months of exposure to radiofrequency radiation at SAR 4.0 W/kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Dhiraj; Kim, Hyung Gun; Suh, Myung-Whan; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Myeung Ju

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of mobile communication has triggered an interest in its possible effects on the regulation of neurotransmitter signals. Due to the close proximity of mobile phones to hearing-related brain regions during usage, its use may lead to a decrease in the ability to segregate sounds, leading to serious auditory dysfunction caused by the prolonged exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. The interplay among auditory processing, excitation and inhibitory molecule interactions plays a major role in auditory function. In particular, inhibitory molecules, such a glycine, are predominantly localized in the auditory brainstem. However, the effects of exposure to RF radiation on auditory function have not been reported to date. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exposure to RF radiation on glycine receptor (GlyR) immunoreactivity (IR) in the auditory brainstem region at 835 MHz with a specific absorption rate of 4.0 W/kg for three months using free-floating immunohistochemistry. Compared with the sham control (SC) group, a significant loss of staining intensity of neuropils and cells in the different subdivisions of the auditory brainstem regions was observed in the mice exposed to RF radiation (E4 group). A decrease in the number of GlyR immunoreactive cells was also noted in the cochlear nuclear complex [anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), 31.09%; dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), 14.08%; posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN), 32.79%] and the superior olivary complex (SOC) [lateral superior olivary nucleus (LSO), 36.85%; superior paraolivary nucleus (SPN), 24.33%, medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO), 23.23%; medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), 10.15%] of the mice in the E4 group. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) analysis also revealed a significant threshold elevation of in the exposed (E4) group, which may be associated with auditory dysfunction. The present study suggests that the auditory brainstem region

  4. Enhanced statistical damage identification using frequency-shift information with tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J; Tang, J; Wang, K W

    2008-01-01

    The frequency-shift-based damage detection method entertains advantages such as global detection capability and easy implementation, but also suffers from drawbacks that include low detection accuracy and sensitivity and the difficulty in identifying damage using a small number of measurable frequencies. Moreover, the damage detection/identification performance is inevitably affected by the uncertainty/variations in the baseline model. In this research, we investigate an enhanced statistical damage identification method using the tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry. The tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry can lead to much enriched information on frequency shift (before and after damage occurrence). The circuitry elements, meanwhile, can be directly and accurately measured and thus can be considered uncertainty-free. A statistical damage identification algorithm is formulated which can identify both the mean and variance of the elemental property change. Our analysis indicates that the integration of the tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry can significantly enhance the robustness of the frequency-shift-based damage identification approach under uncertainty and noise

  5. Synaptic defects in the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen K Y Ling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a major genetic cause of death in childhood characterized by marked muscle weakness. To investigate mechanisms underlying motor impairment in SMA, we examined the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry governing hindlimb ambulatory behavior in SMA model mice (SMNΔ7. In the neuromuscular circuitry, we found that nearly all neuromuscular junctions (NMJs in hindlimb muscles of SMNΔ7 mice remained fully innervated at the disease end stage and were capable of eliciting muscle contraction, despite a modest reduction in quantal content. In the spinal circuitry, we observed a ∼28% loss of synapses onto spinal motoneurons in the lateral column of lumbar segments 3-5, and a significant reduction in proprioceptive sensory neurons, which may contribute to the 50% reduction in vesicular glutamate transporter 1(VGLUT1-positive synapses onto SMNΔ7 motoneurons. In addition, there was an increase in the association of activated microglia with SMNΔ7 motoneurons. Together, our results present a novel concept that synaptic defects occur at multiple levels of the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry in SMNΔ7 mice, and that proprioceptive spinal synapses could be a potential target for SMA therapy.

  6. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.; Montoya, E.R.; Hermans, E.; Keysers, C.; Honk, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have

  7. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Hermans, Erno J; Keysers, C.; van Honk, Jack

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have

  8. Analysis and simulation of the SLD WIC [Warm Iron Calorimeter] PADS hybrid preamplifier circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Horelick, D.

    1990-10-01

    The SLD PADS electronics consist of over 9000 channels of charge-sensitive preamplifiers followed by integrated sample/hold data storage, digitizing, and readout circuitry. This paper uses computer simulation techniques to analyze critical performance parameters of the preamplifier hybrid including its interactions with the detector system. Simulation results are presented and verified with measured performance. 6 refs., 9 figs

  9. Neonatal neurological disorders involving the brainstem: neurosonographic approaches through the squamous suture and the foramen magnum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Yi-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Yuh-Jey; Chang, Ying-Chao; Huang, Chao-Ching

    2005-01-01

    Brainstem damage which often indicates a critical condition is usually underestimated by trans-anterior-fontanel neurosonography (NS) owing to the far-field limitations. Instead, NS alternately scanning through the squamous suture of the temporal bones and the foramen magnum could provide a better visualization of the brainstem structures. The NS characteristics of brainstem lesions caused by various neonatal neurological disorders, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), metabolic encephalopathy, birth trauma and bacterial meningoencephalitis, can be depicted at the acute stage. An echogenic change in the midbrain was found in patients with HIE or metabolic encephalopathy. In addition to the echogenic change, bilateral transtentorial temporal lobe herniation distorting the contour of the midbrain was observed in a patient with group B streptococcus meningoencephalitis, whereas echogenic changes at the level of the pons and/or the medulla oblongata, mainly localized in the dorsal part, could be observed in newborns with severe HIE, maple syrup urine disease or birth trauma. In this pictorial assay, we demonstrate the feasibility of NS imaging in evaluating the entire brainstem structure of critically ill neonates in the near field and illustrate the characteristic features of brainstem involvement in various neonatal neurological disorders along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging correlation. (orig.)

  10. Impairments in musical abilities reflected in the auditory brainstem: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Alexandre; Skoe, Erika; Moreau, Patricia; Peretz, Isabelle; Kraus, Nina

    2015-07-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic condition, characterized by a deficit in music perception and production, not explained by hearing loss, brain damage or lack of exposure to music. Despite inferior musical performance, amusics exhibit normal auditory cortical responses, with abnormal neural correlates suggested to lie beyond auditory cortices. Here we show, using auditory brainstem responses to complex sounds in humans, that fine-grained automatic processing of sounds is impoverished in amusia. Compared with matched non-musician controls, spectral amplitude was decreased in amusics for higher harmonic components of the auditory brainstem response. We also found a delayed response to the early transient aspects of the auditory stimulus in amusics. Neural measures of spectral amplitude and response timing correlated with participants' behavioral assessments of music processing. We demonstrate, for the first time, that amusia affects how complex acoustic signals are processed in the auditory brainstem. This neural signature of amusia mirrors what is observed in musicians, such that the aspects of the auditory brainstem responses that are enhanced in musicians are degraded in amusics. By showing that gradients of music abilities are reflected in the auditory brainstem, our findings have implications not only for current models of amusia but also for auditory functioning in general. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dyslexia risk gene relates to representation of sound in the auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Müller, Bent; Liebig, Johanna; Schaadt, Gesa; Grigutsch, Maren; Gunter, Thomas C; Wilcke, Arndt; Kirsten, Holger; Skeide, Michael A; Kraft, Indra; Kraus, Nina; Emmrich, Frank; Brauer, Jens; Boltze, Johannes; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-04-01

    Dyslexia is a reading disorder with strong associations with KIAA0319 and DCDC2. Both genes play a functional role in spike time precision of neurons. Strikingly, poor readers show an imprecise encoding of fast transients of speech in the auditory brainstem. Whether dyslexia risk genes are related to the quality of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem remains to be investigated. Here, we quantified the response consistency of speech-evoked brainstem responses to the acoustically presented syllable [da] in 159 genotyped, literate and preliterate children. When controlling for age, sex, familial risk and intelligence, partial correlation analyses associated a higher dyslexia risk loading with KIAA0319 with noisier responses. In contrast, a higher risk loading with DCDC2 was associated with a trend towards more stable responses. These results suggest that unstable representation of sound, and thus, reduced neural discrimination ability of stop consonants, occurred in genotypes carrying a higher amount of KIAA0319 risk alleles. Current data provide the first evidence that the dyslexia-associated gene KIAA0319 can alter brainstem responses and impair phoneme processing in the auditory brainstem. This brain-gene relationship provides insight into the complex relationships between phenotype and genotype thereby improving the understanding of the dyslexia-inherent complex multifactorial condition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brainstem Metastases: An International Cooperative Study to Define Response and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifiletti, Daniel M., E-mail: daniel.trifiletti@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Lee, Cheng-Chia [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veteran General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kano, Hideyuki; Cohen, Jonathan [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Janopaul-Naylor, James; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Lee, John Y.K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Simonova, Gabriela; Liscak, Roman [Department of Radiation and Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Wolf, Amparo; Kvint, Svetlana [Department of Neurosurgery, New York University Lagone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Grills, Inga S.; Johnson, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Liu, Kang-Du; Lin, Chung-Jung [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veteran General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mathieu, David; Héroux, France [Division of Neurosurgery, Université de Sherbrooke, Centre de recherche du CHUS, Sherbrooke, Québec (Canada); Silva, Danilo; Sharma, Mayur [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cifarelli, Christopher P. [Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); and others

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To pool data across multiple institutions internationally and report on the cumulative experience of brainstem stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Data on patients with brainstem metastases treated with SRS were collected through the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Clinical, radiographic, and dosimetric characteristics were compared for factors prognostic for local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Of 547 patients with 596 brainstem metastases treated with SRS, treatment of 7.4% of tumors resulted in severe SRS-induced toxicity (grade ≥3, increased odds with increasing tumor volume, margin dose, and whole-brain irradiation). Local control at 12 months after SRS was 81.8% and was improved with increasing margin dose and maximum dose. Overall survival at 12 months after SRS was 32.7% and impacted by age, gender, number of metastases, tumor histology, and performance score. Conclusions: Our study provides additional evidence that SRS has become an option for patients with brainstem metastases, with an excellent benefit-to-risk ratio in the hands of experienced clinicians. Prior whole-brain irradiation increases the risk of severe toxicity in brainstem metastasis patients undergoing SRS.

  13. Neonatal neurological disorders involving the brainstem: neurosonographic approaches through the squamous suture and the foramen magnum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Yi-Fang [National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Tainan (Taiwan); Chen, Cheng-Yu [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Lin, Yuh-Jey [National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Tainan (Taiwan); Chang, Ying-Chao [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Children Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Huang, Chao-Ching [National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Tainan (Taiwan); National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Institute of Molecular Medicine, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2005-09-01

    Brainstem damage which often indicates a critical condition is usually underestimated by trans-anterior-fontanel neurosonography (NS) owing to the far-field limitations. Instead, NS alternately scanning through the squamous suture of the temporal bones and the foramen magnum could provide a better visualization of the brainstem structures. The NS characteristics of brainstem lesions caused by various neonatal neurological disorders, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), metabolic encephalopathy, birth trauma and bacterial meningoencephalitis, can be depicted at the acute stage. An echogenic change in the midbrain was found in patients with HIE or metabolic encephalopathy. In addition to the echogenic change, bilateral transtentorial temporal lobe herniation distorting the contour of the midbrain was observed in a patient with group B streptococcus meningoencephalitis, whereas echogenic changes at the level of the pons and/or the medulla oblongata, mainly localized in the dorsal part, could be observed in newborns with severe HIE, maple syrup urine disease or birth trauma. In this pictorial assay, we demonstrate the feasibility of NS imaging in evaluating the entire brainstem structure of critically ill neonates in the near field and illustrate the characteristic features of brainstem involvement in various neonatal neurological disorders along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging correlation. (orig.)

  14. Optimal technique of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for tumors adjacent to brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou-Shiung; Hwang, Jing-Min; Tai, Po-An; Chang, You-Kang; Wang, Yu-Nong; Shih, Rompin; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a well-established technique that is replacing whole-brain irradiation in the treatment of intracranial lesions, which leads to better preservation of brain functions, and therefore a better quality of life for the patient. There are several available forms of linear accelerator (LINAC)-based SRS, and the goal of the present study is to identify which of these techniques is best (as evaluated by dosimetric outcomes statistically) when the target is located adjacent to brainstem. We collected the records of 17 patients with lesions close to the brainstem who had previously been treated with single-fraction radiosurgery. In all, 5 different lesion catalogs were collected, and the patients were divided into 2 distance groups-1 consisting of 7 patients with a target-to-brainstem distance of less than 0.5cm, and the other of 10 patients with a target-to-brainstem distance of ≥ 0.5 and linear accelerator is only 1 modality can to establish for SRS treatment. Based on statistical evidence retrospectively, we recommend VMAT as the optimal technique for delivering treatment to tumors adjacent to brainstem. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal trajectories in cerebellum and brainstem volumes in carriers of the fragile X premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Yi; Hessl, David; Hagerman, Randi J; Simon, Tony J; Tassone, Flora; Ferrer, Emilio; Rivera, Susan M

    2017-07-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder typically affecting male premutation carriers with 55-200 CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions in the FMR1 gene after age 50. The aim of this study was to examine whether cerebellar and brainstem changes emerge during development or aging in late life. We retrospectively analyzed magnetic resonance imaging scans from 322 males (age 8-81 years). Volume changes in the cerebellum and brainstem were contrasted with those in the ventricles and whole brain. Compared to the controls, premutation carriers without FXTAS showed significantly accelerated volume decrease in the cerebellum and whole brain, flatter inverted U-shaped trajectory of the brainstem, and larger ventricles. Compared to both older controls and premutation carriers without FXTAS, carriers with FXTAS exhibited significant volume decrease in the cerebellum and whole brain and accelerated volume decrease in the brainstem. We therefore conclude that cerebellar and brainstem volumes were likely affected during both development and progression of neurodegeneration in premutation carriers, suggesting that interventions may need to start early in adulthood to be most effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  17. Diverse Intrinsic Properties Shape Functional Phenotype of Low-Frequency Neurons in the Auditory Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the auditory system, tonotopy is the spatial arrangement of where sounds of different frequencies are processed. Defined by the organization of neurons and their inputs, tonotopy emphasizes distinctions in neuronal structure and function across topographic gradients and is a common feature shared among vertebrates. In this study we characterized action potential firing patterns and ion channel properties from neurons located in the extremely low-frequency region of the chicken nucleus magnocellularis (NM, an auditory brainstem structure. We found that NM neurons responsible for encoding the lowest sound frequencies (termed NMc neurons have enhanced excitability and fired bursts of action potentials to sinusoidal inputs ≤10 Hz; a distinct firing pattern compared to higher-frequency neurons. This response property was due to lower amounts of voltage dependent potassium (KV conductances, unique combination of KV subunits and specialized sodium (NaV channel properties. Particularly, NMc neurons had significantly lower KV1 and KV3 currents, but higher KV2 current. NMc neurons also showed larger and faster transient NaV current (INaT with different voltage dependence of inactivation from higher-frequency neurons. In contrast, significantly smaller resurgent sodium current (INaR was present in NMc with kinetics and voltage dependence that differed from higher-frequency neurons. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of NaV1.6 channel subtypes across the tonotopic axis. However, various immunoreactive patterns were observed between regions, likely underlying some tonotopic differences in INaT and INaR. Finally, using pharmacology and computational modeling, we concluded that KV3, KV2 channels and INaR work synergistically to regulate burst firing in NMc.

  18. Correlation of Acute and Late Brainstem Toxicities With Dose-Volume Data for Pediatric Patients With Posterior Fossa Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Ronica H., E-mail: rhazari@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University College of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Ganju, Rohit G.; Schreibmann, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University College of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Chen, Zhengjia; Zhang, Chao [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Jegadeesh, Naresh; Cassidy, Richard; Deng, Claudia; Eaton, Bree R.; Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University College of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced brainstem toxicity after treatment of pediatric posterior fossa malignancies is incompletely understood, especially in the era of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The rates of, and predictive factors for, brainstem toxicity after photon RT for posterior fossa tumors were examined. Methods and Materials: After institutional review board approval, 60 pediatric patients treated at our institution for nonmetastatic infratentorial ependymoma and medulloblastoma with IMRT were included in the present analysis. Dosimetric variables, including the mean and maximum dose to the brainstem, the dose to 10% to 90% of the brainstem (in 10% increments), and the volume of the brainstem receiving 40, 45, 50, and 55 Gy were recorded for each patient. Acute (onset within 3 months) and late (>3 months of RT completion) RT-induced brainstem toxicities with clinical and radiographic correlates were scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Results: Patients aged 1.4 to 21.8 years underwent IMRT or volumetric arc therapy postoperatively to the posterior fossa or tumor bed. At a median clinical follow-up period of 2.8 years, 14 patients had developed symptomatic brainstem toxicity (crude incidence 23.3%). No correlation was found between the dosimetric variables examined and brainstem toxicity. Vascular injury or ischemia showed a strong trend toward predicting brainstem toxicity (P=.054). Patients with grade 3 to 5 brainstem toxicity had undergone treatment to significant volumes of the posterior fossa. Conclusion: The results of the present series demonstrate a low, but not negligible, risk of brainstem radiation necrosis for pediatric patients with posterior fossa malignancies treated with IMRT. No specific dose-volume correlations were identified; however, modern treatment volumes might help limit the incidence of severe toxicity. Additional work investigating inherent biologic sensitivity might also provide

  19. Increased brainstem perfusion, but no blood-brain barrier disruption, during attacks of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M; Christensen, Casper E

    2017-01-01

    symptoms are related to the headache phase of migraine. Animal studies suggest that cortical spreading depression, the likely mechanism of migraine aura, causes disruption of the blood-brain barrier and noxious stimulation of trigeminal afferents leading to activation of brainstem nuclei and triggering...... of migraine headache. We used the sensitive and validated technique of dynamic contrast-enhanced high-field magnetic resonance imaging to simultaneously investigate blood-brain barrier permeability and tissue perfusion in the brainstem (at the level of the lower pons), visual cortex, and brain areas......-free day. The mean time from attack onset to scanning was 7.6 h. We found increased brainstem perfusion bilaterally during migraine with aura attacks. Perfusion also increased in the visual cortex and posterior white matter following migraine aura. We found no increase in blood-brain barrier permeability...

  20. A Role for the Lateral Dorsal Tegmentum in Memory and Decision Neural Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redila, Van; Kinzel, Chantelle; Jo, Yong Sang; Puryear, Corey B.; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2017-01-01

    A role for the hippocampus in memory is clear, although the mechanism for its contribution remains a matter of debate. Converging evidence suggests that hippocampus evaluates the extent to which context-defining features of events occur as expected. The consequence of mismatches, or prediction error, signals from hippocampus is discussed in terms of its impact on neural circuitry that evaluates the significance of prediction errors: Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cells burst fire to rewards or cues that predict rewards (Schultz et al., 1997). Although the lateral dorsal tegmentum (LDTg) importantly controls dopamine cell burst firing (Lodge & Grace, 2006) the behavioral significance of the LDTg control is not known. Therefore, we evaluated LDTg functional activity as rats performed a spatial memory task that generates task-dependent reward codes in VTA (Jo et al., 2013; Puryear et al., 2010) and another VTA afferent, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPTg, Norton et al., 2011). Reversible inactivation of the LDTg significantly impaired choice accuracy. LDTg neurons coded primarily egocentric information in the form of movement velocity, turning behaviors, and behaviors leading up to expected reward locations. A subset of the velocity-tuned LDTg cells also showed high frequency bursts shortly before or after reward encounters, after which they showed tonic elevated firing during consumption of small, but not large, rewards. Cells that fired before reward encounters showed stronger correlations with velocity as rats moved toward, rather than away from, rewarded sites. LDTg neural activity was more strongly regulated by egocentric behaviors than that observed for PPTg or VTA cells that were recorded by Puryear et al. and Norton et al. While PPTg activity was uniquely sensitive to ongoing sensory input, all three regions encoded reward magnitude (although in different ways), reward expectation, and reward encounters. Only VTA encoded reward prediction errors. LDTg

  1. Cerebral and brainstem electrophysiologic activity during euthanasia with pentobarbital sodium in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Williams, D C; Guedes, A; Madigan, J E

    2015-01-01

    An overdose of pentobarbital sodium administered i.v. is the most commonly used method of euthanasia in veterinary medicine. Determining death after the infusion relies on the observation of physical variables. However, it is unknown when cortical electrical activity and brainstem function are lost in a sequence of events before death. To examine changes in the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex and brainstem during an overdose of pentobarbital sodium solution for euthanasia. Our testing hypothesis is that isoelectric pattern of the brain in support of brain death occurs before absence of electrocardiogram (ECG) activity. Fifteen horses requiring euthanasia. Prospective observational study. Horses with neurologic, orthopedic, and cardiac illnesses were selected and instrumented for recording of electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER), and ECG. Physical and neurologic (brainstem reflexes) variables were monitored. Loss of cortical electrical activity occurred during or within 52 seconds after the infusion of euthanasia solution. Cessation of brainstem function as evidenced by a lack of brainstem reflexes and disappearance of the BAER happened subsequently. Despite undetectable heart sounds, palpable arterial pulse, and mean arterial pressure, recordable ECG was the last variable to be lost after the infusion (5.5-16 minutes after end of the infusion). Overdose of pentobarbital sodium solution administered i.v. is an effective, fast, and humane method of euthanasia. Brain death occurs within 73-261 seconds of the infusion. Although absence of ECG activity takes longer to occur, brain death has already occurred. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. [Forensic application of brainstem auditory evoked potential in patients with brain concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xing-Bin; Li, Sheng-Yan; Huang, Si-Xing; Ma, Ke-Xin

    2008-12-01

    To investigate changes of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in patients with brain concussion. Nineteen patients with brain concussion were studied with BAEP examination. The data was compared to the healthy persons reported in literatures. The abnormal rate of BAEP for patients with brain concussion was 89.5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the abnormal rate of patients and that of healthy persons (Pconcussion was 73.7%, indicating dysfunction of the brainstem in those patients. BAEP might be helpful in forensic diagnosis of brain concussion.

  3. Circuitry Linking the Catabolite Repression and Csr Global Regulatory Systems of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuri, Archana; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Zere, Tesfalem; McGibbon, Louise C; Edwards, Adrianne N; Georgellis, Dimitris; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2016-11-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (cAMP-CRP) and CsrA are the principal regulators of the catabolite repression and carbon storage global regulatory systems, respectively. cAMP-CRP controls the transcription of genes for carbohydrate metabolism and other processes in response to carbon nutritional status, while CsrA binds to diverse mRNAs and regulates translation, RNA stability, and/or transcription elongation. CsrA also binds to the regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) CsrB and CsrC, which antagonize its activity. The BarA-UvrY two-component signal transduction system (TCS) directly activates csrB and csrC (csrB/C) transcription, while CsrA does so indirectly. We show that cAMP-CRP inhibits csrB/C transcription without negatively regulating phosphorylated UvrY (P-UvrY) or CsrA levels. A crp deletion caused an elevation in CsrB/C levels in the stationary phase of growth and increased the expression of csrB-lacZ and csrC-lacZ transcriptional fusions, although modest stimulation of CsrB/C turnover by the crp deletion partially masked the former effects. DNase I footprinting and other studies demonstrated that cAMP-CRP bound specifically to three sites located upstream from the csrC promoter, two of which overlapped the P-UvrY binding site. These two proteins competed for binding at the overlapping sites. In vitro transcription-translation experiments confirmed direct repression of csrC-lacZ expression by cAMP-CRP. In contrast, cAMP-CRP effects on csrB transcription may be mediated indirectly, as it bound nonspecifically to csrB DNA. In the reciprocal direction, CsrA bound to crp mRNA with high affinity and specificity and yet exhibited only modest, conditional effects on expression. Our findings are incorporated into an emerging model for the response of Csr circuitry to carbon nutritional status. Csr (Rsm) noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) CsrB and CsrC of Escherichia coli use molecular mimicry to sequester the RNA binding protein CsrA (RsmA) away from lower

  4. The absence of later wave components in auditory brainstem responses as an initial manifestation of type 2 Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yusuke; Goto, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro; Kaneko, Takashi; Miyama, Sahoko

    2014-12-01

    Type 2 Gaucher disease is the most severe neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease and is characterized by severe neurodegeneration with brainstem involvement and organ failure. Prediction or diagnosis of type 2 Gaucher disease before the development of neurological complications is difficult. A 5-month-old female infant presented with deafness without other neurological abnormalities. Auditory brainstem response analysis revealed the absence of later wave components. Two months later, muscular rigidity became evident, followed by the development of opisthotonus and strabismus. Rapid progression of splenomegaly led to the diagnosis of type 2 Gaucher disease. Abnormal auditory brainstem response findings may already exist before the development of severe brainstem abnormalities such as muscular rigidity and opisthotonus in type 2 Gaucher disease. When patients present with deafness and absent later wave components on auditory brainstem response, type 2 Gaucher disease should be included in the differential diagnosis even in the absence of other neurological abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Population calcium imaging of spontaneous respiratory and novel motor activity in the facial nucleus and ventral brainstem in newborn mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karin; Rekling, Jens C

    2011-01-01

    The brainstem contains rhythm and pattern forming circuits, which drive cranial and spinal motor pools to produce respiratory and other motor patterns. Here we used calcium imaging combined with nerve recordings in newborn mice to reveal spontaneous population activity in the ventral brainstem...... and in the facial nucleus. In Fluo-8AM loaded brainstem-spinal cord preparations, respiratory activity on cervical nerves was synchronized with calcium signals at the ventrolateral brainstem surface. Individual ventrolateral neurons at the level of the parafacial respiratory group showed perfect or partial...... synchrony with respiratory nerve bursts. In brainstem-spinal cord preparations, cut at the level of the mid-facial nucleus, calcium signals were recorded in the dorsal, lateral and medial facial subnuclei during respiratory activity. Strong activity initiated in the dorsal subnucleus, followed by activity...

  6. The effect of leptin receptor deficiency and fasting on cannabinoid receptor 1 mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus, brainstem and nodose ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsing, Jacob; Larsen, Philip Just; Vrang, Niels

    2009-10-02

    Despite ample evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the control of appetite, food intake and energy balance, relatively little is known about the regulation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)R) expression in respect to leptin signalling and fasting. In the present study, we examined CB(1)R mRNA levels in lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) male Zucker rats under basal and food-restricted conditions. Using stereological sampling principles coupled with semi-quantitative radioactive in situ hybridization we provide semi-quantitative estimates of CB(1)R mRNA expression in key appetite regulatory hypothalamic and brainstem areas, as well as in the nodose ganglia. Whereas no effect of fasting were determined on CB(1)R mRNA levels in the paraventricular (PVN) and ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) nucleus, in the brainstem dorsal vagal complex or nodose ganglion of lean Zucker rats, CB(1)R mRNA levels were consistently elevated in obese Zucker rats pointing to a direct influence of disrupted leptin signalling on CB(1)R mRNA regulation.

  7. Stitching Codeable Circuits: High School Students' Learning About Circuitry and Coding with Electronic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litts, Breanne K.; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Lui, Debora A.; Walker, Justice T.; Widman, Sari A.

    2017-10-01

    Learning about circuitry by connecting a battery, light bulb, and wires is a common activity in many science classrooms. In this paper, we expand students' learning about circuitry with electronic textiles, which use conductive thread instead of wires and sewable LEDs instead of lightbulbs, by integrating programming sensor inputs and light outputs and examining how the two domains interact. We implemented an electronic textiles unit with 23 high school students ages 16-17 years who learned how to craft and code circuits with the LilyPad Arduino, an electronic textile construction kit. Our analyses not only confirm significant increases in students' understanding of functional circuits but also showcase students' ability in designing and remixing program code for controlling circuits. In our discussion, we address opportunities and challenges of introducing codeable circuit design for integrating maker activities that include engineering and computing into classrooms.

  8. Targeting Lumbar Spinal Neural Circuitry by Epidural Stimulation to Restore Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Minassian, Karen; McKay, W. Barry; Binder, Heinrich; Hofstoetter, Ursula S.

    2016-01-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation has a long history of application for improving motor control in spinal cord injury. This review focuses on its resurgence following the progress made in understanding the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and on recent reports of its augmentative effects upon otherwise subfunctional volitional motor control. Early work revealed that the spinal circuitry involved in lower-limb motor control can be accessed by stimulating through electrodes placed epidur...

  9. Adaptive Supply Voltage Management for Low Power Logic Circuitry Operating at Subthreshold

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in demand of portable hand held devices and with the rise in application of wireless sensor networks and RFID reduction of total power consumption has become a necessity. To save power we operate the logic circuitry of our devices at sub-threshold. In sub-threshold the drain current is exponentially dependent on the threshold voltage hence the threshold variation causes profound variation of ION and IOFF the ratio of which affect the speed of a circuit drastically. S...

  10. Brainstem response audiometry in the determination of low-frequency hearing loss : a study of various methods for frequency-specific ABR-threshold assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.G.J. Conijn

    1992-01-01

    textabstractBrainstem Electric Response Audiometry (BERA) is a method to visualize some of the electric activity generated in the auditory nerve and the brainstem during the processing of sound. The amplitude of the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) is very small (0.05-0.5 flV). The potentials

  11. Stereotactic radiosurgery for brainstem metastases: Survival, tumor control, and patient outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Aamir; Brown, Paul D.; Stafford, Scott L.; Pollock, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with brainstem metastases have limited treatment options. In this study, we reviewed outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of patients with brainstem metastases. Methods and Materials: Records were reviewed of 22 consecutive patients presenting with brainstem metastases who underwent SRS. The most frequent primary malignancy was the lung (n = 11), followed by breast (n = 3) and kidney (n = 2). Three patients (14%) also underwent whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The median tumor volume was 0.9 mL (range, 0.1-3.3 mL); the median tumor margin dose was 16 Gy (range, 14-23 Gy). Results: Median survival time after SRS was 8.5 months. Although local tumor control was achieved in all patients with imaging follow-up (n = 19), 5 patients died from development and progression of new brain metastases. Two patients (9%) had symptom improvement after SRS, whereas 1 patient (5%) developed a new hemiparesis after SRS. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is safe and provides a high local tumor control rate for patients with small brainstem metastases. Patients with limited systemic disease and good performance status should be strongly considered for SRS

  12. Stereotactic radiosurgery for deep intracranial arteriovenous malformations, part 1: Brainstem arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Inbar, Or; Ding, Dale; Chen, Ching-Jen; Sheehan, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    The management of brainstem arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are one of the greatest challenges encountered by neurosurgeons. Brainstem AVM have a higher risk of hemorrhage compared to AVM in other locations, and rupture of these lesions commonly results in devastating neurological morbidity and mortality. The potential morbidity associated with currently available treatment modalities further compounds the complexity of decision making for affected patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has an important role in the management of brainstem AVM. SRS offers acceptable obliteration rates with lower risks of hemorrhage occurring during the latency period. Complex nidal architecture requires a multi-disciplinary treatment approach. Nidi partly involving subpial/epipial regions of the dorsal midbrain or cerebellopontine angle should be considered for a combination of endovascular embolization, micro-surgical resection and SRS. Considering the fact that incompletely obliterated lesions (even when reduced in size) could still cause lethal hemorrhages, additional treatment, including repeat SRS and surgical resection should be considered when complete obliteration is not achieved by first SRS. Patients with brainstem AVM require continued clinical and radiological observation and follow-up after SRS, well after angiographic obliteration has been confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two oculomotor-related areas of the brainstem project to the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, E.M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Holstege, Gert

    2005-01-01

    The dorsolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (PAGdl) is usually associated with defensive behavior, but how this is brought about is not yet fully understood. In order to elucidate the function of PAGdl, its afferents from the brainstem were investigated in cats. Retrograde tracing results

  14. Normal development of brainstem in childhood. Measurement of the area on mid-sagittal MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutomi, Kimiko [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2005-05-01

    Developmental abnormality of brainstem is shown in pediatric patients with mental retardation, autism, periventricular leukomalacia, neurodegenerative disease, and so on. Our purpose here is to clarify the normal developmental pattern of the brainstem. We measured the area of tectum, midbrain tegmentum, pons, basis pontis and pontine tegmentum on mid-sagittal MR images in 111 children (newborn to 20 year old). Different growth patterns were shown in all parts of the brainstem. Tectum showed a subtle increase in area from the newborn to adult period, while midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmenturn showed a mild and gradual increase in area. Pons and pontine tegmentum showed a rapid and prominent increase in area from newborn to infant period and gradual increase in area until the adult period. These different growth patterns seemed to be consistent with differences in the myelination cycles of the neuronal fibers, maturation of the nuclei and proliferation of glial cells in each part of the brainstem. Mid-sagittal MR imaging of the head is accurate and reproducible and is used conveniently in routine head MR study, making it very useful for the diagnosis of many central nervous diseases and anomalies. We believe that this new milestone provided in this study will be helpful in distinguishing normal children from those that have neurodegenerative disorders. (author)

  15. Normal development of brainstem in childhood. Measurement of the area on mid-sagittal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutomi, Kimiko

    2005-01-01

    Developmental abnormality of brainstem is shown in pediatric patients with mental retardation, autism, periventricular leukomalacia, neurodegenerative disease, and so on. Our purpose here is to clarify the normal developmental pattern of the brainstem. We measured the area of tectum, midbrain tegmentum, pons, basis pontis and pontine tegmentum on mid-sagittal MR images in 111 children (newborn to 20 year old). Different growth patterns were shown in all parts of the brainstem. Tectum showed a subtle increase in area from the newborn to adult period, while midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmenturn showed a mild and gradual increase in area. Pons and pontine tegmentum showed a rapid and prominent increase in area from newborn to infant period and gradual increase in area until the adult period. These different growth patterns seemed to be consistent with differences in the myelination cycles of the neuronal fibers, maturation of the nuclei and proliferation of glial cells in each part of the brainstem. Mid-sagittal MR imaging of the head is accurate and reproducible and is used conveniently in routine head MR study, making it very useful for the diagnosis of many central nervous diseases and anomalies. We believe that this new milestone provided in this study will be helpful in distinguishing normal children from those that have neurodegenerative disorders. (author)

  16. Investigation of auditory brainstem function in elderly diabetic patients with presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacií, Jelena; Lajtman, Zoran; Ozegović, Ivan; Knezević, Predrag; Carić, Tomislav; Vlasić, Ana

    2009-01-01

    We performed brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) examinations in 100 patients older than 60 years and having type I diabetes mellitus and presbycusis. The aim of our investigation was to compare the BAEP results of this group with those of healthy controls with presbycusis and to look for possible correlations between alteration of the auditory brainstem function and the aging of elderly diabetic patients. Absolute and interpeak latencies of all waves were prolonged significantly in the study group of diabetic patients. The amplitudes of all waves I through V were diminished in the study group as compared to those in the control group, with statistical significance present for all waves. Analysis of the latencies (waves I, II, I, and V), interpeak latencies (I-V), and amplitudes (I, II, III, and V) of BAEP revealed a significant difference between those of diabetics and those of healthy elderly controls with presbycusis. These data support a hypothesis that there is a brainstem neuropathy in diabetes mellitus that can be assessed with auditory brainstem response testing even in the group of elderly patients with sensorineural hearing loss.

  17. Effects of brainstem lesions on the masseter inhibitory reflex. Functional mechanisms of reflex pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.; Cruccu, G.; Manfredi, M.; Koelman, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    The masseter inhibitory reflex (MIR) was investigated in 16 patients with localized brainstem lesions involving the trigeminal system. The MIR consists of two phases of EMG silence (S1 and S2) evoked by stimulation of the mental nerve during maximal clenching of the teeth. The extent of the lesions

  18. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  19. Speech-evoked brainstem frequency-following responses during verbal transformations due to word repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, G C; Jhaveri, S P; Kuo, J

    1997-01-01

    Speech-evoked brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) were recorded to repeated presentations of the same stimulus word. Word repetition results in illusory verbal transformations (VTs) in which word perceptions can differ markedly from the actual stimulus. Previous behavioral studies support an explanation of VTs based on changes in arousal or attention. Horizontal and vertical dipole FFRs were recorded to assess responses with putative origins in the auditory nerve and central brainstem, respectively. FFRs were recorded from 18 subjects when they correctly heard the stimulus and when they reported VTs. Although horizontal and vertical dipole FFRs showed different frequency response patterns, dipoles did not differentiate between perceptual conditions. However, when subjects were divided into low- and high-VT groups (based on percentage of VT trials), a significant Condition x Group interaction resulted. This interaction showed the largest difference in FFR amplitudes during VT trials, with the low-VT group showing increased amplitudes, and the high-VT group showing decreased amplitudes, relative to trials in which the stimulus was correctly perceived. These results demonstrate measurable subject differences in the early processing of complex signals, due to possible effects of attention on the brainstem FFR. The present research shows that the FFR is useful in understanding human language as it is coded and processed in the brainstem auditory pathway.

  20. The human premotor oculomotor brainstem system - can it help to understand oculomotor symptoms in Huntington's disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueb, U.; Heinsen, H.; Brunt, E. R.; Landwehrmeyer, B.; Den Dunnen, W. F. A.; Gierga, K.; Deller, T.

    Recent progress in oculomotor research has enabled new insights into the functional neuroanatomy of the human premotor oculomotor brainstem network. In the present review, we provide an overview of its functional neuroanatomy and summarize the broad range of oculomotor dysfunctions that may occur in

  1. Towards an optimal paradigm for simultaneously recording cortical and brainstem auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-02-15

    Simultaneous recording of brainstem and cortical event-related brain potentials (ERPs) may offer a valuable tool for understanding the early neural transcription of behaviorally relevant sounds and the hierarchy of signal processing operating at multiple levels of the auditory system. To date, dual recordings have been challenged by technological and physiological limitations including different optimal parameters necessary to elicit each class of ERP (e.g., differential adaptation/habitation effects and number of trials to obtain adequate response signal-to-noise ratio). We investigated a new stimulus paradigm for concurrent recording of the auditory brainstem frequency-following response (FFR) and cortical ERPs. The paradigm is "optimal" in that it uses a clustered stimulus presentation and variable interstimulus interval (ISI) to (i) achieve the most ideal acquisition parameters for eliciting subcortical and cortical responses, (ii) obtain an adequate number of trials to detect each class of response, and (iii) minimize neural adaptation/habituation effects. Comparison between clustered and traditional (fixed, slow ISI) stimulus paradigms revealed minimal change in amplitude or latencies of either the brainstem FFR or cortical ERP. The clustered paradigm offered over a 3× increase in recording efficiency compared to conventional (fixed ISI presentation) and thus, a more rapid protocol for obtaining dual brainstem-cortical recordings in individual listeners. We infer that faster recording of subcortical and cortical potentials might allow more complete and sensitive testing of neurophysiological function and aid in the differential assessment of auditory function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between brainstem neurodegeneration and clinical impairment in traumatic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Grabher

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Neurodegeneration, indicated by volume loss and myelin reductions, is evident in major brainstem pathways and nuclei following traumatic SCI; the magnitude of these changes relating to clinical impairment. Thus, quantitative MRI protocols offer new targets, which may be used as neuroimaging biomarkers in treatment trials.

  3. Identification of clinical target areas in the brainstem of prion‐infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Ilaria; Jat, Parmjit S.; Brandner, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Aims While prion infection ultimately involves the entire brain, it has long been thought that the abrupt clinical onset and rapid neurological decline in laboratory rodents relates to involvement of specific critical neuroanatomical target areas. The severity and type of clinical signs, together with the rapid progression, suggest the brainstem as a candidate location for such critical areas. In this study we aimed to correlate prion pathology with clinical phenotype in order to identify clinical target areas. Method We conducted a comprehensive survey of brainstem pathology in mice infected with two distinct prion strains, which produce different patterns of pathology, in mice overexpressing prion protein (with accelerated clinical onset) and in mice in which neuronal expression was reduced by gene targeting (which greatly delays clinical onset). Results We identified specific brainstem areas that are affected by prion pathology during the progression of the disease. In the early phase of disease the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the pre‐Bötzinger complex were affected by prion protein deposition. This was followed by involvement of the motor and autonomic centres of the brainstem. Conclusions Neurodegeneration in the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract and the pre‐Bötzinger complex predominated and corresponded to the manifestation of the clinical phenotype. Because of their fundamental role in controlling autonomic function and the overlap with clinical signs in sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, we suggest that these nuclei represent key clinical target areas in prion diseases. PMID:25311251

  4. Low-frequency versus high-frequency synchronisation in chirp-evoked auditory brainstem responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Gøtsche-Rasmussen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency specific contribution to the auditory brainstem response (ABR) of chirp stimuli. Frequency rising chirps were designed to compensate for the cochlear traveling wave delay, and lead to larger wave-V amplitudes than for click stimuli as more auditory nerve fibr...

  5. Boxing sparring complicated by an acute subdural haematoma and brainstem haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael G; Trivedi, Rikin A; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    A professional boxer developed an acute subdural haematoma after boxing sparring. Despite timely surgical decompression, he had a poor overall outcome predominantly from a delayed brainstem haematoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to elucidate the pathophysiology of the patients' injury and clinical condition.

  6. Statins Promote Long-Term Recovery after Ischemic Stroke by Reconnecting Noradrenergic Neuronal Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Joo Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (statins, widely used to lower cholesterol in coronary heart and vascular disease, are effective drugs in reducing the risk of stroke and improving its outcome in the long term. After ischemic stroke, cardiac autonomic dysfunction and psychological problems are common complications related to deficits in the noradrenergic (NA system. This study investigated the effects of statins on the recovery of NA neuron circuitry and its function after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI. Using the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA transgene technique combined with the recombinant adenoviral vector system, NA-specific neuronal pathways were labeled, and were identified in the locus coeruleus (LC, where NA neurons originate. NA circuitry in the atorvastatin-treated group recovered faster than in the vehicle-treated group. The damaged NA circuitry was partly reorganized with the gradual recovery of autonomic dysfunction and neurobehavioral deficit. Newly proliferated cells might contribute to reorganizing NA neurons and lead anatomic and functional recovery of NA neurons. Statins may be implicated to play facilitating roles in the recovery of the NA neuron and its function.

  7. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Gabriel S; Damiano, Cara A; Allen, John A

    2012-07-06

    This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders), neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette's syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome). We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  8. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dichter Gabriel S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome. We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  9. Stress, trauma and PTSD: translational insights into the core synaptic circuitry and its modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Evidence is considered as to whether behavioral criteria for diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are applicable to that of traumatized animals and whether the phenomena of acquisition, extinction and reactivation of fear behavior in animals are also successfully applicable to humans. This evidence suggests an affirmative answer in both cases. Furthermore, the deficits in gray matter found in PTSD, determined with magnetic resonance imaging, are also observed in traumatized animals, lending neuropsychological support to the use of animals to probe what has gone awry in PTSD. Such animal experiments indicate that the core synaptic circuitry mediating behavior following trauma consists of the amygdala, ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, all of which are modulated by the basal ganglia. It is not clear if this is the case in PTSD as the observations using fMRI are equivocal and open to technical objections. Nevertheless, the effects of the basal ganglia in controlling glutamatergic synaptic transmission through dopaminergic and serotonergic synaptic mechanisms in the core synaptic circuitry provides a ready explanation for why modifying these mechanisms delays extinction in animal models and predisposes towards PTSD. In addition, changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the core synaptic circuitry have significant effects on acquisition and extinction in animal experiments with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the BDNF gene predisposing to PTSD.

  10. Stress-induced activation of the brainstem Bcl-xL gene expression in rats treated with fluoxetine: correlations with serotonin metabolism and depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, Galina T; Kalinina, Tatyana S; Berezova, Inna V; Dygalo, Nikolay N

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression and antidepressant drug action were shown to involve alterations in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission and expression of genes coding for proteins associated with neurotrophic signaling pathways and cell-survival in the hippocampus and cortex. Expression of these genes in the brainstem containing 5-HT neurons may also be related to vulnerability or resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Here we investigated 5-HT markers and expression of genes for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and apoptotic proteins in the brainstem in relation to swim stress-induced behavioral despair. We found that anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL gene is sensitive to stress during the course of fluoxetine administration. Responsiveness of this gene to stress appeared concomitantly with an antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine in the forced swim test. Bcl-xL transcript levels showed negative correlations with duration of immobility in the test and 5-HT turnover in the brainstem. In contrast, BDNF and pro-apoptotic protein Bax mRNA levels were unchanged by either fluoxetine or stress, suggesting specificity of Bcl-xL gene responses to these treatments. We also found that the levels of mRNAs for tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) were significantly down-regulated following prolonged treatment with fluoxetine, but were not affected by stress. Unlike TPH2 and 5-HTT, 5-HT1A receptor mRNA levels were not altered by fluoxetine but significantly increased in response to swim stress. These data show that long-term fluoxetine treatment leads to changes in 5-HT and Bcl-xL responses to stress associated with antidepressant-like effects of the drug. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tricky Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Teaching children about circuits and the way electricity works is a "tricky business" because it is invisible. Just imagine all eyes are on the teacher as he or she produces for the class what looks like a ping-pong ball and then, with a wave of their hand, the incredible happens! This wonderful white sphere begins to glow red and a…

  12. Intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia effects on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandarajah, Arunnjah; Aishah, Atqiya; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute (1 day) vs repeated (4 days) exposure to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) on the immunohistochemical expression of α2, α3, α5, α7, α9 and β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem medulla, and how prior nicotine exposure alters the response to acute IHH. Five piglet groups included: 1day IHH (1D IHH, n=9), 4days IHH (4D IHH, n=8), controls exposed only to air cycles for 1day (1D Air, n=6) or 4days (4D Air, n=5), and pre-exposed to nicotine for 13days prior to 1day IHH (Nic+1D IHH, n=7). The exposure period alternated 6min of HH (8%O 2 , 7%CO 2 , balance N 2 ) and 6min of air over 48min, while controls were switched from air-to-air. Results showed that: 1. repeated IHH induces more changes in nAChR subunit expression than acute IHH in both the hippocampus and brainstem medulla, 2. In the hippocampus, α2 and β2 changed the most (increased) following IHH and the CA3, CA2 and DG were mostly affected. In the brainstem medulla, α2, α5, α9 and β2 were changed (decreased) in most nuclei with the hypoglossal and nucleus of the solitary tract being mostly affected. 3. Pre-exposure to nicotine enhanced the changes in the hippocampus but dampened those in the brainstem medulla. These findings indicate that the nAChRs (predominantly with the α2/β2 complex) are affected by IHH in critical hippocampal and brainstem nuclei during early brain development, and that pre-exposure to nicotine alters the pattern of susceptibility to IHH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterising Ageing in the Human Brainstem Using Quantitative Multimodal MRI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLambert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is ubiquitous to the human condition. The MRI correlates of healthy ageing have been extensively investigated using a range of modalities, including volumetric MRI, quantitative MRI and DTI. Despite this, the reported brainstem related changes remain sparse. This is, in part, due to the technical and methodological limitations in quantitatively assessing and statistically analysing this region. By utilising a new method of brainstem segmentation, a large cohort of 100 healthy adults were assessed in this study for the effects of ageing within the human brainstem in vivo. Using quantitative MRI (qMRI, tensor based morphometry (TBM and voxel based quantification (VBQ, the volumetric and quantitative changes across healthy adults between 19-75 years were characterised. In addition to the increased R2* in substantia nigra corresponding to increasing iron deposition with age, several novel findings were reported in the current study. These include selective volumetric loss of the brachium conjunctivum, with a corresponding decrease in magnetisation transfer (MT and increase in proton density (PD, accounting for the previously described midbrain shrinkage. Additionally, we found increases in R1 and PD in several pontine and medullary structures. We consider these changes in the context of well-characterised, functional age-related changes, and propose potential biophysical mechanisms. This study provides detailed quantitative analysis of the internal architecture of the brainstem and provides a baseline for further studies of neurodegenerative diseases that are characterised by early, pre-clinical involvement of the brainstem, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

  14. Robust Machine Learning-Based Correction on Automatic Segmentation of the Cerebellum and Brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Yi; Ngo, Michael M; Hessl, David; Hagerman, Randi J; Rivera, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Automated segmentation is a useful method for studying large brain structures such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, automated segmentation may lead to inaccuracy and/or undesirable boundary. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether SegAdapter, a machine learning-based method, is useful for automatically correcting large segmentation errors and disagreement in anatomical definition. We further assessed the robustness of the method in handling size of training set, differences in head coil usage, and amount of brain atrophy. High resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 30 healthy controls scanned with either an 8-channel or 32-channel head coil. Ten patients, who suffered from brain atrophy because of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, were scanned using the 32-channel head coil. The initial segmentations of the cerebellum and brainstem were generated automatically using Freesurfer. Subsequently, Freesurfer's segmentations were both manually corrected to serve as the gold standard and automatically corrected by SegAdapter. Using only 5 scans in the training set, spatial overlap with manual segmentation in Dice coefficient improved significantly from 0.956 (for Freesurfer segmentation) to 0.978 (for SegAdapter-corrected segmentation) for the cerebellum and from 0.821 to 0.954 for the brainstem. Reducing the training set size to 2 scans only decreased the Dice coefficient ≤0.002 for the cerebellum and ≤ 0.005 for the brainstem compared to the use of training set size of 5 scans in corrective learning. The method was also robust in handling differences between the training set and the test set in head coil usage and the amount of brain atrophy, which reduced spatial overlap only by segmentation and corrective learning provides a valuable method for accurate and efficient segmentation of the cerebellum and brainstem, particularly in large-scale neuroimaging studies, and potentially for segmenting other neural regions as

  15. Four cases with localized brain-stem lesion on CT scan following closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Naokatsu; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo; Takase, Manabu; Ono, Junichi.

    1981-01-01

    Cases of primary brain-stem injury following closed head injury, verified by a CT scan, have been increasingly reported. However, most of them have other intracranial lesions in addition to the brain stem, resulting in a poor outcome. The CT scan of 200 cases with severe head injury-Araki's classification of types 3 and 4 - were analysed. Four cases out of them had localized brain-stem lesion without any other significant intracranial injury on a CT scan at the acute stage and had a better outcome than had previously been reported. In this analysis, these 4 cases were studied, and the CT findings, prognosis, and pathogenesis of the localized brain-stem injury were discussed. Follow-up CT of three cases, and taken one month or more later, showed diffuse cortical atrophy. This may indicate the presence of diffuse cerebral injury which could not be seen on CT scans at the acute stage. This atrophic change may also be related with the mechanism of posttraumatic conscious impairment and posttraumatic neurological deficits, such as mental symptoms and impairment of the higher cortical function. Shearing injury is a probable pathogenesis for this diffuse cortical injury. On the other hand, one case did not have any cortical atrophy on a follow-up CT scan. Therefore, this is a case with a localized primary brain-stem injury. Coup injury against the brain stem by a tentorial margin in a case with a small tentorial opening is a possible mechanism producing the localized brain-stem injury. (J.P.N.)

  16. Evaluation of peripheral auditory pathways and brainstem in obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Matsumura

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea causes changes in normal sleep architecture, fragmenting it chronically with intermittent hypoxia, leading to serious health consequences in the long term. It is believed that the occurrence of respiratory events during sleep, such as apnea and hypopnea, can impair the transmission of nerve impulses along the auditory pathway that are highly dependent on the supply of oxygen. However, this association is not well established in the literature. Objective To compare the evaluation of peripheral auditory pathway and brainstem among individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnea. Methods The sample consisted of 38 adult males, mean age of 35.8 (±7.2, divided into four groups matched for age and Body Mass Index. The groups were classified based on polysomnography in: control (n = 10, mild obstructive sleep apnea (n = 11 moderate obstructive sleep apnea (n = 8 and severe obstructive sleep apnea (n = 9. All study subjects denied a history of risk for hearing loss and underwent audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response. Statistical analyses were performed using three-factor ANOVA, 2-factor ANOVA, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. The significance level for all tests was 5%. Results There was no difference between the groups for hearing thresholds, tympanometry and evaluated Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response parameters. An association was observed between the presence of obstructive sleep apnea and changes in absolute latency of wave V (p = 0.03. There was an association between moderate obstructive sleep apnea and change of the latency of wave V (p = 0.01. Conclusion The presence of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with changes in nerve conduction of acoustic stimuli in the auditory pathway in the brainstem. The increase in obstructive sleep apnea severity does not promote worsening of responses assessed by audiometry, tympanometry and Brainstem

  17. 7 Tesla 22-channel wrap-around coil array for cervical spinal cord and brainstem imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Seifert, Alan C; Kim, Joo-Won; Borrello, Joseph; Xu, Junqian

    2017-10-01

    Increased signal-to-noise ratio and blood oxygenation level-dependent sensitivity at 7 Tesla (T) have the potential to enable high-resolution imaging of the human cervical spinal cord and brainstem. We propose a new two-panel radiofrequency coil design for these regions to fully exploit the advantages of ultra-high field. A two-panel array, containing four transmit/receive and 18 receive-only elements fully encircling the head and neck, was constructed following simulations demonstrating the B1+ and specific absorption rate (SAR) benefits of two-panel over one-panel arrays. This array was compared with a previously reported posterior-only array and tested for safety using a phantom. Its anatomical, functional, and diffusion MRI performance was demonstrated in vivo. The two-panel array produced more uniform B1+ across the brainstem and cervical spinal cord without compromising SAR, and achieved 70% greater receive sensitivity than the posterior-only array. The two-panel design enabled acceleration of R = 2 × 2 in two dimensions or R = 3 in a single dimension. High quality in vivo anatomical, functional, and diffusion images of the human cervical spinal cord and brainstem were acquired. We have designed and constructed a wrap-around coil array with excellent performance for cervical spinal cord and brainstem MRI at 7T, which enables simultaneous human cervical spinal cord and brainstem functional MRI. Magn Reson Med 78:1623-1634, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Macrovascular Decompression of the Brainstem and Cranial Nerves: Evolution of an Anteromedial Vertebrobasilar Artery Transposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhri, Omar; Connolly, Ian D; Lawton, Michael T

    2017-08-01

    Tortuous and dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar arteries can impinge on the brainstem and cranial nerves to cause compression syndromes. Transposition techniques are often required to decompress the brainstem with dolichoectatic pathology. We describe our evolution of an anteromedial transposition technique and its efficacy in decompressing the brainstem and relieving symptoms. To present the anteromedial vertebrobasilar artery transposition technique for macrovascular decompression of the brainstem and cranial nerves. All patients who underwent vertebrobasilar artery transposition were identified from the prospectively maintained database of the Vascular Neurosurgery service, and their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. The extent of arterial displacement was measured pre- and postoperatively on imaging. Vertebrobasilar arterial transposition and macrovascular decompression was performed in 12 patients. Evolution in technique was characterized by gradual preference for the far-lateral approach, use of a sling technique with muslin wrap, and an anteromedial direction of pull on the vertebrobasilar artery with clip-assisted tethering to the clival dura. With this technique, mean lateral displacement decreased from 6.6 mm in the first half of the series to 3.8 mm in the last half of the series, and mean anterior displacement increased from 0.8 to 2.5 mm, with corresponding increases in satisfaction and relief of symptoms. Compressive dolichoectatic pathology directed laterally into cranial nerves and posteriorly into the brainstem can be corrected with anteromedial transposition towards the clivus. Our technique accomplishes this anteromedial transposition from an inferolateral surgical approach through the vagoaccessory triangle, with sling fixation to clival dura using aneurysm clips. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  19. Evaluation of peripheral auditory pathways and brainstem in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Erika; Matas, Carla Gentile; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Pedreño, Raquel Meirelles; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-11-25

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes changes in normal sleep architecture, fragmenting it chronically with intermittent hypoxia, leading to serious health consequences in the long term. It is believed that the occurrence of respiratory events during sleep, such as apnea and hypopnea, can impair the transmission of nerve impulses along the auditory pathway that are highly dependent on the supply of oxygen. However, this association is not well established in the literature. To compare the evaluation of peripheral auditory pathway and brainstem among individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnea. The sample consisted of 38 adult males, mean age of 35.8 (±7.2), divided into four groups matched for age and Body Mass Index. The groups were classified based on polysomnography in: control (n=10), mild obstructive sleep apnea (n=11) moderate obstructive sleep apnea (n=8) and severe obstructive sleep apnea (n=9). All study subjects denied a history of risk for hearing loss and underwent audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response. Statistical analyses were performed using three-factor ANOVA, 2-factor ANOVA, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. The significance level for all tests was 5%. There was no difference between the groups for hearing thresholds, tympanometry and evaluated Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response parameters. An association was observed between the presence of obstructive sleep apnea and changes in absolute latency of wave V (p=0.03). There was an association between moderate obstructive sleep apnea and change of the latency of wave V (p=0.01). The presence of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with changes in nerve conduction of acoustic stimuli in the auditory pathway in the brainstem. The increase in obstructive sleep apnea severity does not promote worsening of responses assessed by audiometry, tympanometry and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de

  20. Neuroanatomical circuitry between kidney and rostral elements of brain: a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye-Ting; He, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Tao-Tao; Feng, Mao-Hui; Zhang, Ding-Yu; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2017-02-01

    The identity of higher-order neurons and circuits playing an associative role to control renal function is not well understood. We identified specific neural populations of rostral elements of brain regions that project multisynaptically to the kidneys in 3-6 days after injecting a retrograde tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 into kidney of 13 adult male C57BL/6J strain mice. PRV-614 infected neurons were detected in a number of mesencephalic (e.g. central amygdala nucleus), telencephalic regions and motor cortex. These divisions included the preoptic area (POA), dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), lateral hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus (Arc), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), periventricular hypothalamus (PeH), and rostral and caudal subdivision of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). PRV-614/Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) double-labeled cells were found within DMH, Arc, SCN, PeH, PVN, the anterodorsal and medial POA. A subset of neurons in PVN that participated in regulating sympathetic outflow to kidney was catecholaminergic or serotonergic. PRV-614 infected neurons within the PVN also contained arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. These data demonstrate the rostral elements of brain innervate the kidney by the neuroanatomical circuitry.

  1. Studying respiratory rhythm generation in a developing bird: Hatching a new experimental model using the classic in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincen-Brown, Michael A; Whitesitt, Kaitlyn C; Quick, Forrest G; Pilarski, Jason Q

    2016-04-01

    It has been more than thirty years since the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation was first presented as a method to study automatic breathing behaviors in the neonatal rat. This straightforward preparation has led to an incredible burst of information about the location and coordination of several spontaneously active microcircuits that form the ventrolateral respiratory network of the brainstem. Despite these advances, our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate central breathing behaviors is still incomplete. Investigations into the nature of spontaneous breathing rhythmicity have almost exclusively focused on mammals, and there is a need for comparative experimental models to evaluate several unresolved issues from a different perspective. With this in mind, we sought to develop a new avian in vitro model with the long term goal to better understand questions associated with the ontogeny of respiratory rhythm generation, neuroplasticity, and whether multiple, independent oscillators drive the major phases of breathing. The fact that birds develop in ovo provides unparalleled access to central neuronal networks throughout the prenatal period - from embryo to hatchling - that are free from confounding interactions with mother. Previous studies using in vitro avian models have been strictly limited to the early embryonic period. Consequently, the details and even the presence of brainstem derived breathing-related rhythmogenesis in birds have never been described. In the present study, we used the altricial zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and show robust spontaneous motor outflow through cranial motor nerve IX, which is first detectable on embryonic day four and continues through prenatal and early postnatal development without interruption. We also show that brainstem oscillations change dramatically over the course of prenatal development, sometimes within hours, which suggests rapid maturational modifications in growth and connectivity. We propose

  2. Self-transcendence trait and its relationship with in vivo serotonin transporter availability in brainstem raphe nuclei: An ultra-high resolution PET-MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Jeong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Joo, Yo-Han; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2015-12-10

    Self-transcendence is an inherent human personality trait relating to the experience of spiritual aspects of the self. We examined the relationship between self-transcendence and serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in brainstem raphe nuclei, which are collections of five different serotonergic nuclei with rostro-caudal extension, using ultra-high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)benzonitrile ([(11)C]DASB) to elucidate potential roles of serotonergic neuronal activities in this personality trait. Sixteen healthy subjects completed 7.0T MRI and High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) PET. The regions of interest (ROIs) included the dorsal raphe nucleus (R1), median raphe nucleus (R2), raphe pontis (R3), and the caudal raphe nuclei (R4 and R5). For the estimation of SERT availability, the binding potential (BPND) was derived using the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM2). The Temperament and Character Inventory was used to measure self-transcendence. The analysis revealed that the self-transcendence total score had a significant negative correlation with the [(11)C]DASB BPND in the caudal raphe (R5). The subscale score for spiritual acceptance was significantly negatively correlated with the [(11)C]DASB BPND in the median raphe nucleus (R2). The results indicate that the self-transcendence trait is associated with SERT availability in specific raphe subnuclei, suggesting that the serotonin system may serve as an important biological basis for human self-transcendence. Based on the connections of these nuclei with cortico-limbic and visceral autonomic structures, the functional activity of these nuclei and their related neural circuitry may play a crucial role in the manifestation of self-transcendence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Evolution of Sound Source Localization Circuits in the Nonmammalian Vertebrate Brainstem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, Peggy L; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2017-01-01

    The earliest vertebrate ears likely subserved a gravistatic function for orientation in the aquatic environment. However, in addition to detecting acceleration created by the animal's own movements, the otolithic end organs that detect linear acceleration would have responded to particle movement...... to increased sensitivity to a broader frequency range and to modification of the preexisting circuitry for sound source localization....

  4. Optimal technique of linear accelerator–based stereotactic radiosurgery for tumors adjacent to brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chiou-Shiung; Hwang, Jing-Min; Tai, Po-An; Chang, You-Kang; Wang, Yu-Nong; Shih, Rompin; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a well-established technique that is replacing whole-brain irradiation in the treatment of intracranial lesions, which leads to better preservation of brain functions, and therefore a better quality of life for the patient. There are several available forms of linear accelerator (LINAC)–based SRS, and the goal of the present study is to identify which of these techniques is best (as evaluated by dosimetric outcomes statistically) when the target is located adjacent to brainstem. We collected the records of 17 patients with lesions close to the brainstem who had previously been treated with single-fraction radiosurgery. In all, 5 different lesion catalogs were collected, and the patients were divided into 2 distance groups—1 consisting of 7 patients with a target-to-brainstem distance of less than 0.5 cm, and the other of 10 patients with a target-to-brainstem distance of ≥ 0.5 and < 1 cm. Comparison was then made among the following 3 types of LINAC-based radiosurgery: dynamic conformal arcs (DCA), intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS), and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT). All techniques included multiple noncoplanar beams or arcs with or without intensity-modulated delivery. The volume of gross tumor volume (GTV) ranged from 0.2 cm 3 to 21.9 cm 3 . Regarding the dose homogeneity index (HI ICRU ) and conformity index (CI ICRU ) were without significant difference between techniques statistically. However, the average CI ICRU = 1.09 ± 0.56 achieved by VMAT was the best of the 3 techniques. Moreover, notable improvement in gradient index (GI) was observed when VMAT was used (0.74 ± 0.13), and this result was significantly better than those achieved by the 2 other techniques (p < 0.05). For V 4 Gy of brainstem, both VMAT (2.5%) and IMRS (2.7%) were significantly lower than DCA (4.9%), both at the p < 0.05 level. Regarding V 2 Gy of normal brain, VMAT plans had attained 6.4 ± 5%; this was significantly better

  5. NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 Regulatory Circuitry in Skeletal Myogenesis and Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huating; Garzon, Ramiro; Sun, Hao; Ladner, Katherine J.; Singh, Ravi; Dahlman, Jason; Cheng, Alfred; Hall, Brett M.; Qualman, Stephen J.; Chandler, Dawn S.; Croce, Carlo M.; Guttridge, Denis C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Studies support the importance of microRNAs in physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe the regulation and function of miR-29 in myogenesis and Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Results demonstrate that in myoblasts miR-29 is repressed by NF-κB acting through YY1 and the Polycomb. During myogenesis, NF-κB and YY1 downregulation causes derepression of miR-29, which in turn accelerates differentiation by targeting its repressor YY1. However, in RMS cells and primary tumors that possess impaired differentiation, miR-29 is epigenetically silenced by an activated NF-κB-YY1 pathway. Reconstitution of miR-29 in RMS in mice inhibits tumor growth and stimulates differentiation, suggesting that miR-29 acts as a tumor suppressor through its pro-myogenic function. Together, results identify a NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 regulatory circuit whose disruption may contribute to RMS. SIGNIFICANCE MicroRNAs regulate skeletal myogenesis, but their impact in muscle diseases is not well understood. Here we describe miR-29 as an enhancer of myogenic differentiation and a suppressor of RMS. We find that miR-29 exists in a regulatory circuit involving NF-κB and YY1. In myoblasts NF-B acts through YY1 to epigenetically suppress miR-29, while during differentiation miR-29 is induced to facilitate myogenesis by a negative feedback on YY1. Significantly, RMS tumors lose miR-29 due to an elevation in NF-B and YY1, and readjustment of miR-29 levels in RMS stimulates differentiation. Thus, myogenesis is dependent on NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 circuitry whose dysfunction may contribute to RMS pathogenesis. Such findings offer potential avenues for the diagnosis and treatment of muscle relevant cancers. PMID:18977326

  6. Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within

  7. Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse

  8. SpiCAD: Integrated environment for circuitry simulation with SPICE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amore, D; Padovini, G; Santomauro, M [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dip. di Elettronica

    1991-11-01

    SPICE is one of the most commonly used programs for the simulation of the behaviour of electronic circuits. This article describes in detail the key design characteristics and capabilities of a computer environment called SpiCAD which integrates all the different phases of SPICE based circuitry simulation on a personal computer, i.e., the tracing of the electronics scheme, simulation and visualization of the results so as to help define semiconductor device models, determine input signals, construct macro-models and convert design sketches into formats acceptable to graphic systems.

  9. Circuitry for monitoring a high direct current voltage supply for an ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement to measure the voltage of the supply and a switching means controlled by this is described. The voltage measurer consists of first and second signal coupling means, the input of the second (connected to the voltage supply) is connected in series with the output of the first. An ionization chamber with this circuitry may be used to monitor the radiation output of a particle accelerator more accurately. Faulty measurements of the dose output, caused by voltages in the earth circuit, are avoided. (U.K.)

  10. Neurodegenerative changes in the brainstem and olfactory bulb in people older than 50 years old: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Hehn de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in life expectancy in Brazil, concerns have grown about the most prevalent diseases in elderly people. Among these diseases are neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Protein deposits related to the development of these diseases can pre-date the symptomatic phases by years. The tau protein is particularly interesting: it might be found in the brainstem and olfactory bulb long before it reaches the limbic cortex, at which point symptoms occur. Of the 14 brains collected in this study, the tau protein was found in the brainstems of 10 (71.42% and in olfactory bulbs of 3 out 11. Of the 7 individuals who had a final diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 6 presented tau deposits in some region of the brainstem. Our data support the idea of the presence of tau protein in the brainstem and olfactory bulb in the earliest stages of AD.

  11. Abnormal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR Findings in a Near-Normal Hearing Child with Noonan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jalaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noonan syndrome (NS is a heterogeneous genetic disease that affects many parts of the body. It was named after Dr. Jacqueline Anne Noonan, a paediatric cardiologist.Case Report: We report audiological tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR findings in a 5-year old Malay boy with NS. Despite showing the marked signs of NS, the child could only produce a few meaningful words. Audiological tests found him to have bilateral mild conductive hearing loss at low frequencies. In ABR testing, despite having good waveform morphology, the results were atypical. Absolute latency of wave V was normal but interpeak latencies of wave’s I-V, I-II, II-III were prolonged. Interestingly, interpeak latency of waves III-V was abnormally shorter.Conclusion:Abnormal ABR results are possibly due to abnormal anatomical condition of brainstem and might contribute to speech delay.

  12. Effect of Infant Prematurity on Auditory Brainstem Response at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hasani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm birth is a risk factor for a number of conditions that requires comprehensive examination. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of preterm birth on the processing of auditory stimuli and brain structures at the brainstem level at a preschool age.   Materials and Methods: An auditory brainstem response (ABR test was performed with low rates of stimuli in 60 children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirty subjects had been born following a very preterm labor or late-preterm labor and 30 control subjects had been born following a full-term labor.   Results: Significant differences in the ABR test result were observed in terms of the inter-peak intervals of the I–III and III–V waves, and the absolute latency of the III wave (P

  13. Endovascular treatment of brain-stem arteriovenous malformations: safety and efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.M.; Wang, Y.H.; Chen, Y.F.; Huang, K.M. [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, 10016, Taipei (Taiwan); Tu, Y.K. [Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, 1001, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2003-09-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment of brain-stem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), reviewing six cases managed in the last 5 years. There were four patients who presented with bleeding, one with a progressive neurological deficit and one with obstructive hydrocephalus. Of the six patients, one showed 100%, one 90%, two 75% and two about 50% angiographic obliteration of the AVM after embolisation; the volume decreased about 75% on average. Five patients had a good outcome and one an acceptable outcome, with a mild postprocedure neurological deficit; none had further bleeding during midterm follow-up. Endovascular management of a brain-stem AVM may be an alternative to treatment such as radiosurgery and microsurgery in selected cases. It may be not as risky as previously thought. Embolisation can reduce the size of the AVM and possibly make it more treatable by radiosurgery and decrease the possibility of radiation injury. (orig.)

  14. Sequential change in MRI in two cases with small brainstem infarctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryoichi; Fukuda, Osamu; Endoh, Shunro; Takaku, Akira; Suzuki, Takashi; Satoh, Shuji

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been found to be very useful for the diagnosis of a small brainstem infarction. However, most reported cases have shown the changes at only the chronic stage. In this report, sequential changes in the MRI in two cases with small brainstem infarctions are presented. In Case 1, a 67-year-old man with a pure sensory stroke on the right side, a small infarcted area was observed at the left medial side of the pontomedullary junction on MRI. In Case 2, a 62-year-old man with a pure motor hemiparesis of the left side, MRI revealed a small infarcted area on the right ventral of the middle pons. The initial changes were confirmed 5 days (Case 1) and 18 hours (Case 2) after the onset of the completed stroke. No abnormal findings could be found in the computed tomography in either case. (author)

  15. Hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy involving deep supratentorial regions: does only blood pressure matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 42-year-old female patient who presented with high arterial blood pressure of 245/150 mmHg and hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy that involved the brainstem and extensive supratentorial deep gray and white matter. The lesions were nearly completely resolved several days after stabilization of the arterial blood pressure. Normal diffusion-weighted imaging findings and high apparent diffusion coefficient values suggested that the main pathomechanism was vasogenic edema owing to severe hypertension. On the basis of a literature review, the absolute value of blood pressure or whether the patient can control his/her blood pressure seems not to be associated with the degree of the lesions evident on magnetic resonance imaging. It remains to be determined if the acceleration rate and the duration of elevated arterial blood pressure might play a key role in the development of the hypertensive encephalopathy pattern.

  16. Modeling Parkinson’s Disease Falls Associated With Brainstem Cholinergic Systems Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Kucinski, Aaron; Sarter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the primary disease-defining symptoms, approximately half of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) suffer from postural instability, impairments in gait control and a propensity for falls. Consistent with evidence from patients, we previously demonstrated that combined striatal dopamine (DA) and basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic cell loss causes falls in rats traversing dynamic surfaces. Because evidence suggests that degeneration of brainstem cholinergic neurons arising from t...

  17. Brainstem encoding of speech and musical stimuli in congenital amusia: Evidence from Cantonese speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eLiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of musical processing that also impacts subtle aspects of speech processing. It remains debated at what stage(s of auditory processing deficits in amusia arise. In this study, we investigated whether amusia originates from impaired subcortical encoding of speech (in quiet and noise and musical sounds in the brainstem. Fourteen Cantonese-speaking amusics and 14 matched controls passively listened to six Cantonese lexical tones in quiet, two Cantonese tones in noise (signal-to-noise ratios at 0 and 20 dB, and two cello tones in quiet while their frequency-following responses (FFRs to these tones were recorded. All participants also completed a behavioral lexical tone identification task. The results indicated normal brainstem encoding of pitch in speech (in quiet and noise and musical stimuli in amusics relative to controls, as measured by FFR pitch strength, pitch error, and stimulus-to-response correlation. There was also no group difference in neural conduction time or FFR amplitudes. Both groups demonstrated better FFRs to speech (in quiet and noise than to musical stimuli. However, a significant group difference was observed for tone identification, with amusics showing significantly lower accuracy than controls. Analysis of the tone confusion matrices suggested that amusics were more likely than controls to confuse between tones that shared similar acoustic features. Interestingly, this deficit in lexical tone identification was not coupled with brainstem abnormality for either speech or musical stimuli. Together, our results suggest that the amusic brainstem is not functioning abnormally, although higher-order linguistic pitch processing is impaired in amusia. This finding has significant implications for theories of central auditory processing, requiring further investigations into how different stages of auditory processing interact in the human brain.

  18. Brainstem encoding of speech and musical stimuli in congenital amusia: evidence from Cantonese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Maggu, Akshay R; Lau, Joseph C Y; Wong, Patrick C M

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of musical processing that also impacts subtle aspects of speech processing. It remains debated at what stage(s) of auditory processing deficits in amusia arise. In this study, we investigated whether amusia originates from impaired subcortical encoding of speech (in quiet and noise) and musical sounds in the brainstem. Fourteen Cantonese-speaking amusics and 14 matched controls passively listened to six Cantonese lexical tones in quiet, two Cantonese tones in noise (signal-to-noise ratios at 0 and 20 dB), and two cello tones in quiet while their frequency-following responses (FFRs) to these tones were recorded. All participants also completed a behavioral lexical tone identification task. The results indicated normal brainstem encoding of pitch in speech (in quiet and noise) and musical stimuli in amusics relative to controls, as measured by FFR pitch strength, pitch error, and stimulus-to-response correlation. There was also no group difference in neural conduction time or FFR amplitudes. Both groups demonstrated better FFRs to speech (in quiet and noise) than to musical stimuli. However, a significant group difference was observed for tone identification, with amusics showing significantly lower accuracy than controls. Analysis of the tone confusion matrices suggested that amusics were more likely than controls to confuse between tones that shared similar acoustic features. Interestingly, this deficit in lexical tone identification was not coupled with brainstem abnormality for either speech or musical stimuli. Together, our results suggest that the amusic brainstem is not functioning abnormally, although higher-order linguistic pitch processing is impaired in amusia. This finding has significant implications for theories of central auditory processing, requiring further investigations into how different stages of auditory processing interact in the human brain.

  19. Brainstem encoding of speech and musical stimuli in congenital amusia: evidence from Cantonese speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Maggu, Akshay R.; Lau, Joseph C. Y.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of musical processing that also impacts subtle aspects of speech processing. It remains debated at what stage(s) of auditory processing deficits in amusia arise. In this study, we investigated whether amusia originates from impaired subcortical encoding of speech (in quiet and noise) and musical sounds in the brainstem. Fourteen Cantonese-speaking amusics and 14 matched controls passively listened to six Cantonese lexical tones in quiet, two Cantonese tones in noise (signal-to-noise ratios at 0 and 20 dB), and two cello tones in quiet while their frequency-following responses (FFRs) to these tones were recorded. All participants also completed a behavioral lexical tone identification task. The results indicated normal brainstem encoding of pitch in speech (in quiet and noise) and musical stimuli in amusics relative to controls, as measured by FFR pitch strength, pitch error, and stimulus-to-response correlation. There was also no group difference in neural conduction time or FFR amplitudes. Both groups demonstrated better FFRs to speech (in quiet and noise) than to musical stimuli. However, a significant group difference was observed for tone identification, with amusics showing significantly lower accuracy than controls. Analysis of the tone confusion matrices suggested that amusics were more likely than controls to confuse between tones that shared similar acoustic features. Interestingly, this deficit in lexical tone identification was not coupled with brainstem abnormality for either speech or musical stimuli. Together, our results suggest that the amusic brainstem is not functioning abnormally, although higher-order linguistic pitch processing is impaired in amusia. This finding has significant implications for theories of central auditory processing, requiring further investigations into how different stages of auditory processing interact in the human brain. PMID:25646077

  20. Neurochemical dynamics of acute orofacial pain in the human trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Nuno M P; Hock, Andreas; Wyss, Michael; Ettlin, Dominik A; Brügger, Mike

    2017-11-15

    The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms. Based on our experience with an MR compatible human orofacial pain model, the aims of the present study were twofold: 1) from a technical perspective, the evaluation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T regarding measurement accuracy of neurochemical profiles in this small brainstem nuclear complex and 2) the examination of possible neurochemical alterations induced by an experimental orofacial pain model. Data from 13 healthy volunteers aged 19-46 years were analyzed and revealed high quality spectra with significant reductions in total N-acetylaspartate (N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate) (-3.7%, p = 0.009) and GABA (-10.88%, p = 0.041) during the pain condition. These results might reflect contributions of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate in neuronal activity-dependent physiologic processes and/or excitatory neurotransmission, whereas changes in GABA might indicate towards a reduction in tonic GABAergic functioning during nociceptive signaling. Summarized, the present study indicates the applicability of 1 H-MRS to obtain neurochemical dynamics within the human trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex. Further developments are needed to pave the way towards bridging important animal based knowledge with human research to understand the neurochemistry of orofacial nociception and pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Limbic encephalitis with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase presenting with brainstem symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Incecik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limbic encephalitis (LE is a neurological syndrome that may present in association with cancer, infection, or as an isolate clinical condition often accompanying autoimmune disorders. LE associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD is rare in children. Here, we characterized the clinical and laboratory features of a patient presenting with brainstem involvement with non-paraneoplastic LE associated with anti-GAD antibodies. In our patient, after plasma exchange, we determined a dramatic improvement of the neurological deficits.

  2. Somatotopic Arrangement and Location of the Corticospinal Tract in the Brainstem of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) is the most important motor pathway in the human brain. Detailed knowledge of CST somatotopy is important in terms of rehabilitative management and invasive procedures for patients with brain injuries. In this study, I conducted a review of nine previous studies of the somatotopical location and arrangement at the brainstem in the human brain. The results of this review indicated that the hand and leg somatotopies of the CST are arranged medio-laterally in the mi...

  3. Retrospective analysis of 104 histologically proven adult brainstem gliomas: clinical symptoms, therapeutic approaches and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reithmeier, Thomas; Kuzeawu, Aanyo; Hentschel, Bettina; Loeffler, Markus; Trippel, Michael; Nikkhah, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Adult brainstem gliomas are rare primary brain tumors (<2% of gliomas). The goal of this study was to analyze clinical, prognostic and therapeutic factors in a large series of histologically proven brainstem gliomas. Between 1997 and 2007, 104 patients with a histologically proven brainstem glioma were retrospectively analyzed. Data about clinical course of disease, neuropathological findings and therapeutic approaches were analyzed. The median age at diagnosis was 41 years (range 18-89 years), median KPS before any operative procedure was 80 (range 20-100) and median survival for the whole cohort was 18.8 months. Histopathological examinations revealed 16 grade I, 31 grade II, 42 grade III and 14 grade IV gliomas. Grading was not possible in 1 patient. Therapeutic concepts differed according to the histopathology of the disease. Median overall survival for grade II tumors was 26.4 months, for grade III tumors 12.9 months and for grade IV tumors 9.8 months. On multivariate analysis the relative risk to die increased with a KPS ≤ 70 by factor 6.7, with grade III/IV gliomas by the factor 1.8 and for age ≥ 40 by the factor 1.7. External beam radiation reduced the risk to die by factor 0.4. Adult brainstem gliomas present with a wide variety of neurological symptoms and postoperative radiation remains the cornerstone of therapy with no proven benefit of adding chemotherapy. Low KPS, age ≥ 40 and higher tumor grade have a negative impact on overall survival

  4. Organization of the auditory brainstem in a lizard, Gekko gecko. I. Auditory nerve, cochlear nuclei, and superior olivary nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Y. Z.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Carr, C. E.

    2012-01-01

    We used tract tracing to reveal the connections of the auditory brainstem in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). The auditory nerve has two divisions, a rostroventrally directed projection of mid- to high best-frequency fibers to the nucleus angularis (NA) and a more dorsal and caudal projection of lo...... of auditory connections in lizards and archosaurs but also different processing of low- and high-frequency information in the brainstem. J. Comp. Neurol. 520:17841799, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc...

  5. Lung inflammation induces IL-1β expression in hypoglossal neurons in rat brainstem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Anjum; Belkadi, Abdelmadjid; Zaidi, Syed I. A.; Getsy, Paulina; Wilson, Christopher G.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal inflammation is associated with respiratory morbidity. Immune modulation of brainstem respiratory control centers may provide a link for this pathobiology. We exposed 11-day old rats to intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 µg/g) to test the hypothesis that intrapulmonary inflammation increases expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β within respiratory-related brainstem regions. Intratracheal LPS resulted in a 32% increase in IL-1β protein expression in the medulla oblongata. In situ hybridization showed increased intensity of IL-1β mRNA but no change in neuronal numbers. Co-localization experiments showed that hypoglossal neurons express IL-1β mRNA and immunostaining showed a 43% increase in IL-1β protein-expressing cells after LPS exposure. LPS treatment also significantly increased microglial cell numbers though they did not express IL-1β mRNA. LPS-induced brainstem expression of neuronal IL-1β mRNA and protein may have implications for our understanding of the vulnerability of neonatal respiratory control in response to a peripheral pro-inflammatory stimulus. PMID:23648475

  6. Effectiveness of interferon-[beta], ACNU, and radiation therapy in pediatric patients with brainstem glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Jun; Mizuno, Masaaki; Sugita, Kenichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Kito, Akira

    1992-12-01

    Sixteen pediatric patients with brainstem glioma were treated with a combination of interferon-[beta], 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)-methyl -3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), and radiation therapy (IAR therapy). All patients received 1-1.5 million IU/day of interferon-[beta] intravenously for 1 week of each 6-week cycle. In addition, ACNU (2-3 mg/kg) was given on the 2nd day of each cycle. Conventional focal irradiation (1.5-2 Gy/day for 5 days to a total dosage of 40-60 Gy) was administered beginning on day 3. Patients underwent at least two 6-week cycles. Adverse effects included nausea, vomiting, and myelosuppression, but were mild and transient. Response to treatment was evaluated by the reduction in tumor size measured on postcontrast computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance images. Responses occurred in 10 of 11 patients with the intrinsic type of brainstem glioma, including three complete and seven partial responses. Two of the five patients with exophytic type gliomas partially responded. The median survival was 15.7 months, a remarkable improvement over the natural course of this disease. These results indicate that IAR therapy is a useful primary treatment for pediatric patients with brainstem gliomas. (author).

  7. Awake craniotomy for assisting placement of auditory brainstem implant in NF2 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiangyi; Yang, Zhijun; Wang, Zhenmin; Wang, Bo; Wang, Xingchao; Zhao, Chi; Zhang, Shun; Wu, Tao; Li, Peng; Li, Shiwei; Zhao, Fu; Liu, Pinan

    2018-06-01

    Auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) may be the only opportunity for patients with NF2 to regain some sense of hearing sensation. However, only a very small number of individuals achieved open-set speech understanding and high sentence scores. Suboptimal placement of the ABI electrode array over the cochlear nucleus may be one of main factors for poor auditory performance. In the current study, we present a method of awake craniotomy to assist with ABI placement. Awake surgery and hearing test via the retrosigmoid approach were performed for vestibular schwannoma resections and auditory brainstem implantations in four patients with NF2. Auditory outcomes and complications were assessed postoperatively. Three of 4 patients who underwent awake craniotomy during ABI surgery received reproducible auditory sensations intraoperatively. Satisfactory numbers of effective electrodes, threshold levels and distinct pitches were achieved in the wake-up hearing test. In addition, relatively few electrodes produced non-auditory percepts. There was no serious complication attributable to the ABI or awake craniotomy. It is safe and well tolerated for neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients using awake craniotomy during auditory brainstem implantation. This method can potentially improve the localization accuracy of the cochlear nucleus during surgery.

  8. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lehmann

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  9. Impact of monaural frequency compression on binaural fusion at the brainstem level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Isabelle; Kohl, Manuel C; Hannemann, Ronny; Kornagel, Ulrich; Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I

    2015-08-01

    A classical objective measure for binaural fusion at the brainstem level is the so-called β-wave of the binaural interaction component (BIC) in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). However, in some cases it appeared that a reliable detection of this component still remains a challenge. In this study, we investigate the wavelet phase synchronization stability (WPSS) of ABR data for the analysis of binaural fusion and compare it to the BIC. In particular, we examine the impact of monaural nonlinear frequency compression on binaural fusion. As the auditory system is tonotopically organized, an interaural frequency mismatch caused by monaural frequency compression could negatively effect binaural fusion. In this study, only few subjects showed a detectable β-wave and in most cases only for low ITDs. However, we present a novel objective measure for binaural fusion that outperforms the current state-of-the-art technique (BIC): the WPSS analysis showed a significant difference between the phase stability of the sum of the monaurally evoked responses and the phase stability of the binaurally evoked ABR. This difference could be an indicator for binaural fusion in the brainstem. Furthermore, we observed that monaural frequency compression could indeed effect binaural fusion, as the WPSS results for this condition vary strongly from the results obtained without frequency compression.

  10. Enhanced brainstem and cortical evoked response amplitudes: single-trial covariance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, G C

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop analytic procedures that improve the definition of sensory evoked response components. Such procedures could benefit all recordings but would especially benefit difficult recordings where many trials are contaminated by muscle and movement artifacts. First, cross-correlation and latency adjustment analyses were applied to the human brainstem frequency-following response and cortical auditory evoked response recorded on the same trials. Lagged cross-correlation functions were computed, for each of 17 subjects, between single-trial data and templates consisting of the sinusoid stimulus waveform for the brainstem response and the subject's own smoothed averaged evoked response P2 component for the cortical response. Trials were considered in the analysis only if the maximum correlation-squared (r2) exceeded .5 (negatively correlated trials were thus included). Identical correlation coefficients may be based on signals with quite different amplitudes, but it is possible to assess amplitude by the nonnormalized covariance function. Next, an algorithm is applied in which each trial with negative covariance is matched to a trial with similar, but positive, covariance and these matched-trial pairs are deleted. When an evoked response signal is present in the data, the majority of trials positively correlate with the template. Thus, a residual of positively correlated trials remains after matched covariance trials are deleted. When these residual trials are averaged, the resulting brainstem and cortical responses show greatly enhanced amplitudes. This result supports the utility of this analysis technique in clarifying and assessing evoked response signals.

  11. Features of the brainstem and tentorial foramen relationship and their practical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Redyakina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Establish the morphological features and practical significance of the tentorial-stem relationship from the position of individual anatomical variability. Methods: head morphometry, macro and microscopic examination of the brainstem, morphometry of the brainstem and its departments, tentorial aperture morphometry, foramen magnum craniometry, manufacture of corrosion molds of the posterior cranial fossa, statistical processing of the results, computer-graphic modeling of the brainstem and surrounding formations. Results.  In the course of the study, the features of the individual variability of the tentorial foramen form were established, namely: shortened-expanded and oval-convex forms were defined in brachycephalic; in dolichocephalic - oblong-narrowed and elongated-conical. At the same time, a number of existing sizes and forms of the tentorial-stem spaces were noted. Among them, four main ones are described: front, side (right and left and rear. They have individual characteristics. Thus, in the brachycephalic we define lateral holes, due to the convexity of the tentorial margins. In dolichocephalic - front and back gaps, depending on the characteristics of their elongations. The obtained data are of great importance for the craniotopographic justification of the tentorial-stem wedges, which are formed with tumors which located here. In our opinion, tumors have the greatest possibility of passage through the left or right lateral intervals in people with a brachymorph form of the head, and through the anterior and posterior intervals - in people with meso- and dolichomorph forms of the head.

  12. Blast overpressure induced axonal injury changes in rat brainstem and spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasu Kallakuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blast induced neurotrauma has been the signature wound in returning soldiers from the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Of importance is understanding the pathomechansim(s of blast overpressure (OP induced axonal injury. Although several recent animal models of blast injury indicate the neuronal and axonal injury in various brain regions, animal studies related to axonal injury in the white matter (WM tracts of cervical spinal cord are limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of axonal injury in WM tracts of cervical spinal cord in male Sprague Dawley rats subjected to a single insult of blast OP. Materials and Methods: Sagittal brainstem sections and horizontal cervical spinal cord sections from blast and sham animals were stained by neurofilament light (NF-L chain and beta amyloid precursor protein immunocytochemistry and observed for axonal injury changes. Results: Observations from this preliminary study demonstrate axonal injury changes in the form of prominent swellings, retraction bulbs, and putative signs of membrane disruptions in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord WM tracts of rats subjected to blast OP. Conclusions: Prominent axonal injury changes following the blast OP exposure in brainstem and cervical spinal WM tracts underscores the need for careful evaluation of blast induced injury changes and associated symptoms. NF-L immunocytochemistry can be considered as an additional tool to assess the blast OP induced axonal injury.

  13. Testing the connections within face processing circuitry in Capgras delusion with diffusion imaging tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Capgras delusion (CD patients are capable of recognizing familiar faces, they present a delusional belief that some relatives have been replaced by impostors. CD has been explained as a selective disruption of a pathway processing affective values of familiar faces. To test the integrity of connections within face processing circuitry, diffusion tensor imaging was performed in a CD patient and 10 age-matched controls. Voxel-based morphometry indicated gray matter damage in right frontal areas. Tractography was used to examine two important tracts of the face processing circuitry: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF and the inferior longitudinal (ILF. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF and commissural tracts were also assessed. CD patient did not differ from controls in the commissural fibers, or the SLF. Right and left ILF, and right IFOF were also equivalent to those of controls. However, the left IFOF was significantly reduced respect to controls, also showing a significant dissociation with the ILF, which represents a selective impairment in the fiber-tract connecting occipital and frontal areas. This suggests a possible involvement of the IFOF in affective processing of faces in typical observers and in covert recognition in some cases with prosopagnosia.

  14. Targeting Lumbar Spinal Neural Circuitry by Epidural Stimulation to Restore Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minassian, Karen; McKay, W Barry; Binder, Heinrich; Hofstoetter, Ursula S

    2016-04-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation has a long history of application for improving motor control in spinal cord injury. This review focuses on its resurgence following the progress made in understanding the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and on recent reports of its augmentative effects upon otherwise subfunctional volitional motor control. Early work revealed that the spinal circuitry involved in lower-limb motor control can be accessed by stimulating through electrodes placed epidurally over the posterior aspect of the lumbar spinal cord below a paralyzing injury. Current understanding is that such stimulation activates large-to-medium-diameter sensory fibers within the posterior roots. Those fibers then trans-synaptically activate various spinal reflex circuits and plurisegmentally organized interneuronal networks that control more complex contraction and relaxation patterns involving multiple muscles. The induced change in responsiveness of this spinal motor circuitry to any residual supraspinal input via clinically silent translesional neural connections that have survived the injury may be a likely explanation for rudimentary volitional control enabled by epidural stimulation in otherwise paralyzed muscles. Technological developments that allow dynamic control of stimulation parameters and the potential for activity-dependent beneficial plasticity may further unveil the remarkable capacity of spinal motor processing that remains even after severe spinal cord injuries.

  15. Mechanical Characterization of Immature Porcine Brainstem in Tension at Dynamic Strain Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Li, Kui; Liao, Zhikang; Xiang, Hongyi; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-21

    Many brain injury cases involve pediatric road traffic accidents, and among these, brainstem injury causes disastrous outcomes. A thorough understanding of the tensile characterization of immature brainstem tissue is crucial in modeling traumatic brain injury sustained by children, but limited experimental data in tension is available for the immature brain tissue at dynamic strain rates. We harvested brainstem tissue from immature pigs (about 4 weeks old, and at a developmental stage similar to that of human toddlers) as a byproduct from a local slaughter house and very carefully prepared the samples. Tensile tests were performed on specimens at dynamic strain rates of 2/s, 20/s, and 100/s using a biological material instrument. The constitutive models, Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential function, for immature brainstem tissue material property were developed for the recorded experimental data using OriginPro 8.0 software. The t test was performed for infinitesimal shear modules. The curves of stress-versus-stretch ratio were convex in shape, and inflection points were found in all the test groups at the strain of about 2.5%. The average Lagrange stress of the immature brainstem specimen at the 30% strain at the strain rates of 2, 20, and 100/s was 273±114, 515±107, and 1121±197 Pa, respectively. The adjusted R-Square (R2) of Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential model was 0.820≤R2≤0.933, 0.774≤R2≤0.940, 0.650≤R2≤0.922, and 0.852≤R2≤0.981, respectively. The infinitesimal shear modulus of the strain energy functions showed a significant association with the strain rate (pmaterial in dynamic tensile tests, and the tissue becomes stiffer with increased strain rate. The reported results may be useful in the study of brain injuries in children who sustain injuries in road traffic accidents. Further research in more detail should be performed in the future.

  16. Robust Machine Learning-Based Correction on Automatic Segmentation of the Cerebellum and Brainstem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Automated segmentation is a useful method for studying large brain structures such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, automated segmentation may lead to inaccuracy and/or undesirable boundary. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether SegAdapter, a machine learning-based method, is useful for automatically correcting large segmentation errors and disagreement in anatomical definition. We further assessed the robustness of the method in handling size of training set, differences in head coil usage, and amount of brain atrophy. High resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 30 healthy controls scanned with either an 8-channel or 32-channel head coil. Ten patients, who suffered from brain atrophy because of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, were scanned using the 32-channel head coil. The initial segmentations of the cerebellum and brainstem were generated automatically using Freesurfer. Subsequently, Freesurfer's segmentations were both manually corrected to serve as the gold standard and automatically corrected by SegAdapter. Using only 5 scans in the training set, spatial overlap with manual segmentation in Dice coefficient improved significantly from 0.956 (for Freesurfer segmentation to 0.978 (for SegAdapter-corrected segmentation for the cerebellum and from 0.821 to 0.954 for the brainstem. Reducing the training set size to 2 scans only decreased the Dice coefficient ≤0.002 for the cerebellum and ≤ 0.005 for the brainstem compared to the use of training set size of 5 scans in corrective learning. The method was also robust in handling differences between the training set and the test set in head coil usage and the amount of brain atrophy, which reduced spatial overlap only by <0.01. These results suggest that the combination of automated segmentation and corrective learning provides a valuable method for accurate and efficient segmentation of the cerebellum and brainstem, particularly in large

  17. Processing Complex Sounds Passing through the Rostral Brainstem: The New Early Filter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Campbell, Tom A.

    2016-01-01

    The rostral brainstem receives both “bottom-up” input from the ascending auditory system and “top-down” descending corticofugal connections. Speech information passing through the inferior colliculus of elderly listeners reflects the periodicity envelope of a speech syllable. This information arguably also reflects a composite of temporal-fine-structure (TFS) information from the higher frequency vowel harmonics of that repeated syllable. The amplitude of those higher frequency harmonics, bearing even higher frequency TFS information, correlates positively with the word recognition ability of elderly listeners under reverberatory conditions. Also relevant is that working memory capacity (WMC), which is subject to age-related decline, constrains the processing of sounds at the level of the brainstem. Turning to the effects of a visually presented sensory or memory load on auditory processes, there is a load-dependent reduction of that processing, as manifest in the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) evoked by to-be-ignored clicks. Wave V decreases in amplitude with increases in the visually presented memory load. A visually presented sensory load also produces a load-dependent reduction of a slightly different sort: The sensory load of visually presented information limits the disruptive effects of background sound upon working memory performance. A new early filter model is thus advanced whereby systems within the frontal lobe (affected by sensory or memory load) cholinergically influence top-down corticofugal connections. Those corticofugal connections constrain the processing of complex sounds such as speech at the level of the brainstem. Selective attention thereby limits the distracting effects of background sound entering the higher auditory system via the inferior colliculus. Processing TFS in the brainstem relates to perception of speech under adverse conditions. Attentional selectivity is crucial when the signal heard is degraded or masked: e

  18. Electro-active sensor, method for constructing the same; apparatus and circuitry for detection of electro-active species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electro-active sensor includes a nonconductive platform with a first electrode set attached with a first side of a nonconductive platform. The first electrode set serves as an electrochemical cell that may be utilized to detect electro-active species in solution. A plurality of electrode sets and a variety of additional electrochemical cells and sensors may be attached with the nonconductive platform. The present invention also includes a method for constructing the aforementioned electro-active sensor. Additionally, an apparatus for detection and observation is disclosed, where the apparatus includes a sealable chamber for insertion of a portion of an electro-active sensor. The apparatus allows for monitoring and detection activities. Allowing for control of attached cells and sensors, a dual-mode circuitry is also disclosed. The dual-mode circuitry includes a switch, allowing the circuitry to be switched from a potentiostat to a galvanostat mode.

  19. Brainstem projections of neurons located in various subdivisions of the dorsolateral hypothalamic area – an anterograde tract-tracing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rege Sugárka Papp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The projections from the dorsolateral hypothalamic area (DLH to the lower brainstem have been investigated by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA, an anterograde tracer in rats. The DLH can be divided into 3 areas (dorsomedial hypothalamus, perifornical area, lateral hypothalamic area, and further subdivided into 8 subdivisions. After unilateral stereotaxic injections of BDA into individual DLH subdivisions, the correct sites of injections were controlled histologically, and the distribution patterns of BDA-positive fibers were mapped on serial sections between the hypothalamus and spinal cord in 22 rats. BDA-labeled fibers were observable over 100 different brainstem areas, nuclei or subdivisions. Injections into the 8 DLH subdivisions established distinct topographical patterns. In general, the density of labeled fibers was low in the lower brainstem. High density of fibers was seen only 4 of the 116 areas: in the lateral and ventrolateral parts of the periaqueductal gray, the Barrington’s and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei. All of the biogenic amine cell groups in the lower brainstem (9 noradrenaline, 3 adrenaline and 9 serotonin cell groups received labeled fibers, some of them from all, or at least 7 DLH subdivisions, mainly from perifornical and ventral lateral hypothalamic neurons. Some of the tegmental nuclei and nuclei of the reticular formation were widely innervated, although the density of the BDA-labeled fibers was generally low. No definitive descending BDA-positive pathway, but long-run solitaire BDA-labeled fibers were seen in the lower brainstem. These descending fibers joined some of the large tracts or fasciculi in the brainstem. The distribution pattern of BDA-positive fibers of DLH origin throughout the lower brainstem was comparable to patterns of previously published orexin- or melanin-concentrating hormone-immunoreactive fibers with somewhat differences.

  20. Understanding overbidding: using the neural circuitry of reward to design economic auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Mauricio R; Schotter, Andrew; Ozbay, Erkut Y; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2008-09-26

    We take advantage of our knowledge of the neural circuitry of reward to investigate a puzzling economic phenomenon: Why do people overbid in auctions? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observed that the social competition inherent in an auction results in a more pronounced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to loss in the striatum, with greater overbidding correlated with the magnitude of this response. Leveraging these neuroimaging results, we design a behavioral experiment that demonstrates that framing an experimental auction to emphasize loss increases overbidding. These results highlight a role for the contemplation of loss in understanding the tendency to bid "too high." Current economic theories suggest overbidding may result from either "joy of winning" or risk aversion. By combining neuroeconomic and behavioral economic techniques, we find that another factor, namely loss contemplation in a social context, may mediate overbidding in auctions.

  1. Engineering nucleic acid structures for programmable molecular circuitry and intracellular biocomputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Green, Alexander A.; Yan, Hao; Fan, Chunhai

    2017-11-01

    Nucleic acids have attracted widespread attention due to the simplicity with which they can be designed to form discrete structures and programmed to perform specific functions at the nanoscale. The advantages of DNA/RNA nanotechnology offer numerous opportunities for in-cell and in-vivo applications, and the technology holds great promise to advance the growing field of synthetic biology. Many elegant examples have revealed the potential in integrating nucleic acid nanostructures in cells and in vivo where they can perform important physiological functions. In this Review, we summarize the current abilities of DNA/RNA nanotechnology to realize applications in live cells and then discuss the key problems that must be solved to fully exploit the useful properties of nanostructures. Finally, we provide viewpoints on how to integrate the tools provided by DNA/RNA nanotechnology and related new technologies to construct nucleic acid nanostructure-based molecular circuitry for synthetic biology.

  2. The role of BDNF in depression on the basis of its location in the neural circuitry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui YU; Zhe-yu CHEN

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses and the neural circuitry underlying depression remains incompletely understood. Most attention in the field has focused on hippocampal and frontal cortical regions for their roles in depression and antidepressant action. While these regions no doubt play important roles in the mental illness, there is compelling evi-dence that other brain regions are also involved. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is broadly expressed in the developing and adult mammalian brain and has been implicated in development, neural regeneration, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Recently BDNF has been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression, however there are con-troversial reports about the effects of BDNF on depression. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge concerning BDNF actions and associated intracellular signaling in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc) and amygdala as their rela-tion to depression.

  3. Placebo neural systems: nitric oxide, morphine and the dopamine brain reward and motivation circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricchione, Gregory; Stefano, George B

    2005-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the placebo response is related to the tonic effects of constitutive nitric oxide in neural, vascular and immune tissues. Constitutive nitric oxide levels play a role in the modulation of dopamine outflow in the nigrostriatal movement and the mesolimbic and mesocortical reward and motivation circuitries. Endogenous morphine, which stimulates constitutive nitric oxide, may be an important signal molecule working at mu receptors on gamma aminobutyric acid B interneurons to disinhibit nigral and tegmental dopamine output. We surmise that placebo induced belief will activate the prefrontal cortex with downstream stimulatory effects on these dopamine systems as well as on periaqueductal grey opioid output neurons. Placebo responses in Parkinson's disease, depression and pain disorder may result. In addition, mesolimbic/mesocortical control of the stress response systems may provide a way for the placebo response to benefit other medical conditions.

  4. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ericson, Milton Nance [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bobrek, Miljko [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blalock, Benjamin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios where human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments due the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is the final report of the activities involving the NEET 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. We present a detailed functional block diagram of the proposed data acquisition system, the thought process leading to technical decisions, the implemented system, and the tested results from the systems. This system will be capable of monitoring at least three parameters of importance to nuclear reactor monitoring: temperature, radiation level, and pressure.

  5. "Liking" and "wanting" linked to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): hypothesizing differential responsivity in brain reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Gardner, Eliot; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve controversy regarding the causal contributions of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems to reward, we evaluate the three main competing explanatory categories: "liking,"learning," and "wanting" [1]. That is, DA may mediate (a) the hedonic impact of reward (liking), (b) learned predictions about rewarding effects (learning), or (c) the pursuit of rewards by attributing incentive salience to reward-related stimuli (wanting). We evaluate these hypotheses, especially as they relate to the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), and we find that the incentive salience or "wanting" hypothesis of DA function is supported by a majority of the evidence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that drugs of abuse, palatable foods, and anticipated behaviors such as sex and gaming affect brain regions involving reward circuitry, and may not be unidirectional. Drugs of abuse enhance DA signaling and sensitize mesolimbic mechanisms that evolved to attribute incentive salience to rewards. Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily selfadministered, they enhance (directly or indirectly) dopaminergic synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), and they stimulate the functioning of brain reward circuitry (producing the "high" that drug users seek). Although originally believed simply to encode the set point of hedonic tone, these circuits now are believed to be functionally more complex, also encoding attention, reward expectancy, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. Elevated stress levels, together with polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes and other neurotransmitter genetic variants, may have a cumulative effect on vulnerability to addiction. The RDS model of etiology holds very well for a variety of chemical and behavioral addictions.

  6. Neural alterations of fronto-striatal circuitry during reward anticipation in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, S; Spengler, S; Willert, A; Mohnke, S; Herold, D; Erk, S; Romanczuk-Seiferth, N; Quinlivan, E; Hindi-Attar, C; Banzhaf, C; Wackerhagen, C; Romund, L; Garbusow, M; Stamm, T; Heinz, A; Walter, H; Bermpohl, F

    2016-11-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD), with the hallmark symptoms of elevated and depressed mood, is thought to be characterized by underlying alterations in reward-processing networks. However, to date the neural circuitry underlying abnormal responses during reward processing in BD remains largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether euthymic BD is characterized by aberrant ventral striatal (VS) activation patterns and altered connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in response to monetary gains and losses. During functional magnetic resonance imaging 20 euthymic BD patients and 20 age-, gender- and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls completed a monetary incentive delay paradigm, to examine neural processing of reward and loss anticipation. A priori defined regions of interest (ROIs) included the VS and the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). Psychophysiological interactions (PPIs) between these ROIs were estimated and tested for group differences for reward and loss anticipation separately. BD participants, relative to healthy controls, displayed decreased activation selectively in the left and right VS during anticipation of reward, but not during loss anticipation. PPI analyses showed decreased functional connectivity between the left VS and aPFC in BD patients compared with healthy controls during reward anticipation. This is the first study showing decreased VS activity and aberrant connectivity in the reward-processing circuitry in euthymic, medicated BD patients during reward anticipation. Our findings contrast with research supporting a reward hypersensitivity model of BD, and add to the body of literature suggesting that blunted activation of reward processing circuits may be a vulnerability factor for mood disorders.

  7. Neuroanatomical circuitry associated with exploratory eye movement in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Linlin Qiu

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients present abnormalities in a variety of eye movement tasks. Exploratory eye movement (EEM dysfunction appears to be particularly specific to schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of EEM dysfunction in schizophrenia are not clearly understood. To assess the potential neuroanatomical substrates of EEM, we recorded EEM performance and conducted a voxel-based morphometric analysis of gray matter in 33 schizophrenic patients and 29 well matched healthy controls. In schizophrenic patients, decreased responsive search score (RSS and widespread gray matter density (GMD reductions were observed. Moreover, the RSS was positively correlated with GMD in distributed brain regions in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, in schizophrenic patients, some brain regions with neuroanatomical deficits overlapped with some ones associated with RSS. These brain regions constituted an occipito-tempro-frontal circuitry involved in visual information processing and eye movement control, including the left calcarine cortex [Brodmann area (BA 17], the left cuneus (BA 18, the left superior occipital cortex (BA 18/19, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6, the left cerebellum, the right lingual cortex (BA 17/18, the right middle occipital cortex (BA19, the right inferior temporal cortex (BA 37, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46 and bilateral precentral gyri (BA 6 extending to the frontal eye fields (FEF, BA 8. To our knowledge, we firstly reported empirical evidence that gray matter loss in the occipito-tempro-frontal neuroanatomical circuitry of visual processing system was associated with EEM performance in schizophrenia, which may be helpful for the future effort to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms for EEM disturbances in schizophrenia.

  8. Trigeminal-Rostral Ventromedial Medulla circuitry is involved in orofacial hyperalgesia contralateral to tissue injury

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    Chai Bryan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies have shown that complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced masseter inflammation and microinjection of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β into the subnucleus interpolaris/subnucleus caudalis transition zone of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vi/Vc can induce contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia in rat models. We have also shown that contralateral hyperalgesia is attenuated with a lesion of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM, a critical site of descending pain modulation. Here we investigated the involvement of the RVM-Vi/Vc circuitry in mediating contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia after an injection of CFA into the masseter muscle. Results Microinjection of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (5 nmol, n=6 into the ipsilateral Vi/Vc attenuated the CFA-induced contralateral hyperalgesia but not the ipsilateral hyperalgesia. Intra-RVM post-treatment injection of the NK1 receptor antagonists, RP67580 (0.5-11.4 nmol and L-733,060 (0.5-11.4 nmol, attenuated CFA-induced bilateral hyperalgesia and IL-1β induced bilateral hyperalgesia. Serotonin depletion in RVM neurons prior to intra-masseter CFA injection prevented the development of contralateral hyperalgesia 1–3 days after CFA injection. Inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors in the contralateral Vi/Vc with direct microinjection of the select 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, Y-25130 (2.6-12.9 nmol, attenuated CFA-induced contralateral hyperalgesia. Lesions to the ipsilateral Vc prevented the development of ipsilateral hyperalgesia but did not prevent the development of contralateral hyperalgesia. Conclusions These results suggest that the development of CFA-induced contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia is mediated through descending facilitatory mechanisms of the RVM-Vi/Vc circuitry.

  9. Distribution of serotonin 5-HT1A-binding sites in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and their roles in 5-HT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors in rock pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Krüger, Jéssica; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Herold, Christina; Zilles, Karl; Poli, Anicleto; Güntürkün, Onur; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-12-15

    Serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1ARs), which are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, participate in cognitive and emotional functions. In birds, 5-HT1ARs are expressed in prosencephalic areas involved in visual and cognitive functions. Diverse evidence supports 5-HT1AR-mediated 5-HT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in birds. Here, we describe the distribution of 5-HT1ARs in the hypothalamus and brainstem of birds, analyze their potential roles in sleep and ingestive behaviors, and attempt to determine the involvement of auto-/hetero-5-HT1ARs in these behaviors. In 6 pigeons, the anatomical distribution of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding in the rostral brainstem and hypothalamus was examined. Ingestive/sleep behaviors were recorded (1h) in 16 pigeons pretreated with MM77 (a heterosynaptic 5-HT1AR antagonist; 23 or 69 nmol) for 20 min, followed by intracerebroventricular ICV injection of 5-HT (N:8; 150 nmol), 8-OH-DPAT (DPAT, a 5-HT1A,7R agonist, 30 nmol N:8) or vehicle. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors, brainstem 5-HT neuronal density and brain 5-HT content were examined in 12 pigeons, pretreated by ICV with the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or vehicle (N:6/group). The distribution of brainstem and diencephalic c-Fos immunoreactivity after ICV injection of 5-HT, DPAT or vehicle (N:5/group) into birds provided with or denied access to water is also described. 5-HT1ARs are concentrated in the brainstem 5-HTergic areas and throughout the periventricular hypothalamus, preoptic nuclei and circumventricular organs. 5-HT and DPAT produced a complex c-Fos expression pattern in the 5-HT1AR-enriched preoptic hypothalamus and the circumventricular organs, which are related to drinking and sleep regulation, but modestly affected c-Fos expression in 5-HTergic neurons. The 5-HT-induced ingestivebehaviors and the 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep behaviors were reduced by MM77 pretreatment. 5,7-DHT increased sleep per se, decreased tryptophan

  10. Acute and chronic craniofacial pain: brainstem mechanisms of nociceptive transmission and neuroplasticity, and their clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessle, B J

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in knowledge of brainstem mechanisms related to craniofacial pain. It also draws attention to their clinical implications, and concludes with a brief overview and suggestions for future research directions. It first describes the general organizational features of the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex (VBSNC), including its input and output properties and intrinsic characteristics that are commensurate with its strategic role as the major brainstem relay of many types of somatosensory information derived from the face and mouth. The VBSNC plays a crucial role in craniofacial nociceptive transmission, as evidenced by clinical, behavioral, morphological, and electrophysiological data that have been especially derived from studies of the relay of cutaneous nociceptive afferent inputs through the subnucleus caudalis of the VBSNC. The recent literature, however, indicates that some fundamental differences exist in the processing of cutaneous vs. other craniofacial nociceptive inputs to the VBSNC, and that rostral components of the VBSNC may also play important roles in some of these processes. Modulatory mechanisms are also highlighted, including the neurochemical substrate by which nociceptive transmission in the VBSNC can be modulated. In addition, the long-term consequences of peripheral injury and inflammation and, in particular, the neuroplastic changes that can be induced in the VBSNC are emphasized in view of the likely role that central sensitization, as well as peripheral sensitization, can play in acute and chronic pain. The recent findings also provide new insights into craniofacial pain behavior and are particularly relevant to many approaches currently in use for the management of pain and to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures aimed at manipulating peripheral inputs and central processes underlying nociceptive transmission and its control within the VBSNC.

  11. Diffuse and focal presentations of brainstem tumors in children: the images and the prognostic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menor, F.; Canete, A.; Romero, M. J.; Trilles, L.; Carvajal, E.; Marti-Bonmati, L.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether the presentation of brainstem tumors as diffuse or focal lesions showed any prognostic value in children. A retrospective review was carried out of the neuroradiological findings in 43 children with brainstem tumors, all of whom underwent computed tomography (CT) and 31 of whom underwent magnetic resonance (MR). The diffuse tumors (n=20) were all located in the pons, spreading to mesencephalon in 6 cases and to medulla oblongata in 1, and exhibiting exophytic growth, preferentially to the prepontine cistern. They presented homogeneous low attenuation in CT (90%) and decrease/increased signal intensity in T1/T2-weighted MR images (91.6%). Contrast uptake was observed in 20% of cases, with agreement between CT and MR. The patients showed a good initial response to treatment (70%), a high rate of relapse (80%) and a 5-year survival of 12%. The focal tumors were located in the pons (11 cases, spreading to the medulla oblongata in 2), mesencephalon (11 cases, 9 tectal and 2 peduncular) and medulla oblongata (1 case), and exhibited exophytic growth predominantly to the pontocerebellar junction and to the cerebellar peduncles. They showed a certain tendency toward heterogeneity (21.7%), toward isoattenuation in CT (47.8%) and isointensity in T1-weighted MR images (26.3%). CT showed a rate of tumor uptake of 26%, while the rate of contrast iptake was 58% MR. Fifty percent of these lesions responded well to therapy, with a recurrence rate of 28% and 4-year survival of 63%. Neuroimaging helps to define two basic patterns in brainstem tumors that play a role in prognosis. The diffuse tumor, which characteristically shows a good initial response to therapy, has a worse prognosis, probably reflecting its histological aggressiveness. (Author) 21 refs

  12. Cortical and brainstem plasticity in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Antonio; Marsili, Luca; Di Stasio, Flavio; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Pasquini, Massimo; Cardona, Francesco; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2014-10-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is characterized by motor/vocal tics commonly associated with psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder. We investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in Tourette patients, exposed and unexposed to chronic drug treatment, with and without psychiatric disturbances. We also investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We studied 20 Tourette patients with and without psychiatric disturbances, 15 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 20 healthy subjects. All groups included drug-naïve patients. We conditioned the left primary motor cortex with intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation and recorded motor evoked potentials. We conditioned the supraorbital nerve with facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation and recorded the blink reflex late response area. In healthy subjects, intermittent theta-burst increased and continuous theta-burst stimulation decreased motor evoked potentials. Differently, intermittent theta-burst failed to increase and continuous theta-burst stimulation failed to decrease motor evoked potentials in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances. In obsessive-compulsive disorder, intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation elicited normal responses. In healthy subjects and in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder, the blink reflex late response area increased after facilitatory high-frequency and decreased after inhibitory high-frequency stimulation. Conversely, in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances, facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation left the blink reflex late response area unchanged. Theta-burst and high-frequency stimulation elicited similar responses in drug-naïve and chronically treated patients. Tourette patients have reduced plasticity regardless of psychiatric disturbances. These findings suggest that abnormal plasticity contributes to the

  13. DESCRIPTION OF BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSES (AIR AND BONE CONDUCTION IN CHILDREN WITH NORMAL HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pashkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hearing level in small children with conductive hearing loss associated with congenital craniofacial abnormalities, particularly with agenesis of external ear and external auditory meatus is a pressing issue. Conventional methods of assessing hearing in the first years of life, i. e. registration of brainstem auditory evoked responses to acoustic stimuli in the event of air conduction, does not give an indication of the auditory analyzer’s condition due to potential conductive hearing loss in these patients. This study was aimed at assessing potential of diagnosing the auditory analyzer’s function with registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs to acoustic stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator. The study involved 17 children aged 3–10 years with normal hearing. We compared parameters of registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (peak V depending on the type of stimulus transmission (air/bone in children with normal hearing. The data on thresholds of the BAERs registered to acoustic stimuli in the event of air and bone conduction obtained in this study are comparable; hearing thresholds in the event of acoustic stimulation by means of a bone vibrator correlates with the results of the BAERs registered to the stimuli transmitted by means of air conduction earphones (r = 0.9. High correlation of thresholds of BAERs to the stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator with thresholds of BAERs registered when air conduction earphones were used helps to assess auditory analyzer’s condition in patients with any form of conductive hearing loss.  

  14. Erythropoietin and its receptors in the brainstem of adults with fatal falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Nicholas J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitation of endogenous neuroprotective pathways, such as the erythropoietin (Epo pathway, has been proposed as adjuvant treatment strategies in cerebral malaria. Whether different endogenous protein expression levels of Epo or differences in the abundance of its receptor components could account for the extent of structural neuropathological changes or neurological complications in adults with severe malaria was investigated. Methods High sensitivity immunohistochemistry was used to assess the frequency, distribution and concordance of Epo and components of its homodimeric and heteromeric receptors, Epo receptor and CD131, within the brainstem of adults who died of severe malaria. The following relationships with Epo and its receptor components were also defined: (i sequestration and indicators of hypoxia; (ii vascular damage in the form of plasma protein leakage and haemorrhage; (iii clinical complications and neuropathological features of severe malaria disease. Brainstems of patients dying in the UK from unrelated non-infectious causes were examined for comparison. Results The incidence of endogenous Epo in parenchymal brain cells did not greatly differ between severe malaria and non-neurological UK controls at the time of death. However, EpoR and CD131 labelling of neurons was greater in severe malaria compared with non-neurological controls (P = .009. EpoR labelling of vessels was positively correlated with admission peripheral parasite count (P = .01 and cerebral sequestration (P P = .001. There were no significant correlations with indicators of vascular damage, neuronal chromatolysis, axonal swelling or vital organ failure. Conclusion Cells within the brainstem of severe malaria patients showed protein expression of Epo and its receptor components. However, the incidence of endogeneous expression did not reflect protection from vascular or neuronal injury, and/or clinical manifestations, such as coma. These

  15. Sensitization of trigeminal brainstem pathways in a model for tear deficient dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mostafeezur; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Thompson, Randall; Katagiri, Ayano; Bereiter, David A

    2015-05-01

    Chronic dry eye disease (DE) is associated with an unstable tear film and symptoms of ocular discomfort. The characteristics of symptoms suggest a key role for central neural processing; however, little is known about central neuroplasticity and DE. We used a model for tear deficient DE and assessed effects on eye blink behavior, orbicularis oculi muscle activity (OOemg), and trigeminal brainstem neural activity in male rats. Ocular-responsive neurons were recorded at the interpolaris/caudalis transition (Vi/Vc) and Vc/upper cervical cord (Vc/C1) regions under isoflurane, whereas OOemg activity was recorded under urethane. Spontaneous tear volume was reduced by ∼50% at 14 days after exorbital gland removal. Hypertonic saline-evoked eye blink behavior in awake rats was enhanced throughout the 14 days after surgery. Saline-evoked neural activity at the Vi/Vc transition and in superficial and deep laminae at the Vc/C1 region was greatly enhanced in DE rats. Neurons from DE rats classified as wide dynamic range displayed enlarged convergent periorbital receptive fields consistent with central sensitization. Saline-evoked OOemg activity was markedly enhanced in DE rats compared with controls. Synaptic blockade at the Vi/Vc transition or the Vc/C1 region greatly reduced hypertonic saline-evoked OOemg activity in DE and sham rats. These results indicated that persistent tear deficiency caused sensitization of ocular-responsive neurons at multiple regions of the caudal trigeminal brainstem and enhanced OOemg activity. Central sensitization of ocular-related brainstem circuits is a significant factor in DE and likely contributes to the apparent weak correlation between peripheral signs of tear dysfunction and symptoms of irritation.

  16. Convergent input from brainstem coincidence detectors onto delay-sensitive neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, D; Jiang, D; Shackleton, T M; Palmer, A R

    1998-08-01

    Responses of low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized guinea pigs were studied with binaural beats to assess their mean best interaural phase (BP) to a range of stimulating frequencies. Phase plots (stimulating frequency vs BP) were produced, from which measures of characteristic delay (CD) and characteristic phase (CP) for each neuron were obtained. The CD provides an estimate of the difference in travel time from each ear to coincidence-detector neurons in the brainstem. The CP indicates the mechanism underpinning the coincidence detector responses. A linear phase plot indicates a single, constant delay between the coincidence-detector inputs from the two ears. In more than half (54 of 90) of the neurons, the phase plot was not linear. We hypothesized that neurons with nonlinear phase plots received convergent input from brainstem coincidence detectors with different CDs. Presentation of a second tone with a fixed, unfavorable delay suppressed the response of one input, linearizing the phase plot and revealing other inputs to be relatively simple coincidence detectors. For some neurons with highly complex phase plots, the suppressor tone altered BP values, but did not resolve the nature of the inputs. For neurons with linear phase plots, the suppressor tone either completely abolished their responses or reduced their discharge rate with no change in BP. By selectively suppressing inputs with a second tone, we are able to reveal the nature of underlying binaural inputs to IC neurons, confirming the hypothesis that the complex phase plots of many IC neurons are a result of convergence from simple brainstem coincidence detectors.

  17. Chronic exposure to hypergravity affects thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rat brainstem and cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, N. G.; Tang, F.; Corcoran, M. L.; Fox, R. A.; Man, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    In studies to determine the neurochemical mechanisms underlying adaptation to altered gravity we have investigated changes in neuropeptide levels in brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex by radioimmunoassay. Fourteen days of hypergravity (hyperG) exposure resulted in significant increases in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) content of brainstem and cerebellum, but no changes in levels of other neuropeptides (beta-endorphin, cholecystokinin, met-enkephalin, somatostatin, and substance P) examined in these areas were found, nor were TRH levels significantly changed in any other brain regions investigated. The increase in TRH in brainstem and cerebellum was not seen in animals exposed only to the rotational component of centrifugation, suggesting that this increase was elicited by the alteration in the gravitational environment. The only other neuropeptide affected by chronic hyperG exposure was met-enkephalin, which was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex. However, this alteration in met-enkephalin was found in both hyperG and rotation control animals and thus may be due to the rotational rather than the hyperG component of centrifugation. Thus it does not appear as if there is a generalized neuropeptide response to chronic hyperG following 2 weeks of exposure. Rather, there is an increase only of TRH and that occurs only in areas of the brain known to be heavily involved with vestibular inputs and motor control (both voluntary and autonomic). These results suggest that TRH may play a role in adaptation to altered gravity as it does in adaptation to altered vestibular input following labyrinthectomy, and in cerebellar and vestibular control of locomotion, as seen in studies of ataxia.

  18. Enterovirus 71 can directly infect the brainstem via cranial nerves and infection can be ameliorated by passive immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Soon Hao; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2014-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease may be complicated by encephalomyelitis. We investigated EV71 brainstem infection and whether this infection could be ameliorated by passive immunization in a mouse model. Enterovirus 71 was injected into unilateral jaw/facial muscles of 2-week-old mice, and hyperimmune sera were given before or after infection. Harvested tissues were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and viral titration. In unimmunized mice, viral antigen and RNA were detected within 24 hours after infection only in ipsilateral cranial nerves, motor trigeminal nucleus, reticular formation, and facial nucleus; viral titers were significantly higher in the brainstem than in the spinal cord samples. Mice given preinfection hyperimmune serum showed a marked reduction of ipsilateral viral antigen/RNA and viral titers in the brainstem in a dose-dependent manner. With optimum hyperimmune serum given after infection, brainstem infection was significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner. A delay in disease onset and a reduction of disease severity and mortality were also observed. Thus, EV71 can directly infect the brainstem, including the medulla, via cranial nerves, most likely by retrograde axonal transport. This may explain the sudden cardiorespiratory collapse in human patients with fatal encephalomyelitis. Moreover, our results suggest that passive immunization may still benefit EV71-infected patients who have neurologic complications.

  19. Individual differences in brainstem and basal ganglia structure predict postural control and balance loss in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; Chalavi, Sima; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Leunissen, Inge; Levin, Oron; Nieuwboer, Alice; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-02-01

    It remains unclear which specific brain regions are the most critical for human postural control and balance, and whether they mediate the effect of age. Here, associations between postural performance and corticosubcortical brain regions were examined in young and older adults using multiple structural imaging and linear mixed models. Results showed that of the regions involved in posture, the brainstem was the strongest predictor of postural control and balance: lower brainstem volume predicted larger center of pressure deviation and higher odds of balance loss. Analyses of white and gray matter in the brainstem showed that the pedunculopontine nucleus area appeared to be critical for postural control in both young and older adults. In addition, the brainstem mediated the effect of age on postural control, underscoring the brainstem's fundamental role in aging. Conversely, lower basal ganglia volume predicted better postural performance, suggesting an association between greater neural resources in the basal ganglia and greater movement vigor, resulting in exaggerated postural adjustments. Finally, results showed that practice, shorter height and heavier weight (i.e., higher body mass index), higher total physical activity, and larger ankle active (but not passive) range of motion were predictive of more stable posture, irrespective of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual cortical somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials following incidental irradiation of the rhombencephalon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Schofield, I.S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Visual, cortical somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded before incidental irradiation of the rhombencephalon during radiotherapy in and around the middle ear, and at 11 weeks and eight months after completion of treatment. No patient experienced neurological symptoms during this period. No consistent changes in evoked potentials were found. The failure to demonstrate subclinical radiation-induced demyelination suggests either that the syndrome of early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy occurs in an idiosyncratic manner, or that any subclinical lesions are not detectable by serial evoked potential recordings. (author)

  1. Exploding Head Syndrome as Aura of Migraine with Brainstem Aura: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabian H; Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Rossi, Elisa Marie; Tsakadze, Nina

    2018-01-01

    This article reports a case of exploding head syndrome (EHS) as an aura of migraine with brainstem aura (MBA). A middle-aged man presented with intermittent episodes of a brief sensation of explosion in the head, visual flashing, vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, confusion, ataxia, dysarthria, and bilateral visual impairment followed by migraine headache. The condition was diagnosed as MBA. Explosive head sensation, sensory phenomena, and headaches improved over time with nortriptyline. This case shows that EHS can present as a primary aura symptom in patients with MBA.

  2. Increased brainstem perfusion, but no blood-brain barrier disruption, during attacks of migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M; Christensen, Casper E; Younis, Samaira; Wolfram, Frauke; Cramer, Stig P; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-06-01

    See Moskowitz (doi:10.1093/brain/awx099) for a scientific commentary on this article.The migraine aura is characterized by transient focal cortical disturbances causing dramatic neurological symptoms that are usually followed by migraine headache. It is currently not understood how the aura symptoms are related to the headache phase of migraine. Animal studies suggest that cortical spreading depression, the likely mechanism of migraine aura, causes disruption of the blood-brain barrier and noxious stimulation of trigeminal afferents leading to activation of brainstem nuclei and triggering of migraine headache. We used the sensitive and validated technique of dynamic contrast-enhanced high-field magnetic resonance imaging to simultaneously investigate blood-brain barrier permeability and tissue perfusion in the brainstem (at the level of the lower pons), visual cortex, and brain areas of the anterior, middle and posterior circulation during spontaneous attacks of migraine with aura. Patients reported to our institution to undergo magnetic resonance imaging during the headache phase after presenting with typical visual aura. Nineteen patients were scanned during attacks and on an attack-free day. The mean time from attack onset to scanning was 7.6 h. We found increased brainstem perfusion bilaterally during migraine with aura attacks. Perfusion also increased in the visual cortex and posterior white matter following migraine aura. We found no increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in any of the investigated regions. There was no correlation between blood-brain barrier permeability, brain perfusion, and time from symptom onset to examination or pain intensity. Our findings demonstrate hyperperfusion in brainstem during the headache phase of migraine with aura, while the blood-brain barrier remains intact during attacks of migraine with aura. These data thus contradict the preclinical hypothesis of cortical spreading depression-induced blood-brain barrier

  3. A rare case of acute poster ior reversible encephalopathy syndrome involving brainstem in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Chakroun-Walha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a rare entity involving brainstem in very rare reported cases. We describe here the case of a boy who presented to the emergency department for headaches and strabismus. Diagnosis of PRES was retained by magnetic resonance imaging. The causes were blood pressure urgency and renal failure. Location of lesions was very rarely reported in literature and neurological troubles were persistent. Emergency physicians should evocate PRES each time there is a clinical context associated with neurological troubles by a normal brain CT scan. Early diagnosis is very important to treat its causes and improve prognosis.

  4. Visual cortical somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials following incidental irradiation of the rhombencephalon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nightingale, S. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK)); Schofield, I.S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K. (Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Newcastle General Hospital)

    1984-01-01

    Visual, cortical somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded before incidental irradiation of the rhombencephalon during radiotherapy in and around the middle ear, and at 11 weeks and eight months after completion of treatment. No patient experienced neurological symptoms during this period. No consistent changes in evoked potentials were found. The failure to demonstrate subclinical radiation-induced demyelination suggests either that the syndrome of early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy occurs in an idiosyncratic manner, or that any subclinical lesions are not detectable by serial evoked potential recordings.

  5. Neuron class-specific requirements for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in critical period development of calcium signaling in learning and memory circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Caleb A; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-05-01

    Neural circuit optimization occurs through sensory activity-dependent mechanisms that refine synaptic connectivity and information processing during early-use developmental critical periods. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), the gene product lost in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), acts as an activity sensor during critical period development, both as an RNA-binding translation regulator and channel-binding excitability regulator. Here, we employ a Drosophila FXS disease model to assay calcium signaling dynamics with a targeted transgenic GCaMP reporter during critical period development of the mushroom body (MB) learning/memory circuit. We find FMRP regulates depolarization-induced calcium signaling in a neuron-specific manner within this circuit, suppressing activity-dependent calcium transients in excitatory cholinergic MB input projection neurons and enhancing calcium signals in inhibitory GABAergic MB output neurons. Both changes are restricted to the developmental critical period and rectified at maturity. Importantly, conditional genetic (dfmr1) rescue of null mutants during the critical period corrects calcium signaling defects in both neuron classes, indicating a temporally restricted FMRP requirement. Likewise, conditional dfmr1 knockdown (RNAi) during the critical period replicates constitutive null mutant defects in both neuron classes, confirming cell-autonomous requirements for FMRP in developmental regulation of calcium signaling dynamics. Optogenetic stimulation during the critical period enhances depolarization-induced calcium signaling in both neuron classes, but this developmental change is eliminated in dfmr1 null mutants, indicating the activity-dependent regulation requires FMRP. These results show FMRP shapes neuron class-specific calcium signaling in excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in developing learning/memory circuitry, and that FMRP mediates activity-dependent regulation of calcium signaling specifically during the early

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  7. Novel Anterior Brainstem Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yu Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC is found in around 4% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The most common radiological finding of LC is diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement on contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Herein, we report a novel brain MRI finding—non-enhanced, band-like, symmetric restricted diffusion along the anterior surface of the brainstem—of LC in four patients with NSCLC. We also identified three additional cases with similar MRI findings in a literature review. We hypothesized that the restricted diffusion along the anterior brainstem was caused by malignant cells concentrating in the cistern around the brainstem and infiltrating into the circumferential perforating arteries along the anterior brainstem surface, which then resulted in microinfarctions.

  8. Activation of Brainstem Pro-opiomelanocortin Neurons Produces Opioidergic Analgesia, Bradycardia and Bradypnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerritelli, Serena; Hirschberg, Stefan; Hill, Rob; Balthasar, Nina; Pickering, Anthony E

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are widely used medicinally as analgesics and abused for hedonic effects, actions that are each complicated by substantial risks such as cardiorespiratory depression. These drugs mimic peptides such as β-endorphin, which has a key role in endogenous analgesia. The β-endorphin in the central nervous system originates from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Relatively little is known about the NTSPOMC neurons but their position within the sensory nucleus of the vagus led us to test the hypothesis that they play a role in modulation of cardiorespiratory and nociceptive control. The NTSPOMC neurons were targeted using viral vectors in a POMC-Cre mouse line to express either opto-genetic (channelrhodopsin-2) or chemo-genetic (Pharmacologically Selective Actuator Modules). Opto-genetic activation of the NTSPOMC neurons in the working heart brainstem preparation (n = 21) evoked a reliable, titratable and time-locked respiratory inhibition (120% increase in inter-breath interval) with a bradycardia (125±26 beats per minute) and augmented respiratory sinus arrhythmia (58% increase). Chemo-genetic activation of NTSPOMC neurons in vivo was anti-nociceptive in the tail flick assay (latency increased by 126±65%, pneurons were found to project to key brainstem structures involved in cardiorespiratory control (nucleus ambiguus and ventral respiratory group) and endogenous analgesia (periaqueductal gray and midline raphe). Thus the NTSPOMC neurons may be capable of tuning behaviour by an opioidergic modulation of nociceptive, respiratory and cardiac control.

  9. Large central lesions compressing the hypothalamus and brainstem. Operative approaches and combination treatment with radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Negishi, Masatoshi; Kohga, Hideaki; Hirato, Masafumi; Ohye, Chihiro [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Shibazaki, Tohru

    1998-09-01

    A major aim of minimally invasive neurosurgery is to preserve function in the brain and cranial nerves. Based on previous results of radiosurgery for central lesions (19 craniopharyngiomas, 46 pituitary adenomas, 9 meningeal tumors), combined micro- and/or radiosurgery was applied for large lesions compressing the hypothalamus and/or brainstem. A basal interhemispheric approach via superomedial orbitotomy or a transcallosal-transforaminal approach was used for these large tumors. Tumors left behind in the hypothalamus or cavernous sinus were treated with radiosurgery using a gamma unit. Preoperative hypothalamo-pituitary functions were preserved in most of these patients. Radiosurgical results were evaluated in patients followed for more than 2 years after treatment. All 9 craniopharyngiomas decreased in size after radiosurgery, although a second treatment was required in 4 patients. All 20 pituitary adenomas were stable or decreased in size and 5 of 7 functioning adenomas showed normalized values of hormones in the serum. All 3 meningeal tumors were stable or decreased in size after treatment. No cavernous sinus symptoms developed after radiosurgery. We conclude that combined micro- and radio-neurosurgery is an effective and less invasive treatment for large central lesions compressing the hypothalamus and brainstem. (author)

  10. Inflammatory lesions of the brainstem and the cerebellopontine angle; Entzuendungen des Hirnstamms und des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.; Jaeger, L. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2006-03-15

    Inflammatory lesions of the brainstem and the cerebellopontine angle are often critical for the patient, because crucial neuronal and vascular structures are found in this region. The patient's prognosis mainly depends on rapid identification of the inflammation site and the radiological evaluation of the inflammation pathogenesis to develop therapeutic strategies. Therefore, cross-sectional imaging is complementary to laboratory and CSF analysis as well as biopsies. This article gives a survey of inflammatory lesions of the brainstem and the cerebellopontine angle. (orig.) [German] Entzuendliche Erkrankungen des Hirnstamms und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels stellen nicht selten eine kritische Situation fuer den Patienten dar, da in diesen Regionen wichtige neuronale Strukturen und Gefaesse verlaufen. Die Prognose und das weitere therapeutische Vorgehen haengen entscheidend von einer schnellen Diagnose der Entzuendungslokalisation sowie einer bildmorphologischen Einordnung der Entzuendungspathogenese ab. Folglich ergaenzt die Schnittbildgebung entscheidend die Liquoranalyse, die Biopsie und die Laboruntersuchungen. In diesem Artikel soll eine Uebersicht ueber die verschiedenen entzuendlichen Veraenderungen des Hirnstamms und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels gegeben werden. (orig.)

  11. Proton spectroscopy in the narcoleptic syndrome. Is there evidence of a brainstem lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, C M; Simmons, A; Lemmens, G; Williams, S C; Parkes, J D

    1998-02-01

    There is controversy regarding the relationship of structural or biochemical brainstem lesions to "idiopathic" narcolepsy. Most cases of the narcoleptic syndrome are considered to be idiopathic because no structural lesion is detectable, although some cases of secondary narcolepsy are known to be associated with no structural brainstem lesions. Using proton spectroscopy, we determined levels of ventral pontine metabolite pools in 12 normal subjects and 12 subjects with idiopathic narcolepsy. REM sleep is generated in ventral pontine areas. Proton spectroscopy was used to study levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) as a marker of cell mass, creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr + PCr), and choline (Cho). The intensity of the peaks, as determined by the area under the peak (AUP), was measured. The AUP correlates with the quantity of chemical present. In this study, the ratios of NAA to Cr + PCr were similar in normal subjects and in narcoleptic subjects with idiopathic narcolepsy. No differences in measured metabolic ratio were observed in subjects who slept during the scan procedure compared with those who remained awake. Subjects with "symptomatic" narcolepsy accompanied by an obvious structural brain lesion were not studied. Proton spectroscopy of the brain initiates a new kind of neurochemistry, allowing the noninvasive study of metabolic pools in the living human brain without the use of any kind of tracer or radioactive molecule. In this study, there was no evidence of cell loss in the ventral pontine areas of subjects with the narcoleptic syndrome.

  12. Speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses in children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Al Osman, Rida; Rivest, Véronique; Poulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate subcortical auditory processing in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) were recorded using click and speech/da/stimuli. Twenty-five children, aged 6-14 years old, participated in the study: 13 with normal hearing acuity and 12 with sensorineural hearing loss. No significant differences were observed for the click-evoked ABRs between normal hearing and hearing-impaired groups. For the speech-evoked ABRs, no significant differences were found for the latencies of the following responses between the two groups: onset (V and A), transition (C), one of the steady-state wave (F), and offset (O). However, the latency of the steady-state waves (D and E) was significantly longer for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Furthermore, the amplitude of the offset wave O and of the envelope frequency response (EFR) of the speech-evoked ABRs was significantly larger for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Results obtained from the speech-evoked ABRs suggest that children with a mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss have a specific pattern of subcortical auditory processing. Our results show differences for the speech-evoked ABRs in normal hearing children compared to hearing-impaired children. These results add to the body of the literature on how children with hearing loss process speech at the brainstem level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of edaravone on acute brainstem-cerebellar infarction with vertigo and sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuta; Yabe, Takao; Okada, Kazunari; Nakamura, Yuka

    2014-06-01

    We report 2 cases with acute brainstem and brainstem-cerebellar infarction showed improvement of their signs and symptoms after administration of edaravone. Case 1, a 74-year-old woman who experienced sudden vertigo, also had dysarthria and left hemiplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an abnormal region in the right ventrolateral medulla oblongata. The patient's vertigo and hemiplegia improved completely after treatment. Case 2, a 50-year-old man who experienced sudden vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), developed dysarthria after admission. MRI revealed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed dissection of the basilar artery and occlusion of the right anterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient's vertigo and hearing remarkably improved. We have described 2 patients whose early symptoms were vertigo and sudden SNHL, but who were later shown to have ischemic lesions of the central nervous system. Edaravone is neuroprotective drug with free radical-scavenging actions. Free radicals in the ear are responsible for ischemic damage. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, may be useful in the treatment of vertigo and SNHL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Motor-circuit communication matrix from spinal cord to brainstem neurons revealed by developmental origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Chiara; Esposito, Maria Soledad; Sigrist, Markus; Arber, Silvia

    2014-01-30

    Accurate motor-task execution relies on continuous comparison of planned and performed actions. Motor-output pathways establish internal circuit collaterals for this purpose. Here we focus on motor collateral organization between spinal cord and upstream neurons in the brainstem. We used a newly developed mouse genetic tool intersectionally with viruses to uncover the connectivity rules of these ascending pathways by capturing the transient expression of neuronal subpopulation determinants. We reveal a widespread and diverse network of spinal dual-axon neurons, with coincident input to forelimb motor neurons and the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) in the brainstem. Spinal information to the LRN is not segregated by motor pool or neurotransmitter identity. Instead, it is organized according to the developmental domain origin of the progenitor cells. Thus, excerpts of most spinal information destined for action are relayed to supraspinal centers through exquisitely organized ascending connectivity modules, enabling precise communication between command and execution centers of movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brainstem GLP-1 signalling contributes to cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Tito; Liberini, Claudia G; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas

    2018-03-15

    The cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a frequent and severe condition in cancer patients. Currently, no pharmacological treatment is approved for the therapy of CACS. Centrally, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and is implicated in malaise, nausea and food aversion. The NTS is reciprocally connected to brain sites implicated in the control of energy balance including the area postrema (AP), which mediates CACS in certain tumour models. Given the role of GLP-1 as a mediator of anorexia under acute sickness conditions, we hypothesized that brainstem GLP-1 signalling might play a role in the mediation of CACS. Using hepatoma tumour-bearing (TB) rats, we first tested whether the chronic delivery of the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) into the fourth ventricle attenuates CACS. Second, we investigated whether a genetic knockdown of GLP-1 expression in the NTS ameliorates CACS. Ex-9 attenuated anorexia, body weight loss, muscle and fat depletion compared to TB controls. Similarly, TB animals with a knockdown of GLP-1 expression in the NTS had higher food intake, reduced body weight loss, and higher lean and fat mass compared to TB controls. Our study identifies brainstem GLP-1 as crucial mediator of CACS in hepatoma TB rats. The GLP-1R represents a promising target against CACS and possibly other forms of disease-related anorexia/cachexia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Large central lesions compressing the hypothalamus and brainstem. Operative approaches and combination treatment with radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Negishi, Masatoshi; Kohga, Hideaki; Hirato, Masafumi; Ohye, Chihiro; Shibazaki, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    A major aim of minimally invasive neurosurgery is to preserve function in the brain and cranial nerves. Based on previous results of radiosurgery for central lesions (19 craniopharyngiomas, 46 pituitary adenomas, 9 meningeal tumors), combined micro- and/or radiosurgery was applied for large lesions compressing the hypothalamus and/or brainstem. A basal interhemispheric approach via superomedial orbitotomy or a transcallosal-transforaminal approach was used for these large tumors. Tumors left behind in the hypothalamus or cavernous sinus were treated with radiosurgery using a gamma unit. Preoperative hypothalamo-pituitary functions were preserved in most of these patients. Radiosurgical results were evaluated in patients followed for more than 2 years after treatment. All 9 craniopharyngiomas decreased in size after radiosurgery, although a second treatment was required in 4 patients. All 20 pituitary adenomas were stable or decreased in size and 5 of 7 functioning adenomas showed normalized values of hormones in the serum. All 3 meningeal tumors were stable or decreased in size after treatment. No cavernous sinus symptoms developed after radiosurgery. We conclude that combined micro- and radio-neurosurgery is an effective and less invasive treatment for large central lesions compressing the hypothalamus and brainstem. (author)

  17. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in healthy cats recorded with surface electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Musteata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the brainstem auditory evoked potentials of seven healthy cats, using surface electrodes. Latencies of waves I, III and V, and intervals I–III, I–V and III–V were recorded. Monaural and binaural stimulation of the cats were done with sounds ranging between 40 and 90 decibel Sound Pressure Level. All latencies were lower than those described in previous studies, where needle electrodes were used. In the case of binaural stimulation, latencies of waves III and V were greater compared to those obtained for monaural stimulation (P P > 0.05. Regardless of the sound intensity, the interwave latency was constant (P > 0.05. Interestingly, no differences were noticed for latencies of waves III and V when sound intensity was higher than 80dB SPL. This study completes the knowledge in the field of electrophysiology and shows that the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in cats using surface electrodes is a viable method to record the transmission of auditory information. That can be faithfully used in clinical practice, when small changes of latency values may be an objective factor in health status evaluation.

  18. The Physiological Basis and Clinical Use of the Binaural Interaction Component of the Auditory Brainstem Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Georg M.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a sound-evoked non-invasively measured electrical potential representing the sum of neuronal activity in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. ABR peak amplitudes and latencies are widely used in human and animal auditory research and for clinical screening. The binaural interaction component (BIC) of the ABR stands for the difference between the sum of the monaural ABRs and the ABR obtained with binaural stimulation. The BIC comprises a series of distinct waves, the largest of which (DN1) has been used for evaluating binaural hearing in both normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. Based on data from animal and human studies, we discuss the possible anatomical and physiological bases of the BIC (DN1 in particular). The effects of electrode placement and stimulus characteristics on the binaurally evoked ABR are evaluated. We review how inter-aural time and intensity differences affect the BIC and, analyzing these dependencies, draw conclusion about the mechanism underlying the generation of the BIC. Finally, the utility of the BIC for clinical diagnoses are summarized. PMID:27232077

  19. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  20. Correlation of augmented startle reflex with brainstem electrophysiological responses in Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sadao; Saito, Yoshiaki; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Sugai, Kenji; Iso, Takashi; Inagaki, Masumi; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the evolution of an augmented startle reflex in Tay-Sachs disease and compare the temporal relationship between this reflex and brainstem evoked potentials. Clinical and electrophysiological data from 3 patients with Tay-Sachs disease were retrospectively collected. The augmented startle reflex appeared between the age of 3 and 17 months and disappeared between the age of 4 and 6 years. Analysis of brainstem auditory evoked potentials revealed that poor segregation of peak I, but not peak III, coincided with the disappearance of the augmented startle reflex. A blink reflex with markedly high amplitude was observed in a patient with an augmented startle reflex. The correlation between the augmented startle reflex and the preservation of peak I but not peak III supports the theory that the superior olivary nucleus is dispensable for this reflex. The blink reflex with high amplitudes may represent augmented excitability of reticular formation at the pontine tegmentum in Tay-Sachs disease, where the pattern generators for the augmented startle and blink reflexes may functionally overlap. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of automated segmentation of the cerebellum and brainstem on brain MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Norio; Matsuura, Yukihiro; Sanada, Shigeru; Suzuki, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    MR imaging is an important method for diagnosing abnormalities of the brain. This paper presents an automated method to segment the cerebellum and brainstem for brain MR images. MR images were obtained from 10 normal subjects (male 4, female 6; 22-75 years old, average 31.0 years) and 15 patients with brain atrophy (male 3, female 12; 62-85 years of age, average 76.0 years). The automated method consisted of the following four steps: segmentation of the brain on original images, detection of an upper plane of the cerebellum using the Hough transform, correction of the plane using three-dimensional (3D) information, and segmentation of the cerebellum and brainstem using the plane. The results indicated that the regions obtained by the automated method were visually similar to those obtained by a manual method. The average rates of coincidence between the automated method and manual method were 83.0±9.0% in normal subjects and 86.4±3.6% in patients. (author)

  2. Optimization behavior of brainstem respiratory neurons. A cerebral neural network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, C S

    1991-01-01

    A recent model of respiratory control suggested that the steady-state respiratory responses to CO2 and exercise may be governed by an optimal control law in the brainstem respiratory neurons. It was not certain, however, whether such complex optimization behavior could be accomplished by a realistic biological neural network. To test this hypothesis, we developed a hybrid computer-neural model in which the dynamics of the lung, brain and other tissue compartments were simulated on a digital computer. Mimicking the "controller" was a human subject who pedalled on a bicycle with varying speed (analog of ventilatory output) with a view to minimize an analog signal of the total cost of breathing (chemical and mechanical) which was computed interactively and displayed on an oscilloscope. In this manner, the visuomotor cortex served as a proxy (homolog) of the brainstem respiratory neurons in the model. Results in 4 subjects showed a linear steady-state ventilatory CO2 response to arterial PCO2 during simulated CO2 inhalation and a nearly isocapnic steady-state response during simulated exercise. Thus, neural optimization is a plausible mechanism for respiratory control during exercise and can be achieved by a neural network with cognitive computational ability without the need for an exercise stimulus.

  3. Comparison of Auditory Brainstem Response in Noise Induced Tinnitus and Non-Tinnitus Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassem Mohammadkhani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an unpleasant sound which can cause some behavioral disorders. According to evidence the origin of tinnitus is not only in peripheral but also in central auditory system. So evaluation of central auditory system function is necessary. In this study Auditory brainstem responses (ABR were compared in noise induced tinnitus and non-tinnitus control subjects.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study is conducted in 60 cases in two groups including of 30 noise induced tinnitus and 30 non-tinnitus control subjects. ABRs were recorded ipsilateraly and contralateraly and their latencies and amplitudes were analyzed.Results: Mean interpeak latencies of III-V (p= 0.022, I-V (p=0.033 in ipsilatral electrode array and mean absolute latencies of IV (p=0.015 and V (p=0.048 in contralatral electrode array were significantly increased in noise induced tinnitus group relative to control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from that there are some decrease in neural transmission time in brainstem and there are some sign of involvement of medial nuclei in olivery complex in addition to lateral lemniscus.

  4. MRI findings of the brainstem of the neuro-Behcet syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Naoto; Tashiro, Kunio; Yamada, Takayoshi; Ito, Kazunori; Honma, Sanae; Doi, Shizuki; Moriwaka, Fumio

    1987-10-01

    We reported three cases of neuro-Behcet's syndrome which showed brainstem lesions on MRI compatible with the clinical symptoms. In Case 1, MRI showed a large, abnormal signal-intensity area in the pons and small, abnormal signal-intensity areas at the right cerebral peduncle, the bilateral basal ganglia, and the left thalamus. These lesions disappeared on MRI, in accordance with the remission of clinical symptoms. On the other hand, CT showed no positive findings. In Case 2, an abnormal signal-intensity area was disclosed at the left cerebral peduncle on MRI. This lesion was also identified on the CT scan. In Case 3, an abnormal signal-intensity area was present in the pons on MRI. In this case, CT showed no positive findings. In Cases 2 and 3, these lesions seemed to represent inflammatory or necrotic areas attributable to vasculitis;however, the extensive brainstem lesion seen on the MRI of Case 1 was a quite unique finding, for which no exact pathophysiological explanation is possible at the present time.

  5. Brainstem neurons survive the identical ischemic stress that kills higher neurons: insight to the persistent vegetative state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Devin Brisson

    Full Text Available Global ischemia caused by heart attack, pulmonary failure, near-drowning or traumatic brain injury often damages the higher brain but not the brainstem, leading to a 'persistent vegetative state' where the patient is awake but not aware. Approximately 30,000 U.S. patients are held captive in this condition but not a single research study has addressed how the lower brain is preferentially protected in these people. In the higher brain, ischemia elicits a profound anoxic depolarization (AD causing neuronal dysfunction and vasoconstriction within minutes. Might brainstem nuclei generate less damaging AD and so be more resilient? Here we compared resistance to acute injury induced from simulated ischemia by 'higher' hippocampal and striatal neurons versus brainstem neurons in live slices from rat and mouse. Light transmittance (LT imaging in response to 10 minutes of oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD revealed immediate and acutely damaging AD propagating through gray matter of neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus and cerebellar cortex. In adjacent brainstem nuclei, OGD-evoked AD caused little tissue injury. Whole-cell patch recordings from hippocampal and striatal neurons under OGD revealed sudden membrane potential loss that did not recover. In contrast brainstem neurons from locus ceruleus and mesencephalic nucleus as well as from sensory and motor nuclei only slowly depolarized and then repolarized post-OGD. Two-photon microscopy confirmed non-recoverable swelling and dendritic beading of hippocampal neurons during OGD, while mesencephalic neurons in midbrain appeared uninjured. All of the above responses were mimicked by bath exposure to 100 µM ouabain which inhibits the Na+/K+ pump or to 1-10 nM palytoxin which converts the pump into an open cationic channel. Therefore during ischemia the Na+/K+ pump of higher neurons fails quickly and extensively compared to naturally resilient hypothalamic and brainstem neurons. The selective survival

  6. Brain Circuitry Supporting Multi-Organ Autonomic Outflow in Response to Nausea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclocco, Roberta; Kim, Jieun; Garcia, Ronald G; Sheehan, James D; Beissner, Florian; Bianchi, Anna M; Cerutti, Sergio; Kuo, Braden; Barbieri, Riccardo; Napadow, Vitaly

    2016-02-01

    While autonomic outflow is an important co-factor of nausea physiology, central control of this outflow is poorly understood. We evaluated sympathetic (skin conductance level) and cardiovagal (high-frequency heart rate variability) modulation, collected synchronously with functional MRI (fMRI) data during nauseogenic visual stimulation aimed to induce vection in susceptible individuals. Autonomic data guided analysis of neuroimaging data, using a stimulus-based (analysis windows set by visual stimulation protocol) and percept-based (windows set by subjects' ratings) approach. Increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic modulation was associated with robust and anti-correlated brain activity in response to nausea. Specifically, greater autonomic response was associated with reduced fMRI signal in brain regions such as the insula, suggesting an inhibitory relationship with premotor brainstem nuclei. Interestingly, some sympathetic/parasympathetic specificity was noted. Activity in default mode network and visual motion areas was anti-correlated with parasympathetic outflow at peak nausea. In contrast, lateral prefrontal cortical activity was anti-correlated with sympathetic outflow during recovery, soon after cessation of nauseogenic stimulation. These results suggest divergent central autonomic control for sympathetic and parasympathetic response to nausea. Autonomic outflow and the central autonomic network underlying ANS response to nausea may be an important determinant of overall nausea intensity and, ultimately, a potential therapeutic target. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. On Certain New Methodology for Reducing Sensor and Readout Electronics Circuitry Noise in Digital Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Miko, Joseph; Bradley, Damon; Heinzen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and upcoming cosmology science missions carry instruments with multiple focal planes populated with many large sensor detector arrays. These sensors are passively cooled to low temperatures for low-level light (L3) and near-infrared (NIR) signal detection, and the sensor readout electronics circuitry must perform at extremely low noise levels to enable new required science measurements. Because we are at the technological edge of enhanced performance for sensors and readout electronics circuitry, as determined by thermal noise level at given temperature in analog domain, we must find new ways of further compensating for the noise in the signal digital domain. To facilitate this new approach, state-of-the-art sensors are augmented at their array hardware boundaries by non-illuminated reference pixels, which can be used to reduce noise attributed to sensors. There are a few proposed methodologies of processing in the digital domain the information carried by reference pixels, as employed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope Projects. These methods involve using spatial and temporal statistical parameters derived from boundary reference pixel information to enhance the active (non-reference) pixel signals. To make a step beyond this heritage methodology, we apply the NASA-developed technology known as the Hilbert- Huang Transform Data Processing System (HHT-DPS) for reference pixel information processing and its utilization in reconfigurable hardware on-board a spaceflight instrument or post-processing on the ground. The methodology examines signal processing for a 2-D domain, in which high-variance components of the thermal noise are carried by both active and reference pixels, similar to that in processing of low-voltage differential signals and subtraction of a single analog reference pixel from all active pixels on the sensor. Heritage methods using the aforementioned statistical parameters in the

  8. The relationship of age, gender, and IQ with the brainstem and thalamus in healthy children and adolescents: a magnetic resonance imaging volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuhuan; Chen, Yian Ann; De Bellis, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    In healthy children, there is a paucity of information on the growth of the brainstem and thalamus measured anatomically magnetic resonance imaging. The relations of age, gender, and age by gender with brainstem and thalamus volumes were analyzed from magnetic resonance brain images of 122 healthy children and adolescents (62 males, 60 females; ages 4 to 17). Results showed that age is a significant predictor of brainstem and thalamus volumes. The volume of the brainstem increases with age, while thalamus volume declines with age. The volume of the right thalamus is significantly larger than that of the left in both genders, with greater rightward asymmetry and greater thalamus to grey matter ratio in females. Males have larger brainstems, but these differences are not significant when covarying for cerebral volume. Larger thalami were associated with higher Verbal IQ. These normative pediatric data are of value to researchers who study these regions in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T; Buka, Stephen L; Seidman, Larry J; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-06-30

    Response to stress is dysregulated in psychosis (PSY). fMRI studies showed hyperactivity in hypothalamus (HYPO), hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala (AMYG), anterior cingulate (ACC), orbital and medial prefrontal (OFC; mPFC) cortices, with some studies reporting sex differences. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in PSY would be associated with sex differences in hyperactivity in HYPO, AMYG, and HIPP, and hypoactivity in PFC and ACC, with more severe deficits in men. We studied 32 PSY cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood. PSY males showed BOLD hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including HYPO and ACC by FWE-correction. Females showed hyperactivity in HIPP and AMYG and hypoactivity in OFC and mPFC, the latter FWE-corrected. Interaction of group by sex was significant in mPFC (F = 7.00, p = 0.01), with PSY females exhibiting the lowest activity. Male hyperactivity in HYPO and ACC was significantly associated with hypercortisolemia post-stress challenge, and mPFC with low androgens. Steroid hormones and neural activity were dissociated in PSY women. Findings suggest disruptions in neural circuitry-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Taste Reward Circuitry Related Brain Structures Characterize Ill and Recovered Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K.; Shott, Megan E.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The pathophysiology of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa remains obscure, but structural brain alterations could be functionally important biomarkers. Here we assessed taste pleasantness and reward sensitivity in relation to brain structure, which might be related to food avoidance commonly seen in eating disorders. Method We used structural magnetic resonance brain imaging to study gray and white matter volumes in individuals with restricting type currently ill (n = 19) or recovered-anorexia nervosa (n = 24), bulimia nervosa (n= 19) and healthy control women (n=24). Results All eating disorder groups showed increased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Manually tracing confirmed larger gyrus rectus volume, and predicted taste pleasantness across all groups. The analyses also indicated other morphological differences between diagnostic categories: Ill and recovered-anorexia nervosa had increased right, while bulimia nervosa had increased left antero-ventral insula gray matter volumes compared to controls. Furthermore, dorsal striatum volumes were reduced in recovered-anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and predicted sensitivity to reward in the eating disorder groups. The eating disorder groups also showed reduced white matter in right temporal and parietal areas when compared to healthy controls. Notably, the results held when controlling for a range of covariates (e.g., age, depression, anxiety, medications). Conclusion Brain structure in medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula and striatum is altered in eating disorders and suggests altered brain circuitry that has been associated with taste pleasantness and reward value. PMID:23680873

  11. The neural circuitry of visual artistic production and appreciation: A proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Chakravarty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nondominant inferior parietal lobule is probably a major "store house" of artistic creativity. The ventromedial prefrontal lobe (VMPFL is supposed to be involved in creative cognition and the dorsolateral prefrontal lobe (DLPFL in creative output. The conceptual ventral and dorsal visual system pathways likely represent the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi. During artistic production, conceptualization is conceived in the VMPFL and the executive part is operated through the DLFPL. The latter transfers the concept to the visual brain through the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, relaying on its path to the parietal cortex. The conceptualization at VMPFL is influenced by activity from the anterior temporal lobe through the uncinate fasciculus and limbic system pathways. The final visual image formed in the visual brain is subsequently transferred back to the DLPFL through the SLF and then handed over to the motor cortex for execution. During art appreciation, the image at the visual brain is transferred to the frontal lobe through the SLF and there it is matched with emotional and memory inputs from the anterior temporal lobe transmitted through the uncinate fasiculus. Beauty is perceived at the VMPFL and transferred through the uncinate fasciculus to the hippocampo-amygdaloid complex in the anterior temporal lobe. The limbic system (Papez circuit is activated and emotion of appreciation is evoked. It is postulated that in practice the entire circuitry is activated simultaneously.

  12. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: Circuitry and mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonabi, Fahimeh [Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 {mu}s. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  13. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: circuitry and mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi; Bonabi, Fahimeh

    2012-12-01

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 μs. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  14. Assessing Ink Transfer Performance of Gravure-Offset Fine-Line Circuitry Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsien-Chie; Chen, You-Wei; Chen, Wen-Hwa; Lu, Su-Tsai; Lin, Shih-Ming

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the printing mechanism and performance of gravure-offset fine-line circuitry printing technology are investigated in terms of key printing parameters through experimental and theoretical analyses. First, the contact angles of the ink deposited on different substrates, blankets, and gravure metal plates are experimentally determined; moreover, their temperature and solvent content dependences are analyzed. Next, the ink solvent absorption and evaporation behaviors of the blankets at different temperatures, times, and numbers of printing repetitions are characterized by conducting experiments. In addition, while printing repeatedly, the surface characteristics of the blankets, such as the contact angle, vary with the amount of absorbed ink solvent, further affecting the ink transfer performance (ratio) and printing quality. Accordingly, the surface effect of the blanket due to ink solvent absorption on the ink contact angle is analyzed. Furthermore, the amount of ink transferred from the gravure plate to the blanket in the "off process" and from the blanket to the substrate in the "set process" is evaluated by conducting a simplified plate-to-plate experiment. The influences of loading rate (printing velocity), temperature, and solvent content on the ink transfer performance are addressed. Finally, the ink transfer mechanism is theoretically analyzed for different solvent contents using Surface Evolver. The calculation results are compared with those of the experiment.

  15. Intranasal insulin modulates intrinsic reward and prefrontal circuitry of the human brain in lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Frank, Sabine; Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Veit, Ralf; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that food consumption is controlled by a wide range of brain circuits outside of the homeostatic system. Activation in these brain circuits may override the homeostatic system and also contribute to the enormous increase of obesity. However, little is known about the influence of hormonal signals on the brain's non-homeostatic system. Thus, selective insulin action in the brain was investigated by using intranasal application. We performed 'resting-state' functional magnetic resonance imaging in 17 healthy lean female subjects to assess intrinsic brain activity by fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) before, 30 and 90 min after application of intranasal insulin. Here, we showed that insulin modulates intrinsic brain activity in the hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Furthermore, we could show that the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex response to insulin is associated with body mass index. This demonstrates that hormonal signals as insulin may reduce food intake by modifying the reward and prefrontal circuitry of the human brain, thereby potentially decreasing the rewarding properties of food. Due to the alarming increase in obesity worldwide, it is of great importance to identify neural mechanisms of interaction between the homeostatic and non-homeostatic system to generate new targets for obesity therapy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Dynamic neural network models of the premotoneuronal circuitry controlling wrist movements in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M A; Shupe, L E; Fetz, E E

    2005-10-01

    Dynamic recurrent neural networks were derived to simulate neuronal populations generating bidirectional wrist movements in the monkey. The models incorporate anatomical connections of cortical and rubral neurons, muscle afferents, segmental interneurons and motoneurons; they also incorporate the response profiles of four populations of neurons observed in behaving monkeys. The networks were derived by gradient descent algorithms to generate the eight characteristic patterns of motor unit activations observed during alternating flexion-extension wrist movements. The resulting model generated the appropriate input-output transforms and developed connection strengths resembling those in physiological pathways. We found that this network could be further trained to simulate additional tasks, such as experimentally observed reflex responses to limb perturbations that stretched or shortened the active muscles, and scaling of response amplitudes in proportion to inputs. In the final comprehensive network, motor units are driven by the combined activity of cortical, rubral, spinal and afferent units during step tracking and perturbations. The model displayed many emergent properties corresponding to physiological characteristics. The resulting neural network provides a working model of premotoneuronal circuitry and elucidates the neural mechanisms controlling motoneuron activity. It also predicts several features to be experimentally tested, for example the consequences of eliminating inhibitory connections in cortex and red nucleus. It also reveals that co-contraction can be achieved by simultaneous activation of the flexor and extensor circuits without invoking features specific to co-contraction.

  17. The neural circuitry of visual artistic production and appreciation: A proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2012-04-01

    The nondominant inferior parietal lobule is probably a major "store house" of artistic creativity. The ventromedial prefrontal lobe (VMPFL) is supposed to be involved in creative cognition and the dorsolateral prefrontal lobe (DLPFL) in creative output. The conceptual ventral and dorsal visual system pathways likely represent the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi. During artistic production, conceptualization is conceived in the VMPFL and the executive part is operated through the DLFPL. The latter transfers the concept to the visual brain through the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), relaying on its path to the parietal cortex. The conceptualization at VMPFL is influenced by activity from the anterior temporal lobe through the uncinate fasciculus and limbic system pathways. The final visual image formed in the visual brain is subsequently transferred back to the DLPFL through the SLF and then handed over to the motor cortex for execution. During art appreciation, the image at the visual brain is transferred to the frontal lobe through the SLF and there it is matched with emotional and memory inputs from the anterior temporal lobe transmitted through the uncinate fasiculus. Beauty is perceived at the VMPFL and transferred through the uncinate fasciculus to the hippocampo-amygdaloid complex in the anterior temporal lobe. The limbic system (Papez circuit) is activated and emotion of appreciation is evoked. It is postulated that in practice the entire circuitry is activated simultaneously.

  18. Brainstem auditory responses to resolved and unresolved harmonics of a synthetic vowel in quiet and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Marilyn; Dajani, Hilmi R; Prévost, François; Marcoux, André M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated speech auditory brainstem responses (speech ABR) with variants of a synthetic vowel in quiet and in background noise. Its objectives were to study the noise robustness of the brainstem response at the fundamental frequency F0 and at the first formant F1, evaluate how the resolved/unresolved harmonics regions in speech contribute to the response at F0, and investigate the origin of the response at F0 to resolved and unresolved harmonics in speech. In total, 18 normal-hearing subjects (11 women, aged 18-33 years) participated in this study. Speech ABRs were recorded using variants of a 300 msec formant-synthesized /a/ vowel in quiet and in white noise. The first experiment employed three variants containing the first three formants F1 to F3, F1 only, and F2 and F3 only with relative formant levels following those reported in the literature. The second experiment employed three variants containing F1 only, F2 only, and F3 only, with the formants equalized to the same level and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) maintained at -5 dB. Overall response latency was estimated, and the amplitude and local SNR of the envelope following response at F0 and of the frequency following response at F1 were compared for the different stimulus variants in quiet and in noise. The response at F0 was more robust to noise than that at F1. There were no statistically significant differences in the response at F0 caused by the three stimulus variants in both experiments in quiet. However, the response at F0 with the variant dominated by resolved harmonics was more robust to noise than the response at F0 with the stimulus variants dominated by unresolved harmonics. The latencies of the responses in all cases were very similar in quiet, but the responses at F0 due to resolved and unresolved harmonics combined nonlinearly when both were present in the stimulus. Speech ABR has been suggested as a marker of central auditory processing. The results of this study support

  19. Prescription dose and fractionation predict improved survival after stereotactic radiotherapy for brainstem metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeman Jonathan E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brainstem metastases represent an uncommon clinical presentation that is associated with a poor prognosis. Treatment options are limited given the unacceptable risks associated with surgical resection in this location. However, without local control, symptoms including progressive cranial nerve dysfunction are frequently observed. The objective of this study was to determine the outcomes associated with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiotherapy or radiosurgery (SRT/SRS of brainstem metastases. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 38 tumors in 36 patients treated with SRT/SRS between February 2003 and December 2011. Treatment was delivered with the Cyberknife™ or Trilogy™ radiosurgical systems. The median age of patients was 62 (range: 28–89. Primary pathologies included 14 lung, 7 breast, 4 colon and 11 others. Sixteen patients (44% had received whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT prior to SRT/SRS; ten had received prior SRT/SRS at a different site (28%. The median tumor volume was 0.94 cm3 (range: 0.01-4.2 with a median prescription dose of 17 Gy (range: 12–24 delivered in 1–5 fractions. Results Median follow-up for the cohort was 3.2 months (range: 0.4-20.6. Nineteen patients (52% had an MRI follow-up available for review. Of these, one patient experienced local failure corresponding to an actuarial 6-month local control of 93%. Fifteen of the patients with available follow-up imaging (79% experienced intracranial failure outside of the treatment volume. The median time to distant intracranial failure was 2.1 months. Six of the 15 patients with distant intracranial failure (40% had received previous WBRT. The actuarial overall survival rates at 6- and 12-months were 27% and 8%, respectively. Predictors of survival included Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA score, greater number of treatment fractions, and higher prescription dose. Three patients experienced acute treatment-related toxicity consisting of

  20. Collateralization of descending spinal pathways from red nucleus and other brainstem cell groups in rat, cat and monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Huisman (Margriet)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractThe somatotopically organized rubrospinal pathway is the major component of the laterally descending brainstem pathways, and is especially involved in steering of fractionated movements of the distal parts of the limbs. Electrophysiological studies in cat showed that this fiber

  1. Anatomical parcellation of the brainstem and cerebellar white matter: a preliminary probabilistic tractography study at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habas, Christophe; Cabanis, Emmanuel A.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to test whether higher spatial resolution diffusion tensor images and a higher field strength (3 T) enable a more accurate delineation of the anatomical tract within the brainstem, and, in particular, (2) to try to distinguish the different components of the corticopontocerebellar paths in terms of their cortical origins. The main tracts of the brainstem of four volunteers were studied at 3 T using a probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) axonal tracking. The resulting tractograms enabled anatomical well-delineated structures to be identified on the diffusion tensor coloured images. We tracked corticopontine, corticospinal, central tegmental, inferior and superior cerebellopeduncular, transverse, medial lemniscal and, possibly, longitudinal medial fibres. Moreover, DTI tracking allowed a broad delineation of the corticopontocerebellar paths. Diffusion tensor coloured images allow a rapid and reliable access to the white matter broad parcellation of the brainstem and of the cerebellum, which can be completed by fibre tracking. However, a more accurate and exhaustive depiction of the anatomical connectivity within the brainstem requires the application of more sophisticated techniques and tractography algorithms, such as diffusion spectrum imaging. (orig.)

  2. Thresholds of Tone Burst Auditory Brainstem Responses for Infants and Young Children with Normal Hearing in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi Lee

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: Based on the published research and our study, we suggest setting the normal criterion levels for infants and young children in Taiwan of the tone burst auditory brainstem response to air-conducted tones as 30 dB nHL for 500 and 1000 Hz, and 25 dB nHL for 2000 and 4000 Hz.

  3. Study of the correlation of brainstem auditory evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fobe, Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    Central auditory evaluation in 21 children with cerebral palsy was done with brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and correlated with brain magnetic resonance imaging findings (MRI); 12 boys and 9 girls between 5 and 12 years old were studied. All children had follow-up at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo. The control group was done with 17 children, 10 boys and 7 girls (mean age 8.06 years, SD 2.27 years). The BAEP abnormalities were: decrease of latency of wave V; decrease of latency III-V and I-IV intervals at the right side. All patients has MRI supratentorial abnormalities and 11 had brainstem atrophy. The MRI pathologic findings were: ventricular enlargement (n=17 or 80.95%), cortical/subcortical atrophy (n=15 or 71.42%), left brainstem atrophy (n=11 or 52.38%), periventricular leukomalacia (n=10 or 47.61%), infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory (n=6 or 28.57%), and malformations such as schizencephaly and colpocephaly (n=5 or 23.80%). The findings of the decrease latencies in children with cerebral palsy suggest the contribution of decussating auditory fibers at the lower and upper pons and midbrain, the lack of homogeneity of the surrounding volume of the conductor fibres and the presence of several concurrently active potential generators sources, should be facilitating mechanisms for the nervous input to brainstem. (author)

  4. Study of the correlation of brainstem auditory evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fobe, Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina]. E-mail: lispessoa@yahoo.com

    1999-12-01

    Central auditory evaluation in 21 children with cerebral palsy was done with brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and correlated with brain magnetic resonance imaging findings (MRI); 12 boys and 9 girls between 5 and 12 years old were studied. All children had follow-up at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo. The control group was done with 17 children, 10 boys and 7 girls (mean age 8.06 years, SD 2.27 years). The BAEP abnormalities were: decrease of latency of wave V; decrease of latency III-V and I-IV intervals at the right side. All patients has MRI supratentorial abnormalities and 11 had brainstem atrophy. The MRI pathologic findings were: ventricular enlargement (n=17 or 80.95%), cortical/subcortical atrophy (n=15 or 71.42%), left brainstem atrophy (n=11 or 52.38%), periventricular leukomalacia (n=10 or 47.61%), infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory (n=6 or 28.57%), and malformations such as schizencephaly and colpocephaly (n=5 or 23.80%). The findings of the decrease latencies in children with cerebral palsy suggest the contribution of decussating auditory fibers at the lower and upper pons and midbrain, the lack of homogeneity of the surrounding volume of the conductor fibres and the presence of several concurrently active potential generators sources, should be facilitating mechanisms for the nervous input to brainstem. (author)

  5. Comparison between chloral hydrate and propofol-ketamine as sedation regimens for pediatric auditory brainstem response testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulebda, Kamal; Patel, Vinit J; Ahmed, Sheikh S; Tori, Alvaro J; Lutfi, Riad; Abu-Sultaneh, Samer

    2017-10-28

    The use of diagnostic auditory brainstem response testing under sedation is currently the "gold standard" in infants and young children who are not developmentally capable of completing the test. The aim of the study is to compare a propofol-ketamine regimen to an oral chloral hydrate regimen for sedating children undergoing auditory brainstem response testing. Patients between 4 months and 6 years who required sedation for auditory brainstem response testing were included in this retrospective study. Drugs doses, adverse effects, sedation times, and the effectiveness of the sedative regimens were reviewed. 73 patients underwent oral chloral hydrate sedation, while 117 received propofol-ketamine sedation. 12% of the patients in the chloral hydrate group failed to achieve desired sedation level. The average procedure, recovery and total nursing times were significantly lower in the propofol-ketamine group. Propofol-ketamine group experienced higher incidence of transient hypoxemia. Both sedation regimens can be successfully used for sedating children undergoing auditory brainstem response testing. While deep sedation using propofol-ketamine regimen offers more efficiency than moderate sedation using chloral hydrate, it does carry a higher incidence of transient hypoxemia, which warrants the use of a highly skilled team trained in pediatric cardio-respiratory monitoring and airway management. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Anatomical parcellation of the brainstem and cerebellar white matter: a preliminary probabilistic tractography study at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe; Cabanis, Emmanuel A. [UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Hopital des Quinze-Vingts, Paris (France)

    2007-10-15

    The aims of this study were: (1) to test whether higher spatial resolution diffusion tensor images and a higher field strength (3 T) enable a more accurate delineation of the anatomical tract within the brainstem, and, in particular, (2) to try to distinguish the different components of the corticopontocerebellar paths in terms of their cortical origins. The main tracts of the brainstem of four volunteers were studied at 3 T using a probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) axonal tracking. The resulting tractograms enabled anatomical well-delineated structures to be identified on the diffusion tensor coloured images. We tracked corticopontine, corticospinal, central tegmental, inferior and superior cerebellopeduncular, transverse, medial lemniscal and, possibly, longitudinal medial fibres. Moreover, DTI tracking allowed a broad delineation of the corticopontocerebellar paths. Diffusion tensor coloured images allow a rapid and reliable access to the white matter broad parcellation of the brainstem and of the cerebellum, which can be completed by fibre tracking. However, a more accurate and exhaustive depiction of the anatomical connectivity within the brainstem requires the application of more sophisticated techniques and tractography algorithms, such as diffusion spectrum imaging. (orig.)

  7. The analgesic agent tapentadol inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide release from isolated rat brainstem via a serotonergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Maria Cristina; Navarra, Pierluigi; Tringali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-15

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that tapentadol inhibits GGRP release from the rat brainstem through a mechanism mediated by the inhibition of NA reuptake; as a second alternative hypothesis, we investigated whether tapentadol inhibits GGRP release via the inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Rat brainstems were explanted and incubated in short-term experiments. CGRP released in the incubation medium was taken as a marker of CGRP release from the central terminals of trigeminal neurons within the brainstem. CGRP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay under basal conditions or in the presence of tapentadol; NA, 5-HT, clonidine, yohimbine and ondansetron were used as pharmacological tools to investigate the action mechanism of tapentadol. The α2-antagonist yohimbine failed to counteract the effects of tapentadol. Moreover, neither NA nor the α2-agonist clonidine per se inhibited K(+)-stimulated CGRP release, thereby indicating that the effects of tapentadol are nor mediated through the block of NA reuptake. Further experiments showed that 5-HT and tramadol, which inhibits both NA and 5-HT reuptake, significantly reduced K(+)-stimulated CGRP release. Moreover, the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron was able to counteract the effects of tapentadol in this system. This study provided pharmacological evidence that tapentadol inhibits stimulated CGRP release from the rat brainstem in vitro through a mechanism involving an increase in 5-HT levels in the system and the subsequent activation of 5-HT3 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Astrocyte-secreted factors modulate a gradient of primary dendritic arbors in nucleus laminaris of the avian auditory brainstem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Korn

    Full Text Available Neurons in nucleus laminaris (NL receive binaural, tonotopically matched input from nucleus magnocelluaris (NM onto bitufted dendrites that display a gradient of dendritic arbor size. These features improve computation of interaural time differences, which are used to determine the locations of sound sources. The dendritic gradient emerges following a period of significant reorganization at embryonic day 15 (E15, which coincides with the emergence of astrocytes that express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in the auditory brainstem. The major changes include a loss of total dendritic length, a systematic loss of primary dendrites along the tonotopic axis, and lengthening of primary dendrites on caudolateral NL neurons. Here we have tested whether astrocyte-derived molecules contribute to these changes in dendritic morphology. We used an organotypic brainstem slice preparation to perform repeated imaging of individual dye-filled NL neurons to determine the effects of astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM on dendritic morphology. We found that treatment with ACM induced a decrease in the number of primary dendrites in a tonotopically graded manner similar to that observed during normal development. Our data introduce a new interaction between astrocytes and neurons in the auditory brainstem and suggest that these astrocytes influence multiple aspects of auditory brainstem maturation.

  9. Axonal sprouting of a brainstem-spinal pathway after estrogen administration in the adult female rhesus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderhorst, VGJM; Terasawa, E; Ralston, HJ

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is located in the caudal medulla oblongata and contains premotor neurons that project to motoneuronal cell groups in the brainstem and spinal cord. NRA projections to the lumbosacral cord are species specific and might be involved in mating behavior. In the female

  10. Musicians and Tone-Language Speakers Share Enhanced Brainstem Encoding but Not Perceptual Benefits for Musical Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Gandour, Jackson T.; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral and neurophysiological transfer effects from music experience to language processing are well-established but it is currently unclear whether or not linguistic expertise (e.g., speaking a tone language) benefits music-related processing and its perception. Here, we compare brainstem responses of English-speaking musicians/non-musicians…

  11. Interactions between Brainstem Noradrenergic Neurons and the Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Modulating Memory for Emotionally Arousing Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Erin C.; Williams, Cedric L.

    2011-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens shell (NAC) receives axons containing dopamine-[beta]-hydroxylase that originate from brainstem neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Recent findings show that memory enhancement produced by stimulating NTS neurons after learning may involve interactions with the NAC. However, it is unclear whether these…

  12. Guillain-Barré Syndrome with Absent Brainstem Reflexes: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gordon Chaves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old man was admitted to an intensive care unit following respiratory arrest. One day prior to admission, he had complaints of nausea and pain involving lower limbs. On the night of admission he developed diplopia, dysphagia, and rapidly progressive quadriparesis. He developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical lung ventilation 24 hours later. On the fifth day of hospital stay the patient became comatose with absent brainstem reflexes and appeared to be brain dead. The cerebrospinal fluid showed albuminocytological dissociation. The electroencephalogram revealed an alpha rhythmical activity. The electrophysiological evaluation revealed an inexcitability of all nerves. Guillain-Barré syndrome was suspected. With supportive treatment the patient had a remarkable recovery and now is able to independently conduct his daily activities.

  13. Axonal Spheroid Accumulation In the Brainstem and Spinal Cord of A Young Angus Cow with Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, D M; Finnie, J W; Manavis, J; Kessell, A E

    2015-08-01

    An 18-month-old Angus cow presented with rapidly developing ataxia and subsequently died. The finding of large numbers of axonal spheroids in brainstem nuclei and spinal cord grey matter, bilaterally symmetrical in distribution, was consistent with a histopathological diagnosis of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD). Most of the axonal swellings were immunopositive to amyloid precursor protein, suggesting that interruption to axonal flow was important in their genesis. The topographical distribution of axonal spheroids in the brain and spinal cord in this bovine case closely resembled that found in the ovine neurodegenerative disorder termed NAD, in which axonal swellings are the major pathological feature. This appears to be the first reported case of this type of NAD in cattle. The aetiology of the spheroidal aggregations in this case was not determined. There was no evidence from the case history or neuropathology to indicate whether the axonal spheroids in this case involved an acquired or heritable aetiology. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Attention-related modulation of auditory brainstem responses during contralateral noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Akiko

    2008-10-29

    As determinants facilitating attention-related modulation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), two experimental factors were examined: (i) auditory discrimination; and (ii) contralateral masking intensity. Tone pips at 80 dB sound pressure level were presented to the left ear via either single-tone exposures or oddball exposures, whereas white noise was delivered continuously to the right ear at variable intensities (none--80 dB sound pressure level). Participants each conducted two tasks during stimulation, either reading a book (ignoring task) or detecting target tones (attentive task). Task-related modulation within the ABR range was found only during oddball exposures at contralateral masking intensities greater than or equal to 60 dB. Attention-related modulation of ABR can thus be detected reliably during auditory discrimination under contralateral masking of sufficient intensity.

  15. Concentrated pitch discrimination modulates auditory brainstem responses during contralateral noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Akiko

    2010-03-31

    This study examined a notion that auditory discrimination is a requisite for attention-related modulation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) during contralateral noise exposure. Given that the right ear was exposed continuously with white noise at an intensity of 60-80 dB sound pressure level, tone pips at 80 dB sound pressure level were delivered to the left ear through either single-stimulus or oddball procedures. Participants conducted reading (ignoring task) and counting target tones (attentive task) during stimulation. The oddball but not the single-stimulus procedures elicited task-related modulations in both early (ABR) and late (processing negativity) event-related potentials simultaneously. The elicitation of the attention-related ABR modulation during contralateral noise exposure is thus considered to require auditory discrimination and have the corticofugal nature evidently.

  16. Painful tonic spasms and brainstem involvement in a patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Filip, Corina; Ungureanu, Aurelian; Cernuşcă-Miţaru, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system classically characterized by optic neuritis and severe myelitis. New diagnostic criteria defined neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder as limited forms of NMO or diverse neurologic presentations in the presence of specific antiaquaporin-4 antibodies. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman admitted in our department for recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, tetraparesis with severe painful tonic spasms of the left limbs and brainstem involvement. Painful tonic spasms have been described as movement disorders associated with multiple sclerosis, but a growing number of reports describe them in cases of NMO. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. A case of neuro-Behcet syndrome with brainstem lesions confirmed by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Shunya; Haida, Munetaka; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Takagi, Shigeharu; Shinohara, Yukito

    1988-01-01

    A 49-year-old man presented with a 30-year history of oral and genital aphthous ulcers and joint pain. One day before his admission he developed double vision and weakness in the right extremities. Neurological examination revealed right 5th nerve palsy, left 6th to 18th nerve palsy, left Horner's sign, and motor and sensory impairment in the right upper and lower extremities. X-ray CT showed diffuse, weak, low-density areas in the brainstem. T1 weighted images showed low signals in the left side of the mid-pons, the left tegmentum and the right basis of the upper pons, and the left tegmentum of the midbrain. T2 weighted images showed high signals in the whole pons and the left side of the midbrain. MRI allowed the differentiation of reversible lesions, such as brain edema, and irreversible lesions, such as necrosis and demyelination of the tissue. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Clinical Experience of Auditory Brainstem Response Testing on Pediatric Patients in the Operating Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To review our experience of conducting auditory brainstem response (ABR test on children in the operating room and discuss the benefits versus limitations of this practice. Methods. Retrospective review study conducted in a pediatric tertiary care facility. A total of 267 patients identified with usable data, including ABR results, medical and surgical notes, and follow-up evaluation. Results. Hearing status successfully determined in all patients based on the ABR results form the operating room. The degrees and the types of hearing loss also documented in most of the cases. In addition, multiple factors that may affect the outcomes of ABR in the operating room identified. Conclusions. Hearing loss in children with complicated medical issues can be accurately evaluated via ABR testing in the operating room. Efforts should be made to eliminate adverse factors to ABR recording, and caution should be taken when interpreting ABR results from the operating room.

  19. MR measurement of normal brainstem cerebellum and corpus callosum on midsagittal section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogame, Saeko; Sawa, S.; Inoue, Yuichi; Fukuda, Teruo; Tada, Takuji; Shakudo, Miyuki; Yahata, Kunifumi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Onoyama, Yasuhito.

    1989-01-01

    The dimensions of the brainstem, cerebellum and corpus callosum were measured on magnetic resonance (MR) images with sagittal spin-echo sequence. Eighty-two normal adults (average 49.6 years old) were measured. The mesencephalic, pontine or cerebellar diamaters and lengths could be measured more accurately and reproducibly than medullary diameter and length. The anterio-posterior diameter of the pons and the cerebellum was 23.2±1.4 mm and 26.4±2.5 mm respectively. The length of the pons and the cerebellum was 27.8±2 mm and 45.8±3.5 mm respectively. We have observed focal thinning at the body of corpus callosum in 73%. This narrowing is almost unquestionably a normal variant. (author)

  20. Cavernous sinus thrombosis syndrome and brainstem involvement in patient with leptospirosis: Two rare complications of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriyar Alian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. It can affect humans and animals. In humans, it can lead to a wide spectrum of symptoms. It is known as the most common zoonosis in the world. The typical presentation of the disease is an acute biphasic febrile illness with or without jaundice. Less common clinical manifestations may result from involvement of different human body systems. In many places, this disease may be under-diagnosed, especially when associated with neurological complications. Moreover, without treatment, leptospirosis can lead to organ damages, and even death. Neurological complications are uncommon and are reported in a few cases. Cavernous sinus thrombosis syndrome and brainstem involvement are rare complications of leptospirosis and are associated with a high mortality risk. To our knowledge, no such cases have been reported in the literature.

  1. Somatotopic arrangement and location of the corticospinal tract in the brainstem of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2011-07-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) is the most important motor pathway in the human brain. Detailed knowledge of CST somatotopy is important in terms of rehabilitative management and invasive procedures for patients with brain injuries. In this study, I conducted a review of nine previous studies of the somatotopical location and arrangement at the brainstem in the human brain. The results of this review indicated that the hand and leg somatotopies of the CST are arranged medio-laterally in the mid to lateral portion of the cerebral peduncle, ventromedial-dorsolaterally in the pontine basis, and medio-laterally in the medullary pyramid. However, few diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have been conducted on this topic, and only nine have been reported: midbrain (2 studies), pons (4 studies), and medulla (1 study). Therefore, further DTI studies should be conducted in order to expand the literature on this topic. In particular, research on midbrain and medulla should be encouraged.

  2. A case of overlapping Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-sheng; TANG Ying; WANG Ye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There is no report on Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) patients in China. We here report the first case of BBE in China. Methods: Clinical features, results of electromyography, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination were studied to clarify the characteristics of this syndrome.Results: A 44-year-old man presented himself at our inpatient department with somnolence and dizziness as his initial symptoms.He developed multiple cranial nerves paralysis especially internal and external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and tetraparesis within 1 week. His condition rapidly deteriorated, and he experienced coma. Electromyography showed indications of peripheral nerve dysfunction, electroencephalography revealed loss of basic rhythm, MRI demonstrated high-intensity abnormalities on T2-weighted images of medulla oblongata, and CSF albuminocytological dissociation was defined abnormally as high protein. Ten similar clinically; BBE and FS were proposed to be the variant of GBS.

  3. First realization of a tracking detector for high energy physics experiments based on Josephson digital readout circuitry

    CERN Document Server

    Pagano, S; Esposito, A P; Mukhanov, O; Rylov, S

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and realized a prototype of a high energy particle microstrip detector with Josephson readout circuits. The key features of this device are: minimum ionizing particle sensitivity, due to the use of semiconductive sensors, fast speed and radiation hardness, due to the use of superconductive circuitry, and current discrimination, which allows the use of several types of semiconductors as detector (Si, GaAs, CVD-diamond) without loss in performances. The Josephson circuitry, made by a combination of RSFQ and latching logic gates, realizes an 8-bit current discriminator and parallel to serial converter and can be directly interfaced to room temperature electronics. This device, which is designed for application as vertex detector for the Compass and LHC-B accelerator experiments, has been tested with small radioactive sources acid will undergo to a test beam at the CERN SPS facility with 24 GeV/c protons. Current results and future perspectives will be reported. (11 refs).

  4. Survey of the Knowledge of Brainstem Death and Attitude Toward Organ Donation Among Relations of Neurosurgical Patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, T B; Oshola, H A; Adebayo, B O

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a developing field in Nigeria, and availability of organs for donation would be a determining factor of the success of the transplant programs. Patients with brainstem death (BSD) are a major source of organs for transplantation. The level of knowledge of BSD as well as attitudes toward organ donation are very important determinants of people's willingness or otherwise to donate organs. We conducted a survey of relations of our in-service neurosurgical patients to assess their knowledge of brainstem death and attitude toward organ donation. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind among the growing Nigerian neurosurgery patient and patient-relations population. Convenience sampling of randomly selected relations of neurosurgical patients on admission using interviewer-administered questionnaires was performed. Demographic information and information about brainstem death, attitude toward brainstem death, knowledge of organ donation, and attitude toward organ donation were obtained. The study comprised 127 respondents with a mean age of 36 years (range, 19-72). The majority of the respondents (87, 62.4%) were Christians, 122 (96.1%) were Yorubas, and 66 (52.0%) were women. Eighty-five (66.9%) of the respondents had at least a secondary level of education, and 77 (60.6%) were of low socioeconomic status. Twenty-eight (22.2%) of the respondents had heard of brainstem death. Twenty-six (92.9%) of those who had heard of brainstem death believed that the brain could die long before life finally ceases. One hundred twenty-five (98.4%) of the respondents believed that death only occurs when both breathing and heartbeat stop, and 107 (83.6%) would agree with the physician on a diagnosis of brainstem death in the relation. Sixty-five (51.2%) would want such patients put on a ventilator, and, of these, 43 (66.2%) would want such patients on the ventilator in hope that he or she may recover. One hundred twelve (88.2%) of the relations were

  5. Regulation of body fat mass by the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schéle, Erik; Grahnemo, Louise; Anesten, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries...

  6. Visualization of oxytocin release that mediates paired pulse facilitation in hypothalamic pathways to brainstem autonomic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón A Piñol

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that oxytocin is involved in more than lactation and uterine contraction. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN contains neuroendocrine neurons that control the release of hormones, including vasopressin and oxytocin. Other populations of PVN neurons do not release hormones, but rather project to and release neurotransmitters onto other neurons in the CNS involved in fluid retention, thermoregulation, sexual behavior and responses to stress. Activation of oxytocin receptors can be cardioprotective and reduces the adverse cardiovascular consequences of anxiety and stress, yet how oxytocin can affect heart rate and cardiac function is unknown. While anatomical work has shown the presence of peptides, including oxytocin, in the projections from the PVN to parasympathetic nuclei, electrophysiological studies to date have only demonstrated release of glutamate and activation of fast ligand gated receptors in these pathways. In this study, using rats, we directly show, using sniffer CHO cells that express oxytocin receptors and the Ca2+ indicator R-GECO, that optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 expressing PVN fibers in the brainstem activates oxytocin receptors in the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV. We also demonstrate that while a single photoactivation of PVN terminals only activates glutamatergic receptors in brainstem cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs, neurons that dominate the neural control of heart rate, both the paired pulse facilitation, and sustained enhancement of glutamate release in this pathway is mediated by activation of oxytocin receptors. Our results provide direct evidence that a pathway from the PVN likely releases oxytocin and enhances short-term plasticity of this critical autonomic connection.

  7. Physiological Characterization of Vestibular Efferent Brainstem Neurons Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Sara; Magnusson, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    The functional role of efferent innervation of the vestibular end-organs in the inner ear remains elusive. This study provides the first physiological characterization of the cholinergic vestibular efferent (VE) neurons in the brainstem by utilizing a transgenic mouse model, expressing eGFP under a choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT)-locus spanning promoter in combination with targeted patch clamp recordings. The intrinsic electrical properties of the eGFP-positive VE neurons were compared to the properties of the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) brainstem neurons, which gives rise to efferent innervation of the cochlea. Both VE and the LOC neurons were marked by their negative resting membrane potential neurons differed significantly in the depolarizing range. When injected with positive currents, VE neurons fired action potentials faithfully to the onset of depolarization followed by sparse firing with long inter-spike intervals. This response gave rise to a low response gain. The LOC neurons, conversely, responded with a characteristic delayed tonic firing upon depolarizing stimuli, giving rise to higher response gain than the VE neurons. Depolarization triggered large TEA insensitive outward currents with fast inactivation kinetics, indicating A-type potassium currents, in both the inner ear-projecting neuronal types. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of Kv4.3 and 4.2 ion channel subunits in both the VE and LOC neurons. The difference in spiking responses to depolarization is related to a two-fold impact of these transient outward currents on somatic integration in the LOC neurons compared to in VE neurons. It is speculated that the physiological properties of the VE neurons might be compatible with a wide-spread control over motion and gravity sensation in the inner ear, providing likewise feed-back amplification of abrupt and strong phasic signals from the semi-circular canals and of tonic signals from the gravito-sensitive macular organs. PMID:24867596

  8. Visualization of Oxytocin Release that Mediates Paired Pulse Facilitation in Hypothalamic Pathways to Brainstem Autonomic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, Ramón A.; Jameson, Heather; Popratiloff, Anastas; Lee, Norman H.; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that oxytocin is involved in more than lactation and uterine contraction. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) contains neuroendocrine neurons that control the release of hormones, including vasopressin and oxytocin. Other populations of PVN neurons do not release hormones, but rather project to and release neurotransmitters onto other neurons in the CNS involved in fluid retention, thermoregulation, sexual behavior and responses to stress. Activation of oxytocin receptors can be cardioprotective and reduces the adverse cardiovascular consequences of anxiety and stress, yet how oxytocin can affect heart rate and cardiac function is unknown. While anatomical work has shown the presence of peptides, including oxytocin, in the projections from the PVN to parasympathetic nuclei, electrophysiological studies to date have only demonstrated release of glutamate and activation of fast ligand gated receptors in these pathways. In this study, using rats, we directly show, using sniffer CHO cells that express oxytocin receptors and the Ca2+ indicator R-GECO, that optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expressing PVN fibers in the brainstem activates oxytocin receptors in the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). We also demonstrate that while a single photoactivation of PVN terminals only activates glutamatergic receptors in brainstem cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs), neurons that dominate the neural control of heart rate, both the paired pulse facilitation, and sustained enhancement of glutamate release in this pathway is mediated by activation of oxytocin receptors. Our results provide direct evidence that a pathway from the PVN likely releases oxytocin and enhances short-term plasticity of this critical autonomic connection. PMID:25379676

  9. SU-F-T-392: Superior Brainstem and Cochlea Sparing with VMAT for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briere, TM; McAleer, MF; Levy, LB; Yang, JN; Anderson, MD [Cancer Ctr., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) can provide similar target coverage and normal tissue sparing as IMRT but with shorter treatment times. At our institution VMAT was adopted for the treatment glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) after a small number of test plans demonstrated its non-inferiority. In this study, we compare actual clinical treatment plans for a larger cohort of patients treated with either VMAT or IMRT. Methods: 90 GBM patients were included in this study, 45 treated with IMRT and 45 with VMAT. All planning target volumes (PTVs) were prescribed a dose of 50 Gy, with a simultaneous integrated boost to 60 Gy. Most IMRT plans used 5 non-coplanar beams, while most VMAT plans used 2 coplanar beams. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher’s exact test or the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum test. Included in the analysis were patient and treatment characteristics as well as the doses to the target volumes and organs at risk. Results: Treatment times for the VMAT plans were reduced by 5 minutes compared with IMRT. The PTV coverage was similar, with at least 95% covered for all plans, while the median boost PTV dose differed by 0.1 Gy between the IMRT and VMAT cohorts. The doses to the brain, optic chiasm, optic nerves and eyes were not significantly different. The mean dose to the brainstem, however, was 9.4 Gy less with VMAT (p<0.001). The dose to the ipsilateral and contralateral cochleae were respectively 19.7 and 9.5 Gy less (p<0.001). Conclusion: Comparison of clinical treatment plans for separate IMRT and VMAT cohorts demonstrates that VMAT can save substantial treatment time while providing similar target coverage and superior sparing of the brainstem and cochleae. To our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate this benefit of VMAT in the management of GBM.

  10. The role of the auditory brainstem in processing musically-relevant pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M. Bidelman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging work has shed light on the cerebral architecture involved in processing the melodic and harmonic aspects of music. Here, recent evidence is reviewed illustrating that subcortical auditory structures contribute to the early formation and processing of musically-relevant pitch. Electrophysiological recordings from the human brainstem and population responses from the auditory nerve reveal that nascent features of tonal music (e.g., consonance/dissonance, pitch salience, harmonic sonority are evident at early, subcortical levels of the auditory pathway. The salience and harmonicity of brainstem activity is strongly correlated with listeners’ perceptual preferences and perceived consonance for the tonal relationships of music. Moreover, the hierarchical ordering of pitch intervals/chords described by the Western music practice and their perceptual consonance is well-predicted by the salience with which pitch combinations are encoded in subcortical auditory structures. While the neural correlates of consonance can be tuned and exaggerated with musical training, they persist even in the absence of musicianship or long-term enculturation. As such, it is posited that the structural foundations of musical pitch might result from innate processing performed by the central auditory system. A neurobiological predisposition for consonant, pleasant sounding pitch relationships may be one reason why these pitch combinations have been favored by composers and listeners for centuries. It is suggested that important perceptual dimensions of music emerge well before the auditory signal reaches cerebral cortex and prior to attentional engagement. While cortical mechanisms are no doubt critical to the perception, production, and enjoyment of music, the contribution of subcortical structures implicates a more integrated, hierarchically organized network underlying music processing within the brain.

  11. Influence of sucrose ingestion on brainstem and hypothalamic intrinsic oscillations in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Coveleskie, Kristen; Connolly, Lynn; Labus, Jennifer S; Ebrat, Bahar; Stains, Jean; Jiang, Zhiguo; Suyenobu, Brandall Y; Raybould, Helen E; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2014-05-01

    The study of intrinsic fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging can provide insight into the effect of physiologic states on brain processes. In an effort to better understand the brain-gut communication induced by the absorption and metabolism of nutrients in healthy lean and obese individuals, we investigated whether ingestion of nutritive and non-nutritive sweetened beverages differentially engages the hypothalamus and brainstem vagal pathways in lean and obese women. In a 2-day, double-blind crossover study, 11 lean and 11 obese healthy women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans after ingestion of 2 beverages of different sucrose content, but identical sweetness. During scans, subjects rested with eyes closed. Blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations demonstrated significantly greater power in the highest frequency band (slow-3: 0.073-0.198 Hz) after ingestion of high-sucrose compared with low-sucrose beverages in the nucleus tractus solitarius for both groups. Obese women had greater connectivity between the right lateral hypothalamus and a reward-related brain region and weaker connectivity with homeostasis and gustatory-related brain regions than lean women. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we observed sucrose-related changes in oscillatory dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in brainstem and hypothalamus in lean and obese women. The observed frequency changes are consistent with a rapid vagally mediated mechanism due to nutrient absorption, rather than sweet taste receptor activation. These findings provide support for altered interaction between homeostatic and reward networks in obese individuals. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MRI and associated clinical characteristics of EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis in children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Hongwu; Gan, Yungen [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shenzhen (China); Wen, Feiqiu [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Shenzhen (China); Huang, Wenxian [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory, Shenzhen (China)

    2012-06-15

    This study was conducted to investigate MRI and associated clinical characteristics of brainstem encephalitis induced by enterovirus 71 (EV71) in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). We analyzed clinical and imaging data from 42 HFMD cases with EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis. All patients underwent plain and enhanced MRI cranial scans and were placed into one of two groups according to MRI enhancement results, an enhanced group or a nonenhanced group. Thirty-two cases were positive on MRI exam. The primary location of the lesion for brainstem encephalitis was the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata (32 cases), followed by the cerebellar dentate nucleus (8 cases), midbrain (5 cases), and thalamus (2 cases). Plain T1-weighted images showed isointense or hypointense signals, and T2-weighted images showed isointense and hyperintense signals. Enhanced MRI scans showed that 12 cases had slight to moderate enhancement; 4 of these were normal on plain scan. The time from MRI examination to disease onset was statistically different between the enhanced (n = 12) and nonenhanced (n = 21) groups with a mean of 7.67 days (SD = 1.07) vs 11.95 days (SD = 5.33), respectively. The most common neurological symptoms for brainstem encephalitis were myoclonus and tremor. The greater the area of affected brain, the more severe the clinical symptoms were. The locations of EV71-induced HFMD-associated brainstem encephalitis lesions are relatively specific. Enhanced MRI scans could also identify the lesions missed by early plain scans. MRI scans can provide important information for clinical evaluation and treatment. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brainstem Volumes, Plaques, and Surface Area in the Occipital Regions of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, F.; Kantarci, M.; Altunkaynak, E.; Varoglu, A. O.; Karaman, A.; Oral, E.; Okur, A. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Depts. of Radiology, Histology, Neurology and Embryology, Psychiatry

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To determine brainstem volumes, number of plaques, and surface areas in the occipital lobes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and to investigate whether there is any correlation between brainstem volume and the number/surface areas of plaque in the occipital lobes. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained on 14 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 13 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients and 26 female control subjects. The Cavalieri method was used by modern design stereology to measure brainstem volume. The point-counting grid was used to evaluate sclerotic plaque surface areas in the occipital lobe. The number of plaques in the imaging section was calculated. Results: Brainstem volumes for RR and SP with multiple sclerosis and control subjects were 3647 mm{sup 3} , 3515 mm{sup 3} , and 4517 mm{sup 3} , respectively. Mean number of plaques in the right-left occipital lobe was found to be 2.7-3.4 in RR-MS and 5.2-2.8 in SP-MS. Mean plaque surface area in the right-left occipital lobe was determined to be 58.52-88.24 mm{sup 2} in RR MS and 124.3-64.82 mm{sup 2} in SP MS. Brainstem volumes were significantly reduced in both groups of patients with MS compared to controls ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Magnetic-resonance-estimated volume and surface area values in multiple sclerosis may facilitate our understanding of the clinical situation of patients and provide a simple index for evaluating therapeutic efficiency.

  14. MRI and associated clinical characteristics of EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis in children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Hongwu; Gan, Yungen; Wen, Feiqiu; Huang, Wenxian

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate MRI and associated clinical characteristics of brainstem encephalitis induced by enterovirus 71 (EV71) in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). We analyzed clinical and imaging data from 42 HFMD cases with EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis. All patients underwent plain and enhanced MRI cranial scans and were placed into one of two groups according to MRI enhancement results, an enhanced group or a nonenhanced group. Thirty-two cases were positive on MRI exam. The primary location of the lesion for brainstem encephalitis was the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata (32 cases), followed by the cerebellar dentate nucleus (8 cases), midbrain (5 cases), and thalamus (2 cases). Plain T1-weighted images showed isointense or hypointense signals, and T2-weighted images showed isointense and hyperintense signals. Enhanced MRI scans showed that 12 cases had slight to moderate enhancement; 4 of these were normal on plain scan. The time from MRI examination to disease onset was statistically different between the enhanced (n = 12) and nonenhanced (n = 21) groups with a mean of 7.67 days (SD = 1.07) vs 11.95 days (SD = 5.33), respectively. The most common neurological symptoms for brainstem encephalitis were myoclonus and tremor. The greater the area of affected brain, the more severe the clinical symptoms were. The locations of EV71-induced HFMD-associated brainstem encephalitis lesions are relatively specific. Enhanced MRI scans could also identify the lesions missed by early plain scans. MRI scans can provide important information for clinical evaluation and treatment. (orig.)

  15. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brainstem Volumes, Plaques, and Surface Area in the Occipital Regions of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, F.; Kantarci, M.; Altunkaynak, E.; Varoglu, A. O.; Karaman, A.; Oral, E.; Okur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine brainstem volumes, number of plaques, and surface areas in the occipital lobes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and to investigate whether there is any correlation between brainstem volume and the number/surface areas of plaque in the occipital lobes. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained on 14 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 13 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients and 26 female control subjects. The Cavalieri method was used by modern design stereology to measure brainstem volume. The point-counting grid was used to evaluate sclerotic plaque surface areas in the occipital lobe. The number of plaques in the imaging section was calculated. Results: Brainstem volumes for RR and SP with multiple sclerosis and control subjects were 3647 mm 3 , 3515 mm 3 , and 4517 mm 3 , respectively. Mean number of plaques in the right-left occipital lobe was found to be 2.7-3.4 in RR-MS and 5.2-2.8 in SP-MS. Mean plaque surface area in the right-left occipital lobe was determined to be 58.52-88.24 mm 2 in RR MS and 124.3-64.82 mm 2 in SP MS. Brainstem volumes were significantly reduced in both groups of patients with MS compared to controls ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Magnetic-resonance-estimated volume and surface area values in multiple sclerosis may facilitate our understanding of the clinical situation of patients and provide a simple index for evaluating therapeutic efficiency

  16. Dopaminergic circuitry and risk/reward decision making: implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopper, Colin M; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal reinforcement learning and representations of reward value are present in schizophrenia, and these impairments can manifest as deficits in risk/reward decision making. These abnormalities may be due in part to dopaminergic dysfunction within cortico-limbic-striatal circuitry. Evidence from studies with laboratory animal have revealed that normal DA activity within different nodes of these circuits is critical for mediating dissociable processes that can refine decision biases. Moreover, both phasic and tonic dopamine transmission appear to play separate yet complementary roles in these processes. Tonic dopamine release within the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, serves as a "running rate-meter" of reward and reflects contextual information such as reward uncertainty and overt choice behavior. On the other hand, manipulations of outcome-related phasic dopamine bursts and dips suggest these signals provide rapid feedback to allow for quick adjustments in choice as reward contingencies change. The lateral habenula is a key input to the DA system that phasic signals is necessary for expressing subjective decision biases; as suppression of activity within this nucleus leads to catastrophic impairments in decision making and random patterns of choice behavior. As schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in using positive and negative feedback to appropriately guide decision making, these findings suggest that these deficits in these processes may be mediated, at least in part, by abnormalities in both tonic and phasic dopamine transmission. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Neural circuitry of abdominal pain-related fear learning and reinstatement in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icenhour, A; Langhorst, J; Benson, S; Schlamann, M; Hampel, S; Engler, H; Forsting, M; Elsenbruch, S

    2015-01-01

    Altered pain anticipation likely contributes to disturbed central pain processing in chronic pain conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the learning processes shaping the expectation of pain remain poorly understood. We assessed the neural circuitry mediating the formation, extinction, and reactivation of abdominal pain-related memories in IBS patients compared to healthy controls (HC) in a differential fear conditioning paradigm. During fear acquisition, predictive visual cues (CS(+)) were paired with rectal distensions (US), while control cues (CS(-)) were presented unpaired. During extinction, only CSs were presented. Subsequently, memory reactivation was assessed with a reinstatement procedure involving unexpected USs. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, group differences in neural activation to CS(+) vs CS(-) were analyzed, along with skin conductance responses (SCR), CS valence, CS-US contingency, state anxiety, salivary cortisol, and alpha-amylase activity. The contribution of anxiety symptoms was addressed in covariance analyses. Fear acquisition was altered in IBS, as indicated by more accurate contingency awareness, greater CS-related valence change, and enhanced CS(+)-induced differential activation of prefrontal cortex and amygdala. IBS patients further revealed enhanced differential cingulate activation during extinction and greater differential hippocampal activation during reinstatement. Anxiety affected neural responses during memory formation and reinstatement. Abdominal pain-related fear learning and memory processes are altered in IBS, mediated by amygdala, cingulate cortex, prefrontal areas, and hippocampus. Enhanced reinstatement may contribute to hypervigilance and central pain amplification, especially in anxious patients. Preventing a 'relapse' of learned fear utilizing extinction-based interventions may be a promising treatment goal in IBS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of direct social experience on trust decisions and neural reward circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic S. Fareri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner’s moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants’ trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction-error (PE learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning

  19. Hyperleptinemia in Neonatally Overfed Female Rats Does Not Dysregulate Feeding Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvana Ziko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal overfeeding during the first weeks of life in male rats is associated with a disruption in the peripheral and central leptin systems. Neonatally overfed male rats have increased circulating leptin in the first 2 weeks of life, which corresponds to an increase in body weight compared to normally fed counterparts. These effects are associated with a short-term disruption in the connectivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP, and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons within the regions of the hypothalamus responsible for control of energy balance and food intake. Female rats that are overfed during the first weeks of their life experience similar changes in circulating leptin levels as well as in their body weight. However, it has not yet been studied whether these metabolic changes are associated with the same central effects as observed in males. Here, we hypothesized that hyperleptinemia associated with neonatal overfeeding would lead to changes in central feeding circuitry in females as it does in males. We assessed hypothalamic NPY, AgRP, and POMC gene expression and immunoreactivity at 7, 12, or 14 days of age, as well as neuronal activation in response to exogenous leptin in neonatally overfed and control female rats. Neonatally overfed female rats were hyperleptinemic and were heavier than controls. However, these metabolic changes were not mirrored centrally by changes in hypothalamic NPY, AGRP, and POMC fiber density. These findings are suggestive of sex differences in the effects of neonatal overfeeding and of differences in the ability of the female and male central systems to respond to changes in the early life nutritional environment.

  20. Effects of Direct Social Experience on Trust Decisions and Neural Reward Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Chang, Luke J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2012-01-01

    The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner’s moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball-tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad, or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants’ trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction error learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms. PMID:23087604

  1. Hybrid nanowire ion-to-electron transducers for integrated bioelectronic circuitry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrad, Damon J.; Mostert, Bernard; Meredith, Paul; Micolich, Adam P.

    2016-09-01

    A key task in bioelectronics is the transduction between ionic/protonic signals and electronic signals at high fidelity. This is a considerable challenge since the two carrier types exhibit intrinsically different physics. We present our work on a new class of organic-inorganic transducing interface utilising semiconducting InAs and GaAs nanowires directly gated with a proton transporting hygroscopic polymer consisting of undoped polyethylene oxide (PEO) patterned to nanoscale dimensions by a newly developed electron-beam lithography process [1]. Remarkably, we find our undoped PEO polymer electrolyte gate dielectric [2] gives equivalent electrical performance to the more traditionally used LiClO4-doped PEO [3], with an ionic conductivity three orders of magnitude higher than previously reported for undoped PEO [4]. The observed behaviour is consistent with proton conduction in PEO. We attribute our undoped PEO-based devices' performance to the small external surface and high surface-to-volume ratio of both the nanowire conducting channel and patterned PEO dielectric in our devices, as well as the enhanced hydration afforded by device processing and atmospheric conditions. In addition to studying the basic transducing mechanisms, we also demonstrate high-fidelity ionic to electronic conversion of a.c. signals at frequencies up to 50 Hz. Moreover, by combining complementary n- and p-type transducers we demonstrate functional hybrid ionic-electronic circuits can achieve logic (NOT operation), and with some further engineering of the nanowire contacts, potentially also amplification. Our device structures have significant potential to be scaled towards realising integrated bioelectronic circuitry. [1] D.J. Carrad et al., Nano Letters 14, 94 (2014). [2] D.J. Carrad et al., Manuscript in preparation (2016). [3] S.H. Kim et al., Advanced Materials 25, 1822 (2013). [4] S.K. Fullerton-Shirey et al., Macromolecules 42, 2142 (2009).

  2. The banana code – Natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSchubert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly’s olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I. In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the active odor components, use these compounds as stimuli and measure odor-induced Ca2+ signals in input and output neurons of the Drosophila antennal lobe (AL, the first olfactory neuropil. We demonstrate that mixture interactions of a natural blend are very rare and occur only at the AL output level resulting in a surprisingly linear blend representation. However, the information regarding single components is strongly modulated by the olfactory circuitry within the AL leading to a higher similarity between the representation of individual components and the banana blend. This observed modulation might tune the olfactory system in a way to distinctively categorize odor components and improve the detection of suitable food sources. Functional GC-I thus enables analysis of virtually any unknown natural odorant blend and its components in their relative occurring concentrations and allows characterization of neuronal responses of complete neural assemblies. This technique can be seen as a valuable complementary method to classical GC/electrophysiology techniques, and will be a highly useful tool in future investigations of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical interactions.

  3. Flexible thin film circuitry enabling ubiquitous electronics via post-fabrication customization (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Brian

    2015-09-01

    For decades, the electronics industry has been accurately described by Moore's Law, where the march towards increasing density and smaller feature sizes has enabled continuous cost reductions and performance improvements. With flexible electronics, this perpetual scaling is not foreseen to occur. Instead, the industry will be dominated by Wright's Law, first proposed in 1936, where increasing demand for high volumes of product will drive costs down. We have demonstrated thin film based circuitry compatible with flexible substrates with high levels of functionality designed for such a high volume industry. This includes a generic 8-bit microprocessor totaling more than 3.5k TFTs operating at 2.1 kHz. We have also developed a post fabrication programming technique via inkjet printing of conductive spots to form a one-time programmable instruction generator, allowing customization of the processor for a specific task. The combination demonstrates the possibility to achieve the high volume production of identical products necessary to reap the benefits promised by Wright's Law, while still retaining the individualization necessary for application differentiation. This is of particular importance in the area of item level identification via RFID, where low cost and individualized identification are necessary. Remotely powered RFID tags have been fabricated using an oxide semiconductor based TFT process. This process is compatible with the post-fabrication printing process to detail individual identification codes, with the goal of producing low cost, high volume flexible tags. The goal is to produce tags compatible with existing NFC communication protocols in order to communicate with readers that are already ubiquitous in the market.

  4. Feasibility of creating a high-resolution 3D diffusion tensor imaging based atlas of the human brainstem: a case study at 11.7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Manisha; Zhang, Jiangyang; Pletnikova, Olga; Crain, Barbara; Troncoso, Juan; Mori, Susumu

    2013-07-01

    A three-dimensional stereotaxic atlas of the human brainstem based on high resolution ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is introduced. The atlas consists of high resolution (125-255 μm isotropic) three-dimensional DT images of the formalin-fixed brainstem acquired at 11.7 T. The DTI data revealed microscopic neuroanatomical details, allowing three-dimensional visualization and reconstruction of fiber pathways including the decussation of the pyramidal tract fibers, and interdigitating fascicles of the corticospinal and transverse pontine fibers. Additionally, strong gray-white matter contrasts in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps enabled precise delineation of gray matter nuclei in the brainstem, including the cranial nerve and the inferior olivary nuclei. Comparison with myelin-stained histology shows that at the level of resolution achieved in this study, the structural details resolved with DTI contrasts in the brainstem were comparable to anatomical delineation obtained with histological sectioning. Major neural structures delineated from DTI contrasts in the brainstem are segmented and three-dimensionally reconstructed. Further, the ex vivo DTI data are nonlinearly mapped to a widely-used in vivo human brain atlas, to construct a high-resolution atlas of the brainstem in the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotaxic coordinate space. The results demonstrate the feasibility of developing a 3D DTI based atlas for detailed characterization of brainstem neuroanatomy with high resolution and contrasts, which will be a useful resource for research and clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Limbic-thalamo-cortical projections and reward-related circuitry integrity affects eating behavior: A longitudinal DTI study in adolescents with restrictive eating disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Olivo

    Full Text Available Few studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate the micro-structural alterations of WM in patients with restrictive eating disorders (rED, and longitudinal data are lacking. Twelve patients with rED were scanned at diagnosis and after one year of family-based treatment, and compared to twenty-four healthy controls (HCs through DTI analysis. A tract-based spatial statistics procedure was used to investigate diffusivity parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA and mean, radial and axial diffusivities (MD, RD and AD, respectively. Reduced FA and increased RD were found in patients at baseline in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiation compared with controls. However, no differences were found between follow-up patients and controls, suggesting a partial normalization of the diffusivity parameters. In patients, trends for a negative correlation were found between the baseline FA of the right anterior corona radiata and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire total score, while a positive trend was found between the baseline FA in the splenium of corpus callosum and the weight loss occurred between maximal documented weight and time of admission. A positive trend for correlation was also found between baseline FA in the right anterior corona radiata and the decrease in the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory Revised total score over time. Our results suggest that the integrity of the limbic-thalamo-cortical projections and the reward-related circuitry are important for cognitive control processes and reward responsiveness in regulating eating behavior.

  6. The role of leptin in the regulation of energy balance and adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, G

    2001-01-01

    Since its discovery, leptin (a 167-amino acid product of the OB gene) has quickly moved to the forefront as an important hormone for regulation of energy balance. It closes a feedback loop from adipose tissue to hypothalamic neuropeptide-containing neural circuitry involved in regulation of food

  7. Auditory brainstem response as a diagnostic tool for patients suffering from schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and bipolar disorder: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Viktor; Åhlander, Fredrik; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-02-12

    Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and bipolar disorder, may sometimes be difficult to diagnose. There is a great need for a valid and reliable diagnostic tool to aid clinicians in arriving at the diagnoses in a timely and accurate manner. Prior studies have suggested that patients suffering from schizophrenia and ADHD may process certain sound stimuli in the brainstem in an unusual manner. When these patient groups have been examined with the electrophysiological method of brainstem audiometry, some studies have found illness-specific aberrations. Such aberrations may also exist for patients suffering from bipolar disorder. In this study, we will examine whether the method of brainstem audiometry can be used as a diagnostic tool for patients suffering from schizophrenia, ADHD, and bipolar disorder. The method includes three steps: (1) auditory stimulation with specific sound stimuli, (2) simultaneous measurement of brainstem activity, and (3) automated interpretation of the resulting brain stem audiograms with data-based signal analysis. We will compare three groups of 12 individuals with confirmed diagnoses of schizophrenia, ADHD, or bipolar disorder with 12 healthy subjects under blinded conditions for a total of 48 participants. The extent to which the method can be used to reach the correct diagnosis will be investigated. The project is now in a recruiting phase. When all patients and controls have been recruited and the measurements have been performed, the data will be analyzed according to a previously arranged algorithm. We expect the recruiting phase and measurements to be completed in early 2015, the analyses to be performed in mid-2015, and the results of the study to be published in early 2016. If the results support previous findings, this will lend strength to the idea that brainstem audiometry can offer objective diagnostic support for patients suffering from schizophrenia, ADHD, and

  8. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shelton, Jacob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ericson, Milton Nance [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blalock, Benjamin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios when human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments because of the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is a report of the activities involving Task 3 of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays [1]. Evaluation of the performance of the system for both pre- and post-irradiation as well as operation at elevated temperature will be performed. Detailed performance of the system will be documented to ensure the design meets requirements prior to any extended evaluation. A suite of tests will be developed which will allow evaluation before and after irradiation and during temperature. Selection of the radiation exposure facilities will be determined in the early phase of the project. Radiation exposure will consist of total integrated dose (TID) up to 200 kRad or above with several intermediate doses during test. Dose rates will be in various ranges determined by the facility that will be used with a target of 30 kRad/hr. Many samples of the pre-commercial devices to be used will have been tested in previous projects to doses of at least 300 kRad and temperatures up to 125C. The complete systems will therefore be tested for performance at intermediate doses. Extended temperature testing will be performed up to the limit of the commercial sensors. The test suite performed at each test point will consist of operational testing of the three basic

  9. The utility of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in the surgical management of brainstem cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Bruno C; Whittemore, Anthony R; Samson, Duke S; Barnett, Samuel L

    2015-03-01

    Resection of brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs) may reduce the risk of stepwise neurological deterioration secondary to hemorrhage, but the morbidity of surgery remains high. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) are neuroimaging techniques that may assist in the complex surgical planning necessary for these lesions. The authors evaluate the utility of preoperative DTI and DTT in the surgical management of BSCMs and their correlation with functional outcome. A retrospective review was conducted to identify patients who underwent resection of a BSCM between 2007 and 2012. All patients had preoperative DTI/DTT studies and a minimum of 6 months of clinical and radiographic follow-up. Five major fiber tracts were evaluated preoperatively using the DTI/DTT protocol: 1) corticospinal tract, 2) medial lemniscus and medial longitudinal fasciculus, 3) inferior cerebellar peduncle, 4) middle cerebellar peduncle, and 5) superior cerebellar peduncle. Scores were applied according to the degree of distortion seen, and the sum of scores was used for analysis. Functional outcomes were measured at hospital admission, discharge, and last clinic visit using modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Eleven patients who underwent resection of a BSCM and preoperative DTI were identified. The mean age at presentation was 49 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.75:1. Cranial nerve deficit was the most common presenting symptom (81.8%), followed by cerebellar signs or gait/balance difficulties (54.5%) and hemibody anesthesia (27.2%). The majority of the lesions were located within the pons (54.5%). The mean diameter and estimated volume of lesions were 1.21 cm and 1.93 cm(3), respectively. Using DTI and DTT, 9 patients (82%) were found to have involvement of 2 or more major fiber tracts; the corticospinal tract and medial lemniscus/medial longitudinal fasciculus were the most commonly affected. In 2 patients with BSCMs without pial presentation, DTI

  10. Beneficial auditory and cognitive effects of auditory brainstem implantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Liliana

    2007-09-01

    This preliminary study demonstrates the development of hearing ability and shows that there is a significant improvement in some cognitive parameters related to selective visual/spatial attention and to fluid or multisensory reasoning, in children fitted with auditory brainstem implantation (ABI). The improvement in cognitive paramenters is due to several factors, among which there is certainly, as demonstrated in the literature on a cochlear implants (CIs), the activation of the auditory sensory canal, which was previously absent. The findings of the present study indicate that children with cochlear or cochlear nerve abnormalities with associated cognitive deficits should not be excluded from ABI implantation. The indications for ABI have been extended over the last 10 years to adults with non-tumoral (NT) cochlear or cochlear nerve abnormalities that cannot benefit from CI. We demonstrated that the ABI with surface electrodes may provide sufficient stimulation of the central auditory system in adults for open set speech recognition. These favourable results motivated us to extend ABI indications to children with profound hearing loss who were not candidates for a CI. This study investigated the performances of young deaf children undergoing ABI, in terms of their auditory perceptual development and their non-verbal cognitive abilities. In our department from 2000 to 2006, 24 children aged 14 months to 16 years received an ABI for different tumour and non-tumour diseases. Two children had NF2 tumours. Eighteen children had bilateral cochlear nerve aplasia. In this group, nine children had associated cochlear malformations, two had unilateral facial nerve agenesia and two had combined microtia, aural atresia and middle ear malformations. Four of these children had previously been fitted elsewhere with a CI with no auditory results. One child had bilateral incomplete cochlear partition (type II); one child, who had previously been fitted unsuccessfully elsewhere

  11. Enhanced auditory brainstem response and parental bonding style in children with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuka Seino

    Full Text Available The electrophysiological properties of the brain and influence of parental bonding in childhood irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are unclear. We hypothesized that children with chronic gastrointestinal (GI symptoms like IBS may show exaggerated brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP responses and receive more inadequate parental bonding.Children aged seven and their mothers (141 pairs participated. BAEP was measured by summation of 1,000 waves of the electroencephalogram triggered by 75 dB click sounds. The mothers completed their Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI. CSI results revealed 66 (42% children without GI symptoms (controls and 75 (58% children with one or more GI symptoms (GI group. The III wave in the GI group (median 4.10 interquartile range [3.95-4.24] ms right, 4.04 [3.90-4.18] ms left had a significantly shorter peak latency than controls (4.18 [4.06-4.34] ms right, p = 0.032, 4.13 [4.02-4.24] ms left, p = 0.018. The female GI group showed a significantly shorter peak latency of the III wave (4.00 [3.90-4.18] ms than controls (4.18 [3.97-4.31] ms, p = 0.034 in the right side. BAEP in the male GI group did not significantly differ from that in controls. GI scores showed a significant correlation with the peak latency of the III wave in the left side (rho = -0.192, p = 0.025. The maternal care PBI scores in the GI group (29 [26]-[33] were significantly lower than controls (31 [28.5-33], p = 0.010, while the maternal over-protection PBI scores were significantly higher in the GI group (16 [12]-[17] than controls (13 [10.5-16], p = 0.024. Multiple regression analysis in females also supported these findings.It is suggested that children with chronic GI symptoms have exaggerated brainstem responses to environmental stimuli and inadequate parental behaviors aggravate these symptoms.

  12. A comparative study of blood flow in the cerebellum and brainstem between Machado-Joseph disease and olivopontocerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Masahiko; Ito Yasuhiko; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, the neurogenic and pathological differences between Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) and sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) have been clarified. We performed N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT on 9 patients with MJD and 12 patients with OPCA. The blood flow of the cerebellum in the MJD group was significantly decreased than that of the control group (p<0.0001). That of OPCA group was significantly decreased than those of the control and MJD groups (p<0.0001, respectively). The blood flow of the brainstem in the MJD group was significantly decreased than that of the control group (p<0.001). That of OPCA group was significantly decreased than those of the control and MJD groups (p<0.0001, respectively). The blood flow of cerebellum and brainstem in the OPCA group were much decreased than those of MJD group. IMP distribution pattern in MJD patients obviously differed from that of OPCA patients. (author)

  13. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, Rita, E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Say, Meichien [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, Karen A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased {alpha}7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased {beta}2 in the cNTS and increased {beta}2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1-cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased {alpha}7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased {beta}2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2-there was a gender interaction for {alpha}7 in the gracile and cuneate, and {beta}2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3-there was no effect of sleep position on {alpha}7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased {beta}2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure ({beta}2), gender ({alpha}7 and {beta}2) and sleep position ({beta}2) evident. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'normal' response to smoke exposure is decreased {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in certain nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIDS infants have decreased {alpha}7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. Black

  14. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits α7 and β2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaalani, Rita; Say, Meichien; Waters, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared α7 and β2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased α7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased β2 in the cNTS and increased β2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1—cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased α7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased β2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2—there was a gender interaction for α7 in the gracile and cuneate, and β2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3—there was no effect of sleep position on α7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased β2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of α7 and β2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure (β2), gender (α7 and β2) and sleep position (β2) evident. -- Highlights: ► The ‘normal’ response to smoke exposure is decreased α7 and β2 in certain nuclei. ► SIDS infants have decreased α7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. ► SIDS infants have decreased β2 in cNTS and increased β2 in facial. ► The NTS is more sensitive to both α7 and β2 regulation in SIDS. ► Smoke exposure

  15. Brainstem edema caused by traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    YU, JINLU; GUO, YUNBAO; ZHAO, SHUJIE; XU, KAN

    2015-01-01

    Brainstem edema caused by traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (TCCF) is rare, and there is little information available regarding its clinical characteristics. The present report describes the case of a 51-year-old man with TCCF, who presented with right exophthalmos and intracranial bruit for 1 week. One month prior to admission at hospital, he fractured the frontal and ethmoid sinuses. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the diagnosis of TCCF, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sugg...

  16. Brainstem projections of neurons located in various subdivisions of the dorsolateral hypothalamic area – an anterograde tract-tracing study

    OpenAIRE

    Rege Sugárka Papp; Rege Sugárka Papp; Miklos ePalkovits; Miklos ePalkovits

    2014-01-01

    The projections from the dorsolateral hypothalamic area (DLH) to the lower brainstem have been investigated by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), an anterograde tracer in rats. The DLH can be divided into 3 areas (dorsomedial hypothalamus, perifornical area, lateral hypothalamic area), and further subdivided into 8 subdivisions. After unilateral stereotaxic injections of BDA into individual DLH subdivisions, the correct sites of injections were controlled histologically, and the distribu...

  17. Brainstem projections of neurons located in various subdivisions of the dorsolateral hypothalamic area—an anterograde tract-tracing study

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Rege S.; Palkovits, Miklós

    2014-01-01

    The projections from the dorsolateral hypothalamic area (DLH) to the lower brainstem have been investigated by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), an anterograde tracer in rats. The DLH can be divided into 3 areas (dorsomedial hypothalamus, perifornical area, lateral hypothalamic area), and further subdivided into 8 subdivisions. After unilateral stereotaxic injections of BDA into individual DLH subdivisions, the correct sites of injections were controlled histologically, and the distribu...

  18. Brainstem dose is associated with patient-reported acute fatigue in head and neck cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Matthew J; Zhong, Jim; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Higgins, Kristin A; Cassidy, Richard J; McDonald, Mark W; Eaton, Bree R; Patel, Kirtesh R; Steuer, Conor E; Baddour, H Michael; Miller, Andrew H; Bruner, Deborah W; Xiao, Canhua; Beitler, Jonathan J

    2018-01-01

    Radiation (RT) dose to the central nervous system (CNS) has been implicated as a contributor to treatment-related fatigue in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT). This study evaluates the association of RT dose to CNS structures with patient-reported (PRO) fatigue scores in a population of HNC patients. At pre-RT (baseline), 6th week of RT, and 1-month post-RT time points, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) scores were prospectively obtained from 124 patients undergoing definitive treatment for HNC. Medulla, pons, midbrain, total brainstem, cerebellum, posterior fossa, and pituitary dosimetry were evaluated using summary statistics and dose-volume histograms, and associations with MFI-20 scores were analyzed. Maximum dose (Dmax) to the brainstem and medulla was significantly associated with MFI-20 scores at 6th week of RT and 1-month post-RT time points, after controlling for baseline scores (p<0.05). Each 1Gy increase in medulla Dmax resulted in an increase in total MFI-20 score over baseline of 0.30 (p=0.026), and 0.25 (p=0.037), at the 6th week of RT and 1-month post-RT, respectively. Each 1Gy increase in brainstem Dmax resulted in an increase in total MFI-20 score over baseline of 0.30 (p=0.027), and 0.25 (p=0.037) at the 6th week of RT, 1-month post-RT, respectively. Statistically significant associations were not found between dosimetry for the other CNS structures and MFI-20 scores. In this analysis of PRO fatigue scores from a population of patients undergoing definitive RT for HNC, maximum dose to the brainstem and medulla was associated with a significantly increased risk of acute patient fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of Perinatal Cytomegalovirus Infection and Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Belgian Infants by Measurement of Automated Auditory Brainstem Response▿

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeeck, Jannick; Van Kerschaver, Erwin; Wollants, Elke; Beuselinck, Kurt; Stappaerts, Luc; Van Ranst, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Since auditory disability causes serious problems in the development of speech and in the total development of a child, it is crucial to diagnose possible hearing impairment as soon as possible after birth. This study evaluates the neonatal hearing screening program in Flanders, Belgium. The auditory ability of 118,438 babies was tested using the automated auditory brainstem response. We selected 194 babies with indicative hearing impairment and 332 matched controls to investigate the associa...

  20. Induction of brain CYP2E1 by chronic ethanol treatment and related oxidative stress in hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yanjun; Dong, Guicheng; Luo, Haiguang; Cao, Jie; Wang, Chang; Wu, Jianyuan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yue, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is one of the most commonly abused substances, and oxidative stress is an important causative factor in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in ethanol metabolism in the brain. This study investigates the role of brain CYP2E1 in the susceptibility of certain brain regions to ethanol neurotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were intragastrically treated with ethanol (3.0 g/kg, 30 days). CYP2E1 protein, mRNA expression, and catalytic activity in various brain regions were respectively assessed by immunoblotting, quantitative quantum dot immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, and LC–MS. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed using a laser confocal scanning microscope. The hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem were selectively damaged after ethanol treatment, indicated by both lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and histopathological analysis. Ethanol markedly increased the levels of CYP2E1 protein, mRNA expression, and activity in the hippocampus and cerebellum. CYP2E1 protein and activity were significantly increased by ethanol in the brainstem, with no change in mRNA expression. ROS levels induced by ethanol paralleled the enhanced CYP2E1 proteins in the hippocampus, granular layer and white matter of cerebellum as well as brainstem. Brain CYP2E1 activity was positively correlated with the damage to the hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem. These results suggest that the selective sensitivity of brain regions to ethanol neurodegeneration may be attributed to the regional and cellular-specific induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol. The inhibition of CYP2E1 levels may attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative stress via ROS generation.

  1. Age and gender modulate the neural circuitry supporting facial emotion processing in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Emily M; Rapport, Lisa J; Kassel, Michelle T; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Weisenbach, Sara L; Langenecker, Scott A

    2015-03-01

    Emotion processing, supported by frontolimbic circuitry known to be sensitive to the effects of aging, is a relatively understudied cognitive-emotional domain in geriatric depression. Some evidence suggests that the neurophysiological disruption observed in emotion processing among adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) may be modulated by both gender and age. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of gender and age on the neural circuitry supporting emotion processing in MDD. Cross-sectional comparison of fMRI signal during performance of an emotion processing task. Outpatient university setting. One hundred adults recruited by MDD status, gender, and age. Participants underwent fMRI while completing the Facial Emotion Perception Test. They viewed photographs of faces and categorized the emotion perceived. Contrast for fMRI was of face perception minus animal identification blocks. Effects of depression were observed in precuneus and effects of age in a number of frontolimbic regions. Three-way interactions were present between MDD status, gender, and age in regions pertinent to emotion processing, including frontal, limbic, and basal ganglia. Young women with MDD and older men with MDD exhibited hyperactivation in these regions compared with their respective same-gender healthy comparison (HC) counterparts. In contrast, older women and younger men with MDD exhibited hypoactivation compared to their respective same-gender HC counterparts. This the first study to report gender- and age-specific differences in emotion processing circuitry in MDD. Gender-differential mechanisms may underlie cognitive-emotional disruption in older adults with MDD. The present findings have implications for improved probes into the heterogeneity of the MDD syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Progressive supranuclear palsy: neuronal and glial cytoskeletal pathology in the higher order processing autonomic nuclei of the lower brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüb, U; Del Tredici, K; Schultz, C; de Vos, R A I; Jansen Steur, E N H; Arai, K; Braak, H

    2002-02-01

    The medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei (MPB, LPB), the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (GI), the raphes magnus (RMG) and raphes obscurus nuclei (ROB), as well as the intermediate reticular zone (IRZ) represent pivotal subordinate brainstem centres, all of which control autonomic functions. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and severity of the neuronal and glial cytoskeletal pathology in these six brainstem nuclei from 17 individuals with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The association between the severity of the pathology and the duration of the disease was investigated by means of correlation analysis. The brainstem nuclei in all of the PSP cases were affected by the neuronal cytoskeletal pathology, with the IRZ and GI regularly showing severe involvement, the MPB, RMG, and ROB marked involvement, and the LPB mild involvement. In the six nuclear greys studied, glial cells undergo alterations of their cytoskeleton on an irregular basis, whereby diseased oligodendrocytes predominantly presented as coiled bodies and affected astrocytes as thorn-shaped astrocytes. In all six nuclei, the severity of the neuronal or glial cytoskeletal pathology showed no correlation with the duration of PSP. In view of their functional role, the neuronal pathology in the nuclei studied offers a possible explanation for the autonomic dysfunctions that eventually develop in the course of PSP.

  3. Correlation between gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid contrast enhancement and thallium-201 chloride uptake in pediatric brainstem glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, B L; Drane, W B; Quisling, R J; Hoang, K B

    1997-09-01

    We previously showed that thallium-201 (201Tl) chloride is accumulated in over 75% of brain tumors, including brainstem gliomas. The imaging of 201Tl with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may require an abnormal increase in permeability of tumor vessels to allow penetration of the blood-brain barrier. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the correlation between gadolinium enhancement and the degree of 201Tl uptake on SPECT and the contributions of either gadolinium enhancement or 201Tl uptake to the prognosis in children with brainstem gliomas. Forty-two sets of paired SPECT scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained longitudinally in 13 cases. Altogether, 31 of 42 pairs (74%) of scans showed concordance between the presence of gadolinium enhancement and 201Tl uptake. There were no cases that demonstrated 201Tl uptake but lacked gadolinium enhancement. The results indicate that 201Tl SPECT is of value primarily when brainstem tumors have vessels that are demonstrably permeable to gadolinium, prior to or as a result of radiotherapy.

  4. Heart rate variability and QT dispersion study in brain death patients and comatose patients with normal brainstem function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, A.R.; Iranmanesh, F.; Nadimi, A.E.; Kahnali, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    To compare heart rate variability (HRV) and QT dispersion in comatose patients with normal brainstem function and with brain death. Fourteen brain death patients with clinical signs of imminent brain death and 15 comatose patients were examined by neurologist in intensive care unit. HRV, RR interval and QT dispersion on ECG were assessed for 24 hours in both groups. Independent t-test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis to determine significance which was set at p < 0.05. According to Holter findings, mean of standard deviation of RR-interval in the comatose and brain death groups was 48.33 and 35 respectively (p = 0.045). Mean of covariance coefficient of RR-interval was 0.065 in the comatose group and 0.043 in the brain deaths (p = 0.006). QT dispersion was not significant difference in two groups. HRV and RR-interval analysis appeared as an early finding for the diagnosis of brainstem death in comparison to comatose patients with normal brainstem function. QT dispersion had not significant in this regard. (author)

  5. Difficult diagnosis of brainstem glioblastoma multiforme in a woman: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Brainstem gliomas are rare in adults. They most commonly occur in the pons and are most likely to be high-grade lesions. The diagnosis of a high-grade brainstem glioma is usually reached due to the presentation of rapidly progressing brainstem, cranial nerve and cerebellar symptoms. These symptoms do, however, overlap with a variety of other central nervous system disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging is the radiographic modality of choice, but can still be misleading. Case presentation A 48-year-old Caucasian woman presented with headache and vomiting followed by cerebellar signs and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of a demyelinating process, but the patient failed to respond to therapy. Her condition rapidly progressed and she died. At autopsy, a high-grade invasive pontine tumor was identified. Histological evaluation revealed glioblastoma multiforme. Conclusion While pontine gliomas are rare in adults, those that do occur tend to be high-grade and rapidly progressive. Progression of symptoms from non-specific findings of headache and vomiting to rapid neurological deterioration, as occurred in our patient, is common in glioblastoma multiforme. While radiographic findings are often suggestive of the underlying pathology, this case represents the possibility of glioblastoma multiforme presenting as a deceptively benign appearing lesion.

  6. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Abadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group. Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V than did the control group (P=0.001. These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001; however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001. The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients’ improvement after treatment.

  7. Synchronized Progression of Prestin Expression and Auditory Brainstem Response during Postnatal Development in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prestin is the motor protein expressed in the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs of mammalian inner ear. The electromotility of OHCs driven by prestin is responsible for the cochlear amplification which is required for normal hearing in adult animals. Postnatal expression of prestin and activity of OHCs may contribute to the maturation of hearing in rodents. However, the temporal and spatial expression of prestin in cochlea during the development is not well characterized. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of prestin from the OHCs in apical, middle, and basal turns of the cochleae of postnatal rats. Prestin first appeared at postnatal day 6 (P6 for basal turn, P7 in middle turn, and P9 for apical turn of cochlea. The expression level increased progressively over the next few days and by P14 reached the mature level for all three segments. By comparison with the time course of the development of auditory brainstem response for different frequencies, our data reveal that prestin expression synchronized with the hearing development. The present study suggests that the onset time of hearing may require the expression of prestin and is determined by the mature function of OHCs.

  8. Rapid measurement of auditory filter shape in mice using the auditory brainstem response and notched noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, Ioan A; Lauer, Amanda M

    2013-04-01

    The notched noise method is an effective procedure for measuring frequency resolution and auditory filter shapes in both human and animal models of hearing. Briefly, auditory filter shape and bandwidth estimates are derived from masked thresholds for tones presented in noise containing widening spectral notches. As the spectral notch widens, increasingly less of the noise falls within the auditory filter and the tone becomes more detectible until the notch width exceeds the filter bandwidth. Behavioral procedures have been used for the derivation of notched noise auditory filter shapes in mice; however, the time and effort needed to train and test animals on these tasks renders a constraint on the widespread application of this testing method. As an alternative procedure, we combined relatively non-invasive auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements and the notched noise method to estimate auditory filters in normal-hearing mice at center frequencies of 8, 11.2, and 16 kHz. A complete set of simultaneous masked thresholds for a particular tone frequency were obtained in about an hour. ABR-derived filter bandwidths broadened with increasing frequency, consistent with previous studies. The ABR notched noise procedure provides a fast alternative to estimating frequency selectivity in mice that is well-suited to high through-put or time-sensitive screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Proposed Toxic and Hypoxic Impairment of a Brainstem Locus in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woody R. McGinnis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological findings implicate site-specific impairment of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS in autism. This invites hypothetical consideration of a large role for this small brainstem structure as the basis for seemingly disjointed behavioral and somatic features of autism. The NTS is the brain’s point of entry for visceral afference, its relay for vagal reflexes, and its integration center for autonomic control of circulatory, immunological, gastrointestinal, and laryngeal function. The NTS facilitates normal cerebrovascular perfusion, and is the seminal point for an ascending noradrenergic system that modulates many complex behaviors. Microvascular configuration predisposes the NTS to focal hypoxia. A subregion—the “pNTS”—permits exposure to all blood-borne neurotoxins, including those that do not readily transit the blood-brain barrier. Impairment of acetylcholinesterase (mercury and cadmium cations, nitrates/nitrites, organophosphates, monosodium glutamate, competition for hemoglobin (carbon monoxide, nitrates/nitrites, and higher blood viscosity (net systemic oxidative stress are suggested to potentiate microcirculatory insufficiency of the NTS, and thus autism.

  10. Auditory brainstem response in neonates: influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna M. Giaffredo Angrisani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR in preterm (PT and term (T newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age. The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age. All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups.

  11. Perinatal low-protein diet alters brainstem antioxidant metabolism in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Liu, Yuri; Fernandes, Mariana Pinheiro; Lagranha, Claudia Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Studies in humans and animal models have established a close relationship between early environment insult and subsequent risk of development of non-communicable diseases, including the cardiovascular. Whereas experimental evidences highlight the early undernutrition and the late cardiovascular disease relation, the central mechanisms linking the two remain unknown. Owing to the oxidative balance influence in several pathologies, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal undernutrition (i.e. a low-protein (LP) diet) on oxidative balance in the brainstem. Male rats from mothers fed with an LP diet (8% casein) throughout the perinatal period (i.e. gestation and lactation) showed 10× higher lipid peroxidation levels than animals treated with normoprotein (17% casein) at 100 days of age. In addition, we observed the following reductions in enzymatic activities: superoxide dismutase, 16%; catalase, 30%; glutathione peroxidase, 34%; glutathione-S-transferase, 51%; glutathione reductase, 23%; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 31%; and in non-enzymatic glutathione system, 46%. This study is the first to focus on the role of maternal LP nutrition in oxidative balance in a central nervous system structure responsible for cardiovascular control in adult rats. Our data observed changes in oxidative balance in the offspring, therefore, bring a new concept related to early undernutrition and can help in the development of a new clinical strategy to combat the effects of nutritional insult. Wherein the central oxidative imbalance is a feasible mechanism underlying the hypertension risk in adulthood triggered by maternal LP diet.

  12. Recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Junko; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Kawamoto, Michi; Yoshimura, Hajime; Kusunoki, Susumu; Kohara, Nobuo

    2016-05-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) are usually monophasic, but some patients experience recurrences after long asymptomatic intervals. We aimed to investigate clinical features of recurrent GBS, MFS, and BBE at a single hospital. Records from 97 consecutive patients with GBS, MFS or BBE who were admitted to a tertiary hospital between 2001 and 2013 were reviewed. Clinical and laboratory features of patients with recurrent GBS, MFS, or BBE were investigated. Patients included 55 (32 males) with GBS, 34 (22 males) with MFS, and 8 (6 males) with BBE. Recurrent cases occurred in 2 (4%) of the 55 patients with GBS, 4 (12%) of the 34 patients with MFS, and 2 (25%) of the 8 patients with BBE. Patients with recurrent MFS had a tendency to be younger at the first episode than patients with non-recurrent MFS (median, 22 versus 37years old). Symptoms and signs were less severe during relapses than during the initial episode in recurrent patients. Recurrences occurred more frequently in patients with MFS or BBE compared with those with GBS. Patients with recurrent MFS might be younger than those with non-recurrent MFS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Brainstem evoked response audiometry: an investigatory tool in detecting hepatic encephalopathy in decompensated chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabali, Balasubramanian; Velayutham, Gowri; Kapali, Suresh Chander

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that globally there is a marked increase in liver disease with reports of rising morbidity and mortality, particularly in younger age groups. Brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) was recorded in 60 decompensated chronic liver disease (DCLD) subjects who fulfilled the selection criteria and compared to 60 age and gender matched healthy subjects with normal liver functions. DCLD subjects were divided into two inter groups based on presence or absence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Group 1 comprises of 30 subjects of grade- I HE and Group 2 included 30 subjects without hepatic encephalopathy (NHE). Absolute and interpeak wave latencies were measured. Results were analysed by student independent t- test using SPSS software 11 version. Statistical significance was tested using P value. From the present study it can be concluded that the central nervous system is involved in liver cirrhosis evidenced by an abnormal BAEP latencies parameters. This shows that there may be progressive demyelination occurring along with axonal loss or dysfunction in liver cirrhosis HE. This study suggests that periodic evaluation of cirrhotic individuals to such test will help in monitoring the progress of encephalopathy. The prime goal of this study is early diagnosis and initiation of treatment before the onset of coma can reduce the fatality rate.

  14. Auditory brainstem response screening for hearing loss in high risk neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D R; McClelland, R J; Adams, D A

    1996-07-01

    The present paper reports the findings of a 7 year study evaluating the use of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) as the basis of a hearing screening procedure in a group of newborns at increased risk of hearing impairment. A Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) population of 417 infants with diverse clinical backgrounds and treatment histories was tested for hearing impairment at birth using ABR audiometry. Some 332 passed the original screen at 30 dBnHL test level in both ears. Of the failure group, 18 did not survive and 32 had some degree of hearing impairment confirmed, nine of which were sensorineural in origin. An increased incidence of persistent middle ear disease was also noted in the failure group. A detailed operational analysis demonstrates that provided appropriate pass/fail criteria are adopted, the ABR technique offers excellent sensitivity and specificity for the detection of significant hearing loss in the test population. Furthermore, the study establishes that implementation of an ABR-based screening programme could reduce the average age at detection of permanent hearing loss by 7 months. A cost assessment shows that the introduction of such a targetted screening procedure could be done at a reasonable outlay.

  15. Correlation between auditory brainstem recordings and morphology as seen through the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultcrantz, M.

    1988-01-01

    Pregnant CBA/CBA mice were exposed to 0.5, 1 and 2 Grey (Gy), (1 Gy = 100 rad) in single doses with whole body gamma-irradiation on the 12th, 13th and 16th gestational days, respectively. The animals were tested at an age of one month for vestibular and cochlear function. Thereafter the inner ears were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. A morphological analysis with cytocochleograms was performed. Morphological changes in the vestibular part showed gross malformations in the cristae ampullares. Hair cells of type I seemed to be more severely changed than hair cells type II. The macula utriculi also showed malformations of the otoconia. All these changes were more pronounced when the irradiation was given early during pregnancy and with the highest doses used, except the otoconia which were more injured when irradiated day 16 of gestation. No disturbances of the equilibrium reflexes were noted. In the cochlea a dose-dependent, time-related damage pattern was demonstrated with pathological changes of outer (OHC) and inner (IHC) hair cells. When tested electrophysiologically for auditory function with auditory brainstem recordings (ABR), elevated thresholds were revealed different in shape depending on when during pregnancy irradiation took place. A good correlation existed between the morphological changes as seen in the cytocochleograms and the functional changes documented with the ABR

  16. Correlation between auditory brainstem recordings and morphology as seen through the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultcrantz, M.

    1988-09-01

    Pregnant CBA/CBA mice were exposed to 0.5, 1 and 2 Grey (Gy), (1 Gy = 100 rad) in single doses with whole body gamma-irradiation on the 12th, 13th and 16th gestational days, respectively. The animals were tested at an age of one month for vestibular and cochlear function. Thereafter the inner ears were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. A morphological analysis with cytocochleograms was performed. Morphological changes in the vestibular part showed gross malformations in the cristae ampullares. Hair cells of type I seemed to be more severely changed than hair cells type II. The macula utriculi also showed malformations of the otoconia. All these changes were more pronounced when the irradiation was given early during pregnancy and with the highest doses used, except the otoconia which were more injured when irradiated day 16 of gestation. No disturbances of the equilibrium reflexes were noted. In the cochlea a dose-dependent, time-related damage pattern was demonstrated with pathological changes of outer (OHC) and inner (IHC) hair cells. When tested electrophysiologically for auditory function with auditory brainstem recordings (ABR), elevated thresholds were revealed different in shape depending on when during pregnancy irradiation took place. A good correlation existed between the morphological changes as seen in the cytocochleograms and the functional changes documented with the ABR.

  17. Curcumin decreases astrocytic reaction after gliotoxic injury in the rat brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bondan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin (Cur has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Ethidium bromide (EB injections into the central nervous system (CNS are known to induce local oligodendroglial and astrocytic loss, resulting in primary demyelination and neuroinflammation. Peripheral astrogliosis is seen around the injury site with increased immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. This investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of Cur administration on astrocytic response following gliotoxic injury. Wistar rats were injected with EB into the cisterna pontis and treated, or not, with Cur (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route during the experimental period. Brainstem sections were collected at 15, 21 and 31 days after EB injection and processed for GFAP immunohistochemical staining. Astrocytic reactivity was measured in a computerized system for image analysis. In Cur-treated rats, the GFAP-stained area around the lesion was significantly smaller in all periods after EB injection compared to untreated animals, showing that Cur reduces glial scar development following injury.

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging of the inferior colliculus and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Milla; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Johansson, Reijo [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Turku (Finland); Jaeaeskelaeinen, Satu K. [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Turku (Finland); Kujari, Harry [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Pathology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2009-08-15

    Preterm and low-birth-weight infants have an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) are an effective method to detect subtle deficits in impulse conduction in the auditory pathway. Abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be associated with perinatal white-matter injury and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. To evaluate the possibility of a correlation between BAEP and DTI of the inferior colliculus in preterm infants. DTI at term age and BAEP measurements were performed on all very-low-birth-weight or very preterm study infants (n=56). FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the inferior colliculus were measured from the DTI. Shorter BAEP wave I, III, and V latencies and I-III and I-V intervals and higher wave V amplitude correlated with higher FA of the inferior colliculus. The association between the DTI findings of the inferior colliculus and BAEP responses suggests that DTI can be used to assess the integrity of the auditory pathway in preterm infants. (orig.)

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging of the inferior colliculus and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, Milla; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Johansson, Reijo; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Satu K.; Kujari, Harry; Haataja, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Preterm and low-birth-weight infants have an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) are an effective method to detect subtle deficits in impulse conduction in the auditory pathway. Abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be associated with perinatal white-matter injury and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. To evaluate the possibility of a correlation between BAEP and DTI of the inferior colliculus in preterm infants. DTI at term age and BAEP measurements were performed on all very-low-birth-weight or very preterm study infants (n=56). FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the inferior colliculus were measured from the DTI. Shorter BAEP wave I, III, and V latencies and I-III and I-V intervals and higher wave V amplitude correlated with higher FA of the inferior colliculus. The association between the DTI findings of the inferior colliculus and BAEP responses suggests that DTI can be used to assess the integrity of the auditory pathway in preterm infants. (orig.)

  20. Large-scale synchronized activity in the embryonic brainstem and spinal cord

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    Yoko eMomose-Sato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the developing central nervous system, spontaneous activity appears well before the brain responds to external sensory inputs. One of the earliest activities is observed in the hindbrain and spinal cord, which is detected as rhythmic electrical discharges of cranial and spinal motoneurons or oscillations of Ca2+- and voltage-related optical signals. Shortly after the initial expression, the spontaneous activity appearing in the hindbrain and spinal cord exhibits a large-scale correlated wave that propagates over a wide region of the central nervous system, maximally extending to the lumbosacral cord and to the forebrain. In this review, we describe several aspects of this synchronized activity by focusing on the basic properties, development, origin, propagation pattern, pharmacological characteristics, and possible mechanisms underlying the generation of the activity. These profiles differ from those of the respiratory and locomotion pattern generators observed in the mature brainstem and spinal cord, suggesting that the wave is primordial activity that appears during a specific period of embryonic development and plays some important roles in the development of the central nervous system.

  1. Case of Joubert syndrome. CT findings of brainstem and review of literature

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    Suzuki, Hisaharu; Nakazato, Akihiko; Ikota, Hiroko; Koide, Hiroyoshi (Saitama Medical School (Japan)); Yasaka, Atsushi; Nakada, Yoshitaka

    1983-01-01

    Joubert et al. first reported a familial syndrome which showed episodic tachypena, abnormal eye movement, mental and motor retardation. Since then eighteen cases have been reported in the world. In this paper, we reported a male baby with Joubert syndrome who was observed since the newborn period. He showed episodic tachypnea (respiratory rate over 100/min), apnea, severe mental and motor retardation, no normal eye movements, occipital meningocele, high arched palate and poor sucking. CT scan revealed vermian agenesis, hypoplasia and deformity of brainstem, enlarged fourth ventricle and cisterna magna. EEG showed episodic discharges. Laboratory test investigations including amino acids, lactate, pyruvate, ammonia, chromosomal analysis, IVP and renogram showed no abnormal findings. He showed poor development and at eleventh month of age he died at home because of respiratory arrest. Similar syndromes were reported by Koya et al., Dekaban, Gardner et al., D'Agostino et al. and Friede. They reported syndromes consisting of abnormal respiration, abnormal eye movements, mental and motor retardation, occipital meningocele, retinal degeneration and polycystic kidney. Some causative events may have occurred at 6 to 7 weeks of gestation affecting central nervous system as well as other organs.

  2. Development of a Chirp Stimulus PC-Based Auditory Brainstem Response Audiometer

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    Ali AL-Afsaa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Hearing losses during infancy and childhood have many negative future effects and impacts on the child life and productivity. The earlier detection of hearing losses, the earlier medical intervention and then the greater benefit of remediation will be. During this research a PC-based audiometer is designed and, currently, the audiometer prototype is in its final development steps. It is based on the auditory brainstem response (ABR method. Chirp stimuli instead of traditional click stimuli will be used to invoke the ABR signal. The stimulus is designed to synchronize the hair cells movement when it spreads out over the cochlea. In addition to the available hardware utilization (PC and PCI board, the efforts confined to design and implement a hardware prototype and to develop a software package that enables the system to behave as ABR audiometer. By using such a method and chirp stimulus, it is expected to be able to detect hearing impairment (sensorineural in the first few days of the life and conduct hearing test at low frequency of stimulus. Currently, the intended chirp stimulus has been successfully generated and the implemented module is able to amplify a signal (on the order of ABR signal to a recordable level. Moreover, a NI-DAQ data acquisition board has been chosen to implement the PC-prototype interface.

  3. BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AS AN INDEX OF CNS DEMYELINATION IN GUILLAIN -BARRÉ SYNDROME (GBS

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    Smita Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS is an acute, frequently severe and fulminant polyradicular neuropathy that is autoimmune in nature. GBS manifest as rapidly evolving areflexic motor paralysis with or without sensory disturbances. It mainly involves peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system. There are rare evidences about the involvement of central nervous system (CNS in GBS. Aims: The main objective of the study was to assess the CNS involvement in GBS using the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP. Methods & Material: The study was conducted in the clinical neurophysiology lab in the department of physiology, CSMMU Lucknow. Study group involved 26 subjects (n=26 having GBS and control group involved 30 normal subjects (n=30. BAEPS were recorded by Neuroperfect- EMG 2000 EMG/NCV/EPsytem. The data so obtained were subjected to analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 13.0. Results & Conclusions: There was significant increase in PIII & PV peak latencies and PI-PIII & PI-PV interpeak latencies in both left and right ear in the study group, which showed the CNS involvement in GBS which can be assessed using BAEP.

  4. A pilot study on predictors of brainstem raphe abnormality in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Milutin; Munjiza, Ana; Pesic, Danilo; Peljto, Amir; Novakovic, Ivana; Dobricic, Valerija; Tosevski, Dusica Lecic; Mijajlovic, Milija

    2017-02-01

    Hypo/anechogenicity of the brainstem raphe (BR) structures has been suggested as a possible transcranial parenchymal sonography (TCS) marker associated with depression. The aim of this study was to analyze possible association of the abnormal BR echogenicity in patients with major depression when compared to healthy controls, and to evaluate its clinical and genetic correlates. TCS was performed in 53 patients diagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD) without psychotic symptoms and in 54 healthy matched controls. The TCS detected BR abnormalities were significantly more frequent in MDD patients (35 out of 53; 66%) in comparison to matched controls (5 out of 56; 9%). The prevalence of short allele (s) homozygocity in the length polymorphism of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) was significantly higher in MDD patients relative to those with normal BR echogenicity. A stepwise statistical discriminant analysis revealed statistically significant separation between MDD patients with and without BR abnormalities groups based on the four predictors combined: the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale item 5 ("difficulty in concentration, poor memory"), presence of social phobia, s allele homozygocity of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, and presence of generalized anxiety disorder. Cross-sectional design and heterogenous treatment of depressed patients. Reduced BR echogenicity in at least a subgroup of MDD patients may reflect a particular phenotype, characterized by more prevalent comorbid anxiety disorders, associated with particular genetic polymorphisms and neurotransmitter(s) deficits, most probably altered serotonergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of TASK-1 in brainstem and the occurrence of central sleep apnea in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Nan; Su, Li; Wang, Guangfa

    2008-03-20

    Recent studies revealed that unstable ventilation control is one of mechanisms underlying the occurrence of sleep apnea. Thus, we investigated whether TASK-1, an acid-sensitive potassium channel, plays a role in the occurrence of sleep apnea. First, the expression of TASK-1 transcriptions on brainstem was checked by in situ hybridization. Then, the correlation between the central apneic episodes and protein contents of TASK-1 measured by western blot was analyzed from 27 male rats. Results showed that TASK-1 mRNAs were widely distributed on the putative central chemoreceptors such as locus coeruleus, nucleus tractus solitarius and medullary raphe, etc. Both the total spontaneous apnea index (TSAI) and spontaneous apnea index in NREM sleep (NSAI) were positively correlated with TASK-1 protein contents (r=0.547 and 0.601, respectively, p<0.01). However, the post-sigh sleep apnea index (PAI) had no relationship with TASK-1 protein. Thus, we concluded that TASK-1 channels may function as central chemoreceptors that play a role in spontaneous sleep apneas in rats.

  6. LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE SHAPES PROCESSING OF PITCH RELEVANT INFORMATION IN THE HUMAN BRAINSTEM AND AUDITORY CORTEX: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T

    2014-12-01

    Pitch is a robust perceptual attribute that plays an important role in speech, language, and music. As such, it provides an analytic window to evaluate how neural activity relevant to pitch undergo transformation from early sensory to later cognitive stages of processing in a well coordinated hierarchical network that is subject to experience-dependent plasticity. We review recent evidence of language experience-dependent effects in pitch processing based on comparisons of native vs. nonnative speakers of a tonal language from electrophysiological recordings in the auditory brainstem and auditory cortex. We present evidence that shows enhanced representation of linguistically-relevant pitch dimensions or features at both the brainstem and cortical levels with a stimulus-dependent preferential activation of the right hemisphere in native speakers of a tone language. We argue that neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the brainstem and early sensory level processing in the auditory cortex is shaped by the perceptual salience of domain-specific features. While both stages of processing are shaped by language experience, neural representations are transformed and fundamentally different at each biological level of abstraction. The representation of pitch relevant information in the brainstem is more fine-grained spectrotemporally as it reflects sustained neural phase-locking to pitch relevant periodicities contained in the stimulus. In contrast, the cortical pitch relevant neural activity reflects primarily a series of transient temporal neural events synchronized to certain temporal attributes of the pitch contour. We argue that experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation for Chinese listeners most likely reflects an interaction between higher-level cognitive processes and early sensory-level processing to improve representations of behaviorally-relevant features that contribute optimally to perception. It is our view that long

  7. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials with the use of acoustic clicks and complex verbal sounds in young adults with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouni, Sophia N; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Ziavra, Nausika; Koutsojannis, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals are transmitted through the external and middle ear mechanically to the cochlea where they are transduced into electrical impulse for further transmission via the auditory nerve. The auditory nerve encodes the acoustic sounds that are conveyed to the auditory brainstem. Multiple brainstem nuclei, the cochlea, the midbrain, the thalamus, and the cortex constitute the central auditory system. In clinical practice, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to simple stimuli such as click or tones are widely used. Recently, complex stimuli or complex auditory brain responses (cABRs), such as monosyllabic speech stimuli and music, are being used as a tool to study the brainstem processing of speech sounds. We have used the classic 'click' as well as, for the first time, the artificial successive complex stimuli 'ba', which constitutes the Greek word 'baba' corresponding to the English 'daddy'. Twenty young adults institutionally diagnosed as dyslexic (10 subjects) or light dyslexic (10 subjects) comprised the diseased group. Twenty sex-, age-, education-, hearing sensitivity-, and IQ-matched normal subjects comprised the control group. Measurements included the absolute latencies of waves I through V, the interpeak latencies elicited by the classical acoustic click, the negative peak latencies of A and C waves, as well as the interpeak latencies of A-C elicited by the verbal stimulus 'baba' created on a digital speech synthesizer. The absolute peak latencies of waves I, III, and V in response to monoaural rarefaction clicks as well as the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V in the dyslexic subjects, although increased in comparison with normal subjects, did not reach the level of a significant difference (pwave C and the interpeak latencies of A-C elicited by verbal stimuli were found to be increased in the dyslexic group in comparison with the control group (p=0.0004 and p=0.045, respectively). In the subgroup consisting of 10 patients suffering from

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Appetite Regulation

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    Ji Hee Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has been rapidly increasing worldwide over the last several decades and has become a major health problem in developed countries. The brain, especially the hypothalamus, plays a key role in the control of food intake by sensing metabolic signals from peripheral organs and modulating feeding behaviors. To accomplish these important roles, the hypothalamus communicates with other brain areas such as the brainstem and reward-related limbic pathways. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and pancreatic β-cell-derived insulin inform adiposity to the hypothalamus. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and oxyntomodulin transfer satiety signals to the brain and ghrelin relays hunger signals. The endocannabinoid system and nutrients are also involved in the physiological regulation of food intake. In this article, we briefly review physiological mechanisms of appetite regulation.

  9. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

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    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  10. The Neural Basis of and a Common Neural Circuitry in Different Types of Pro-social Behavior

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    Jun Luo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pro-social behaviors are voluntary behaviors that benefit other people or society as a whole, such as charitable donations, cooperation, trust, altruistic punishment, and fairness. These behaviors have been widely described through non self-interest decision-making in behavioral experimental studies and are thought to be increased by social preference motives. Importantly, recent studies using a combination of neuroimaging and brain stimulation, designed to reveal the neural mechanisms of pro-social behaviors, have found that a wide range of brain areas, specifically the prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, are correlated or causally related with pro-social behaviors. In this review, we summarize the research on the neural basis of various kinds of pro-social behaviors and describe a common shared neural circuitry of these pro-social behaviors. We introduce several general ways in which experimental economics and neuroscience can be combined to develop important contributions to understanding social decision-making and pro-social behaviors. Future research should attempt to explore the neural circuitry between the frontal lobes and deeper brain areas.

  11. Lateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum roles in eating and hunger: interactions between homeostatic and reward circuitry

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    Daniel Charles Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the neural bases of eating behavior, hunger, and reward has consistently implicated the lateral hypothalamus (LH and its interactions with mesocorticolimbic circuitry, such as mesolimbic dopamine projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc and ventral pallidum (VP, in controlling motivation to eat. The NAc and VP play special roles in mediating the hedonic impact (‘liking’ and motivational incentive salience (‘wanting’ of food rewards, and their interactions with LH help permit regulatory hunger/satiety modulation of food motivation and reward. Here, we review some progress that has been made regarding this circuitry and its functions: the identification of localized anatomical hedonic hotspots within NAc and VP for enhancing hedonic impact; interactions of NAc/VP hedonic hotspots with specific LH signals such as orexin; an anterior-posterior gradient of sites in NAc shell for producing intense appetitive eating versus intense fearful reactions; and anatomically distributed appetitive functions of dopamine and mu opioid signals in NAc shell and related structures. Such findings help improve our understanding of NAc, VP, and LH interactions in mediating affective and motivation functions, including ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ for food rewards.

  12. Anatomical Recruitment of Spinal V2a Interneurons into Phrenic Motor Circuitry after High Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholudeva, Lyandysha V; Karliner, Jordyn S; Dougherty, Kimberly J; Lane, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    More than half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur at the cervical level, often resulting in impaired respiration. Despite this devastating outcome, there is substantial evidence for endogenous neuroplasticity after cervical SCI. Spinal interneurons are widely recognized as being an essential anatomical component of this plasticity by contributing to novel neuronal pathways that can result in functional improvement. The identity of spinal interneurons involved with respiratory plasticity post-SCI, however, has remained largely unknown. Using a transgenic Chx10-eGFP mouse line (Strain 011391-UCD), the present study is the first to demonstrate the recruitment of excitatory interneurons into injured phrenic circuitry after a high cervical SCI. Diaphragm electromyography and anatomical analysis were used to confirm lesion-induced functional deficits and document extent of the lesion, respectively. Transneuronal tracing with pseudorabies virus (PRV) was used to identify interneurons within the phrenic circuitry. There was a robust increase in the number of PRV-labeled V2a interneurons ipsilateral to the C2 hemisection, demonstrating that significant numbers of these excitatory spinal interneurons were anatomically recruited into the phrenic motor pathway two weeks after injury, a time known to correspond with functional phrenic plasticity. Understanding this anatomical spinal plasticity and the neural substrates associated with functional compensation or recovery post-SCI in a controlled, experimental setting may help shed light onto possible cellular therapeutic candidates that can be targeted to enhance spontaneous recovery.

  13. Determining the Control Circuitry of Redox Metabolism at the Genome-Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federowicz, Stephen; Kim, Donghyuk; Ebrahim, Ali

    2014-01-01

    -scale metabolic model to show that ArcA and Fnr regulate >80% of total metabolic flux and 96% of differential gene expression across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Based on the data, we propose a feedforward with feedback trim regulatory scheme, given the extensive repression of catabolic genes...

  14. Wired for behavior: from development to function of innate limbic system circuitry

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    Katie eSokolowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The limbic system of the brain regulates a number of behaviors that are essential for the survival of all vertebrate species including humans. The limbic system predominantly controls appropriate responses to stimuli with social, emotional or motivational salience, which includes innate behaviors such as mating, aggression and defense. Activation of circuits regulating these innate behaviors begins in the periphery with sensory stimulation (primarily via the olfactory system in rodents, and is then processed in the brain by a set of delineated structures that primarily includes the amygdala and hypothalamus. While the basic neuroanatomy of these connections is well established, much remains unknown about how information is processed within innate circuits and how genetic hierarchies regulate development and function of these circuits. Utilizing innovative technologies including channel rhodopsin-based circuit manipulation and genetic manipulation in rodents, recent studies have begun to answer these central questions. In this article we review the current understanding of how limbic circuits regulate sexually dimorphism and how these circuits are established and shaped during pre- and post-natal development. We also discuss how understanding developmental processes of innate circuit formation may inform behavioral alterations observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, which are characterized by limbic system dysfunction.

  15. Upregulation of [125I] CGP42112 binding in the rat brainstem following nodose ganglionectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulston, C.L.; Lawrence, A.J.; Jarrott, B.; Widdop, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: [ 125 I] CGP42112 is a specific ligand which has been used to demonstrate the presence of angiotensin AT 2 receptors in peripheral and brain tissue, although [ 125 I] CGP42112 also binds to a non-angiotensin II (Ang II) site. In the present study we have examined [ 125 I] CGP42112 binding in the brainstem following nodose ganglionectomy using autoradiography. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats underwent unilateral nodose ganglionectomy or sham operation (anaesthetised with methohexitone, 60mg/kg ip). Following a 14 day recovery period, animals were killed and slide mounted brainstem sections (14μm) were prepared and incubated in the presence of either [ 125 I] (Sar 1 Ile 8 )Ang II (0.5nM), [ 125 I] CGP42112 (0.3nM) or [ 3 H] PKI11195 (3nM, a marker for activated microglia). Following incubation, slides were apposed to film for 10 days. Specific binding was determined in adjacent sections by co-incubations with either the AT 1 receptor antagonist losartan, the AT 2 receptor antagonist PD 123319, Ang II or PKI11195 (all at 10μM). In the ganglionectomised groups, there were significant reductions in [ 125 I] (Sar 1 Ile 8 )Ang II binding on the denervated side of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) by 30 ± 2 % (n=5, P 125 I] CGP42112 binding in the NTS revealed an AT 2 receptor component which was displaceable by PD 123319 and Ang II (∼60%), and a non-Ang II component (∼40%). Nodose ganglionectomy increased the density of [ 125 I] CGP42112 binding on the denervated side of the NTS by 55 ± 3 % (n=5, P 125 I] CGP42112 binding in the NTS of the ganglionectomised groups was comprised of a greater non-Ang II component than in the sham group, since only ∼30% was displaced by PD123319 and Ang II. [ 125 I] CGP42112 also revealed high binding density in the dorsal motor nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus on the denervated side in both SHR and WKY rats. This binding was absent in shams and was only ∼30-40% displaceable

  16. Auditory Brainstem Implantation in Chinese Patients With Neurofibromatosis Type II: The Hong Kong Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Jiun Fong; Sung, John K K; Wong, Terence K C; Tong, Michael C F

    2016-08-01

    To describe our experience and outcomes of auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) in Chinese patients with Neurofibromatosis Type II (NF2). Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. Patients with NF2 who received ABIs. Between 1997 and 2014, eight patients with NF2 received 9 ABIs after translabyrinthine removal of their vestibular schwannomas. One patient did not have auditory response using the ABI after activation. Environmental sounds could be differentiated by six (75%) patients after 6 months of ABI use (mean score 46% [range 28-60%]), and by five (63%) patients after 1 year (mean score 57% [range 36-76%]) and 2 years of ABI use (mean score 48% [range 24-76%]). Closed-set word identification was possible in four (50%) patients after 6 months (mean score 39% [range 12-72%]), 1 year (mean score 68% [range 48-92%]), and 2 years of ABI use (mean score 62% [range 28-100%]). No patient demonstrated open-set sentence recognition in quiet in the ABI-only condition. However, the use of ABI together with lip-reading conferred an improvement over lip-reading alone in open-set sentence recognition scores in two (25%) patients after 6 months of ABI use (mean improvement 46%), and five (63%) patients after 1 year (mean improvement 25%) and 2 years of ABI use (mean improvement 28%). At 2 years postoperatively, three (38%) patients remained ABI users. This is the only published study to date examining ABI outcomes in Cantonese-speaking Chinese NF2 patients and the data seems to show poorer outcomes compared with English-speaking and other nontonal language-speaking NF2 patients. Environmental sound awareness and lip-reading enhancement are the main benefits observed in our patients. More work is needed to improve auditory implant speech-processing strategies for tonal languages and these advancements may yield better speech perception outcomes in the future.

  17. Synaptic and intrinsic activation of GABAergic neurons in the cardiorespiratory brainstem network.

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    Julie G Frank

    Full Text Available GABAergic pathways in the brainstem play an essential role in respiratory rhythmogenesis and interactions between the respiratory and cardiovascular neuronal control networks. However, little is known about the identity and function of these GABAergic inhibitory neurons and what determines their activity. In this study we have identified a population of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral medulla that receive increased excitatory post-synaptic potentials during inspiration, but also have spontaneous firing in the absence of synaptic input. Using transgenic mice that express GFP under the control of the Gad1 (GAD67 gene promoter, we determined that this population of GABAergic neurons is in close apposition to cardioinhibitory parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NA. These neurons fire in synchronization with inspiratory activity. Although they receive excitatory glutamatergic synaptic inputs during inspiration, this excitatory neurotransmission was not altered by blocking nicotinic receptors, and many of these GABAergic neurons continue to fire after synaptic blockade. The spontaneous firing in these GABAergic neurons was not altered by the voltage-gated calcium channel blocker cadmium chloride that blocks both neurotransmission to these neurons and voltage-gated Ca(2+ currents, but spontaneous firing was diminished by riluzole, demonstrating a role of persistent sodium channels in the spontaneous firing in these cardiorespiratory GABAergic neurons that possess a pacemaker phenotype. The spontaneously firing GABAergic neurons identified in this study that increase their activity during inspiration would support respiratory rhythm generation if they acted primarily to inhibit post-inspiratory neurons and thereby release inspiration neurons to increase their activity. This population of inspiratory-modulated GABAergic neurons could also play a role in inhibiting neurons that are most active during expiration and provide a

  18. Synaptic and intrinsic activation of GABAergic neurons in the cardiorespiratory brainstem network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Julie G; Mendelowitz, David

    2012-01-01

    GABAergic pathways in the brainstem play an essential role in respiratory rhythmogenesis and interactions between the respiratory and cardiovascular neuronal control networks. However, little is known about the identity and function of these GABAergic inhibitory neurons and what determines their activity. In this study we have identified a population of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral medulla that receive increased excitatory post-synaptic potentials during inspiration, but also have spontaneous firing in the absence of synaptic input. Using transgenic mice that express GFP under the control of the Gad1 (GAD67) gene promoter, we determined that this population of GABAergic neurons is in close apposition to cardioinhibitory parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NA). These neurons fire in synchronization with inspiratory activity. Although they receive excitatory glutamatergic synaptic inputs during inspiration, this excitatory neurotransmission was not altered by blocking nicotinic receptors, and many of these GABAergic neurons continue to fire after synaptic blockade. The spontaneous firing in these GABAergic neurons was not altered by the voltage-gated calcium channel blocker cadmium chloride that blocks both neurotransmission to these neurons and voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents, but spontaneous firing was diminished by riluzole, demonstrating a role of persistent sodium channels in the spontaneous firing in these cardiorespiratory GABAergic neurons that possess a pacemaker phenotype. The spontaneously firing GABAergic neurons identified in this study that increase their activity during inspiration would support respiratory rhythm generation if they acted primarily to inhibit post-inspiratory neurons and thereby release inspiration neurons to increase their activity. This population of inspiratory-modulated GABAergic neurons could also play a role in inhibiting neurons that are most active during expiration and provide a framework for

  19. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in an equine patient population: part I--adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Holliday, T A; Nieto, J E; Williams, D C

    2014-01-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked response has been an underused diagnostic modality in horses as evidenced by few reports on the subject. To describe BAER findings, common clinical signs, and causes of hearing loss in adult horses. Study group, 76 horses; control group, 8 horses. Retrospective. BAER records from the Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory were reviewed from the years of 1982 to 2013. Peak latencies, amplitudes, and interpeak intervals were measured when visible. Horses were grouped under disease categories. Descriptive statistics and a posthoc Bonferroni test were performed. Fifty-seven of 76 horses had BAER deficits. There was no breed or sex predisposition, with the exception of American Paint horses diagnosed with congenital sensorineural deafness. Eighty-six percent (n = 49/57) of the horses were younger than 16 years of age. The most common causes of BAER abnormalities were temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO, n = 20/20; abnormalities/total), congenital sensorineural deafness in Paint horses (17/17), multifocal brain disease (13/16), and otitis media/interna (4/4). Auditory loss was bilateral and unilateral in 74% (n = 42/57) and 26% (n = 15/57) of the horses, respectively. The most common causes of bilateral auditory loss were sensorineural deafness, THO, and multifocal brain disease whereas THO and otitis were the most common causes of unilateral deficits. Auditory deficits should be investigated in horses with altered behavior, THO, multifocal brain disease, otitis, and in horses with certain coat and eye color patterns. BAER testing is an objective and noninvasive diagnostic modality to assess auditory function in horses. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Anatomical evidence for brainstem circuits mediating feeding motor programs in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C W

    2001-09-01

    Using injections of small molecular weight fluorescein dextran amines, combined with activity-dependent uptake of sulforhodamine 101 (SR101), brainstem circuits presumed to be involved in feeding motor output were investigated. As has been shown previously in other studies, projections to the cerebellar nuclei were identified from the cerebellar cortex, the trigeminal motor nucleus, and the vestibular nuclei. Results presented here suggest an additional pathway from the hypoglossal motor nuclei to the cerebellar nucleus as well as an afferent projection from the peripheral hypoglossal nerve to the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. Injections in the cerebellar cortex combined with retrograde labeling of the peripheral hypoglossal nerve demonstrate anatomical convergence at the level of the medial reticular formation. This suggests a possible integrative region for afferent feedback from the hypoglossal nerve and information through the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. The activity-dependent uptake of SR101 additionally suggests a reciprocal, polysynaptic pathway between this same area of the medial reticular formation and the trigeminal motor nuclei. The trigeminal motor neurons innervate the m adductor mandibulae, the primary mouth-closing muscle. The SR101 uptake clearly labeled the ventrolateral hypoglossal nuclei, the medial reticular formation, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. Unlike retrograde labeling of the peripheral hypoglossal nerve, stimulating the hypoglossal nerve while SR101 was bath-applied labeled trigeminal motor neurons. This, combined with the dextran labeling, suggests a reciprocal connection between the trigeminal motor nuclei and the cerebellar nuclei, as well as the medulla. Taken together, these data are important for understanding the neurophysiological pathways used to coordinate the proper timing of an extremely rapid, goal-directed movement and may prove useful for elucidating some of the

  1. Auditory brainstem evoked responses and temperature monitoring during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R A; Edmonds, H L; Auden, S M; Austin, E H

    1999-09-01

    To examine the effects of temperature on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) in infants during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass for total circulatory arrest (TCA). The relationship between ABRs (as a surrogate measure of core-brain temperature) and body temperature as measured at several temperature monitoring sites was determined. In a prospective, observational study, ABRs were recorded non-invasively at normothermia and at every 1 or 2 degrees C change in ear-canal temperature during cooling and rewarming in 15 infants (ages: 2 days to 14 months) that required TCA. The ABR latencies and amplitudes and the lowest temperatures at which an ABR was identified (the threshold) were measured during both cooling and rewarming. Temperatures from four standard temperature monitoring sites were simultaneously recorded. The latencies of ABRs increased and amplitudes decreased with cooling (P < 0.01), but rewarming reversed these effects. The ABR threshold temperature as related to each monitoring site (ear-canal, nasopharynx, esophagus and bladder) was respectively determined as 23 +/- 2.2 degrees C, 20.8 +/- 1.7 degrees C, 14.6 +/- 3.4 degrees C, and 21.5 +/- 3.8 degrees C during cooling and 21.8 +/- 1.6 degrees C, 22.4 +/- 2.0 degrees C, 27.6 +/- 3.6 degrees C, and 23.0 +/- 2.4 degrees C during rewarming. The rewarming latencies were shorter and Q10 latencies smaller than the corresponding cooling values (P < 0.01). Esophageal and bladder sites were more susceptible to temperature variations as compared with the ear-canal and nasopharynx. No temperature site reliably predicted an electrophysiological threshold. A faster latency recovery during rewarming suggests that body temperature monitoring underestimates the effects of rewarming in the core-brain. ABRs may be helpful to monitor the effects of cooling and rewarming on the core-brain during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass.

  2. A coordinated interdependent protein circuitry stabilizes the kinetochore ensemble to protect CENP-A in the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Thakur

    Full Text Available Unlike most eukaryotes, a kinetochore is fully assembled early in the cell cycle in budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. These kinetochores are clustered together throughout the cell cycle. Kinetochore assembly on point centromeres of S. cerevisiae is considered to be a step-wise process that initiates with binding of inner kinetochore proteins on specific centromere DNA sequence motifs. In contrast, kinetochore formation in C. albicans, that carries regional centromeres of 3-5 kb long, has been shown to be a sequence independent but an epigenetically regulated event. In this study, we investigated the process of kinetochore assembly/disassembly in C. albicans. Localization dependence of various kinetochore proteins studied by confocal microscopy and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed that assembly of a kinetochore is a highly coordinated and interdependent event. Partial depletion of an essential kinetochore protein affects integrity of the kinetochore cluster. Further protein depletion results in complete collapse of the kinetochore architecture. In addition, GFP-tagged kinetochore proteins confirmed similar time-dependent disintegration upon gradual depletion of an outer kinetochore protein (Dam1. The loss of integrity of a kinetochore formed on centromeric chromatin was demonstrated by reduced binding of CENP-A and CENP-C at the centromeres. Most strikingly, Western blot analysis revealed that gradual depletion of any of these essential kinetochore proteins results in concomitant reduction in cellular protein levels of CENP-A. We further demonstrated that centromere bound CENP-A is protected from the proteosomal mediated degradation. Based on these results, we propose that a coordinated interdependent circuitry of several evolutionarily conserved essential kinetochore proteins ensures integrity of a kinetochore formed on the foundation of CENP-A containing centromeric chromatin.

  3. Determining the control circuitry of redox metabolism at the genome-scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Federowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining how facultative anaerobic organisms sense and direct cellular responses to electron acceptor availability has been a subject of intense study. However, even in the model organism Escherichia coli, established mechanisms only explain a small fraction of the hundreds of genes that are regulated during electron acceptor shifts. Here we propose a qualitative model that accounts for the full breadth of regulated genes by detailing how two global transcription factors (TFs, ArcA and Fnr of E. coli, sense key metabolic redox ratios and act on a genome-wide basis to regulate anabolic, catabolic, and energy generation pathways. We first fill gaps in our knowledge of this transcriptional regulatory network by carrying out ChIP-chip and gene expression experiments to identify 463 regulatory events. We then interfaced this reconstructed regulatory network with a highly curated genome-scale metabolic model to show that ArcA and Fnr regulate >80% of total metabolic flux and 96% of differential gene expression across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Based on the data, we propose a feedforward with feedback trim regulatory scheme, given the extensive repression of catabolic genes by ArcA and extensive activation of chemiosmotic genes by Fnr. We further corroborated this regulatory scheme by showing a 0.71 r(2 (p<1e-6 correlation between changes in metabolic flux and changes in regulatory activity across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Finally, we are able to relate the proposed model to a wealth of previously generated data by contextualizing the existing transcriptional regulatory network.

  4. Histamine modulation of the basal ganglia circuitry in the development of pathological grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Frick, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant histaminergic function has been proposed as a cause of tic disorders. A rare mutation in the enzyme that produces histamine (HA), histidine decarboxylase (HDC), has been identified in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Hdc knockout mice exhibit repetitive behavioral pathology and neurochemical characteristics of TS, establishing them as a plausible model of tic pathophysiology. Where, when, and how HA deficiency produces these effects has remained unclear: whether the contribution of HA deficiency to pathogenesis is acute or developmental, and where in the brain the relevant consequences of HA deficiency occur. Here, we address these key pathophysiological questions, using anatomically and cellularly targeted manipulations in mice. We report that specific ablation or chemogenetic silencing of histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus leads to markedly elevated grooming, a form of repetitive behavioral pathology, and to elevated markers of neuronal activity in both dorsal striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Infusion of HA directly into the striatum reverses this behavioral pathology, confirming that acute HA deficiency mediates the effect. Bidirectional chemogenetic regulation reveals that dorsal striatum neurons activated after TMN silencing are both sufficient to produce repetitive behavioral pathology and necessary for the full expression of the effect. Chemogenetic activation of TMN-regulated medial prefrontal cortex neurons, in contrast, increases locomotion and not grooming. These data confirm the centrality of striatal regulation by neurotransmitter HA in the adult in the production of pathological grooming. PMID:28584117

  5. Relationship between structural brainstem and brain plasticity and lower-limb training in spinal cord injury: a longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eVilliger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitative training has shown to improve significantly motor outcomes and functional walking capacity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI. However, whether performance improvements during rehabilitation relate to brain plasticity or whether it is based on functional adaptation of movement strategies remain uncertain. This study assessed training improvement-induced structural brain plasticity in chronic iSCI patients using longitudinal MRI.We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM to analyze longitudinal brain volume changes associated with intensive virtual reality (VR-augmented lower limb training in nine traumatic iSCI patients. The MRI data was acquired before and after a 4-week training period (16-20 training sessions. Before training, voxel-based morphometry (VBM and voxel-based cortical thickness (VBCT assessed baseline morphometric differences in nine iSCI patients compared to 14 healthy controls. The intense VR-augmented training of limb control improved significantly balance, walking speed, ambulation, and muscle strength in patients. Retention of clinical improvements was confirmed by the 3-4 months follow-up. In patients relative to controls, reductions in VBM of white matter volume within the brainstem and cerebellum and VBCT showed cortical thinning in the primary motor cortex. Over time, TBM revealed significant improvement-induced increases in the left middle temporal and occipital gyrus, left temporal pole and fusiform gyrus, both hippocampi, cerebellum, corpus callosum, and brainstem in iSCI patients. This study demonstrates structural plasticity at the cortical and brainstem level as a consequence of VR-augmented training in iSCI patients. These structural changes may serve as neuroimaging biomarkers of VR-augmented lower limb neurorehabilitation in addition to performance measures to detect improvements in rehabilitative training.

  6. Relationship between structural brainstem and brain plasticity and lower-limb training in spinal cord injury: a longitudinal pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Michael; Grabher, Patrick; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Curt, Armin; Bolliger, Marc; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina; Kollias, Spyros; Eng, Kynan; Freund, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitative training has shown to improve significantly motor outcomes and functional walking capacity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, whether performance improvements during rehabilitation relate to brain plasticity or whether it is based on functional adaptation of movement strategies remain uncertain. This study assessed training improvement-induced structural brain plasticity in chronic iSCI patients using longitudinal MRI. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to analyze longitudinal brain volume changes associated with intensive virtual reality (VR)-augmented lower limb training in nine traumatic iSCI patients. The MRI data was acquired before and after a 4-week training period (16–20 training sessions). Before training, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based cortical thickness (VBCT) assessed baseline morphometric differences in nine iSCI patients compared to 14 healthy controls. The intense VR-augmented training of limb control improved significantly balance, walking speed, ambulation, and muscle strength in patients. Retention of clinical improvements was confirmed by the 3–4 months follow-up. In patients relative to controls, VBM revealed reductions of white matter volume within the brainstem and cerebellum and VBCT showed cortical thinning in the primary motor cortex. Over time, TBM revealed significant improvement-induced volume increases in the left middle temporal and occipital gyrus, left temporal pole and fusiform gyrus, both hippocampi, cerebellum, corpus callosum, and brainstem in iSCI patients. This study demonstrates structural plasticity at the cortical and brainstem level as a consequence of VR-augmented training in iSCI patients. These structural changes may serve as neuroimaging biomarkers of VR-augmented lower limb neurorehabilitation in addition to performance measures to detect improvements in rehabilitative training. PMID:25999842

  7. PAM50: Unbiased multimodal template of the brainstem and spinal cord aligned with the ICBM152 space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leener, Benjamin; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis; Callot, Virginie; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2018-01-15

    Template-based analysis of multi-parametric MRI data of the spinal cord sets the foundation for standardization and reproducibility, thereby helping the discovery of new biomarkers of spinal-related diseases. While MRI templates of the spinal cord have been recently introduced, none of them cover the entire spinal cord. In this study, we introduced an unbiased multimodal MRI template of the spinal cord and the brainstem, called PAM50, which is anatomically compatible with the ICBM152 brain template and uses the same coordinate system. The PAM50 template is based on 50 healthy subjects, covers the full spinal cord (C1 to L2 vertebral levels) and the brainstem, is available for T1-, T2-and T2*-weighted MRI contrasts and includes a probabilistic atlas of the gray matter and white matter tracts. Template creation accuracy was assessed by computing the mean and maximum distance error between each individual spinal cord centerline and the PAM50 centerline, after registration to the template. Results showed high accuracy for both T1- (mean = 0.37 ± 0.06 mm; max = 1.39 ± 0.58 mm) and T2-weighted (mean = 0.11 ± 0.03 mm; max = 0.71 ± 0.27 mm) contrasts. Additionally, the preservation of the spinal cord topology during the template creation process was verified by comparing the cross-sectional area (CSA) profile, averaged over all subjects, and the CSA profile of the PAM50 template. The fusion of the PAM50 and ICBM152 templates will facilitate group and multi-center studies of combined brain and spinal cord MRI, and enable the use of existing atlases of the brainstem compatible with the ICBM space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A new strategic neurosurgical planning tool for brainstem cavernous malformations using interactive computer graphics with multimodal fusion images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Taichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Shojima, Masaaki; Tanaka, Minoru; Ino, Kenji; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the authors used preoperative simulation employing 3D computer graphics (interactive computer graphics) to fuse all imaging data for brainstem cavernous malformations. The authors evaluated whether interactive computer graphics or 2D imaging correlated better with the actual operative field, particularly in identifying a developmental venous anomaly (DVA). The study population consisted of 10 patients scheduled for surgical treatment of brainstem cavernous malformations. Data from preoperative imaging (MRI, CT, and 3D rotational angiography) were automatically fused using a normalized mutual information method, and then reconstructed by a hybrid method combining surface rendering and volume rendering methods. With surface rendering, multimodality and multithreshold techniques for 1 tissue were applied. The completed interactive computer graphics were used for simulation of surgical approaches and assumed surgical fields. Preoperative diagnostic rates for a DVA associated with brainstem cavernous malformation were compared between conventional 2D imaging and interactive computer graphics employing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The time required for reconstruction of 3D images was 3-6 hours for interactive computer graphics. Observation in interactive mode required approximately 15 minutes. Detailed anatomical information for operative procedures, from the craniotomy to microsurgical operations, could be visualized and simulated three-dimensionally as 1 computer graphic using interactive computer graphics. Virtual surgical views were consistent with actual operative views. This technique was very useful for examining various surgical approaches. Mean (±SEM) area under the ROC curve for rate of DVA diagnosis was significantly better for interactive computer graphics (1.000±0.000) than for 2D imaging (0.766±0.091; pcomputer graphics than with 2D images. Interactive computer graphics was also useful in helping to plan the surgical

  9. The role of eABR with intracochlear test electrode in decision making between cochlear and brainstem implants: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Betul Cicek; Yarali, Mehmet; Atay, Gamze; Bajin, Munir Demir; Sennaroglu, Gonca; Sennaroglu, Levent

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the study was to discuss the findings of intraoperative electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (eABR) test results with a recently designed intracochlear test electrode (ITE) in terms of their relation to decisions of cochlear or auditory brainstem implantation. This clinical study was conducted in Hacettepe University, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Audiology. Subjects were selected from inner ear malformation (IEM) database. Eleven subjects with profound sensorineural hearing loss were included in the current study with age range from 1 year 3 months to 4 years 3 months for children with prelingual hearing loss. There was only one 42-year-old post-lingual subject. eABR was recorded with an ITE and intraoperatively with an original cochlear implant (CI) electrode in 11 cases with different IEMs. Findings of eABR with ITE and their relation to the decision for CI or auditory brainstem implant (ABI) are discussed. Positive eABR test results were found to be dependent on close to normal cochlear structures and auditory nerve. The probability of positive result decreases with increasing degree of malformation severity. The prediction value of eABR via ITE on decision for hearing restoration was found to be questionable in this study. The results of eABR with ITE have predictive value on what we will get with the actual CI electrode. ITE appears to stimulate the cochlea like an actual CI. If the eABR is positive, the results are reliable. However, if eABR is negative, the results should be evaluated with preoperative audiological testing and MRI findings.

  10. In vivo functional connectome of human brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, autonomic, and motor systems by high spatial resolution 7-Tesla fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Eichner, Cornelius; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Setsompop, Kawin; Brown, Emery N; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Rosen, Bruce R; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to map the in vivo human functional connectivity of several brainstem nuclei with the rest of the brain by using seed-based correlation of ultra-high magnetic field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We used the recently developed template of 11 brainstem nuclei derived from multi-contrast structural MRI at 7 Tesla as seed regions to determine their connectivity to the rest of the brain. To achieve this, we used the increased contrast-to-noise ratio of 7-Tesla fMRI compared with 3 Tesla and time-efficient simultaneous multi-slice imaging to cover the brain with high spatial resolution (1.1-mm isotropic nominal resolution) while maintaining a short repetition time (2.5 s). The delineated Pearson's correlation-based functional connectivity diagrams (connectomes) of 11 brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, motor, and autonomic systems from 12 controls are presented and discussed in the context of existing histology and animal work. Considering that the investigated brainstem nuclei play a crucial role in several vital functions, the delineated preliminary connectomes might prove useful for future in vivo research and clinical studies of human brainstem function and pathology, including disorders of consciousness, sleep disorders, autonomic disorders, Parkinson's disease, and other motor disorders.

  11. Interactions between entorhinal axons and target hippocampal neurons: a role for glutamate in the development of hippocampal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, M P; Lee, R E; Adams, M E; Guthrie, P B; Kater, S B

    1988-11-01

    A coculture system consisting of input axons from entorhinal cortex explants and target hippocampal pyramidal neurons was used to demonstrate that glutamate, released spontaneously from afferent axons, can influence both dendritic geometry of target neurons and formation of presumptive synaptic sites. Dendritic outgrowth was reduced in hippocampal neurons growing on entorhinal axons when compared with neurons growing off the axons. Presumptive presynaptic sites were observed in association with hippocampal neuron dendrites and somas. HPLC analysis showed that glutamate was released from the explants in an activity- and Ca2(+)-dependent manner. The general glutamate receptor antagonist D-glutamylglycine significantly increased dendritic outgrowth in pyramidal neurons associated with entorhinal axons and reduced presumptive presynaptic sites. Tetrodotoxin and reduction of extracellular Ca2+ also promoted dendritic outgrowth and reduced the formation of presumptive synaptic sites. The results suggest that the neurotransmitter glutamate may play important roles in the development of hippocampal circuitry.

  12. In search of the next memory inside the circuitry from the oldest to the emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This book provides students and practicing chip designers with an easy-to-follow yet thorough, introductory treatment of the most promising emerging memories under development in the industry. Focusing on the chip designer rather than the end user, this book offers expanded, up-to-date coverage of emerging memories circuit design. After an introduction on the old solid-state memories and the fundamental limitations soon to be encountered, the working principle and main technology issues of each of the considered technologies (PCRAM, MRAM, FeRAM, ReRAM) are reviewed and a range of topics related to design is explored: the array organization, sensing and writing circuitry, programming algorithms and error correction techniques are reviewed comparing the approach followed and the constraints for each of the technologies considered. Finally the issue of radiation effects on memory devices has been briefly treated. Additionally some considerations are entertained about how emerging memories can find a place in the...

  13. Neonatal hearing screening of high-risk infants using automated auditory brainstem response: a retrospective analysis of referral rates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGurgan, I J

    2013-10-07

    The past decade has seen the widespread introduction of universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) programmes worldwide. Regrettably, such a programme is only now in the process of nationwide implementation in the Republic of Ireland and has been largely restricted to one screening modality for initial testing; namely transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of employing a different screening protocol which utilises an alternative initial test, automated auditory brainstem response (AABR), on referral rates to specialist audiology services.

  14. Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for brainstem metastases: the Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul J; Lin, Yijie Brittany; Yu, Alvin Y C; Ropper, Alexander E; Nguyen, Paul L; Marcus, Karen J; Hacker, Fred L; Weiss, Stephanie E

    2011-09-01

    To review the safety and efficacy of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brainstem metastases. We reviewed all patients with brain metastases treated with SRS at DF/BWCC from 2001 to 2009 to identify patients who had SRS to a single brainstem metastasis. Overall survival and freedom-from-local failure rates were calculated from the date of SRS using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 24 consecutive patients with brainstem metastases had SRS. At the time of SRS, 21/24 had metastatic lesions elsewhere within the brain. 23/24 had undergone prior WBRT. Primary diagnoses included eight NSCLC, eight breast cancer, three melanoma, three renal cell carcinoma and two others. Median dose was 13 Gy (range, 8-16). One patient had fractionated SRS 5 Gy ×5. Median target volume was 0.2 cc (range, 0.02-2.39). The median age was 57 years (range, 42-92). Follow-up information was available in 22/24 cases. At the time of analysis, 18/22 patients (82%) had died. The median overall survival time was 5.3 months (range, 0.8-21.1 months). The only prognostic factor that trended toward statistical significance for overall survival was the absence of synchronous brain metastasis at the time of SRS; 1-year overall survival was 31% with versus 67% without synchronous brain metastasis (log rank P = 0.11). Non-significant factors included primary tumor histology and status of extracranial disease (progressing vs. stable/absent). Local failure occurred in 4/22 cases (18%). Actuarial freedom from local failure for all cases was 78.6% at 1 year. RTOG grade 3 toxicities were recorded in two patients (ataxia, confusion). Linac-based SRS for small volume brainstem metastases using a median dose of 13 Gy is associated with acceptable local control and low morbidity.

  15. Distribution and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem of the New Zealand white rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, C R; Sørensen, J C; Geneser, F A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the morphology and distribution of the serotonergic neurons in the brainstem of the New Zealand white rabbit by using a highly specific immunocytochemical procedure. It was possible to divide the serotonergic neurons into a rostral group, which......, which were large and multipolar, were morphologically different from the serotonergic neurons in the midline, which were mostly small and relatively nonpolar. The serotonergic system of the New Zealand white rabbit has undergone a major lateralization, like the serotonergic system of man and higher...

  16. Distribution and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem of the New Zealand white rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, C R; Sørensen, J C; Geneser, F A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the morphology and distribution of the serotonergic neurons in the brainstem of the New Zealand white rabbit by using a highly specific immunocytochemical procedure. It was possible to divide the serotonergic neurons into a rostral group, which......, which were large and multipolar, were morphologically different from the serotonergic neurons in the midline, which were mostly small and relatively nonpolar. The serotonergic system of the New Zealand white rabbit has undergone a major lateralization, like the serotonergic system of man and higher...... and morphology, and this possible subspecialization of the serotonergic system is discussed in the context of present knowledge of serotonergic anatomy and function....

  17. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Chiaho; Merchant, Thomas E.; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto; Zhang, Yong; Li Yimei; Glenn, George R.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4–39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54–59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6–5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7–59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response

  18. Bilateral primary motor cortex circuitry is modulated due to theta burst stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex and bimanual training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neva, Jason L; Vesia, Michael; Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2015-08-27

    Motor preparatory and execution activity is enhanced after a single session of bimanual visuomotor training (BMT). Recently, we have shown that increased primary motor cortex (M1) excitability occurs when BMT involves simultaneous activation of homologous muscles and these effects are enhanced when BMT is preceded by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to the left dorsal premotor cortex (lPMd). The neural mechanisms underlying these modulations are unclear, but may include interhemispheric interactions between homologous M1s and connectivity with premotor regions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible intracortical and interhemispheric modulations of the extensor carpi radials (ECR) representation in M1 bilaterally due to: (1) BMT, (2) iTBS to lPMd, and (3) iTBS to lPMd followed by BMT. This study tests three related hypotheses: (1) BMT will enhance excitability within and between M1 bilaterally, (2) iTBS to lPMd will primarily enhance left M1 (lM1) excitability, and (3) the combination of these interventions will cause a greater enhancement of bilateral M1 excitability. We used single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to quantify M1 circuitry bilaterally. The results demonstrate the neural mechanisms underlying the early markers of rapid functional plasticity associated with BMT and iTBS to lPMd primarily relate to modulations of long-interval inhibitory (i.e. GABAB-mediated) circuitry within and between M1s. This work provides novel insight into the underlying neural mechanisms involved in M1 excitability changes associated with BMT and iTBS to lPMd. Critically, this work may inform rehabilitation training and stimulation techniques that modulate cortical plasticity after brain injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Graded and discontinuous EphA-ephrinB expression patterns in the developing auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Matthew M; Harris, J Aaron; Brubaker, Donald Q; Klotz, Caitlyn A; Gabriele, Mark L

    2016-05-01

    Eph-ephrin interactions guide topographic mapping and pattern formation in a variety of systems. In contrast to other sensory pathways, their precise role in the assembly of central auditory circuits remains poorly understood. The auditory midbrain, or inferior colliculus (IC) is an intriguing structure for exploring guidance of patterned projections as adjacent subdivisions exhibit distinct organizational features. The central nucleus of the IC (CNIC) and deep aspects of its neighboring lateral cortex (LCIC, Layer 3) are tonotopically-organized and receive layered inputs from primarily downstream auditory sources. While less is known about more superficial aspects of the LCIC, its inputs are multimodal, lack a clear tonotopic order, and appear discontinuous, terminating in modular, patch/matrix-like distributions. Here we utilize X-Gal staining approaches in lacZ mutant mice (ephrin-B2, -B3, and EphA4) to reveal EphA-ephrinB expression patterns in the nascent IC during the period of projection shaping that precedes hearing onset. We also report early postnatal protein expression in the cochlear nuclei, the superior olivary complex, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and relevant midline structures. Continuous ephrin-B2 and EphA4 expression gradients exist along frequency axes of the CNIC and LCIC Layer 3. In contrast, more superficial LCIC localization is not graded, but confined to a series of discrete ephrin-B2 and EphA4-positive Layer 2 modules. While heavily expressed in the midline, much of the auditory brainstem is devoid of ephrin-B3, including the CNIC, LCIC Layer 2 modular fields, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), as well as much of the superior olivary complex and cochlear nuclei. Ephrin-B3 LCIC expression appears complementary to that of ephrin-B2 and EphA4, with protein most concentrated in presumptive extramodular zones. Described tonotopic gradients and seemingly complementary modular/extramodular patterns suggest Eph

  20. AgRP neurons regulate development of dopamine neuronal plasticity and nonfood-associated behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Marcelo O; Bober, Jeremy; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Tellez, Luis A; Mineur, Yann S; Souza, Diogo O; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Picciotto, Marina R; Araújo, Ivan; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Horvath, Tamas L

    2012-01-01

    It is not known whether behaviors unrelated to feeding are affected by hypothalamic regulators of hunger. We found that impairment of Agouti-related protein (AgRP) circuitry by either Sirt1 knockdown in AgRP-expressing neurons or early postnatal ablation of these neurons increased exploratory behavior and enhanced responses to cocaine. In