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Sample records for brainstem accessory auditory

  1. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... auditory potentials; Brainstem auditory evoked potentials; Evoked response audiometry; Auditory brainstem response; ABR; BAEP ... Normal results vary. Results will depend on the person and the instruments used to perform the test.

  2. Auditory brainstem implant program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marc S; Wilkinson, Eric P

    2017-08-01

    Auditory brainstem implants (ABIs), which have previously been used to restore auditory perception to deaf patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), are now being utilized in other situations, including treatment of congenitally deaf children with cochlear malformations or cochlear nerve deficiencies. Concurrent with this expansion of indications, the number of centers placing and expressing interest in placing ABIs has proliferated. Because ABI placement involves posterior fossa craniotomy in order to access the site of implantation on the cochlear nucleus complex of the brainstem and is not without significant risk, we aim to highlight issues important in developing and maintaining successful ABI programs that would be in the best interests of patients. Especially with pediatric patients, the ultimate benefits of implantation will be known only after years of growth and development. These benefits have yet to be fully elucidated and continue to be an area of controversy. The limited number of publications in this area were reviewed. Review of the current literature was performed. Disease processes, risk/benefit analyses, degrees of evidence, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals differ among various categories of patients in whom auditory brainstem implantation could be considered for use. We suggest sets of criteria necessary for the development of successful and sustaining ABI programs, including programs for NF2 patients, postlingually deafened adult nonneurofibromatosis type 2 patients, and congenitally deaf pediatric patients. Laryngoscope, 127:1909-1915, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Glial cell contributions to auditory brainstem development

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    Karina S Cramer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of specialized auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms. Several classes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia, have now been explored in these circuits in both avian and mammalian brainstems. Distinct populations of astrocytes are found over the course of auditory brainstem maturation. Early appearing astrocytes are associated with spatial compartments in the avian auditory brainstem. Factors from late appearing astrocytes promote synaptogenesis and dendritic maturation, and astrocytes remain integral parts of specialized auditory synapses. Oligodendrocytes play a unique role in both birds and mammals in highly regulated myelination essential for proper timing to decipher interaural cues. Microglia arise early in brainstem development and may contribute to maturation of auditory pathways. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of non-neuronal cells in the assembly of specialized auditory brainstem circuits.

  4. Auditory brain-stem responses in adrenomyeloneuropathy.

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    Grimes, A M; Elks, M L; Grunberger, G; Pikus, A M

    1983-09-01

    We studied three patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy. Complete audiologic assessment was obtained: two patients showed unimpaired peripheral hearing and one showed a mild high-frequency hearing loss. Auditory brain-stem responses were abnormal in both ears of all subjects, with one subject showing no response above wave I, and the other two having significant wave I to III and wave III to V interval prolongations. We concluded that auditory brain-stem response testing provides a simple, valid, reliable method for demonstrating neurologic abnormality in adrenomyeloneuropathy even prior to evidence of clinical signs.

  5. Presbycusis and auditory brainstem responses: a review

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    Shilpa Khullar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss or presbycusis is a complex phenomenon consisting of elevation of hearing levels as well as changes in the auditory processing. It is commonly classified into four categories depending on the cause. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs are a type of early evoked potentials recorded within the first 10 ms of stimulation. They represent the synchronized activity of the auditory nerve and the brainstem. Some of the changes that occur in the aging auditory system may significantly influence the interpretation of the ABRs in comparison with the ABRs of the young adults. The waves of ABRs are described in terms of amplitude, latencies and interpeak latency of the different waves. There is a tendency of the amplitude to decrease and the absolute latencies to increase with advancing age but these trends are not always clear due to increase in threshold with advancing age that act a major confounding factor in the interpretation of ABRs.

  6. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

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    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  7. The auditory brainstem is a barometer of rapid auditory learning.

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    Skoe, E; Krizman, J; Spitzer, E; Kraus, N

    2013-07-23

    To capture patterns in the environment, neurons in the auditory brainstem rapidly alter their firing based on the statistical properties of the soundscape. How this neural sensitivity relates to behavior is unclear. We tackled this question by combining neural and behavioral measures of statistical learning, a general-purpose learning mechanism governing many complex behaviors including language acquisition. We recorded complex auditory brainstem responses (cABRs) while human adults implicitly learned to segment patterns embedded in an uninterrupted sound sequence based on their statistical characteristics. The brainstem's sensitivity to statistical structure was measured as the change in the cABR between a patterned and a pseudo-randomized sequence composed from the same set of sounds but differing in their sound-to-sound probabilities. Using this methodology, we provide the first demonstration that behavioral-indices of rapid learning relate to individual differences in brainstem physiology. We found that neural sensitivity to statistical structure manifested along a continuum, from adaptation to enhancement, where cABR enhancement (patterned>pseudo-random) tracked with greater rapid statistical learning than adaptation. Short- and long-term auditory experiences (days to years) are known to promote brainstem plasticity and here we provide a conceptual advance by showing that the brainstem is also integral to rapid learning occurring over minutes. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

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    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  9. Neurodynamics, tonality, and the auditory brainstem response.

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    Large, Edward W; Almonte, Felix V

    2012-04-01

    Tonal relationships are foundational in music, providing the basis upon which musical structures, such as melodies, are constructed and perceived. A recent dynamic theory of musical tonality predicts that networks of auditory neurons resonate nonlinearly to musical stimuli. Nonlinear resonance leads to stability and attraction relationships among neural frequencies, and these neural dynamics give rise to the perception of relationships among tones that we collectively refer to as tonal cognition. Because this model describes the dynamics of neural populations, it makes specific predictions about human auditory neurophysiology. Here, we show how predictions about the auditory brainstem response (ABR) are derived from the model. To illustrate, we derive a prediction about population responses to musical intervals that has been observed in the human brainstem. Our modeled ABR shows qualitative agreement with important features of the human ABR. This provides a source of evidence that fundamental principles of auditory neurodynamics might underlie the perception of tonal relationships, and forces reevaluation of the role of learning and enculturation in tonal cognition. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Modeling auditory evoked brainstem responses to transient stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative model is presented that describes the formation of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to tone pulses, clicks and rising chirps as a function of stimulation level. The model computes the convolution of the instantaneous discharge rates using the “humanized” nonlinear auditory-nerve ...

  11. Auditory brainstem responses in term newborns with hyperbilirubinemia

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    Mônica Jubran Chapchap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate auditory brainstem responses in term newbornswith hyperbilirubinemia. Methods: Seventy-one newborns, 35 withaggravated physiological neonatal jaundice (group I, 24 with ABOblood incompatibility (group II and 12 not suffering from jaundice orany other disease were submitted to auditory brainstem responses.Statistical analysis of variance was performed to evaluate waveformreproducibility, absolute and interwave latencies, and Pearsoncoefficient was used to evaluate the association between the level ofserum bilirubin and abnormalities in the auditory brainstem responses.Results: According to the criteria assumed in the present paperwaveform alterations were more frequently found in group II than inthe control group (p = 0.023. No significant differences were observedbetween groups I and II (p = 0.083 or between control group andgroup I (p = 0.166. Wave I latency at 80 dBHL for good reproducibilityresponses and III-V interwave latency at 40 dBHL for poor reproducibilityresponses of newborns with hyperbilirubinemia showed significantfindings in relation to the control group (0.008 and 0.004 respectively.There was positive, weak (9% association between serum indirectbilirubin levels and auditory brainstem responses only when the twogroups were analyzed together. Conclusions: Neonatalhyperbilirubinemia changed the conduction of auditory stimulus interm newborns with jaundice caused by ABO blood incompatibility.There was poor positive association between plasma levels of bilirubinand abnormalities in auditory brainstem responses.

  12. Auditory Brainstem Responses to Continuous Natural Speech in Human Listeners.

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    Maddox, Ross K; Lee, Adrian K C

    2018-01-01

    Speech is an ecologically essential signal, whose processing crucially involves the subcortical nuclei of the auditory brainstem, but there are few experimental options for studying these early responses in human listeners under natural conditions. While encoding of continuous natural speech has been successfully probed in the cortex with neurophysiological tools such as electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography, the rapidity of subcortical response components combined with unfavorable signal-to-noise ratios signal-to-noise ratio has prevented application of those methods to the brainstem. Instead, experiments have used thousands of repetitions of simple stimuli such as clicks, tone-bursts, or brief spoken syllables, with deviations from those paradigms leading to ambiguity in the neural origins of measured responses. In this study we developed and tested a new way to measure the auditory brainstem response (ABR) to ongoing, naturally uttered speech, using EEG to record from human listeners. We found a high degree of morphological similarity between the speech-derived ABRs and the standard click-evoked ABR, in particular, a preserved Wave V, the most prominent voltage peak in the standard click-evoked ABR. Because this method yields distinct peaks that recapitulate the canonical ABR, at latencies too short to originate from the cortex, the responses measured can be unambiguously determined to be subcortical in origin. The use of naturally uttered speech to measure the ABR allows the design of engaging behavioral tasks, facilitating new investigations of the potential effects of cognitive processes like language and attention on brainstem processing.

  13. The impact of maternal smoking on fast auditory brainstem responses.

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    Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Carroll, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in auditory processing have been posited as one of the underlying neurodevelopmental consequences of maternal smoking during pregnancy that leads to later language and reading deficits. Fast auditory brainstem responses were used to assess differences in the sensory processing of auditory stimuli among infants with varying degrees of prenatal cigarette exposure. Maternal report of consumption of cigarettes and blood samples were collected in the hospital to assess exposure levels and participants were then seen at 6-months. To participate in the study, all infants had to pass the newborn hearing exam or a clinically administered ABR and have no known health problems. After controlling for participant age, maternal smoking during pregnancy was negatively related to latency of auditory brainstem responses. Of several potential covariates, only perinatal complications and maternal alcohol use were also related to latency of the ABR responses and maternal smoking level accounted for significant unique variance after controlling for these factors. These results suggest that the relationship between maternal smoking may lead to disruption in the sensory encoding of auditory stimuli.

  14. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

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    Aldonate, J; Mercuri, C; Reta, J; Biurrun, J; Bonell, C; Gentiletti, G; Escobar, S; Acevedo, R [Laboratorio de Ingenieria en Rehabilitacion e Investigaciones Neuromusculares y Sensoriales (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, Ruta 11 - Km 10, Oro Verde, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  15. Construction of Hindi Speech Stimuli for Eliciting Auditory Brainstem Responses.

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    Ansari, Mohammad Shamim; Rangasayee, R

    2016-12-01

    Speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses (spABRs) provide considerable information of clinical relevance to describe auditory processing of complex stimuli at the sub cortical level. The substantial research data have suggested faithful representation of temporal and spectral characteristics of speech sounds. However, the spABR are known to be affected by acoustic properties of speech, language experiences and training. Hence, there exists indecisive literature with regards to brainstem speech processing. This warrants establishment of language specific speech stimulus to describe the brainstem processing in specific oral language user. The objective of current study is to develop Hindi speech stimuli for recording auditory brainstem responses. The Hindi stop speech of 40 ms containing five formants was constructed. Brainstem evoked responses to speech sound |da| were gained from 25 normal hearing (NH) adults having mean age of 20.9 years (SD = 2.7) in the age range of 18-25 years and ten subjects (HI) with mild SNHL of mean 21.3 years (SD = 3.2) in the age range of 18-25 years. The statistically significant differences in the mean identification scores of synthesized for speech stimuli |da| and |ga| between NH and HI were obtained. The mean, median, standard deviation, minimum, maximum and 95 % confidence interval for the discrete peaks and V-A complex values of electrophysiological responses to speech stimulus were measured and compared between NH and HI population. This paper delineates a comprehensive methodological approach for development of Hindi speech stimuli and recording of ABR to speech. The acoustic characteristic of stimulus |da| was faithfully represented at brainstem level in normal hearing adults. There was statistically significance difference between NH and HI individuals. This suggests that spABR offers an opportunity to segregate normal speech encoding from abnormal speech processing at sub cortical level, which implies that

  16. EVALUATION OF BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL IN MIGRAINE PATIENT

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    Sowmiya R, Vinodha R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is worldwide common, chronic, Neurovascular disorder, characterized by attacks of severe headache and an Aura involving neurologic symptoms. Its pathogenesis was incompletely understood whether of cortical or brainstem origin. Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate brainstem auditory functions in Migraine patients. Materials and Methods: The subjects were recruited based on International Headache Society classification for Migraine. Subjects with episodes of headache for at least 2yrs, 2 attacks per month in last quarter year were included in the study. Forty subjects (16 Migraine with Aura & 24 cases – Migraine without aura & forty age / sex matched controls were selected. Brainstem auditory evoked potential was recorded using 4-Channel polygraph (Neuro perfect plus. Electrodes were placed according to 10 – 20 electrode placement system. Auditory stimulus in the form of click sound is delivered through the headphones. Clicks were delivered at a rate of 8-10 /sec. The intensity of the stimulus is set at 30db. About 100 averages were recorded. BAEP waveforms – Wave I, III & V latencies and the interpeak latencies were measured. The results were analysed statistically using student‘t’ test. Results: BAEP recording shows significant prolongation in latencies of Wave I, III & V and the Interpeak latency (IPL I-III, III-V & I-V in Migraine with aura. In Migraine without aura, there was significant prolongation of Wave I, III & V and III-V & I-VIPL (P<0.05. Conclusion: Prolongation suggests that there is involvement of brainstem structures in Migraine, thus BAEP can be used as an effective tool in evaluation of Migraine.

  17. The auditory brainstem response of aged guinea pigs.

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    Ingham, N J; Thornton, S K; Comis, S D; Withington, D J

    1998-09-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) technique was used to investigate potential dysfunctions in the auditory brainstem of the pigmented guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) associated with biological ageing. Animals aged from 58 days to 4 years 3 months were tested. ABRs were recorded at stimulation intensities from 85 dB HL to -10 dB HL. The auditory thresholds were found to undergo marked elevations in old animals, by an average of 32 dB. From the traces obtained, four positive deflection waves were reliably recorded. The latency of each of the four waves was evaluated at different stimulation intensities in guinea pigs of different ages. Although there was a trend for the latencies to increase in old age, these differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, there were no significant age-related changes in the inter-peak intervals. The latency/intensity functions of the four waves produced parallel curves. However, the curve from the old age group was shifted to the right, by an average of 35 dB, indicative of conductive hearing loss. There was no evidence of retro-cochlear hearing loss. Therefore, it appears that the threshold elevations in the old animals can be accounted for by conductive hearing loss, presumably in the middle ear. In 24% of the old animals tested, no ABR could be elicited. It would appear that these animals had suffered severe sensorineural hearing loss.

  18. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure

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    Katia de Freitas Alvarenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective: To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods: Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months. Results: The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 µg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433. All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion: No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area.

  19. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure.

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    Alvarenga, Katia de Freitas; Morata, Thais Catalani; Lopes, Andrea Cintra; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Corteletti, Lilian Cassia Bornia Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months). The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 μg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range: 2.433). All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Delayed auditory brainstem responses in prelingually deaf and late-implanted cochlear implant users

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    Lammers, Marc; van Eijl, Ruben; van Zanten, Gijsbert; Versnel, Huib; Grolman, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies in animals and humans suggest that severe hearing loss during early development impairs the maturation of the auditory brainstem. To date, studies in humans have mainly focused on the neural activation of the auditory brainstem in children treated with a cochlear implant

  1. Auditory brainstem maturation in normal-hearing infants born preterm : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, Lottie W; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Franken, Marie-Christine Jp; Nasserinejad, Kazem; Dudink, Jeroen; Goedegebure, André

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Children born preterm often have neurodevelopmental problems later in life. Abnormal maturation of the auditory brainstem in the presence of normal hearing might be a marker for these problems. We conducted a meta-analysis of auditory brainstem response (ABR) latencies at term age to describe

  2. Auditory Brainstem Responses in Children Treated with Cisplatin

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    Mohammad Kamali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In view of improvement in therapeutic outcome of cancer treatment in children resulting in increased survival rates and the importance of hearing in speech and language development, this research project was intended to assess the effects of cisplatin group on hearing ability in children aged 6 months to 12 years.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, hearing of 10 children on cisplatin group medication for cancer who met the inclusion criteria was examined by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABR using the three stimulants of click and 4 and 8 kHz tone bursts. All children were examined twice: before drug administration and within 72 hours after receiving the last dose. Then the results were compared with each other.Results: There was a significant difference between hearing thresholds before and after drug administration (p<0.05. Right and left ear threshold comparison revealed no significant difference.Conclusion: Ototoxic effects of cisplatin group were confirmed in this study. Insignificant difference observed in comparing right and left ear hearing thresholds could be due to small sample size. auditory brainstem responses test especially with frequency specificity proved to be a useful method in assessing cisplatin ototoxicity.

  3. Development of Brainstem-Evoked Responses in Congenital Auditory Deprivation

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    J. Tillein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the development of the auditory system in hearing and completely acoustically deprived animals, naive congenitally deaf white cats (CDCs and hearing controls (HCs were investigated at different developmental stages from birth till adulthood. The CDCs had no hearing experience before the acute experiment. In both groups of animals, responses to cochlear implant stimulation were acutely assessed. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (E-ABRs were recorded with monopolar stimulation at different current levels. CDCs demonstrated extensive development of E-ABRs, from first signs of responses at postnatal (p.n. day 3 through appearance of all waves of brainstem response at day 8 p.n. to mature responses around day 90 p.n.. Wave I of E-ABRs could not be distinguished from the artifact in majority of CDCs, whereas in HCs, it was clearly separated from the stimulus artifact. Waves II, III, and IV demonstrated higher thresholds in CDCs, whereas this difference was not found for wave V. Amplitudes of wave III were significantly higher in HCs, whereas wave V amplitudes were significantly higher in CDCs. No differences in latencies were observed between the animal groups. These data demonstrate significant postnatal subcortical development in absence of hearing, and also divergent effects of deafness on early waves II–IV and wave V of the E-ABR.

  4. Evaluation of an auditory brainstem response in icteric neonates

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    Ahmad Talebian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a common and preventable cause of sensory-neural hearing impairment, which can cause difficulties in the development of speech and communication. This study was conducted to detect the toxic effect of hyperbilirubinemia on the brain stem and auditory tract in neonates with icterus admitted to Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 neonates with increased indirect bilirubin admitted to Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan during 2014-2015. The patients were referred to Matini Hospital for the assessment of the auditory brainstem response (ABR; wave latency and interpeak intervals of the waves were also evaluated. According to the serum bilirubin level, the neonates were allocated into two groups; one group had a serum bilirubin level of 13-20 mg/d and another group had a bilirubin level more than 20 mg/d. Results: From 98 neonates, 26 (26.5% had a bilirubin level more than 20 mg/d and 72 (73.5% had a bilirubin level of 13-20 mg/d. Also, 46.1% of the neonates in the first group (bilirubin20 mg/d can cause an auditory processing disorder in neonates. So, performing ABR for screening and early detection of bilirubin toxicity can be recommended as a necessary audiologic intervention in all cases of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  5. A comparison of auditory brainstem responses across diving bird species

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    Crowell, Sara E.; Berlin, Alicia; Carr, Catherine E; Olsen, Glenn H.; Therrien, Ronald E; Yannuzzi, Sally E; Ketten, Darlene R

    2015-01-01

    There is little biological data available for diving birds because many live in hard-to-study, remote habitats. Only one species of diving bird, the black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), has been studied in respect to auditory capabilities (Wever et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 63:676–680, 1969). We, therefore, measured in-air auditory threshold in ten species of diving birds, using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The average audiogram obtained for each species followed the U-shape typical of birds and many other animals. All species tested shared a common region of the greatest sensitivity, from 1000 to 3000 Hz, although audiograms differed significantly across species. Thresholds of all duck species tested were more similar to each other than to the two non-duck species tested. The red-throated loon (Gavia stellata) and northern gannet (Morus bassanus) exhibited the highest thresholds while the lowest thresholds belonged to the duck species, specifically the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis). Vocalization parameters were also measured for each species, and showed that with the exception of the common eider (Somateria mollisima), the peak frequency, i.e., frequency at the greatest intensity, of all species' vocalizations measured here fell between 1000 and 3000 Hz, matching the bandwidth of the most sensitive hearing range.

  6. Auditory brainstem responses to stop consonants predict literacy.

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    Neef, Nicole E; Schaadt, Gesa; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-03-01

    Precise temporal coding of speech plays a pivotal role in sound processing throughout the central auditory system, which, in turn, influences literacy acquisition. The current study tests whether an electrophysiological measure of this precision predicts literacy skills. Complex auditory brainstem responses were analysed from 62 native German-speaking children aged 11-13years. We employed the cross-phaseogram approach to compute the quality of the electrophysiological stimulus contrast [da] and [ba]. Phase shifts were expected to vary with literacy. Receiver operating curves demonstrated a feasible sensitivity and specificity of the electrophysiological measure. A multiple regression analysis resulted in a significant prediction of literacy by delta cross-phase as well as phonological awareness. A further commonality analysis separated a unique variance that was explained by the physiological measure, from a unique variance that was explained by the behavioral measure, and common effects of both. Despite multicollinearities between literacy, phonological awareness, and subcortical differentiation of stop consonants, a combined assessment of behavior and physiology strongly increases the ability to predict literacy skills. The strong link between the neurophysiological signature of sound encoding and literacy outcome suggests that the delta cross-phase could indicate the risk of dyslexia and thereby complement subjective psychometric measures for early diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Auditory Brainstem Responses and EMFs Generated by Mobile Phones.

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    Khullar, Shilpa; Sood, Archana; Sood, Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    There has been a manifold increase in the number of mobile phone users throughout the world with the current number of users exceeding 2 billion. However this advancement in technology like many others is accompanied by a progressive increase in the frequency and intensity of electromagnetic waves without consideration of the health consequences. The aim of our study was to advance our understanding of the potential adverse effects of GSM mobile phones on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). 60 subjects were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 20 each based on their usage of mobile phones. Their ABRs were recorded and analysed for latency of waves I-V as well as interpeak latencies I-III, I-V and III-V (in ms). Results revealed no significant difference in the ABR parameters between group A (control group) and group B (subjects using mobile phones for maximum 30 min/day for 5 years). However the latency of waves was significantly prolonged in group C (subjects using mobile phones for 10 years for a maximum of 30 min/day) as compared to the control group. Based on our findings we concluded that long term exposure to mobile phones may affect conduction in the peripheral portion of the auditory pathway. However more research needs to be done to study the long term effects of mobile phones particularly of newer technologies like smart phones and 3G.

  8. Impairments in musical abilities reflected in the auditory brainstem: evidence from congenital amusia.

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    Lehmann, Alexandre; Skoe, Erika; Moreau, Patricia; Peretz, Isabelle; Kraus, Nina

    2015-07-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic condition, characterized by a deficit in music perception and production, not explained by hearing loss, brain damage or lack of exposure to music. Despite inferior musical performance, amusics exhibit normal auditory cortical responses, with abnormal neural correlates suggested to lie beyond auditory cortices. Here we show, using auditory brainstem responses to complex sounds in humans, that fine-grained automatic processing of sounds is impoverished in amusia. Compared with matched non-musician controls, spectral amplitude was decreased in amusics for higher harmonic components of the auditory brainstem response. We also found a delayed response to the early transient aspects of the auditory stimulus in amusics. Neural measures of spectral amplitude and response timing correlated with participants' behavioral assessments of music processing. We demonstrate, for the first time, that amusia affects how complex acoustic signals are processed in the auditory brainstem. This neural signature of amusia mirrors what is observed in musicians, such that the aspects of the auditory brainstem responses that are enhanced in musicians are degraded in amusics. By showing that gradients of music abilities are reflected in the auditory brainstem, our findings have implications not only for current models of amusia but also for auditory functioning in general. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Speech Auditory Brainstem Response through hearing aid stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellier, Ludovic; Veuillet, Evelyne; Vesson, Jean-François; Bouchet, Patrick; Caclin, Anne; Thai-Van, Hung

    2015-07-01

    Millions of people across the world are hearing impaired, and rely on hearing aids to improve their everyday life. Objective audiometry could optimize hearing aid fitting, and is of particular interest for non-communicative patients. Speech Auditory Brainstem Response (speech ABR), a fine electrophysiological marker of speech encoding, is presently seen as a promising candidate for implementing objective audiometry; yet, unlike lower-frequency auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) such as cortical AEPs or auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), aided-speech ABRs (i.e., speech ABRs through hearing aid stimulation) have almost never been recorded. This may be due to their high-frequency components requesting a high temporal precision of the stimulation. We assess here a new approach to record high-quality and artifact-free speech ABR while stimulating directly through hearing aids. In 4 normal-hearing adults, we recorded speech ABR evoked by a /ba/ syllable binaurally delivered through insert earphones for quality control or through hearing aids. To assess the presence of a potential stimulus artifact, recordings were also done in mute conditions with the exact same potential sources of stimulus artifacts as in the main runs. Hearing aid stimulation led to artifact-free speech ABR in each participant, with the same quality as when using insert earphones, as shown with signal-to-noise (SNR) measurements. Our new approach consisting in directly transmitting speech stimuli through hearing aids allowed for a perfect temporal precision mandatory in speech ABR recordings, and could thus constitute a decisive step in hearing impairment investigation and in hearing aid fitting improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid Increase in Neural Conduction Time in the Adult Human Auditory Brainstem Following Sudden Unilateral Deafness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maslin, M R. D; Lloyd, S K; Rutherford, S; Freeman, S; King, A; Moore, D R; Munro, K J

    2015-01-01

    .... Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to stimulation of the healthy ear were recorded from ten adults during the course of translabyrinthine surgery for the removal of a unilateral acoustic neuroma...

  11. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses in children with sequential bilateral cochlear implants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, M.; Beynon, A.J.; Snik, A.F.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of sequential bilateral cochlear implantation on auditory brainstem maturation and the effect of age in receiving the second implant (CI2). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center. PATIENTS: Thirty prelingually deaf

  12. Binaural interaction in the auditory brainstem response: a normative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2015-04-01

    Binaural interaction can be investigated using auditory evoked potentials. A binaural interaction component can be derived from the auditory brainstem response (ABR-BIC) and is considered evidence for binaural interaction at the level of the brainstem. Although click ABR-BIC has been investigated thoroughly, data on 500 Hz tone-burst (TB) ABR-BICs are scarce. In this study, characteristics of click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs are described. Furthermore, reliability of both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are investigated. Eighteen normal hearing young adults (eight women, ten men) were included. ABRs were recorded in response to clicks and 500 Hz TBs. ABR-BICs were derived by subtracting the binaural response from the sum of the monaural responses measured in opposite ears. Good inter-rater reliability is obtained for both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at a mean latency of 6.06 ms (SD 0.354 ms). Reliable 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are obtained with a mean latency of 9.47 ms (SD 0.678 ms). Amplitudes are larger for 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC than for clicks. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at the downslope of wave V. Five hundred Hertz TB ABR-BIC is characterized by a broad positivity occurring at the level of wave V. The ABR-BIC is a useful technique to investigate binaural interaction in certain populations. Examples are bilateral hearing aid users, bilateral cochlear implant users and bimodal listeners. The latter refers to the combination of unilateral cochlear implantation and contralateral residual hearing. The majority of these patients have residual hearing in the low frequencies. The current study suggests that 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC may be a suitable technique to assess binaural interaction in this specific population of cochlear implant users. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional abnormality of the auditory brainstem in high-risk late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze D; Ping, Li L; Wilkinson, Andrew R

    2012-05-01

    To examine whether late preterm infants with perinatal problems are at risk of brainstem auditory impairment. 68 high-risk late preterm infants (gestation 33-36 weeks) with perinatal problems or conditions were studied at term using maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response. The controls were 41 normal term infants and 37 low-risk late preterm infants. Compared with normal term infants, the high-risk late preterm infants demonstrated a significant abnormal increase in MLS BAER variables that mainly reflect more central function of the brainstem auditory pathway, including wave V latency, III-V and I-V interpeak intervals, and III-V/I-III interval ratio. The abnormalities were more significant at higher than at lower click rates. The slopes of MLS BAER-rate function for these variables were increased. Compared with low-risk late preterm infants, the high-risk infants showed similar, though slightly less significant, abnormalities, mainly a significant increase in III-V and I-V intervals. Maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response components that mainly reflect central function of the auditory brainstem were abnormal at term in high-risk late preterm infants. More central regions of the auditory brainstem are impaired in high-risk late preterm infants, which is mainly caused by associated perinatal problems or conditions. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Organization of the auditory brainstem in a lizard, Gekko gecko. I. Auditory nerve, cochlear nuclei, and superior olivary nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Y. Z.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Carr, C. E.

    2012-01-01

    We used tract tracing to reveal the connections of the auditory brainstem in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). The auditory nerve has two divisions, a rostroventrally directed projection of mid- to high best-frequency fibers to the nucleus angularis (NA) and a more dorsal and caudal projection of lo...

  15. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Matveev

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study is to typify BAEPs configurations of patients with different location of lesions caused by subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH and the ensuing complications, in view of assessing the auditory-brainstem system disturbance.Methods. The typization was performed by comparing BAEPs with standard patterns from two sets of types of BAEPs by ipsilateral and binaural stimulation and by cross-stimulation.Results. 94 BAEPs were used for collection of normal referential values: for the absolute latencies and the absolute amplitudes of waves I, II, III, IV and V; for inter-peak latencies I-III, II-III, III-V, I-V and II-V; for amplitude ratios I/V and III/V. 146 BAEPs of patients with mild SAH and 55 from patients with severe SAH, were typified. In 5 types of BAEPs out of a total of 11, the percentage of the potentials in patients with mild SAH and severe SAH differed significantly (p<0.01.Conclusions. The use of sets of types of BAEPs by ipsilateral, binaural and cross-stimulation correctly classifies the potentials in patients with mild and severe SAH.

  16. Reading ability reflects individual differences in auditory brainstem function, even into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, Erika; Brody, Lisa; Theodore, Rachel M

    2017-01-01

    Research with developmental populations suggests that the maturational state of auditory brainstem encoding is linked to reading ability. Specifically, children with poor reading skills resemble biologically younger children with respect to their auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to speech stimulation. Because ABR development continues into adolescence, it is possible that the link between ABRs and reading ability changes or resolves as the brainstem matures. To examine these possibilities, ABRs were recorded at varying presentation rates in adults with diverse, yet unimpaired reading levels. We found that reading ability in adulthood related to ABR Wave V latency, with more juvenile response morphology linked to less proficient reading ability, as has been observed for children. These data add to the evidence indicating that auditory brainstem responses serve as an index of the sound-based skills that underlie reading, even into adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Auditory brainstem response recording to multiple interleaved broadband chirps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebulla, Mario; Stürzebecher, Ekkehard; Don, Manuel; Müller-Mazzotta, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous application of multiple stimuli that excite different frequency regions of the cochlea is a well-established method for recording frequency-specific auditory steady state responses. Because the stimuli are applied at different repetition rates, they actually do not appear exactly simultaneously. There is always a certain time difference between the multiple frequency-specific stimuli. This is true also for multiple interleaved broadband stimuli. Therefore, because of this time difference, one may expect a successful recording of responses to multiple broadband chirp stimuli even when such stimuli activate the whole cochlear partition. This article describes a technique for recording auditory brainstem responses evoked by trains of broadband chirps presented simultaneously at equal stimulus levels but at different repetition rates. The interactions between the interleaved stimulus trains were studied to lay the foundation for a rapid method of assessing temporal aspects of peripheral auditory processing. The first step in laying this foundation is to determine the characteristics of responses from an intact and normal-hearing system to these interleaved chirp trains. Subsequently, the studied interactions between the interleaved applied stimuli may provide a referential framework for future clinical studies aimed at assessing pathological populations. Two chirp trains were applied concurrently at the same stimulus level but at different repetition rates of 20/sec and 22/sec, respectively. Two overall stimulus levels were investigated: 50 and 30 dB nHL. Because of the 2 Hz difference between the repetition rates, the time difference between the stimuli of the two stimulus trains followed a periodic cycling. The cycling period of 0.5 sec contained ten 20/sec stimuli and eleven 22/sec-stimuli. The response to a single train of chirps with the repetition rate of 20/sec was also recorded. The test group consisted of 11 young adult subjects, all with

  18. Albumin administration protects against bilirubin-induced auditory brainstem dysfunction in Gunn rat pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Andrea B.; Rice, Ann C.; Vanikova, Jana; Vitek, Libor; Shapiro, Steven M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Free bilirubin (Bf), the unbound fraction of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), can induce neurotoxicity, including impairment of the auditory system, which can be assessed by brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). We hypothesized that albumin might reduce the risk of neurotoxicity by

  19. Low-frequency versus high-frequency synchronisation in chirp-evoked auditory brainstem responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Gøtsche-Rasmussen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency specific contribution to the auditory brainstem response (ABR) of chirp stimuli. Frequency rising chirps were designed to compensate for the cochlear traveling wave delay, and lead to larger wave-V amplitudes than for click stimuli as more auditory nerve fibres...

  20. Mode-locking neurodynamics predict human auditory brainstem responses to musical intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerud, Karl D; Almonte, Felix V; Kim, Ji Chul; Large, Edward W

    2014-02-01

    The auditory nervous system is highly nonlinear. Some nonlinear responses arise through active processes in the cochlea, while others may arise in neural populations of the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus and higher auditory areas. In humans, auditory brainstem recordings reveal nonlinear population responses to combinations of pure tones, and to musical intervals composed of complex tones. Yet the biophysical origin of central auditory nonlinearities, their signal processing properties, and their relationship to auditory perception remain largely unknown. Both stimulus components and nonlinear resonances are well represented in auditory brainstem nuclei due to neural phase-locking. Recently mode-locking, a generalization of phase-locking that implies an intrinsically nonlinear processing of sound, has been observed in mammalian auditory brainstem nuclei. Here we show that a canonical model of mode-locked neural oscillation predicts the complex nonlinear population responses to musical intervals that have been observed in the human brainstem. The model makes predictions about auditory signal processing and perception that are different from traditional delay-based models, and may provide insight into the nature of auditory population responses. We anticipate that the application of dynamical systems analysis will provide the starting point for generic models of auditory population dynamics, and lead to a deeper understanding of nonlinear auditory signal processing possibly arising in excitatory-inhibitory networks of the central auditory nervous system. This approach has the potential to link neural dynamics with the perception of pitch, music, and speech, and lead to dynamical models of auditory system development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prolonged auditory brainstem responses in infants with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Oren; Ari‐Even Roth, Daphne; Gabis, Lidia V.; Henkin, Yael; Shefer, Shahar; Dinstein, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to identify early physiological abnormalities in infants and toddlers who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One potential measure of early neurophysiology is the auditory brainstem response (ABR), which has been reported to exhibit prolonged latencies in children with ASD. We examined whether prolonged ABR latencies appear in infancy, before the onset of ASD symptoms, and irrespective of hearing thresholds. To determine how early in development these differences appear, we retrospectively examined clinical ABR recordings of infants who were later diagnosed with ASD. Of the 118 children in the participant pool, 48 were excluded due to elevated ABR thresholds, genetic aberrations, or old testing age, leaving a sample of 70 children: 30 of which were tested at 0–3 months, and 40 were tested at toddlerhood (1.5–3.5 years). In the infant group, the ABR wave‐V was significantly prolonged in those who later developed ASD as compared with case‐matched controls (n = 30). Classification of infants who later developed ASD and case‐matched controls using this measure enabled accurate identification of ASD infants with 80% specificity and 70% sensitivity. In the group of toddlers with ASD, absolute and interpeak latencies were prolonged compared to clinical norms. Findings indicate that ABR latencies are significantly prolonged in infants who are later diagnosed with ASD irrespective of their hearing thresholds; suggesting that abnormal responses might be detected soon after birth. Further research is needed to determine if ABR might be a valid marker for ASD risk. Autism Res 2016, 9: 689–695. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26477791

  2. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential in Boxer dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP has been widely used for different purposes in veterinary practice and is commonly used to identify inherited deafness and presbycusis. In this study, 43 Boxer dogs were evaluated using the BAEP. Deafness was diagnosed in 3 dogs (2 bilateral and 1 unilateral allowing the remaining 40 Boxers to be included for normative data analysis including an evaluation on the influence of age on the BAEP. The animals were divided into 2 groups of 20 Boxers each based on age. The mean age was 4.54 years (range, 1-8 in group I, and 9.83 years (range, 8.5-12 in group II. The mean latency for I, III, and V waves were 1.14 (±0.07, 2.64 (±0.11, and 3.48 (±0.10 ms in group I, and 1.20 (±0.12, 2.73 (±0.15, and 3.58 (±0.22 ms in group II, respectively. The mean inter-peak latencies for the I-III, III-V and I-V intervals were 1.50 (±0.15, 0.84 (±0.15, and 2.34 (±0.11 ms in group I, and 1.53 (±0.16, 0.85 (±0.15, and 2.38 (±0.19 ms in group II, respectively. Latencies of waves I and III were significant different between group I and II. For the I-III, III-V and I-V intervals, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. As far as we know, this is the first normative study of BAEP obtained from Boxer dogs.

  3. Cochlear Responses and Auditory Brainstem Response Functions in Adults with Auditory Neuropathy/ Dys-Synchrony and Individuals with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Physiologic measures of cochlear and auditory nerve function may be of assis¬tance in distinguishing between hearing disorders due primarily to auditory nerve impairment from those due primarily to cochlear hair cells dysfunction. The goal of present study was to measure of co-chlear responses (otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response in some adults with auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony and subjects with normal hearing. Materials and Methods: Patients were 16 adults (32 ears in age range of 14-30 years with auditory neu¬ropathy/ dys-synchrony and 16 individuals in age range of 16-30 years from both sexes. The results of transient otoacoustic emissions, cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response measures were compared in both groups and the effects of age, sex, ear and degree of hearing loss were studied. Results: The pure-tone average was 48.1 dB HL in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony group and the fre¬quency of low tone loss and flat audiograms were higher among other audiogram's shapes. Transient oto¬acoustic emissions were shown in all auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony people except two cases and its average was near in both studied groups. The latency and amplitude of the biggest reversed co-chlear microphonics response were higher in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients than control peo¬ple significantly. The correlation between cochlear microphonics amplitude and degree of hearing loss was not significant, and age had significant effect in some cochlear microphonics measures. Audi-tory brainstem response had no response in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients even with low stim¬uli rates. Conclusion: In adults with speech understanding worsen than predicted from the degree of hearing loss that suspect to auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony, the frequency of low tone loss and flat audiograms are higher. Usually auditory brainstem response is absent in

  4. Dyslexia risk gene relates to representation of sound in the auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Müller, Bent; Liebig, Johanna; Schaadt, Gesa; Grigutsch, Maren; Gunter, Thomas C; Wilcke, Arndt; Kirsten, Holger; Skeide, Michael A; Kraft, Indra; Kraus, Nina; Emmrich, Frank; Brauer, Jens; Boltze, Johannes; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-04-01

    Dyslexia is a reading disorder with strong associations with KIAA0319 and DCDC2. Both genes play a functional role in spike time precision of neurons. Strikingly, poor readers show an imprecise encoding of fast transients of speech in the auditory brainstem. Whether dyslexia risk genes are related to the quality of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem remains to be investigated. Here, we quantified the response consistency of speech-evoked brainstem responses to the acoustically presented syllable [da] in 159 genotyped, literate and preliterate children. When controlling for age, sex, familial risk and intelligence, partial correlation analyses associated a higher dyslexia risk loading with KIAA0319 with noisier responses. In contrast, a higher risk loading with DCDC2 was associated with a trend towards more stable responses. These results suggest that unstable representation of sound, and thus, reduced neural discrimination ability of stop consonants, occurred in genotypes carrying a higher amount of KIAA0319 risk alleles. Current data provide the first evidence that the dyslexia-associated gene KIAA0319 can alter brainstem responses and impair phoneme processing in the auditory brainstem. This brain-gene relationship provides insight into the complex relationships between phenotype and genotype thereby improving the understanding of the dyslexia-inherent complex multifactorial condition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental alterations of the auditory brainstem centers--pathogenetic implications in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzi, Anna M; Ottaviani, Giulia; Matturri, Luigi

    2015-10-15

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), despite the success of campaigns to reduce its risks, is the leading cause of infant death in the Western world. Even though the pathogenesis remains unexplained, brainstem abnormalities of the neuronal network that mediates breathing and protective responses to asphyxia, particularly in the arousal phase from sleep, are believed to play a fundamental role. This is the first study to identify, in SIDS, developmental defects of specific brainstem centers involved in hearing pathways, particularly in the cochlear and vestibular nuclei, in the superior olivary complex and in the inferior colliculus, suggesting a possible influence of the acoustic system on respiratory activity. In 49 SIDS cases and 20 controls an in-depth anatomopathological examination of the autonomic nervous system was performed, with the main aim of detecting developmental alterations of brainstem structures controlling both the respiratory and auditory activities. Overall, a significantly higher incidence of cytoarchitectural alterations of both the auditory and respiratory network components were observed in SIDS victims compared with matched controls. Even if there is not sufficient evidence to presume that developmental defects of brainstem auditory structures can affect breathing, our findings, showing that developmental deficit in the control respiratory areas are frequently accompanied by alterations of auditory structures, highlight an additional important element for the understanding the pathogenetic mechanism of SIDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in 37 dogs with otitis media before and after topical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, S

    2017-07-18

    The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-aural administration of aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ticarcillin (used off-licence) was associated with changes in hearing as measured by brainstem auditory evoked responses. Dogs diagnosed with otitis media (n=37) underwent brainstem auditory evoked response testing and then were treated for their ear disease. First, the external ear canal and middle ear were flushed with sterile saline followed by EDTA tris with 0·15% chlorhexidine. Then, a combination of aqueous antibiotic mixed with an aqueous solution of EDTA tris was instilled into the middle ear. Follow-up examinations were undertaken for each dog, and treatment was continued until there were no detected infectious organisms or inflammatory infiltrate. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing was repeated after resolution of the infection and discontinuation of therapy. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in dogs treated with aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin or gentamicin remained unchanged or improved after therapy of otitis media but were impaired in dogs treated with ticarcillin or tobramycin. If off-licence use of topical antibiotics is deemed necessary in cases of otitis media, aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be less ototoxic than aqueous solutions of ticarcillin or tobramycin. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Auditory brainstem response – a valid and cost-effective screening tool for vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafique, Irfan; Wennervaldt, Kasper; Melchiors, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Conclusion: Contemporary auditory brainstem response (ABR) is not valid as a screening tool for VS, when considering the sensitivity of 80%, the specificity of 77%, and the positive predictive value of 3.4%, MRI screening is superior to ABR in Denmark when considering cost-effectiveness...

  8. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone above USA standards are associated with auditory brainstem dysmorphology and abnormal auditory brainstem evoked potentials in healthy young dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; González-González, Luis O; Kulesza, Randy J; Fech, Tatiana M; Pérez-Guillé, Gabriela; Luna, Miguel Angel Jiménez-Bravo; Soriano-Rosales, Rosa Eugenia; Solorio, Edelmira; Miramontes-Higuera, José de Jesús; Gómez-Maqueo Chew, Aline; Bernal-Morúa, Alexia F; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Mills, Paul C; Wilson, Wayne J; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2017-10-01

    Delayed central conduction times in the auditory brainstem have been observed in Mexico City (MC) healthy children exposed to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ) above the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) standards. MC children have α synuclein brainstem accumulation and medial superior olivary complex (MSO) dysmorphology. The present study used a dog model to investigate the potential effects of air pollution on the function and morphology of the auditory brainstem. Twenty-four dogs living in clean air v MC, average age 37.1 ± 26.3 months, underwent brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) measurements. Eight dogs (4 MC, 4 Controls) were analysed for auditory brainstem morphology and histopathology. MC dogs showed ventral cochlear nuclei hypotrophy and MSO dysmorphology with a significant decrease in cell body size, decreased neuronal packing density with regions in the nucleus devoid of neurons and marked gliosis. MC dogs showed significant delayed BAEP absolute wave I, III and V latencies compared to controls. MC dogs show auditory nuclei dysmorphology and BAEPs consistent with an alteration of the generator sites of the auditory brainstem response waveform. This study puts forward the usefulness of BAEPs to study auditory brainstem neurodegenerative changes associated with air pollution in dogs. Recognition of the role of non-invasive BAEPs in urban dogs is warranted to elucidate novel neurodegenerative pathways link to air pollution and a promising early diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Auditory brainstem responses predict auditory nerve fiber thresholds and frequency selectivity in hearing impaired chinchillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kenneth S; Kale, Sushrut; Scheidt, Ryan E; Heinz, Michael G

    2011-10-01

    Noninvasive auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) are commonly used to assess cochlear pathology in both clinical and research environments. In the current study, we evaluated the relationship between ABR characteristics and more direct measures of cochlear function. We recorded ABRs and auditory nerve (AN) single-unit responses in seven chinchillas with noise-induced hearing loss. ABRs were recorded for 1-8 kHz tone burst stimuli both before and several weeks after 4 h of exposure to a 115 dB SPL, 50 Hz band of noise with a center frequency of 2 kHz. Shifts in ABR characteristics (threshold, wave I amplitude, and wave I latency) following hearing loss were compared to AN-fiber tuning curve properties (threshold and frequency selectivity) in the same animals. As expected, noise exposure generally resulted in an increase in ABR threshold and decrease in wave I amplitude at equal SPL. Wave I amplitude at equal sensation level (SL), however, was similar before and after noise exposure. In addition, noise exposure resulted in decreases in ABR wave I latency at equal SL and, to a lesser extent, at equal SPL. The shifts in ABR characteristics were significantly related to AN-fiber tuning curve properties in the same animal at the same frequency. Larger shifts in ABR thresholds and ABR wave I amplitude at equal SPL were associated with greater AN threshold elevation. Larger reductions in ABR wave I latency at equal SL, on the other hand, were associated with greater loss of AN frequency selectivity. This result is consistent with linear systems theory, which predicts shorter time delays for broader peripheral frequency tuning. Taken together with other studies, our results affirm that ABR thresholds and wave I amplitude provide useful estimates of cochlear sensitivity. Furthermore, comparisons of ABR wave I latency to normative data at the same SL may prove useful for detecting and characterizing loss of cochlear frequency selectivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Relationship between brainstem auditory function during the neonatal period and depressed Apgar score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze Dong; Wilkinson, Andrew Robert

    2010-09-01

    To understand whether infants with depressed Apgar scores are at high risk of brainstem auditory impairment, we examined the relationship between brainstem auditory function during the neonatal period and depressed Apgar score. Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) were recorded from day 1 to day 30 in 145 term infants with Apgar scores Apgar score none of BAER response wave latencies and interpeak intervals during the first 15 days correlated significantly with the score. On day 30, all wave latencies but no intervals correlated negatively with the score (all p Apgar score, only on day 3 wave V latency and I-V and III-V intervals correlated negatively with the score (all p Apgar score, only III-V interval correlated negatively with the score (p Apgar scores. Wave V latency and I-V and III-V intervals on day 3 were all significantly longer in infants with 5-min Apgar scores 6. During the neonatal period, only on day 3 after birth a depressed 5-min Apgar score is an indicator associated with central auditory impairment. A depressed 1-min score may be associated with later peripheral auditory impairment.

  11. Investigation of auditory brainstem function in elderly diabetic patients with presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacií, Jelena; Lajtman, Zoran; Ozegović, Ivan; Knezević, Predrag; Carić, Tomislav; Vlasić, Ana

    2009-01-01

    We performed brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) examinations in 100 patients older than 60 years and having type I diabetes mellitus and presbycusis. The aim of our investigation was to compare the BAEP results of this group with those of healthy controls with presbycusis and to look for possible correlations between alteration of the auditory brainstem function and the aging of elderly diabetic patients. Absolute and interpeak latencies of all waves were prolonged significantly in the study group of diabetic patients. The amplitudes of all waves I through V were diminished in the study group as compared to those in the control group, with statistical significance present for all waves. Analysis of the latencies (waves I, II, I, and V), interpeak latencies (I-V), and amplitudes (I, II, III, and V) of BAEP revealed a significant difference between those of diabetics and those of healthy elderly controls with presbycusis. These data support a hypothesis that there is a brainstem neuropathy in diabetes mellitus that can be assessed with auditory brainstem response testing even in the group of elderly patients with sensorineural hearing loss.

  12. [Forensic application of brainstem auditory evoked potential in patients with brain concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xing-Bin; Li, Sheng-Yan; Huang, Si-Xing; Ma, Ke-Xin

    2008-12-01

    To investigate changes of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in patients with brain concussion. Nineteen patients with brain concussion were studied with BAEP examination. The data was compared to the healthy persons reported in literatures. The abnormal rate of BAEP for patients with brain concussion was 89.5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the abnormal rate of patients and that of healthy persons (Pbrain concussion was 73.7%, indicating dysfunction of the brainstem in those patients. BAEP might be helpful in forensic diagnosis of brain concussion.

  13. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lehmann

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  14. Multi-sensory integration in brainstem and auditory cortex.

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    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2012-11-16

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of a physical sound stimulus. It is thought to arise from aberrant neural activity within central auditory pathways that may be influenced by multiple brain centers, including the somatosensory system. Auditory-somatosensory (bimodal) integration occurs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), where electrical activation of somatosensory regions alters pyramidal cell spike timing and rates of sound stimuli. Moreover, in conditions of tinnitus, bimodal integration in DCN is enhanced, producing greater spontaneous and sound-driven neural activity, which are neural correlates of tinnitus. In primary auditory cortex (A1), a similar auditory-somatosensory integration has been described in the normal system (Lakatos et al., 2007), where sub-threshold multisensory modulation may be a direct reflection of subcortical multisensory responses (Tyll et al., 2011). The present work utilized simultaneous recordings from both DCN and A1 to directly compare bimodal integration across these separate brain stations of the intact auditory pathway. Four-shank, 32-channel electrodes were placed in DCN and A1 to simultaneously record tone-evoked unit activity in the presence and absence of spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) electrical activation. Bimodal stimulation led to long-lasting facilitation or suppression of single and multi-unit responses to subsequent sound in both DCN and A1. Immediate (bimodal response) and long-lasting (bimodal plasticity) effects of Sp5-tone stimulation were facilitation or suppression of tone-evoked firing rates in DCN and A1 at all Sp5-tone pairing intervals (10, 20, and 40 ms), and greater suppression at 20 ms pairing-intervals for single unit responses. Understanding the complex relationships between DCN and A1 bimodal processing in the normal animal provides the basis for studying its disruption in hearing loss and tinnitus models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience

  15. Effect of Infant Prematurity on Auditory Brainstem Response at Preschool Age

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    Sara Hasani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm birth is a risk factor for a number of conditions that requires comprehensive examination. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of preterm birth on the processing of auditory stimuli and brain structures at the brainstem level at a preschool age.   Materials and Methods: An auditory brainstem response (ABR test was performed with low rates of stimuli in 60 children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirty subjects had been born following a very preterm labor or late-preterm labor and 30 control subjects had been born following a full-term labor.   Results: Significant differences in the ABR test result were observed in terms of the inter-peak intervals of the I–III and III–V waves, and the absolute latency of the III wave (P

  16. Evaluting the effect of long-term monaural hearing aid usage via auditory brainstem response

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    Tayebeh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Studies have shown that long-term use of monaural hearing aid in symmetrical hearing losses may lead to physiological changes. In this research, the possibility of plasticity occurrence in bilaterally hearing impaired listeners fitted with only one hearing aid was investigated.Methods: Our study was carried out on 12 elderly listeners with a mean age of 61.92 years who had symmetrical moderate to severe sensory neural hearing loss in both ears. All of the participants had minimum monaural hearing aid experience of 2 years. We used auditory brainstem response (ABR testing in order to compare absolute latency and amplitude of wave V between the two ears of cases. Air conduction click stimuli were presented monaurally at 80, 90 and 100 dB nHL.Results: Despite the shorter absolute latency of wave V in the fitted ear, no significant difference was found between the two ears (p>0.389. The difference between wave V amplitude of both ears was greater in 90 dB nHL level (p=0.043. Women showed shorter mean latency than men and the mean amplitude of women was greater than men. Significant gender difference was observed in absolute latency of wave V (p<0.037.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the use of monaural hearing aid in symmetrical hearing losses can induce neural plasticity within auditory brainstem pathways which can be displayed by auditory brainstem response test.

  17. Auditory Brainstem Responses in Autistic Children in Comparison with Normal Children

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    Saeed Sarough Farahani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the most important problems of children who suffer from autism is abnormality in receiving and integrating sensory inputs, especially hearing input. It has been shown that brainstem has a key role in receiving, encoding and integrating hearing input. Auditory brainstem response (ABR is a tool by which we can evaluate this function. The purpose of this study was to assess and to compare autistic and normal children brainstem hearing function. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on thirty (58 ears autistic and thirty (57 ears normal 6-12 years old children. The children with autism were divided into slight and severe subgroups according to Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised questionnaire. Click-evoked ABR was recorded and compared between groups. Results: There was significant difference between two groups V and III wave latencies and I-III and I-V interpeak latencies (p<0.05. In fact, comparison of the results of autism subgroups with normal children indicated that the latencies of the severe subgroup significantly prolonged. Conclusion: Increasing latencies of ABR waves in severe subgroup maybe due to abnormality in low level of brainstem. Brainstem abnormality may result in exacerbating the symptom of autism. It is therefore suggested that ABR is included in diagnostic test batteries for these patients.

  18. Enhanced Excitatory Connectivity and Disturbed Sound Processing in the Auditory Brainstem of Fragile X Mice.

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    Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Gessele, Nikodemus; Koch, Ursula

    2017-08-02

    Hypersensitivity to sounds is one of the prevalent symptoms in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS). It manifests behaviorally early during development and is often used as a landmark for treatment efficacy. However, the physiological mechanisms and circuit-level alterations underlying this aberrant behavior remain poorly understood. Using the mouse model of FXS ( Fmr1 KO ), we demonstrate that functional maturation of auditory brainstem synapses is impaired in FXS. Fmr1 KO mice showed a greatly enhanced excitatory synaptic input strength in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO), a prominent auditory brainstem nucleus, which integrates ipsilateral excitation and contralateral inhibition to compute interaural level differences. Conversely, the glycinergic, inhibitory input properties remained unaffected. The enhanced excitation was the result of an increased number of cochlear nucleus fibers converging onto one LSO neuron, without changing individual synapse properties. Concomitantly, immunolabeling of excitatory ending markers revealed an increase in the immunolabeled area, supporting abnormally elevated excitatory input numbers. Intrinsic firing properties were only slightly enhanced. In line with the disturbed development of LSO circuitry, auditory processing was also affected in adult Fmr1 KO mice as shown with single-unit recordings of LSO neurons. These processing deficits manifested as an increase in firing rate, a broadening of the frequency response area, and a shift in the interaural level difference function of LSO neurons. Our results suggest that this aberrant synaptic development of auditory brainstem circuits might be a major underlying cause of the auditory processing deficits in FXS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inheritable form of intellectual impairment, including autism. A core symptom of FXS is extreme sensitivity to loud sounds. This is one reason why individuals with FXS tend to avoid social

  19. English consensus protocol evaluating candidacy for auditory brainstem and cochlear implantation in neurofibromatosis type 2.

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    Tysome, James R; Axon, Patrick R; Donnelly, Neil P; Evans, Dafydd Gareth; Ferner, Rosalie E; O'Connor, Alec F Fitzgerald; Freeman, Simon R; Gleeson, Michael; Halliday, Dorothy; Harris, Frances; Jiang, Dan; Kerr, Richard; King, Andrew; Knight, Richard D; Lloyd, Simon K; Macfarlane, Robert; Mannion, Richard; Mawman, Deborah; O'Driscoll, Martin; Parry, Allyson; Ramsden, James; Ramsden, Richard; Rutherford, Scott A; Saeed, Shakeel R; Thomas, Nick; Vanat, Zebunnisa H

    2013-12-01

    Hearing loss resulting from bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs) has a significant effect on the quality of life of patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2). A national consensus protocol was produced in England as a guide for cochlear implantation (CI) and auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) in these patients. Consensus statement. English NF2 Service. Clinicians from all 4 lead NF2 units in England. A protocol for the assessment, insertion and rehabilitation of CI and ABI in NF2 patients. Patients should undergo more detailed hearing assessment once their maximum aided speech discrimination score falls below 50% in the better hearing ear. Bamford-Kowal-Bench sentence testing scores below 50% should trigger assessment for auditory implantation, as recommended by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on CI. Where this occurs in patients with bilateral stable VS or a unilateral stable VS where the contralateral cochlear nerve was lost at previous surgery, CI should be considered. Where VS surgery is planned, CI should be considered where cochlear nerve preservation is thought possible, otherwise an ABI should be considered. Intraoperative testing using electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses or cochlear nerve action potentials may be used to determine whether a CI or ABI is inserted. The NF2 centers in England agreed on this protocol. Multisite, prospective assessments of standardized protocols for auditory implantation in NF2 provide an essential model for evaluating candidacy and outcomes in this challenging patient population.

  20. The auditory brainstem response to complex sounds: a potential biomarker for guiding treatment of psychosis

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    Melissa A Tarasenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits limit psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. For many patients, cognitive remediation approaches have yielded encouraging results. Nevertheless, therapeutic response is variable, and outcome studies consistently identify individuals who respond minimally to these interventions. Biomarkers that can assist in identifying patients likely to benefit from particular forms of cognitive remediation are needed. Here we describe an event-related potential (ERP biomarker – the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR – that appears to be particularly well-suited for predicting response to at least one form of cognitive remediation that targets auditory information processing. Uniquely, the cABR quantifies the fidelity of sound encoded at the level of the brainstem and midbrain. This ERP biomarker has revealed auditory processing abnormalities in various neurodevelopmental disorders, correlates with functioning across several cognitive domains, and appears to be responsive to targeted auditory training. We present preliminary cABR data from 18 schizophrenia patients and propose further investigation of this biomarker for predicting and tracking response to cognitive interventions.

  1. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

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    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  2. Concentrated pitch discrimination modulates auditory brainstem responses during contralateral noise exposure.

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    Ikeda, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Akiko

    2010-03-31

    This study examined a notion that auditory discrimination is a requisite for attention-related modulation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) during contralateral noise exposure. Given that the right ear was exposed continuously with white noise at an intensity of 60-80 dB sound pressure level, tone pips at 80 dB sound pressure level were delivered to the left ear through either single-stimulus or oddball procedures. Participants conducted reading (ignoring task) and counting target tones (attentive task) during stimulation. The oddball but not the single-stimulus procedures elicited task-related modulations in both early (ABR) and late (processing negativity) event-related potentials simultaneously. The elicitation of the attention-related ABR modulation during contralateral noise exposure is thus considered to require auditory discrimination and have the corticofugal nature evidently.

  3. Attention-related modulation of auditory brainstem responses during contralateral noise exposure.

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    Ikeda, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Akiko

    2008-10-29

    As determinants facilitating attention-related modulation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), two experimental factors were examined: (i) auditory discrimination; and (ii) contralateral masking intensity. Tone pips at 80 dB sound pressure level were presented to the left ear via either single-tone exposures or oddball exposures, whereas white noise was delivered continuously to the right ear at variable intensities (none--80 dB sound pressure level). Participants each conducted two tasks during stimulation, either reading a book (ignoring task) or detecting target tones (attentive task). Task-related modulation within the ABR range was found only during oddball exposures at contralateral masking intensities greater than or equal to 60 dB. Attention-related modulation of ABR can thus be detected reliably during auditory discrimination under contralateral masking of sufficient intensity.

  4. Musical training heightens auditory brainstem function during sensitive periods in development

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    Erika eSkoe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Experience has a profound influence on how sound is processed in the brain. Yet little is known about how enriched experiences interact with developmental processes to shape neural processing of sound. We examine this question as part of a large cross-sectional study of auditory brainstem development involving more than 700 participants, 213 of whom were classified as musicians. We hypothesized that experience-dependent processes piggyback on developmental processes, resulting in a waxing-and-waning effect of experience that tracks with the undulating developmental baseline. This hypothesis led to the prediction that experience-dependent plasticity would be amplified during periods when developmental changes are underway (i.e., early and later in life and that the peak in experience-dependent plasticity would coincide with the developmental apex for each subcomponent of the auditory brainstem response. Consistent with our predictions, we reveal that musicians have heightened response features at distinctive times in the life span that coincide with periods of developmental change and climax. The effect of musicianship is also quite specific: we find that only select components of auditory brainstem activity are affected, with musicians having heightened function for onset latency, high frequency phase-locking, and response consistency, and with little effect observed for other measures, including lower frequency phase-locking and non-stimulus-related activity. By showing that musicianship imparts a neural signature that is especially evident during childhood and old age, our findings reinforce the idea that the nervous system’s response to sound is chiseled by how a person interacts with his specific auditory environment, with the effect of the environment wielding its greatest influence during certain privileged windows of development.

  5. The role of the auditory brainstem in processing musically-relevant pitch

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    Gavin M. Bidelman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging work has shed light on the cerebral architecture involved in processing the melodic and harmonic aspects of music. Here, recent evidence is reviewed illustrating that subcortical auditory structures contribute to the early formation and processing of musically-relevant pitch. Electrophysiological recordings from the human brainstem and population responses from the auditory nerve reveal that nascent features of tonal music (e.g., consonance/dissonance, pitch salience, harmonic sonority are evident at early, subcortical levels of the auditory pathway. The salience and harmonicity of brainstem activity is strongly correlated with listeners’ perceptual preferences and perceived consonance for the tonal relationships of music. Moreover, the hierarchical ordering of pitch intervals/chords described by the Western music practice and their perceptual consonance is well-predicted by the salience with which pitch combinations are encoded in subcortical auditory structures. While the neural correlates of consonance can be tuned and exaggerated with musical training, they persist even in the absence of musicianship or long-term enculturation. As such, it is posited that the structural foundations of musical pitch might result from innate processing performed by the central auditory system. A neurobiological predisposition for consonant, pleasant sounding pitch relationships may be one reason why these pitch combinations have been favored by composers and listeners for centuries. It is suggested that important perceptual dimensions of music emerge well before the auditory signal reaches cerebral cortex and prior to attentional engagement. While cortical mechanisms are no doubt critical to the perception, production, and enjoyment of music, the contribution of subcortical structures implicates a more integrated, hierarchically organized network underlying music processing within the brain.

  6. The Role of the Auditory Brainstem in Processing Musically Relevant Pitch

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    Bidelman, Gavin M.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging work has shed light on the cerebral architecture involved in processing the melodic and harmonic aspects of music. Here, recent evidence is reviewed illustrating that subcortical auditory structures contribute to the early formation and processing of musically relevant pitch. Electrophysiological recordings from the human brainstem and population responses from the auditory nerve reveal that nascent features of tonal music (e.g., consonance/dissonance, pitch salience, harmonic sonority) are evident at early, subcortical levels of the auditory pathway. The salience and harmonicity of brainstem activity is strongly correlated with listeners’ perceptual preferences and perceived consonance for the tonal relationships of music. Moreover, the hierarchical ordering of pitch intervals/chords described by the Western music practice and their perceptual consonance is well-predicted by the salience with which pitch combinations are encoded in subcortical auditory structures. While the neural correlates of consonance can be tuned and exaggerated with musical training, they persist even in the absence of musicianship or long-term enculturation. As such, it is posited that the structural foundations of musical pitch might result from innate processing performed by the central auditory system. A neurobiological predisposition for consonant, pleasant sounding pitch relationships may be one reason why these pitch combinations have been favored by composers and listeners for centuries. It is suggested that important perceptual dimensions of music emerge well before the auditory signal reaches cerebral cortex and prior to attentional engagement. While cortical mechanisms are no doubt critical to the perception, production, and enjoyment of music, the contribution of subcortical structures implicates a more integrated, hierarchically organized network underlying music processing within the brain. PMID:23717294

  7. Electrically-evoked frequency-following response (EFFR) in the auditory brainstem of guinea pigs.

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    He, Wenxin; Ding, Xiuyong; Zhang, Ruxiang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Daoxing; Wu, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    It is still a difficult clinical issue to decide whether a patient is a suitable candidate for a cochlear implant and to plan postoperative rehabilitation, especially for some special cases, such as auditory neuropathy. A partial solution to these problems is to preoperatively evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory neural pathways. For evaluating the strength of phase-locking of auditory neurons, which was not reflected in previous methods using electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), a new method for recording phase-locking related auditory responses to electrical stimulation, called the electrically evoked frequency-following response (EFFR), was developed and evaluated using guinea pigs. The main objective was to assess feasibility of the method by testing whether the recorded signals reflected auditory neural responses or artifacts. The results showed the following: 1) the recorded signals were evoked by neuron responses rather than by artifact; 2) responses evoked by periodic signals were significantly higher than those evoked by the white noise; 3) the latency of the responses fell in the expected range; 4) the responses decreased significantly after death of the guinea pigs; and 5) the responses decreased significantly when the animal was replaced by an electrical resistance. All of these results suggest the method was valid. Recording obtained using complex tones with a missing fundamental component and using pure tones with various frequencies were consistent with those obtained using acoustic stimulation in previous studies.

  8. Abnormal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR Findings in a Near-Normal Hearing Child with Noonan Syndrome

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    Bahram Jalaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noonan syndrome (NS is a heterogeneous genetic disease that affects many parts of the body. It was named after Dr. Jacqueline Anne Noonan, a paediatric cardiologist.Case Report: We report audiological tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR findings in a 5-year old Malay boy with NS. Despite showing the marked signs of NS, the child could only produce a few meaningful words. Audiological tests found him to have bilateral mild conductive hearing loss at low frequencies. In ABR testing, despite having good waveform morphology, the results were atypical. Absolute latency of wave V was normal but interpeak latencies of wave’s I-V, I-II, II-III were prolonged. Interestingly, interpeak latency of waves III-V was abnormally shorter.Conclusion:Abnormal ABR results are possibly due to abnormal anatomical condition of brainstem and might contribute to speech delay.

  9. Infant temperament and the brainstem auditory evoked response in later childhood.

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    Woodward, S A; McManis, M H; Kagan, J; Deldin, P; Snidman, N; Lewis, M; Kahn, V

    2001-07-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) were evaluated on 10-12-year-old children (N = 56) who had been classified as high or low reactive to unfamiliar stimuli at 4 months of age. BAER measurement was selected because high reactive infants tend to become inhibited or fearful young children, and adult introverts have a faster latency to wave V of the BAER than do extroverts. Children previously classified as high reactive at 4 months had larger wave V components than did low reactive children, a finding that possibly suggests greater excitability in projections to the inferior colliculus. The fact that a fundamental feature of brainstem activity differentiated preadolescent children belonging to two early temperamental groups supports the value of gathering physiological data in temperament research.

  10. The Physiological Basis and Clinical Use of the Binaural Interaction Component of the Auditory Brainstem Response

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    Klump, Georg M.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a sound-evoked non-invasively measured electrical potential representing the sum of neuronal activity in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. ABR peak amplitudes and latencies are widely used in human and animal auditory research and for clinical screening. The binaural interaction component (BIC) of the ABR stands for the difference between the sum of the monaural ABRs and the ABR obtained with binaural stimulation. The BIC comprises a series of distinct waves, the largest of which (DN1) has been used for evaluating binaural hearing in both normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. Based on data from animal and human studies, we discuss the possible anatomical and physiological bases of the BIC (DN1 in particular). The effects of electrode placement and stimulus characteristics on the binaurally evoked ABR are evaluated. We review how inter-aural time and intensity differences affect the BIC and, analyzing these dependencies, draw conclusion about the mechanism underlying the generation of the BIC. Finally, the utility of the BIC for clinical diagnoses are summarized. PMID:27232077

  11. Comparison of Auditory Brainstem Response in Noise Induced Tinnitus and Non-Tinnitus Control Subjects

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    Ghassem Mohammadkhani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an unpleasant sound which can cause some behavioral disorders. According to evidence the origin of tinnitus is not only in peripheral but also in central auditory system. So evaluation of central auditory system function is necessary. In this study Auditory brainstem responses (ABR were compared in noise induced tinnitus and non-tinnitus control subjects.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study is conducted in 60 cases in two groups including of 30 noise induced tinnitus and 30 non-tinnitus control subjects. ABRs were recorded ipsilateraly and contralateraly and their latencies and amplitudes were analyzed.Results: Mean interpeak latencies of III-V (p= 0.022, I-V (p=0.033 in ipsilatral electrode array and mean absolute latencies of IV (p=0.015 and V (p=0.048 in contralatral electrode array were significantly increased in noise induced tinnitus group relative to control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from that there are some decrease in neural transmission time in brainstem and there are some sign of involvement of medial nuclei in olivery complex in addition to lateral lemniscus.

  12. Speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses in children with hearing loss.

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    Koravand, Amineh; Al Osman, Rida; Rivest, Véronique; Poulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate subcortical auditory processing in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) were recorded using click and speech/da/stimuli. Twenty-five children, aged 6-14 years old, participated in the study: 13 with normal hearing acuity and 12 with sensorineural hearing loss. No significant differences were observed for the click-evoked ABRs between normal hearing and hearing-impaired groups. For the speech-evoked ABRs, no significant differences were found for the latencies of the following responses between the two groups: onset (V and A), transition (C), one of the steady-state wave (F), and offset (O). However, the latency of the steady-state waves (D and E) was significantly longer for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Furthermore, the amplitude of the offset wave O and of the envelope frequency response (EFR) of the speech-evoked ABRs was significantly larger for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Results obtained from the speech-evoked ABRs suggest that children with a mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss have a specific pattern of subcortical auditory processing. Our results show differences for the speech-evoked ABRs in normal hearing children compared to hearing-impaired children. These results add to the body of the literature on how children with hearing loss process speech at the brainstem level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Coordinated plasticity in brainstem and auditory cortex contributes to enhanced categorical speech perception in musicians.

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    Bidelman, Gavin M; Weiss, Michael W; Moreno, Sylvain; Alain, Claude

    2014-08-01

    Musicianship is associated with neuroplastic changes in brainstem and cortical structures, as well as improved acuity for behaviorally relevant sounds including speech. However, further advance in the field depends on characterizing how neuroplastic changes in brainstem and cortical speech processing relate to one another and to speech-listening behaviors. Here, we show that subcortical and cortical neural plasticity interact to yield the linguistic advantages observed with musicianship. We compared brainstem and cortical neuroelectric responses elicited by a series of vowels that differed along a categorical speech continuum in amateur musicians and non-musicians. Musicians obtained steeper identification functions and classified speech sounds more rapidly than non-musicians. Behavioral advantages coincided with more robust and temporally coherent brainstem phase-locking to salient speech cues (voice pitch and formant information) coupled with increased amplitude in cortical-evoked responses, implying an overall enhancement in the nervous system's responsiveness to speech. Musicians' subcortical and cortical neural enhancements (but not behavioral measures) were correlated with their years of formal music training. Associations between multi-level neural responses were also stronger in musically trained listeners, and were better predictors of speech perception than in non-musicians. Results suggest that musicianship modulates speech representations at multiple tiers of the auditory pathway, and strengthens the correspondence of processing between subcortical and cortical areas to allow neural activity to carry more behaviorally relevant information. We infer that musicians have a refined hierarchy of internalized representations for auditory objects at both pre-attentive and attentive levels that supplies more faithful phonemic templates to decision mechanisms governing linguistic operations. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley

  14. Impaired neural conduction in the auditory brainstem of high-risk very preterm infants.

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    Jiang, Ze D; Chen, Chao

    2014-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that neural conduction in the auditory brainstem is impaired in high-risk very preterm infants. Eighty-two very preterm infants (gestation 28-32 weeks) with various perinatal problems or complications were studied at term using maximum length sequence (MLS) brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) with click rates 91-910/s. The data were compared with those in 31 age-matched low-risk very preterm infants and 44 normal gestation (term) infants. High-risk very preterm infants showed a general increase in MLS BAER wave latencies and interpeak intervals. Wave V latency, and III-V and I-V intervals in high-risk very preterm infants were significantly longer than in normal term infants at all click rates, particularly higher rates. I-III interval was significantly longer, and III-V/I-III interval ratio was significantly greater at higher rates. These latency and intervals in high-risk very preterm infants were also longer, though relatively less significantly, than in low-risk very preterm infants. Click rate-related changes in major MLS BAER variables in high-risk infants were more significant than in the two groups of controls. There were major abnormalities in MLS BAER variables that mainly reflect central neural conduction in high-risk very preterm infants. The abnormalities were relatively less significant when compared with low-risk very preterm infants than with normal term infants. Neural conduction in the auditory brainstem, mainly the more central regions, is impaired in high-risk very preterm infants. The impairment is largely attributed to the associated perinatal problems, and partially related to very preterm birth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Changes in brainstem auditory evoked potentials among North Indian females with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Pooja Baweja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder whose detrimental effects on various organ systems, including the nervous system are well known. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 116 females with type 2 diabetes and 100 age matched, healthy female volunteers were selected. The brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP were recorded with RMS EMG EP Marc-II Channel machine. The measures included latencies of waves I, II, III, IV, V and Interpeak latencies (IPL I-III, III-V and I-V separately for both ears. Data was analysed statistically with SPSS software v13.0. Results: It was found that IPL I-III was significantly delayed (P = 0.028 only in the right ear, while the latency of wave V and IPL I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally (P values for right ear being 0.021 and 0.0381 respectively while those for left ear being 0.028 and 0.016 respectively, in diabetic females. However, no significant difference (P > 0.05 was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latencies of waves I, II, III, IV and IPL III-V bilaterally and IPL I-III unilaterally in the left ear. Also, none of the BAEP latencies were significantly correlated with either the duration of disease or with fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Conclusions: Therefore, it could be concluded that diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected quite accurately with the help of auditory evoked potential studies.

  16. Air and Bone Conduction Frequency-specific Auditory Brainstem Response in Children with Agenesis of the External Auditory Canal.

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    Sleifer, Pricila; Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Keppeler, Ísis Bicca; Bueno, Claudine Devicari; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos

    2017-10-01

    Introduction  The tone-evoked auditory brainstem responses (tone-ABR) enable the differential diagnosis in the evaluation of children until 12 months of age, including those with external and/or middle ear malformations. The use of auditory stimuli with frequency specificity by air and bone conduction allows characterization of hearing profile. Objective  The objective of our study was to compare the results obtained in tone-ABR by air and bone conduction in children until 12 months, with agenesis of the external auditory canal. Method  The study was cross-sectional, observational, individual, and contemporary. We conducted the research with tone-ABR by air and bone conduction in the frequencies of 500 Hz and 2000 Hz in 32 children, 23 boys, from one to 12 months old, with agenesis of the external auditory canal. Results  The tone-ABR thresholds were significantly elevated for air conduction in the frequencies of 500 Hz and 2000 Hz, while the thresholds of bone conduction had normal values in both ears. We found no statistically significant difference between genders and ears for most of the comparisons. Conclusion  The thresholds obtained by bone conduction did not alter the thresholds in children with conductive hearing loss. However, the conductive hearing loss alter all thresholds by air conduction. The tone-ABR by bone conduction is an important tool for assessing cochlear integrity in children with agenesis of the external auditory canal under 12 months.

  17. Channel-noise-induced stochastic facilitation in an auditory brainstem neuron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerl, Brett A.; McDonnell, Mark D.

    2013-11-01

    Neuronal membrane potentials fluctuate stochastically due to conductance changes caused by random transitions between the open and closed states of ion channels. Although it has previously been shown that channel noise can nontrivially affect neuronal dynamics, it is unknown whether ion-channel noise is strong enough to act as a noise source for hypothesized noise-enhanced information processing in real neuronal systems, i.e., “stochastic facilitation”. Here we demonstrate that biophysical models of channel noise can give rise to two kinds of recently discovered stochastic facilitation effects in a Hodgkin-Huxley-like model of auditory brainstem neurons. The first, known as slope-based stochastic resonance (SBSR), enables phasic neurons to emit action potentials that can encode the slope of inputs that vary slowly relative to key time constants in the model. The second, known as inverse stochastic resonance (ISR), occurs in tonically firing neurons when small levels of noise inhibit tonic firing and replace it with burstlike dynamics. Consistent with previous work, we conclude that channel noise can provide significant variability in firing dynamics, even for large numbers of channels. Moreover, our results show that possible associated computational benefits may occur due to channel noise in neurons of the auditory brainstem. This holds whether the firing dynamics in the model are phasic (SBSR can occur due to channel noise) or tonic (ISR can occur due to channel noise).

  18. Short GSM mobile phone exposure does not alter human auditory brainstem response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuróczy György

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are about 1.6 billion GSM cellular phones in use throughout the world today. Numerous papers have reported various biological effects in humans exposed to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of potential adverse effects of the GSM mobile phones on the human hearing system. Methods Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR was recorded with three non-polarizing Ag-AgCl scalp electrodes in thirty young and healthy volunteers (age 18–26 years with normal hearing. ABR data were collected before, and immediately after a 10 minute exposure to 900 MHz pulsed electromagnetic field (EMF emitted by a commercial Nokia 6310 mobile phone. Fifteen subjects were exposed to genuine EMF and fifteen to sham EMF in a double blind and counterbalanced order. Possible effects of irradiation was analyzed by comparing the latency of ABR waves I, III and V before and after genuine/sham EMF exposure. Results Paired sample t-test was conducted for statistical analysis. Results revealed no significant differences in the latency of ABR waves I, III and V before and after 10 minutes of genuine/sham EMF exposure. Conclusion The present results suggest that, in our experimental conditions, a single 10 minute exposure of 900 MHz EMF emitted by a commercial mobile phone does not produce measurable immediate effects in the latency of auditory brainstem waves I, III and V.

  19. Searching for the optimal stimulus eliciting auditory brainstem responses in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobel, Oliver; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    This study examines auditory brainstem responses (ABR) elicited by rising frequency chirps. Two chirp stimuli were developed and designed such as to compensate for cochlear travel-time differences across frequency, in order to maximize neural synchrony. One chirp, referred to as the O-chirp, was ......This study examines auditory brainstem responses (ABR) elicited by rising frequency chirps. Two chirp stimuli were developed and designed such as to compensate for cochlear travel-time differences across frequency, in order to maximize neural synchrony. One chirp, referred to as the O...... compared to click responses and to responses obtained with the original chirp as defined in Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107(3), 1530–1540 (2000)], referred to here as the M-chirp since it is based on a (linear) cochlea model. The main hypothesis was that, at low and medium stimulation levels, the O......- and A-chirps might produce a larger response than the original M-chirp whose parameters were essentially derived from high-level BM data. The main results of the present study are as follows: (i) All chirps evoked a larger wave-V amplitude than the click stimulus indicating that for the chirps a broader...

  20. Threshold changes in auditory brainstem response (ABR) due to the administration of kanamycin in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuka, Y; Furuta, T; Yamaoka, M; Ohnishi, T; Tsubone, H; Sugano, S

    1996-10-01

    Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a useful method in evaluating auditory function in human. To investigate the ABR threshold is more effective than to pursue the trends in each component of ABR. In this study, tone burst sound stimuli were employed and the ABR threshold shift caused by kanamycin administration was investigated in dogs. In a series of monitoring of ABR against short-period auditory lesions, changes in the ABR waveform after intravenous administration of kanamycin were detected. These changes returned gradually and were reversible. The changes in ABR against long-period auditory function disorder were perceived by an increase in the ABR threshold. The ABR threshold shift occurred earlier in the high frequency sounds than in the lower frequency sounds. This is why amino glycoside antibiotics damage the cochlear hair cells in the basal layer and lead to the loss of hearing selectively for high frequency tones. These findings suggest that tracing of the ABR threshold by tone bursts could provide information that has a specificity for frequency in hearing tests and is a useful method in clinical veterinary medicine or/and toxicological tests.

  1. Brainstem Evoked Potential Indices of Subcortical Auditory Processing After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Werff, Kathy R; Rieger, Brian

    The primary aim of this study was to assess subcortical auditory processing in individuals with chronic symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to standard click and complex speech stimuli. Consistent with reports in the literature of auditory problems after mTBI (despite normal-hearing thresholds), it was hypothesized that individuals with mTBI would have evidence of impaired neural encoding in the auditory brainstem compared to noninjured controls, as evidenced by delayed latencies and reduced amplitudes of ABR components. We further hypothesized that the speech-evoked ABR would be more sensitive than the click-evoked ABR to group differences because of its complex nature, particularly when recorded in a background noise condition. Click- and speech-ABRs were collected in 32 individuals diagnosed with mTBI in the past 3 to 18 months. All mTBI participants were experiencing ongoing injury symptoms for which they were seeking rehabilitation through a brain injury rehabilitation management program. The same data were collected in a group of 32 age- and gender-matched controls with no history of head injury. ABRs were recorded in both left and right ears for all participants in all conditions. Speech-ABRs were collected in both quiet and in a background of continuous 20-talker babble ipsilateral noise. Peak latencies and amplitudes were compared between groups and across subgroups of mTBI participants categorized by their behavioral auditory test performance. Click-ABR results were not significantly different between the mTBI and control groups. However, when comparing the control group to only those mTBI subjects with measurably decreased performance on auditory behavioral tests, small differences emerged, including delayed latencies for waves I, III, and V. Similarly, few significant group differences were observed for peak amplitudes and latencies of the speech-ABR when comparing at the whole group level

  2. Relative contribution of expectancy and immediate arousal to the facilitatory effect of an auditory accessory stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Del-Fava

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available An auditory stimulus speeds up a digital response to a subsequent visual stimulus. This facilitatory effect has been related to the expectancy and the immediate arousal that would be caused by the accessory stimulus. The present study examined the relative contribution of these two influences. In a first and a third experiment a simple reaction time task was used. In a second and fourth experiment a go/no-go reaction time task was used. In each of these experiments, the accessory stimulus preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms for one group of male and female volunteers (G Fix. For another group of similar volunteers (G Var the accessory stimulus preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms in 25% of the trials, by 1000 ms in 25% of the trials and was not followed by the target stimulus in 50% of the trials (Experiments 1a and 1b or preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms in 6% of the trials and by 1000 ms in 94% of the trials (Experiments 2a and 2b. There was a facilitatory effect of the accessory stimulus for G Fix in the four experiments. There was also a facilitatory effect of the accessory stimulus at the 200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony for G Var in Experiments 1a and 1b but not in Experiments 2a and 2b. The facilitatory effects observed were larger in the go/no-go task than in the simple task. Taken together, these results suggest that expectancy is much more important than immediate arousal for the improvement of performance caused by an accessory stimulus.

  3. Neonate Auditory Brainstem Responses to CE-Chirp and CE-Chirp Octave Band Stimuli II: Versus Adult Auditory Brainstem Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Kensi M; Stuart, Andrew

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differences in auditory brainstem response (ABR) latency and amplitude indices to the CE-Chirp stimuli in neonates versus young adults as a function of stimulus level, rate, polarity, frequency and gender. Participants were 168 healthy neonates and 20 normal-hearing young adults. ABRs were obtained to air- and bone-conducted CE-Chirps and air-conducted CE-Chirp octave band stimuli. The effects of stimulus level, rate, and polarity were examined with air-conducted CE-Chirps. The effect of stimulus level was also examined with bone-conducted CE-Chirps and CE-Chirp octave band stimuli. The effect of gender was examined across all stimulus manipulations. In general, ABR wave V amplitudes were significantly larger (p 0.05). Significant differences in ABR latencies and amplitudes exist between newborns and young adults using CE-Chirp stimuli. These differences are consistent with differences to traditional click and tone burst stimuli and reflect maturational differences as a function of age. These findings continue to emphasize the importance of interpreting ABR results using age-based normative data.

  4. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in an equine patient population: part I--adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Holliday, T A; Nieto, J E; Williams, D C

    2014-01-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked response has been an underused diagnostic modality in horses as evidenced by few reports on the subject. To describe BAER findings, common clinical signs, and causes of hearing loss in adult horses. Study group, 76 horses; control group, 8 horses. Retrospective. BAER records from the Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory were reviewed from the years of 1982 to 2013. Peak latencies, amplitudes, and interpeak intervals were measured when visible. Horses were grouped under disease categories. Descriptive statistics and a posthoc Bonferroni test were performed. Fifty-seven of 76 horses had BAER deficits. There was no breed or sex predisposition, with the exception of American Paint horses diagnosed with congenital sensorineural deafness. Eighty-six percent (n = 49/57) of the horses were younger than 16 years of age. The most common causes of BAER abnormalities were temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO, n = 20/20; abnormalities/total), congenital sensorineural deafness in Paint horses (17/17), multifocal brain disease (13/16), and otitis media/interna (4/4). Auditory loss was bilateral and unilateral in 74% (n = 42/57) and 26% (n = 15/57) of the horses, respectively. The most common causes of bilateral auditory loss were sensorineural deafness, THO, and multifocal brain disease whereas THO and otitis were the most common causes of unilateral deficits. Auditory deficits should be investigated in horses with altered behavior, THO, multifocal brain disease, otitis, and in horses with certain coat and eye color patterns. BAER testing is an objective and noninvasive diagnostic modality to assess auditory function in horses. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Auditory brainstem and cortical potentials following bone-anchored hearing aid stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahne, Torsten; Ehelebe, Thomas; Rasinski, Christine; Götze, Gerrit

    2010-11-30

    Patients suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss and Single-Sided Deafness may benefit from implantable hearing devices relying on bone conducted auditory stimulation. However, with only passively cooperative patients, objective methods are needed to estimate the aided and unaided pure-tone audiogram. This study focuses on the feasibility aspect of an electrophysiological determination of the hearing thresholds with bone-anchored hearing aid stimulation. Therefore, 10 normal-hearing subjects were provided with a Baha Intenso (Cochlear Ltd.) which was temporarily connected to the Baha Softband (Cochlear Ltd.). Auditory evoked potentials were measured by auditory stimulation paradigm used in clinical routine. The amplitudes, latencies, and thresholds of the resulting auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and the cortically evoked responses (CAEP) were correlated with the respective responses without the use of the Baha Intenso. The recording of ABR and CAEP by delivering the stimuli to the Baha results in response waveforms which are comparable to those evoked by earphone stimulation and appears appropriate to be measured using the Baha Intenso as stimulator. At the ABR recordings a stimulus artifact at higher stimulation levels and a constant latency shift caused by the Baha Intenso has to be considered. The CAEP recording appeared promising as a frequency specific objective method to approve the fitting of bone-anchored hearing aids. At all measurements, the ABR and CAEP thresholds seem to be consistent with the normal hearing of the investigated participants. Thus, a recording of auditory evoked potentials using a Baha is in general possible if specific limitations are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging of the inferior colliculus and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Milla; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Johansson, Reijo [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Turku (Finland); Jaeaeskelaeinen, Satu K. [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Turku (Finland); Kujari, Harry [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Pathology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2009-08-15

    Preterm and low-birth-weight infants have an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) are an effective method to detect subtle deficits in impulse conduction in the auditory pathway. Abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be associated with perinatal white-matter injury and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. To evaluate the possibility of a correlation between BAEP and DTI of the inferior colliculus in preterm infants. DTI at term age and BAEP measurements were performed on all very-low-birth-weight or very preterm study infants (n=56). FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the inferior colliculus were measured from the DTI. Shorter BAEP wave I, III, and V latencies and I-III and I-V intervals and higher wave V amplitude correlated with higher FA of the inferior colliculus. The association between the DTI findings of the inferior colliculus and BAEP responses suggests that DTI can be used to assess the integrity of the auditory pathway in preterm infants. (orig.)

  7. Cochlear, auditory brainstem responses in Type 1 diabetes: relationship with metabolic variables and diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagni, A; Giordano, P; Lacilla, M; Raviolo, A; Trento, M; Camussi, E; Grassi, G; Charrier, L; Cavallo, F; Albera, R; Porta, M; Zanone, M M

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have analysed the presence of hearing abnormalities in diabetes. We assessed the presence of subclinical auditory alterations and their possible association with early vascular and neurological dysfunction in young adults with Type 1 diabetes of long duration. Thirty-one patients with Type 1 diabetes (mean age 33 ± 2.3 years, disease duration 25.7 ± 4.2 years) and 10 healthy controls underwent pure tone audiometry (PTA), distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) analyses. Associations with metabolic variables and chronic complications were explored. Compared with healthy controls, patients with diabetes had significantly higher mean hearing thresholds, although still within the normoacusic range. DPOAE intensities at medium frequencies (2.8-4 kHz) were significantly lower in patients with diabetes. In ABR, in addition to waves I, III and V, we observed the appearance of a visible wave IV in patients with diabetes compared with controls (prevalence 61% vs. 10%, P appearance was related to a prolonged I-V interval (4.40 ± 0.62 ms vs. 4.19 ± 0.58 ms, P trend towards an association between evidence of wave IV and the presence of somatic neuropathy or abnormal cardiovascular autonomic tests was observed. Young adults with long-term Type 1 diabetes have subclinical abnormalities in qualitative auditory perception, despite normal hearing thresholds, which might reflect neuropathic and/or vascular alterations. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  8. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Sköld, Mia Ling; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16), respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005), which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking) may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:20628629

  9. Implementation of a nation-wide automated auditory brainstem response hearing screening programme in neonatal intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, H.L.M. van; Hille, E.T.M.; Kok, J.H.; Verkerk, P.H.; Baerts, W.; Bunkers, C.M.; Smink, E.W.A.; Elburg, R.M. van; Kleine, M.J.K. de; Ilsen, A.; Maingay-Visser, A.P.G.F.; Vries, L.S. de; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: As part of a future national neonatal hearing screening programme in the Netherlands, automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) hearing screening was implemented in seven neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The objective was to evaluate key outcomes of this programme: participation rate,

  10. The Relationship between Brainstem Temporal Processing and Performance on Tests of Central Auditory Function in Children with Reading Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiet, Cassandra R.; Bellis, Teri James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Studies using speech stimuli to elicit electrophysiologic responses have found approximately 30% of children with language-based learning problems demonstrate abnormal brainstem timing. Research is needed regarding how these responses relate to performance on behavioral tests of central auditory function. The purpose of the study was to…

  11. Aerial low-frequency hearing in captive and free-ranging harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) measured using auditory brainstem responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucke, K.; Hastie, Gordon D.; Ternes, Kerstin; McConnell, Bernie; Moss, Simon; Russell, Deborah J.F.; Weber, Heike; Janik, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    The hearing sensitivity of 18 free-ranging and 10 captive harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) to aerial sounds was measured in the presence of typical environmental noise through auditory brainstem response measurements. A focus was put on the comparative hearing sensitivity at low frequencies. Low-

  12. A comparison of the brainstem auditory evoked response in healthy ears of unilaterally deaf dogs and bilaterally hearing dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonek, M; Nicpoń, J; Kubiak, K; Wrzosek, M

    2017-03-01

    Auditory plasticity in response to unilateral deafness has been reported in various animal species. Subcortical changes occurring in unilaterally deaf young dogs using the brainstem auditory evoked response have not been evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to assess the brainstem auditory evoked response findings in dogs with unilateral hearing loss, and compare them with recordings obtained from healthy dogs. Brainstem auditory evoked responses (amplitudes and latencies of waves I, II, III, V, the V/I wave amplitude ratio, wave I-V, I-III and III-V interpeak intervals) were studied retrospectively in forty-six privately owned dogs, which were either unilaterally deaf or had bilateral hearing. The data obtained from the hearing ears in unilaterally deaf dogs were compared to values obtained from their healthy littermates. Statistically significant differences in the amplitude of wave III and the V/I wave amplitude ratio at 75 dB nHL were found between the group of unilaterally deaf puppies and the control group. The recordings of dogs with single-sided deafness were compared, and the results showed no statistically significant differences in the latencies and amplitudes of the waves between left- (AL) and right-sided (AR) deafness. The recordings of the brainstem auditory evoked response in canines with unilateral inborn deafness in this study varied compared to recordings from healthy dogs. Future studies looking into electrophysiological assessment of hearing in conjunction with imaging modalities to determine subcortical auditory plasticity and auditory lateralization in unilaterally deaf dogs are warranted.

  13. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Short latency (under 10 msec) responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalps of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time), inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes were analyzed. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise time but was unaffected by changes in fall time. Increases in stimulus duration, and therefore in loudness, resulted in a systematic increase in latency. This was probably due to response recovery processes, since the effect was eliminated with increases in stimulus off-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise and fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It was concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

  14. On the synthesis of multiple frequency tone burst stimuli for efficient high frequency auditory brainstem response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Roger M; Dille, Marilyn L; Leek, Marjorie R; Fausti, Stephen A

    2008-01-01

    The development and digital waveform synthesis of a multiple-frequency tone-burst (MFTB) stimulus is presented. The stimulus is designed to improve the efficiency of monitoring high-frequency auditory-brainstem-response (ABR) hearing thresholds. The pure-tone-based, fractional-octave-bandwidth MFTB supports frequency selective ABR audiometry with a bandwidth that falls between the conventional click and single-frequency tone-burst stimuli. The MFTB is being used to identify high frequency hearing threshold change due to ototoxic medication which most generally starts at the ultra-highest hearing frequencies and progresses downwards but could be useful in general limited-bandwidth testing applications. Included is a Mathcad implementation and analysis of our MFTB synthesis technique and sample performance measurements of the MFTB stimulus configuration used in a clinical research ABR system.

  15. 'Compassionate use' protocol for auditory brainstem implantation in neurofibromatosis type 2: Early House Ear Institute experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel S; Slattery, William H; Chen, Brian S; Otto, Steve R; Schwartz, Marc S; Lekovic, Gregory P

    2017-01-01

    To report the preliminary outcomes of auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) under a compassionate use protocol for two ABI devices that are not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. A retrospective review was performed of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who underwent microsurgery for vestibular schwannoma (VS) and placement of either the Cochlear ABI541 or Med-El Synchrony ABIs. Peri-operative and device- related complications were reviewed. Audiometric performance was also evaluated. Seven patients received either the Cochlear ABI541 (6) or the Med-El Synchrony ABI (1) after the resection of VS. No device or patient-related complications occurred to date. Surgical times and early audiological performance are similar to our previous experience with the Cochlear ABI24 device. Early experience with the Cochlear ABI541 and Med-El Synchrony ABI devices under a compassionate use protocol suggest that both devices are safe with comparable utility to the Cochlear ABI24 device.

  16. Gap prepulse inhibition and auditory brainstem evoked potentials as objective measures for tinnitus in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDehmel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus or ringing of the ears is a subjective phantom sensation necessitating behavioral models that objectively demonstrate the existence and quality of the tinnitus sensation. The gap detection test uses the acoustic startle response elicited by loud noise pulses and its gating or suppression by preceding sub-startling prepulses. Gaps in noise bands serve as prepulses, assuming that ongoing tinnitus masks the gap and results in impaired gap detection. This test has shown its reliability in rats, mice, and gerbils. No data exists for the guinea pig so far, although gap detection is similar across mammals and the acoustic startle response is a well-established tool in guinea pig studies of psychiatric disorders and in pharmacological studies. Here we investigated the startle behavior and prepulse inhibition (PPI of the guinea pig and showed that guinea pigs have a reliable startle response that can be suppressed by 15 ms gaps embedded in narrow noise bands preceding the startle noise pulse. After recovery of auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds from a unilateral noise over-exposure centered at 7 kHz, guinea pigs showed diminished gap-induced reduction of the startle response in frequency bands between 8 and 18 kHz. This suggests the development of tinnitus in frequency regions that showed a temporary threshold shift (TTS after noise over-exposure. Changes in discharge rate and synchrony, two neuronal correlates of tinnitus, should be reflected in altered ABR waveforms, which would be useful to objectively detect tinnitus and its localization to auditory brainstem structures. Therefore we analyzed latencies and amplitudes of the first five ABR waves at suprathreshold sound intensities and correlated ABR abnormalities with the results of the behavioral tinnitus testing. Early ABR wave amplitudes up to N3 were increased for animals with tinnitus possibly stemming from hyperactivity and hypersynchrony underlying the tinnitus percept.

  17. Central conduction time in auditory brainstem response and ear advantage in dichotic listening across menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu-Jun; Lau, Chi-Chuen

    2017-01-01

    The ovarian hormones fluctuate during the menstrual cycle in women. Such fluctuation of sex hormones, in particular estrogen, is believed to affect the central conduction time in auditory function as well as the language lateralization in cognitive function. However, findings are inconsistent. The underlying mechanisms are also unclear. This paper examined if there was any relation between the central conduction time and the language lateralization at different times during the menstrual cycle. Twenty young women with normal menstrual cycle were tested four times (5 to 7 days apart) across the menstrual cycle. The test battery included the electrophysiological measurement of auditory evoked response in brainstem and the speech performance in dichotic listening with monosyllables as stimulus pairs. The dichotic listening task was conducted under the non-forced, forced-right and forced-left attention. The central conduction time was defined by the time elapsed between two auditory elicited responses along the auditory pathway. The language lateralization in dichotic listening was expressed in ear advantage, which was the right-ear score minus the left-ear score. The results showed that the effects of test time were significant on both the central conduction time and the ear advantage under the forced-left attention. Overall, the interaural difference in the central conduction time correlates with the ear advantage (non-forced attention) at the beginning of the menstrual cycle. The change in central conduction time between two test times correlates significantly with the change in ear advantage under the non-forced and forced-left attention. Conclusively, the central conduction time depends on the time during the menstrual cycle, which in turn may affect the performance in dichotic listening.

  18. Modeling binaural responses in the auditory brainstem to electric stimulation of the auditory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoojin; Delgutte, Bertrand; Colburn, H Steven

    2015-02-01

    Bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) provide improvements in sound localization and speech perception in noise over unilateral CIs. However, the benefits arise mainly from the perception of interaural level differences, while bilateral CI listeners' sensitivity to interaural time difference (ITD) is poorer than normal. To help understand this limitation, a set of ITD-sensitive neural models was developed to study binaural responses to electric stimulation. Our working hypothesis was that central auditory processing is normal with bilateral CIs so that the abnormality in the response to electric stimulation at the level of the auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) is the source of the limited ITD sensitivity. A descriptive model of ANF response to both acoustic and electric stimulation was implemented and used to drive a simplified biophysical model of neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO). The model's ITD sensitivity was found to depend strongly on the specific configurations of membrane and synaptic parameters for different stimulation rates. Specifically, stronger excitatory synaptic inputs and faster membrane responses were required for the model neurons to be ITD-sensitive at high stimulation rates, whereas weaker excitatory synaptic input and slower membrane responses were necessary at low stimulation rates, for both electric and acoustic stimulation. This finding raises the possibility of frequency-dependent differences in neural mechanisms of binaural processing; limitations in ITD sensitivity with bilateral CIs may be due to a mismatch between stimulation rate and cell parameters in ITD-sensitive neurons.

  19. Comparison of binaural auditory brainstem responses and the binaural difference potential evoked by chirps and clicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Helmut; Kollmeier, Birger

    2002-07-01

    Rising chirps that compensate for the dispersion of the travelling wave on the basilar membrane evoke larger monaural brainstem responses than clicks. In order to test if a similar effect applies for the early processing stages of binaural information, monaurally and binaurally evoked auditory brainstem responses were recorded for clicks and chirps for levels from 10 to 60 dB nHL in steps of 10 dB. Ten thousand sweeps were collected for every stimulus condition from 10 normal hearing subjects. Wave V amplitudes are significantly larger for chirps than for clicks for all conditions. The amplitude of the binaural difference potential, DP1-DN1, is significantly larger for chirps at the levels 30 and 40 dB nHL. Both the binaurally evoked potential and the binaural difference potential exhibit steeper growth functions for chirps than for clicks for levels up to 40 dB nHL. For higher stimulation levels the chirp responses saturate approaching the click evoked amplitude. For both stimuli the latency of DP1 is shorter than the latency of the binaural wave V, which in turn is shorter than the latency of DN1. The amplitude ratio of the binaural difference potential to the binaural response is independent of stimulus level for clicks and chirps. A possible interpretation is that with click stimulation predominantly binaural interaction from high frequency regions is seen which is compatible with a processing by contralateral inhibitory and ipsilateral excitatory (IE) cells. Contributions from low frequencies are negligible since the responses from low frequencies are not synchronized for clicks. The improved synchronization at lower frequencies using chirp stimuli yields contributions from both low and high frequency neurons enlarging the amplitudes of the binaural responses as well as the binaural difference potential. Since the constant amplitude ratio of the binaural difference potential to the binaural response makes contralateral and ipsilateral excitatory interaction

  20. Astrocyte-secreted factors modulate a gradient of primary dendritic arbors in nucleus laminaris of the avian auditory brainstem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Korn

    Full Text Available Neurons in nucleus laminaris (NL receive binaural, tonotopically matched input from nucleus magnocelluaris (NM onto bitufted dendrites that display a gradient of dendritic arbor size. These features improve computation of interaural time differences, which are used to determine the locations of sound sources. The dendritic gradient emerges following a period of significant reorganization at embryonic day 15 (E15, which coincides with the emergence of astrocytes that express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in the auditory brainstem. The major changes include a loss of total dendritic length, a systematic loss of primary dendrites along the tonotopic axis, and lengthening of primary dendrites on caudolateral NL neurons. Here we have tested whether astrocyte-derived molecules contribute to these changes in dendritic morphology. We used an organotypic brainstem slice preparation to perform repeated imaging of individual dye-filled NL neurons to determine the effects of astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM on dendritic morphology. We found that treatment with ACM induced a decrease in the number of primary dendrites in a tonotopically graded manner similar to that observed during normal development. Our data introduce a new interaction between astrocytes and neurons in the auditory brainstem and suggest that these astrocytes influence multiple aspects of auditory brainstem maturation.

  1. Study of the correlation of brainstem auditory evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fobe, Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina]. E-mail: lispessoa@yahoo.com

    1999-12-01

    Central auditory evaluation in 21 children with cerebral palsy was done with brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and correlated with brain magnetic resonance imaging findings (MRI); 12 boys and 9 girls between 5 and 12 years old were studied. All children had follow-up at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo. The control group was done with 17 children, 10 boys and 7 girls (mean age 8.06 years, SD 2.27 years). The BAEP abnormalities were: decrease of latency of wave V; decrease of latency III-V and I-IV intervals at the right side. All patients has MRI supratentorial abnormalities and 11 had brainstem atrophy. The MRI pathologic findings were: ventricular enlargement (n=17 or 80.95%), cortical/subcortical atrophy (n=15 or 71.42%), left brainstem atrophy (n=11 or 52.38%), periventricular leukomalacia (n=10 or 47.61%), infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory (n=6 or 28.57%), and malformations such as schizencephaly and colpocephaly (n=5 or 23.80%). The findings of the decrease latencies in children with cerebral palsy suggest the contribution of decussating auditory fibers at the lower and upper pons and midbrain, the lack of homogeneity of the surrounding volume of the conductor fibres and the presence of several concurrently active potential generators sources, should be facilitating mechanisms for the nervous input to brainstem. (author)

  2. Correlation between auditory brainstem recordings and morphology as seen through the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultcrantz, M.

    1988-09-01

    Pregnant CBA/CBA mice were exposed to 0.5, 1 and 2 Grey (Gy), (1 Gy = 100 rad) in single doses with whole body gamma-irradiation on the 12th, 13th and 16th gestational days, respectively. The animals were tested at an age of one month for vestibular and cochlear function. Thereafter the inner ears were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. A morphological analysis with cytocochleograms was performed. Morphological changes in the vestibular part showed gross malformations in the cristae ampullares. Hair cells of type I seemed to be more severely changed than hair cells type II. The macula utriculi also showed malformations of the otoconia. All these changes were more pronounced when the irradiation was given early during pregnancy and with the highest doses used, except the otoconia which were more injured when irradiated day 16 of gestation. No disturbances of the equilibrium reflexes were noted. In the cochlea a dose-dependent, time-related damage pattern was demonstrated with pathological changes of outer (OHC) and inner (IHC) hair cells. When tested electrophysiologically for auditory function with auditory brainstem recordings (ABR), elevated thresholds were revealed different in shape depending on when during pregnancy irradiation took place. A good correlation existed between the morphological changes as seen in the cytocochleograms and the functional changes documented with the ABR.

  3. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials with the use of acoustic clicks and complex verbal sounds in young adults with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouni, Sophia N; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Ziavra, Nausika; Koutsojannis, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals are transmitted through the external and middle ear mechanically to the cochlea where they are transduced into electrical impulse for further transmission via the auditory nerve. The auditory nerve encodes the acoustic sounds that are conveyed to the auditory brainstem. Multiple brainstem nuclei, the cochlea, the midbrain, the thalamus, and the cortex constitute the central auditory system. In clinical practice, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to simple stimuli such as click or tones are widely used. Recently, complex stimuli or complex auditory brain responses (cABRs), such as monosyllabic speech stimuli and music, are being used as a tool to study the brainstem processing of speech sounds. We have used the classic 'click' as well as, for the first time, the artificial successive complex stimuli 'ba', which constitutes the Greek word 'baba' corresponding to the English 'daddy'. Twenty young adults institutionally diagnosed as dyslexic (10 subjects) or light dyslexic (10 subjects) comprised the diseased group. Twenty sex-, age-, education-, hearing sensitivity-, and IQ-matched normal subjects comprised the control group. Measurements included the absolute latencies of waves I through V, the interpeak latencies elicited by the classical acoustic click, the negative peak latencies of A and C waves, as well as the interpeak latencies of A-C elicited by the verbal stimulus 'baba' created on a digital speech synthesizer. The absolute peak latencies of waves I, III, and V in response to monoaural rarefaction clicks as well as the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V in the dyslexic subjects, although increased in comparison with normal subjects, did not reach the level of a significant difference (pdyslexia according to dyslexia tests, no significant delays were found in peak latencies A and C and interpeak latencies A-C in comparison with the control group. Acoustic representation of a speech sound and, in particular, the disyllabic word 'baba

  4. Auditory brainstem response changes during exposure to GSM-900 radiation: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprana, Antigoni E; Chimona, Theognosia S; Papadakis, Chariton E; Velegrakis, Stylianos G; Vardiambasis, Ioannis O; Adamidis, Georgios; Velegrakis, George A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the possible electrophysiological time-related changes in auditory pathway during mobile phone electromagnetic field exposure. Thirty healthy rabbits were enrolled in an experimental study of exposure to GSM-900 radiation for 60 min and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded at regular time-intervals during exposure. The study subjects were radiated via an adjustable power and frequency radio transmitter for GSM-900 mobile phone emission simulation, designed and manufactured according to the needs of the experiment. The mean absolute latency of waves III-V showed a statistically significant delay (p < 0.05) after 60, 45 and 15 min of exposure to electromagnetic radiation of 900 MHz, respectively. Interwave latency I-III was found to be prolonged after 60 min of radiation exposure in correspondence to wave III absolute latency delay. Interwave latencies I-V and III-V were found with a statistically significant delay (p < 0.05) after 30 min of radiation. No statistically significant delay was found for the same ABR parameters in recordings from the ear contralateral to the radiation source at 60 min radiation exposure compared with baseline ABR. The ABR measurements returned to baseline recordings 24 h after the exposure to electromagnetic radiation of 900 MHz. The prolongation of interval latencies I-V and III-V indicates that exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone can affect the normal electrophysiological activity of the auditory system, and these findings fit the pattern of general responses to a stressor. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes

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    Susan Abadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group. Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V than did the control group (P=0.001. These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001; however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001. The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients’ improvement after treatment.

  6. DEVELOPING ‘STANDARD NOVEL ‘VAD’ TECHNIQUE’ AND ‘NOISE FREE SIGNALS’ FOR SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES FOR HUMAN SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam

    2016-01-01

    In this research as a first step we have concentrated on collecting non-intra cortical EEG data of Brainstem Speech Evoked Potentials from human subjects in an Audiology Lab in University of Ottawa. The problems we have considered are the most advanced and most essential problems of interest in Auditory Neural Signal Processing area in the world: The first problem is the Voice Activity Detection (VAD) in Speech Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR); The second problem is to identify the best De-...

  7. Reduced wave amplitudes of brainstem auditory response in high-risk babies born at 28-32week gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze Dong; Ping, Li Li

    2016-11-01

    To examine brainstem auditory electrophysiology in high-risk babies born at 28-32week gestation by analysing the amplitudes of wave components in maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response (MLS BAER). 94 preterm babies, ranging in gestation 28-32weeks, with perinatal problems (high-risk) were recruited. The amplitudes of MLS BAER wave components were studied at term age (37-42weeks postconceptional age). Compared with normal term controls, the amplitude in the high-risk preterm babies was significantly smaller at the highest click rate 910/s for wave I (pauditory neuron in such babies is depressed, mainly attributed to or related to the associated perinatal problems. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Auditory brainstem response latency in forward masking, a marker of sensory deficits in listeners with normal hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehraei, Golbarg; Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2017-01-01

    In rodent models, acoustic exposure too modest to elevate hearing thresholds can nonetheless cause auditory nerve fiber deafferentation, interfering with the coding of supra-threshold sound. Low-spontaneous rate nerve fibers, important for encoding acoustic information at supra-threshold levels...... and in noise, are more susceptible to degeneration than high-spontaneous rate fibers. The change in auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave-V latency with noise level has been shown to be associated with auditory nerve deafferentation. Here, we measured ABR in a forward masking paradigm and evaluated wave......-V latency changes with increasing masker-to-probe intervals. In the same listeners, behavioral forward masking detection thresholds were measured. We hypothesized that 1) auditory nerve fiber deafferentation increases forward masking thresholds and increases wave-V latency and 2) a preferential loss of low...

  9. Effects of N-Acetylcysteine on Auditory Brainstem Response Threshold Shift in Rabbits Exposed to Noise and Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedbagher Mortazavi; Masoud M. Kashani; Ali Khavanin; Abdolamir Alameh; Ramezan Mirzaee; Mehdi Akbari

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) is one of the most important occupational disease in worldwide. NIHL has been found to be potentiated by simultaneous Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure. Exposure to noise plus CO is common in occupational and environmental settings. Free radicals have been implicated in cochlear damage resulting from exposure to noise and due to CO hypoxia This study examined whether N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) administration cause attenuation of Auditory Brainstem ...

  10. Long-Term Evolution of Brainstem Electrical Evoked Responses to Sound after Restricted Ablation of the Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Verónica; Alvarado, Juan C.; Carro, Juan; Merchán, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the top-down control of sound processing in the auditory brainstem of rats. Short latency evoked responses were analyzed after unilateral or bilateral ablation of auditory cortex. This experimental paradigm was also used towards analyzing the long-term evolution of post-lesion plasticity in the auditory system and its ability to self-repair. Method Auditory cortex lesions were performed in rats by stereotactically guided fine-needle aspiration of the cerebrocortical surface. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR) were recorded at post-surgery day (PSD) 1, 7, 15 and 30. Recordings were performed under closed-field conditions, using click trains at different sound intensity levels, followed by statistical analysis of threshold values and ABR amplitude and latency variables. Subsequently, brains were sectioned and immunostained for GAD and parvalbumin to assess the location and extent of lesions accurately. Results Alterations in ABR variables depended on the type of lesion and post-surgery time of ABR recordings. Accordingly, bilateral ablations caused a statistically significant increase in thresholds at PSD1 and 7 and a decrease in waves amplitudes at PSD1 that recover at PSD7. No effects on latency were noted at PSD1 and 7, whilst recordings at PSD15 and 30 showed statistically significant decreases in latency. Conversely, unilateral ablations had no effect on auditory thresholds or latencies, while wave amplitudes only decreased at PSD1 strictly in the ipsilateral ear. Conclusion Post-lesion plasticity in the auditory system acts in two time periods: short-term period of decreased sound sensitivity (until PSD7), most likely resulting from axonal degeneration; and a long-term period (up to PSD7), with changes in latency responses and recovery of thresholds and amplitudes values. The cerebral cortex may have a net positive gain on the auditory pathway response to sound. PMID:24066057

  11. Long-term evolution of brainstem electrical evoked responses to sound after restricted ablation of the auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Lamas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the top-down control of sound processing in the auditory brainstem of rats. Short latency evoked responses were analyzed after unilateral or bilateral ablation of auditory cortex. This experimental paradigm was also used towards analyzing the long-term evolution of post-lesion plasticity in the auditory system and its ability to self-repair. METHOD: Auditory cortex lesions were performed in rats by stereotactically guided fine-needle aspiration of the cerebrocortical surface. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR were recorded at post-surgery day (PSD 1, 7, 15 and 30. Recordings were performed under closed-field conditions, using click trains at different sound intensity levels, followed by statistical analysis of threshold values and ABR amplitude and latency variables. Subsequently, brains were sectioned and immunostained for GAD and parvalbumin to assess the location and extent of lesions accurately. RESULTS: Alterations in ABR variables depended on the type of lesion and post-surgery time of ABR recordings. Accordingly, bilateral ablations caused a statistically significant increase in thresholds at PSD1 and 7 and a decrease in waves amplitudes at PSD1 that recover at PSD7. No effects on latency were noted at PSD1 and 7, whilst recordings at PSD15 and 30 showed statistically significant decreases in latency. Conversely, unilateral ablations had no effect on auditory thresholds or latencies, while wave amplitudes only decreased at PSD1 strictly in the ipsilateral ear. CONCLUSION: Post-lesion plasticity in the auditory system acts in two time periods: short-term period of decreased sound sensitivity (until PSD7, most likely resulting from axonal degeneration; and a long-term period (up to PSD7, with changes in latency responses and recovery of thresholds and amplitudes values. The cerebral cortex may have a net positive gain on the auditory pathway response to sound.

  12. Processing of speech temporal and spectral information by users of auditory brainstem implants and cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadpour, Mahan; McKay, Colette M

    2014-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implants (ABI) use the same processing strategy as was developed for cochlear implants (CI). However, the cochlear nucleus (CN), the stimulation site of ABIs, is anatomically and physiologically more complex than the auditory nerve and consists of neurons with differing roles in auditory processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypotheses that ABI users are less able than CI users to access speech spectro-temporal information delivered by the existing strategies and that the sites stimulated by different locations of CI and ABI electrode arrays differ in encoding of temporal patterns in the stimulation. Six CI users and four ABI users of Nucleus implants with ACE processing strategy participated in this study. Closed-set perception of aCa syllables (16 consonants) and bVd words (11 vowels) was evaluated via experimental processing strategies that activated one, two, or four of the electrodes of the array in a CIS manner as well as subjects' clinical strategies. Three single-channel strategies presented the overall temporal envelope variations of the signal on a single-implant electrode located at the high-, medium-, and low-frequency regions of the array. Implantees' ability to discriminate within electrode temporal patterns of stimulation for phoneme perception and their ability to make use of spectral information presented by increased number of active electrodes were assessed in the single- and multiple-channel strategies, respectively. Overall percentages and information transmission of phonetic features were obtained for each experimental program. Phoneme perception performance of three ABI users was within the range of CI users in most of the experimental strategies and improved as the number of active electrodes increased. One ABI user performed close to chance with all the single and multiple electrode strategies. There was no significant difference between apical, basal, and middle CI electrodes in transmitting speech

  13. Notched-noise embedded frequency specific chirps for objective audiometry using auditory brainstem responses

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    Farah I. Corona-Strauss

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown recently that chirp-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs show better performance than click stimulations, especially at low intensity levels. In this paper we present the development, test, and evaluation of a series of notched-noise embedded frequency specific chirps. ABRs were collected in healthy young control subjects using the developed stimuli. Results of the analysis of the corresponding ABRs using a time-scale phase synchronization stability (PSS measure are also reported. The resultant wave V amplitude and latency measures showed a similar behavior as for values reported in literature. The PSS of frequency specific chirp-evoked ABRs reflected the presence of the wave V for all stimulation intensities. The scales that resulted in higher PSS are in line with previous findings, where ABRs evoked by broadband chirps were analyzed, and which stated that low frequency channels are better for the recognition and analysis of chirp-evoked ABRs. We conclude that the development and test of the series of notched-noise embedded frequency specific chirps allowed the assessment of frequency specific ABRs, showing an identifiable wave V for different intensity levels. Future work may include the development of a faster automatic recognition scheme for these frequency specific ABRs.

  14. Effect of Sound Conditioning on Click Auditory Brainstem Response Threshold Shifts in Guinea Pigs

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    Masoud Motalebi Kashani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sound conditioning is exposure to a non-traumatic, moderate level of sound which increases inner ear resistance against further severe noise. In this study, we aimed to survey the effect of sound conditioning on auditory brainstem response (ABR threshold shifts using click stimulus, and the effect of the frequency of conditioning on hearing protection.Methods: Fifteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups. Two conditioned groups were exposed to 1 kHz, and 4 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, 6 hours per day for 5 days, respectively.On the sixth day, the animals were exposed to 4 kHz octave band noise at 105 dB SPL, for 4 hours.The control group was exposed to intense noise, 4 kHz at 105 Db SPL for 4 hours (withoutconditioning. After exposure, ABR thresholds using click were recorded an hour, and 7 days after noise exposure.Results: The results of the ABR with click stimulus showed less thresold shifts in conditioned groups than control (p≤0.001. Comparison of the results of conditioned groups, showed less threshold shift by 4 kHz conditioning, however, this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.Conclusion: Electrophysiological data of our study showed that sound conditioning has a protective effect against subsequent intensive noise exposure, and the frequency of conditioning does not havesignificant effect on ABR threshold shifts when using click stimulus.

  15. Development of a Chirp Stimulus PC-Based Auditory Brainstem Response Audiometer

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    Ali AL-Afsaa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Hearing losses during infancy and childhood have many negative future effects and impacts on the child life and productivity. The earlier detection of hearing losses, the earlier medical intervention and then the greater benefit of remediation will be. During this research a PC-based audiometer is designed and, currently, the audiometer prototype is in its final development steps. It is based on the auditory brainstem response (ABR method. Chirp stimuli instead of traditional click stimuli will be used to invoke the ABR signal. The stimulus is designed to synchronize the hair cells movement when it spreads out over the cochlea. In addition to the available hardware utilization (PC and PCI board, the efforts confined to design and implement a hardware prototype and to develop a software package that enables the system to behave as ABR audiometer. By using such a method and chirp stimulus, it is expected to be able to detect hearing impairment (sensorineural in the first few days of the life and conduct hearing test at low frequency of stimulus. Currently, the intended chirp stimulus has been successfully generated and the implemented module is able to amplify a signal (on the order of ABR signal to a recordable level. Moreover, a NI-DAQ data acquisition board has been chosen to implement the PC-prototype interface.

  16. Effects of sleep deprivation on anaerobic exercise-induced changes in auditory brainstem evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Levent; Bulut, Erdoğan; Vardar, Selma Arzu; Uzun, Cem

    2007-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess how anaerobic exercise affects auditory brainstem response (ABR) parameters, and whether one night of sleep deprivation could alter these possible exercise-induced changes in ABRs. Seven healthy, audiologically normal male students (mean age 22.4 +/- 1.0 years) participated in the study. All subjects underwent anaerobic Wingate test for three times: (i) baseline, (ii) following a full-night of habitual sleep and (iii) following one night of sleep deprivation. ABR measurements were performed before and after the second and the third Wingate tests. Oral body temperatures were recorded at the beginning of all ABR measurements. The latencies of wave III and V significantly shortened by anaerobic loading performed in the day after habitual sleep (4.13 +/- 0.10 versus 4.01 +/- 0.17 ms, Pexercise latencies and altered exercise-induced changes in ABRs. The findings obtained in the present study show that acute anaerobic exercise is effective on ABR wave latencies independent from body temperature changes, and sleep deprivation has some modulatory effects on exercise-induced changes in ABR.

  17. Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) auditory brainstem responses recorded using conventional and randomized stimulation and averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, James J

    2017-08-01

    Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements using conventional averaging (i.e., constant interstimulus interval, ISI) are limited to stimulus rates low enough to prevent overlapping of the ABRs to successive stimuli. To overcome this limitation, stimuli may be presented at high rates using pseudorandom sequences (e.g., maximum length sequences) or quasi-periodic sequences; however, these methods restrict the available stimulus sequences and require deconvolution to recover the ABR from the overlapping responses. Randomized stimulation and averaging (RSA) is an alternate method where evoked responses at high rates are obtained by averaging responses to stimuli with ISIs drawn from a random distribution. The RSA method enables precise control over stimulus jitter, is flexible with respect to stimulus sequence parameters, and does not require deconvolution to extract the ABR waveform. In this study, ABRs were measured in three normal-hearing dolphins using conventional averaging and RSA. Results show the RSA method to be effective in dolphins if the ISI jitter ≥ ∼1.5 ms and that the influence of stimulus artifacts in the averaged ABR can be substantially reduced by alternating stimulus polarity on successive presentations rather than employing digital blanking or iterative processes.

  18. Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) auditory brainstem responses to frequency-modulated "chirp" stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, James J; Mulsow, Jason; Jones, Ryan; Houser, Dorian S; Burkard, Robert F

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that increasing-frequency chirp stimuli (up-chirps) can enhance human auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes by compensating for temporal dispersion occurring along the cochlear partition. In this study, ABRs were measured in two bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to spectrally white clicks, up-chirps, and decreasing-frequency chirps (down-chirps). Chirp durations varied from 125 to 2000 μs. For all stimuli, frequency bandwidth was constant (10-180 kHz) and peak-equivalent sound pressure levels (peSPLs) were 115, 125, and 135 dB re 1 μPa. Up-chirps with durations less than ∼1000 μs generally increased ABR peak amplitudes compared to clicks with the same peSPL or energy flux spectral density level, while down-chirps with durations from above ∼250 to 500 μs decreased ABR amplitudes relative to clicks. The findings generally mirror those from human studies and suggest that the use of chirp stimuli may be an effective way to enhance broadband ABR amplitudes in larger marine mammals.

  19. Measuring the Advantage of Kalman-Weighted Averaging for Auditory Brainstem Response Hearing Evaluation in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Barbara; Norrix, Linda W

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) measure the effects of Kalman-weighted averaging methods on auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold, latency, and amplitude; (b) translate lab findings to the clinical setting; and (c) estimate cost savings when ABRs can be obtained in nonsedated infants. ABRs were recorded in 40 adults with normal hearing during induced motor noise conditions using the Kalman-weighted averaging method implemented on a commercial system, the Vivosonic Integrity (Vivosonic Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada). The device was then used to test 34 infants in awake and asleep states. The advantages of the Kalman-weighted averaging method were modeled in terms of time saved for conducting an ABR evaluation. Kalman-weighted ABR threshold estimates were 6-7 dB lower than with conventional methods during induced motor noise. When used to obtain ABRs in infants who were awake, the number of sweeps required to obtain a result was significantly greater than that required for a sleeping infant but well within the range for clinical application. The use of Kalman-weighted averaging provides a measurable advantage over conventional methods and may reduce costs for the pediatric audiology practice.

  20. Synchronized Progression of Prestin Expression and Auditory Brainstem Response during Postnatal Development in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prestin is the motor protein expressed in the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs of mammalian inner ear. The electromotility of OHCs driven by prestin is responsible for the cochlear amplification which is required for normal hearing in adult animals. Postnatal expression of prestin and activity of OHCs may contribute to the maturation of hearing in rodents. However, the temporal and spatial expression of prestin in cochlea during the development is not well characterized. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of prestin from the OHCs in apical, middle, and basal turns of the cochleae of postnatal rats. Prestin first appeared at postnatal day 6 (P6 for basal turn, P7 in middle turn, and P9 for apical turn of cochlea. The expression level increased progressively over the next few days and by P14 reached the mature level for all three segments. By comparison with the time course of the development of auditory brainstem response for different frequencies, our data reveal that prestin expression synchronized with the hearing development. The present study suggests that the onset time of hearing may require the expression of prestin and is determined by the mature function of OHCs.

  1. Correlation between auditory brainstem response and hearing prognosis in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Che; Chou, Yu-Ching; Wang, Chih-Hung; Hung, Li-Wen; Shih, Cheng-Ping; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Yeh, Wen-Ying; Chen, Hsin-Chien

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and hearing prognosis in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Patients with ISSNHL were classified into four different recovery groups. All patients' clinical and demographic features were analyzed. Two-channel ABRs were collected in response to click stimuli at 90dB nHL. ABR amplitudes for wave I and ABR latency for waves I, III, and V were analyzed. One hundred and two patients (54 men and 48 women) were included in the study. Hearing recovery was observed in 72 cases (70.6%). Waves I, III, and V latencies were significantly prolonged in the affected ears compared with the unaffected ears. A smaller wave I amplitude was found in the affected ear compared with the unaffected ear in the three recovery groups. There was a significant association between wave I latency and hearing outcome (p=0.009) with a prolonged trend from complete to slight hearing recovery group. There was a significant correlation between wave I latency and hearing outcome in patients with ISSNHL. The finding may provide diagnostic information and serve as a potential prognostic indicator in patients with ISSNHL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Normative auditory brainstem response data for hearing threshold and neuro-otological diagnosis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, J N; Munro, K J; Cox, C L

    1997-03-01

    There is growing interest in the application of auditory brainstem response (ABR) audiometry for hearing assessment in dogs. The technique is far from standardised, however, resulting in large discrepancies between studies. This study aimed to obtain normative data, under clearly defined conditions, for two breeds of significantly different size; head size being a potential factor determining ABR latency values. The subjects, 20 dalmatians and 20 Jack Russell terriers, were sedated prior to ABR testing, and subcutaneous scalp electrodes used to detect the evoked potential elicited by a click stimulus presented via insert earphones. The mean ABR thresholds for the two breeds, 0 and -5 decibels re normal hearing level (dB nHL), respectively, were very similar to those for humans. The latency values of the main ABR waves and the interval between them were statistically significantly smaller for the smaller breed, but there was no correlation with head size within either breed. The results provide a baseline to assist with confirmation of hearing impairment and neuro-otological diagnosis in the dog.

  3. Brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER) in client-owned pet ferrets with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, S; Huynh, M; Cauzinille, L

    2014-06-07

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER) testing in pet ferrets in a clinical setting, and to describe a routine method and baseline data for normal hearing ferrets for future investigation of deafness in this species. Twenty-eight clinically normal client-owned ferrets were included. BAER measurements were recorded under general anaesthesia (isoflurane delivered by mask), from subcutaneously placed needle electrodes. A 'click' stimulus applied by insert earphone with an intensity of 90 dB sound pressure level (SPL) was used. The final BAER waveform represents an average of 500 successive responses. Morphology of the waveform was studied; amplitude and latency measures were determined and means were calculated. The BAER waveform of the normal ferret included 4 reproducible waves named I, II, III and V, as previously described in dogs and cats. Measurements of latencies are consistent with previous laboratory research using experimental ferrets. In the present study, a reliable routine protocol for clinical evaluation of the hearing function in the pet ferret was established. This procedure can be easily and safely performed in a clinical setting in ferrets as young as eight weeks of age. The prevalence of congenital deafness in ferrets is currently unknown but may be an important consideration, especially in ferrets with a white coat. BAER test is a useful screening for congenital deafness in this species. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Effects of otitis on hearing in dogs characterised by brainstem auditory evoked response testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, C E; Lindsay, P

    1997-09-01

    Hearing function was measured in normal dogs and in dogs with otitis using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Data were obtained from 86 normal ears and from 105 ears with otitis, categorised into four degrees of severity. The data were analysed to illustrate the differences between the hearing function in the normal and abnormal ears and to estimate the degree of impairment associated with differing degrees of pathology. While severe hearing loss seemed to be present in the dogs with more severe otitis, only two individuals were identified as being totally deaf in the affected ears and no dogs were identified in which the cleaning and examination processes had caused damage to hearing function. Cleaning the ear canal produced measurable improvements in hearing in several dogs, indicating the profound effect of physical obstruction of the external ear canal by debris. It is concluded that most dogs with chronic otitis externa are not totally deaf and that the hearing impairment that does occur has the characteristics of conductive hearing loss.

  5. Gender Disparities in Speech-evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaei, Bahram; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Mohd Azmi, Mohd Hafiz Afifi; Nik Othman, Nik Adilah; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi

    2017-04-01

    Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (speech-ABR) outcomes have been reported, but the literature is limited. The present study was performed to further verify this issue and determine the influence of head size on speech-ABR results between genders. Twenty-nine healthy Malaysian subjects (14 males and 15 females) aged 19 to 30 years participated in this study. After measuring the head circumference, speech-ABR was recorded by using synthesized syllable /da/ from the right ear of each participant. Speech-ABR peaks amplitudes, peaks latencies, and composite onset measures were computed and analyzed. Significant gender disparities were noted in the transient component but not in the sustained component of speech-ABR. Statistically higher V/A amplitudes and less steeper V/A slopes were found in females. These gender differences were partially affected after controlling for the head size. Head size is not the main contributing factor for gender disparities in speech-ABR outcomes. Gender-specific normative data can be useful when recording speech-ABR for clinical purposes.

  6. Utility of auditory steady-state and brainstem responses in age-related hearing loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Fernández, Ricardo; Sánchez-Rodriguez, Carolina; Granizo, José Juan; Durio-Calero, Enrique; Martín-Sanz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The results support the idea that auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is a more accurate test for studying age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Differences in the rat middle ear may explain the variations of the click properties, with a displacement of the energy toward the 8 and 10 kHz frequencies compared with humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ARHL in older and younger Sprague-Dawley rats using auditory clicks and tone burst with auditory brainstem response (ABR), in addition to ASSR. This was a prospective cohort study with 50 animals divided into 5 groups based on their age in months. A total of 100 registers were elicited from each one of the 3 auditory measurements systems in an electrically shielded, double-walled, sound-treated cabin. Nine frequencies, from 0.5 to 16 kHz were analyzed with the auditory steady-state response and compared with the results elicited by the clicks and tone-burst ABR. Comparisons between the different frequencies showed lower thresholds in those frequencies below 2 kHz, independently of their age in months. The ARHL was detected by each one of the three auditory measurement systems, but with lower thresholds with the ASSR test. Finally, auditory clicks showed better correlations with 8 and 10 kHz elicited by ASSR, which was different to what was expected, based on human studies.

  7. Enhanced auditory brainstem response and parental bonding style in children with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuka Seino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The electrophysiological properties of the brain and influence of parental bonding in childhood irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are unclear. We hypothesized that children with chronic gastrointestinal (GI symptoms like IBS may show exaggerated brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP responses and receive more inadequate parental bonding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Children aged seven and their mothers (141 pairs participated. BAEP was measured by summation of 1,000 waves of the electroencephalogram triggered by 75 dB click sounds. The mothers completed their Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI. CSI results revealed 66 (42% children without GI symptoms (controls and 75 (58% children with one or more GI symptoms (GI group. The III wave in the GI group (median 4.10 interquartile range [3.95-4.24] ms right, 4.04 [3.90-4.18] ms left had a significantly shorter peak latency than controls (4.18 [4.06-4.34] ms right, p = 0.032, 4.13 [4.02-4.24] ms left, p = 0.018. The female GI group showed a significantly shorter peak latency of the III wave (4.00 [3.90-4.18] ms than controls (4.18 [3.97-4.31] ms, p = 0.034 in the right side. BAEP in the male GI group did not significantly differ from that in controls. GI scores showed a significant correlation with the peak latency of the III wave in the left side (rho = -0.192, p = 0.025. The maternal care PBI scores in the GI group (29 [26]-[33] were significantly lower than controls (31 [28.5-33], p = 0.010, while the maternal over-protection PBI scores were significantly higher in the GI group (16 [12]-[17] than controls (13 [10.5-16], p = 0.024. Multiple regression analysis in females also supported these findings. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that children with chronic GI symptoms have exaggerated brainstem responses to environmental stimuli and inadequate parental behaviors aggravate these symptoms.

  8. In-air hearing of a diving duck: A comparison of psychoacoustic and auditory brainstem response thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sara E.; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Therrien, Ronald E.; Yannuzzi, Sally E.; Carr, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Auditory sensitivity was measured in a species of diving duck that is not often kept in captivity, the lesser scaup. Behavioral (psychoacoustics) and electrophysiological [the auditory brainstem response (ABR)] methods were used to measure in-air auditory sensitivity, and the resulting audiograms were compared. Both approaches yielded audiograms with similar U-shapes and regions of greatest sensitivity (2000−3000 Hz). However, ABR thresholds were higher than psychoacoustic thresholds at all frequencies. This difference was least at the highest frequency tested using both methods (5700 Hz) and greatest at 1000 Hz, where the ABR threshold was 26.8 dB higher than the behavioral measure of threshold. This difference is commonly reported in studies involving many different species. These results highlight the usefulness of each method, depending on the testing conditions and availability of the animals.

  9. Brainstem auditory evoked response in adolescents with acoustic mycotic neuroma due to environmental exposure to toxic molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Ebere; Campbell, Andrew W; High, William

    2002-01-01

    Indoor air contamination with toxic opportunistic molds is an emerging health risk worldwide. Some of the opportunistic molds include: Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. versicolor etc.), Cadosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Fusarium graminearum etc. These molds flourish in homes that are moist and damp. Reports of floods are now evident in many parts of the world. With these global changes in climatic conditions that favor the opportunistic mode of living among these molds, some health authorities are beginning to feel concerned about the diversity and the extent to which opportunistic molds can cause adverse health effects in humans. Mycotoxicosis is the collective name for all the diseases caused by toxic molds. Frequently, we have cases of acoustic neuroma due to mycotoxicity in our Center. Mycotic neuroma probably has not been reported before and the application of brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) techniques in acoustic mycotic neuroma have not been reported either. The aim of this study, therefore, was to report cases and measurements of acoustic mycotic neuroma in adolescents using the brainstem auditory evoked response. The patients' case history, clinical neurological and neurobehavioral questionnaires were assessed. Then, the BAERs were recorded between Cz and Ai, with a second channel, Cz-Ac. The case histories and the questionnaires were analyzed in conjunction with the outcome of the objective brainstem auditory evoked response measurements. The prevalent subjective findings in the patients were headaches, memory loss, hearing loss, lack of concentration, fatigue, sleep disturbance, facial swelling, rashes, nosebleeds, diarrhea, abdominal pains and respiratory difficulties. Objective BAER showed overall abnormalities in all the patients. Although the waveform abnormalities varied, 1-3 interpeak latencies were abnormal in all the patients. Overall results showed the presence of

  10. Association of Hemoglobin levels and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Responses in Lead-Exposed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Ortega, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Decreased blood hemoglobin (HbB) levels and anemia have been associated with abnormal brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER). Lead (Pb) exposure has also been associated with anemia and aberrant BAER. This study investigated the relationship between HbB level and BAER wave latency and amplitude in Pb-exposed Andean children. Design and methods Sixty-six children aged 2 to 15 years (mean age: 9.1; SD: 3.3) living in Pb-contaminated villages were screened for HbB levels, blood Pb (PbB) levels and BAER latencies and amplitudes. Results The mean HbB level observed in the study group was 11.9 g/dL (SD: 1.4; range: 8.6–14.8 g/dL). The mean HbB level corrected for altitude was 10.3 g/dL (SD: 1.4; range: 6.9–13.1 g/dL), and suggestive of anemia. The mean PbB level was 49.3 μg/dL (SD: 30.1; range: 4.4–119.1 μg/dL) and indicative of Pb poisoning. Spearman Rho correlation analyses revealed significant associations between the BAER absolute latencies and HbB level, indicating that as the HbB level decreased, the BAER wave latency increased. Children with low HbB levels (≤11 g/dL) showed significantly prolonged absolute latencies of waves I, II, III, IV and V compared to the children with normal HbB levels. Although a significant relationship between HbB and BAER waves was observed, no significant associations between PbB level and BAER parameters were found. Conclusion Low hemoglobin levels may diminish auditory sensory-neural function, and is therefore an important variable to consider when assessing BAER in children with anemia and/or Pb exposure. PMID:22735387

  11. Localization of Kv1.3 channels in presynaptic terminals of brainstem auditory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Strumbos, John G; Mei, Xiaofeng; Chen, Haijun; Rahner, Christoph; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2010-08-15

    Elimination of the Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channel gene produces striking changes in the function of the olfactory bulb, raising the possibility that this channel also influences other sensory systems. We have examined the cellular and subcellular localization of Kv1.3 in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) in the auditory brainstem, a nucleus in which neurons fire at high rates with high temporal precision. A clear gradient of Kv1.3 immunostaining along the lateral to medial tonotopic axis of the MNTB was detected. Highest levels were found in the lateral region of the MNTB, which corresponds to neurons that respond selectively to low-frequency auditory stimuli. Previous studies have demonstrated that MNTB neurons and their afferent inputs from the cochlear nucleus express three other members of the Kv1 family, Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.6. Nevertheless, confocal microscopy of MNTB sections coimmunostained for Kv1.3 with these subunits revealed that the distribution of Kv1.3 differed significantly from other Kv1 family subunits. In particular, no axonal staining of Kv1.3 was detected, and most prominent labeling was in structures surrounding the somata of the principal neurons, suggesting specific localization to the large calyx of Held presynaptic endings that envelop the principal cells. The presence of Kv1.3 in presynaptic terminals was confirmed by coimmunolocalization with the synaptic markers synaptophysin, syntaxin, and synaptotagmin and by immunogold electron microscopy. Kv1.3 immunogold particles in the terminals were arrayed along the plasma membrane and on internal vesicular structures. To confirm these patterns of staining, we carried out immunolabeling on sections from Kv1.3(-/-) mice. No immunoreactivity could be detected in Kv1.3(-/-) mice either at the light level or in immunogold experiments. The finding of a tonotopic gradient in presynaptic terminals suggests that Kv1.3 may regulate neurotransmitter release differentially in

  12. Biliverdin-induced brainstem auditory evoked potential abnormalities in the jaundiced Gunn rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Ann C; Shapiro, Steven M

    2006-08-30

    Brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) abnormalities occur in jaundiced Gunn rats given sulfadimethoxine to displace bilirubin bound to serum albumin, releasing it into the tissues. One problem with the model is that after displacement, plasma bilirubin levels drop and do not correlate with neurological dysfunction. In this report, we administered biliverdin, the immediate precursor of bilirubin, in 15- to 17-day-old Gunn rat pups to create an improved model of bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction. Total plasma bilirubin (TB) levels were measured with a Leica bilirubinometer. Biliverdin (40 mg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was administered either once and BAEPs recorded 8 h later or twice, 12 h apart, and BAEPs recorded 24 h after the initial injection. A single biliverdin injection produced a significantly decreased amplitude of BAEP wave III, 1.21+/-0.25 vs. 0.49+/-0.27 microV (control vs. biliverdin). The two-injection paradigm resulted in a significantly elevated TB (9.9+/-1.2 vs. 14.9+/-3.1 mg/dl; control vs. biliverdin), significant increases in I-II (1.15+/-0.08 vs. 1.42+/-0.09 ms) and I-III (2.17+/-0.08 vs. 2.5+/-0.13 ms) interwave intervals and a decrease in the amplitude of wave III (1.36+/-0.30 vs. 0.38+/-0.26 microV). Additionally, there were significant correlations between TB and the amplitude of wave III (r2=0.74) and TB and the I-III interwave interval (r2=0.51). In summary, biliverdin administration in jaundiced Gunn rat pups produces BAEP abnormalities consistent with those observed in the sulfadimethoxine model and human newborn hyperbilirubinemia and resulted in increased plasma bilirubin levels that correlate with the degree of neurological dysfunction.

  13. Resurgent sodium current promotes action potential firing in the avian auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hui; Lu, Ting; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yuan; Sanchez, Jason Tait

    2017-11-28

    Auditory brainstem neurons are functionally primed to fire action potentials (APs) at markedly high-rates in order to rapidly encode acoustic information of sound. This specialization is critical for survival and the comprehension of behaviourally relevant communication functions, including sound localization and understanding speech in noise. Here, we investigated underlying ion channel mechanisms essential for high-rate AP firing in neurons of the chicken nucleus magnocellularis (NM) - the avian analog of bushy cells of the mammalian anteroventral cochlear nucleus. In addition to the established function of high-voltage activated potassium channels, we found that resurgent sodium current (INaR ) plays a role in regulating rapid firing activity of late-developing (embryonic [E] days 19-21) NM neurons. INaR of late-developing NM neurons showed similar properties with mammalian neurons in that its unique mechanism of an "open channel block state" facilitated the recovery and increased the availability of sodium (NaV ) channels after depolarization. Using a computational model of NM neurons, we demonstrated that removal of INaR reduced high-rate AP firing. We found weak INaR during a prehearing period (E11-12), which transformed to resemble late-developing INaR properties around hearing onset (E14-16). Anatomically, we detected strong NaV 1.6 expression near maturation, which became increasingly less distinct at hearing onset and prehearing periods, suggesting that multiple NaV channel subtypes may contribute to INaR during development. We conclude that INaR plays an important role in regulating rapid AP firing for NM neurons, a property that may be evolutionarily conserved for functions related to similar avian and mammalian hearing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. EEG and brainstem auditory evoked response potentials in adult male drug abusers with self-reported histories of aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, D H; Herning, R I; Pickworth, W B; Haertzen, C A; Hickey, J E; Jaffe, J H

    1989-10-01

    Auditory brainstem evoked response (BAER) and spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) were measured in 124 adult male drug abusers. We examined the relationships among psychiatric diagnoses, paper and pencil measures of aggression and hostility, and electrophysiological features. Subjects meeting criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASP), as defined by DSM-III, were not significantly different from non-ASP subjects for either BAER or spontaneous EEG measures. The more overtly aggressive subjects had significant delays in BAER latency. Aggressive subjects also had more delta activity and less alpha activity in the spontaneous EEG, as have been observed in "psychopaths" and "criminals." Although ASP and aggression are related, these data indicate that aggressiveness may be a separate, albeit overlapping, trait. As both early aggression and a diagnosis of ASP are predictors of later drug use, the findings that only aggression was associated with EEG slowing and brainstem delays may indicate that ASP and aggression make independent contributions to vulnerability to the development of drug abuse.

  15. The pattern of Fos expression in the rat auditory brainstem changes with the temporal structure of binaural electrical intracochlear stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Till F; Döring, Ulrike; Illing, Robert-Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The immediate-early-gene c-fos with its protein product Fos has been used as a powerful tool to investigate neuronal activity and plasticity following sensory stimulation. Fos combines with Jun, another IEG product, to form the dimeric transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) which has been implied in a variety of cellular functions like neuronal plasticity, apoptosis, and regeneration. The intracellular emergence of Fos indicates a functional state of nerve cells directed towards molecular and morphological changes. The central auditory system is construed to detect stimulus intensity, spectral composition, and binaural balance through neurons organized in a complex network of ascending, descending and commissural pathways. Here we compare monaural and binaural electrical intracochlear stimulation (EIS) in normal hearing and early postnatally deafened rats. Binaural stimulation was done either synchronously or asynchronously. The auditory brainstem of hearing and deaf rats responds differently, with a dramatically increasing Fos expression in the deaf group so as if the network had no pre-orientation for how to organize sensory activity. Binaural EIS does not result in a trivial sum of 2 independent monaural EIS, as asynchronous stimulation invokes stronger Fos activation compared to synchronous stimulation almost everywhere in the auditory brainstem. The differential response to synchronicity of the stimulation puts emphasis on the importance of the temporal structure of EIS with respect to its potential for changing brain structure and brain function in stimulus-specific ways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Usefulness of Electrical Auditory Brainstem Responses to Assess the Functionality of the Cochlear Nerve Using an Intracochlear Test Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Polak, Marek; Huesers, Jan; Díaz-Gómez, Miguel; Calvino, Miryam; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Gavilán, Javier

    2017-12-01

    To use an intracochlear test electrode to assess the integrity and the functionality of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) recipients and to compare electrical auditory brainstem responses (eABR) via the test electrode with the eABR responses with the CI. Otolaryngology department, tertiary referral hospital. Ten subjects (age at implantation 55 yr, range, 19-72) were subsequently implanted with a MED-EL CONCERTO CI on the side without any useful residual hearing. Following identification of the round window (RW), the test electrode was inserted in the cochlea previous to cochlear implantation. To assess the quality of an eABR waveform, scoring criteria from Walton et al. (2008) were chosen. The waveforms in each session were classified by detecting waves III and V by the algorithm and visual assessment of the waveform. Speech performance was evaluated with monosyllables, disyllables, and sentence recognition tests. It was possible to evoke electrical stimulation responses along with both the test electrode and the CI in all subjects. No significant differences in latencies or amplitudes after stimulation were found between the test electrode and the CI. All subjects obtained useful hearing with their CI and use their implants daily. The intracochlear test electrode may be suitable to test the integrity of the auditory nerve by recording eABR signals. This allows for further research on the status of the auditory nerve after tumor removal and correlation with auditory performance.

  17. Neonatal hearing screening of high-risk infants using automated auditory brainstem response: a retrospective analysis of referral rates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGurgan, I J

    2013-10-07

    The past decade has seen the widespread introduction of universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) programmes worldwide. Regrettably, such a programme is only now in the process of nationwide implementation in the Republic of Ireland and has been largely restricted to one screening modality for initial testing; namely transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of employing a different screening protocol which utilises an alternative initial test, automated auditory brainstem response (AABR), on referral rates to specialist audiology services.

  18. VOICED AND UNVOICED SEPARATION IN SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES OF HUMAN SUBJECTS USING ZERO CROSSING RATE (ZCR) AND ENERGY OF THE SPEECH SIGNAL

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam

    2017-01-01

    In speech signals two activities - voiced & unvoiced - are prominently observed, in both the cases of “production speech” from mouth, and “hearing speech” passed through ears-brainstem-and brain. These speech signals are broadly categorized into these two regions: Voiced- nearly periodic in nature; Unvoiced – random noise like in nature. For many speech applications it is most important to distinguish between Voiced and Unvoiced speech. We have collected Speech Auditory Brainstem Responses (A...

  19. Brainstem auditory evoked response characteristics in normal-hearing subjects with chronic tinnitus and in non-tinnitus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: While most of the people with tinnitus have some degrees of hearing impairment, a small percent of patients admitted to ear, nose and throat clinics or hearing evaluation centers are those who complain of tinnitus despite having normal hearing thresholds. This study was performed to better understanding of the reasons of probable causes of tinnitus and to investigate possible changes in the auditory brainstem function in normal-hearing patients with chronic tinnitus.Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study, 52 ears (26 with and 26 without tinnitus were examined. Components of the auditory brainstem response (ABR including wave latencies and wave amplitudes were determined in the two groups and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods.Results: The mean differences between the absolute latencies of waves I, III and V was less than 0.1 ms between the two groups that was not statistically significant. Also, the interpeak latency values of waves I-III, III-V and I-V in both groups had no significant difference. Only, the V/I amplitude ratio in the tinnitus group was significantly higher (p=0.04.Conclusion: The changes observed in amplitude of waves, especially in the latter ones, can be considered as an indication of plastic changes in neuronal activity and its possible role in generation of tinnitus in normal-hearing patients.

  20. Binaural interaction in auditory evoked potentials: Brainstem, middle- and long-latency components

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, DL; Starr, A

    1993-01-01

    Binaural interaction occurs in the auditory evoked potentials when the sum of the monaural auditory evoked potentials are not equivalent to the binaural evoked auditory potentials. Binaural interaction of the early- (0-10 ms), middle- (10-50 ms) and long-latency (50-200 ms) auditory evoked potentials was studied in 17 normal young adults. For the early components, binaural interaction was maximal at 7.35 ms accounting for a reduction of 21% of the amplitude of the binaural evoked potentials. ...

  1. Cochlear implantation versus auditory brainstem implantation in bilateral total deafness after head trauma: personal experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marimar; Di Lella, Filippo; Di Trapani, Giuseppe; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Bacciu, Andrea; Aristegui, Miguel; Russo, Alessandra; Sanna, Mario

    2014-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of cochlear implant (CI) in hearing restoration after temporal bone (TB) fractures and investigate the adequacy of auditory brainstem implant (ABI) indication for TB fractures. Retrospective clinical study; a systematic review of the literature in PubMed was also performed to identify all published cases of bilateral TB fractures or bilateral deafness after head trauma treated by means of CI or ABI. Quaternary otology and skull base surgery referral center. Eleven consecutive patients presented with bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss after head trauma. CI as primary intervention or following a previous treatment. CI performances were evaluated in the auditory-only condition in both closed-set and open-set formats. Fourteen CI were placed, 11 as primary treatment and 3 after ABI failure. At the last follow-up, all patients gained useful open-set speech perception. In secondary CI, all patients obtained better auditory results with the CI if compared with ABI. CI performance did not decrease with time in any case. Cochlear implantation after TB fractures has proved to have excellent audiometric results. The aim of the initial evaluation of a patient with bilateral anacoustic ears from head trauma should always be to rehabilitate their hearing with a CI. The incidence of labyrinthitis ossificans, negative electrophysiologic testing, the risk of postoperative meningitis or facial nerve stimulation should not be the determinant factors that favor ABI placement.

  2. Auditory processing in the brainstem and audiovisual integration in humans studied with fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabu, Lavinia Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful technique because of the high spatial resolution and the noninvasiveness. The applications of the fMRI to the auditory pathway remain a challenge due to the intense acoustic scanner noise of approximately 110 dB SPL. The auditory system

  3. Assessment of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Witold; Bolanowski, Marek; Janocha, Anna; Daroszewski, Jacek; Kałuzny, Marcin; Sebzda, Tadeusz; Kałka, Dariusz; Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata

    2008-06-01

    Acromegaly is associated by various systemic complications, involving also the nervous system. Other studies revealed peripheral but not central nervous system impairment with somatosensory evoked potentials examinations in acromegaly. Aim of the present study was to assess whether brainstem transmission in acromegaly is disturbed. The study was carried out in 37 patients. The control group consisted of 47 healthy persons. In all of the subjects, peripheral transmission, reflected by peak I latency, and brainstem transmission, tested by interpeak latency I-V (IPL I-V), were examined. Peak I latency was delayed in 6 out of 37 patients (1 - bilaterally, 2 - right side, 3 - left side). The group-mean latency of peak I was 1.53 msec and 1.56 msec, for the right and left side, respectively. There were found no statistically significant differences between the right and left side, likewise in comparison with control group. In turn, as compared with the controls, IPL I-V was disturbed in 25 out of 37 patients: in most of the cases IPL I-V prolongation was observed (8 - bilateral prolongation, 11 - right side, 6 - left side). Moreover, the statistically significant difference between the brainstem sides (4.27 vs. 4.11 msec; p<0.05) was observed. In the examined patients with acromegaly, there was no peripheral disturbance in transmission, as examined by BAEPs registrations. Conversely, in nearly half of the patients with acromegaly, brainstem transmission was found to be delayed, and significant difference between responses from the both sides of the brainstem were noted.

  4. Auditory brain-stem response, CT and MR imaging in a family with classical type Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiomi, M.; Ookuni, H.; Sugita, T.

    1987-05-01

    A family in which 5 males in successive generations were clinically suspected to be affected with the classical X-linked recessive form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is presented. Two brothers and their maternal uncle were examined by one of the authors (MS). In two brothers, aged 3 years and 2 years, the disease became obvious within a month after birth with nystagmus and head tremor. Head control and sitting were achieved at the age of 18 months at which time they began to speak. They could not stand nor walk without support. They had dysmetria, weakness and hyper-reflexia of lower extremities, and mild mental retardation. Their maternal uncle, aged 37 years, showed psychomotor retardation from birth and subsequently developed spastic paraplegia. He had been able to walk with crutches until adolescence. He had dysmetria, scanning speech, athetoid posture of fingers and significant intellectual deficits. Auditory brainstem response in both brothers revealed well defined waves I and II, low amplitude wave III and an absence of all subsequent components. CT demonstrated mild cerebral atrophy in the elder brother and was normal in the younger brother, but in their uncle, CT showed atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebrum, and low density of the white matter of the centrum semiovale. MRI was performed in both brothers. Although the brainstem, the internal capsule and the thalamus were myelinated, the myelination in the subcortical white matter was restricted to periventricular regions on IR sequence scans. On SE sequence, the subcortical white matter was imaged as a brighter area than the cerebral cortex. These results demonstrate that the degree of myelination in these patients was roughly equal to that of 3-to 6-month old infants.

  5. Auditory brainstem responses for click and CE-chirp stimuli in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeena Venkatacheluvaiah Pushpalatha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encoding of CE-chirp and click stimuli in auditory system was studied using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs among individuals with and without noise exposure. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of two groups. Group 1 (experimental group consisted of 20 (40 ears individuals exposed to occupational noise with hearing thresholds within 25 dB HL. They were further divided into three subgroups based on duration of noise exposure (0–5 years of exposure-T1, 5–10 years of exposure-T2, and >10 years of exposure-T3. Group 2 (control group consisted of 20 individuals (40 ears. Absolute latency and amplitude of waves I, III, and V were compared between the two groups for both click and CE-chirp stimuli. T1, T2, and T3 groups were compared for the same parameters to see the effect of noise exposure duration on CE-chirp and click ABR. Result: In Click ABR, while both the parameters for wave III were significantly poorer for the experimental group, wave V showed a significant decline in terms of amplitude only. There was no significant difference obtained for any of the parameters for wave I. In CE-Chirp ABR, the latencies for all three waves were significantly prolonged in the experimental group. However, there was a significant decrease in terms of amplitude in only wave V for the same group. Discussion: Compared to click evoked ABR, CE-Chirp ABR was found to be more sensitive in comparison of latency parameters in individuals with occupational noise exposure. Monitoring of early pathological changes at the brainstem level can be studied effectively by using CE-Chirp stimulus in comparison to click stimulus. Conclusion: This study indicates that ABR’s obtained with CE-chirp stimuli serves as an effective tool to identify the early pathological changes due to occupational noise exposure when compared to click evoked ABR.

  6. Auditory brainstem responses for click and CE-chirp stimuli in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, Zeena Venkatacheluvaiah; Konadath, Sreeraj

    2016-01-01

    Encoding of CE-chirp and click stimuli in auditory system was studied using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) among individuals with and without noise exposure. The study consisted of two groups. Group 1 (experimental group) consisted of 20 (40 ears) individuals exposed to occupational noise with hearing thresholds within 25 dB HL. They were further divided into three subgroups based on duration of noise exposure (0-5 years of exposure-T1, 5-10 years of exposure-T2, and >10 years of exposure-T3). Group 2 (control group) consisted of 20 individuals (40 ears). Absolute latency and amplitude of waves I, III, and V were compared between the two groups for both click and CE-chirp stimuli. T1, T2, and T3 groups were compared for the same parameters to see the effect of noise exposure duration on CE-chirp and click ABR. In Click ABR, while both the parameters for wave III were significantly poorer for the experimental group, wave V showed a significant decline in terms of amplitude only. There was no significant difference obtained for any of the parameters for wave I. In CE-Chirp ABR, the latencies for all three waves were significantly prolonged in the experimental group. However, there was a significant decrease in terms of amplitude in only wave V for the same group. Compared to click evoked ABR, CE-Chirp ABR was found to be more sensitive in comparison of latency parameters in individuals with occupational noise exposure. Monitoring of early pathological changes at the brainstem level can be studied effectively by using CE-Chirp stimulus in comparison to click stimulus. This study indicates that ABR's obtained with CE-chirp stimuli serves as an effective tool to identify the early pathological changes due to occupational noise exposure when compared to click evoked ABR.

  7. Analog very large-scale integrated (VLSI) implementation of a model of amplitude-modulation sensitivity in the auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, A; Meddis, R

    1999-02-01

    An analog very large-scale integrated (VLSI) implementation of a model of signal processing in the auditory brainstem is presented and evaluated. The implementation is based on a model of amplitude-modulation sensitivity in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) previously described by Hewitt and Meddis [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 2145-2159 (1994)]. A single chip is used to implement the three processing stages of the model; the inner-hair cell (IHC), cochlear nucleus sustained-chopper, and CNIC coincidence-detection stages. The chip incorporates two new circuits: an IHC circuit and a neuron circuit. The input to the chip is taken from a "silicon cochlea" consisting of a cascade of filters that simulate basilar membrane mechanical frequency selectivity. The chip which contains 142 neurons was evaluated using amplitude-modulated pure tones. Individual cells in the CNIC stage demonstrate bandpass rate-modulation responses using these stimuli. The frequency of modulation is represented spatially in an array of these cells as the location of the cell generating the highest rate of action potentials. The chip processes acoustic signals in real time and demonstrates the feasibility of using analog VLSI to build and test auditory models that use large numbers of component neurons.

  8. The effects of click and masker spectrum on the auditory brainstem response of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulsow, Jason; Finneran, James J; Houser, Dorian S; Burkard, Robert F

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were performed that investigated the effects of (1) click level and (2) continuous broadband noise on the binaural auditory brainstem response (ABR) of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In addition to spectrally uncompensated clicks and noise, stimuli were digitally compensated to achieve "white" spectra (flat spectral density level) or "pink" spectra (spectral density level rolling off at -3 dB/octave). For experiment 1, in all spectral conditions, ABR peak latencies increased and peak amplitudes decreased with decreasing click level, but interwave intervals changed little. Latency-intensity function (LIF) slopes ranged from -3 to -11 μs/dB. The LIF slopes of ABR peaks evoked by uncompensated clicks were steeper in dolphins with hearing loss. Click level was held constant during experiment 2, and the effect of bilaterally delivered broadband masking noise on the ABR was investigated. Clicks and noise were filtered to create a pink click/noise condition and a white click/noise condition. With increasing levels of masking noise, peak latencies increased (although only P1-P4 white reached significance), peak amplitudes decreased, and interpeak intervals increased (although not significantly). These effects are compared to results reported for terrestrial mammals, and implications for auditory health assessment and biosonar function are discussed.

  9. Binaural interaction in human auditory brainstem response compared for tone-pips and rectangular clicks under conditions of auditory and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari

    2015-07-01

    Binaural interaction in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) represents the discrepancy between the binaural waveform and the sum of monaural ones. A typical ABR binaural interaction in humans is a reduction of the binaural amplitude compared to the monaural sum at the wave-V latency, i.e., the DN1 component. It has been considered that the DN1 is mainly elicited by high frequency components of stimuli whereas some studies have shown the contribution of low-to-middle frequency components to the DN1. To examine this issue, the present study compared the ABR binaural interaction elicited by tone pips (1 kHz, 10-ms duration) with the one by clicks (a rectangular wave, 0.1-ms duration) presented at 80 dB peak equivalent SPL and a fixed stimulus onset interval (180 ms). The DN1 due to tone pips was vulnerable compared to the click-evoked DN1. The pip-evoked DN1 was significantly detected under auditory attention whereas it failed to reach significance under visual attention. The click-evoked DN1 was robustly present for the two attention conditions. The current results might confirm the high frequency sound contribution to the DN1 elicitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relation between derived-band auditory brainstem response latencies and behavioral frequency selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Christoforidis, Dimitrios; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    for some of the HI listeners. The behavioral auditory-filter bandwidths accounted for the across-listener variability in the ABR latencies: Cochlear response time decreased with increasing filter bandwidth, consistent with linear-system theory. The results link cochlear response time and frequency...... response times. For the same listeners, auditory-filter bandwidths at 2 kHz were estimated using a behavioral notched-noise masking paradigm. Generally, shorter derived-band latencies were observed for the HI than for the NH listeners. Only at low click sensation levels, prolonged latencies were obtained...

  11. Effects of aging on inner ear morphology in dogs in relation to brainstem responses to toneburst auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Haar, G; de Groot, J C M J; Venker-van Haagen, A J; van Sluijs, F J; Smoorenburg, G F

    2009-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most common form of hearing loss in humans and is increasingly recognized in dogs. Cochlear lesions in dogs with ARHL are similar to those in humans and the severity of the histological changes is reflected in tone audiograms. Ten geriatric dogs (mean age: 12.7 years) and three 9-month-old dogs serving as controls for histological analysis. Observational study. Auditory thresholds were determined by recording brainstem responses (BERA) to toneburst auditory stimuli (1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 32 kHz). After euthanasia and perfusion fixation, the temporal bones were harvested and processed for histological examination of the cochleas. The numbers of outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs) were counted and the spiral ganglion cell (SGC) packing density and stria vascularis cross-sectional area (SVCA) were determined. A combination of cochlear lesions was found in all geriatric dogs. There were significant reductions (P .001) in OHC (42%, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 24-64%) and IHC counts (21%, 95% CI; 62-90%) and SGC packing densities (323, 95% CI; 216-290) in the basal turn, SVCA was smaller in all turns. The greatest reduction in auditory sensitivity was at 8-32 kHz. ARHL in this specific population of geriatric dogs was comparable histologically to the mixed type of ARHL in humans. The predominance of histological changes in the basal cochlear turn was consistent with the large threshold shifts observed in the middle- to high-frequency region.

  12. Age-related changes in the guinea pig auditory cortex: relationship with brainstem changes and comparison with tone-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourévitch, Boris; Edeline, Jean-Marc

    2011-12-01

    Elderly people often show degraded hearing performance and have difficulties in understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments. Although loss in peripheral hearing sensitivity is an important factor in explaining these low performances, central alterations also have an impact but their exact contributions remained unclear. In this study, we focus on the functional effects of aging on auditory cortex responses. Neuronal discharges and local field potentials were recorded in the auditory cortex of aged guinea pigs (> 3 years), and several parameters characterizing the processing of auditory information were quantified: the acoustic thresholds, response strength, latency and duration of the response, and breadth of tuning. Several of these parameters were also quantified from auditory brainstem responses collected from the same animals, and recordings obtained from a population of animals with trauma-induced hearing loss were also included in this study. The results showed that aging and acoustic trauma reduced the response strength at both brainstem and cortical levels, and increased the response latencies more at the cortical level than at the brainstem level. In addition to the brainstem hearing loss, aging induced a 'cortical hearing loss' as judged by additive changes in the threshold and frequency response seen in the cortex. It also increased the duration of neural responses and reduced the receptive field bandwidth, effects that were not found in traumatized animals. These effects substantiate the notion that presbycusis involves both peripheral hearing loss and biological aging in the central auditory system. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Effect of Pulse Rate and Polarity on the Sensitivity of Auditory Brainstem and Cochlear Implant Users to Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyon, Robert P; Deeks, John M; McKay, Colette M

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the response of the human brainstem to electrical stimulation, a series of experiments compared the effect of pulse rate and polarity on detection thresholds between auditory brainstem implant (ABI) and cochlear implant (CI) patients. Experiment 1 showed that for 400-ms pulse trains, ABI users' thresholds dropped by about 2 dB as pulse rate was increased from 71 to 500 pps, but only by an average of 0.6 dB as rate was increased further to 3500 pps. This latter decrease was much smaller than the 7.7-dB observed for CI users. A similar result was obtained for pulse trains with a 40-ms duration. Furthermore, experiment 2 showed that the threshold difference between 500- and 3500-pps pulse trains remained much smaller for ABI than for CI users, even for durations as short as 2 ms, indicating the effect of a fast-acting mechanism. Experiment 3 showed that ABI users' thresholds were lower for alternating-polarity than for fixed-polarity pulse trains, and that this difference was greater at 3500 pps than at 500 pps, consistent with the effect of pulse rate on ABI users' thresholds being influenced by charge interactions between successive biphasic pulses. Experiment 4 compared thresholds and loudness between trains of asymmetric pulses of opposite polarity, in monopolar mode, and showed that in both cases less current was needed when the anodic, rather than the cathodic, current was concentrated into a short time interval. This finding is similar to that previously observed for CI users and is consistent with ABI users being more sensitive to anodic than cathodic current. We argue that our results constrain potential explanations for the differences in the perception of electrical stimulation by CI and ABI users, and have potential implications for future ABI stimulation strategies.

  14. The influence of cochlear traveling wave and neural adaptation on auditory brainstem responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junius, D.; Dau, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    ), disparities occurred between the responses, reflecting a nonlinearity in the processing when neural activity is integrated across frequency. In the third experiment, the effect of within-train rate on wave-V response was investigated. The response to the chirp presented at a within-train rate of 95 Hz...... processing in the human auditory system. The findings might also be useful for the development of effective stimulation paradigms in clinical applications....

  15. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessele, Nikodemus; Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Omerbašić, Damir; Park, Thomas J; Koch, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  16. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodemus Gessele

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  17. Evaluation of deafness in American Paint Horses by phenotype, brainstem auditory-evoked responses, and endothelin receptor B genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdesian, K Gary; Williams, D Colette; Aleman, Monica; Lecouteur, Richard A; Madigan, John E

    2009-11-15

    To evaluate deafness in American Paint Horses by phenotype, clinical findings, brainstem auditory-evoked responses (BAERs), and endothelin B receptor (EDNBR) genotype. Case series and case-control studies. 14 deaf American Paint Horses, 20 suspected-deaf American Paint Horses, and 13 nondeaf American Paint Horses and Pintos. Horses were categorized on the basis of coat color pattern and eye color. Testing for the EDNBR gene mutation (associated with overo lethal white foal syndrome) and BAERs was performed. Additional clinical findings were obtained from medical records. All 14 deaf horses had loss of all BAER waveforms consistent with complete deafness. Most horses had the splashed white or splashed white-frame blend coat pattern. Other patterns included frame overo and tovero. All of the deaf horses had extensive head and limb white markings, although the amount of white on the neck and trunk varied widely. All horses had at least 1 partially heterochromic iris, and most had 2 blue eyes. Ninety-one percent (31/34) of deaf and suspected-deaf horses had the EDNBR gene mutation. Deaf and suspected-deaf horses were used successfully for various performance events. All nondeaf horses had unremarkable BAER results. Veterinarians should be aware of deafness among American Paint Horses, particularly those with a splashed white or frame overo coat color pattern, blend of these patterns, or tovero pattern. Horses with extensive head and limb markings and those with blue eyes appeared to be at particular risk.

  18. Can subject-specific single-fibre electrically evoked auditory brainstem response data be predicted from a model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Tiaan K; Hanekom, Tania; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-07-01

    This article investigates whether prediction of subject-specific physiological data is viable through an individualised computational model of a cochlear implant. Subject-specific predictions could be particularly useful to assess and quantify the peripheral factors that cause inter-subject variations in perception. The results of such model predictions could potentially be translated to clinical application through optimisation of mapping parameters for individual users, since parameters that affect perception would be reflected in the model structure and parameters. A method to create a subject-specific computational model of a guinea pig with a cochlear implant is presented. The objectives of the study are to develop a method to construct subject-specific models considering translation of the method to in vivo human models and to assess the effectiveness of subject-specific models to predict peripheral neural excitation on subject level. Neural excitation patterns predicted by the model are compared with single-fibre electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses obtained from the inferior colliculus in the same animal. Results indicate that the model can predict threshold frequency location, spatial spread of bipolar and tripolar stimulation and electrode thresholds relative to one another where electrodes are located in different cochlear structures. Absolute thresholds and spatial spread using monopolar stimulation are not predicted accurately. Improvements to the model should address this. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of binaural interaction in free-field evoked auditory brainstem responses by time-scale representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebsdat, Erik; Hessel, Horst; Seidler, Harald; Strauss, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    The so called β-wave of the binaural interaction component (BIC) in auditory brainstem responses (ABR) has been shown to be an objective measure for binaural interaction (BI). This component is the arithmetical difference between the sum of the monaurally evoked ABRs and the binaurally evoked ABR. Unfortunately, these neural responses are known to be very fragile and as a result the calculated BIC. An additional issue is, that the findings of this measurement are predominantly needed in people with hearing loss who may use hearing devices like hearing aids (HA) or cochlear implants (CI), thus they are not able to use headphones (like in conventional ABR measurements) during the detection of possible BI. This is a crucial problem, because it is known that factors like the interaural time delay (ITD) between the receiving ears are responsible for solving tasks like sound source localization or sound source separation, but specially designed measurements to coordinate the fitting of HAs or CIs with respect to BI are still missing. In this paper, we introduce a new measurement setup that is able to detect BI depending on different ITDs in free-field evoked responses by using the more reliable instantaneous phase in the time-scale representation. With this pilot study we are able to demonstrate a decreasing BI with an increasing ITD using the wavelet phase synchronization stability analysis in ten normal hearing subjects.

  20. Effect of the Level of Anesthesia on the Auditory Brainstem Response in the Emei Music Frog (Babina daunchina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Cui

    Full Text Available Anesthesia is known to affect the auditory brainstem response (ABR in mice, rats, birds and lizards. The present study investigated how the level of anesthesia affects ABR recordings in an amphibian species, Babina daunchina. To do this, we compared ABRs evoked by tone pip stimuli recorded from 35 frogs when Tricaine methane sulphonate (MS-222 anesthetic immersion times varied from 0, 5 and 10 minutes after anesthesia induction at sound frequencies between 0.5 and 6 kHz. ABR thresholds increased significantly with immersion time across the 0.5 kHz to 2.5 kHz frequency range, which is the most sensitive frequency range for hearing and the main frequency range of male calls. There were no significant differences for anesthetic levels across the 3 kHz to 6 kHz range. ABR latency was significantly longer in the 10 min group than in the 0 and 5 min groups at frequencies of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5 kHz, while ABR latency did not differ across the 3 kHz to 4 kHz range and at 2.0 kHz. Taken together, these results show that the level of anesthesia affects the amplitude, threshold and latency of ABRs in frogs.

  1. Effects of noise exposure on neonatal auditory brainstem response thresholds in pregnant guinea pigs at different gestational periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Chihiro; Nario, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Tadashi; Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Noise exposure during pregnancy has been reported to cause fetal hearing impairment. However, little is known about the effects of noise exposure during various gestational stages on postnatal hearing. In the present study, we investigated the effects of noise exposure on auditory brainstem response (ABR) at the early, mid-, and late gestational periods in newborn guinea pigs. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 4-kHz pure tone at a 120-dB sound pressure level for 4 h. We divided the animals into four groups as follows: the control, early gestational exposure, mid-gestational exposure, and late gestational exposure groups. ABR thresholds and latencies in newborns were recorded using 1-, 2-, and 4-kHz tone burst on postnatal days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Changes in ABR thresholds and latencies were measured between the 4 × 4 and 4 × 3 factorial groups mentioned above (gestational periods × postnatal days, gestational periods × frequencies). The thresholds were low in the order of control group exposure group exposure group and late gestational exposure group. Noise exposure during pregnancy influenced ABR thresholds in neonatal guinea pigs. This is the first study to show that noise exposure during the early, mid-, and late gestational periods significantly elevated ABR thresholds in neonatal guinea pigs. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials for diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in adults. A blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouilenko, Irina; Humble, Mats B; Georgieva, Jeanette; Bejerot, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical utility of complex auditory brainstem response (c-ABR) and investigate if c-ABR is helpful in the diagnostic procedure. Thirty-one adult psychiatric patients, thoroughly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=16), ADHD (n=8), or schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) (n=7) and 15 healthy controls (HC), were blindly assessed with SensoDetect BERA. This c-ABR correctly identified psychiatric diagnoses in 4 patients (13%) and provided partially correct diagnoses in 11 more patients. Of the 15 HC, 6 were misclassified as psychiatric patients. The Cohen´s kappa coefficient (κ) was substantial for HC (κ=0.67), fair for SSD (κ=0.37), slight for ADHD (κ=0.09) and without agreement in ASD (κ=-0.03). In conclusion, we found the c-ABR method unhelpful and unreliable as a tool in clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of middle ear effusion on the brain-stem auditory evoked response of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Thomas R; Parker, John E; Granger, Nicolas; Jeffery, Nick D

    2011-06-01

    Brain-stem auditory evoked responses (BAER) were assessed in 23 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with and without middle ear effusion at sound intensities ranging from 10 to 100 dB nHL. Significant differences were found between the median BAER threshold for ears where effusions were present (60 dB nHL), compared to those without (30 dB nHL) (P=0.001). The slopes of latency-intensity functions from both groups did not differ, but the y-axis intercept when the x value was zero was greater in dogs with effusions (P=0.009), consistent with conductive hearing loss. Analysis of latency-intensity functions suggested the degree of hearing loss due to middle ear effusion was 21 dB (95% confidence between 10 and 33 dB). Waves I-V inter-wave latency at 90 dB nHL was not significantly different between the two groups. These findings demonstrate that middle ear effusion is associated with a conductive hearing loss of 10-33 dB in affected dogs despite the fact that all animals studied were considered to have normal hearing by their owners. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Relationship between pure tone audiometry and tone burst auditory brainstem response at low frequencies gated with Blackman window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Andrea; Dagna, Federico; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Piumetto, Elena; Albera, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    To assess the reliability of Blackman windowed tone burst auditory brainstem response (ABR) as a predictor of hearing threshold at low frequencies. Fifty-six subjects were divided in to three groups (normal hearing, conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss) after pure tone audiometry (PTA) testing. Then they underwent tone burst ABR using Blackman windowed stimuli at 0.5 kHz and 1 kHz. Results were compared with PTA threshold. Mean threshold differences between PTA and ABR ranged between 11 dB at 0.5 kHz and 14 dB at 1 kHz. ABR threshold was worse than PTA in each but 2 cases. Mean discrepancy between the two thresholds was about 20 dB in normal hearing, reducing in presence of hearing loss, without any differences in conductive and sensorineural cases. Tone burst ABR is a good predictor of hearing threshold at low frequencies, in case of suspected hearing loss. Further studies are recommended to evaluate an ipsilateral masking such as notched noise to ensure greater frequency specificity.

  5. Dopamine in the Auditory Brainstem and Midbrain: Co-localization with Amino Acid Neurotransmitters and Gene Expression following Cochlear Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Genene eHolt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA modulates the effects of amino acid neurotransmitters, including GABA and glutamate, in motor, visual, olfactory and reward systems (Hnasko et al., 2010; Stuber et al., 2010; Hnasko and Edwards, 2012. The results suggest that DA may play a similar modulatory role in the auditory pathways. Previous studies have shown that deafness results in decreased GABA release, changes in excitatory neurotransmitter levels, and increased spontaneous neuronal activity within brainstem regions related to auditory function. Modulation of the expression and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate limiting enzyme in the production of DA in the IC following cochlear trauma has been previously reported (Tong et al., 2005. In the current study the possibility of co-localization of TH with amino acid neurotransmitters (AANs was examined. Changes in the gene expression of TH were compared with changes in the gene expression of markers for AANs in the cochlear nucleus (CN and IC to determine whether those deafness related changes occur concurrently. The results indicate that bilateral cochlear ablation significantly reduced TH gene expression in the CN after two months while in the IC the reduction in TH was observed at both three days and two months following ablation. Furthermore, in the CN, glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2 and the GABA transporter (GABAtp were also significantly reduced only after two months. However, in the IC, DA receptor 1 (DRDA1, vesicular glutamate transporters 2 and 3 (vGluT2, vGluT3, GABAtp and GAD67 were reduced in expression both at the three day and two month time points. A close relationship between the distribution of TH and several of the AANs was determined in both the CN and the IC. In addition, GlyT2 and vGluT3 each co-localized with TH within IC somata and dendrites. Therefore, the results of the current study suggest that DA is spatially well positioned to influence the effects of AANs on auditory neurons.

  6. Sensory deprivation regulates the development of the hyperpolarization-activated current in auditory brainstem neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfurth, Benjamin; Magnusson, Anna K; Grothe, Benedikt; Koch, Ursula

    2009-10-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are highly expressed in the superior olivary complex, the primary locus for binaural information processing. This hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) regulates the excitability of neurons and enhances the temporally precise analysis of the binaural acoustic cues. By using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we examined the properties of I(h) current in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) before and after hearing onset. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that I(h) currents are actively regulated by sensory input activity by performing bilateral and unilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, resulting in a chronic auditory deprivation. The results show that after hearing onset, I(h) currents are rapidly upregulated in LSO neurons, but change only marginally in neurons of the MNTB. We also found a striking difference in maximal current density, voltage dependence and activation time constant between the LSO and the MNTB in mature-like animals. Following bilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, the I(h) currents were scaled up in the LSO and scaled down in the MNTB. Consequently, in the LSO this resulted in a depolarized resting membrane potential and a lower input resistance of these neurons. This type of activity-dependent homeostatic change could thus result in an augmented response to the remaining inputs.

  7. Effects of laterality and pitch height of an auditory accessory stimulus on horizontal response selection: the Simon effect and the SMARC effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Akio; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2009-08-01

    In the present article, we investigated the effects of pitch height and the presented ear (laterality) of an auditory stimulus, irrelevant to the ongoing visual task, on horizontal response selection. Performance was better when the response and the stimulated ear spatially corresponded (Simon effect), and when the spatial-musical association of response codes (SMARC) correspondence was maintained-that is, right (left) response with a high-pitched (low-pitched) tone. These findings reveal an automatic activation of spatially and musically associated responses by task-irrelevant auditory accessory stimuli. Pitch height is strong enough to influence the horizontal responses despite modality differences with task target.

  8. Effects of aging on brainstem responses to toneburst auditory stimuli: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Haar, G; Venker-van Haagen, A J; van den Brom, W E; van Sluijs, F J; Smoorenburg, G F

    2008-01-01

    It is assumed that the hearing of dogs becomes impaired with advancing age, but little is known about the prevalence and electrophysiologic characteristics of presbycusis in this species. As in humans, hearing in dogs becomes impaired with aging across the entire frequency range, but primarily in the high-frequency area. This change can be assessed quantitatively by brainstem-evoked response audiometry (BERA). Three groups of 10 mixed-breed dogs with similar body weights but different mean ages were used. At the start of the study, the mean age was 1.9 years (range, 0.9-3.4) in group I, 5.7 years (3.5-7) in group II, and 12.7 years (11-14) in group III. In a cross-sectional study, the BERA audiograms obtained with toneburst stimuli were compared among the 3 groups. In a longitudinal study, changes in auditory thresholds of group II dogs were followed for 7 years. Thresholds were significantly higher in group III than in groups I and II at all frequencies tested, and higher in group II than in group I at 4 kHz. The audiograms in group II indicated a progressive increase in thresholds associated with aging starting around 8-10 years of age and most pronounced in the middle- to high-frequency region (8-32 kHz). Age-related hearing loss in these dogs started around 8-10 years of age and encompassed the entire frequency range, but started and progressed most rapidly in the middle- to high-frequency area. Its progression can be followed by BERA with frequency-specific stimulation.

  9. A new vision on the averaging technique for the estimation of non-stationary Brainstem Auditory-Evoked Potentials: application of a metaheuristic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naït-Ali, Amine; Siarry, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this paper consists in highlighting the use of the averaging technique in some biomedical applications, such as evoked potentials (EP) extraction. We show that this technique, which is generally considered as classical, can be very efficient if the dynamic model of the signal to be estimated is a priori known. Therefore, using an appropriate model and under some specific conditions, one can show that the estimation can be performed efficiently even in case of a very low signal to noise ratio (SNR), which occurs when handling Brainstem Auditory-Evoked Potentials.

  10. A Cochlear Implant Performance Prognostic Test Based on Electrical Field Interactions Evaluated by eABR (Electrical Auditory Brainstem Responses.

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    Nicolas Guevara

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CIs are neural prostheses that have been used routinely in the clinic over the past 25 years. They allow children who were born profoundly deaf, as well as adults affected by hearing loss for whom conventional hearing aids are insufficient, to attain a functional level of hearing. The "modern" CI (i.e., a multi-electrode implant using sequential coding strategies has yielded good speech comprehension outcomes (recognition level for monosyllabic words about 50% to 60%, and sentence comprehension close to 90%. These good average results however hide a very important interindividual variability as scores in a given patients' population often vary from 5 to 95% in comparable testing conditions. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model for patients with unilateral CI. A novel method of objectively measuring electrical and neuronal interactions using electrical auditory brainstem responses (eABRs is proposed.The method consists of two measurements: 1 eABR measurements with stimulation by a single electrode at 70% of the dynamic range (four electrodes distributed within the cochlea were tested, followed by a summation of these four eABRs; 2 Measurement of a single eABR with stimulation from all four electrodes at 70% of the dynamic range. A comparison of the eABRs obtained by these two measurements, defined as the monaural interaction component (MIC, indicated electrical and neural interactions between the stimulation channels. Speech recognition performance without lip reading was measured for each patient using a logatome test (64 "vowel-consonant-vowel"; VCV; by forced choice of 1 out of 16. eABRs were measured in 16 CI patients (CIs with 20 electrodes, Digisonic SP; Oticon Medical ®, Vallauris, France. Significant correlations were found between speech recognition performance and the ratio of the amplitude of the V wave of the eABRs obtained with the two measurements (Pearson's linear regression model, parametric correlation: r

  11. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants

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    Lenita da Silva Quevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central.Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I

  12. Identification of Dynamic Patterns of Speech-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Nonlinear Time Series Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarilegha, Marjan; Esteki, Ali; Ahadi, Mohsen; Nazeri, Ahmadreza

    The speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (sABR) shows how complex sounds such as speech and music are processed in the auditory system. Speech-ABR could be used to evaluate particular impairments and improvements in auditory processing system. Many researchers used linear approaches for characterizing different components of sABR signal, whereas nonlinear techniques are not applied so commonly. The primary aim of the present study is to examine the underlying dynamics of normal sABR signals. The secondary goal is to evaluate whether some chaotic features exist in this signal. We have presented a methodology for determining various components of sABR signals, by performing Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to get the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then, composite multiscale entropy (CMSE), the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and deterministic nonlinear prediction are computed for each extracted IMF. EEMD decomposes sABR signal into five modes and a residue. The CMSE results of sABR signals obtained from 40 healthy people showed that 1st, and 2nd IMFs were similar to the white noise, IMF-3 with synthetic chaotic time series and 4th, and 5th IMFs with sine waveform. LLE analysis showed positive values for 3rd IMFs. Moreover, 1st, and 2nd IMFs showed overlaps with surrogate data and 3rd, 4th and 5th IMFs showed no overlap with corresponding surrogate data. Results showed the presence of noisy, chaotic and deterministic components in the signal which respectively corresponded to 1st, and 2nd IMFs, IMF-3, and 4th and 5th IMFs. While these findings provide supportive evidence of the chaos conjecture for the 3rd IMF, they do not confirm any such claims. However, they provide a first step towards an understanding of nonlinear behavior of auditory system dynamics in brainstem level.

  13. Neural synchrony in ventral cochlear nucleus neuron populations is not mediated by intrinsic processes but is stimulus induced: implications for auditory brainstem implants.

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    Shivdasani, Mohit N; Mauger, Stefan J; Rathbone, Graeme D; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to elucidate if neural synchrony forms part of the spike time-based theory for coding of sound information in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of the auditory brainstem. Previous research attempts to quantify the degree of neural synchrony at higher levels of the central auditory system have indicated that synchronized firing of neurons during presentation of an acoustic stimulus could play an important role in coding complex sound features. However, it is unknown whether this synchrony could in fact arise from the VCN as it is the first station in the central auditory pathway. Cross-correlation analysis was conducted on 499 pairs of multiunit clusters recorded in the urethane-anesthetized rat VCN in response to pure tones and combinations of two tones to determine the presence of neural synchrony. The shift predictor correlogram was used as a measure for determining the synchrony owing to the effects of the stimulus. Without subtraction of the shift predictor, over 65% of the pairs of multiunit clusters exhibited significant correlation in neural firing when the frequencies of the tones presented matched their characteristic frequencies (CFs). In addition, this stimulus-evoked neural synchrony was dependent on the physical distance between electrode sites, and the CF difference between multiunit clusters as the number of correlated pairs dropped significantly for electrode sites greater than 800 microm apart and for multiunit cluster pairs with a CF difference greater than 0.5 octaves. However, subtraction of the shift predictor correlograms from the raw correlograms resulted in no remaining correlation between all VCN pairs. These results suggest that while neural synchrony may be a feature of sound coding in the VCN, it is stimulus induced and not due to intrinsic neural interactions within the nucleus. These data provide important implications for stimulation strategies for the auditory brainstem implant, which is used to

  14. Noise-Induced “Toughening” Effect in Wistar Rats: Enhanced Auditory Brainstem Responses Are Related to Calretinin and Nitric Oxide Synthase Upregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Juan C.; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Gabaldón-Ull, María C.; Jareño-Flores, Tania; Miller, Josef M.; Juiz, José M.

    2016-01-01

    An appropriate conditioning noise exposure may reduce a subsequent noise-induced threshold shift. Although this “toughening” effect helps to protect the auditory system from a subsequent traumatic noise exposure, the mechanisms that regulate this protective process are not fully understood yet. Accordingly, the goal of the present study was to characterize physiological processes associated with “toughening” and to determine their relationship to metabolic changes in the cochlea and cochlear nucleus (CN). Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were evaluated in Wistar rats before and after exposures to a sound conditioning protocol consisting of a broad-band white noise of 118 dB SPL for 1 h every 72 h, four times. After the last ABR evaluation, animals were perfused and their cochleae and brains removed and processed for the activity markers calretinin (CR) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Toughening was demonstrated by a progressively faster recovery of the threshold shift, as well as wave amplitudes and latencies over time. Immunostaining revealed an increase in CR and nNOS levels in the spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, and CN in noise-conditioned rats. Overall, these results suggest that the protective mechanisms of the auditory toughening effect initiate in the cochlea and extend to the central auditory system. Such phenomenon might be in part related to an interplay between CR and nitric oxide signaling pathways, and involve an increased cytosolic calcium buffering capacity induced by the noise conditioning protocol. PMID:27065815

  15. Changes in pitch height elicit both language-universal and language-dependent changes in neural representation of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Suresh, Chandan H; Gandour, Jackson T

    2017-03-27

    Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on (i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, (ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and (iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure. Stimuli were three nonspeech homologs of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in pitch height only. The frequency-following response (FFR) and the cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) were recorded concurrently. At the Fz-linked T7/T8 site, peak latency of Na, Pb, and Nb decreased with increasing pitch height for both groups. Peak-to-peak amplitude of Na-Pb and Pb-Nb increased with increasing pitch height across groups. A language-dependent effect was restricted to Na-Pb; the Chinese had larger amplitude than the English group. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the Chinese group had larger amplitude, as compared to English, across stimuli, but also limited to the Na-Pb component and right temporal site. In the brainstem, F0 magnitude decreased with increasing pitch height; Chinese had larger magnitude across stimuli. A comparison of CPR and FFR responses revealed distinct patterns of relative changes in magnitude common to both groups. CPR amplitude increased and FFR amplitude decreased with increasing pitch height. Experience-dependent effects on CPR components vary as a function of neural sensitivity to pitch height within a particular temporal window (Na-Pb). Differences between the auditory brainstem and cortex imply distinct neural mechanisms for pitch extraction at both levels of brain structure. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Air and Bone Conduction Click and Tone-Burst Auditory Brainstem Thresholds Using Kalman Adaptive Processing in Nonsedated Normal-Hearing Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Alaaeldin M; Hunter, Lisa L; Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Brown, David K; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen K; Baroch, Kelly; Sullivan-Mahoney, Maureen; Francis, Kara; Schaid, Leigh G

    2015-01-01

    To study normative thresholds and latencies for click and tone-burst auditory brainstem response (TB-ABR) for air and bone conduction in normal infants and those discharged from neonatal intensive care units, who passed newborn hearing screening and follow-up distortion product otoacoustic emission. An evoked potential system (Vivosonic Integrity) that incorporates Bluetooth electrical isolation and Kalman-weighted adaptive processing to improve signal to noise ratios was employed for this study. Results were compared with other published data. One hundred forty-five infants who passed two-stage hearing screening with transient-evoked otoacoustic emission or automated auditory brainstem response were assessed with clicks at 70 dB nHL and threshold TB-ABR. Tone bursts at frequencies between 500 and 4000 Hz were used for air and bone conduction auditory brainstem response testing using a specified staircase threshold search to establish threshold levels and wave V peak latencies. Median air conduction hearing thresholds using TB-ABR ranged from 0 to 20 dB nHL, depending on stimulus frequency. Median bone conduction thresholds were 10 dB nHL across all frequencies, and median air-bone gaps were 0 dB across all frequencies. There was no significant threshold difference between left and right ears and no significant relationship between thresholds and hearing loss risk factors, ethnicity, or gender. Older age was related to decreased latency for air conduction. Compared with previous studies, mean air conduction thresholds were found at slightly lower (better) levels, while bone conduction levels were better at 2000 Hz and higher at 500 Hz. Latency values were longer at 500 Hz than previous studies using other instrumentation. Sleep state did not affect air or bone conduction thresholds. This study demonstrated slightly better wave V thresholds for air conduction than previous infant studies. The differences found in the present study, while statistically significant

  17. Referências anatômicas na cirurgia do implante auditivo de tronco cerebral Anatomical landmarks in auditory brainstem implant surgery

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    Rubens Vuono Brito Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O implante auditivo de tronco cerebral é uma opção os pacientes surdos que não têm a integridade das vias auditivas preservada. A cirurgia, por sua complexidade anatômica e funcional, requer treinamento específico em laboratório de anatomia por parte do cirurgião. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a anatomia cirúrgica da cirurgia do implante auditivo de tronco cerebral. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo anatômico. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo dissecamos cadáver fresco preparado com solução corante injetada nas artérias e veias intra-cranianas. O local de inserção do eletrodo do implante auditivo de tronco cerebral foi estudado através do acesso translabiríntico. RESULTADOS: A técnica cirúrgica utilizada para a implantação do eletrodo de tronco cerebral é semelhante à utilizada na remoção do shwannoma vestibular. O complexo de núcleo coclear, composto pelo núcleo coclear ventral e dorsal, é o local para a colocação do eletrodo. O núcleo coclear ventral é o principal núcleo de transmissão de impulsos neurais do VIII par e seus axônios formam a principal via ascendente do nervo coclear. Tanto o núcleo ventral como o dorsal não são visíveis durante a cirurgia e sua localização depende de identificação de estruturas anatômicas adjacentes. CONCLUSÃO: A região de implantação do eletrodo do implante auditivo de tronco cerebral apresenta referências anatômicas que permitem sua fácil identificação durante a cirurgia.Auditory brainstem implant (ABI is an option for deaf patients who do not have the whole auditory pathways preserved. The surgery, because of its anatomical and functional complexity, requires specific training of the surgeon in an anatomy lab. AIM: To study the surgical anatomy of the auditory brainstem implant surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Anatomic study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In the present study, we dissected a fresh cadaver prepared with a dye solution injected into the arteries and intracranial veins. The

  18. Hearing threshold assessment in young children with electrocochleography (EcochG) and auditory brainstem responses (ABR): experience at the University Hospital of Ferrara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimoni, C; Ciorba, A; Bovo, R; Trevisi, P; Busi, M; Martini, A

    2010-10-01

    Electrophysiological evaluation is a fundamental procedure for the diagnostic assessment of hearing loss during infancy; in these cases, information concerning threshold level and auditory perception is particularly useful to establish a correct hearing rehabilitation program (hearing aids and cochlear implants). Purpose of this study is to underline the role of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and electrocochleography (EcochG) in the definition of hearing loss in a selected group of children, referred to the Audiology Department of the University Hospital of Ferrara, for a tertiary level audiological assessment. A retrospective study of the paediatric patient database at the Audiology Department of the University Hospital of Ferrara has been performed. In a period between January 2000 and December 2007, a total of 272 paediatric cases have been identified (544 ears). An EM 12 Mercury apparatus has been used for the electrophysiological threshold identification (ABR and EcochG). Recordings were carried out under general anaesthesia, in a protected enviroment. In 19 of the 272 paediatric cases selected--38 ears (7%), the results of threshold evaluation through ABR were uncertain. The Ecochg recording resulted crucial for the final diagnosis in terms of definition of the hearing threshold level, and it was then possible to ensure the better hearing rehabilitation strategy. ABR has to be considered the first choice in hearing assessment strategy, either for screening or for diagnosis in newborns as well as in non-collaborating children; ECochG still may be considered a reliable diagnostic tool. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Audiograms of three subterranean rodent species (gen. Fukomys) determined by auditory brainstem responses reveal extremely low high-frequency cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Patricia; Henning, Yoshiyuki; Begall, Sabine; Malkemper, E Pascal

    2017-10-12

    Life underground has shaped the auditory sense of subterranean mammals, shifting their hearing range to low frequencies. Mole-rats of the genus Fukomys have, however, been suggested to hear up to 18.5 kHz, unusually high for a subterranean rodent. We present audiograms of three mole-rat species, Fukomys anselli, Fukomys micklemi and the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, based on evoked auditory brainstem potentials. All species showed low sensitivity and restricted hearing ranges at 60 dB SPL extending from 125 Hz to 4 kHz (5 octaves) with most sensitive hearing between 0.8 kHz and 1.4 kHz. The high frequency cut-offs are the lowest found in mammals to date. In contrast to predictions from middle ear morphology, F. mechowii did not show higher sensitivity in the low frequency range than F. anselli These data suggest that the hearing range of Fukomys mole-rats is highly restricted to low frequencies and similar to other subterranean mammals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Auditory assessment of children with severe hearing loss using behavioural observation audiometry and brainstem evoked response audiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhi Kumari; Priyanko Chakraborty; Jain, R K; Dhananjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of hearing loss has been a long-standing priority in the field of audiology. Currently available auditory testing methods include both behavioural and non-behavioural or objective tests of hearing. This study was planned with an objective to assess hearing loss in children using behavioural observation audiometry and brain stem evoked response audiometry. Methods: A total of 105 cases suffering from severe to profound hearing loss were registered. After proper h...

  1. Using click-evoked auditory brainstem response thresholds in infants to estimate the corresponding pure-tone audiometry thresholds in children referred from UNHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsun-Min; Wu, Fang-Wei; Chang, Hsiuwen; Lin, Hung-Ching

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether behavioral pure-tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds in children can be accurately estimated from the corresponding infants' click-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds through a retrospective review of data from a universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) program in Taiwan. According to medical records from Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei Hospital District, 45,450 newborns received hearing screening during January 1999-December 2011. Among these newborns, 104 (82, both ears; 22, one ear; total, 186 ears) received regular follow-up and were recruited as subjects. The relationship between infant click-evoked ABR thresholds and the corresponding child PTA thresholds was determined through Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression analyses. The correlation coefficient between click-evoked ABR thresholds and behavioral PTA thresholds at the average of frequencies of 1-4 and 2-4 kHz was 0.76 and 0.76, respectively. Linear regression analysis showed that behavioral audiometry thresholds at the average of frequencies of 1-4 and 2-4 kHz were accurately estimated from click-evoked ABR thresholds in 57% and 58% children, respectively. Click-evoked ABR testing is a reliable tool to cautiously estimate behavioral PTA thresholds at the average of frequencies of 1-4 and 2-4 kHz. For accurately performing hearing aid fitting and auditory rehabilitation in congenitally deaf infants, a combination of frequency-specific tone-burst ABR and click-evoked ABR should be used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhesus macaque model of chronic opiate dependence and neuro-AIDS: longitudinal assessment of auditory brainstem responses and visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, Mariam; Marcario, Joanne K; Samson, Frank K; Kenjale, Himanshu; Adany, Istvan; Staggs, Vincent; Ledford, Emily; Marquis, Janet; Narayan, Opendra; Cheney, Paul D

    2009-06-01

    Our work characterizes the effects of opiate (morphine) dependence on auditory brainstem and visual evoked responses in a rhesus macaque model of neuro-AIDS utilizing a chronic continuous drug delivery paradigm. The goal of this study was to clarify whether morphine is protective, or if it exacerbates simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-related systemic and neurological disease. Our model employs a macrophage tropic CD4/CCR5 coreceptor virus, SIV(mac)239 (R71/E17), which crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after inoculation and closely mimics the natural disease course of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The cohort was divided into three groups: morphine only, SIV only, and SIV + morphine. Evoked potential (EP) abnormalities in subclinically infected macaques were evident as early as 8 weeks postinoculation. Prolongations in EP latencies were observed in SIV-infected macaques across all modalities. Animals with the highest cerebrospinal fluid viral loads and clinical disease showed more abnormalities than those with subclinical disease, confirming our previous work (Raymond et al., J Neurovirol 4:512-520, 1998; J Neurovirol 5:217-231, 1999; AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 16:1163-1173, 2000). Although some differences were observed in auditory and visual evoked potentials in morphine-treated compared to morphine-untreated SIV-infected animals, the effects were relatively small and not consistent across evoked potential type. However, morphine-treated animals with subclinical disease had a clear tendency toward higher virus loads in peripheral and central nervous system tissues (Marcario et al., J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 3:12-25, 2008) suggesting that if had been possible to follow all animals to end-stage disease, a clearer pattern of evoked potential abnormality might have emerged.

  3. Prenatal exposure to multiple pesticides is associated with auditory brainstem response at 9months in a cohort study of Chinese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturza, Julie; Silver, Monica K; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xia, Yankai; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy; Meeker, John

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes, but little is known about the effects on sensory functioning. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) and pesticide data were available for 27 healthy, full-term 9-month-old infants participating in a larger study of early iron deficiency and neurodevelopment. Cord blood was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for levels of 20 common pesticides. The ABR forward-masking condition consisted of a click stimulus (masker) delivered via ear canal transducers followed by an identical stimulus delayed by 8, 16, or 64 milliseconds (ms). ABR peak latencies were evaluated as a function of masker-stimulus time interval. Shorter wave latencies reflect faster neural conduction, more mature auditory pathways, and greater degree of myelination. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations between total number of pesticides detected and ABR outcomes. We considered an additive or synergistic effect of poor iron status by stratifying our analysis by newborn ferritin (based on median split). Infants in the sample were highly exposed to pesticides; a mean of 4.1 pesticides were detected (range 0-9). ABR Wave V latency and central conduction time (CCT) were associated with the number of pesticides detected in cord blood for the 64ms and non-masker conditions. A similar pattern seen for CCT from the 8ms and 16ms conditions, although statistical significance was not reached. Increased pesticide exposure was associated with longer latency. The relation between number of pesticides detected in cord blood and CCT depended on the infant's cord blood ferritin level. Specifically, the relation was present in the lower cord blood ferritin group but not the higher cord blood ferritin group. ABR processing was slower in infants with greater prenatal pesticide exposure, indicating impaired neuromaturation. Infants with lower cord blood ferritin appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of prenatal pesticide

  4. Accuracy of auditory steady state and auditory brainstem responses to detect the preventive effect of polyphenols on age-related hearing loss in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Fernández, Ricardo; Sánchez-Rodriguez, Carolina; Granizo, José Juan; Durio-Calero, Enrique; Martín-Sanz, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Aging causes histological, electrophysiological and molecular changes in the cochlea. The free radical theory of aging, has obtained consensus, and the mitochondrion is reported to play a key role in aging as a major source of reactive oxygen species. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the interest in polyphenols because of the antioxidant properties and their role in the prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of different polyphenols on ARHL with auditory-evoked potentials. 100 Healthy female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for this study. Five groups were created based on the age of the rats, in months: 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months old. Two additional groups were created based on the treatment received. In the control group, 50 animals were assigned to no treatment. In the treated group, 50 animals were given a vehicle mixture of polyphenols for the half of the life before euthanization. Nine frequencies were tested (0.5-16 kHz) with ASSR and tone-burst ABR, performed on all of the rats prior to sacrifice. 100-μs auditory clicks ABRs were also recorded. A significant decrease in the audition was detected with ABR and ASSR in both treated and non-treated groups, as the different groups became older. This deterioration was more accurately measured at acute frequencies. Significantly lower thresholds were observed in the treated rats in the 6, 12 and 18-month-old group in the treated rats compared with the control group. All of the thresholds elicited using the ASSR technique were lower than the thresholds obtained using the ABR, regardless of the stimulus type. The present study demonstrated the benefits of the polyphenols, which generated a significant protection against ARHL, with significantly improved ASSR and tone-burst ABR auditory thresholds in rats receiving treatment with polyphenols.

  5. Unexpected Improvement of Hand Motor Function with a Left Temporoparietal Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Regime Suppressing Auditory Hallucinations in a Brainstem Chronic Stroke Patient

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    Fanny Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We here report paradoxical hand function recovery in a 61-year-old male tetra-paretic chronic patient following a stroke of the brainstem (with highly degraded right and abolished left-hand finger flexion/extension disabling him to manipulate objects who experienced insidious auditory hallucinations (AHs 4 years after such event. Symptomatic treatment for AHs was provided with periodical double sessions of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS (daily 1 Hz, 2 × 1,200 pulses interleaved by 1 h interval delivered to the left temporoparietal junction across two periods of 5 and 3 weeks, respectively. At the end of each stimulation period, AHs disappeared completely. Most surprisingly and totally unexpectedly, the patient experienced beneficial improvements of long-lasting impairments in his right-hand function. Detailed examination of onset and offset of rTMS stimulation regimes strongly suggests a temporal relation with the remission and re-appearance of AHs and also with a fragile but clinically meaningful improvements of right (but not left hand function contingent to the accrual of stimulation sessions. On the basis of post-recovery magnetic resonance imaging structural and functional evidence, mechanistic hypotheses that could subtend such unexpected motor recovery are critically discussed.

  6. Evaluation of the occurrence of canine congenital sensorineural deafness in puppies of predisposed dog breeds using the brainstem auditory evoked response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płonek, Marta; Giza, Elżbieta; Niedźwiedź, Artur; Kubiak, Krzysztof; Nicpoń, Józef; Wrzosek, Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Canine congenital sensorineural deafness (CCSD) affects predisposed breeds of dogs and is primarily caused by an atrophy of the stria vascularis of the organ of Corti. The analysis of the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) is a reliable method for the evaluation of hearing in animals as it allows an accurate detection of unilateral or bilateral deafness. The occurrence of unilateral and bilateral deafness using the BAER was determined in a representative group of dogs in Poland, including Bull Terriers (n = 117), Australian Cattle Dogs (n = 62), English Setters (n = 32) and the Dogo Argentino (n = 32). Overall deafness, deafness in each dog breed and an association between deafness and phenotype were studied. Among the 243 dogs tested, 156 (81%) had a normal BAER, 27 (11%) were unilaterally deaf, and 12 (5%) were bilaterally deaf. The amplitudes and latencies of waves I, II, III, V, the V/I wave amplitude ratio, and wave I-V, I-III and III-V inter-peak intervals were recorded for each dog. Unilaterally and bilaterally deaf dogs were present in all the dog breeds studied. There were 17 (14.5%) deaf Bull Terriers, three (4.8%) deaf Australian Cattle Dogs, seven (21.9%) deaf English Setters, and 12 (37.5%) deaf Dogos Argentinos. Preventive BAER screening should be routinely performed in these four breeds to prevent the spread of genes responsible for deafness.

  7. The combined effects of forward masking by noise and high click rate on monaural and binaural human auditory nerve and brainstem potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Polyakov, Andrey; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Naomi

    2004-07-01

    To study effects of forward masking and rapid stimulation on human monaurally- and binaurally-evoked brainstem potentials and suggest their relation to synaptic fatigue and recovery and to neuronal action potential refractoriness. Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEPs) were recorded from 12 normally- and symmetrically hearing adults, in response to each click (50 dB nHL, condensation and rarefaction) in a train of nine, with an inter-click interval of 11 ms, that followed a white noise burst of 100 ms duration (50 dB nHL). Sequences of white noise and click train were repeated at a rate of 2.89 s(-1). The interval between noise and first click in the train was 2, 11, 22, 44, 66 or 88 ms in different runs. ABEPs were averaged (8000 repetitions) using a dwell time of 25 micros/address/channel. The binaural interaction components (BICs) of ABEPs were derived and the single, centrally located equivalent dipoles of ABEP waves I and V and of the BIC major wave were estimated. The latencies of dipoles I and V of ABEP, their inter-dipole interval and the dipole magnitude of component V were significantly affected by the interval between noise and clicks and by the serial position of the click in the train. The latency and dipole magnitude of the major BIC component were significantly affected by the interval between noise and clicks. Interval from noise and the click's serial position in the train interacted to affect dipole V latency, dipole V magnitude, BIC latencies and the V-I inter-dipole latency difference. Most of the effects were fully apparent by the first few clicks in the train, and the trend (increase or decrease) was affected by the interval between noise and clicks. The changes in latency and magnitude of ABEP and BIC components with advancing position in the click train and the interactions of click position in the train with the intervals from noise indicate an interaction of fatigue and recovery, compatible with synaptic depletion and replenishing

  8. Acoustic trauma slows AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs in the auditory brainstem, reducing GluA4 subunit expression as a mechanism to rescue binaural function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Nadia; Linley, Deborah M; Selvaskandan, Haresh; Uchitel, Osvaldo; Hennig, Matthias H; Kopp-Scheinpflug, Cornelia; Forsythe, Ian D

    2016-07-01

    Lateral superior olive (LSO) principal neurons receive AMPA receptor (AMPAR) - and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated EPSCs and glycinergic IPSCs. Both EPSCs and IPSCs have slow kinetics in prehearing animals, which during developmental maturation accelerate to sub-millisecond decay time-constants. This correlates with a change in glutamate and glycine receptor subunit composition quantified via mRNA levels. The NMDAR-EPSCs accelerate over development to achieve decay time-constants of 2.5 ms. This is the fastest NMDAR-mediated EPSC reported. Acoustic trauma (AT, loud sounds) slow AMPAR-EPSC decay times, increasing GluA1 and decreasing GluA4 mRNA. Modelling of interaural intensity difference suggests that the increased EPSC duration after AT shifts interaural level difference to the right and compensates for hearing loss. Two months after AT the EPSC decay times recovered to control values. Synaptic transmission in the LSO matures by postnatal day 20, with EPSCs and IPSCs having fast kinetics. AT changes the AMPAR subunits expressed and slows the EPSC time-course at synapses in the central auditory system. Damaging levels of sound (acoustic trauma, AT) diminish peripheral synapses, but what is the impact on the central auditory pathway? Developmental maturation of synaptic function and hearing were characterized in the mouse lateral superior olive (LSO) from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P96 using voltage-clamp and auditory brainstem responses. IPSCs and EPSCs show rapid acceleration during development, so that decay kinetics converge to similar sub-millisecond time-constants (τ, 0.87 ± 0.11 and 0.77 ± 0.08 ms, respectively) in adult mice. This correlated with LSO mRNA levels for glycinergic and glutamatergic ionotropic receptor subunits, confirming a switch from Glyα2 to Glyα1 for IPSCs and increased expression of GluA3 and GluA4 subunits for EPSCs. The NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-EPSC decay τ accelerated from >40 ms in prehearing animals to 2.6 ± 0.4 ms in

  9. Neonate Auditory Brainstem Responses to CE-Chirp and CE-Chirp Octave Band Stimuli I: Versus Click and Tone Burst Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Kensi M; Stuart, Andrew

    The purpose of the study was to generate normative auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave component peak latency and amplitude values for neonates with air- and bone-conducted CE-Chirps and air-conducted CE-Chirp octave band stimuli (i.e., 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz). A second objective was to compare neonate ABRs to CE-Chirp stimuli with ABR responses to traditional click and tone burst stimuli with the same stimulus parameters. Participants were 168 healthy neonates. ABRs were obtained to air- and bone-conducted CE-Chirp and click stimuli and air-conducted CE-Chirp octave band and tone burst stimuli. The effects of stimulus level, rate, and polarity were examined with air-conducted CE-Chirps and clicks. The effect of stimulus level was also examined with bone-conducted CE-Chirps and clicks and air-conducted CE-Chirp octave band stimuli. In general, ABR wave V amplitudes to air- and bone-conducted CE-Chirp stimuli were significantly larger (p < 0.05) than those evoked to traditional click and tone burst stimuli. Systematic statistically significant (p < 0.05) wave V latency differences existed between the air- and bone-conducted CE-Chirp and CE-Chirp octave band stimuli relative to traditional click and tone burst stimuli. ABRs to air- and bone-conducted CE-Chirps and CE-Chirp octave band stimuli may be valuable in the assessment of newborn infants. However, the prognostic value of such stimuli needs to be validated.

  10. A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral chloral hydrate for sedated auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jason; Rogers, Amber; Medellin, Eduardo; Guzman, Jonathan A; Watcha, Mehernoor F

    2016-03-01

    Dexmedetomidine is increasingly used by various routes for pediatric sedation. However, there are few randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of dexmedetomidine to other commonly used sedatives. To compare the efficacy of sedation with intranasal dexmedetomidine to oral chloral hydrate for auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing. In this double-blind, double-dummy study, children undergoing ABR testing were randomized to receive intranasal dexmedetomidine 3 mcg · kg(-1) plus oral placebo (Group IN DEX) or oral chloral hydrate 50 mg · kg(-1) plus intranasal saline placebo (Group CH). We recorded demographic data, times from sedative administration to start and completion of testing, quality of sedation, occurrence of predefined adverse events, discharge times, and return to baseline activity on the day of testing. Testing completion rates with a single dose of medication were higher in the IN DEX group (89% vs 66% for CH, odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals 4.04 [1.3-12.6], P = 0.018). The median [95% CI)] time to successful testing start was shorter (25 [20-29] min vs 30 [20-49] min for IN DEX and CH, respectively, log rank test P = 0.02) and the proportion of children whose parents reported a return to baseline activity on the day of testing was greater for the IN DEX than the CH group (89% vs 64%, OR [95% CI] 4.71 [1.34-16.6], P = 0.02). There were no major adverse events in either group and no significant differences in the incidence of minor events. Intranasal dexmedetomidine is an effective alternative to oral chloral hydrate sedation for ABR testing, with the advantages of a higher incidence of testing completion with a single dose, shorter time to desired sedation level, and with significantly more patients reported to return to baseline activity on the same day. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Alvarez

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia (HI is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets.Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6 and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10. ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline, after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury.Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant.The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  12. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Francisco Jose; Revuelta, Miren; Santaolalla, Francisco; Alvarez, Antonia; Lafuente, Hector; Arteaga, Olatz; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Sanchez-del-Rey, Ana; Hilario, Enrique; Martinez-Ibargüen, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs) of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6) and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10). ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline), after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury. Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant. The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  13. The effects of polarity of click stimulation on auditory brainstem responses (ABR in patients with cochlear and retro-cochlear disorders in Amiralam and Resalat Hospitals 1995-97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani AH

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auditory brainstem response (A.B.R is one of the most important electrophysiological tests in evaluating of auditory system, especially for diagnosing of auditory nerve and brainstem disorders. It is a non-invasive test and has reliability and validity characteristic. There is no contra-indication for this test. One of the most important of stimulation parameters of A.B.R is click polarity (rarefaction, condensation and alternative. Some of the investigators believed that different polarities have no effects on A.B.R are affected by different polarities. Materials and Methods: In this study, the results of ABR of 148 patients (296 ears were compared with three different polarities of rarefaction, condensation and alternative half click stimuli. The cases were categorized in three groups of normal (60 cases, cochlear (62 cases and retro-cochlear (17 cases. This classification were done according to the hearing level in pure tone audiometry results in three frequencies of 1000, 2000, 4000 Hz and to the site of the their disorders. The mean absolute latencies of waves I, III and V were obtained for each polarity. Inter-peak latency (I.P.L of wave also measured in three groups (normal, cochlear and retro-cochlear. Results: The results were showed a significant difference between absolute latency of wave I among different polarities on three above mentioned groups (P0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that rarefaction polarity has better and more stable results of ABR tests.

  14. Hyperekplexia and trismus due to brainstem encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, M.; Humphrey, P.; Tedman, B.; Steiger, M.

    1998-01-01

    The brainstem is said to be the generator of pathological startle responses due to reticular reflex myoclonus or hyperekplexia. A patient with facial weakness, nystagmus, and pyramidal tract signs had generalised reflex spasms in response to auditory, visual and tactile stimuli which clinically and neurophysiologically resembled hyperekplexia. The case is unusual because as well as hyperekplexia, the patient's initial presentation was with an equally rare manifestation of brainstem pathology—brainstem mediated trismus. The causes of brainstem trismus and exaggerated startle responses are discussed with respect to their underlying mechanisms. 

 PMID:9667574

  15. The connections of the inferior colliculus and the organization of the brainstem auditory system in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, H

    1981-09-01

    The connections of the inferior colliculus, the mammalian mid-brain auditory center, were determined in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), using the horseradish peroxidase method. In order to localize the auditory centers of this bat, brains were investigated with the aid of cell and fiber-stained material. The results show that most auditory centers are highly developed in this echolocating bat. However, the organization of the central auditory system does not generally differ from the mammalian scheme. This holds also for the organization of the superior olivary complex where a well-developed medial superior olivary nucleus was found. In addition to the ventral and dorsal nuclei of the lateral lemniscus a third well-developed nucleus has been defined which projects ipsilaterally to the inferior colliculus and which was called the intermediate nucleus of the lateral leminiscus. All nuclei of the central auditory pathway project ipsi-, contra-, or bilaterally to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus with the exception of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body and the medial geniculate body. The tonotopic organization of these projections and their possible functions are discussed in context with neurophysiological investigations.

  16. Brainstem response audiometry in the determination of low-frequency hearing loss : a study of various methods for frequency-specific ABR-threshold assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.G.J. Conijn

    1992-01-01

    textabstractBrainstem Electric Response Audiometry (BERA) is a method to visualize some of the electric activity generated in the auditory nerve and the brainstem during the processing of sound. The amplitude of the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) is very small (0.05-0.5 flV). The potentials

  17. Auditory Brainstem and Middle Latency Responses Measured Pre- and Posttreatment for Hyperacusic Hearing-Impaired Persons Successfully Treated to Improve Sound Tolerance and to Expand the Dynamic Range for Loudness: Case Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Craig; Korczak, Peggy; Sherlock, LaGuinn P; Hawley, Monica L; Gold, Susan

    2017-02-01

    In this report of three cases, we consider electrophysiologic measures from three hyperacusic hearing-impaired individuals who, prior to treatment to expand their dynamic ranges for loudness, were problematic hearing aid candidates because of their diminished sound tolerance and reduced dynamic ranges. Two of these individuals were treated with structured counseling combined with low-level broadband sound therapy from bilateral sound generators and the third case received structured counseling in combination with a short-acting placebo sound therapy. Each individual was highly responsive to his or her assigned treatment as revealed by expansion of the dynamic range by at least 20 dB at one or more frequencies posttreatment. Of specific interest in this report are their latency and amplitude measures taken from tone burst-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) and cortically derived middle latency response (MLR) recordings, measured as a function of increasing loudness at 500 and 2,000 Hz pre- and posttreatment. The resulting ABR and MLR latency and amplitude measures for each case are considered here in terms of pre- and posttreatment predictions. The respective pre- and posttreatment predictions anticipated larger pretreatment response amplitudes and shorter pretreatment response latencies relative to typical normal control values and smaller normative-like posttreatment response amplitudes and longer posttreatment response latencies relative to the corresponding pretreatment values for each individual. From these results and predictions, we conjecture about the neural origins of the hyperacusis conditions (i.e., brainstem versus cortical) and the neuronal sites responsive to treatment. The only consistent finding in support of the pre- and posttreatment predictions and, thus, the strongest index of hyperacusis and positive treatment-related effects was measured for MLR latency responses for wave Pa at 2,000 Hz. Other response indices, including ABR wave V

  18. Audiometria de tronco encefálico (abr: o uso do mascaramento na avaliação de indivíduos portadores de perda auditiva unilateral Auditory brainstem response (abr: use of masking in unilateral hearing loss patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. T. Toma

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade do mascaramento na avaliação da audição por meio da ABR ainda é um assunto consideravelmente debatido (Durrant & Ferraro, 2001. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo propôs investigar a necessidade do mascaramento contralateral, empregado na orelha normal, ao realizar a ABR em indivíduos portadores de perda auditiva neurossensorial unilateral. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra constituiu-se de 22 indivíduos portadores de perda auditiva neurossensorial unilateral de grau profundo, sendo 10 do sexo feminino e 12 do sexo masculino, com idades variando entre 9 e 44 anos. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a: audiometria tonal liminar, logoaudiometria (SRT, IPRF e SDT, medidas de imitância acústica (incluindo a pesquisa dos reflexos acústicos - modo ipsilateral e contralateral e audiometria de tronco encefálico na ausência e na presença do mascaramento. RESULTADOS: Todos os indivíduos apresentaram perda auditiva neurossensorial unilateral de grau profundo e curvas timpanométricas do tipo A bilateralmente. Na avaliação da ABR, 100% da amostra apresentou presença da Onda V na orelha comprometida, sendo que ao introduzir o mascaramento contralateral tais respostas não foram observadas. CONCLUSÕES: O mascaramento é um procedimento necessário para a avaliação da audição por meio da ABR em indivíduos portadores de perdas auditivas unilaterais, visando a obtenção de resultados fidedignos. Na ABR, a atenuação interaural para clicks foi maior (65 dB do que a observada na audiometria tonal liminar, sendo necessário, portanto, uma menor intensidade de mascaramento para eliminar a resposta da via auditiva contralateral.The need of masking in auditory brainstem response (ABR evaluation is still considerably debated issue (Durrant and Ferraro, 2001. AIM: In addition, the present study was to investigate the need of masking in ABR with unilateral hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical

  19. Focal brainstem gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J.; Alaqeel, Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved neuronavigation guidance as well as intraoperative imaging and neurophysiologic monitoring technologies have enhanced the ability of neurosurgeons to resect focal brainstem gliomas. In contrast, diffuse brainstem gliomas are considered to be inoperable lesions. This article is a continuation of an article that discussed brainstem glioma diagnostics, imaging, and classification. Here, we address open surgical treatment of and approaches to focal, dorsally exophytic, and cervicomedullary brainstem gliomas. Intraoperative neuronavigation, intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring, as well as intraoperative imaging are discussed as adjunctive measures to help render these procedures safer, more acute, and closer to achieving surgical goals. PMID:25864061

  20. Accessory Lobes, Accessory Fissures and Prominent Papillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Often unreported hepatic variations include accessory fissures, lobes and processes. Variant hepatic fissures further show variations in location and depth. Accessory lobes of the liver have different size, shape, situation, connection with maternal organ. These abnormalities in the anatomy of human liver have the ...

  1. Brainstem Cavernous Angioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in obliteration of the angioma. [9] At a minimum, radiosurgery treatment for brainstem cavernous angioma is controversial. Given the advancement in minimally invasive surgical techniques, more and more neurosurgeons are becoming ...

  2. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico por frequência específica e de estado estável na audiologia pediátrica: estudo de caso Frequency-specific and steady-state evoked auditory brainstem responses in pediatric audiology: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ribeiro Ivo Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Preconiza-se o diagnóstico até os três meses de idade em crianças com deficiência auditiva congênita. Após a etapa inicial de confirmação do diagnóstico, é necessário que se obtenha limiares precisos nas diferentes frequências, para que seja possível uma adequada seleção, indicação e regulagem de aparelhos de amplificação sonora. Nesse contexto, inserem-se os Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Tronco Encefálico por Frequência Específica (PEATE-FE e, mais recentemente, os Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Estado Estável (PEAEE. O objetivo deste estudo de caso foi apresentar os achados das duas técnicas para estimar os limiares auditivos em uma criança de três meses de idade, com perda auditiva neurossensorial bilateral, diagnosticada utilizando-se como primeiro método de avaliação os Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Tronco Encefálico com estímulo clique, tanto por via aérea como por via óssea. As duas técnicas mostraram-se eficientes para estimar os limiares auditivos, com uma vantagem dos PEAEE com relação ao tempo de duração de exame.It is recommended that congenital hearing loss is identified as early as three months old. After the initial step of confirming the diagnosis, it is necessary to obtain accurate hearing thresholds, allowing an adequate selection, indication and regulation of hearing aids for these children. It is inserted, in this context, the Frequency-Specific Auditory Brainstem Responses (FSABR and, more recently, the Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR. The aim of the present study was to describe the findings of the use of both techniques to estimate the auditory thresholds of a three-month-old infant with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss diagnosed using, as primary evaluation method, the click-evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses, with both air and bone stimuli conduction. Both techniques provided reliable findings for estimating auditory thresholds. The ASSR had an advantage regarding

  3. Auditory neuropathy/Auditory dyssynchrony - An underdiagnosed condition: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Vinish Agarwal; Saurabh Varshney; Sampan Singh Bist; Sanjiv Bhagat; Sarita Mishra; Vivek Jha

    2012-01-01

    Auditory neuropathy (AN)/auditory dyssynchrony (AD) is a very often missed diagnosis, hence an underdiagnosed condition in clinical practice. Auditory neuropathy is a condition in which patients, on audiologic evaluation, are found to have normal outer hair cell function and abnormal neural function at the level of the eighth nerve. These patients, on clinical testing, are found to have normal otoacoustic emissions, whereas auditory brainstem response audiometry reveals the absence of neural ...

  4. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  5. A brainstem anosognosia of hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Abe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A woman had anosognosia for hemiplegia as a manifestation of brainstem infarction. She had no mental or neuropsychological disturbances, and had involvement of the brainstem in the frontal/parietal-subcortical circuits to the right cerebral hemisphere. Brainstem lesions that disrupt frontal/parietal-subcortical areas may affect anosognosia for hemiplegia.

  6. Migraine with brainstem aura: Why not a cortical origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarquay, Geneviève; Ducros, Anne; Montavont, Alexandra; Mauguiere, François

    2017-01-01

    Background Migraine with brainstem aura is defined as a migraine with aura including at least two of the following symptoms: dysarthria, vertigo, tinnitus, hypacusis, diplopia, ataxia and/or decreased level of consciousness. Aim The aim of this study is to review data coming from clinical observations and functional mapping that support the role of the cerebral cortex in the initiation of brainstem aura symptoms. Results Vertigo can result from a vestibular cortex dysfunction, while tinnitus and hypacusis can originate within the auditory cortex. Diplopia can reflect a parieto-occipital involvement. Dysarthria can be caused by dysfunctions located in precentral gyri. Ataxia can reflect abnormal processing of vestibular, sensory, or visual inputs by the parietal lobe. Alteration of consciousness can be caused by abnormal neural activation within specific consciousness networks that include prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Conclusion Any symptom of so-called brainstem aura can originate within the cortex. Based on these data, we suggest that brainstem aura could have a cortical origin. This hypothesis would explain the co-occurrence of typical and brainstem aura during attacks and would fit with the theory of cortical spreading depression. We propose that migraine with brainstem aura should be classified as a typical migraine aura.

  7. Painful accessory navicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, J.P.; Ogden, J.A.; Sella, E.; Barwick, K.W.

    1984-11-01

    The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heartshaped. sup(99m)Tc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice.

  8. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Congenital brainstem disconnection associated with a syrinx of the brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, P. G.; de Vries, L. S.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Troost, D.

    We report a case of congenital brainstem disconnection including the second detailed autopsy. A full-term newborn presented with irreversible apnoea and died on the fifth day. MRI revealed disconnection of the brainstem. The autopsy included a series of transverse sections of the mesencephalon,

  10. Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

    2011-08-01

    The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis.

  11. Brainstem auditory evoked potential, visual evoked potential and nerve conduction velocity and their relation with HbA1c and beta 2 microglobulin in children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, A; Deda, G; Karagöl, U; Teziç, T

    1994-01-01

    Brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER), visual evoked response (VER) and nerve conduction velocities (NCV) were studied in 18 insulin-dependent diabetic children between the ages of 3.5 and 16 years (mean 9.0 +/- 3.2 years). The results were compared with those of age-matched controls. The VER latencies of the diabetic children in the right eye and left eye were significantly prolonged when compared with the control group. NCV of n. peroneus and the latency of sensorial n. medianus were significantly impaired when compared with the control group. Although the latencies of waves III, IV and V of the right ear and the interpeak latencies of I-III, I-V, III-V of both ears were prolonged, the comparison with the control group was not significant. The beta 2 microglobulin levels of the diabetic patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. There was a positive correlation between the beta 2 microglobulin and the BAER interpeak latencies of wave III-V in both ears (r: 0.51 p sensorial) with beta 2 microglobulin (r: 0.52 p eyes separately. In our study the prolonged latencies of VER and BAER were detected in the absence of clinical abnormalities in visual and hearing systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Characterized by Deficient Brainstem and Cortical Representations of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Lowther, Jill E; Tak, Sunghee H; Alain, Claude

    2017-03-29

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is recognized as a transitional phase in the progression toward more severe forms of dementia and is an early precursor to Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies reveal that MCI is associated with aberrant sensory-perceptual processing in cortical brain regions subserving auditory and language function. However, whether the pathophysiology of MCI extends to speech processing before conscious awareness (brainstem) is unknown. Using a novel electrophysiological approach, we recorded both brainstem and cortical speech-evoked brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in older, hearing-matched human listeners who did and did not present with subtle cognitive impairment revealed through behavioral neuropsychological testing. We found that MCI was associated with changes in neural speech processing characterized as hypersensitivity (larger) brainstem and cortical speech encoding in MCI compared with controls in the absence of any perceptual speech deficits. Group differences also interacted with age differentially across the auditory pathway; brainstem responses became larger and cortical ERPs smaller with advancing age. Multivariate classification revealed that dual brainstem-cortical speech activity correctly identified MCI listeners with 80% accuracy, suggesting its application as a biomarker of early cognitive decline. Brainstem responses were also a more robust predictor of individuals' MCI severity than cortical activity. Our findings suggest that MCI is associated with poorer encoding and transfer of speech signals between functional levels of the auditory system and advance the pathophysiological understanding of cognitive aging by identifying subcortical deficits in auditory sensory processing mere milliseconds (declines in communication skills. Whether MCI pathophysiology extends below cerebral cortex to affect speech processing before conscious awareness (brainstem) is unknown. By recording neuroelectric brain activity to

  13. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  14. Brainstem Transcription of Speech Is Disrupted in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Nicole; Nicol, Trent; Trommer, Barbara; Zecker, Steve; Kraus, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Language impairment is a hallmark of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The origin of the deficit is poorly understood although deficiencies in auditory processing have been detected in both perception and cortical encoding of speech sounds. Little is known about the processing and transcription of speech sounds at earlier (brainstem) levels or…

  15. Analysis of transient otoacoustic emissions and brainstem evoked auditory potentials in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia Análise das emissões otoacústicas transientes e dos potenciais evocados auditivos do tronco encefálico em neonatos com hiperbilirrubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Polo Camargo da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbilirubinemia is toxic to the auditory pathways and to the central nervous system, leaving sequelae such as hearing loss and encephalopathy. AIM: to assess the hearing of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia, using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TOAEs and brainstem evoked auditory potentials (BEAP. Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we had two groups: GI (n-25, neonates with hyperbilirubinemia; GII (n-22, neonates without hyperbilirubinemia and without risk factors for hearing loss. All the neonates had up to 60 days of life and were submitted to TOAE and BEAP. RESULTS: 12 neonates from GI and 10 from GII were girls and 13 from GI and 12 from GII were boys. TOAEs were present in all the children, however with lower amplitudes in GI, especially in the frequencies of 2 and 3KHz (p A hiperbilirrubinemia é tóxica às vias auditivas e ao sistema nervoso central, deixando sequelas como surdez e encefalopatia. OBJETIVOS: avaliar a audição de neonatos portadores de hiperbilirrubinemia, utilizando-se a pesquisa das emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes (EOAET e dos potenciais evocados auditivos do tronco encefálico (PEATE. Estudo prospectivo. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Constituíram-se dois grupos: GI (n-25, neonatos com hiperbilirrubinemia; GII (n-22, neonatos sem hiperbilirrubinemia e sem fatores de risco para surdez. Todos os neonatos tinham até 60 dias de vida e foram submetidos à EOAET e ao PEATE. RESULTADOS: 12 neonatos de GI e 10 de GII eram meninas e 13 de GI e 12 de GII eram meninos. As EOAET estavam presentes em todas as crianças, porém com amplitudes menores em GI, especialmente nas frequências de 2 e 3KHz (p < 0,05. No PEATE, observou-se discreto prolongamento de PV e de LI-V em GI. As alterações observadas nesses testes não se correlacionaram aos níveis séricos da bilirrubinemia. CONCLUSÕES: Em neonatos portadores de hiperbilirrubinemia, menores amplitudes das EOAET e discreto prolongamento de PV e de LI

  16. [Verbal auditory agnosia: SPECT study of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, C; Casado, I; Fernández-Rojas, J; Garín, J; Rayo, J I

    1995-01-01

    Verbal auditory agnosia are rare in clinical practice. Clinically, it characterized by impairment of comprehension and repetition of speech but reading, writing, and spontaneous speech are preserved. So it is distinguished from generalized auditory agnosia by the preserved ability to recognize non verbal sounds. We present the clinical picture of a forty-years-old, right handed woman who developed verbal auditory agnosic after an bilateral temporal ischemic infarcts due to atrial fibrillation by dilated cardiomyopathie. Neurophysiological studies by pure tone threshold audiometry: brainstem auditory evoked potentials and cortical auditory evoked potentials showed sparing of peripheral hearing and intact auditory pathway in brainstem but impaired cortical responses. Cranial CT-SCAN revealed two large hypodenses area involving both cortico-subcortical temporal lobes. Cerebral SPECT using 99mTc-HMPAO as radiotracer showed hypoperfusion just posterior in both frontal lobes nect to Roland's fissure and at level of bitemporal lobes just anterior to Sylvian's fissure.

  17. Comparação dos estímulos clique e CE-chirp® no registro do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico Comparison of click and CE-chirp® stimuli on Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ribeiro Ivo Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as latências e as amplitudes da onda V no registro do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico (PEATE com os estímulos clique e CE-chirp® e a presença ou ausência das ondas I, III e V em fortes intensidades. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 12 adultos com limiares audiométricos PURPOSE: To compare the latencies and amplitudes of wave V on the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP recording obtained with click and CE-chirp® stimuli and the presence or absence of waves I, III and V in high intensities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 12 adults with audiometric thresholds <15 dBHL (24 ears and mean age of 27 years. The parameters used for the recording with both stimuli in intensities of 80, 60, 40, 20 dBnHL were alternate polarity and repetition rate of 27.1 Hz. RESULTS: The CE-chirp® latencies for wave V were longer than click latencies at low intensity levels (20 and 40 dBnHL. At high intensity levels (60 and 80 dBnHL, the opposite occurred. Larger wave V amplitudes were observed with CE-chirp® in all intensity levels, except at 80 dBnHL. CONCLUSION: The CE-chirp® showed shorter latencies than those observed with clicks at high intensity levels and larger amplitudes at all intensity levels, except at 80 dBnHL. The waves I and III tended to disappear with CE-chirp® stimulation.

  18. Microsurgical removal of brainstem cavernoma: A report of 42 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ning ZHANG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical features and the surgical approach and techniques for microsurgical removal of brainstem cavernoma, and to evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of brainstem cavernoma. Methods The clinical data of 41 brainstem cavernoma patients treated by microsurgical resection from January 2003 to April 2011 were retrospectively analyzed, and they were 23 males and 18 females, aged 8 to 62 years. The clinical presentations included signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, such as headache and dizziness, long-tract signs such as cranial nerve dysfunction, numbness and decrease in muscle strength, and ataxia. According to the site of the lesions, surgical approaches were selected following the principle of "the shortest distance between the incision and the lesion". Intraoperative short-latency somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP and auditory evoked potential (AEP were monitored. Results Total resection of cavernoma was achieved in 35 patients, small residual tumor was left in 6 with giant lesions. No death occurred. Twenty-seven patients showed improvement in nerve function. Aggravation of pre-existing neurological disorders or appearance of new neurological disorders was found in 14 patients, including 2 with respiratory dysfunction who regained spontaneous breathing after assisted respiration for one week. Follow-up was carried out for 38 months in average. Neurological deficits have been restored in most patients, and no recurrence was found except for 1 case of re-bleeding from residual tumor. Conclusions According to the lesion site and protruding direction, individualized surgical approach can be selected following the "shortest distance" principle for the resection of brainstem cavernoma. The application of intraoperative navigation and electrophysiological monitoring of the brainstem is helpful in reducing surgical injury and decreasing the complications.

  19. Frequency-specific objective audiometry: tone-evoked brainstem responses and steady-state responses to 40 Hz and 90 Hz amplitude modulated stimuli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijden, C.S. van der; Mens, L.H.M.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tone-evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses (tone-burst ABRs) and Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSRs) with 40 or 90 Hz amplitude modulation (AM) were compared, using the same equipment and recording parameters, to determine which of these three methods most accurately approached the behavioural

  20. Control of neuronal excitability by NMDA‐type glutamate receptors in early developing binaural auditory neurons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez, Jason Tait; Seidl, Armin H; Rubel, Edwin W; Barria, Andres

    2012-01-01

    •  Mature nucleus laminaris (NL) neurons in the avian auditory brainstem respond with one or two action potentials to repetitive synaptic stimulation due to strong expression of low‐voltage‐activated K + channels (K LVA...

  1. Central Mechanisms and Treatment of Blast Induced Auditory and Vestibular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    consequences of these injuries likely progresses with age . A comprehensive understanding of the structural and molecular components of the injury...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT As a consequence of advances in military medical care there...brainstem response, balance disorder, mouse, pathology , auditory cortex, brainstem, cerebellum, neuron 3. Accomplishments o What were the major goals for

  2. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms...... that regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...... in the protein; a putative lipid‐associating domain termed the DDHD domain that is defined by the four amino acid motif that gives the domain its name; and a ubiquitously found domain termed Sterile α‐motif (SAM), which is mostly associated with oligomerization and polymerization. We first show, that the DDHD...

  3. Brainstem response to speech and non-speech stimuli in children with learning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malayeri, Saeed; Lotfi, Yones; Moossavi, Seyed Abdollah; Rostami, Reza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-07-01

    Neuronal firing synchronization is critical for recording auditory responses from the brainstem. Recent studies have shown that both click and/da/synthetic syllable (speech) stimuli perform well in evoking neuronal synchronization at the brainstem level. In the present study, brainstem responses to click and speech stimuli were compared between children with learning problems (LP) and those with normal learning (NL) abilities. The study included 49 children with LP and 34 children with NL. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) to 100-μs click stimulus and speech ABR (sABR) to/da/40-ms stimulus were tested in these children. Wave latencies III, V, and Vn and inter-peak latency (IPL) V-Vn in click ABR and wave latencies I, V, and A and IPL V-A in sABR were significantly longer in children with LP than children with NL. Except IPL of I-III, a significant positive correlation was observed between click ABR and sABR wave latencies and IPLs in children with NL; this correlation was weaker or not observed in children with LP. In this regard, the difference between correlation coefficients of wave latencies I, III, and V and IPLs I-V and V-Vn/V-A was significant in the two groups. Deficits in auditory processing timing in children with LP may have probably affected ABR for both click and speech stimuli. This finding emphasizes the possibility of shared connections between processing timing for speech and non-speech stimuli in auditory brainstem pathways. Weak or no correlation between click and speech ABR parameters in children with LP may have a clinical relevance and may be effectively used for objective diagnoses after confirming its sufficient sensitivity and specificity and demonstrating its acceptable validity with more scientific evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal valproic acid exposure disrupts tonotopic c-Fos expression in the rat brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, A; Kulesza, R J

    2016-06-02

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by difficulties in communication and social interactions, restricted, repetitive behaviors and sensory abnormalities. Notably, the vast majority of individuals with ASD experience some degree of auditory dysfunction and we have recently reported consistent hypoplasia and dysmorphology in auditory brainstem centers in individuals with ASD. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of ASD. In rodents, prenatal exposure to VPA is employed as an animal model of ASD and is associated with a number of anatomical, physiological and behavioral deficits, including hypoplasia and dysmorphology of auditory brainstem centers. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that such dysmorphology in VPA-exposed animals would translate into abnormal neuronal activity in brainstem circuits and irregular tonotopic maps. Herein, we have subjected control and VPA-exposed animals to 4- or 16-kHz tones and examined neuronal activation with immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. After these exposures, we identified significantly more c-Fos-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem of VPA-exposed animals. Additionally, we observed a larger dispersion of c-Fos-positive neurons and shifted tonotopic bands in VPA-exposed rats. We interpret these findings to suggest hyper-responsiveness to sounds and disrupted mapping of sound frequencies after prenatal VPA exposure. Based on these findings, we suggest that such abnormal patterns of activation may play a role in auditory processing deficits in ASD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Molecular and Developmental Basis of the Evolution of the Vertebrate Auditory System

    OpenAIRE

    FRITZSCH, B.; Pauley, S.; Feng, F.; Matei, V.; Nichols, D. H.

    2006-01-01

    We review the molecular basis of the auditory system development and evolution. The auditory periphery evolved by building on the capacity of vestibular hair cells to respond to higher frequency mechanical stimulation. Evolution altered accessory structures to transform vestibular to auditory receptors. Auditory neurons are derived from vestibular neurons, possibly through the expression of the zinc finger protein GATA3. The bHLH gene Neurogenin1 is expressed in the area of the developing ves...

  6. Brainstem evoked response auditory in healthy term neonates with hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isman Jafar

    2010-06-01

    bilirubin> 12 mg/dL will be subject for phototherapy. Objectives To determine the association between total bilirubin > 12 mg/dL and BERA abnonnalities in healthy tenn neonates, and the value of total bilirubin and free bilirubin that initiate abnonnal BERA. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out between March 31August 8, 2008, in healthy term neonates at roomingin ward, Department of Obstetric & Gy necology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (CMH. All eligible subjects were examined for Bf and BERA using standard methods.  Results The prevalence of abnormal BERA was 15.4%. There was no significant relation between hy perbilirubinemia (> 12 mg/ dL and abnonnal BERA in healthy tenn neonates. Lowest total bilirubin and Bf level related to abnonnal BERA were 12.4 mg/dL (mean 12.8 mg/dL and O.oSLg/dL (mean l.3Lg/dL, respectively. All BERA abnonnalities were unilateral. Conclusions There is no association between abnormal BERA and hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin> 12 mg/dL in jaundiced infants who undergo phototherapy.

  7. Accuracy of averaged auditory brainstem response amplitude and latency estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sara Miay Kim; M. Harte, James; Elberling, Claus

    2017-01-01

    of a fixed SNR versus a fixed noise floor stop criterion was assessed when variations in the wave-V waveform shape reflecting inter-subject variation was introduced. Study sample: Over 100 hours of raw EEG noise was recorded from 17 adult subjects, under different conditions (e.g. sleep or movement). Results...

  8. Two-dimensional time coding in the auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Sean J; Higgs, Matthew H; Fairhall, Adrienne L; Spain, William J

    2005-10-26

    Avian nucleus magnocellularis (NM) spikes provide a temporal code representing sound arrival times to downstream neurons that compute sound source location. NM cells act as high-pass filters by responding only to discrete synaptic events while ignoring temporally summed EPSPs. This high degree of input selectivity insures that each output spike from NM unambiguously represents inputs that contain precise temporal information. However, we lack a quantitative description of the computation performed by NM cells. A powerful model for predicting output firing rate given an arbitrary current input is given by a linear/nonlinear cascade: the stimulus is compared with a known relevant feature by linear filtering, and based on that comparison, a nonlinear function predicts the firing response. Spike-triggered covariance analysis allows us to determine a generalization of this model in which firing depends on more than one spike-triggering feature or stimulus dimension. We found two current features relevant for NM spike generation; the most important simply smooths the current on short time scales, whereas the second confers sensitivity to rapid changes. A model based on these two features captured more mutual information between current and spikes than a model based on a single feature. We used this analysis to characterize the changes in the computation brought about by pharmacological manipulation of the biophysical properties of the neurons. Blockage of low-threshold voltage-gated potassium channels selectively eliminated the requirement for the second stimulus feature, generalizing our understanding of input selectivity by NM cells. This study demonstrates the power of covariance analysis for investigating single neuron computation.

  9. The auditory brainstem response in two lizard species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Yezhong

    2010-01-01

    in response to click stimulation showed one prominent and several smaller peaks occurring within 10 ms of the stimulus onset. ABRs to brief tone bursts revealed that geckos and anoles were most sensitive between 1.6-2 kHz and had similar hearing sensitivity up to about 5 kHz (thresholds typically 20-50 dB SPL...

  10. Lyme disease of the brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Decker, Andrew [Northern Westchester Hospital Center, Department of Neurology, Mt. Kisco, NY (United States); Kornel, Ezriel [Northern Westchester Hospital Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Mt. Kisco, NY (United States); Halperin, John J. [North Shore University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Manhasset, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease caused by the tick-borne spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement typically causes local inflammation, most commonly meningitis, but rarely parenchymal brain involvement. We describe a patient who presented with clinical findings suggesting a brainstem process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) suggested a brainstem neoplasm. Prior to biopsy, laboratory evaluation led to the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Clinical and imaging abnormalities improved markedly following antimicrobial therapy. We describe Lyme disease involvement of the cerebellar peduncles with hypermetabolism on PET. Although MRI is the primary imaging modality for most suspected CNS pathology, the practical applications of PET continue to expand. (orig.)

  11. Delayed visual maturation associated with auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Mohammed; Mabie, Ann; Husain, Aatif M

    2003-05-01

    Delayed visual maturation is a term used to describe infants who initially seem blind but subsequently have a marked improvement. The mechanism of visual loss and the subsequent improvement remains unknown. Auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony is a condition of hearing impairment associated with absent or severely abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials but normal cochlear functions as measured by otoacoustic emissions. In this report, a 9-month-old infant who had no visual fixation for the first 3 months of life and congenital hearing impairment is described. Her brainstem auditory evoked potential study at 2.5 months of age showed no response to click stimuli presented at 90 dB nHL, whereas her otoacoustic emissions were normal. Subsequently, her vision and hearing improved. A brainstem auditory evoked potential study at 9 months of age showed reproducible waveforms. This case suggests the need for a detailed hearing evaluation of children with delayed visual maturation. Furthermore, this case highlights the need for follow-up brainstem auditory evoked potential testing prior to pursuing any audiologic intervention.

  12. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zanini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a recently described tumor that occurs predominantly in the hypothalamic-chiasmatic region and is rarely found elsewhere. It has similar features as pilocytic astrocytomas, but has distinct histological characteristics and a poorer prognosis. A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is an aggressive tumor, and increased awareness is necessary with a suspect case. We present the first case of a pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem described after the newest World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors.

  13. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  15. Hypertensive Encephalopathy with Reversible Brainstem Edema

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sungjoon; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Hoon

    2013-01-01

    .... The patient's condition was thus interpreted as hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. While many consider this a vasogenic phenomenon, induced by sudden, severe hypertension, the precise mechanism remains unclear...

  16. On the Relevance of Natural Stimuli for the Study of Brainstem Correlates: The Example of Consonance Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Cousineau

    Full Text Available Some combinations of musical tones sound pleasing to Western listeners, and are termed consonant, while others sound discordant, and are termed dissonant. The perceptual phenomenon of consonance has been traced to the acoustic property of harmonicity. It has been repeatedly shown that neural correlates of consonance can be found as early as the auditory brainstem as reflected in the harmonicity of the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR. "Neural Pitch Salience" (NPS measured from FFRs-essentially a time-domain equivalent of the classic pattern recognition models of pitch-has been found to correlate with behavioral judgments of consonance for synthetic stimuli. Following the idea that the auditory system has evolved to process behaviorally relevant natural sounds, and in order to test the generalizability of this finding made with synthetic tones, we recorded FFRs for consonant and dissonant intervals composed of synthetic and natural stimuli. We found that NPS correlated with behavioral judgments of consonance and dissonance for synthetic but not for naturalistic sounds. These results suggest that while some form of harmonicity can be computed from the auditory brainstem response, the general percept of consonance and dissonance is not captured by this measure. It might either be represented in the brainstem in a different code (such as place code or arise at higher levels of the auditory pathway. Our findings further illustrate the importance of using natural sounds, as a complementary tool to fully-controlled synthetic sounds, when probing auditory perception.

  17. Auditory screening in infants for early detection of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In infants referred at this stage, an auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was the next investigation. Data analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA, 16) through descriptive statistic method. Results: In the first screening stage, 10.8% (1648/15165) cases were referred ...

  18. Testing auditory sensitivity in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Alyssa; Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2016-01-01

    Psychoacoustic and electrophysiological methods were used to measure the in-air hearing sensitivity of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis). One individual was used to determine the behavioral thresholds, which was then compared to previously collected data on the auditory brainstem...

  19. Diffusion tractography of the subcortical auditory system in a postmortem human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The subcortical auditory system is challenging to identify with standard human brain imaging techniques: MRI signal decreases toward the center of the brain as well as at higher resolution, both of which are necessary for imaging small brainstem auditory structures.Using high-resolution diffusion-weighted MRI, we asked:Can we identify auditory structures and connections in high-resolution ex vivo images?Which structures and connections can be mapped in vivo?

  20. Brainstem epidermoid cyst: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, M. R.; Yerramneni, Vamsi Krishna; Mudumba, Vijaya S.; Manisha, Nukavarapu; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of epidermoid tumors is between 1% and 2% of all intracranial tumors. The usual locations of epidermoid tumor are the parasellar region and cerebellopontine angle, and it is less commonly located in sylvian fissure, suprasellar region, cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, and lateral and fourth ventricles. Epidermoid cysts located in the posterior fossa usually arise in the lateral subarachnoid cisterns, and those located in the brain stem are rare. These epidermoids contain cheesy and flaky white soft putty like contents. Epidermoid cysts are very slow growing tumors having a similar growth pattern of the epidermal cells of the skin and develop from remnants of epidermal elements during closure of the neural groove and disjunction of the surface ectoderm with neural ectoderm between the third and fifth weeks of embryonic life. We are presenting an interesting case of intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cyst containing milky white liquefied material with flakes in a 5-year-old girl. Diffusion-weighted imaging is definitive for the diagnosis. Ideal treatment of choice is removal of cystic components with complete resection of capsule. Although radical resection will prevent recurrence, in view of very thin firmly adherent capsule to brainstem, it is not always possible to do complete resection of capsule without any neurological deficits. PMID:27366244

  1. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected to...

  2. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation.

  3. Auditory evoked potentials in a newborn Wistar rat model of hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdoğan, Çağıl; Genç, Aydan; Gülbahar, Özlem; Gökdoğan, Ozan; Helvacı, Ayşe; Bezgin, Selin Üstün; Memiş, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common health problem in newborns. Its effects can be different according to the level and duration of the hyperbilirubinemia. The toxic effect of bilirubin on the auditory system can be seen as a sensory neural hearing loss or auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of toxic bilirubin level on the auditory system by using Auditory Brainstem Response audiometry. Rats are used as animal models due to their low cost and easy attainability. Auditory Brainstem Response was used for auditory assessment. In this study, three groups were established: experimental, control and placebo groups. In the experimental group, which consists of rats with hyperbilirubinemia, sensory neural hearing loss was found bilaterally in 4 rats (66.67%) and unilaterally in 2 rats (16.67%) and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was found unilaterally in 1 rat (8.33%). Auditory Brainstem Response thresholds were significantly elevated compared to control and placebo groups (p<0.05). Hyperbilirubinemia of newborn rats may result both in sensory neural hearing loss and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Auditory evoked potentials in a newborn Wistar rat model of hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çagil Gökdogan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common health problem in newborns. Its effects can be different according to the level and duration of the hyperbilirubinemia. The toxic effect of bilirubin on the auditory system can be seen as a sensory neural hearing loss or auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of toxic bilirubin level on the auditory system by using Auditory Brainstem Response audiometry. METHODS: Rats are used as animal models due to their low cost and easy attainability. Auditory Brainstem Response was used for auditory assessment. In this study, three groups were established: experimental, control and placebo groups. RESULTS: In the experimental group, which consists of rats with hyperbilirubinemia, sensory neural hearing loss was found bilaterally in 4 rats (66.67% and unilaterally in 2 rats (16.67% and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was found unilaterally in 1 rat (8.33%. Auditory Brainstem Response thresholds were significantly elevated compared to control and placebo groups (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Hyperbilirubinemia of newborn rats may result both in sensory neural hearing loss and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder.

  5. A case of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Youn Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE is a rare disease diagnosed by specific clinical features such as 'progressive, relatively symmetric external ophthalmoplegia and ataxia by 4 weeks' and 'disturbance of consciousness or hyperreflexia' after the exclusion of other diseases involving the brain stem. Anti-ganglioside antibodies (GM, GD and GQ in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are sometimes informative for the diagnosis of BBE because of the rarity of positive findings in other diagnositic methods: brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, routine CSF examination, motor nerve conduction study, and needle electromyography. We report a rare case of childhood BBE with elevated anti-GM1 antibodies in the serum, who had specific clinical symptoms such as a cranial polyneuropathy presenting as ophthalmoplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and facial weakness; progressive motor weakness; altered mental status; and ataxia. However, the brain MRI, routine CSF examination, nerve conduction studies, electromyography, somatosensory evoked potentials, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were normal. BBE was suspected and the patient was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulins.

  6. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  7. Brainstem encoding of speech and musical stimuli in congenital amusia: Evidence from Cantonese speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eLiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of musical processing that also impacts subtle aspects of speech processing. It remains debated at what stage(s of auditory processing deficits in amusia arise. In this study, we investigated whether amusia originates from impaired subcortical encoding of speech (in quiet and noise and musical sounds in the brainstem. Fourteen Cantonese-speaking amusics and 14 matched controls passively listened to six Cantonese lexical tones in quiet, two Cantonese tones in noise (signal-to-noise ratios at 0 and 20 dB, and two cello tones in quiet while their frequency-following responses (FFRs to these tones were recorded. All participants also completed a behavioral lexical tone identification task. The results indicated normal brainstem encoding of pitch in speech (in quiet and noise and musical stimuli in amusics relative to controls, as measured by FFR pitch strength, pitch error, and stimulus-to-response correlation. There was also no group difference in neural conduction time or FFR amplitudes. Both groups demonstrated better FFRs to speech (in quiet and noise than to musical stimuli. However, a significant group difference was observed for tone identification, with amusics showing significantly lower accuracy than controls. Analysis of the tone confusion matrices suggested that amusics were more likely than controls to confuse between tones that shared similar acoustic features. Interestingly, this deficit in lexical tone identification was not coupled with brainstem abnormality for either speech or musical stimuli. Together, our results suggest that the amusic brainstem is not functioning abnormally, although higher-order linguistic pitch processing is impaired in amusia. This finding has significant implications for theories of central auditory processing, requiring further investigations into how different stages of auditory processing interact in the human brain.

  8. Human auditory evoked potentials. I - Evaluation of components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.; Krausz, H. I.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen distinct components can be identified in the scalp recorded average evoked potential to an abrupt auditory stimulus. The early components occurring in the first 8 msec after a stimulus represent the activation of the cochlea and the auditory nuclei of the brainstem. The middle latency components occurring between 8 and 50 msec after the stimulus probably represent activation of both auditory thalamus and cortex but can be seriously contaminated by concurrent scalp muscle reflex potentials. The longer latency components occurring between 50 and 300 msec after the stimulus are maximally recorded over fronto-central scalp regions and seem to represent widespread activation of frontal cortex.

  9. Brainstem and cerebellar cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Gursant S; Sarris, Christina E; Spetzler, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    Cavernous malformations are vascular lesions that occur throughout the central nervous system, most commonly in the supratentorial location, with brainstem and cerebellar cavernous malformations occurring more rarely. Cavernous malformations are associated with developmental venous anomalies that occur sporadically or in familial form. Patients with a cavernous malformation can present with headaches, seizures, sensorimotor disturbances, or focal neurologic deficits based on the anatomic location of the lesion. Patients with infratentorial lesions present more commonly with a focal neurologic deficit. Cavernous malformations are increasingly discovered incidentally due to the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging. Understanding the natural history of these lesions is essential to their management. Observation and surgical resection are both reasonable options in the treatment of patients with these lesions. The clinical presentation of the patient, the location of the lesion, and the surgical risk assessment all play critical roles in management decision-making. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas

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    Purohit, Bela, E-mail: purohitbela@yahoo.co.in; Kamli, Ali A.; Kollias, Spyros S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •BSG are classified on MRI into diffuse low-grade, malignant, focal tectal and exophytic subtypes. •Their prognosis and treatment is variable and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. •This article illustrates the imaging of adult BSGs on MRI and FET-PET. •We also describe prognostic factors and the treatment options of these tumours. -- Abstract: Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/other subtypes. The prognosis and treatment is variable for the different types and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. Radiotherapy (RT) with adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment of diffuse low-grade and malignant BSGs, whereas, surgical resection is limited to the exophytic subtypes. Review of previous literature shows that the detailed imaging of adult BSGs has not received significant attention. This review illustrates in detail the imaging features of adult BSGs using conventional and advanced MR techniques like diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), as well as {sup 18}F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FET/PET). We have discussed the pertinent differences between childhood and adult BSGs, imaging mimics, prognostic factors and briefly reviewed the treatment options of these tumours.

  11. Delayed neuronal cell death in brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia in gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakuba Nobuhiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the lack of reproducible brainstem ischemia models in rodents, the temporal profile of ischemic lesions in the brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia has not been evaluated intensively. Previously, we produced a reproducible brainstem ischemia model of Mongolian gerbils. Here, we showed the temporal profile of ischemic lesions after transient brainstem ischemia. Results Brainstem ischemia was produced by occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries just before their entry into the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae of Mongolian gerbils. Animals were subjected to brainstem ischemia for 15 min, and then reperfused for 0 d (just after ischemia, 1 d, 3 d and 7 d (n = 4 in each group. Sham-operated animals (n = 4 were used as control. After deep anesthesia, the gerbils were perfused with fixative for immunohistochemical investigation. Ischemic lesions were detected by immunostaining for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2. Just after 15-min brainstem ischemia, ischemic lesions were detected in the lateral vestibular nucleus and the ventral part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and these ischemic lesions disappeared one day after reperfusion in all animals examined. However, 3 days and 7 days after reperfusion, ischemic lesions appeared again and clusters of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1(IBA-1-positive cells were detected in the same areas in all animals. Conclusion These results suggest that delayed neuronal cell death took place in the brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia in gerbils.

  12. Optic and auditory pathway dysfunction in demyelinating neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, M; Leese, R J; Martin-Lamb, D; Rajabally, Y A

    2014-07-01

    The involvement of optic and auditory pathways has rarely been studied in demyelinating polyneuropathies. We here aimed to study this further in a cohort of patients with acquired and gentic demyelinating neuropathy. We studied eight patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), six with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), ten with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and seven with antimyelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy using visual evoked potentials and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Optic pathway dysfunction was detected in 6/7 anti-MAG neuropathy patients, about half of those with CIDP and HNPP, but only in 1/6 patients with CMT1A. Peripheral auditory nerve dysfunction appeared common in all groups except HNPP. Brainstem involvement was exceptional in all groups. We conclude optic nerve involvement may be frequent in all demyelinating polyneuropathies, particularly anti-MAG neuropathy, except in CMT1A. Peripheral auditory nerves may be spared in HNPP possibly due to absence of local compression. Evidence for central brainstem pathology appeared infrequent in all four studied neuropathies. This study suggests that acquired and genetic demyelinating polyneuropathies may be associated with optic and auditory nerve involvement, which may contribute to neurological disability, and require greater awareness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Influence of general anaesthesia on the brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Fernández-Candil, J; León, A; Gambús, P L

    2017-03-01

    The exact role of the brainstem in the control of body functions is not yet well known and the same applies to the influence of general anaesthesia on brainstem functions. Nevertheless in all general anaesthesia the anaesthesiologist should be aware of the interaction of anaesthetic drugs and brainstem function in relation to whole body homeostasis. As a result of this interaction there will be changes in consciousness, protective reflexes, breathing pattern, heart rate, temperature or arterial blood pressure to name a few. Brainstem function can be explored using three different approaches: clinically, analyzing changes in brain electric activity or using neuroimaging techniques. With the aim of providing the clinician anaesthesiologist with a global view of the interaction between the anaesthetic state and homeostatic changes related to brainstem function, the present review article addresses the influence of anaesthetic drug effects on brainstem function through clinical exploration of cranial nerves and reflexes, analysis of electric signals such as electroencephalographic changes and what it is known about brainstem through the use of imaging techniques, more specifically functional magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Accessory nerve palsy following thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S; Roberson, J R; Rooks, M D

    1989-01-01

    A previously unreported cause of 11th cranial nerve palsy is described in a 53-year-old man. Dysfunction of the trapezius branch of the spinal accessory nerve occurred following median sternotomy and was documented by electromyography. This injury resulted in dysfunction of the trapezius muscle with loss of support of the shoulder girdle and pain. The injury may have been due to stretching from sternal retraction or injury secondary to internal jugular venous cannulation.

  15. Bayesian segmentation of brainstem structures in MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Bhatt, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to segment four brainstem structures (midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata and superior cerebellar peduncle) from 3D brain MRI scans. The segmentation method relies on a probabilistic atlas of the brainstem and its neighboring brain structures. To build the atlas, we...... the brainstem structures in novel scans. Thanks to the generative nature of the scheme, the segmentation method is robust to changes in MRI contrast or acquisition hardware. Using cross validation, we show that the algorithm can segment the structures in previously unseen T1 and FLAIR scans with great accuracy...

  16. Current clinical management of brainstem cavernomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinov, Oliver; Hatano, Taketo; Sarnthein, Johannes; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2010-11-26

    Over the last two decades a favourable course for treated or nontreated brainstem cavernomas has become possible with enhanced diagnostic tools and clinical experience, as well as minimally invasive microsurgical improvements. Currently, brainstem cavernoma can be treated microsurgically with excellent results and an acceptable morbidity rate. The preferred surgical route has progressively shifted from a dorsal to a lateral approach, but this remains dependent on the location of the lesion in the brainstem. Surgical evaluation and management of all cases of this rare disease should be performed by experienced teams from the outset.

  17. Interaural delay-dependent changes in the binaural interaction component of the guinea pig brainstem responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksoy, Cuneyt; Demirtas, Serdar; Yagcioglu, Suha; Ungan, Pekcan

    2005-08-30

    Auditory brainstem responses to monaural and binaural clicks with 23 different interaural time differences (ITDs) were recorded from ten guinea pigs without anesthesia. Binaural interaction component was obtained by subtracting the sum of the appropriately time-shifted left and right monaural responses from the binaural one. With increasing ITD, the most prominent peak of the binaural difference potential so obtained shifted to longer latencies and its amplitude gradually decreased. The way these changes depended on binaural delay was basically similar to that previously observed in a cat study [P. Ungan, S. Yagcioglu, B. Ozmen. Interaural delay-dependent changes in the binaural difference potential in cat auditory brainstem response: implications about the origin of the binaural interaction component. Hear. Res. 106 (1997) 66-82]. The data were successfully simulated by the model suggested in that report. We therefore concluded that the same model, which was based on the difference between the mean onset latencies of the ipsilateral excitation and contralateral inhibition in a typical neuron in the lateral superior olive, their standard deviations, and the duration of the contralateral inhibition, should also be valid for the binaural interaction in the guinea pig brainstem. The results, which were discussed in connection with sound lateralization models, supported a model based on population coding, where the lateral position of a sound source is coded by the ratio of the discharge intensity in the left and right lateral superior olives, rather than the models based on coincidence detection.

  18. Impact of monaural frequency compression on binaural fusion at the brainstem level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Isabelle; Kohl, Manuel C; Hannemann, Ronny; Kornagel, Ulrich; Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I

    2015-08-01

    A classical objective measure for binaural fusion at the brainstem level is the so-called β-wave of the binaural interaction component (BIC) in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). However, in some cases it appeared that a reliable detection of this component still remains a challenge. In this study, we investigate the wavelet phase synchronization stability (WPSS) of ABR data for the analysis of binaural fusion and compare it to the BIC. In particular, we examine the impact of monaural nonlinear frequency compression on binaural fusion. As the auditory system is tonotopically organized, an interaural frequency mismatch caused by monaural frequency compression could negatively effect binaural fusion. In this study, only few subjects showed a detectable β-wave and in most cases only for low ITDs. However, we present a novel objective measure for binaural fusion that outperforms the current state-of-the-art technique (BIC): the WPSS analysis showed a significant difference between the phase stability of the sum of the monaurally evoked responses and the phase stability of the binaurally evoked ABR. This difference could be an indicator for binaural fusion in the brainstem. Furthermore, we observed that monaural frequency compression could indeed effect binaural fusion, as the WPSS results for this condition vary strongly from the results obtained without frequency compression.

  19. Brainstem involvement in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Dileep; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Kohli, Neera

    2011-01-01

    The parieto-occipital region of the brain is most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. Brainstem involvement is rarely described in SSPE, and usually there is involvement of other regions of the brain. We describe a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive brainstem involvement without significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, one should be aware of such brainstem and cerebellum involvement, and SSPE should be kept in mind when brainstem signal changes are seen in brain MRI with or without involvement of other regions of brain to avoid erroneous reporting.

  20. The Brainstem Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease : A Brief Historical Overview and Description of its Anatomical Distribution Pattern, Evolutional Features, Pathogenetic and Clinical Relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueb, Udo; Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Del Turco, Domenico; Seidel, Kay; Dunnen, den Wilfred; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2016-01-01

    The human brainstem is involved in the regulation of the sleep/waking cycle and normal sleep architectonics and is crucial for the performance of a variety of somatomotor, vital autonomic, oculomotor, vestibular, auditory, ingestive and somatosensory functions. It harbors the origins of the

  1. A case of bulbar type cerebral palsy: representative symptoms of dorsal brainstem syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyane, Masato; Saito, Yoshiaki; Saito, Takashi; Komaki, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki; Sato, Noriko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Imai, Yoko

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we present the case of a 2-year-old boy who exhibited facial and bulbar paralysis since birth, severe dysphagia, signs of oculomotor disturbance, jaw jerks, pyramidal signs on both toes, intellectual disability, and severe gastroesophageal reflux. His blink reflex and auditory/somatosensory evoked potentials suggested abnormalities in the lower brainstem, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a T2 hyperintense area in the pontine tegmentum. These findings combined with the patient's symptoms suggested "dorsal brainstem syndrome" and indicated a possibility of prenatal asphyxia in this patient. Nosologic issues regarding this subgroup of cerebral palsy are discussed here. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and aging on auditory function in the rat: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, M W; Abel, E L; Kaltenbach, J A; Overbeck, G W

    1996-02-01

    This study investigated select aspects of peripheral and central auditory dysfunction, as well as the pathological effects of aging, In an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Pregnant rats consumed liquid alcohol diets containing 0, 17.5, or 35% ethanol-derived calories, from gestation day 7 to parturition. A fourth group was untreated. Offspring of these mothers were tested for auditory and neurological function, using the auditory brainstem response at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. Some animals in the alcohol-exposed groups showed a peripheral auditory disorder in the form of congenital sensorineural hearing loss. This was correlated with punctate lesions and malformed stereocilia on the auditory sensory receptor cells of the inner ear. Alcohol-exposed animals also showed a central auditory processing disorder characterized by prolonged transmission of neural potentials along the brainstem portion of the auditory pathway. Animals in the highest dose group also showed an augmentation in the age-related deterioration of auditory acuity. Thus, increased peripheral and central auditory dysfunctions and pathological deterioration of auditory function in old age may be sequelae of FAS. Such morbidities have important implications for the long-term clinical assessment and management of FAS patients.

  3. Relationships between behavior, brainstem and cortical encoding of seen and heard speech in musicians and non-musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Strait, Dana; Kraus, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Musicians have a variety of perceptual and cortical specializations compared to non-musicians. Recent studies have shown that potentials evoked from primarily brainstem structures are enhanced in musicians, compared to non-musicians. Specifically, musicians have more robust representations of pitch periodicity and faster neural timing to sound onset when listening to sounds or both listening to and viewing a speaker. However, it is not known whether musician-related enhancements at the subcortical level are correlated with specializations in the cortex. Does musical training shape the auditory system in a coordinated manner or in disparate ways at cortical and subcortical levels? To answer this question, we recorded simultaneous brainstem and cortical evoked responses in musician and non-musician subjects. Brainstem response periodicity was related to early cortical response timing across all subjects, and this relationship was stronger in musicians. Peaks of the brainstem response evoked by sound onset and timbre cues were also related to cortical timing. Neurophysiological measures at both levels correlated with musical skill scores across all subjects. In addition, brainstem and cortical measures correlated with the age musicians began their training and the years of musical practice. Taken together, these data imply that neural representations of pitch, timing and timbre cues and cortical response timing are shaped in a coordinated manner, and indicate corticofugal modulation of subcortical afferent circuitry. PMID:18562137

  4. A case of generalized auditory agnosia with unilateral subcortical brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyee; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Sook Hee; Chang, Jae Hyeok; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. Auditory agnosia is a deficit of auditory object processing defined as a disability to recognize spoken languages and/or nonverbal environmental sounds and music despite adequate hearing while spontaneous speech, reading and writing are preserved. Usually, either the bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe, especially the transverse gyral lesions, are responsible for auditory agnosia. Subcortical lesions without cortical damage rarely causes auditory agnosia. We present a 73-year-old right-handed male with generalized auditory agnosia caused by a unilateral subcortical lesion. He was not able to repeat or dictate but to perform fluent and comprehensible speech. He could understand and read written words and phrases. His auditory brainstem evoked potential and audiometry were intact. This case suggested that the subcortical lesion involving unilateral acoustic radiation could cause generalized auditory agnosia.

  5. Brainstem reflexes in patients with familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Joel V; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-03-01

    Several distinctive clinical features of patients with familial dysautonomia (FD) including dysarthria and dysphagia suggest a developmental defect in brainstem reflexes. Our aim was to characterize the neurophysiological profile of brainstem reflexes in these patients. We studied the function of sensory and motor trigeminal tracts in 28 patients with FD. All were homozygous for the common mutation in the IKAP gene. Each underwent a battery of electrophysiological tests including; blink reflexes, jaw jerk reflex, masseter silent periods and direct stimulation of the facial nerve. Responses were compared with 25 age-matched healthy controls. All patients had significantly prolonged latencies and decreased amplitudes of all examined brainstem reflexes. Similar abnormalities were seen in the early and late components. In contrast, direct stimulation of the facial nerve revealed relative preservation of motor responses. The brainstem reflex abnormalities in FD are best explained by impairment of the afferent and central pathways. A reduction in the number and/or excitability of trigeminal sensory axons is likely the main problem. These findings add further evidence to the concept that congenital mutations of the elongator-1 protein (or IKAP) affect the development of afferent neurons including those carrying information for the brainstem reflex pathways. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gamma Knife Treatment of Brainstem Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halloran E. Peterson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of brainstem metastases is challenging. Surgical treatment is usually not an option, and chemotherapy is of limited utility. Stereotactic radiosurgery has emerged as a promising palliative treatment modality in these cases. The goal of this study is to assess our single institution experience treating brainstem metastases with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS. This retrospective chart review studied 41 patients with brainstem metastases treated with GKRS. The most common primary tumors were lung, breast, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Median age at initial treatment was 59 years. Nineteen (46% of the patients received whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT prior to or concurrent with GKRS treatment. Thirty (73% of the patients had a single brainstem metastasis. The average GKRS dose was 17 Gy. Post-GKRS overall survival at six months was 42%, at 12 months was 22%, and at 24 months was 13%. Local tumor control was achieved in 91% of patients, and there was one patient who had a fatal brain hemorrhage after treatment. Karnofsky performance score (KPS >80 and the absence of prior WBRT were predictors for improved survival on multivariate analysis (HR 0.60 (p = 0.02, and HR 0.28 (p = 0.02, respectively. GKRS was an effective treatment for brainstem metastases, with excellent local tumor control.

  7. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  8. A case report: accessory right renal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patasi B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations in the origin of the arteries in the abdominal area are very common. The arteries that show frequent variations include the celiac trunk, renal and gonadal arteries. During a routine dissection of a male cadaver, one main and one inferior accessory renal artery were found in the abdominal region. We discovered that the inferior accessory renal artery that originated from the right anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta was running into the lower pole of the right kidney. The origin of the main right renal artery and the inferior accessory right renal artery were 19.8 mm and 53 mm below the superior mesenteric artery, respectively. The inferior accessory right renal artery ran directly into the inferior pole of the right kidney, in the area where the accessory right renal vein was leaving the right kidney. These anatomical variations and anomalies are important to know before any therapeutic or diagnostic procedures are performed in the abdominal area.

  9. Is enhanced MRI helpful in brainstem infarction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. M.; Shin, G. H.; Choi, W. S. [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To determine the role of MR contrast enhancement in evaluating time course of brainstem infarction. MR imaging with IV administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine was retrospectively reviewed in 43 patients with clinically and radiologically documented brainstem infarctions. The pattern of infarction was classified into spotty and patchy. Presence of parenchymal enhancement in infarction was evaluated. By location, there were 34 pontine, 3 midbrain, 6 medullary infarctions. The age of the infarctions ranged from 1 day to 9 months, with 5 patients scanned within 3 days and 10 scanned within 2 weeks of clinical ictus. Abnormalities on T2-weighted images were encountered in every case, with spotty pattern in 14 cases and patchy pattern in 29 cases. Parenchymal contrast enhancement was seen in 9 cases(20%), primarily occurring between days 8 and 20. MR contrast enhancement in brainstem infarction was infrequent that it may not be useful in the estimation of the age of infarction.

  10. Auditory function in Duane's retraction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, A; Chernoff, G; MacRae, D; Orton, R B; Cadera, W

    1990-01-15

    We obtained audiograms and auditory brainstem responses from 44 patients with Duane's retraction syndrome to assess the incidence and nature of hearing deficit. Of 44 patients, seven (15.9%) had evidence of hearing impairment. Three (6.8%) subjects had a temporary conductive hearing loss because of middle ear fluid, and another patient had hearing loss from Crouzon's disease. The remaining three (6.8%) patients demonstrated sensorineural hearing deficit. This hearing impairment was attributed to a cochlear lesion and not to a pontine lesion. We believe that the frequency of sensorineural hearing loss in these patients warrants hearing screening programs similar to those used for infants in neonatal intensive care units.

  11. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis presenting as a solitary brainstem mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D H; Scaravilli, F; Thomas, D C; Harvey, P; Hirsch, N P

    1993-01-01

    A 36 year old woman presented with a subacute brainstem syndrome. MRI showed a solitary, gadolinium enhancing brainstem mass, which on biopsy showed perivenous inflammation and demyelination compatible with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Images PMID:8350113

  12. [A case of transient auditory agnosia and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Jin; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Kanzaki, Sho

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of transient functional auditory agnosia and schizophrenia and discuss their relationship. A 30-year-old woman with schizophrenia reporting bilateral hearing loss was found in history taking to be able to hear but could neither understand speech nor discriminate among environmental sounds. Audiometry clarified normal but low speech discrimination. Otoacoustic emission and auditory brainstem response were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) elsewhere evidenced no abnormal findings. We assumed that taking care of her grandparents who had been discharged from the hospital had unduly stressed her, and her condition improved shortly after she stopped caring for them, returned home and started taking a minor tranquilizer.

  13. Electrodiagnostic evaluation of auditory function in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Peter M; Clark, John Greer

    2012-11-01

    Given the high incidence of deafness within several breeds of dogs, accurate hearing screening and assessment is essential. In addition to brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) testing, 2 other electrophysiologic tests are now being examined as audiologic tools for use in veterinary medicine: otoacoustic emissions and the auditory steady state response (ASSR). To improve BAER testing of animals and ensure an accurate interpretation of test findings from one test site to another, the establishment of and adherence to clear protocols is essential. The ASSR holds promise as an objective test for rapid testing of multiple frequencies in both ears simultaneously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A case of an accessory auricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunali S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available During the embryological development of the ear, certain malformations may occur. Accessory auricle is one of these developmental anomalies, which has a wide range from a small elevation of skin to a large size to resemble an additional auricle, where the latter called polyotia. Here, we present a case of an accessory auricle in a young female adult. The occurence was unilateral; the subject did not have any audiological disorder. We compared our findings with different cases of accessory auricle in the literature. The clinical importance and genetic association are also discussed.

  15. Investigation of auditory dysfunction in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Elliott, Clive; Griffiths, Philip G; Johnson, Ian J; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of auditory dysfunction in patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We prospectively recruited 10 affected patients from the north-east of England harbouring one of the three primary mitochondrial LHON mutations (3460G>A n = 3, 11778G>A n = 5 and 14484T>C n = 2). A detailed auditory history was taken and they were asked to complete a validated hearing questionnaire. Each patient then underwent a comprehensive topographic neuroauditory assessment to evaluate both middle- and inner-ear functions and the integrity of the brainstem auditory pathways. We found no evidence of cochlear nerve dysfunction or abnormalities of the central brainstem auditory pathways in our LHON cohort and five patients had completely normal hearing tests. The remainder had mild conductive hearing loss from childhood ear infections and/or high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss from previous noise injury. Although further studies are required to confirm our findings, auditory dysfunction as a result of a primary LHON mutation is probably uncommon.

  16. Brainstem Encephalitis and ADEM Following Mumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of brainstem encephalitis (BSE with fever, decreased level of consciousness, and left facial and abducens paralysis developed 1 week after bilateral parotitis and mumps in a 4 year-old female child and were followed by symptoms of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM within 20 days of recovery from BSE.

  17. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with the...

  18. The human auditory system: a timeline of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean K; Linthicum, Fred H

    2007-09-01

    This review traces the structural maturation of the human auditory system, and compares the timeline of anatomical development with cotemporaneous physiological and behavioral events. During the embryonic period, there is formation of basic structure at all levels of the system, i.e. the inner ear, the brainstem pathway, and the cortex. The second trimester is a time of rapid growth and development, and by the end of this period, the cochlea has acquired a very adult-like configuration. During the perinatal period, the brainstem reaches a mature state, and brainstem activity is reflected in behavioral responses to sound, including phonetic discrimination, and in evoked brainstem and early middle latency responses. The perinatal period is also the time of peak development of brainstem input to the cortex through the marginal layer, and of the long latency cortical potentials, the N(2) and mismatch negativity. In early childhood, from the sixth post-natal month to age five, there is progressive maturation of the thalamic projections to the cortex and of the longer latency Pa and P(1) evoked potentials. Later childhood, from six to twelve years, is the time of maturation of the superficial cortical layers and their intracortical connections, accompanied by appearance of the N(1) potential and improved linguistic discriminative abilities. Some consideration is given to the potential negative effects of deafness-induced sound deprivation during the perinatal period and childhood.

  19. Auditory-evoked potentials during coma: do they improve our prediction of awakening in comatose patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosendo A; Bussière, Miguel; Froeschl, Michael; Nathan, Howard J

    2014-02-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN), an auditory event-related potential, has been identified as a good indicator of recovery of consciousness during coma. We explored the predictive value of the MMN and other auditory-evoked potentials including brainstem and middle-latency potentials for predicting awakening in comatose patients after cardiac arrest or cardiogenic shock. Auditory brainstem, middle-latency (Pa wave), and event-related potentials (N100 and MMN waves) were recorded in 17 comatose patients and 9 surgical patients matched by age and coronary artery disease. Comatose patients were followed up daily to determine recovery of consciousness and classified as awakened and nonawakened. Among the auditory-evoked potentials, the presence or absence of MMN best discriminated between patients who awakened or those who did not. Mismatch negativity was present during coma in all patients who awakened (7/7) and in 2 of those (2/10) who did not awaken. In patients who awakened and in whom MMN was detected, 3 of those awakened between 2 and 3 days and 4 between 9 and 21 days after evoked potential examination. All awakened patients had intact N100 waves and identifiable brainstem and middle-latency waves. In nonawakened patients, N100 and Pa waves were detected in 5 cases (50%) and brainstem waves in 9 (90%). The MMN is a good predictor of awakening in comatose patients after cardiac arrest and cardiogenic shock and can be measured days before awakening encouraging ongoing life support. © 2013.

  20. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Parahisian Accessory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korodi Szilamér

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency catheter ablation of parahisian accessory pathways in pre-excitation syndrome is a challenging task, due to the extremely high risk of complete atrioventricular block. In this brief report we describe the case of a 32 year-old man presenting a parahisian accessory pathway, who has been successfully treated by radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency catheter ablation using low-power radiofrequency current is considered to be the most appropiate method of ablation in adult patients.

  1. Auditory processing in children and adolescents in situations of risk and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Pontes, Fernanda; Stivanin, Luciene; Picoli, Erica; Schochat, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents who live in situations of social vulnerability present a series of health problems. Nonetheless, affirmations that sensory and cognitive abnormalities are present are a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects to auditory processing, through applying the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and behavioral auditory processing tests to children living on the streets, and comparison with a control group. Cross-sectional study in the Laboratory of Auditory Processing, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo. The auditory processing tests were applied to a group of 27 individuals, subdivided into 11 children (7 to 10 years old) and 16 adolescents (11 to 16 years old), of both sexes, in situations of social vulnerability, compared with an age-matched control group of 10 children and 11 adolescents without complaints. The BAEP test was also applied to investigate the integrity of the auditory pathway. For both children and adolescents, there were significant differences between the study and control groups in most of the tests applied, with significantly worse performance in the study group, except in the pediatric speech intelligibility test. Only one child had an abnormal result in the BAEP test. The results showed that the study group (children and adolescents) presented poor performance in the behavioral auditory processing tests, despite their unaltered auditory brainstem pathways, as shown by their normal results in the BAEP test.

  2. Auditory processing in children and adolescents in situations of risk and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferraz Borges Murphy

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents who live in situations of social vulnerability present a series of health problems. Nonetheless, affirmations that sensory and cognitive abnormalities are present are a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects to auditory processing, through applying the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP and behavioral auditory processing tests to children living on the streets, and comparison with a control group. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in the Laboratory of Auditory Processing, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: The auditory processing tests were applied to a group of 27 individuals, subdivided into 11 children (7 to 10 years old and 16 adolescents (11 to 16 years old, of both sexes, in situations of social vulnerability, compared with an age-matched control group of 10 children and 11 adolescents without complaints. The BAEP test was also applied to investigate the integrity of the auditory pathway. RESULTS: For both children and adolescents, there were significant differences between the study and control groups in most of the tests applied, with significantly worse performance in the study group, except in the pediatric speech intelligibility test. Only one child had an abnormal result in the BAEP test. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the study group (children and adolescents presented poor performance in the behavioral auditory processing tests, despite their unaltered auditory brainstem pathways, as shown by their normal results in the BAEP test.

  3. [Auditory fatigue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán Juaristi, Julio; Sanjuán Martínez-Conde, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Given the relevance of possible hearing losses due to sound overloads and the short list of references of objective procedures for their study, we provide a technique that gives precise data about the audiometric profile and recruitment factor. Our objectives were to determine peripheral fatigue, through the cochlear microphonic response to sound pressure overload stimuli, as well as to measure recovery time, establishing parameters for differentiation with regard to current psychoacoustic and clinical studies. We used specific instruments for the study of cochlear microphonic response, plus a function generator that provided us with stimuli of different intensities and harmonic components. In Wistar rats, we first measured the normal microphonic response and then the effect of auditory fatigue on it. Using a 60dB pure tone acoustic stimulation, we obtained a microphonic response at 20dB. We then caused fatigue with 100dB of the same frequency, reaching a loss of approximately 11dB after 15minutes; after that, the deterioration slowed and did not exceed 15dB. By means of complex random tone maskers or white noise, no fatigue was caused to the sensory receptors, not even at levels of 100dB and over an hour of overstimulation. No fatigue was observed in terms of sensory receptors. Deterioration of peripheral perception through intense overstimulation may be due to biochemical changes of desensitisation due to exhaustion. Auditory fatigue in subjective clinical trials presumably affects supracochlear sections. The auditory fatigue tests found are not in line with those obtained subjectively in clinical and psychoacoustic trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  4. Synaptic plasticity in the auditory system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friauf, Eckhard; Fischer, Alexander U; Fuhr, Martin F

    2015-07-01

    Synaptic transmission via chemical synapses is dynamic, i.e., the strength of postsynaptic responses may change considerably in response to repeated synaptic activation. Synaptic strength is increased during facilitation, augmentation and potentiation, whereas a decrease in synaptic strength is characteristic for depression and attenuation. This review attempts to discuss the literature on short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in the auditory brainstem of mammals and birds. One hallmark of the auditory system, particularly the inner ear and lower brainstem stations, is information transfer through neurons that fire action potentials at very high frequency, thereby activating synapses >500 times per second. Some auditory synapses display morphological specializations of the presynaptic terminals, e.g., calyceal extensions, whereas other auditory synapses do not. The review focuses on short-term depression and short-term facilitation, i.e., plastic changes with durations in the millisecond range. Other types of short-term synaptic plasticity, e.g., posttetanic potentiation and depolarization-induced suppression of excitation, will be discussed much more briefly. The same holds true for subtypes of long-term plasticity, like prolonged depolarizations and spike-time-dependent plasticity. We also address forms of plasticity in the auditory brainstem that do not comprise synaptic plasticity in a strict sense, namely short-term suppression, paired tone facilitation, short-term adaptation, synaptic adaptation and neural adaptation. Finally, we perform a meta-analysis of 61 studies in which short-term depression (STD) in the auditory system is opposed to short-term depression at non-auditory synapses in order to compare high-frequency neurons with those that fire action potentials at a lower rate. This meta-analysis reveals considerably less STD in most auditory synapses than in non-auditory ones, enabling reliable, failure-free synaptic transmission even at

  5. Auditory Hallucination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Rajabi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Hallucination or Paracusia is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus. A common is hearing one or more talking voices which is associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or mania. Hallucination, itself, is the most common feature of perceiving the wrong stimulus or to the better word perception of the absence stimulus. Here we will discuss four definitions of hallucinations:1.Perceiving of a stimulus without the presence of any subject; 2. hallucination proper which are the wrong perceptions that are not the falsification of real perception, Although manifest as a new subject and happen along with and synchronously with a real perception;3. hallucination is an out-of-body perception which has no accordance with a real subjectIn a stricter sense, hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a conscious and awake state in the absence of external stimuli which have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space. We are going to discuss it in details here.

  6. Objective information-theoretic algorithm for detecting brainstem-evoked responses to complex stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-09-01

    The scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR), an auditory-evoked potential with putative neural generators in the rostral brainstem, provides a robust representation of the neurophysiologic encoding of complex stimuli. The FFR is rapidly becoming a valuable tool for understanding the neural transcription of speech and music, language-related processing disorders, and brain plasticity at initial stages of the auditory pathway. Despite its potential clinical and empirical utility, determining the presence of a response is still dependent on the subjective interpretation by an experimenter/clinician. The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a fully objective procedure for the automatic detection of FFRs elicited by complex auditory stimuli, including speech. Mutual information (MI) was computed between the spectrographic representation of neural FFRs and their evoking acoustic stimuli to quantify the amount of shared time-frequency information between electrophysiologic responses and stimulus acoustics. To remove human subjectivity associated with typical response evaluation, FFRs were first simulated at known signal-to-noise ratios using a computational model of the auditory periphery. The MI at which model FFRs contained +3 dB Signal-to-noise ratio was taken as the criterion threshold (θMI) for the presence of a response. θMI was then applied as a binary classifier on actual neurophysiologic responses recorded previously in human participants (n = 35). Sham recordings, in which no stimulus was presented to participants, allowed us to determine the receiver operating characteristics of the MI metric and the capabilities of the algorithm to segregate true evoked responses from sham recordings. RESULTS showed high overall accuracy (93%) in the metric's ability to identify true responses from sham recordings. The metric's overall performance was considerably better than trained human observers who, on average, accurately identified only

  7. Fragile X mice develop sensory hyperreactivity to auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Toth, M

    2001-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most prevalent cause of mental retardation. It is usually caused by the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR-1 gene. Although the cognitive defect is the most recognized symptom of fragile X syndrome, patients also show behavioral problems such as hyperarousal, hyperactivity, autism, aggression, anxiety and increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli. Here we investigated whether fragile X mice (fmr-1 gene knockout mice) exhibit abnormal sensitivity to sensory stimuli. First, hyperreactivity of fragile X mice to auditory stimulus was indicated in the prepulse inhibition paradigm. A moderately intense prepulse tone, that suppresses startle response to a strong auditory stimulus, elicited a significantly stronger effect in fragile X than in control mice. Second, sensory hyperreactivity of fragile X mice was demonstrated by a high seizure susceptibility to auditory stimulation. Selective induction of c-Fos, an early-immediate gene product, indicated that seizures involve auditory brainstem and thalamic nuclei. Audiogenic seizures were not due to a general increase in brain excitability because three different chemical convulsants (kainic acid, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole) elicited similar effects in fragile X and wild-type mice. These data are consistent with the increased responsiveness of fragile X patients to auditory stimuli. The auditory hypersensitivity suggests an abnormal processing in the auditory system of fragile X mice, which could provide a useful model to study the molecular and cellular changes underlying fragile X syndrome.

  8. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis of the Brainstem as a Clinical Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Pavan S; Yang, Jason; Yue, John K; Ciacci, Joseph D

    2017-11-07

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine. SSPE is a devastating disease with a characteristic clinical course in subcortical white matter; however, atypical presentations of brainstem involvement may be seen in rare cases. This review summarizes reports to date on brainstem involvement in SSPE, including the clinical course of disease, neuroimaging presentations, and guidelines for treatment. A comprehensive literature search was performed for English-language publications with keywords "subacute sclerosing panencephalitis" and "brainstem" using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (March 1981-September 2017). Eleven articles focusing on SSPE of the brainstem were included. Predominant brainstem involvement remains uncharacteristic of SSPE, which may lead to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. A number of case reports have demonstrated brainstem involvement associated with other intracranial lesions commonly presenting in later SSPE stages (III and IV). However, brainstem lesions can appear in all stages, independent of higher cortical structures. The varied clinical presentations complicate diagnosis from a neuroimaging perspective. SSPE of the brainstem is a rare but important clinical entity. It may present like canonical SSPE or with unique clinical features such as absence seizures and pronounced ataxia. While SSPE generally progresses to the brainstem, it can also begin with a primary focus of infection in the brainstem. Awareness of varied SSPE presentations can aid in early diagnosis as well as guide management and treatment.

  9. Neurotoxic effects of rubber factory environment. An auditory evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Tandon, O P

    1997-01-01

    The effects of rubber factory environment on functional integrity of auditory pathway have been studied in forty rubber factory workers using Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) technique to detect early subclinical impairments. Results indicate that 47 percent of the workers showed abnormalities in prolongations of either peak latencies or interpeak latencies when compared with age and sex matched control subjects not exposed to rubber factory environment. The percent distribution of abnormalities (ears affected) were in the order of extrusion and calendering (75%) > vulcanising (41.66%) > mixing (28.57%) > loading and dispatch (23.07%) > tubing (18.75%) sections of the factory. This incidence of abnormalities may be attributed to solvents being used in these units of rubber factory. These findings suggest that rubber factory environment does affect auditory pathway in the brainstem.

  10. Classification of Auditory Evoked Potentials based on the wavelet decomposition and SVM network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Suchocki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For electrophysiological hearing assessment and diagnosis of brain stem lesions, the most often used are auditory brainstem evoked potentials of short latency. They are characterized by successively arranged maxima as a function of time, called waves. Morphology of the course, in particular, the timing and amplitude of each wave, allow a neurologist to make diagnose, what is not an easy task. A neurologist should be experienced, concentrated, and should have very good perception. In order to support his diagnostic process, the authors have developed an algorithm implementing the automated classification of auditory evoked potentials to the group of pathological and physiological cases, the sensitivity and specificity determined for an independent test group (of 50 cases of respectively 84% and 88%.[b]Keywords[/b]: biomedical engineering, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, wavelet decomposition, support vector machine

  11. Salivary duct carcinoma of accessory parotid

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hashim, Mohammed A.; Al-Jazan, Nasser A.

    2017-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland (APG) is seen in around 21%?56% of individuals. Tumors of accessory parotid are uncommon with an incidence rate of 1%?8% of all parotid tumors. Ductal carcinoma of APG is rare, so no reported incidence was seen in the literature. However, salivary gland ductal carcinoma is reported to be 1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We report here a case of salivary duct carcinoma of APG. Clinical presentation, investigation, and management are discussed. A 69-year-old female pr...

  12. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis of the Brainstem as a Clinical Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan S. Upadhyayula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine. SSPE is a devastating disease with a characteristic clinical course in subcortical white matter; however, atypical presentations of brainstem involvement may be seen in rare cases. This review summarizes reports to date on brainstem involvement in SSPE, including the clinical course of disease, neuroimaging presentations, and guidelines for treatment. A comprehensive literature search was performed for English-language publications with keywords “subacute sclerosing panencephalitis” and “brainstem” using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (March 1981–September 2017. Eleven articles focusing on SSPE of the brainstem were included. Predominant brainstem involvement remains uncharacteristic of SSPE, which may lead to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. A number of case reports have demonstrated brainstem involvement associated with other intracranial lesions commonly presenting in later SSPE stages (III and IV. However, brainstem lesions can appear in all stages, independent of higher cortical structures. The varied clinical presentations complicate diagnosis from a neuroimaging perspective. SSPE of the brainstem is a rare but important clinical entity. It may present like canonical SSPE or with unique clinical features such as absence seizures and pronounced ataxia. While SSPE generally progresses to the brainstem, it can also begin with a primary focus of infection in the brainstem. Awareness of varied SSPE presentations can aid in early diagnosis as well as guide management and treatment.

  13. Auditory Neuropathy: Findings of Behavioral, Physiological and Neurophysiological Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farhadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy (AN can be diagnosed by abnormal auditory brainstem response (ABR, in the presence of normal cochlear microphonic (CM and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs.The aim of this study was to investigate the ABR and other electrodiagnostic test results of 6 patients suspicious to AN with problems in speech recognition. Materials and Methods: this cross sectional study was conducted on 6 AN patients with different ages evaluated by pure tone audiometry, speech discrimination score (SDS , immittance audiometry. ElectroCochleoGraphy , ABR, middle latency response (MLR, Late latency response (LLR, and OAEs. Results: Behavioral pure tone audiometric tests showed moderate to profound hearing loss. SDS was so poor which is not in accordance with pure tone thresholds. All patients had normal tympanogram but absent acoustic reflexes. CMs and OAEs were within normal limits. There was no contra lateral suppression of OAEs. None of cases had normal ABR or MLR although LLR was recorded in 4. Conclusion: All patients in this study are typical cases of auditory neuropathy. Despite having abnormal input, LLR remains normal that indicates differences in auditory evoked potentials related to required neural synchrony. These findings show that auditory cortex may play a role in regulating presentation of deficient signals along auditory pathways in primary steps.

  14. Neurotrophic factor intervention restores auditory function in deafened animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Takayuki; Bredberg, Göran; Ulfendahl, Mats; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Petri Olivius, N.; Kaksonen, Risto; Lindström, Bo; Altschuler, Richard; Miller, Josef M.

    2002-02-01

    A primary cause of deafness is damage of receptor cells in the inner ear. Clinically, it has been demonstrated that effective functionality can be provided by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve, thus bypassing damaged receptor cells. However, subsequent to sensory cell loss there is a secondary degeneration of the afferent nerve fibers, resulting in reduced effectiveness of such cochlear prostheses. The effects of neurotrophic factors were tested in a guinea pig cochlear prosthesis model. After chemical deafening to mimic the clinical situation, the neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and an analogue of ciliary neurotrophic factor were infused directly into the cochlea of the inner ear for 26 days by using an osmotic pump system. An electrode introduced into the cochlea was used to elicit auditory responses just as in patients implanted with cochlear prostheses. Intervention with brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the ciliary neurotrophic factor analogue not only increased the survival of auditory spiral ganglion neurons, but significantly enhanced the functional responsiveness of the auditory system as measured by using electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses. This demonstration that neurotrophin intervention enhances threshold sensitivity within the auditory system will have great clinical importance for the treatment of deaf patients with cochlear prostheses. The findings have direct implications for the enhancement of responsiveness in deafferented peripheral nerves.

  15. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that is...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group of...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered device...

  18. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part...

  19. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare..., spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if the good is an originating good, and will...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemodialysis system and accessories. 876.5820... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An ostomy pouch and accessories is a device that consists of a bag that is...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a) Identification. Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment is a device that has no contact with blood and that is used in the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to support...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical camera and accessories is a device intended to be used...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices intended...

  7. AN ACCESSORY FLEXOR OF THE FIFTH TOE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The presence of accessory muscles and other organs on the lower limbs of some individuals have variously been reperted in the literature. We report an unusual muscle located on the plantar surface of the left foot of a cadaver. which had not been previously described. This muscle originated from the tendon ...

  8. Biting palsy of the accessory nerve.

    OpenAIRE

    Paljärvi, L; Partanen, J.

    1980-01-01

    A young man was bitten by his girl friend at the anterior border of the left trapezius muscle. Weakness of the trapezius resulted and a longstanding ache in the shoulder developed. Clinically and neurophysiologically, an axonotmesis type crush injury of the accessory nerve was verified.

  9. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... continued operation of the engine must be provided. (e) Each accessory driven by a gearbox that is not approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the... gearbox for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the...

  10. The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Cheng Kang [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)], E-mail: ongck22@hotmail.com; Chong, Vincent Fook Hin [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-05-15

    The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves are closely related anatomically, and to a certain extent, functionally. We present an overview of their anatomy, highlighting the important clinical and imaging implications. The main pathologic lesions arising from these nerves are also discussed and the imaging features reviewed.

  11. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Christopher J; Oxenham, Andrew J; Kreft, Heather A; Carlyon, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated) between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  12. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  13. Brainstem projections to spinal motoneurons: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, J C; Kuypers, H G

    1987-12-01

    1. The existence of direct projections to spinal motoneurons and interneurons from the raphe pallidus and obscurus, the adjoining ventral medial reticular formation and the locus coeruleus and subcoeruleus is now well substantiated by various anatomical techniques. 2. The spinal projections from the raphe nuclei and the adjoining medial reticular formation contain serotonergic and non-serotonergic fibres. These projections also contain various peptides, several of which are contained within the serotonergic fibres. Whether still other transmitter substances (e.g. acetylcholine) are present in the various descending brainstem projections to motoneurons remains to be determined. 3. The spinal projections from the locus coeruleus and subcoeruleus are mainly noradrenergic, but there also exists a non-noradrenergic spinal projection. 4. Pharmacological, physiological and behavioural studies indicate an overall facilitatory action of noradrenaline and serotonin (including several peptides) on motoneurons. This may lead to an enhanced susceptibility for excitatory inputs from other sources. 5. The brainstem areas in question receive an important projection from several components of the limbic system. This suggests that the emotional brain can exert a powerful influence on all regions of the spinal cord and may thus control both its sensory input and motor output.

  14. Morphometric study of the human brainstem and its neurovascular relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Bianca Aurora; Pascalau, Raluca; Padurean, Vlad Adrian

    2017-10-02

    The brainstem is a very complex segment of the central nervous system because it has a high density of nuclei and tracts with vital functional roles. This explains the considerable difficulty of surgery for lesions located in or around the brainstem. Our paper aims to provide a concise description of the external configuration, its internal correspondence and the neurovascular relations of the brainstem with morphometric data that can be useful in surgical planning. The study was conducted on formalin fixed brainstem specimens, which were harvested with respect to the topographic anatomy. Macroscopic measurements were performed with a Vernier caliper. The anatomical structures on the ventral and dorsal aspects of the brainstem are described and illustrated schematically. Their dimensions are also graphically represented using the mean values. Serial axial sections through the brainstem demonstrate the internal correspondence of its external features. Then there are presented the apparent origins and the proximal diameters of the cranial nerves and the arteries of the posterior circulation as well as their anatomical relations. The external morphometry of the brainstem correlated with the position of the internal structures provides landmarks with aplicability in neurosurgery especially in the fields of intrinsic brainstem lesions, posterior fossa and fourth ventricle surgery.

  15. Effects of Spirulina on the functions and redox status of auditory system in senescence-accelerated prone-8 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ching Chan

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, the effects of Spirulina platensis water extract (SP on hearing function have not yet been reported. This study investigated the effects of SP on the function and redox status of the auditory system. Auditory brainstem responses and redox status were compared between two groups of 3-month-old senescence-accelerated prone-8 (SAMP8 mice: the control group was fed a normal diet, and the experimental group was fed a normal diet with oral supplementation of SP for 6 weeks. Compared with the control group, the experimental group had significantly lower hearing thresholds according to auditory brainstem responses measured using click sounds and 8-kHz tone burst sound stimulation at the end of this study. The experimental group had a shorter I-III interval of auditory brainstem responses with 16-kHz tone burst stimulation than the control group that was of borderline significance. Additionally, the experimental group had significantly higher mRNA expression of the superoxide dismutase and catalase genes in the cochlea and brainstem and significantly higher mRNA expression of the glutathione peroxidase gene in the cochlea. Further, the experimental group had significantly lower malondialdehyde levels in the cochlea and brainstem than the control group. However, tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression was not significantly different between the control and experimental groups. SP could decrease hearing degeneration in senescence-accelerated prone-8 mice possibly by increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase gene expression and decreasing damage from oxidative stress in the cochlea and brainstem.

  16. Clinical Approach to Supranuclear Brainstem Saccadic Gaze Palsies

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    Alexandra Lloyd-Smith Sequeira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Failure of brainstem supranuclear centers for saccadic eye movements results in the clinical presence of a brainstem-mediated supranuclear saccadic gaze palsy (SGP, which is manifested as slowing of saccades with or without range of motion limitation of eye movements and as loss of quick phases of optokinetic nystagmus. Limitation in the range of motion of eye movements is typically worse with saccades than with smooth pursuit and is overcome with vestibular–ocular reflexive eye movements. The differential diagnosis of SGPs is broad, although acute-onset SGP is most often from brainstem infarction and chronic vertical SGP is most commonly caused by the neurodegenerative condition progressive supranuclear palsy. In this review, we discuss the brainstem anatomy and physiology of the brainstem saccade-generating network; we discuss the clinical features of SGPs, with an emphasis on insights from quantitative ocular motor recordings; and we consider the broad differential diagnosis of SGPs.

  17. The Corticofugal Effects of Auditory Cortex Microstimulation on Auditory Nerve and Superior Olivary Complex Responses Are Mediated via Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Aedo

    Full Text Available The auditory efferent system is a complex network of descending pathways, which mainly originate in the primary auditory cortex and are directed to several auditory subcortical nuclei. These descending pathways are connected to olivocochlear neurons, which in turn make synapses with auditory nerve neurons and outer hair cells (OHC of the cochlea. The olivocochlear function can be studied using contralateral acoustic stimulation, which suppresses auditory nerve and cochlear responses. In the present work, we tested the proposal that the corticofugal effects that modulate the strength of the olivocochlear reflex on auditory nerve responses are produced through cholinergic synapses between medial olivocochlear (MOC neurons and OHCs via alpha-9/10 nicotinic receptors.We used wild type (WT and alpha-9 nicotinic receptor knock-out (KO mice, which lack cholinergic transmission between MOC neurons and OHC, to record auditory cortex evoked potentials and to evaluate the consequences of auditory cortex electrical microstimulation in the effects produced by contralateral acoustic stimulation on auditory brainstem responses (ABR.Auditory cortex evoked potentials at 15 kHz were similar in WT and KO mice. We found that auditory cortex microstimulation produces an enhancement of contralateral noise suppression of ABR waves I and III in WT mice but not in KO mice. On the other hand, corticofugal modulations of wave V amplitudes were significant in both genotypes.These findings show that the corticofugal modulation of contralateral acoustic suppressions of auditory nerve (ABR wave I and superior olivary complex (ABR wave III responses are mediated through MOC synapses.

  18. Correlation of augmented startle reflex with brainstem electrophysiological responses in Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sadao; Saito, Yoshiaki; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Sugai, Kenji; Iso, Takashi; Inagaki, Masumi; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the evolution of an augmented startle reflex in Tay-Sachs disease and compare the temporal relationship between this reflex and brainstem evoked potentials. Clinical and electrophysiological data from 3 patients with Tay-Sachs disease were retrospectively collected. The augmented startle reflex appeared between the age of 3 and 17 months and disappeared between the age of 4 and 6 years. Analysis of brainstem auditory evoked potentials revealed that poor segregation of peak I, but not peak III, coincided with the disappearance of the augmented startle reflex. A blink reflex with markedly high amplitude was observed in a patient with an augmented startle reflex. The correlation between the augmented startle reflex and the preservation of peak I but not peak III supports the theory that the superior olivary nucleus is dispensable for this reflex. The blink reflex with high amplitudes may represent augmented excitability of reticular formation at the pontine tegmentum in Tay-Sachs disease, where the pattern generators for the augmented startle and blink reflexes may functionally overlap. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neonatal brainstem function and 4-month arousal-modulated attention are jointly associated with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ira L; Gardner, Judith M; Karmel, Bernard Z; Phan, Ha T T; Kittler, Phyllis; Gomez, Tina Rovito; Gonzalez, Maripaz G; Lennon, Elizabeth M; Parab, Santosh; Barone, Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The authors evaluated the contribution of initially abnormal neonatal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and 4-month arousal-modulated attention visual preference to later autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates. A longitudinal study design was used to compare NICU graduates with normal ABRs (n = 28) to those with initially abnormal ABRs (n = 46) that later resolved. At 4 months postterm age, visual preference (measured after feeding) for a random check pattern flashing at 1, 3, or 8 Hz and gestational age (GA) served as additional predictors. Outcome measures were PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) scores at 3.4 years (standard deviation = 1.2), and developmental quotients (DQ) obtained around the same age with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS). Preferences for higher rates of stimulation at 4 months were highly correlated with PDDBI scores (all P-values stimulation as infants were linked to nonlinear increases in severity of ASD at 3 years and to an ASD diagnosis. Abnormal ABRs were associated with later reports of repetitive and ritualistic behaviors irrespective of 4-month preference for stimulation. The joint occurrence of initially abnormal neonatal ABRs and preference for more stimulation at 4 months, both indices of early brainstem dysfunction, may be a marker for the development of autism in this cohort. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A hardware model of the auditory periphery to transduce acoustic signals into neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTateno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of cochlear implants, we have integrated a microdevice into a model of the auditory periphery with the goal of creating a microprocessor. We constructed an artificial peripheral auditory system using a hybrid model in which polyvinylidene difluoride was used as a piezoelectric sensor to convert mechanical stimuli into electric signals. To produce frequency selectivity, the slit on a stainless steel base plate was designed such that the local resonance frequency of the membrane over the slit reflected the transfer function. In the acoustic sensor, electric signals were generated based on the piezoelectric effect from local stress in the membrane. The electrodes on the resonating plate produced relatively large electric output signals. The signals were fed into a computer model that mimicked some functions of inner hair cells, inner hair cell–auditory nerve synapses, and auditory nerve fibers. In general, the responses of the model to pure-tone burst and complex stimuli accurately represented the discharge rates of high-spontaneous-rate auditory nerve fibers across a range of frequencies greater than 1 kHz and middle to high sound pressure levels. Thus, the model provides a tool to understand information processing in the peripheral auditory system and a basic design for connecting artificial acoustic sensors to the peripheral auditory nervous system. Finally, we discuss the need for stimulus control with an appropriate model of the auditory periphery based on auditory brainstem responses that were electrically evoked by different temporal pulse patterns with the same pulse number.

  1. Auditory agnosia as a clinical symptom of childhood adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furushima, Wakana; Kaga, Makiko; Nakamura, Masako; Gunji, Atsuko; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-08-01

    To investigate detailed auditory features in patients with auditory impairment as the first clinical symptoms of childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (CSALD). Three patients who had hearing difficulty as the first clinical signs and/or symptoms of ALD. Precise examination of the clinical characteristics of hearing and auditory function was performed, including assessments of pure tone audiometry, verbal sound discrimination, otoacoustic emission (OAE), and auditory brainstem response (ABR), as well as an environmental sound discrimination test, a sound lateralization test, and a dichotic listening test (DLT). The auditory pathway was evaluated by MRI in each patient. Poor response to calling was detected in all patients. Two patients were not aware of their hearing difficulty, and had been diagnosed with normal hearing by otolaryngologists at first. Pure-tone audiometry disclosed normal hearing in all patients. All patients showed a normal wave V ABR threshold. Three patients showed obvious difficulty in discriminating verbal sounds, environmental sounds, and sound lateralization and strong left-ear suppression in a dichotic listening test. However, once they discriminated verbal sounds, they correctly understood the meaning. Two patients showed elongation of the I-V and III-V interwave intervals in ABR, but one showed no abnormality. MRIs of these three patients revealed signal changes in auditory radiation including in other subcortical areas. The hearing features of these subjects were diagnosed as auditory agnosia and not aphasia. It should be emphasized that when patients are suspected to have hearing impairment but have no abnormalities in pure tone audiometry and/or ABR, this should not be diagnosed immediately as psychogenic response or pathomimesis, but auditory agnosia must also be considered. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intracranial neurenteric cyst traversing the brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurenteric cysts (NECs, also called enterogenous cysts, are rare benign endodermal lesions of the central nervous system that probably result from separation failure of the notochord and upper gastrointestinal tract. Most frequently they are found in the lower cervical spine or the upper thoracic spine. Intracranial occurrence is rare and mostly confined to infratentorial compartment, in prepontine region [51%]. Other common locations are fourth ventricle and cerebellopontine angle. There are few reports of NEC in medulla or the cerebellum. Because of the rarity of the disease and common radiological findings, they are misinterpreted as arachnoid or simple cysts until the histopathological confirmation, unless suspected preoperatively. We herein report a rare yet interesting case of intracranial NEC traversing across the brainstem.

  3. Accessory Renal Arteries: A Cadaveric Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina.K.Katariya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Renal arteries normally arise from the abdominal aorta at the level L1 vertebra. Accessory renal arteries were arising from abdominal aorta below the normal renal artery. Understanding anatomy of the vascular variation of kidney is essential for the clinician to perform procedures such as renal transplantation, interventional radiological procedures and renal vascular operations more safely and efficiently. No medical history of the cadaver was available to corroborate the clinical findings. The aim of the study was to establish the incidence and characteristics of accessory arteries in human kidneys. Methods: The present study was conducted on formalin fixed thirty two cadavers (irrespective of sex during routine dissection of abdomen by the undergraduate medical students from the department of anatomy, B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Results: In present study we found accessory arteries were seen in three kidneys .All were arising from the abdominal aorta below the normal renal artery. These were more common on the left side and at the lower pole. The artery cranial to the normal renal artery entered the anterior aspect of the kidney 4 cm below the upper pole. Two accessory arteries were seen in one kidney on right side which is cranial & caudal to normal renal artery at the distance of 1.6 cm &3.9 cm from lower part of hilum respectively. Conclusion: Knowledge of the variations in the renal arteries is important for urologists, radiologists and surgeons in general. It is of great importance in performing operations like segmental resections, partial nephrectomy, and renal transplantation

  4. Prevalence of auditory changes in newborns in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães, Valeriana de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The precocious diagnosis and the intervention in the deafness are of basic importance in the infantile development. The loss auditory and more prevalent than other joined riots to the birth. Objective: Esteem the prevalence of auditory alterations in just-born in a hospital school. Method: Prospective transversal study that evaluated 226 just-been born, been born in a public hospital, between May of 2008 the May of 2009. Results: Of the 226 screened, 46 (20.4% had presented absence of emissions, having been directed for the second emission. Of the 26 (56.5% children who had appeared in the retest, 8 (30.8% had remained with absence and had been directed to the Otolaryngologist. Five (55.5% had appeared and had been examined by the doctor. Of these, 3 (75.0% had presented normal otoscopy, being directed for evaluation of the Evoked Potential Auditory of Brainstem (PEATE. Of the total of studied children, 198 (87.6% had had presence of emissions in one of the tests and, 2 (0.9% with deafness diagnosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of auditory alterations in the studied population was of 0,9%. The study it offers given excellent epidemiologists and it presents the first report on the subject, supplying resulted preliminary future implantation and development of a program of neonatal auditory selection.

  5. Insult-induced adaptive plasticity of the auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Gold

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain displays a remarkable capacity for both widespread and region-specific modifications in response to environmental challenges, with adaptive processes bringing about the reweighting of connections in neural networks putatively required for optimising performance and behaviour. As an avenue for investigation, studies centred around changes in the mammalian auditory system, extending from the brainstem to the cortex, have revealed a plethora of mechanisms that operate in the context of sensory disruption after insult, be it lesion-, noise trauma, drug-, or age-related. Of particular interest in recent work are those aspects of auditory processing which, after sensory disruption, change at multiple – if not all – levels of the auditory hierarchy. These include changes in excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory networks, consistent with theories of homeostatic plasticity; functional alterations in gene expression and in protein levels; as well as broader network processing effects with cognitive and behavioural implications. Nevertheless, there abounds substantial debate regarding which of these processes may only be sequelae of the original insult, and which may, in fact, be maladaptively compelling further degradation of the organism’s competence to cope with its disrupted sensory context. In this review, we aim to examine how the mammalian auditory system responds in the wake of particular insults, and to disambiguate how the changes that develop might underlie a correlated class of phantom disorders, including tinnitus and hyperacusis, which putatively are brought about through maladaptive neuroplastic disruptions to auditory networks governing the spatial and temporal processing of acoustic sensory information.

  6. Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis after an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masahiro; Koga, Michiaki; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Hattori, Takamichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2008-05-30

    Twenty-eight patients suffered Campylobacter jejuni enteritis after eating raw chicken. Among them, only one patient developed Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, who carried anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. In contrast, none of the others did the autoantibodies. C. jejuni was cultured from all stool samples from five patients with enteritis alone. All the isolates had the same genotype, cst-II (Asn51), which are characteristic of strains isolated from Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. These findings suggest that host susceptibility may play a role in inducing the production of anti-ganglioside antibodies and the development of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis.

  7. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2014-01-22

    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties.

  8. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  9. Cortical Maturation and Behavioral Outcomes in Children with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Cardon, Garrett; Martin, Kathryn; Roland, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) affects nearly 10% of patients with sensorineural hearing loss. While many studies report abnormalities at the level of the cochlea, auditory nerve and brainstem in children with ANSD, much less is known about their cortical development. We examined central auditory maturation in 21 children with ANSD. Design Morphology, latency and amplitude of the P1 Cortical Auditory Evoked Potential (CAEP) were used to assess auditory cortical maturation. Children’s scores on a measure of auditory skill development (IT-MAIS) were correlated with CAEPs. Study Sample Participants were 21 children with ANSD. All were hearing aid users. Results Children with ANSD exhibited differences in central auditory maturation. Overall, two-thirds of children revealed present P1 CAEP responses. Of these, approximately one third (38%) showed normal P1 response morphology, latency and amplitude, while another third (33%) showed delayed P1 response latencies and significantly smaller amplitudes. The remaining children (29%) revealed abnormal or absent P1 responses. Overall, P1 responses were significantly correlated with auditory skill development. Conclusions Our results suggest that P1 CAEP responses may be: (i) a useful indicator of the extent to which neural dys-synchrony disrupts cortical development, (ii) a good predictor of behavioral outcome in children with ANSD. PMID:21265637

  10. The olivocochlear reflex strength and cochlear sensitivity are independently modulated by auditory cortex microstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Constantino D; Aedo, Cristian; León, Alex; Bowen, Macarena; Jara, Natalia; Terreros, Gonzalo; Robles, Luis; Delano, Paul H

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, efferent projections to the cochlear receptor are constituted by olivocochlear (OC) fibers that originate in the superior olivary complex. Medial and lateral OC neurons make synapses with outer hair cells and with auditory nerve fibers, respectively. In addition to the OC system, there are also descending projections from the auditory cortex that are directed towards the thalamus, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus, and superior olivary complex. Olivocochlear function can be assessed by measuring a brainstem reflex mediated by auditory nerve fibers, cochlear nucleus neurons, and OC fibers. Although it is known that the OC reflex is activated by contralateral acoustic stimulation and produces a suppression of cochlear responses, the influence of cortical descending pathways in the OC reflex is largely unknown. Here, we used auditory cortex electrical microstimulation in chinchillas to study a possible cortical modulation of cochlear and auditory nerve responses to tones in the absence and presence of contralateral noise. We found that cortical microstimulation produces two different peripheral modulations: (i) changes in cochlear sensitivity evidenced by amplitude modulation of cochlear microphonics and auditory nerve compound action potentials and (ii) enhancement or suppression of the OC reflex strength as measured by auditory nerve responses, which depended on the intersubject variability of the OC reflex. Moreover, both corticofugal effects were not correlated, suggesting the presence of two functionally different efferent pathways. These results demonstrate that auditory cortex electrical microstimulation independently modulates the OC reflex strength and cochlear sensitivity.

  11. Auditory Weighting Functions and TTS/PTS Exposure Functions for Marine Mammals Exposed to Underwater Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    R. Henry. 1999. “ Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Hearing: Auditory Brainstem Response and Behavioral Audiograms,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of...MID-FREQUENCY (MF) CETACEANS The MF cetacean group contains most delphinid species (e.g., bottlenose dolphin, common dolphin, killer whale , pilot...headed whales , false/pygmy killer whale , killer whale , pilot whales ) Subfamily Stenoninae (rough-toothed/humpback dolphins) Genus Lissodelphis (right

  12. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Program summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefferts, C.H.

    1977-06-15

    The objective of this program was to define, evaluate and develop automotive accessory systems to minimize engine power consumption and significantly improve fuel economy. All tasks have been completed and the program objectives have been accomplished. Information is presented on each phase of the program which involved: conceptual design to recommended component improvement and accessory drive systems; performance and sizing analyses; detail design and specifications; fabrication, and performance testing; evaluation of integrated hybrid drive, improved accessories; and an advanced air conditioning concept.

  13. The Effect of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia on the Auditory System

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    Dr. Zahra Jafari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hyperbilirubinemia during the neonatal period is known to be an important risk factor for neonatal auditory impairment, and may reveal as a permanent brain damage, if no proper therapeutic intervention is considered. In the present study some electroacoustic and electrophysiologic tests were used to evaluate function of auditory system in a group of children with severe neonatal Jaundice. Materials and Methods: Forty five children with mean age of 16.1 14.81 months and 17 mg/dl and higher bilirubin level were studied, and the transient evoked otoacoustic emission, acoustic reflex, auditory brainstem response and auditory steady-state response tests were performed for them. Results: The mean score of bilirubin was 29.37 8.95 mg/dl. It was lower than 20 mg/dl in 22.2%, between 20-30 mg/dl in 24.4% and more than 30 mg/dl in 48.0% of children. No therapeutic intervention in 26.7%, phototherapy in 44.4%, and blood exchange in 28.9% of children were reported. 48.9% hypoxia and 26.6% preterm birth history was shown too. TEOAEs was recordable in 71.1% of cases. The normal result in acoustic reflex, ABR and ASSR tests was shown just in 11.1% of cases. The clinical symptoms of auditory neuropathy were revealed in 57.7% of children. Conclusion: Conducting auditory tests sensitive to hyperbilirubinemia place of injury is necessary to inform from functional effect and severity of disorder. Because the auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony is common in neonates with hyperbilirubinemic, the OAEs and ABR are the minimum essential tests to identify this disorder.

  14. Brainstem and cerebellar changes after cerebrovascular accidents: magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Takase, Y.; Nomiyama, K.; Egashira, R.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    We illustrate the various types of secondary degeneration in the brainstem and/or cerebellum detected on magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained after cerebrovascular accidents. The changes include: (a) ipsilateral nigral degeneration after striatal infarction; (b) Wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract in the brainstem after supratentorial pyramidal tract or motor cortex injury; (c) Wallerian degeneration of the corticopontine tract in the brainstem after frontal lobe infarction; (d) ipsilateral brainstem atrophy and crossed cerebellar atrophy due to an extensive supratentorial lesion; (e) ipsilateral superior cerebellar peduncle atrophy, contralateral rubral degeneration, contralateral inferior olivary degeneration and ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy after dentate nucleus hemorrhage; (f) ipsilateral inferior olivary degeneration after pontine tegmentum hemorrhage; (g) bilateral wallerian degeneration of the pontocerebellar tracts after ventromedial pontine infarction or basis pontis hemorrhage; and (h) ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy after middle cerebellar peduncle hemorrhage. (orig.)

  15. Enterovirus 71 Brainstem Encephalitis and Cognitive and Motor Deficits

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Follow-up studies were conducted in 63 previously healthy children with enterovirus 71 brainstem encephalitis (49 stage II, 7 stage Ilia, and 7 stage Illb at National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.

  16. Accessories for Enhancement of the Semi-Automatic Welding Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, Douglas M; Sawhill, James M

    2000-01-01

    .... The development of these accessories for work normally performed by the semi-automatic welding operator should significantly reduce operator hand-to-eye coordination requirements thereby enhancing...

  17. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  18. A case of pulmonary hypoplasia associated with intrauterine brainstem necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, A; Minato, M; Takada, M; Takahashi, S; Harada, K; Yamada, T; Takashima, S

    2001-11-01

    An infant with intrauterine brain death accompanied by pulmonary hypoplasia is reported. The fetus was delivered after 36 weeks gestation, 5 weeks after fetal movements ceased. The child died 4 h after birth. Pulmonary hypoplasia and remote brainstem necrosis associated with multicystic encephalomalacia were found at autopsy. These findings suggest that damage to brainstem respiratory centres had led to pulmonary hypoplasia through the absence of fetal respiratory movement.

  19. Brainstem variant of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Fabio; Caranci, Ferdinando; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Manzi, Francesca; Pagliano, Pasquale; Cirillo, Sossio

    2015-12-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological condition, generally observed in conjunction with severe and acute hypertension, that involves mainly the posterior head areas (occipital and temporal lobes) and anterior "watershed" areas. In this syndrome it is rare to observe a predominant involvement of the brainstem. We describe the clinical and radiological findings in a patient with brainstem involvement, discussing its pathophysiological features and possible differential diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Auditory Responses to Electric and Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Rat Cochlear Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rohit; Guex, Amelie A.; Hancock, Kenneth E.; Durakovic, Nedim; McKay, Colette M.; Slama, Michaël C. C.; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the auditory brainstem implant, a prosthesis in which user outcomes are modest, we applied electric and infrared neural stimulation (INS) to the cochlear nucleus in a rat animal model. Electric stimulation evoked regions of neural activation in the inferior colliculus and short-latency, multipeaked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Pulsed INS, delivered to the surface of the cochlear nucleus via an optical fiber, evoked broad neural activation in the inferior colliculus. Strongest responses were recorded when the fiber was placed at lateral positions on the cochlear nucleus, close to the temporal bone. INS-evoked ABRs were multipeaked but longer in latency than those for electric stimulation; they resembled the responses to acoustic stimulation. After deafening, responses to electric stimulation persisted, whereas those to INS disappeared, consistent with a reported “optophonic” effect, a laser-induced acoustic artifact. Thus, for deaf individuals who use the auditory brainstem implant, INS alone did not appear promising as a new approach. PMID:24508368

  1. Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rohit U; Guex, Amélie A; Hancock, Kenneth E; Durakovic, Nedim; McKay, Colette M; Slama, Michaël C C; Brown, M Christian; Lee, Daniel J

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to improve the auditory brainstem implant, a prosthesis in which user outcomes are modest, we applied electric and infrared neural stimulation (INS) to the cochlear nucleus in a rat animal model. Electric stimulation evoked regions of neural activation in the inferior colliculus and short-latency, multipeaked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Pulsed INS, delivered to the surface of the cochlear nucleus via an optical fiber, evoked broad neural activation in the inferior colliculus. Strongest responses were recorded when the fiber was placed at lateral positions on the cochlear nucleus, close to the temporal bone. INS-evoked ABRs were multipeaked but longer in latency than those for electric stimulation; they resembled the responses to acoustic stimulation. After deafening, responses to electric stimulation persisted, whereas those to INS disappeared, consistent with a reported "optophonic" effect, a laser-induced acoustic artifact. Thus, for deaf individuals who use the auditory brainstem implant, INS alone did not appear promising as a new approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role. Auditory cohesion problems: This is when higher-level listening tasks are difficult. Auditory cohesion skills — drawing inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems — require heightened auditory processing and language levels. ...

  3. Unique features of the human brainstem and cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is greatly expanded in the human brain. There is a parallel expansion of the cerebellum, which is interconnected with the cerebral cortex. We have asked if there are accompanying changes in the organization of pre-cerebellar brainstem structures. We have examined the cytoarchitectonic and neurochemical organization of the human medulla and pons. We studied human cases from the Witelson Normal Brain Collection, analyzing Nissl sections and sections processed for immunohistochemistry for multiple markers including the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin, non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein, and the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase. We have also compared the neurochemical organization of the human brainstem to that of several other species including the chimpanzee, macaque and squirrel monkey, cat, and rodent, again using Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry. We found that there are major differences in the human brainstem, ranging from relatively subtle differences in the neurochemical organization of structures found in each of the species studied to the emergence of altogether new structures in the human brainstem. Two aspects of human cortical organization, individual differences and left-right asymmetry, are also seen in the brainstem (principal nucleus of the inferior olive) and the cerebellum (the dentate nucleus). We suggest that uniquely human motor and cognitive abilities derive from changes at all levels of the central nervous system, including the cerebellum and brainstem, and not just the cerebral cortex.

  4. Unique Features of the Human Brainstem and Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan S Baizer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex is greatly expanded in the human brain. There is a parallel expansion of the cerebellum, which is interconnected with the cerebral cortex. We have asked if there are accompanying changes in the organization of the precerebellar brainstem structures. We have examined the cytoarchitectonic and neurochemical organization of the human medulla and pons. We studied human cases from the Witelson Normal Brain Collection, analyzing Nissl sections and sections processed for immunohistochemistry for multiple markers including the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin, nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein, and the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase. We have also compared the neurochemical organization of the human brainstem to that of several other species including the chimpanzee, macaque and squirrel monkey, cat, and rodent, again using Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry. We found that there are major differences in the human brainstem, ranging from relatively subtle differences in the neurochemical organization of structures found in each of the species studied to the emergence of altogether new structures in the human brainstem. Two aspects of human cortical organization, individual differences and left-right asymmetry, are also seen in the brainstem (principal nucleus of the inferior olive and the cerebellum (the dentate nucleus. We suggest that uniquely human motor and cognitive abilities derive from changes at all levels of the central nervous system, including the cerebellum and brainstem, and not just the cerebral cortex.

  5. The melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha eRamachandrappa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The five melanocortin receptors named MC1R-MC5R have diverse physiological roles encompassing pigmentation, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis and feeding behaviour as well as exocrine function. Since their identification almost 20 years ago much has been learnt about these receptors. As well as interacting with their endogenous ligands the melanocortin peptides, there is now a growing list of important peptides that can modulate the way these receptors signal, acting as agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists. The discovery of MRAPs as a novel accessory factor to the melanocortin receptors provides further insight into the regulation of these important GPCRs.

  6. Auditory Neural Prostheses – A Window to the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kameshwaran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the commonest congenital anomalies to affect children world-over. The incidence of congenital hearing loss is more pronounced in developing countries like the Indian sub-continent, especially with the problems of consanguinity. Hearing loss is a double tragedy, as it leads to not only deafness but also language deprivation. However, hearing loss is the only truly remediable handicap, due to remarkable advances in biomedical engineering and surgical techniques. Auditory neural prostheses help to augment or restore hearing by integration of an external circuitry with the peripheral hearing apparatus and the central circuitry of the brain. A cochlear implant (CI is a surgically implantable device that helps restore hearing in patients with severe-profound hearing loss, unresponsive to amplification by conventional hearing aids. CIs are electronic devices designed to detect mechanical sound energy and convert it into electrical signals that can be delivered to the coch­lear nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells of the coch­lea. The only true prerequisite is an intact auditory nerve. The emphasis is on implantation as early as possible to maximize speech understanding and perception. Bilateral CI has significant benefits which include improved speech perception in noisy environments and improved sound localization. Presently, the indications for CI have widened and these expanded indications for implantation are related to age, additional handicaps, residual hearing, and special etiologies of deafness. Combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS / hybrid device is designed for individuals with binaural low-frequency hearing and severe-to-profound high-frequency hearing loss. Auditory brainstem implantation (ABI is a safe and effective means of hearing rehabilitation in patients with retrocochlear disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 or congenital cochlear nerve aplasia, wherein the cochlear nerve is damaged

  7. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  8. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials' Diagnostic Accuracy for Hearing Loss: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy; Carnovale, Gregory; Loke, Yoon; Habeych, Miguel; Crammond, Donald; Balzer, Jeffrey; Sekula, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    ... The PubMed/MEDLINE and World Science databases were searched. Studies performed MVD for trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, glossopharyngeal neuralgia or geniculate neuralgia and monitored intraoperative BAEPs to prevent hearing loss...

  9. Comparison of cochlear delay estimates using otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, James; Pigasse, Gilles; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    delay non-invasively in normal-hearing humans. Tone bursts at nine frequencies from 0.5 to 8 kHz served as stimuli, with care taken to quantify possible bias due to the use of tone bursts with different rise times. BM delays are estimated from the ABR latency estimates by subtracting the neural...... and synaptic delays. This allows a comparison between individual OAE and BM delays over a large frequency range in the same subjects, and offers support to the theory that OAEs are reflected from a tonotopic place and carried back to the cochlear base via a reverse traveling wave....

  10. AN EFFICIENT PEAK VALLEY DETECTION BASED VAD ALGORITHM FOR ROBUST DETECTION OF SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam

    2013-01-01

    Voice Activity Detection (VAD) problem considers detecting the presence of speech in a noisy signal. The speech/non-speech classification task is not as trivial as it appears, and most of the VAD algorithms fail when the level of background noise increases. In this research we are presenting a new technique for Voice Activity Detection (VAD) in EEG collected brain stem speech evoked potentials data [7, 8, 9]. This one is spectral subtraction method in which we have developed ou...

  11. Auditory brainstem implants in NF2 patients: results and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanna, M.; Di, L.F.; Guida, M.; Merkus, P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) patients have multiple central nervous system tumors and, specifically, bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs) causing bilateral deafness. If the cochlear nerve is not preserved during tumor removal, the only hearing rehabilitation in these patients could be

  12. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in healthy Argentine Mastiff dogs recorded with surface electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Armașu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEvocado auditivo de respostas – BAER foi gravado utilizando eletrodos de superfície em sete cães Mastiff argentino saudáveis para estimulações monoaural e binaural em intensidades sonoras de 90 dB NPS . As latências e amplitudes das ondas I, III e V bem como os intervalos InterWave I- III , III -V e IV foram calculados. As diferenças estatísticas foram obtidas para as ondas III e latências V, amplitudes das ondas III e intervalos I- III e I-V entre mono e estimulação binaural. Por serem uma das raças geneticamente predispostas à surdez congênita, obtendo valores de referência BAER, os cães Mastiff argentino têm uma importância clínica especial.

  13. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...

  14. Does Alzheimer's disease begin in the brainstem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, G; Stanic, G; Mladinov, M; Jovanov-Milosevic, N; Kostovic, I; Hof, P R

    2009-12-01

    Although substantial evidence indicates that the progression of pathological changes of the neuronal cytoskeleton is crucial in determining the severity of dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the exact causes and evolution of these changes, the initial site at which they begin, and the neuronal susceptibility levels for their development are poorly understood. The current clinical criteria for diagnosis of AD are focused mostly on cognitive deficits produced by dysfunction of hippocampal and high-order neocortical areas, whereas noncognitive, behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia such as disturbances in mood, emotion, appetite, and wake-sleep cycle, confusion, agitation and depression have been less considered. The early occurrence of these symptoms suggests brainstem involvement, and more specifically of the serotonergic nuclei. In spite of the fact that the Braak and Braak staging system and National Institutes of Aging - Reagan Institute (NIA-RI) criteria do not include their evaluation, several recent reports drew attention to the possibility of selective and early involvement of raphe nuclei, particularly the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in the pathogenesis of AD. Based on these findings of differential susceptibility and anatomical connectivity, a novel pathogenetic scheme of AD progression was proposed. Although the precise mechanisms of neurofibrillary degeneration still await elucidation, we speculated that cumulative oxidative damage may be the main cause of DRN alterations, as the age is the main risk factor for sporadic AD. Within such a framework, beta-amyloid production is considered only as one of the factors (although a significant one in familial cases) that promotes molecular series of events underlying AD-related neuropathological changes.

  15. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in the... cavity preparation. The device is stretched around a tooth by inserting a tooth through a hole in the...

  16. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600...

  17. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive diaphragm...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes...

  19. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hysteroscope and accessories. 884.1690 Section 884.1690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory instruments...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After the...

  1. 21 CFR 884.1175 - Endometrial suction curette and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial suction curette and accessories. 884.1175 Section 884.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1175 Endometrial suction curette and accessories. (a) Identification. An endometrial...

  2. KNOW-BLADE Task-2 report: Aerodynamic accessories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2004-01-01

    In the EC project KNOW-BLADE a work package has been defined to investigate the possibility to numerically model aerodynamic accessories in existing Navier-Stokes solvers. Four different aerodynamic accessories have been investigated. Firstly, thepotential of applying active flow control by means...

  3. High association between accessory soleus muscle and achilles tendonopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, Michael D.; Gordon, Andrew G.; Blebea, Judy S.; Dalinka, Murray K. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-12-15

    This study investigated the association between accessory soleus muscle and abnormalities of the Achilles tendon. The authors reviewed 15 consecutive cases with a diagnosis of accessory soleus muscle from a computerized database of ankle magnetic resonance (MR) examinations reported between January 1998 and January 2007. On review, two cases were eliminated because of an incorrect initial diagnosis: One patient had a low lying soleus attachment to the Achilles tendon, while the other had a prominent flexor hallucis longus tendon partially obliterating Kager's fat. The remaining 13 cases with accessory soleus muscles were evaluated for Achilles tendon abnormalities. There were 13 cases of accessory soleus muscles in 11 patients; two patients had bilateral accessory soleus muscles (the only study patients with bilateral MR examinations in our sample). There were five male and six female patients ranging from 15 to 81 years of age (mean 48). There were nine cases (69.2%) in which Achilles tendonopathy was associated with accessory soleus muscle, including tendonopathy of each Achilles tendon in the two patients with bilateral accessory muscles. In our small patient population, there was a high association between accessory soleus muscle and Achilles tendonopathy. (orig.)

  4. 21 CFR 884.1600 - Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A transabdominal amnioscope is a device designed to permit direct visual examination of the fetus... following accessories: trocar and cannula, instruments used through an operating channel or through a... transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or...

  5. Plasticity of peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity in Emei music frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dian; Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong

    2012-01-01

    In anurans reproductive behavior is strongly seasonal. During the spring, frogs emerge from hibernation and males vocalize for mating or advertising territories. Female frogs have the ability to evaluate the quality of the males' resources on the basis of these vocalizations. Although studies revealed that central single torus semicircularis neurons in frogs exhibit season plasticity, the plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity in frog is unknown. In this study the seasonally plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity was test in the Emei music frog Babina daunchina, by comparing thresholds and latencies of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) evoked by tone pips and clicks in the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The results show that both ABR thresholds and latency differ significantly between the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The thresholds of tone pip evoked ABRs in the non-reproductive season increased significantly about 10 dB than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1 KHz to 6 KHz. ABR latencies to waveform valley values for tone pips for the same frequencies using appropriate threshold stimulus levels are longer than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1.5 to 6 KHz range, although from 0.2 to 1.5 KHz range it is shorter in the non-reproductive season. These results demonstrated that peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity exhibits seasonal plasticity changes which may be adaptive to seasonal reproductive behavior in frogs.

  6. Plasticity of peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity in Emei music frog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Zhang

    Full Text Available In anurans reproductive behavior is strongly seasonal. During the spring, frogs emerge from hibernation and males vocalize for mating or advertising territories. Female frogs have the ability to evaluate the quality of the males' resources on the basis of these vocalizations. Although studies revealed that central single torus semicircularis neurons in frogs exhibit season plasticity, the plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity in frog is unknown. In this study the seasonally plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity was test in the Emei music frog Babina daunchina, by comparing thresholds and latencies of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs evoked by tone pips and clicks in the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The results show that both ABR thresholds and latency differ significantly between the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The thresholds of tone pip evoked ABRs in the non-reproductive season increased significantly about 10 dB than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1 KHz to 6 KHz. ABR latencies to waveform valley values for tone pips for the same frequencies using appropriate threshold stimulus levels are longer than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1.5 to 6 KHz range, although from 0.2 to 1.5 KHz range it is shorter in the non-reproductive season. These results demonstrated that peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity exhibits seasonal plasticity changes which may be adaptive to seasonal reproductive behavior in frogs.

  7. Neurosurgical considerations on highly eloquent brainstem cavernomas during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Bozinov, Oliver; Nürnberg, Johannes; Shin, Benjamin; Woernle, Christoph M; Ulrich, Nils H; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2012-10-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) and especially cavernous malformations (CMs) in highly eloquent brain areas such as brainstem CMs are rare but possible events during pregnancy. Due to the few published cases in literature clear recommendations regarding the management are rare. In this study we evaluate the proceeding decision in pregnant patients with highly eloquent brainstem CMs. In our series 43 patients with CMs in highly eloquent brain areas, including 39 patients with brainstem CMs, were surgically treated by the senior author between July 2007 and July 2010. Out of these, 29 patients were female and three of them presented with a symptomatic brainstem CMs during pregnancy and were included in this study. According to our experiences and to the available literature we analyzed demographic and clinical variables to provide recommendations for the management of pregnant patients with highly eloquent brainstem CMs. Only one patient was operated during pregnancy the other two patients were surgically treated after delivery, respectively. A thorough review of the literature revealed 12 patients with brainstem cavernomas during pregnancy there of only two patients were operated during pregnancy. Surgical treatment during pregnancy is rarely required, but needs to be performed right away in life-threatening and rapidly progressive clinical situations. Pregnant women with CMs in highly eloquent brain areas such as brainstem CMs need to be treated in specialized centers to assess the best point of time for surgery. Our study offers a useful tool to support the proceeding decision in this rare but important situation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  9. Nanofibrous scaffolds for the guidance of stem cell-derived neurons for auditory nerve regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hackelberg

    Full Text Available Impairment of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs of the auditory nerve is a major cause for hearing loss occurring independently or in addition to sensory hair cell damage. Unfortunately, mammalian SGNs lack the potential for autonomous regeneration. Stem cell based therapy is a promising approach for auditory nerve regeneration, but proper integration of exogenous cells into the auditory circuit remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we present novel nanofibrous scaffolds designed to guide the integration of human stem cell-derived neurons in the internal auditory meatus (IAM, the foramen allowing passage of the spiral ganglion to the auditory brainstem. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC were differentiated into neural precursor cells (NPCs and seeded onto aligned nanofiber mats. The NPCs terminally differentiated into glutamatergic neurons with high efficiency, and neurite projections aligned with nanofibers in vitro. Scaffolds were assembled by seeding GFP-labeled NPCs on nanofibers integrated in a polymer sheath. Biocompatibility and functionality of the NPC-seeded scaffolds were evaluated in vivo in deafened guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus. To this end, we established an ouabain-based deafening procedure that depleted an average 72% of SGNs from apex to base of the cochleae and caused profound hearing loss. Further, we developed a surgical procedure to implant seeded scaffolds directly into the guinea pig IAM. No evidence of an inflammatory response was observed, but post-surgery tissue repair appeared to be facilitated by infiltrating Schwann cells. While NPC survival was found to be poor, both subjects implanted with NPC-seeded and cell-free control scaffolds showed partial recovery of electrically-evoked auditory brainstem thresholds. Thus, while future studies must address cell survival, nanofibrous scaffolds pose a promising strategy for auditory nerve regeneration.

  10. Auditory findings and electrophysiologics in individuals with G/BBB syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassab, Tatiana Vialôgo; Zanchetta, Sthella; Giacheti, Célia Maria; Zorzetto, Neivo Luiz; Richieri-Costa, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The G/BBB syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hypertelorism, cleft lip and palate, and hypospadias. No studies were found on the hearing of individuals with this syndrome. To investigate the auditory function in patients with G/BBB syndrome, such as the occurrence of hearing loss, and central and peripheral auditory nerve conduction. Fourteen male patients aged 7-34 years with the G/BBB syndrome were assessed by otoscopy, audiometry, tympanometry and evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR). A retrospective clinical series study. Audiometric thresholds were normal in 12 (66.7%) of the sample and altered in two (33.3%), one with conductive and one with sensorineural loss. ABR results were: all patients had normal absolute wave I latencies; absolute wave III and V latencies were increased in two and six patients, respectively; interpeak latencies I-III, IV and V interpeak latencies were increased in four, three and eight patients respectively. Hearing loss can occur in the G/BBB syndrome. There is evidence of central auditory pathway involvement in the brainstem. Imaging studies are needed to clarify the clinical findings.

  11. A biophysical modelling platform of the cochlear nucleus and other auditory circuits: From channels to networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manis, Paul B; Campagnola, Luke

    2017-12-28

    Models of the auditory brainstem have been an invaluable tool for testing hypotheses about auditory information processing and for highlighting the most important gaps in the experimental literature. Due to the complexity of the auditory brainstem, and indeed most brain circuits, the dynamic behavior of the system may be difficult to predict without a detailed, biologically realistic computational model. Despite the sensitivity of models to their exact construction and parameters, most prior models of the cochlear nucleus have incorporated only a small subset of the known biological properties. This confounds the interpretation of modelling results and also limits the potential future uses of these models, which require a large effort to develop. To address these issues, we have developed a general purpose, biophysically detailed model of the cochlear nucleus for use both in testing hypotheses about cochlear nucleus function and also as an input to models of downstream auditory nuclei. The model implements conductance-based Hodgkin-Huxley representations of cells using a Python-based interface to the NEURON simulator. Our model incorporates most of the quantitatively characterized intrinsic cell properties, synaptic properties, and connectivity available in the literature, and also aims to reproduce the known response properties of the canonical cochlear nucleus cell types. Although we currently lack the empirical data to completely constrain this model, our intent is for the model to continue to incorporate new experimental results as they become available. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  13. Review: Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ja'fari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depression, and hyper acute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of the sound of a miracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  14. Clinical and radiological features of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qiu LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. Methods  The clinical and imaging data of 3 cases of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy were summarized and analyzed for the purpose of improving the acumen in diagnosis and treatment. Results All the 3 patients showed relatively mild clinical symptoms, and they were misdiagnosed in different degrees during the treatment, but their clinical symptoms were improved by rapid and effective antihypertensive therapy. Cerebral CT and MRI scans revealed extensive abnormal signals in brain stem, with or without supratentorial lesions and brain stem hemorrhage. The lesions as revealed by imaging were improved significantly after treatment. Conclusions Clinical-radiographic dissociation is the classic feature of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. The clinical symptoms and lesions as shown by imaging could be improved after active treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.03

  15. The scolopidial accessory organ in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing. Scolopidial sensilla occur in the posterior subgenual organ and the accessory organ in all leg pairs. The accessory organ contains 10-17 scolopidial sensilla. Both groups of sensilla are commonly spatially separated. However, in few cases neuronal fibres occurred between both organs. The two sensillum groups are considered as separate organs by the general spatial separation and innervation by different nerve branches. A functional role for mechanoreception is considered: since the accessory organ is located closely under the cuticle, sensilla may be suited to detect vibrations transferred over the leg's surface. This study extends the known taxa with an accessory organ, which occurs in several taxa of Ensifera. Comparative neuroanatomy thus suggests that the accessory organ may be conserved at least in Tettigoniidea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bispectral Index Changes during Acute Brainstem TIA/Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris P. Bleeker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 76-year-old patient who suffered a brainstem TIA just before being anesthetised for cardiac surgery. The TIA was registered on BIS and resulted in a drop in BIS to a value of 60. When consciousness returned spontaneously, the BIS increased to 85. The relative use of the BIS during an operation is discussed. We believe that the lack of input from the brainstem to the frontal cortex resulted in the reduced cortical electrical activity as registered with the BIS.

  17. Aktiverende Undervisning i auditorier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parus, Judith

    Workshop om erfaringer og brug af aktiverende metoder i undervisning i auditorier og på store hold. Hvilke metoder har fungeret godt og hvilke dårligt ? Hvilke overvejelser skal man gøre sig.......Workshop om erfaringer og brug af aktiverende metoder i undervisning i auditorier og på store hold. Hvilke metoder har fungeret godt og hvilke dårligt ? Hvilke overvejelser skal man gøre sig....

  18. Auditory Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  19. Loss of auditory sensitivity from inner hair cell synaptopathy can be centrally compensated in the young but not old brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhrle, Dorit; Ni, Kun; Varakina, Ksenya; Bing, Dan; Lee, Sze Chim; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Knipper, Marlies; Rüttiger, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    A dramatic shift in societal demographics will lead to rapid growth in the number of older people with hearing deficits. Poorer performance in suprathreshold speech understanding and temporal processing with age has been previously linked with progressing inner hair cell (IHC) synaptopathy that precedes age-dependent elevation of auditory thresholds. We compared central sound responsiveness after acoustic trauma in young, middle-aged, and older rats. We demonstrate that IHC synaptopathy progresses from middle age onward and hearing threshold becomes elevated from old age onward. Interestingly, middle-aged animals could centrally compensate for the loss of auditory fiber activity through an increase in late auditory brainstem responses (late auditory brainstem response wave) linked to shortening of central response latencies. In contrast, old animals failed to restore central responsiveness, which correlated with reduced temporal resolution in responding to amplitude changes. These findings may suggest that cochlear IHC synaptopathy with age does not necessarily induce temporal auditory coding deficits, as long as the capacity to generate neuronal gain maintains normal sound-induced central amplitudes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reverberation impairs brainstem temporal representations of voiced vowel sounds: challenging periodicity-tagged segregation of competing speech in rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eSayles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system typically processes information from concurrently active sound sources (e.g., two voices speaking at once, in the presence of multiple delayed, attenuated and distorted sound-wave reflections (reverberation. Brainstem circuits help segregate these complex acoustic mixtures into auditory objects. Psychophysical studies demonstrate a strong interaction between reverberation and fundamental-frequency (F0 modulation, leading to impaired segregation of competing vowels when segregation is on the basis of F0 differences. Neurophysiological studies of complex-sound segregation have concentrated on sounds with steady F0s, in anechoic environments. However, F0 modulation and reverberation are quasi-ubiquitous.We examine the ability of 129 single units in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the anesthetized guinea pig to segregate the concurrent synthetic vowel sounds /a/ and /i/, based on temporal discharge patterns under closed-field conditions. We address the effects of added real-room reverberation, F0 modulation, and the interaction of these two factors, on brainstem neural segregation of voiced speech sounds. A firing-rate representation of single-vowels’ spectral envelopes is robust to the combination of F0 modulation and reverberation: local firing-rate maxima and minima across the tonotopic array code vowel-formant structure. However, single-vowel F0-related periodicity information in shuffled inter-spike interval distributions is significantly degraded in the combined presence of reverberation and F0 modulation. Hence, segregation of double-vowels’ spectral energy into two streams (corresponding to the two vowels, on the basis of temporal discharge patterns, is impaired by reverberation; specifically when F0 is modulated. All unit types (primary-like, chopper, onset are similarly affected. These results offer neurophysiological insights to perceptual organization of complex acoustic scenes under realistically challenging

  1. Reverberation impairs brainstem temporal representations of voiced vowel sounds: challenging "periodicity-tagged" segregation of competing speech in rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Mark; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Winter, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system typically processes information from concurrently active sound sources (e.g., two voices speaking at once), in the presence of multiple delayed, attenuated and distorted sound-wave reflections (reverberation). Brainstem circuits help segregate these complex acoustic mixtures into "auditory objects." Psychophysical studies demonstrate a strong interaction between reverberation and fundamental-frequency (F0) modulation, leading to impaired segregation of competing vowels when segregation is on the basis of F0 differences. Neurophysiological studies of complex-sound segregation have concentrated on sounds with steady F0s, in anechoic environments. However, F0 modulation and reverberation are quasi-ubiquitous. We examine the ability of 129 single units in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of the anesthetized guinea pig to segregate the concurrent synthetic vowel sounds /a/ and /i/, based on temporal discharge patterns under closed-field conditions. We address the effects of added real-room reverberation, F0 modulation, and the interaction of these two factors, on brainstem neural segregation of voiced speech sounds. A firing-rate representation of single-vowels' spectral envelopes is robust to the combination of F0 modulation and reverberation: local firing-rate maxima and minima across the tonotopic array code vowel-formant structure. However, single-vowel F0-related periodicity information in shuffled inter-spike interval distributions is significantly degraded in the combined presence of reverberation and F0 modulation. Hence, segregation of double-vowels' spectral energy into two streams (corresponding to the two vowels), on the basis of temporal discharge patterns, is impaired by reverberation; specifically when F0 is modulated. All unit types (primary-like, chopper, onset) are similarly affected. These results offer neurophysiological insights to perceptual organization of complex acoustic scenes under realistically challenging listening

  2. Reverberation impairs brainstem temporal representations of voiced vowel sounds: challenging “periodicity-tagged” segregation of competing speech in rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Mark; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Winter, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system typically processes information from concurrently active sound sources (e.g., two voices speaking at once), in the presence of multiple delayed, attenuated and distorted sound-wave reflections (reverberation). Brainstem circuits help segregate these complex acoustic mixtures into “auditory objects.” Psychophysical studies demonstrate a strong interaction between reverberation and fundamental-frequency (F0) modulation, leading to impaired segregation of competing vowels when segregation is on the basis of F0 differences. Neurophysiological studies of complex-sound segregation have concentrated on sounds with steady F0s, in anechoic environments. However, F0 modulation and reverberation are quasi-ubiquitous. We examine the ability of 129 single units in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of the anesthetized guinea pig to segregate the concurrent synthetic vowel sounds /a/ and /i/, based on temporal discharge patterns under closed-field conditions. We address the effects of added real-room reverberation, F0 modulation, and the interaction of these two factors, on brainstem neural segregation of voiced speech sounds. A firing-rate representation of single-vowels' spectral envelopes is robust to the combination of F0 modulation and reverberation: local firing-rate maxima and minima across the tonotopic array code vowel-formant structure. However, single-vowel F0-related periodicity information in shuffled inter-spike interval distributions is significantly degraded in the combined presence of reverberation and F0 modulation. Hence, segregation of double-vowels' spectral energy into two streams (corresponding to the two vowels), on the basis of temporal discharge patterns, is impaired by reverberation; specifically when F0 is modulated. All unit types (primary-like, chopper, onset) are similarly affected. These results offer neurophysiological insights to perceptual organization of complex acoustic scenes under realistically challenging listening

  3. Electrophysiological assessment of auditory processing disorder in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoran; McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian

    2016-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate is a common congenital craniofacial malformation found worldwide. A frequently associated disorder is conductive hearing loss, and this disorder has been thoroughly investigated in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). However, analysis of auditory processing function is rarely reported for this population, although this issue should not be ignored since abnormal auditory cortical structures have been found in populations with cleft disorders. The present study utilized electrophysiological tests to assess the auditory status of a large group of children with NSCL/P, and investigated whether this group had less robust central auditory processing abilities compared to craniofacially normal children. 146 children with NSCL/P who had normal peripheral hearing thresholds, and 60 craniofacially normal children aged from 6 to 15 years, were recruited. Electrophysiological tests, including auditory brainstem response (ABR), P1-N1-P2 complex, and P300 component recording, were conducted. ABR and N1 wave latencies were significantly prolonged in children with NSCL/P. An atypical developmental trend was found for long latency potentials in children with cleft compared to control group children. Children with unilateral cleft lip and palate showed a greater level of abnormal results compared with other cleft subgroups, whereas the cleft lip subgroup had the most robust responses for all tests. Children with NSCL/P may have slower than normal neural transmission times between the peripheral auditory nerve and brainstem. Possible delayed development of myelination and synaptogenesis may also influence auditory processing function in this population. Present research outcomes were consistent with previous, smaller sample size, electrophysiological studies on infants and children with cleft lip/palate disorders. In view of the these findings, and reports of educational disadvantage associated with cleft disorders, further research

  4. Electrophysiological assessment of auditory processing disorder in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoran Ma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Cleft lip and/or palate is a common congenital craniofacial malformation found worldwide. A frequently associated disorder is conductive hearing loss, and this disorder has been thoroughly investigated in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P. However, analysis of auditory processing function is rarely reported for this population, although this issue should not be ignored since abnormal auditory cortical structures have been found in populations with cleft disorders. The present study utilized electrophysiological tests to assess the auditory status of a large group of children with NSCL/P, and investigated whether this group had less robust central auditory processing abilities compared to craniofacially normal children. Methods 146 children with NSCL/P who had normal peripheral hearing thresholds, and 60 craniofacially normal children aged from 6 to 15 years, were recruited. Electrophysiological tests, including auditory brainstem response (ABR, P1-N1-P2 complex, and P300 component recording, were conducted. Results ABR and N1 wave latencies were significantly prolonged in children with NSCL/P. An atypical developmental trend was found for long latency potentials in children with cleft compared to control group children. Children with unilateral cleft lip and palate showed a greater level of abnormal results compared with other cleft subgroups, whereas the cleft lip subgroup had the most robust responses for all tests. Conclusion Children with NSCL/P may have slower than normal neural transmission times between the peripheral auditory nerve and brainstem. Possible delayed development of myelination and synaptogenesis may also influence auditory processing function in this population. Present research outcomes were consistent with previous, smaller sample size, electrophysiological studies on infants and children with cleft lip/palate disorders. In view of the these findings, and reports of educational

  5. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways James Kulig , Bruce ... rate, which can be dangerous. What is Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome? Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is ...

  6. Design of a marine sediment trap and accessories

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Fernando, V.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    The marine sediment trap and the mooring accessories were developed indigenously and were used successfully for the collection of settling sediments in the Arabian Sea The experience gained in using sediment trap and further improvements...

  7. ISO and EIGA standards for cryogenic vessels and accessories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The EIGA/WG 6’s scope is cryogenic vessels and accessories, including their design, material compatibility, operational requirements and periodical inspection. The specific responsibilities include monitoring international standardization (ISO, CEN) and regulations (UN, TPED, PED...

  8. Intraparenchymal papillary meningioma of brainstem: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiao-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Both intraparenchymal papillary meningioma and papillary meningioma with cyst formation of brainstem have never been reported. The authors present an extremely rare case of patient with intraparenchymal papillary meningioma of brainstem. A 23-year-old Chinese male presented with a 4-month history of progressive left upper limb and facial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic-solid, heterogeneously enhancing mass in pons and right cerebral peduncle with no dural attachment. The tumor was totally removed via subtemporal approach. During surgery, the lesion was found to be completely intraparenchymal. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations were compatible with the diagnosis of papillary meningioma. The lesion recurred nine months after primary surgery, a second surgery followed by radiotherapy was performed. Till to now (nearly 2 years after the treatment, the patient is tumor free survival. Intraparenchymal meningioma of brainstem with cystic formation is very rare, however, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a brainstem neoplasm. The present case strongly recommended that postoperative radiotherapy was essential for the patients with papillary meningiomas.

  9. Brainstem cytokine changes in healthy ageing and Motor Neurone Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Anuradha; Katharesan, Viythia; Johnson, Ian P

    2017-10-15

    Neuroinflammation is linked to healthy ageing, but its role in the development of age-related neurodegenerative diseases is unclear. In this pilot study we used a multiplex assay approach to compare 27 cytokines in 6 young adult and 6 ageing control brainstems with those in 6 MND brainstems. We report that healthy ageing is associated with significantly increased brainstem levels of IL-1β, IP-10 and MIP-1β which co-localise immunocytochemically to astrocytes. MND brainstem is also characterised by a general increase in both pro- and anti-cytokine levels, but fails to show the expected age-related increase in MIP-1β and IP-10. This pilot study is the first to show that MND is associated with a failure of specific features of the normal age-related neuroinflammatory process. We suggest that our pilot data indicates that neuroinflammation during healthy ageing may not always be detrimental to motoneuronal survival and that age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as MND, may instead result from defective neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anorectic brainstem peptides: more pieces to the puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckman, Simon M; Lawrence, Catherine B

    2003-03-01

    Eating a meal is a mechanical process involving autonomous pathways that relay sensory and motor information between the whole length of the digestive tract and the central nervous system. This circuitry is able to initiate and terminate the meal, primarily by gut-brainstem-gut reflex arcs, and is independent of the caloric content of a meal. However, as part of our ability to regulate body weight over time, we must be able to modulate the amount of energy that we take in as food and the amount of energy that we expend. Thus, the gut-brainstem axis must be coupled to other systems that take account of factors such as food availability and preference, changing energy requirements and our social habits. Here, we review the importance of the brainstem nucleus of the tractus solitarius as a site of integration and the routes by which it connects the gut-brainstem axis with regulatory neuronal and endocrine networks that allow for strict body weight management.

  11. Stance disturbance in multiple sclerosis: brainstem lesions and posturographic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. Balance disorders are commonly evidenced during the course of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study is to report characteristics of MS patient stance control disorders, measured by means of posturography and related to the brainstem lesions.

    Methods. Thirty-eight patients affected by MS, mildly to moderately disable according to Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Scale, underwent a complete clinical neurological and vestibular evaluation and brain MRI scanning. All patients were then tested on a static posturography platform (Tetrax, Israel in four conditions: eyes open and closed standing on a firm surface and on a foam pad.

    Results. Clinical and/or MRI evidence of brainstem involvement was observed in 55.3 % of patients. When brainstem lesion was detected, Fourier analysis showed a typical pattern characterized by inversion of the  0- 0.1 Hz and  0.1 - 0.25 Hz. frequency bands.

    Conclusions. MS leads to pervasive postural disturbances in the majority of subjects, including the visuo-vestibular loops and proprioception involving vestibulo-spinal pathways in at least 55.3 % of patients. Our results may also suggest the presence of Fourier inversion in patients with brainstem lesions.


  12. Effects of Noise Exposure on the Auditory Function of Ovariectomized Rats with Estrogen Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xujun; Wang, Ying; Lau, Chi Chuen

    2016-12-01

    The benefits of estrogen for the auditory function of women depend on a number of factors. In this study, we aimed to examine the impact of noise trauma on the auditory function of ovariectomized rats with estrogen deficiency. Twenty-eight young, female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three groups (OVX+N, OVX-N, Sham+N). Rats in the OVX+N group and the OVX-N group underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX); the OVX+N group alone was also exposed to white noise (N) of 115 dB SPL for 8 hours a day over 14 days. The Sham+N group consisted of rats with intact ovaries that were exposed to the same noise. The auditory function of all rats was measured before treatment and after noise exposure by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and the threshold of auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR). The Sham+N group (intact ovaries, noise-exposed) had worse auditory function than the OVX-N group (ovariectomy, no noise). The OVX+N group had decreased SNRs of DPOAE and increased ABR thresholds relative to the Sham+N group. Noise exposure may cause greater damage to auditory function when estrogen levels are low in females.

  13. Early Hearing-Impairment Results in Crossmodal Reorganization of Ferret Core Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alex Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations of cortical crossmodal plasticity, most often in congenital or early-deaf subjects, have indicated that secondary auditory cortical areas reorganize to exhibit visual responsiveness while the core auditory regions are largely spared. However, a recent study of adult-deafened ferrets demonstrated that core auditory cortex was reorganized by the somatosensory modality. Because adult animals have matured beyond their critical period of sensory development and plasticity, it was not known if adult-deafening and early-deafening would generate the same crossmodal results. The present study used young, ototoxically-lesioned ferrets (n=3 that, after maturation (avg. = 173 days old, showed significant hearing deficits (avg. threshold = 72 dB SPL. Recordings from single-units (n=132 in core auditory cortex showed that 72% were activated by somatosensory stimulation (compared to 1% in hearing controls. In addition, tracer injection into early hearing-impaired core auditory cortex labeled essentially the same auditory cortical and thalamic projection sources as seen for injections in the hearing controls, indicating that the functional reorganization was not the result of new or latent projections to the cortex. These data, along with similar observations from adult-deafened and adult hearing-impaired animals, support the recently proposed brainstem theory for crossmodal plasticity induced by hearing loss.

  14. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  15. Incidence Of The Mandibular Accessory Foramina In Brazilian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, A. R.; Rossi, A. C.; Prado, F. B.; Caria, P. H F; Botacin, Paulo Roberto [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the mandibular accessory foramina are variables and are located on the medial surface of the mandible in positions above or below of the mandibular foramen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the mandibular accessory foramina in Brazilians human mandibles and discuss the clinical aspects related to the presence of these foramina. Were evaluated 222 mandibles, adults, irrespective of gender. Was observed that 27.93% and 43.24% of the mandibles presented at least ...

  16. Invasive lobular carcinoma arising in accessory breast tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Catriona; Courtney, Carol-Ann; Deb, Rahul; Agrawal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lobular carcinoma in accessory breast tissue is a rare occurrence. We present such a case in a 61-year-old woman. \\ud \\ud Case presentation: A skin nodule in the axillary skin on excision biopsy revealed invasive lobular carcinoma.\\ud \\ud Conclusions: Carcinoma in accessory breast tissue is uncommon especially invasive lobular type. A high index of suspicion may avoid late diagnosis.

  17. Cryoablation of accessory pathways in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Volkan

    2007-09-01

    Cryoablation is utilized for septal tachycardia substrates due its safety. Considering the recent studies which reveal coronary artery stenosis related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in children, cryoablation may offer advantages for nonseptal accessory pathways (APs) as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of cryoablation of APs in children. A total of 39 patients (median age = 9.3 years, range 4.8 to 17.2 years) underwent cryoablation of APs. A three-dimensional, surface electrode-based navigation system (EnSite NavX, St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) is used to decrease the fluoroscopy exposure. A total of 45 APs were identified. Of these APs, 23 were septal (anteroseptal, midseptal, posteroseptal) and 22 were nonseptal. Acute success rate with cryoablation was 73%. RFA was used when cryoablation failed and overall acute success rate was 84%. To assess for the effect of institutional experience, the initial 23 APs were compared to the recent 22 APs and acute success rate revealed significant improvement (57% vs. 91%). Recurrence rate was 24% during a median follow-up of 282 days. Cryoablation of APs is safe and yields to high acute success rates in children. It can potentially be used as the first ablation option for all APs in children. However, recurrence rate is higher compared to the RFA and there is a need for prospective comparative studies.

  18. Integration of auditory and visual speech information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, M.; Smeele, P.M.T.; Kuhl, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual speech is observed when modes specify different places of articulation. Influences of auditory variation on integration were examined using consonant identifi-cation, plus quality and similarity ratings. Auditory identification predicted auditory-visual

  19. Testing native language neural commitment at the brainstem level: A cross-linguistic investigation of the association between frequency-following response and speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Luodi; Zhang, Yang

    2017-12-12

    A current topic in auditory neurophysiology is how brainstem sensory coding contributes to higher-level perceptual, linguistic and cognitive skills. This cross-language study was designed to compare frequency following responses (FFRs) for lexical tones in tonal (Mandarin Chinese) and non-tonal (English) language users and test the correlational strength between FFRs and behavior as a function of language experience. The behavioral measures were obtained in the Garner paradigm to assess how lexical tones might interfere with vowel category and duration judgement. The FFR results replicated previous findings about between-group differences, showing enhanced pitch tracking responses in the Chinese subjects. The behavioral data from the two subject groups showed that lexical tone variation in the vowel stimuli significantly interfered with vowel identification with a greater effect in the Chinese group. Moreover, the FFRs for lexical tone contours were significantly correlated with the behavioral interference only in the Chinese group. This pattern of language-specific association between speech perception and brainstem-level neural phase-locking of linguistic pitch information provides evidence for a possible native language neural commitment at the subcortical level, highlighting the role of experience-dependent brainstem tuning in influencing subsequent linguistic processing in the adult brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Structural, Functional and Molecular Organization of the Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf eNieuwenhuys

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Wilhelm His (1891, 1893 the brainstem consists of two longitudinal zones, the dorsal alar plate (sensory in nature and the ventral basal plate (motor in nature. Johnston and Herrick indicated that both plates can be subdivided into separate somatic and visceral zones, distinguishing somatosensory and viscerosensory zones within the alar plate, and visceromotor and somatomotor zones within the basal plate. To test the validity of this ‘four-functional-zones’ concept, I developed a topological procedure, surveying the spatial relationships of the various cell masses in the brainstem in a single figure. Brainstems of 16 different anamniote species were analyzed, and revealed that the brainstems are clearly divisible into four morphological zones, which correspond largely with the functional zones of Johnston and Herrick. Exceptions include (1 the magnocellular vestibular nucleus situated in the viscerosensory zone; (2 the basal plate containing a number of evidently non-motor centres (superior and inferior olives. Nevertheless the ‘functional zonal model’ has explanatory value. Thus, it is possible to interpret certain brain specializations related to particular behavioural profiles, as ‘local hypertrophies’ of one or two functional columns. Recent developmental molecular studies on brains of birds and mammals confirmed the presence of longitudinal zones, and also showed molecularly defined transverse bands or neuromeres throughout development. The intersecting boundaries of the longitudinal zones and the transverse bands appeared to delimit radially arranged histogenetic domains. Because neuromeres have been observed in embryonic and larval stages of numerous anamniote species, it may be hypothesized that the brainstems of all vertebrates share a basic organizational plan, in which intersecting longitudinal and transverse zones form fundamental histogenetic and genoarchitectonic units.

  1. Cochlear injury and adaptive plasticity of the auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA R. eFETONI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cochlear stressors as noise exposure and aging can induce homeostatic/maladaptive changes in the central auditory system from the brainstem to the cortex. Studies centered on such changes have revealed several mechanisms that operate in the context of sensory disruption after insult (noise trauma, drug- or age-related injury. The oxidative stress is central to current theories of induced sensory neural hearing loss and aging, and interventions to attenuate the hearing loss are based on antioxidant agent. The present review addresses the recent literature on the alterations in hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons due to noise-induced oxidative stress in the cochlea, as well on the impact of cochlear damage on the auditory cortex neurons. The emerging image emphasizes that noise-induced deafferentation and upward spread of cochlear damage is associated with the altered dendritic architecture of auditory pyramidal neurons. The cortical modifications may be reversed by treatment with antioxidants counteracting the cochlear redox imbalance. These findings open new therapeutic approaches to treat the functional consequences of the cortical reorganization following cochlear damage.

  2. Non-auditory, electrophysiological potentials preceding dolphin biosonar click production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, James J; Mulsow, Jason; Jones, Ryan; Houser, Dorian S; Accomando, Alyssa W; Ridgway, Sam H

    2018-03-01

    The auditory brainstem response to a dolphin's own emitted biosonar click can be measured by averaging epochs of the instantaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) that are time-locked to the emitted click. In this study, averaged EEGs were measured using surface electrodes placed on the head in six different configurations while dolphins performed an echolocation task. Simultaneously, biosonar click emissions were measured using contact hydrophones on the melon and a hydrophone in the farfield. The averaged EEGs revealed an electrophysiological potential (the pre-auditory wave, PAW) that preceded the production of each biosonar click. The largest PAW amplitudes occurred with the non-inverting electrode just right of the midline-the apparent side of biosonar click generation-and posterior of the blowhole. Although the source of the PAW is unknown, the temporal and spatial properties rule out an auditory source. The PAW may be a neural or myogenic potential associated with click production; however, it is not known if muscles within the dolphin nasal system can be actuated at the high rates reported for dolphin click production, or if sufficiently coordinated and fast motor endplates of nasal muscles exist to produce a PAW detectable with surface electrodes.

  3. Octave effect in auditory attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobias Borra; Huib Versnel; Chantal Kemner; A. John van Opstal; Raymond van Ee

    2013-01-01

    ... tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone...

  4. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  5. Evaluation of an auditory assessment protocol for Chinese infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Frank F; McPherson, Bradley; Shu, Huang

    2012-09-01

    To objectively investigate the auditory status of mainland Chinese infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate and to evaluate an auditory assessment protocol for this group. Prospective cohort case review. A total of 42 Chinese infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate aged 6 to 24 months. The hearing profiles of participants were acquired using otoscopy, tympanometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, and auditory brainstem response estimated hearing threshold. The efficiency of the current audiological test battery was analyzed also. Sixty-four (64.2) percent of infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (55.9% of ears) were suspected to have middle ear disorder, and 85.7% of all subjects (83.3% of ears) were found to have hearing loss. Of those with confirmed loss, the overall mean auditory brainstem response estimated air-conduction hearing threshold was 53.5 ± 13.6 decibel normal hearing level [db nHL]. Using auditory brainstem response thresholds as a reference standard, the diagnostic agreement with the other assessment tools for normal/abnormal results was otoscopy, 69% (κ  =  .57); tympanometry, 66.7% (κ  =  .53); and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, 80% (κ  =  .64). The high prevalence of middle ear disease and hearing loss in mainland Chinese infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate in this study was in contrast to previous studies of older age groups of Chinese children conducted in Hong Kong and Singapore. The audiological assessment protocol used in our study could provide useful information; although, modifications may be necessary to ensure a complete diagnostic overview for children with craniofacial clefts.

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging of the brainstem in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Carson, Kathryn A; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brainstem, microstructural integrity of the white matter in children with achondroplasia and age-matched participants and to correlate the severity of craniocervical junction (CCJ) narrowing and neurological findings with DTI scalars in children with achondroplasia. This study also aimed to assess the potential role of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 on white matter microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed using a 1.5T magnetic resonance scanner and balanced pairs of diffusion gradients along 20 non-collinear directions. Measurements were obtained from regions of interest, sampled in each pontine corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus, and middle cerebellar peduncle, as well as in the lower brainstem and centrum semiovale, for fractional anisotropy and for mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. In addition, a severity score for achondroplasia was assessed by measuring CCJ narrowing. Eight patients with achondroplasia (seven males, one female; mean age 5y 6mo, range 1y 1mo-15y 1mo) and eight age- and sex-matched comparison participants (mean age 5y 2mo, range 1y 1mo-14y 11mo) were included in this study. Fractional anisotropy was lower and mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity were higher in the lower brainstem of patients with achondroplasia than in age-matched comparison participants. The CST and middle cerebellar peduncle of the participants showed increases in mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. Fractional anisotropy in the lower brainstem was negatively correlated with the degree of CCJ narrowing. No differences in the DTI metrics of the centrum semiovale were observed between the two groups. The reduction in fractional anisotropy and increase in diffusivities in the lower brainstem of participants with achondroplasia may reflect secondary encephalomalacic degeneration and cavitation of the affected white matter tracts as shown by histology. In

  7. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences.

  8. Auditory steady state cortical responses indicate deviant phonemic-rate processing in adults with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen; Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Speech intelligibility is strongly influenced by the ability to process temporal modulations. It is hypothesized that in dyslexia, deficient processing of rapidly changing auditory information underlies a deficient development of phonological representations, causing reading and spelling problems. Low-frequency modulations between 4 and 20 Hz correspond to the processing rate of important phonological segments (syllables and phonemes, respectively) in speech and therefore provide a bridge between low-level auditory and phonological processing. In the present study, temporal modulation processing was investigated by auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in normal-reading and dyslexic adults. Multichannel ASSRs were recorded in normal-reading and dyslexic adults in response to speech-weighted noise stimuli amplitude modulated at 80, 20, and 4 Hz. The 80 Hz modulation is known to be primarily generated by the brainstem, whereas the 20 and 4 Hz modulations are mainly generated in the cortex. Furthermore, the 20 and 4 Hz modulations provide an objective auditory performance measure related to phonemic- and syllabic-rate processing. In addition to neurophysiological measures, psychophysical tests of speech-in-noise perception and phonological awareness were assessed. On the basis of response strength and phase coherence measures, normal-reading and dyslexic participants showed similar processing at the brainstem level. At the cortical level of the auditory system, dyslexic subjects demonstrated deviant phonemic-rate responses compared with normal readers, whereas no group differences were found for the syllabic rate. Furthermore, a relationship between phonemic-rate ASSRs and psychophysical tests of speech-in-noise perception and phonological awareness was obtained. The results suggest reduced cortical processing for phonemic-rate modulations in dyslexic adults, presumably resulting in limited integration of temporal information in the dorsal phonological pathway.

  9. Developmental trends in auditory processing can provide early predictions of language acquisition in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2013-03-01

    Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory - Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The Brainstem and Serotonin in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Hannah C.; Richerson, George B.; Dymecki, Susan M.; Darnall, Robert A.; Nattie, Eugene E.

    2012-01-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant under one year of age that is typically associated with sleep and that remains unexplained after a complete autopsy and death scene investigation. A leading hypothesis about its pathogenesis is that many cases result from defects in brainstem-mediated protective responses to homeostatic stressors occurring during sleep in a critical developmental period. Here we review the evidence for the brainstem hypothesis in SIDS with a focus upon abnormalities related to the neurotransmitter serotonin in the medulla oblongata, as these are the most robust pathologic findings to date. In this context, we synthesize the human autopsy data with genetic, whole-animal, and cellular data concerning the function and development of the medullary serotonergic system. These emerging data suggest an important underlying mechanism in SIDS that may help lead to identification of infants at risk and specific interventions to prevent death. PMID:19400695

  11. Brainstem electrical responses from selected tone pip stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M H; Seitz, M R; Jacobson, J T

    1979-01-01

    Brainstem-electrical responses were obtained from 10 normal hearing adult subjects using frequency specific tone pips as stimuli. The four frequency specific tone pips (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) were diamond shaped with a 2.5-msec rise/fall time. Each tone pip was presented at four intensity levels (70, 50, 30, and 10 dB hearing threshold level), and graphic recordings were made for each frequency at the specific intensity levels. Frequency specific Wave V intensity-latency functions were plotted, and these results were compared to tone pip data obtained in previous studies. In addition, suggested test procedures for obtaining tone pip brainstem-evoked responses under diagnostic conditions are discussed.

  12. Hemicrania continua secondary to an ipsilateral brainstem lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Marcelo M; Andrade-Valença, Luciana P A; da Silva, Wilson Farias; Dodick, David W

    2007-03-01

    We describe a 47-year-old woman with a 3-year history of a continuum mild-moderate right-side headache, with exacerbations, associated with stabbing volleys of pain on right orbit-temporal region (10/10) and right eye ptosis and lacrimation with conjunctival injection. The pain was completely abolished with indomethacin (100 mg per day). The diagnosis of hemicrania continua was made according to the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. The headache presentation was precipitated by a stroke and a right-side brainstem lesion was present at magnetic resonance imaging. This case report shows anatomoclinical evidence of the involvement of brainstem structures on the pathophysiology of hemicrania continua.

  13. Incidental auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K; Zevin, Jason D; Holt, Lori L

    2015-08-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in 1 of 4 possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from 1 of 4 distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Modelling auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information-a phenomenon referred to as the 'cocktail party problem'. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by 'bottom-up' sensory-driven factors, as well as 'top-down' task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Auditory Channel Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher's guide contains a list of general auditory problem areas where students have the following problems: (a) inability to find or identify source of sound; (b) difficulty in discriminating sounds of words and letters; (c) difficulty with reproducing pitch, rhythm, and melody; (d) difficulty in selecting important from unimportant sounds;…

  16. Development of auditory sensitivity in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Anna; Baxter, Caitlin; Hendrix, Alayna; Carr, Catherine E

    2017-10-01

    Adult barn owl hearing is acute, but development of this sense is not well understood. We, therefore, measured auditory brainstem responses in barn owls from before the onset of hearing (posthatch day 2, or P2) to adulthood (P69). The first consistent responses were detected at P4 for 1 and 2 kHz, followed by responses to 0.5 and 4 kHz at P9, and 5 kHz at P13. Sensitivity to higher frequencies increased with age, with responses to 12 kHz appearing about 2 months after hatching, once the facial ruff was mature. Therefore, these altricial birds achieve their sensitivity to sound during a prolonged period of development, which coincides with maturation of the skull and facial ruff (Haresign and Moiseff in Auk 105:699-705, 1988).

  17. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  18. Thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar glucose metabolism in the hemiplegic monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, I.; Dauth, G.W.; Gilman, S.; Frey, K.A.; Penney, J.B. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    Unilateral ablation of cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 of Brodmann in the macaque monkey results in a contralateral hemiplegia that resolves partially with time. During the phase of dense hemiplegia, local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (1CMRG1c) is decreased significantly in most of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation, and there are slight contralateral decreases. The lCMRGlc is reduced bilaterally in most of the brainstem nuclei and bilaterally in the deep cerebellar nuclei, but only in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. During the phase of partial motor recovery, lCMRGlc is incompletely restored in many of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation and completely restored in the contralateral nuclei. In the brainstem and deep cerebellar nuclei, poor to moderate recovery occurs bilaterally. Moderate recovery occurs in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. The findings demonstrate that a unilateral cerebral cortical lesion strongly affects lCMRGlc in the thalamus ipsilaterally and in the cerebellar cortex contralaterally, but in the brainstem bilaterally. Partial recovery of lCMRGlc accompanies the progressive motor recovery. The structures affected include those with direct, and also those with indirect, connections to the areas ablated.

  19. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis presenting as a brainstem encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel S; Perez, Sarah R; Gundacker, Nathan D; Franco, Ricardo; Han, Xiaosi

    2016-04-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a disease characterized by inflammation and destruction of myelin. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is a severe form of ADEM known for its particularly poor outcome. We present a case of a young Caucasian female who presented with drowsiness and slurred speech followed by rapid brainstem involvement resembling rhomboencephalitis. Despite multiple diagnostic tests and empiric therapy with immunosuppressants, immunoglobulins, and antimicrobials, she lost most brainstem reflexes within a few weeks and ultimately passed away. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed progression of lesions from the brainstem to eventually involve bilateral cerebral hemispheres. Autopsy and microscopic examination of the brain revealed several hemorrhagic lesions throughout the brain and rendered a diagnosis of AHLE. AHLE was initially described in 1941 and is thought to be autoimmune related, possibly related to cross reactivity between the immune system and CNS tissues like myelin. While a definitive inciting pathogen was not discovered, this case emphasizes the importance of considering AHLE in the differential diagnosis of patients with rapid loss of neurologic function and highlights an atypical presentation of ADEM/AHLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping of neurokinin-like immunoreactivity in the human brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narvaez Jose

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we have studied the distribution of immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies containing neurokinin in the adult human brainstem with no prior history of neurological or psychiatric disease. Results Clusters of immunoreactive cell bodies and high densities of neurokinin-immunoreactive fibers were located in the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and in the reticular formation of the medulla, pons and mesencephalon. Moreover, immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the inferior colliculus, the raphe obscurus, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, and in the midline of the anterior medulla oblongata. In general, immunoreactive fibers containing neurokinin were observed throughout the whole brainstem. In addition to the nuclei mentioned above, the highest densities of such immunoreactive fibers were located in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the superior colliculus, the substantia nigra, the nucleus ambiguus, the gracile nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, the motor hypoglossal nucleus, the medial and superior vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and the interpeduncular nucleus. Conclusion The widespread distribution of immunoreactive structures containing neurokinin in the human brainstem indicates that neurokinin might be involved in several physiological mechanisms, acting as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator.

  1. Quality of life after brainstem cavernoma surgery in 71 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukatz, Thomas; Sarnthein, Johannes; Sitter, Helmut; Bozinov, Oliver; Benes, Ludwig; Sure, Ulrich; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-09-01

    Symptomatic patients with a brainstem cavernoma are treated surgically with increasing frequency. Generally, the patient's benefit from this difficult surgical intervention is quantified by the assessment of neurological symptoms. To document the beneficial effect of surgery in a larger patient population by assessing the postoperative quality of life (QoL). In a series of 71 surgically treated patients, a detailed neurological status was assessed by Patzold Rating and Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Patients rated their QoL with the Short Form 36 Health Survey. To document the effect of surgery on QoL, we devised a supplementary questionnaire. The last 24 patients completed Short Form 36 Health Survey pre- and postoperatively. Karnofsky Performance Status Scale improved in 44 of 71 surgical patients (62%), remained unchanged in 19 (27%), and deteriorated in 8 (11%) individuals. Patzold Rating showed a more detailed picture of the neurological symptoms. It correlated significantly with Karnofsky Performance Status Scale, which underscores its usefulness for patients with brainstem lesions. In the Short Form 36 Health Survey score, the Mental Component Summary improved with surgery (paired test, P = .015). In addition, 58 individuals (82%) declared a clear subjective benefit of surgery. The results of this large series support the notion that microsurgical removal of a brainstem cavernoma represents an effective therapy in experienced hands and is generally associated with good clinical outcome, both neurologically and in terms of QoL.

  2. Neurophysiological anomalies in brainstem responses of mercury-exposed children of Andean gold miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S Allen

    2003-01-01

    The health hazards of occupational exposure to Mercury (Hg) in adult gold miners are well known, but little attention has been given to the effects of Hg exposure in the children of gold miners. Children who assist their parents in gold mining operations or live in mining enclaves may be exposed to elemental Hg vapors or methylmercury-contaminated food, both of which may induce neurodevelopmental disabilities. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses (BAER) were measured as biomarkers of subtle mercury-induced neurological impairment in Andean children of gold miners living in the Ecuadorian gold mining settlement of Nambija, where Hg exposure is prevalent. Thirty-one children (19 boys and 12 girls, aged 4-14 years, mean age: 10 years) in the study group were found to have a mean blood mercury (HgB) level of 23.0 micrograms/L (SD: 19, range: 2.0-89.0 micrograms/L; median: 20 micrograms/L), which was significantly higher than the mean HgB level of a reference group of 21 Ecuadorian children (4.5 micrograms/L, SD: 2.3; t = 4.39, P = 0.0001), and in excess of the health-based biological limits for the U.S. (10 micrograms/L). The BAER measures indicated statistically significant differences in interpeak III-V (P = 0.03) and I-V (P = 0.008) neural conduction times for children with HgB levels above the median. BAERs at the conventional click stimulus rate of 10/second showed statistically significant positive correlations between HgB level and the absolute latency of wave V (P = 0.03), and the neural conduction times of the eighth nerve to midbrain I-V interval (P = 0.02). BAER at 50/second revealed statistically significant relationships between HgB and the latency of wave VI (P = 0.03), and the I-VI interpeak interval (P = 0.02). Brainstem neural conduction times suggested that some of the Hg-intoxicated children in the study group have subtle neurophysiological anomalies that may be more manifest at higher BAER stimulus rates, and that the Hg-exposed children of gold

  3. Metabolic Maturation of Auditory Neurones in the Superior Olivary Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Trattner

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity is energetically costly, but despite its importance, energy production and consumption have been studied in only a few neurone types. Neuroenergetics is of special importance in auditory brainstem nuclei, where neurones exhibit various biophysical adaptations for extraordinary temporal precision and show particularly high firing rates. We have studied the development of energy metabolism in three principal nuclei of the superior olivary complex (SOC involved in precise binaural processing in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus. We used immunohistochemistry to quantify metabolic markers for energy consumption (Na(+/K(+-ATPase and production (mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase activity and glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3. In addition, we calculated neuronal ATP consumption for different postnatal ages (P0-90 based upon published electrophysiological and morphological data. Our calculations relate neuronal processes to the regeneration of Na(+ gradients perturbed by neuronal firing, and thus to ATP consumption by Na(+/K(+-ATPase. The developmental changes of calculated energy consumption closely resemble those of metabolic markers. Both increase before and after hearing onset occurring at P12-13 and reach a plateau thereafter. The increase in Na(+/K(+-ATPase and mitochondria precedes the rise in GLUT3 levels and is already substantial before hearing onset, whilst GLUT3 levels are scarcely detectable at this age. Based on these findings we assume that auditory inputs crucially contribute to metabolic maturation. In one nucleus, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB, the initial rise in marker levels and calculated ATP consumption occurs distinctly earlier than in the other nuclei investigated, and is almost completed by hearing onset. Our study shows that the mathematical model used is applicable to brainstem neurones. Energy consumption varies markedly between SOC nuclei with their different neuronal properties

  4. Subdivisions of the auditory midbrain (n. mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis in zebra finches using calcium-binding protein immunocytochemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Logerot

    Full Text Available The midbrain nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd is thought to be the avian homologue of the central nucleus of the mammalian inferior colliculus. As such, it is a major relay in the ascending auditory pathway of all birds and in songbirds mediates the auditory feedback necessary for the learning and maintenance of song. To clarify the organization of MLd, we applied three calcium binding protein antibodies to tissue sections from the brains of adult male and female zebra finches. The staining patterns resulting from the application of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin antibodies differed from each other and in different parts of the nucleus. Parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity was distributed throughout the whole nucleus, as defined by the totality of the terminations of brainstem auditory afferents; in other words parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity defines the boundaries of MLd. Staining patterns of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin defined two regions of MLd: inner (MLd.I and outer (MLd.O. MLd.O largely surrounds MLd.I and is distinct from the surrounding intercollicular nucleus. Unlike the case in some non-songbirds, however, the two MLd regions do not correspond to the terminal zones of the projections of the brainstem auditory nuclei angularis and laminaris, which have been found to overlap substantially throughout the nucleus in zebra finches.

  5. Did auditory sensitivity and vocalization evolve independently in otophysan fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladich, F

    1999-01-01

    Otophysine fishes have a series of bones, the Weberian ossicles, which acoustically couple the swimbladder to the inner ear. These fishes have evolved a diversity of sound-generating organs and acoustic signals, although some species, such as the goldfish, are not known to be vocal. Utilizing a recently developed auditory brainstem response (ABR)-recording technique, the auditory sensitivities of representatives of seven families from all four otophysine orders were investigated and compared to the spectral content of their vocalizations. All species examined detect tone bursts from 100 Hz to 5 kHz, but ABR-audiograms revealed major differences in auditory sensitivities, especially at higher frequencies (>1 kHz) where thresholds differed by up to 50 dB. These differences showed no apparent correspondence to the ability to produce sounds (vocal versus non-vocal species) or to the spectral content of species-specific sounds. All fishes have maximum sensitivity between 400 Hz and 1,500 Hz, whereas the major portion of the energy of acoustic signals was in the frequency range of 100-400 Hz (swimbladder drumming sounds) and of 1-3 kHz (stridulatory sounds). Species producing stridulatory sounds exhibited better high-frequency hearing sensitivity (pimelodids, doradids), except for callichthyids, which had poorest hearing ability in this range. Furthermore, fishes emitting both low- and high-frequency sounds, such as pimelodid and doradid catfishes, did not possess two corresponding auditory sensitivity maxima. Based on these results it is concluded that selective pressures involved in the evolution of the Weberian apparatus and the design of vocal signals in otophysines were others (primarily predator or prey detection in quiet freshwater habitats) than those serving to optimize acoustical communication.

  6. Functional imaging of the human brainstem during somatosensory input and autonomic output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Anthony Henderson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past half a century, many experimental animal investigations have explored the role of various brainstem regions in a variety of conditions. Despite the accumulation of a considerable body of knowledge in primarily anaesthetized preparations, relatively few investigations have explored brainstem function in awake humans. It is important that human brainstem function is explored given that many neurological conditions, from obstructive sleep apnea, chronic pain and hypertension, likely involve significant changes in the processing of information within the brainstem. Recent advances in the collection and processing of magnetic resonance images, has resulted in the possibility of exploring brainstem activity changes in awake healthy individuals and in those with various clinical conditions. We and others have begun to explore changes in brainstem activity in humans during a number of challenges, including during cutaneous and muscle pain, as well as during challenges that evoke increases in sympathetic activity. More recently we have successfully recorded sympathetic nerve activity concurrently with fMRI of the brainstem, which will allow us, for the first time to explore brainstem sites directly responsible for conditions such as hypertension. Since many conditions will involve changes in brainstem function and structure, defining brainstem changes will likely result in a greater ability to develop more effective treatment regimes.

  7. The correlation between central auditory processing in autistic children and their language processing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouz, Hanan Galal; Kozou, Hesham; Khalil, Mona; Abdou, Rania M; Sakr, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    To study the auditory profile at different levels of the auditory system in children with ASD and to verify the role of (Central) auditory processing disorder as an essential pathology of the autistic disorder or as an associated co-morbidity, and to establish the correlation between CAP findings and the language delay in these cases. The study included 30 children with definite autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and ADI-R among those attending the outpatient neuropsychiatry clinic of Alexandria University Children Hospital at El Shatby. An informed consent was taken from all patients in this part of the study. Confidentiality of the records was maintained. All cases were subjected to complete history taking and examination; special assessment to language skills and evoked potentials were done. The results concluded that (central) auditory processing disorder is an essential pathology of the autistic disorder. Autistic children possess a dysfunctioning or an immature central auditory nervous system at both the brainstem and cortical levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accessory liver lobe in the left thoracic cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Serdar; Soylu, Lutfi

    2009-06-01

    Accessory liver of the thoracic cavity is usually asymptomatic, and its incidental detection is extremely rare. In this study, an unusual case of an accessory liver lobe of the thoracic cavity in a 26-year-old woman is described. A chest roentgenogram and thoracic computed tomographic scan revealed a mass in the left thoracic cavity. Left posterolateral thoracotomy was performed by removing a 10 x 8 x 5 cm(3) mass separated from lung. The arterial and venous supply of the mass originated from the abdomen. The diaphragm was found to be intact. The pathologist reported a normal hepatic tissue. This report presented a very rare occurrence of accessory liver in the thoracic cavity.

  9. Spatiotemporal reconstruction of auditory steady-state responses to acoustic amplitude modulations: Potential sources beyond the auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Ehsan Darestani; Goossens, Tine; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-03-01

    Investigating the neural generators of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), i.e., auditory evoked brain responses, with a wide range of screening and diagnostic applications, has been the focus of various studies for many years. Most of these studies employed a priori assumptions regarding the number and location of neural generators. The aim of this study is to reconstruct ASSR sources with minimal assumptions in order to gain in-depth insight into the number and location of brain regions that are activated in response to low- as well as high-frequency acoustically amplitude modulated signals. In order to reconstruct ASSR sources, we applied independent component analysis with subsequent equivalent dipole modeling to single-subject EEG data (young adults, 20-30 years of age). These data were based on white noise stimuli, amplitude modulated at 4, 20, 40, or 80Hz. The independent components that exhibited a significant ASSR were clustered among all participants by means of a probabilistic clustering method based on a Gaussian mixture model. Results suggest that a widely distributed network of sources, located in cortical as well as subcortical regions, is active in response to 4, 20, 40, and 80Hz amplitude modulated noises. Some of these sources are located beyond the central auditory pathway. Comparison of brain sources in response to different modulation frequencies suggested that the identified brain sources in the brainstem, the left and the right auditory cortex show a higher responsiveness to 40Hz than to the other modulation frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  11. Accessory carpal bone luxation in two gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Ellison, Michelle; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S

    2012-09-01

    Two sibling male castrated gray wolves (Canis lupus) developed acute onset right forelimb lameness, one at 8 and the other at 11 yr of age. In both cases, the right carpus was swollen, carpal hyperextension was notable, and the wolves exhibited significant intermittent lameness of the affected limb. Radiographs revealed right accessory carpal bone luxation in both cases, with type III fracture of the accessory carpal bone in one wolf. Although carpal bone luxation in domestic dogs is frequently treated surgically, conservative medical management resolved the lameness in both wolves with no further complications.

  12. Auditory object cognition in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Johanna C.; Kim, Lois G.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n = 7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n = 1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n = 20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as ‘auditory objects’, we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  13. Saccular dysfunction in children with sensorineural hearing loss and auditory neuropathy/auditory dys-synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seyede Faranak; Farahani, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    There is a correlation between the AN/AD disorder and the saccular dysfunction in children with severe sensorineural hearing loss, which means that saccular dysfunction can be a concomitant sign of AN/AD. In conclusion, the term of audio-vestibular dys-synchrony (AVS) is a more suitable description for this condition. Patients with auditory neuropathy/auditory dys-synchrony (AN/AD) characteristically demonstrate poor neural responses from the vestibulocochlear nerve and brainstem while displaying evidence of intact outer hair cells function. Therefore, the objective of this study is studying of the relationship of the saccular dysfunction with AN/AD disorder in children with sensorineural hearing loss. In this cross-sectional study, 100 children with bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing losses underwent audiologic tests and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) at the Audiology Department of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (Hamadan, Iran). Eleven children with bilateral severe sensorineural hearing loss were given to unilateral AN/AD disorder (11 ears), and two children (4 ears) had bilateral AN/AD (total = 13 children). The ears with AN/AD took the form of unrepeatable or absent waves of ABR and presence of OAEs. The statistical analysis of an independent t-test between AN/AD ears as compared to non-AN/AD ears of these 13 children showed that the mean latencies of p13 and the mean latencies of n23 and the mean peak-to-peak amplitude had significant differences.

  14. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes...

  15. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence o...

  16. Intrinsic brainstem schwannoma – A rare clinical entity and a histological enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraparenchymal schwannomas arising in the brainstem are very rare, and only eight cases have been reported in literature till now. We report an intraparenchymal brainstem schwannoma presenting with the classical clinical presentation of an intrinsic brainstem lesion, and discuss its clinicoradiological characteristics and histological origins. We highlight the importance of an intraoperative frozen section diagnosis in such cases. Intraoperative tissue diagnosis significantly may alter the surgical strategy, which should be aimed at near total intracapsular decompression of the schwannoma.

  17. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  18. Early hominin auditory capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  19. Loss of central auditory processing in a mouse model of Canavan disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg von Jonquieres

    Full Text Available Canavan Disease (CD is a leukodystrophy caused by homozygous null mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA. ASPA-deficiency is characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, and excessive levels of the ASPA substrate N-acetylaspartate (NAA. ASPA is an oligodendrocyte marker and it is believed that CD has a central etiology. However, ASPA is also expressed by Schwann cells and ASPA-deficiency in the periphery might therefore contribute to the complex CD pathology. In this study, we assessed peripheral and central auditory function in the AspalacZ/lacZ rodent model of CD using auditory brainstem response (ABR. Increased ABR thresholds and the virtual loss of waveform peaks 4 and 5 from AspalacZ/lacZ mice, indicated altered central auditory processing in mutant mice compared with Aspawt/wt controls and altered central auditory processing. Analysis of ABR latencies recorded from AspalacZ/lacZ mice revealed that the speed of nerve conduction was unchanged in the peripheral part of the auditory pathway, and impaired in the CNS. Histological analyses confirmed that ASPA was expressed in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells of the auditory system. In keeping with our physiological results, the cellular organization of the cochlea, including the organ of Corti, was preserved and the spiral ganglion nerve fibres were normal in ASPA-deficient mice. In contrast, we detected substantial hypomyelination in the central auditory system of AspalacZ/lacZ mice. In summary, our data suggest that the lack of ASPA in the CNS is responsible for the observed hearing deficits, while ASPA-deficiency in the cochlear nerve fibres is tolerated both morphologically and functionally.

  20. Loss of central auditory processing in a mouse model of Canavan disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Jonquieres, Georg; Froud, Kristina E; Klugmann, Claudia B; Wong, Ann C Y; Housley, Gary D; Klugmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Canavan Disease (CD) is a leukodystrophy caused by homozygous null mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA). ASPA-deficiency is characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, and excessive levels of the ASPA substrate N-acetylaspartate (NAA). ASPA is an oligodendrocyte marker and it is believed that CD has a central etiology. However, ASPA is also expressed by Schwann cells and ASPA-deficiency in the periphery might therefore contribute to the complex CD pathology. In this study, we assessed peripheral and central auditory function in the AspalacZ/lacZ rodent model of CD using auditory brainstem response (ABR). Increased ABR thresholds and the virtual loss of waveform peaks 4 and 5 from AspalacZ/lacZ mice, indicated altered central auditory processing in mutant mice compared with Aspawt/wt controls and altered central auditory processing. Analysis of ABR latencies recorded from AspalacZ/lacZ mice revealed that the speed of nerve conduction was unchanged in the peripheral part of the auditory pathway, and impaired in the CNS. Histological analyses confirmed that ASPA was expressed in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells of the auditory system. In keeping with our physiological results, the cellular organization of the cochlea, including the organ of Corti, was preserved and the spiral ganglion nerve fibres were normal in ASPA-deficient mice. In contrast, we detected substantial hypomyelination in the central auditory system of AspalacZ/lacZ mice. In summary, our data suggest that the lack of ASPA in the CNS is responsible for the observed hearing deficits, while ASPA-deficiency in the cochlear nerve fibres is tolerated both morphologically and functionally.

  1. Noise-induced cell death in the mouse medial geniculate body and primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Dietmar; Tzschentke, Barbara; Ernst, Arne

    Noise-induced effects within the inner ear have been well investigated for several years. However, this peripheral damage cannot fully explain the audiological symptoms in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), e.g. tinnitus, recruitment, reduced speech intelligibility, hyperacusis. There are few reports on central noise effects. Noise can induce an apoptosis of neuronal tissue within the lower auditory pathway. Higher auditory structures (e.g. medial geniculate body, auditory cortex) are characterized by metabolic changes after noise exposure. However, little is known about the microstructural changes of the higher auditory pathway after noise exposure. The present paper was therefore aimed at investigating the cell density in the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the primary auditory cortex (AI) after noise exposure. Normal hearing mice were exposed to noise (10 kHz center frequency at 115 dB SPL for 3 h) at the age of 21 days under anesthesia (Ketamin/Rompun, 10:1). After 1 week, auditory brainstem response recordings (ABR) were performed in noise exposed and normal hearing animals. After fixation, the brain was microdissected and stained (Kluever-Barrera). The cell density in the MGB subdivisions and the AI were determined by counting the cells within a grid. Noise-exposed animals showed a significant ABR threshold shift over the whole frequency range. Cell density was significantly reduced in all subdivisions of the MGB and in layers IV-VI of AI. The present findings demonstrate a significant noise-induced change of the neuronal cytoarchitecture in central key areas of auditory processing. These changes could contribute to the complex psychoacoustic symptoms after NIHL.

  2. Deficit of auditory temporal processing in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Tajik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory temporal processing reveals an important aspect of auditory performance, in which a deficit can prevent the child from speaking, language learning and reading. Temporal resolution, which is a subgroup of temporal processing, can be evaluated by gap-in-noise detection test. Regarding the relation of auditory temporal processing deficits and phonologic disorder of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia, the aim of this study was to evaluate these children with the gap-in-noise (GIN test.Methods: The gap-in-noise test was performed on 28 normal and 24 dyslexic-dysgraphic children, at the age of 11-12 years old. Mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers were compared between the groups.Results: The mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers of the right and left ear had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. The mean approximate threshold of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia (6.97 ms, SD=1.09 was significantly (p<0.001 more than that of the normal group (5.05 ms, SD=0.92. The mean related frequency of corrected answers (58.05, SD=4.98% was less than normal group (69.97, SD=7.16% (p<0.001.Conclusion: Abnormal temporal resolution was found in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia based on gap-in-noise test. While the brainstem and auditory cortex are responsible for auditory temporal processing, probably the structural and functional differences of these areas in normal and dyslexic-dysgraphic children lead to abnormal coding of auditory temporal information. As a result, auditory temporal processing is inevitable.

  3. Reversible long-term changes in auditory processing in mature auditory cortex in the absence of hearing loss induced by passive, moderate-level sound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkowski, Martin; Eggermont, Jos J

    2012-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that even occasional exposure to loud sounds in occupational or recreational settings can cause irreversible damage to the hair cells of the cochlea and the auditory nerve fibers, even if the resulting partial loss of hearing sensitivity, usually accompanied by tinnitus, disappears within hours or days of the exposure. Such exposure may explain at least some cases of poor speech intelligibility in noise in the face of a normal or near-normal audiogram. Recent findings from our laboratory suggest that long-term changes to auditory brain function-potentially leading to problems with speech intelligibility-can be effected by persistent, passive exposure to more moderate levels of noise (in the 70 dB SPL range) in the apparent absence of damage to the auditory periphery (as reflected in normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses). Specifically, passive exposure of adult cats to moderate levels of band-pass-filtered noise, or to band-limited ensembles of dense, random tone pips, can lead to a profound decrease of neural activity in the auditory cortex roughly in the exposure frequency range, and to an increase of activity outside that range. This can progress to an apparent reorganization of the cortical tonotopic map, which is reminiscent of the reorganization resulting from hearing loss restricted to a part of the hearing frequency range, although again, no hearing loss was apparent after our moderate-level sound exposure. Here, we review this work focusing specifically on the potential hearing problems that may arise despite a normally functioning auditory periphery.

  4. Psychophysical and neural correlates of noised-induced tinnitus in animals: Intra- and inter-auditory and non-auditory brain structure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinsheng; Luo, Hao; Pace, Edward; Li, Liang; Liu, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Tinnitus, a ringing in the ear or head without an external sound source, is a prevalent health problem. It is often associated with a number of limbic-associated disorders such as anxiety, sleep disturbance, and emotional distress. Thus, to investigate tinnitus, it is important to consider both auditory and non-auditory brain structures. This paper summarizes the psychophysical, immunocytochemical and electrophysiological evidence found in rats or hamsters with behavioral evidence of tinnitus. Behaviorally, we tested for tinnitus using a conditioned suppression/avoidance paradigm, gap detection acoustic reflex behavioral paradigm, and our newly developed conditioned licking suppression paradigm. Our new tinnitus behavioral paradigm requires relatively short baseline training, examines frequency specification of tinnitus perception, and achieves sensitive tinnitus testing at an individual level. To test for tinnitus-related anxiety and cognitive impairment, we used the elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Our results showed that not all animals with tinnitus demonstrate anxiety and cognitive impairment. Immunocytochemically, we found that animals with tinnitus manifested increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in both auditory and non-auditory structures. The manner in which FLI appeared suggests that lower brainstem structures may be involved in acute tinnitus whereas the midbrain and cortex are involved in more chronic tinnitus. Meanwhile, animals with tinnitus also manifested increased FLI in non-auditory brain structures that are involved in autonomic reactions, stress, arousal and attention. Electrophysiologically, we found that rats with tinnitus developed increased spontaneous firing in the auditory cortex (AC) and amygdala (AMG), as well as intra- and inter-AC and AMG neurosynchrony, which demonstrate that tinnitus may be actively produced and maintained by the interactions between the AC and AMG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk C den Bakker

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II.

  6. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory

  7. Congenital sialoblastoma of the accessory parotid gland | Parag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sialoblastomas are rare, locally aggressive, perinatal or congenital salivary gland tumours that mostly originate in the parotid gland. Significant variability in histological range and clinical course exists. This report is of a case of congenital sialoblastoma of the accessory parotid gland.

  8. Congenital sialoblastoma of the accessory parotid gland: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumours generally originate in the parotid gland but may arise in the submandibular or minor salivary gland. This report presents a case of congenital sialoblastoma of the accessory parotid gland. Case report. A 3-day-old male neonate was referred with a large left facial mass with a provisional diagnosis of a teratoma.

  9. An Accessory Flexor Of The Thumb | Chukwuanukwu | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of accessory muscles, nerves and other tissues/organs in the upper limb and other parts of the body of some individuals have been previously reported. We report the case of a cadaver with an accesort flexor muscle of the left thumb. This muscle is located on the volar aspect of the left forearm. It originates ...

  10. Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. PMID:23957559

  12. Lesions of the accessory parotid gland in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, Guido [Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Votteler, Theodore P. [Children' s Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The accessory parotid gland, a little-known and seldom-mentioned anatomical variant, is a nodule of normal salivary tissue separate from the main parotid gland, located on the masseter muscle and connected to the Stensen duct at that level. It can be the site of both congenital and acquired lesions. (orig.)

  13. Fractionation of plasma globulin for prothrombin, thrombokinase, and accessory thromboplastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILSTONE, J H

    1951-09-01

    1. Crude globulin from more than 1,000 liters of citrated bovine plasma has been used in developing a procedure for moderately large scale separation of clotting factors. Fraction A, prothrombin, kinase, and thrombin fractions were prepared. Fraction A contained both kinase and accessory thromboplastin, the latter predominating when fraction A was diluted. 2. When prothrombin was activated by kinase, the rate of thrombin production was enhanced by the addition of platelets, or brain lipid, or dilute fraction A. These accessory thromboplastins caused this acceleration only when calcium chloride was added. Even with calcium, they were not effective unless kinase was present. 3. In contrast, the action of kinase was not entirely dependent on either ionic calcium or accessory thromboplastin. The concentrated kinase fraction activated prothrombin in the presence of excess oxalate. Although kinase often contaminates highly purified thrombins, it is probably distinct from thrombin. The ratio of kinase to thrombin was 100 times as great in the kinase fraction as in the thrombin fraction. 4. The kinase fraction, diluted 45,000-fold, to protein-nitrogen concentrations as low as 0.02 microgram per ml., accelerated the conversion of crude prokinase in three-stage tests. 5. The findings are consistent with the following concept of the basic enzymatic mechanism: See PDF for Structure It is now added that calcium and accessory thromboplastin exert their effects by impinging on the basic mechanism, in a chemically secondary or indirect manner.

  14. The benefits of using bluetooth accessories with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline; Davis, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the benefits in reported outcomes after providing bluetooth accessories for established hearing aid users. Prospective observational study using validated quantitative outcome measures and detailed patient narrative before and two months after patients were provided with bluetooth accessories. Twelve patients with bilateral NHS hearing aids participated. They had a wide range of ages and hearing loss. After two months, 10 patients reported substantial additional benefit and kept the accessories; two returned them for various reasons. Statistically significant changes were seen in two validated outcome measures: the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile and the International Outcome Inventory - Hearing Aids, but not in the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale. Two notable benefits were reported: some described hearing the emotion and mood in a voice for the first time; others were amazed to report an improved ability to hear film or to hold conversations over the telephone. The provision of bluetooth accessories can give additional reported benefit for some patients - we need better knowledge about who benefits, and whether further support/training to individuals would make a difference.

  15. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and. D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different ...

  16. Colonization, Infection, and the Accessory Genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rebekah M.; Bachman, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that has a large accessory genome of plasmids and chromosomal gene loci. This accessory genome divides K. pneumoniae strains into opportunistic, hypervirulent, and multidrug-resistant groups and separates K. pneumoniae from two closely related species, Klebsiella variicola and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. Some strains of K. pneumoniae act as opportunistic pathogens, infecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. These K. pneumoniae are a common cause of health-care associated infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and bloodstream infections. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae are often clinically indistinguishable from opportunistic K. pneumoniae. Other strains of K. pneumoniae are hypervirulent, infecting healthy people in community settings and causing severe infections including pyogenic liver abscess, endophthalmitis, and meningitis. A third group of K. pneumoniae encode carbapenemases, making them highly antibiotic-resistant. These strains act as opportunists but are exceedingly difficult to treat. All of these groups of K. pneumoniae and related species can colonize the gastrointestinal tract, and the accessory genome may determine if a colonizing strain remains asymptomatic or progresses to cause disease. This review will explore the associations between colonization and infection with opportunistic, antibiotic-resistant, and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains and the role of the accessory genome in distinguishing these groups and related species. As K. pneumoniae infections become progressively more difficult to treat in the face of antibiotic resistance and hypervirulent strains, an increased understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these bacteria is vital. PMID:29404282

  17. Quantitative analysis of solid samples using modified specular reflectance accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is a fast, reliable and cost effective analytical method, requiring minimal or no sample preparation. It is commonly used in the course of qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical ingredients and food. We demonstrate that simpler and cheaper specular reflectance (SR) accessory working in a DRIFTS like mode (SR-DL) can be an alternative for DIRFTS attachment. An application of a modified SR accessory for quantitative analysis of solids samples is presented. As a case study the concentration of cinnarizine in commercial tablets has been determined from DRIFTS and SR-DL infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra recorded using DTGS (deuterated triglicine sulphate) detector in the IR and NIR regions and InGaAs (indium-gallium arsenide) detector in the NIR range. Based on these spectra Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were constructed and relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were calculated for the calibration, validation and analysed data sets. They amounted to 2.4-2.5%, 2.1-2.7% and 2.0-2.6% for the DRIFTS attachment while 2.1-2.2%, 2.0-2.3% and 1.9-2.6%, respectively, for the modified SR accessory. Obtained error values indicate that modified SR accessory can be effectively used for quantification of solid pharmaceutical samples in the mid- and near-infrared regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Colonization, Infection, and the Accessory Genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah M. Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that has a large accessory genome of plasmids and chromosomal gene loci. This accessory genome divides K. pneumoniae strains into opportunistic, hypervirulent, and multidrug-resistant groups and separates K. pneumoniae from two closely related species, Klebsiella variicola and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. Some strains of K. pneumoniae act as opportunistic pathogens, infecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. These K. pneumoniae are a common cause of health-care associated infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs, and bloodstream infections. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae are often clinically indistinguishable from opportunistic K. pneumoniae. Other strains of K. pneumoniae are hypervirulent, infecting healthy people in community settings and causing severe infections including pyogenic liver abscess, endophthalmitis, and meningitis. A third group of K. pneumoniae encode carbapenemases, making them highly antibiotic-resistant. These strains act as opportunists but are exceedingly difficult to treat. All of these groups of K. pneumoniae and related species can colonize the gastrointestinal tract, and the accessory genome may determine if a colonizing strain remains asymptomatic or progresses to cause disease. This review will explore the associations between colonization and infection with opportunistic, antibiotic-resistant, and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains and the role of the accessory genome in distinguishing these groups and related species. As K. pneumoniae infections become progressively more difficult to treat in the face of antibiotic resistance and hypervirulent strains, an increased understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these bacteria is vital.

  19. Termination pattern of the main and accessory pancreatic ducts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pancreas has the main and occasionally a patent accessory pancreatic ducts that carry secretions to the duodenum. Anatomical studies on these ducts are limited. The present study observed the anatomy of the two ducts in eighty six Tanzanians' autopsy subjects to find out if the pattern is similar to those reported from ...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... site of surgical incision from microbial and other contamination. The device includes a plastic wound protector that may adhere to the skin around a surgical incision or be placed in a wound to cover its... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370...

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Two Wheelchair Accessories for Pushing Doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Soran Jalal; Shaikh Mohammed, Javeed

    2017-03-27

    Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products. Therefore, the current manuscript presents the modeling and simulation of a novel but simple technology in the form of a passive wheelchair accessory (straight, arm-like with a single wheel, and arc-shaped with multiple wheels) for pushing doors open from a wheelchair. From the simulations using different wheel shapes and sizes, it was found that the arc-shaped accessory could push open the doors faster and with almost half the required force as compared to the arm-like accessory. Also, smaller spherical wheels were found to be best in terms of reaction forces on the wheels. Prototypes based on the arc-shaped accessory design will be manufactured and evaluated for pushing doors open and dodging or gliding other obstacles.

  2. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-wavelength infrared laser activates the auditory neurons: comparing the effect of 980 vs. 810 nm wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lan; Wang, Jingxuan; Wei, Ying; Lu, Jianren; Xu, Anting; Xia, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Research on auditory neural triggering by optical stimulus has been developed as an emerging technique to elicit the auditory neural response, which may provide an alternative method to the cochlear implants. However, most previous studies have been focused on using longer-wavelength near-infrared (>1800 nm) laser. The effect comparison of different laser wavelengths in short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range on the auditory neural stimulation has not been previously explored. In this study, the pulsed 980- and 810-nm SWIR lasers were applied as optical stimuli to irradiate the auditory neurons in the cochlea of five deafened guinea pigs and the neural response under the two laser wavelengths was compared by recording the evoked optical auditory brainstem responses (OABRs). In addition, the effect of radiant exposure, laser pulse width, and threshold with the two laser wavelengths was further investigated and compared. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze those data. Results showed that the OABR amplitude with the 980-nm laser is higher than the amplitude with the 810-nm laser under the same radiant exposure from 10 to 102 mJ/cm(2). And the laser stimulation of 980 nm wavelength has lower threshold radiant exposure than the 810 nm wavelength at varied pulse duration in 20-500 μs range. Moreover, the 810-nm laser has a wider optimized pulse duration range than the 980-nm laser for the auditory neural stimulation.

  4. Auditory Perceptual Abilities Are Associated with Specific Auditory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Zaltz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which auditory experience can shape general auditory perceptual abilities is still under constant debate. Some studies show that specific auditory expertise may have a general effect on auditory perceptual abilities, while others show a more limited influence, exhibited only in a relatively narrow range associated with the area of expertise. The current study addresses this issue by examining experience-dependent enhancement in perceptual abilities in the auditory domain. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 12 pop and rock musicians and 15 non-musicians were tested in frequency discrimination (DLF, intensity discrimination, spectrum discrimination (DLS, and time discrimination (DLT. Results showed significant superiority of the musician group only for the DLF and DLT tasks, illuminating enhanced perceptual skills in the key features of pop music, in which miniscule changes in amplitude and spectrum are not critical to performance. The next two experiments attempted to differentiate between generalization and specificity in the influence of auditory experience, by comparing subgroups of specialists. First, seven guitar players and eight percussionists were tested in the DLF and DLT tasks that were found superior for musicians. Results showed superior abilities on the DLF task for guitar players, though no difference between the groups in DLT, demonstrating some dependency of auditory learning on the specific area of expertise. Subsequently, a third experiment was conducted, testing a possible influence of vowel density in native language on auditory perceptual abilities. Ten native speakers of German (a language characterized by a dense vowel system of 14 vowels, and 10 native speakers of Hebrew (characterized by a sparse vowel system of five vowels, were tested in a formant discrimination task. This is the linguistic equivalent of a DLS task. Results showed that German speakers had superior formant

  5. Enhanced brainstem encoding predicts musicians' perceptual advantages with pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T

    2011-02-01

    Important to Western tonal music is the relationship between pitches both within and between musical chords; melody and harmony are generated by combining pitches selected from the fixed hierarchical scales of music. It is of critical importance that musicians have the ability to detect and discriminate minute deviations in pitch in order to remain in tune with other members of their ensemble. Event-related potentials indicate that cortical mechanisms responsible for detecting mistuning and violations in pitch are more sensitive and accurate in musicians as compared with non-musicians. The aim of the present study was to address whether this superiority is also present at a subcortical stage of pitch processing. Brainstem frequency-following responses were recorded from musicians and non-musicians in response to tuned (i.e. major and minor) and detuned (± 4% difference in frequency) chordal arpeggios differing only in the pitch of their third. Results showed that musicians had faster neural synchronization and stronger brainstem encoding for defining characteristics of musical sequences regardless of whether they were in or out of tune. In contrast, non-musicians had relatively strong representation for major/minor chords but showed diminished responses for detuned chords. The close correspondence between the magnitude of brainstem responses and performance on two behavioral pitch discrimination tasks supports the idea that musicians' enhanced detection of chordal mistuning may be rooted at pre-attentive, sensory stages of processing. Findings suggest that perceptually salient aspects of musical pitch are not only represented at subcortical levels but that these representations are also enhanced by musical experience. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Adaptive hypofractionated gamma knife radiosurgery for a large brainstem metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Georges; Bartek, Jiri; Martin, Heather

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To demonstrate how adaptive hypofractionated radiosurgery by gamma knife (GK) can be successfully utilized to treat a large brainstem metastasis - a novel approach to a challenging clinical situation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 42-year-old woman, diagnosed with metastatic nonsmall cell lung...... months and 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the brain at 13 months showed decreased edema with no signs of tumor recurrence. Despite disease progression during the last months of her life, the patient's condition remained overall acceptable. CONCLUSION: GK-based stereotactic...

  7. Stereotactic LINAC radiosurgery for the treatment of brainstem cavernomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuetsch, M.; El Majdoub, F.; Hoevels, M.; Sturm, V.; Maarouf, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery; Mueller, R.P. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-04-15

    Background: The management of deep-seated cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) is still controversial. Although surgery remains the treatment of choice in patients with recurrent hemorrhage, patients with CCMs located in the brainstem are in many cases not eligible for resection due to high procedure-related morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the long-term outcome of LINAC radiosurgery (LINAC-RS) for the treatment of brainstem CCMs. Patients and methods: Between December 1992 and March 2008, 14 patients (6 men, 8 women) harboring brainstem CCMs underwent LINAC-RS. Pretreatment neuroimaging showed no associated developmental venous angiomas (DVAs) in any of our patients. Prior to treatment, all patients suffered at least from one symptomatic hemorrhage (median 1.8, range 1-3). A median follow-up of 7.1 years (range 2.0-16.8 years) could be obtained in 12 patients. We applied a median tumor surface dose of 13.9 Gy (range 11-18 Gy; median tumor volume 1.6 ml, range 0.4-4.3 ml). Results: Following LINAC-RS, neurological outcome improved in 4 (33.3%) and remained unchanged in 8 patients (66.7%). Rebleeding with subsequent transient neurological status deterioration occurred in 4 patients (33.3%), leading to additional surgical resection in 2 patients (16.7%). The corresponding annual hemorrhage rate was 4.8% (4/82.8 patient-years). Adverse radiation effects (ARE, defined by perilesional hyperintensity on T{sub 2}-weighted MR images) were revealed in 3 patients (25%), leading to transient neurological deficits in 2 patients (16.7%). There were no procedure-related complications leading to either permanent morbidity or mortality. Conclusion: Our results support the role of LINAC-RS as an efficient and safe treatment to significantly reduce the annual hemorrhage rate in patients suffering from brainstem CCMs not eligible to microsurgery. Compared with radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the intervention-related morbidity is higher. (orig.)

  8. Herpes simplex encephalitis with thalamic, brainstem and cerebellar involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meenal; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Udwadia Hegde, Anaita

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a common and treatable cause of acute encephalitis in all age groups. Certain radiological features such as temporal parenchymal involvement facilitate the diagnosis. The use of herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction has expanded the clinical and imaging spectrum. We report the case of a young patient who presented with a movement disorder and predominant involvement of thalami, brainstem and cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging, and was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Differentiation from Japanese encephalitis may be difficult in these patients, especially in endemic areas, and may necessitate the use of relevant investigations in all patients.

  9. Isolated Brainstem Involvement in a Patient with Hypertensive Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertensive encephalopathy typically presents with headache, confusion, and bilateral parietooccipital vasogenic edema. Brainstem edema in hypertensive encephalopathy usually occurs in association with typical supratentorial parieto-occipital changes and is usually asymptomatic. We report here a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy, with isolated brain stem involvement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Rapid treatment of hypertension resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. Prompt recognition of the condition and aggressive treatment of hypertension in such patients is crucial to relieve edema and prevent life-threatening progression.

  10. Expression and function of scleraxis in the developing auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe F Mann

    Full Text Available A study of genes expressed in the developing inner ear identified the bHLH transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx in the developing cochlea. Previous work has demonstrated an essential role for Scx in the differentiation and development of tendons, ligaments and cells of chondrogenic lineage. Expression in the cochlea has been shown previously, however the functional role for Scx in the cochlea is unknown. Using a Scx-GFP reporter mouse line we examined the spatial and temporal patterns of Scx expression in the developing cochlea between embryonic day 13.5 and postnatal day 25. Embryonically, Scx is expressed broadly throughout the cochlear duct and surrounding mesenchyme and at postnatal ages becomes restricted to the inner hair cells and the interdental cells of the spiral limbus. Deletion of Scx results in hearing impairment indicated by elevated auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds and diminished distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes, across a range of frequencies. No changes in either gross cochlear morphology or expression of the Scx target genes Col2A, Bmp4 or Sox9 were observed in Scx(-/- mutants, suggesting that the auditory defects observed in these animals may be a result of unidentified Scx-dependent processes within the cochlea.

  11. Evaluation of the Auditory Pathway in Traffic Policemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Indora

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic policemen working at heavy traffic junctions are continuously exposed to high level of noise and its health consequences. Objective: To assess the hearing pathway in traffic policemen by means of brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA, mid-latency response (MLR, and slow vertex response (SVR. Methods: In this observational comparative study, BERA, MLR, and SVR were tested in 35 male traffic policemen with field posting of more than 3 years. 35 age-matched men working in our college served as controls. Results: Increase in the latencies of waves I and III of BERA, and IPL I-III were observed. Compared to controls, the MLR and SVR waves showed no significant changes in studied policemen. Conclusion: We found that chronic exposure of traffic policemen to noise resulted in delayed conduction in peripheral part of the auditory pathway, ie, auditory nerve up to the level of superior olivary nucleus; no impairment was observed at the level of sub-cortical, cortical, or the association areas.

  12. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  13. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular

  14. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  15. [Is the afferent auditory message modulated by the cortex?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lavernhe-Lemaire, M C; Robier, A

    1997-12-01

    An eventual modulation of the afferent auditory message by the cortex is the subject of this study. To test this hypothesis, clicks (10 Hz, 100 microseconds) of white noise of 40 and 70 dB Hl were sent alternatively into the ears of normally hearing volunteers, while the brainstem evoked potentials were recorded. The subjects were asked to focus or relax their attention on one or other ear. Thirty subjects aged less than 25 years (15 men and 15 women) with normal hearing level, were split into two groups. The first group was asked to focus first on the more strongly stimulated ear (70 dB), the second group on the more weakly stimulated one (40 dB). Each subject received (1) without any instruction about attention: 40 dB on the left ear (L), 70 dB on the right ear (R); 40 dB then 70 dB bilateral; (2) 2 runs with 40 dB on the L and 70 dB on the R focussing on the most or less strongly stimulated ear; (3) a run without instruction with 70 dB on the L and 40 dB on the R, and (4) two runs with 70 dB on the L and 40 dB on the R focussing enough on the more or less strongly stimulated ear. On the evoked potentials simultaneously recorded, amplitudes and latencies of the pikes were measured and compared. From these experiments, the following elements were obtained. (1) The measured potentials were always caused by ipsilateral stimuli. (2) Focussing on left or right ear was not equivalent. (3) A gender difference appeared in the brainstem auditory responses. (4) Preferential attention paid to the left ear was more efficient than to the right one. (5) Attention can alter the whole nervous pathway with considerable lengthening of O-I, O-III, O-V, III-V, I-V but not I-III latencies. The III wave amplitude generally decreased on the side where attention was focussed while V waves seemed not to vary. These first results indicate that a cortico-efferent pathway stimulated by the attention plays a role in the auditory responses modifying the afferent message. These effects were

  16. Activation of Brainstem Neurons by Underwater Diving in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, W. Michael; Gan, Qi; Le, Jason; Livergood, Robert S.; Clerc, Philip; Juric, Rajko

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian diving response is a powerful autonomic adjustment to underwater submersion greatly affecting heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and ventilation. The bradycardia is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system, arterial blood pressure is mediated via the sympathetic system and still other circuits mediate the respiratory changes. In the present study we investigate the cardiorespiratory responses and the brainstem neurons activated by voluntary diving of trained rats, and, compare them to control and swimming animals which did not dive. We show that the bradycardia and increase in arterial blood pressure induced by diving were significantly different than that induced by swimming. Neuronal activation was calculated after immunohistochemical processing of brainstem sections for Fos protein. Labeled neurons were counted in the caudal pressor area, the medullary dorsal horn, subnuclei of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the nucleus raphe pallidus (RPa), the rostroventrolateral medulla, the A5 area, the nucleus locus coeruleus, the Kölliker–Fuse area, and the external lateral and superior lateral subnuclei of the parabrachial nucleus. All these areas showed significant increases in Fos labeling when data from voluntary diving rats were compared to control rats and all but the commissural subnucleus of the NTS, A5 area, and RPa were significantly different from swimming rats. These data provide a substrate for more precise experiments to determine the role of these nuclei in the reflex circuits driving the diving response. PMID:22563319

  17. Dopamine and the Brainstem Locomotor Networks: From Lamprey to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Ryczko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion via their ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project to brainstem locomotor networks. An increased dopaminergic tone is associated with increase in locomotor activity. In pathological conditions where dopamine cells are lost, such as in Parkinson's disease, locomotor deficits are traditionally associated with the reduced ascending dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia. However, a descending dopaminergic pathway originating from the substantia nigra pars compacta was recently discovered. It innervates the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR from basal vertebrates to mammals. This pathway was shown to increase locomotor output in lampreys, and could very well play an important role in mammals. Here, we provide a detailed account on the newly found dopaminergic pathway in lamprey, salamander, rat, monkey, and human. In lampreys and salamanders, dopamine release in the MLR is associated with the activation of reticulospinal neurons that carry the locomotor command to the spinal cord. Dopamine release in the MLR potentiates locomotor movements through a D1-receptor mechanism in lampreys. In rats, stimulation of the substantia nigra pars compacta elicited dopamine release in the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known part of the MLR. In a monkey model of Parkinson's disease, a reduced dopaminergic innervation of the brainstem locomotor networks was reported. Dopaminergic fibers are also present in human pedunculopontine nucleus. We discuss the conserved locomotor role of this pathway from lamprey to mammals, and the hypothesis that this pathway could play a role in the locomotor deficits reported in Parkinson's disease.

  18. Recurrent Diplopia in a Pediatric Patient with Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. McLeod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute complete external ophthalmoplegia is a rare finding in clinical practice that is associated with diseases affecting the neuromuscular junction, the oculomotor nerves, or the brainstem. Ophthalmoplegia has been reported with acute ataxia in Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE. Up to 95% of these cases are associated with anti-GQ1b antibodies. Only a small number of cases of anti-GQ1b negative MFS have been documented in pediatric patients. This is the first case reporting a recurrence of ocular symptoms in an anti-GQ1b antibody negative patient with BBE. Case Presentation. An 8-year-old Caucasian boy presented with complete external ophthalmoplegia without ptosis, cerebellar ataxia, and a disturbance of consciousness. He had recently recovered from a confirmed Campylobacter jejuni infection. On subsequent laboratory testing he was anti-GQ1b antibody negative. He had a recurrence of diplopia at four-week follow-up. Conclusions. This patient’s recurrence of diplopia was treated with a five-week course of oral corticosteroids which did not worsen his condition, and this may be a therapeutic option for similar patients. We will discuss the symptoms and treatment of reported pediatric cases of anti-GQ1b antibody negative cases of MFS and the variation between cases representing a spectrum of illness.

  19. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yper, L.N. Van; Vermeire, K.; Vel, E.F. De; Beynon, A.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The

  20. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  1. Intraoperative Monitoring and Mapping of the Functional Integrity of the Brainstem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Conejero, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic damage is very high in surgical interventions in or around the brainstem. However, surgical techniques and intraoperative neuromonitoring (ION) have evolved sufficiently to increase the likelihood of successful functional outcomes in many patients. We present a critical review of the methodologies available for intraoperative monitoring and mapping of the brainstem. There are three main groups of techniques that can be used to assess the functional integrity of the brainstem: 1) mapping, which provides rapid anatomical identification of neural structures using electrical stimulation with a hand-held probe, 2) monitoring, which provides real-time information about the functional integrity of the nervous tissue, and 3) techniques involving the examination of brainstem reflexes in the operating room, which allows for the evaluation of the reflex responses that are known to be crucial for most brainstem functions. These include the blink reflex, which is already in use, and other brainstem reflexes that are being explored, such as the masseter H-reflex. This is still under development but is likely to have important functional consequences. Today an abundant armory of ION methods is available for the monitoring and mapping of the functional integrity of the brainstem during surgery. ION methods are essential in surgery either in or around the brainstem; they facilitate the removal of lesions and contribute to notable improvements in the functional outcomes of patients. PMID:27449909

  2. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  3. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  4. Caudate haemorrhage caused by pseudoaneurysm of accessory middle cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Shinichiro; Tokugawa, Joji; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji

    2015-12-30

    A 68-year-old man experienced a right caudate haemorrhage with intraventricular haemorrhage. Although a subarachnoid haemorrhage was not shown clearly, our investigation demonstrated an aneurysm-like vascular pouch located in the anomalous vessel arising from the A2 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery. Rupture of the vascular pouch was considered to be the cause of the caudate haemorrhage. Neck clipping was performed. In intraoperative observation, the anomalous vessel was diagnosed as a right accessory middle cerebral artery. Histopathology of the saccular wall showed only an adventitia and a fibrin layer, indicating a pseudoaneurysm. We routinely perform detailed vascular evaluation for any cerebrovascular disease. A meticulous vascular survey makes it possible to obtain valuable clues in cases such as caudate haemorrhage due to pseudoaneurysm of the accessory middle cerebral artery, leading to prevention of rebleeding. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Tractography of the brainstem in major depressive disorder using diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ju C Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brainstem is the main region that innervates neurotransmitter release to the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal (HPA axis and fronto-limbic circuits, two key brain circuits found to be dysfunctional in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. However, the brainstem's role in MDD has only been evaluated in limited reports. Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, we investigated whether major brainstem white matter tracts that relate to these two circuits differ in MDD patients compared to healthy controls. METHODS: MDD patients (n = 95 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 34 were assessed using probabilistic tractography of DTI to delineate three distinct brainstem tracts: the nigrostriatal tract (connecting brainstem to striatum, solitary tract (connecting brainstem to amygdala and corticospinal tract (connecting brainstem to precentral cortex. Fractional anisotropy (FA was used to measure the white matter integrity of these tracts, and measures were compared between MDD and control participants. RESULTS: MDD participants were characterized by a significant and specific decrease in white matter integrity of the right solitary tract (p<0.009 using independent t-test, which is a "bottom up" afferent pathway that connects the brainstem to the amygdala. This decrease was not related to symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide new evidence to suggest that structural connectivity between the brainstem and the amygdala is altered in MDD. These results are interesting in light of predominant theories regarding amygdala-mediated emotional reactivity observed in functional imaging studies of MDD. The characterization of altered white matter integrity in the solitary tract in MDD supports the possibility of dysfunctional brainstem-amygdala connectivity impacting vulnerable circuits in MDD.

  6. The influence of botulinum toxin on auditory disturbances in hemifacial spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzińska, Monika; Wójcik, Magdalena; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Hydzik-Sobocińska, Karolina; Malec, Michalina; Hartel, Marcin; Składzień, Jacek; Szczudlik, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is frequently accompanied by other symptoms, such as visual and auditory disturbances or pain. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of auditory symptoms accompanying HFS using subjective and objective methods, their relation with other HFS symptoms, and their resolution after botulinum toxin (BTX-A) treatment. The occurrence of hypoacusis, ear clicks and tinnitus was assessed by questionnaire in 126 HFS patients from an electronic database which included medical data such as severity of HFS rated by clinical scale and magnetic resonance imaging focused on the presence of vascular nerve VII and VIII conflict. Forty consecutive patients treated with BTX-A and 24 controls matched by sex and age underwent laryngological examination including audiometry, tympanometry and acoustic middle ear reflex before injection and two weeks later. About 45.2% of patients complained of auditory disturbances (31.7% hypoacusis, 30.2% ear clicks and 7.1% tinnitus) on the side of HFS. Auditory disturbances correlated with severity of HFS symptoms but not with age, disease duration, or neurovascular conflict with nerves VII and VIII. We did not find abnormalities in audiometric and tympanometric assessment in patients in comparison with controls. No abnormalities were detected in brainstem evoked potentials comparing the sides with and without HFS symptoms. Tinnitus and absence of ipsilateral acoustic middle ear reflex occurred more often in patients with auditory symptoms than those without them. BTX-A treatment caused resolution of subjective acoustic symptoms without any improvement in audiometric assessment. Auditory disturbances accompanying HFS are probably caused by dysfunction of the Eustachian tube, which improves after BTX-A treatment.

  7. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Luna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people’s head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community, including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap, the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap, and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat. The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation.

  8. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos A; Macias-Guarasa, Javier; Losada-Gutierrez, Cristina; Marron-Romera, Marta; Mazo, Manuel; Luengo-Sanchez, Sara; Macho-Pedroso, Roberto

    2017-08-10

    In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people's head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community), including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap), the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap), and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat). The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation.

  9. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of ...

  10. Species tropism of HIV-1 modulated by viral accessory proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Masako eNomaguchi; Naoya eDoi; Yui eMatsumoto; Yosuke eSakai; Sachi eFujiwara; Akio eAdachi

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is tropic and pathogenic only for humans, and does not replicate in macaque monkeys routinely used for experimental infections. This specially narrow host range (species tropism) has impeded much the progress of HIV-1/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) basic research. Extensive studies on the underlying mechanism have revealed that Vif, one of viral accessory proteins, is critical for the HIV-1 species tropism in addition to Gag-capsid protei...

  11. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos A.; Marron-Romera, Marta; Mazo, Manuel; Luengo-Sanchez, Sara; Macho-Pedroso, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people’s head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community), including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap), the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap), and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat). The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation. PMID:28796177

  12. Brainstem Influence on Thalamocortical Oscillations during Anesthesia Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Scheib

    2017-09-01

    mechanisms can occur and that brainstem activity may influence the characteristics of emergence. The brainstem activity in question may be influenced by nociception and analgesic supplementation. It may be possible to control the path of emergence by controlling brainstem activity with opioids and other agents in order to allow the patient to awaken without going through an excitement phase or delirium at the transition to consciousness.

  13. Unusual insidious spinal accessory nerve palsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Isolated spinal accessory nerve dysfunction has a major detrimental impact on the functional performance of the shoulder girdle, and is a well-documented complication of surgical procedures in the posterior triangle of the neck. To the best of our knowledge, the natural course and the most effective way of handling spontaneous spinal accessory nerve palsy has been described in only a few instances in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian, Greek man with spontaneous unilateral trapezius palsy with an insidious course. To the best of our knowledge, few such cases have been documented in the literature. The unusual clinical presentation and functional performance mismatch with the imaging findings were also observed. Our patient showed a deterioration that was different from the usual course of this pathology, with an early onset of irreversible trapezius muscle dysfunction two months after the first clinical signs started to manifest. A surgical reconstruction was proposed as the most efficient treatment, but our patient declined this. Although he failed to recover fully after conservative treatment for eight months, he regained moderate function and is currently virtually pain-free. Conclusion Clinicians have to be aware that due to anatomical variation and the potential for compensation by the levator scapulae, the clinical consequences of any injury to the spinal accessory nerve may vary.

  14. Auditory hallucinations treated by radio headphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, R

    1982-09-01

    A young man with chronic auditory hallucinations was treated according to the principle that increasing external auditory stimulation decreases the likelihood of auditory hallucinations. Listening to a radio through stereo headphones in conditions of low auditory stimulation eliminated the patient's hallucinations.

  15. The relationship of the brainstem ischemia and chronicity of lumboischialgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Smolko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 60 patients aged from 30 up to 75 years with any of low-lumbar herniated intervertebral disks. Pain intensity was compared with the concomitant presence of chronic circulatory failure in the vertebral-basilar basin as a result of clinically significant abnormalities of blood vessels in the form of hypoplasia of vertebral artery and its tortuosity. We investigated dynamics of patient's pain under the influence of low-dose treatment by Cortexin (neurocytoprotector. In patients with chronic brainstem ischemia the herniated discs cause more intense and prolonged pain (radicular and local. More effective in these patients is a treatment with inclusion of Cortexin 20 mg intramuscularly within 10 days.

  16. Hypothalamic and brainstem neuronal circuits controlling homeostatic energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Marc; Gomis, Ramon; Claret, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Alterations in adequate energy balance maintenance result in serious metabolic disturbances such as obesity. In mammals, this complex process is orchestrated by multiple and distributed neuronal circuits. Hypothalamic and brainstem neuronal circuits are critically involved in the sensing of circulating and local factors conveying information about the energy status of the organism. The integration of these signals culminates in the generation of specific and coordinated physiological responses aimed at regulating energy balance through the modulation of appetite and energy expenditure. In this article, we review current knowledge on the homeostatic regulation of energy balance, emphasizing recent advances in mouse genetics, electrophysiology, and optogenetic techniques that have greatly contributed to improving our understanding of this central process.

  17. Frontal-Brainstem Pathways Mediating Placebo Effects on Social Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Leonie; Kross, Ethan; Woo, Choong-Wan; Ruzic, Luka; Wager, Tor D

    2017-03-29

    Placebo treatments can strongly affect clinical outcomes, but research on how they shape other life experiences and emotional well-being is in its infancy. We used fMRI in humans to examine placebo effects on a particularly impactful life experience, social pain elicited by a recent romantic rejection. We compared these effects with placebo effects on physical (heat) pain, which are thought to depend on pathways connecting prefrontal cortex and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Placebo treatment, compared with control, reduced both social and physical pain, and increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in both modalities. Placebo further altered the relationship between affect and both dlPFC and PAG activity during social pain, and effects on behavior were mediated by a pathway connecting dlPFC to the PAG, building on recent work implicating opioidergic PAG activity in the regulation of social pain. These findings suggest that placebo treatments reduce emotional distress by altering affective representations in frontal-brainstem systems. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Placebo effects are improvements due to expectations and the socio-medical context in which treatment takes place. Whereas they have been extensively studied in the context of somatic conditions such as pain, much less is known of how treatment expectations shape the emotional experience of other important stressors and life events. Here, we use brain imaging to show that placebo treatment reduces the painful feelings associated with a recent romantic rejection by recruiting a prefrontal-brainstem network and by shifting the relationship between brain activity and affect. Our findings suggest that this brain network may be important for nonspecific treatment effects across a wide range of therapeutic approaches and mental health conditions. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373621-11$15.00/0.

  18. Posterior hypothalamic and brainstem activation in hemicrania continua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Manjit S; Cohen, Anna S; McGonigle, David J; Ward, Nick; Frackowiak, Richard S; Goadsby, Peter J

    2004-09-01

    To determine the brain structures involved in mediating the pain of hemicrania continua using positron emission tomography. Hemicrania continua is a strictly unilateral, continuous headache of moderate intensity, with superimposed exacerbations of severe intensity that are accompanied by trigeminal autonomic features and migrainous symptoms. The syndrome is exquisitely responsive to indomethacin. Its clinical phenotype overlaps with that of the trigeminal autonomic headaches and migraine in which the hypothalamus and the brainstem, respectively, have been postulated to play central pathophysiologic roles. We hypothesized, based on the clinical phenotype, that hemicrania continua may involve activations in the hypothalamus, or dorsal rostral pons, or both. Seven patients with hemicrania continua were studied in two sessions each. In one session, the patients were scanned during baseline pain and when rendered completely pain free after being administered indomethacin 100 mg intramuscularly. In the other session, the patients were scanned during baseline pain and when still in pain after being administered placebo intramuscularly. Seven age- and sex-matched nonheadache subjects acted as the control group. The scan images were processed and analyzed using SPM99. There was a significant activation of the contralateral posterior hypothalamus and ipsilateral dorsal rostral pons in association with the headache of hemicrania continua. In addition, there was activation of the ipsilateral ventrolateral midbrain, which extended over the red nucleus and the substantia nigra, and bilateral pontomedullary junction. No intracranial vessel dilatation was obvious. This study demonstrated activations of various subcortical structures, in particular the posterior hypothalamus and the dorsal rostral pons. If posterior hypothalamic and brainstem activation are considered as markers of trigeminal autonomic headaches and migrainous syndromes, respectively, then the activation pattern

  19. Benefits and detriments of unilateral cochlear implant use on bilateral auditory development in children who are deaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Gordon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have explored both the benefits and detriments of providing electrical input through a cochlear implant in one ear to the auditory system of young children. A cochlear implant delivers electrical pulses to stimulate the auditory nerve, providing children who are deaf with access to sound. The goals of implantation are to restrict reorganization of the deprived immature auditory brain and promote development of hearing and spoken language. It is clear that limiting the duration of deprivation is a key factor. Additional considerations are the onset, etiology, and use of residual hearing as each of these can have unique effects on auditory development in the pre-implant period. New findings show that many children receiving unilateral cochlear implants are developing mature-like brainstem and thalamo-cortical responses to sound with long term use despite these sources of variability; however, there remain considerable abnormalities in cortical function. The most apparent, determined by implanting the other ear and measuring responses to acute stimulation, is a loss of normal cortical response from the deprived ear. Recent data reveal that this can be avoided in children by early implantation of both ears simultaneously or with limited delay. We conclude that auditory development requires input early in development and from both ears.

  20. The Reduced Cochlear Output and the Failure to Adapt the Central Auditory Response Causes Tinnitus in Noise Exposed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masahiro; Lee, Sze Chim; Zuccotti, Annalisa; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Jaumann, Mirko; Rohbock, Karin; Xiong, Hao; Knipper, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus is proposed to be caused by decreased central input from the cochlea, followed by increased spontaneous and evoked subcortical activity that is interpreted as compensation for increased responsiveness of central auditory circuits. We compared equally noise exposed rats separated into groups with and without tinnitus for differences in brain responsiveness relative to the degree of deafferentation in the periphery. We analyzed (1) the number of CtBP2/RIBEYE-positive particles in ribbon synapses of the inner hair cell (IHC) as a measure for deafferentation; (2) the fine structure of the amplitudes of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) reflecting differences in sound responses following decreased auditory nerve activity and (3) the expression of the activity-regulated gene Arc in the auditory cortex (AC) to identify long-lasting central activity following sensory deprivation. Following moderate trauma, 30% of animals exhibited tinnitus, similar to the tinnitus prevalence among hearing impaired humans. Although both tinnitus and no-tinnitus animals exhibited a reduced ABR wave I amplitude (generated by primary auditory nerve fibers), IHCs ribbon loss and high-frequency hearing impairment was more severe in tinnitus animals, associated with significantly reduced amplitudes of the more centrally generated wave IV and V and less intense staining of Arc mRNA and protein in the AC. The observed severe IHCs ribbon loss, the minimal restoration of ABR wave size, and reduced cortical Arc expression suggest that tinnitus is linked to a failure to adapt central circuits to reduced cochlear input. PMID:23516401