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Sample records for brain-machine interface instructed

  1. A brain-machine interface instructed by direct intracortical microstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E O'Doherty

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs establish direct communications between the brain and artificial actuators. As such, they hold considerable promise for restoring mobility and communication in patients suffering from severe body paralysis. To achieve this end, future BMIs must also provide a means for delivering sensory signals from the actuators back to the brain. Prosthetic sensation is needed so that neuroprostheses can be better perceived and controlled. Here we show that a direct intracortical input can be added to a BMI to instruct rhesus monkeys in choosing the direction of reaching movements generated by the BMI. Somatosensory instructions were provided to two monkeys operating the BMI using either: (a vibrotactile stimulation of the monkey’s hands or (b multi-channel intracortical microstimulation (ICMS delivered to the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 in one monkey and posterior parietal cortex (PP in the other. Stimulus delivery was contingent on the position of the computer cursor: the monkey placed it in the center of the screen to receive machine-brain recursive input. After two weeks of training, the same level of proficiency in utilizing somatosensory information was achieved with ICMS of S1 as with the stimulus delivered to the hand skin. ICMS of PP was not effective. These results indicate that direct, bi-directional communication between the brain and neuroprosthetic devices can be achieved through the combination of chronic multi-electrode recording and microstimulation of S1. We propose that in the future, bidirectional BMIs incorporating ICMS may become an effective paradigm for sensorizing neuroprosthetic devices.

  2. A Brain-Machine Interface Instructed by Direct Intracortical Microstimulation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Doherty, Joseph E; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Hanson, Timothy L; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) establish direct communication between the brain and artificial actuators. As such, they hold considerable promise for restoring mobility and communication in patients suffering from severe body paralysis. To achieve this end, future BMIs must also provide a means for delivering sensory signals from the actuators back to the brain. Prosthetic sensation is needed so that neuroprostheses can be better perceived and controlled. Here we show that a direct intracort...

  3. Intention concepts and brain-machine interfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OlgaIljina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed subjects. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret (‘decode’ the agent’s intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent’s intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications.

  4. Brain Machine Interfaces for Robotic Control in Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR will study the application of a brain machine interface (BMI) to enable crew to remotely operate and monitor robots from inside a flight vehicle, habitat...

  5. Future developments in brain-machine interface research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Lebedev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic devices based on brain-machine interface technology hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurologic diseases and limb loss. During the last decade, considerable progress has been achieved in this multidisciplinary research, mainly in the brain-machine interface that enacts upper-limb functionality. However, a considerable number of problems need to be resolved before fully functional limb neuroprostheses can be built. To move towards developing neuroprosthetic devices for humans, brain-machine interface research has to address a number of issues related to improving the quality of neuronal recordings, achieving stable, long-term performance, and extending the brain-machine interface approach to a broad range of motor and sensory functions. Here, we review the future steps that are part of the strategic plan of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, and its partners, the Brazilian National Institute of Brain-Machine Interfaces and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL Center for Neuroprosthetics, to bring this new technology to clinical fruition.

  6. BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACING WITH IoT FUNTIONALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Lunia, Meera Bagdai

    2016-01-01

    Brain dead people and people having any disability related to brain cannot normally communicate with others and for their betterment some electronic need to be developed and Brain Machine Interfacing (BMI) is one such solution. BMI includes extracting brain signals directly from the skull of the subject and interfacing it with a machine to determine the state of thinking and act accordingly. The brainwaves are collected by non-invasive electrodes and the output is fed to an amplifier and filt...

  7. Brain-Machine Interfaces: The Perception-Action Closed Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Millán, José del R.

    2015-01-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) is about transforming neural activity into action and sensation into perception (Figure 1). In a BMI system, neural signals recorded from the brain are fed into a decoding algorithm that translates these signals into motor outputs to control a variety of practical devices for motor-disabled people [1]-[5]. Feedback from the prosthetic device, conveyed to the user either via normal sensory pathways or directly through brain stimulation, establishes a closed cont...

  8. Brain-Machine Interfaces for Real-time Speech Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Frank H.; Jonathan S Brumberg

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on studies involving brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that provide near-instantaneous audio feedback from a speech synthesizer to the BMI user. In one study, neural signals recorded by an intracranial electrode implanted in a speech-related region of the left precentral gyrus of a human volunteer suffering from locked-in syndrome were transmitted wirelessly across the scalp and used to drive a formant synthesizer, allowing the user to produce vowels. In a second, pilot study...

  9. Active tactile exploration using a brain-machine-brain interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Joseph E; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Shokur, Solaiman; Bleuler, Hannes; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-11-10

    Brain-machine interfaces use neuronal activity recorded from the brain to establish direct communication with external actuators, such as prosthetic arms. It is hoped that brain-machine interfaces can be used to restore the normal sensorimotor functions of the limbs, but so far they have lacked tactile sensation. Here we report the operation of a brain-machine-brain interface (BMBI) that both controls the exploratory reaching movements of an actuator and allows signalling of artificial tactile feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the primary somatosensory cortex. Monkeys performed an active exploration task in which an actuator (a computer cursor or a virtual-reality arm) was moved using a BMBI that derived motor commands from neuronal ensemble activity recorded in the primary motor cortex. ICMS feedback occurred whenever the actuator touched virtual objects. Temporal patterns of ICMS encoded the artificial tactile properties of each object. Neuronal recordings and ICMS epochs were temporally multiplexed to avoid interference. Two monkeys operated this BMBI to search for and distinguish one of three visually identical objects, using the virtual-reality arm to identify the unique artificial texture associated with each. These results suggest that clinical motor neuroprostheses might benefit from the addition of ICMS feedback to generate artificial somatic perceptions associated with mechanical, robotic or even virtual prostheses. PMID:21976021

  10. Prospects of brain-machine interfaces for space system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Carlo; de Negueruela, Cristina; Millán, José del R.; Tonet, Oliver; Carpi, Federico; Broschart, Michael; Ferrez, Pierre; Buttfield, Anna; Tecchio, Franca; Sepulveda, Francisco; Citi, Luca; Laschi, Cecilia; Tombini, Mario; Dario, Paolo; Maria Rossini, Paolo; De Rossi, Danilo

    2009-02-01

    The dream of controlling and guiding computer-based systems using human brain signals has slowly but steadily become a reality. The available technology allows real-time implementation of systems that measure neuronal activity, convert their signals, and translate their output for the purpose of controlling mechanical and electronic systems. This paper describes the state of the art of non-invasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) and critically investigates both the current technological limits and the future potential that BMIs have for space applications. We present an assessment of the advantages that BMIs can provide and justify the preferred candidate concepts for space applications together with a vision of future directions for their implementation.

  11. Neuroplasticity subserving the operation of brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweiss, Karim G; Badreldin, Islam S

    2015-11-01

    Neuroplasticity is key to the operation of brain machine interfaces (BMIs)-a direct communication pathway between the brain and a man-made computing device. Whereas exogenous BMIs that associate volitional control of brain activity with neurofeedback have been shown to induce long lasting plasticity, endogenous BMIs that use prolonged activity-dependent stimulation--and thus may curtail the time scale that governs natural sensorimotor integration loops--have been shown to induce short lasting plasticity. Here we summarize recent findings from studies using both categories of BMIs, and discuss the fundamental principles that may underlie their operation and the longevity of the plasticity they induce. We draw comparison to plasticity mechanisms known to mediate natural sensorimotor skill learning and discuss principles of homeostatic regulation that may constrain endogenous BMI effects in the adult mammalian brain. We propose that BMIs could be designed to facilitate structural and functional plasticity for the purpose of re-organization of target brain regions and directed augmentation of sensorimotor maps, and suggest possible avenues for future work to maximize their efficacy and viability in clinical applications. PMID:25968934

  12. Low-power circuits for brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, Rahul; Wattanapanitch, Woradorn; Arfin, Scott K; Rapoport, Benjamin I; Mandal, Soumyajit; Baker, Michael W; Fee, Michale S; Musallam, Sam; Andersen, Richard A

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents work on ultra-low-power circuits for brain-machine interfaces with applications for paralysis prosthetics, stroke, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, prosthetics for the blind, and experimental neuroscience systems. The circuits include a micropower neural amplifier with adaptive power biasing for use in multi-electrode arrays; an analog linear decoding and learning architecture for data compression; low-power radio-frequency (RF) impedance-modulation circuits for data telemetry that minimize power consumption of implanted systems in the body; a wireless link for efficient power transfer; mixed-signal system integration for efficiency, robustness, and programmability; and circuits for wireless stimulation of neurons with power-conserving sleep modes and awake modes. Experimental results from chips that have stimulated and recorded from neurons in the zebra finch brain and results from RF power-link, RF data-link, electrode-recording and electrode-stimulating systems are presented. Simulations of analog learning circuits that have successfully decoded prerecorded neural signals from a monkey brain are also presented. PMID:23852967

  13. A chronic generalized bi-directional brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, A. G.; Stanslaski, S. R.; Cong, P.; Jensen, R. M.; Afshar, P.; Ullestad, D.; Gupta, R.; Molnar, G. F.; Moran, D. W.; Denison, T. J.

    2011-06-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and prototyped by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercial neural stimulator architecture. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from an existing neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing predicate therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic research, such as four channels of electrocortigram/local field potential amplification and spectral analysis, a three-axis accelerometer, algorithm processing, event-based data logging, and wireless telemetry for data uploads and algorithm/configuration updates. The custom-integrated micropower sensor and interface circuits facilitate extended operation in a power-limited device. The prototype underwent significant verification testing to ensure reliability, and meets the requirements for a class CF instrument per IEC-60601 protocols. The ability of the device system to process and aid in classifying brain states was preclinically validated using an in vivo non-human primate model for brain control of a computer cursor (i.e. brain-machine interface or BMI). The primate BMI model was chosen for its ability to quantitatively measure signal decoding performance from brain activity that is similar in both amplitude and spectral content to other biomarkers used to detect disease states (e.g. Parkinson's disease). A key goal of this research prototype is to help broaden the clinical scope and acceptance of NI techniques, particularly real-time brain state detection. These techniques have the potential to be generalized beyond motor prosthesis, and are being explored for unmet needs in other neurological conditions such as movement disorders, stroke and epilepsy.

  14. A chronic generalized bi-directional brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, A G; Stanslaski, S R; Cong, P; Jensen, R M; Afshar, P; Ullestad, D; Gupta, R; Molnar, G F; Moran, D W; Denison, T J

    2011-06-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and prototyped by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercial neural stimulator architecture. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from an existing neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing predicate therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic research, such as four channels of electrocortigram/local field potential amplification and spectral analysis, a three-axis accelerometer, algorithm processing, event-based data logging, and wireless telemetry for data uploads and algorithm/configuration updates. The custom-integrated micropower sensor and interface circuits facilitate extended operation in a power-limited device. The prototype underwent significant verification testing to ensure reliability, and meets the requirements for a class CF instrument per IEC-60601 protocols. The ability of the device system to process and aid in classifying brain states was preclinically validated using an in vivo non-human primate model for brain control of a computer cursor (i.e. brain-machine interface or BMI). The primate BMI model was chosen for its ability to quantitatively measure signal decoding performance from brain activity that is similar in both amplitude and spectral content to other biomarkers used to detect disease states (e.g. Parkinson's disease). A key goal of this research prototype is to help broaden the clinical scope and acceptance of NI techniques, particularly real-time brain state detection. These techniques have the potential to be generalized beyond motor prosthesis, and are being explored for unmet needs in other neurological conditions such as movement disorders, stroke and epilepsy. PMID:21543839

  15. What limits the performance of current invasive Brain Machine Interfaces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytis eBaranauskas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a brain-machine interface (BMI or a computer-brain interface is simple: BMI creates a communication pathway for a direct control by brain of an external device. In reality BMIs are very complex devices and only recently the increase in computing power of microprocessors enabled a boom in BMI research that continues almost unabated to this date, the high point being the insertion of electrode arrays into the brains of 5 human patients in a clinical trial run by Cyberkinetics with few other clinical tests still in progress. Meanwhile several EEG-based BMI devices (non-invasive BMIs were launched commercially. Modern electronics and dry electrode technology made possible to drive the cost of some of these devices below few hundred dollars. However, the initial excitement of the direct control by brain waves of a computer or other equipment is dampened by large efforts required for learning, high error rates and slow response speed. All these problems are directly related to low information transfer rates typical for such EEG-based BMIs. In invasive BMIs employing multiple electrodes inserted into the brain one may expect much higher information transfer rates than in EEG-based BMIs because, in theory, each electrode provides an independent information channel. However, although invasive BMIs require more expensive equipment and have ethical problems related to the need to insert electrodes in the live brain, such financial and ethical costs are often not offset by a dramatic improvement in the information transfer rate. Thus the main topic of this review is why in invasive BMIs an apparently much larger information content obtained with multiple extracellular electrodes does not translate into much higher rates of information transfer? This paper explores possible answers to this question by concluding that more research on what movement parameters are encoded by neurons in motor cortex is needed before we can enjoy the next

  16. A glucose fuel cell for implantable brain-machine interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I Rapoport

    Full Text Available We have developed an implantable fuel cell that generates power through glucose oxidation, producing 3.4 μW cm(-2 steady-state power and up to 180 μW cm(-2 peak power. The fuel cell is manufactured using a novel approach, employing semiconductor fabrication techniques, and is therefore well suited for manufacture together with integrated circuits on a single silicon wafer. Thus, it can help enable implantable microelectronic systems with long-lifetime power sources that harvest energy from their surrounds. The fuel reactions are mediated by robust, solid state catalysts. Glucose is oxidized at the nanostructured surface of an activated platinum anode. Oxygen is reduced to water at the surface of a self-assembled network of single-walled carbon nanotubes, embedded in a Nafion film that forms the cathode and is exposed to the biological environment. The catalytic electrodes are separated by a Nafion membrane. The availability of fuel cell reactants, oxygen and glucose, only as a mixture in the physiologic environment, has traditionally posed a design challenge: Net current production requires oxidation and reduction to occur separately and selectively at the anode and cathode, respectively, to prevent electrochemical short circuits. Our fuel cell is configured in a half-open geometry that shields the anode while exposing the cathode, resulting in an oxygen gradient that strongly favors oxygen reduction at the cathode. Glucose reaches the shielded anode by diffusing through the nanotube mesh, which does not catalyze glucose oxidation, and the Nafion layers, which are permeable to small neutral and cationic species. We demonstrate computationally that the natural recirculation of cerebrospinal fluid around the human brain theoretically permits glucose energy harvesting at a rate on the order of at least 1 mW with no adverse physiologic effects. Low-power brain-machine interfaces can thus potentially benefit from having their implanted units

  17. Defining brain-machine interface applications by matching interface performance with device requirements.

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    Tonet, Oliver; Marinelli, Martina; Citi, Luca; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Rossini, Luca; Megali, Giuseppe; Dario, Paolo

    2008-01-15

    Interaction with machines is mediated by human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a particular class of HMIs and have so far been studied as a communication means for people who have little or no voluntary control of muscle activity. In this context, low-performing interfaces can be considered as prosthetic applications. On the other hand, for able-bodied users, a BMI would only be practical if conceived as an augmenting interface. In this paper, a method is introduced for pointing out effective combinations of interfaces and devices for creating real-world applications. First, devices for domotics, rehabilitation and assistive robotics, and their requirements, in terms of throughput and latency, are described. Second, HMIs are classified and their performance described, still in terms of throughput and latency. Then device requirements are matched with performance of available interfaces. Simple rehabilitation and domotics devices can be easily controlled by means of BMI technology. Prosthetic hands and wheelchairs are suitable applications but do not attain optimal interactivity. Regarding humanoid robotics, the head and the trunk can be controlled by means of BMIs, while other parts require too much throughput. Robotic arms, which have been controlled by means of cortical invasive interfaces in animal studies, could be the next frontier for non-invasive BMIs. Combining smart controllers with BMIs could improve interactivity and boost BMI applications. PMID:17499364

  18. Neuro-robotics from brain machine interfaces to rehabilitation robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiadis

    2014-01-01

    Neuro-robotics is one of the most multidisciplinary fields of the last decades, fusing information and knowledge from neuroscience, engineering and computer science. This book focuses on the results from the strategic alliance between Neuroscience and Robotics that help the scientific community to better understand the brain as well as design robotic devices and algorithms for interfacing humans and robots. The first part of the book introduces the idea of neuro-robotics, by presenting state-of-the-art bio-inspired devices. The second part of the book focuses on human-machine interfaces for pe

  19. A Chronic Generalized Bi-directional Brain-Machine Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, Adam; Stanslaski, Scott; Cong, Peng; Jensen, Randy; Afshar, Pedram; Ullestad, Dave; Moran, Dan; Denison, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and built by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercially approved neural stimulator. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from a market-approved neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing approved therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic clinical research, such as four channel...

  20. Advancing brain-machine interfaces: moving beyond linear state space models

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, Adam G.; Schieber, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in recent years have dramatically improved output control by Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs). Such devices nevertheless remain robotic and limited in their movements compared to normal human motor performance. Most current BMIs rely on transforming recorded neural activity to a linear state space composed of a set number of fixed degrees of freedom. Here we consider a variety of ways in which BMI design might be advanced further by applying non-linear dynamics observed in normal moto...

  1. Representation and control in closed-loop brain-machine interface systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moorman, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) systems attempt to restore motor function lost due to injury or neurodegenerative disease by bypassing natural motor pathways and allowing direct neural control of a movement actuator. Such systems also hold promise for investigating questions about learning and motor control in a highly controlled and observable system. Here we utilize a BMI paradigm in which single unit neural spiking activity recorded from motor cortical areas in non-human primates is used to ...

  2. Craniux: A LabVIEW-Based Modular Software Framework for Brain-Machine Interface Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Weber, Douglas J.; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Degenhart, Alan D.; Kelly, John W.; Collinger, Jennifer L; Ashmore, Robin C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents “Craniux,” an open-access, open-source software framework for brain-machine interface (BMI) research. Developed in LabVIEW, a high-level graphical programming environment, Craniux offers both out-of-the-box functionality and a modular BMI software framework that is easily extendable. Specifically, it allows researchers to take advantage of multiple features inherent to the LabVIEW environment for on-the-fly data visualization, parallel processing, multithreading, and data ...

  3. Boosted and Linked Mixtures of HMMs for Brain-Machine Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanjian, Shalom; Principe, Jose C.

    2008-12-01

    We propose two algorithms that decompose the joint likelihood of observing multidimensional neural input data into marginal likelihoods. The first algorithm, boosted mixtures of hidden Markov chains (BMs-HMM), applies techniques from boosting to create implicit hierarchic dependencies between these marginal subspaces. The second algorithm, linked mixtures of hidden Markov chains (LMs-HMM), uses a graphical modeling framework to explicitly create the hierarchic dependencies between these marginal subspaces. Our results show that these algorithms are very simple to train and computationally efficient, while also reducing the input dimensionality for brain-machine interfaces (BMIs).

  4. Brain-Machine Interfacing Control of Whole-Body Humanoid Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Bouyarmane; Norikazu Sugimoto; François Keith; Jun-ichiro Furukawa

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the mot...

  5. A 128-Channel Extreme Learning Machine-Based Neural Decoder for Brain Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Yao, Enyi; Basu, Arindam

    2016-06-01

    Currently, state-of-the-art motor intention decoding algorithms in brain-machine interfaces are mostly implemented on a PC and consume significant amount of power. A machine learning coprocessor in 0.35- μm CMOS for the motor intention decoding in the brain-machine interfaces is presented in this paper. Using Extreme Learning Machine algorithm and low-power analog processing, it achieves an energy efficiency of 3.45 pJ/MAC at a classification rate of 50 Hz. The learning in second stage and corresponding digitally stored coefficients are used to increase robustness of the core analog processor. The chip is verified with neural data recorded in monkey finger movements experiment, achieving a decoding accuracy of 99.3% for movement type. The same coprocessor is also used to decode time of movement from asynchronous neural spikes. With time-delayed feature dimension enhancement, the classification accuracy can be increased by 5% with limited number of input channels. Further, a sparsity promoting training scheme enables reduction of number of programmable weights by ≈ 2X. PMID:26672048

  6. Neural Operant Conditioning as a Core Mechanism of Brain-Machine Interface Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakurai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of changing the neuronal activity of the brain to acquire rewards in a broad sense is essential for utilizing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs, which is essentially operant conditioning of neuronal activity. Currently, this is also known as neural biofeedback, and it is often referred to as neurofeedback when human brain activity is targeted. In this review, we first illustrate biofeedback and operant conditioning, which are methodological background elements in neural operant conditioning. Then, we introduce research models of neural operant conditioning in animal experiments and demonstrate that it is possible to change the firing frequency and synchronous firing of local neuronal populations in a short time period. We also debate the possibility of the application of neural operant conditioning and its contribution to BMIs.

  7. Divide-and-conquer approach for brain machine interfaces: nonlinear mixture of competitive linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Phil; Sanchez, Justin C; Erdogmus, Deniz; Rao, Yadunandana N; Wessberg, Johan; Principe, Jose C; Nicolelis, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a divide-and-conquer strategy for designing brain machine interfaces. A nonlinear combination of competitively trained local linear models (experts) is used to identify the mapping from neuronal activity in cortical areas associated with arm movement to the hand position of a primate. The proposed architecture and the training algorithm are described in detail and numerical performance comparisons with alternative linear and nonlinear modeling approaches, including time-delay neural networks and recursive multilayer perceptrons, are presented. This new strategy allows training the local linear models using normalized LMS and using a relatively smaller nonlinear network to efficiently combine the predictions of the linear experts. This leads to savings in computational requirements, while the performance is still similar to a large fully nonlinear network. PMID:12850045

  8. Creating new functional circuits for action via brain-machine interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs are an emerging technology with great promise for developing restorative therapies for those with disabilities. BMIs also create novel, well-defined functional circuits for action that are distinct from the natural sensorimotor apparatus. Closed-loop control of BMI systems can also actively engage learning and adaptation. These properties make BMIs uniquely suited to study learning of motor and non-physical, abstract skills. Recent work used motor BMIs to shed light on the neural representations of skill formation and motor adaptation. Emerging work in sensory BMIs, and other novel interface systems, also highlight the promise of using BMI systems to study fundamental questions in learning and sensorimotor control. This paper outlines the interpretation of BMIs as novel closed-loop systems and the benefits of these systems for studying learning. We review BMI learning studies, their relation to motor control, and propose future directions for this nascent field. Understanding learning in BMIs may both elucidate mechanisms of natural motor and abstract skill learning, and aid in developing the next generation of neuroprostheses.

  9. Adaptive changes of rhythmic EEG oscillations in space implications for brain-machine interface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheron, G; Cebolla, A M; Petieau, M; Bengoetxea, A; Palmero-Soler, E; Leroy, A; Dan, B

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic development of brain machine interfaces has enhanced the use of human brain signals conveying mental action for controlling external actuators. This chapter will outline current evidences that the rhythmic electroencephalographic activity of the brain is sensitive to microgravity environment. Experiments performed in the International Space Station have shown significant changes in the power of the astronauts' alpha and mu oscillations in resting condition, and other adaptive modifications in the beta and gamma frequency range during the immersion in virtual navigation. In this context, the dynamic aspects of the resting or default condition of the awaken brain, the influence of the "top-down" dynamics, and the possibility to use a more constrained configuration by a new somatosensory-evoked potential (gating approach) are discussed in the sense of future uses of brain computing interface in space mission. Although, the state of the art of the noninvasive BCI approach clearly demonstrates their ability and the great expectance in the field of rehabilitation for the restoration of defective communication between the brain and external world, their future application in space mission urgently needs a better understanding of brain neurophysiology, in particular in aspects related to neural network rhythmicity in microgravity. PMID:19607999

  10. Optimal space-time precoding of artificial sensory feedback through mutichannel microstimulation in bi-directional brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, John; Liu, Jianbo; Aghagolzadeh, Mehdi; Oweiss, Karim

    2012-12-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) aim to restore lost sensorimotor and cognitive function in subjects with severe neurological deficits. In particular, lost somatosensory function may be restored by artificially evoking patterns of neural activity through microstimulation to induce perception of tactile and proprioceptive feedback to the brain about the state of the limb. Despite an early proof of concept that subjects could learn to discriminate a limited vocabulary of intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) patterns that instruct the subject about the state of the limb, the dynamics of a moving limb are unlikely to be perceived by an arbitrarily-selected, discrete set of static microstimulation patterns, raising questions about the generalization and the scalability of this approach. In this work, we propose a microstimulation protocol intended to activate optimally the ascending somatosensory pathway. The optimization is achieved through a space-time precoder that maximizes the mutual information between the sensory feedback indicating the limb state and the cortical neural response evoked by thalamic microstimulation. Using a simplified multi-input multi-output model of the thalamocortical pathway, we show that this optimal precoder can deliver information more efficiently in the presence of noise compared to suboptimal precoders that do not account for the afferent pathway structure and/or cortical states. These results are expected to enhance the way microstimulation is used to induce somatosensory perception during sensorimotor control of artificial devices or paralyzed limbs.

  11. Advancing brain-machine interfaces: moving beyond linear state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Adam G; Schieber, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Advances in recent years have dramatically improved output control by Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs). Such devices nevertheless remain robotic and limited in their movements compared to normal human motor performance. Most current BMIs rely on transforming recorded neural activity to a linear state space composed of a set number of fixed degrees of freedom. Here we consider a variety of ways in which BMI design might be advanced further by applying non-linear dynamics observed in normal motor behavior. We consider (i) the dynamic range and precision of natural movements, (ii) differences between cortical activity and actual body movement, (iii) kinematic and muscular synergies, and (iv) the implications of large neuronal populations. We advance the hypothesis that a given population of recorded neurons may transmit more useful information than can be captured by a single, linear model across all movement phases and contexts. We argue that incorporating these various non-linear characteristics will be an important next step in advancing BMIs to more closely match natural motor performance. PMID:26283932

  12. An online brain-machine interface using decoding of movement direction from the human electrocorticogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milekovic, Tomislav; Fischer, Jörg; Pistohl, Tobias; Ruescher, Johanna; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Rickert, Jörn; Ball, Tonio; Mehring, Carsten

    2012-08-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) can be used to control movements of an artificial effector, e.g. movements of an arm prosthesis, by motor cortical signals that control the equivalent movements of the corresponding body part, e.g. arm movements. This approach has been successfully applied in monkeys and humans by accurately extracting parameters of movements from the spiking activity of multiple single neurons. We show that the same approach can be realized using brain activity measured directly from the surface of the human cortex using electrocorticography (ECoG). Five subjects, implanted with ECoG implants for the purpose of epilepsy assessment, took part in our study. Subjects used directionally dependent ECoG signals, recorded during active movements of a single arm, to control a computer cursor in one out of two directions. Significant BMI control was achieved in four out of five subjects with correct directional decoding in 69%-86% of the trials (75% on average). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an online BMI using decoding of movement direction from human ECoG signals. Thus, to achieve such BMIs, ECoG signals might be used in conjunction with or as an alternative to intracortical neural signals.

  13. Advancing brain-machine interfaces: Moving beyond linear state space models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G Rouse

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in recent years have dramatically improved output control by Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs. Such devices nevertheless remain robotic and limited in their movements compared to normal human motor performance. Most current BMIs rely on transforming recorded neural activity to a linear state space composed of a set number of fixed degrees of freedom. Here we consider a variety of ways in which BMI design might be advanced further by applying non-linear dynamics observed in normal motor behavior. We consider i the dynamic range and precision of natural movements, ii differences between cortical activity and actual body movement, iii kinematic and muscular synergies, and iv the implications of large neuronal populations. We advance the hypothesis that a given population of recorded neurons may transmit more useful information than can be captured by a single, linear model across all movement phases and contexts. We argue that incorporating these various non-linear characteristics will be an important next step in advancing BMIs to more closely match natural motor performance.

  14. Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaching and grasping in primates depend on the coordination of neural activity in large frontoparietal ensembles. Here we demonstrate that primates can learn to reach and grasp virtual objects by controlling a robot arm through a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMIc that uses multiple mathematical models to extract several motor parameters (i.e., hand position, velocity, gripping force, and the EMGs of multiple arm muscles from the electrical activity of frontoparietal neuronal ensembles. As single neurons typically contribute to the encoding of several motor parameters, we observed that high BMIc accuracy required recording from large neuronal ensembles. Continuous BMIc operation by monkeys led to significant improvements in both model predictions and behavioral performance. Using visual feedback, monkeys succeeded in producing robot reach-and-grasp movements even when their arms did not move. Learning to operate the BMIc was paralleled by functional reorganization in multiple cortical areas, suggesting that the dynamic properties of the BMIc were incorporated into motor and sensory cortical representations.

  15. A brain-machine-muscle interface for restoring hindlimb locomotion after complete spinal transection in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzurul Alam

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is a neuroprosthetic device that can restore motor function of individuals with paralysis. Although the feasibility of BMI control of upper-limb neuroprostheses has been demonstrated, a BMI for the restoration of lower-limb motor functions has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to determine if gait-related information can be captured from neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex of rats, and if this neural information can be used to stimulate paralysed hindlimb muscles after complete spinal cord transection. Neural activity was recorded from the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of six female Sprague Dawley rats during treadmill locomotion before and after mid-thoracic transection. Before spinal transection there was a strong association between neural activity and the step cycle. This association decreased after spinal transection. However, the locomotive state (standing vs. walking could still be successfully decoded from neural recordings made after spinal transection. A novel BMI device was developed that processed this neural information in real-time and used it to control electrical stimulation of paralysed hindlimb muscles. This system was able to elicit hindlimb muscle contractions that mimicked forelimb stepping. We propose this lower-limb BMI as a future neuroprosthesis for human paraplegics.

  16. Quantifying the role of motor imagery in brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesotti, Silvia; Bassolino, Michela; Serino, Andrea; Bleuler, Hannes; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    Despite technical advances in brain machine interfaces (BMI), for as-yet unknown reasons the ability to control a BMI remains limited to a subset of users. We investigate whether individual differences in BMI control based on motor imagery (MI) are related to differences in MI ability. We assessed whether differences in kinesthetic and visual MI, in the behavioral accuracy of MI, and in electroencephalographic variables, were able to differentiate between high- versus low-aptitude BMI users. High-aptitude BMI users showed higher MI accuracy as captured by subjective and behavioral measurements, pointing to a prominent role of kinesthetic rather than visual imagery. Additionally, for the first time, we applied mental chronometry, a measure quantifying the degree to which imagined and executed movements share a similar temporal profile. We also identified enhanced lateralized μ-band oscillations over sensorimotor cortices during MI in high- versus low-aptitude BMI users. These findings reveal that subjective, behavioral, and EEG measurements of MI are intimately linked to BMI control. We propose that poor BMI control cannot be ascribed only to intrinsic limitations of EEG recordings and that specific questionnaires and mental chronometry can be used as predictors of BMI performance (without the need to record EEG activity).

  17. Cortical modulations increase in early sessions with brain-machine interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Zacksenhouse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During planning and execution of reaching movements, the activity of cortical motor neurons is modulated by a diversity of motor, sensory, and cognitive signals. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs extract part of these modulations to directly control artificial actuators. However, cortical modulations that emerge in the novel context of operating the BMI are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we analyzed the changes in neuronal modulations that occurred in different cortical motor areas as monkeys learned to use a BMI to control reaching movements. Using spike-train analysis methods we demonstrate that the modulations of the firing-rates of cortical neurons increased abruptly after the monkeys started operating the BMI. Regression analysis revealed that these enhanced modulations were not correlated with the kinematics of the movement. The initial enhancement in firing rate modulations declined gradually with subsequent training in parallel with the improvement in behavioral performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the enhanced modulations are related to computational tasks that are significant especially in novel motor contexts. Although the function and neuronal mechanism of the enhanced cortical modulations are open for further inquiries, we discuss their potential role in processing execution errors and representing corrective or explorative activity. These representations are expected to contribute to the formation of internal models of the external actuator and their decoding may facilitate BMI improvement.

  18. Training of a leaning agent for navigation--inspired by brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tadashi; Nishino, Daisuke

    2006-04-01

    The design clue for the remote control of a mobile robot is inspired by the Talwar's brain-machine interface technology for remotely training and controlling rats. Our biologically inspired autonomous robot control consciousness-based architecture (CBA) is used for the remote control of a robot as a substitute for a rat. CBA is a developmental hierarchy model of the relationship between consciousness and behavior, including a training algorithm. This training algorithm computes a shortcut path to a goal using a cognitive map created based on behavior obstructions during a single successful trial. However, failures in reaching the goal due to errors of the vision and dead reckoning sensors require human intervention to improve autonomous navigation. A human operator remotely intervenes in autonomous behaviors in two ways: low-level intervention in reflexive actions and high-level ones in the cognitive map. Experiments are conducted to test CBA functions for intervention with a joystick for a Khepera robot navigating from the center of a square obstacle with an open side toward a goal. Their statistical results show that both human interventions, especially high-level ones, are effective in drastically improving the success rate of autonomous detours. PMID:16602595

  19. Recasting brain-machine interface design from a physical control system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chase, Steven M

    2015-10-01

    With the goal of improving the quality of life for people suffering from various motor control disorders, brain-machine interfaces provide direct neural control of prosthetic devices by translating neural signals into control signals. These systems act by reading motor intent signals directly from the brain and using them to control, for example, the movement of a cursor on a computer screen. Over the past two decades, much attention has been devoted to the decoding problem: how should recorded neural activity be translated into the movement of the cursor? Most approaches have focused on this problem from an estimation standpoint, i.e., decoders are designed to return the best estimate of motor intent possible, under various sets of assumptions about how the recorded neural signals represent motor intent. Here we recast the decoder design problem from a physical control system perspective, and investigate how various classes of decoders lead to different types of physical systems for the subject to control. This framework leads to new interpretations of why certain types of decoders have been shown to perform better than others. These results have implications for understanding how motor neurons are recruited to perform various tasks, and may lend insight into the brain's ability to conceptualize artificial systems. PMID:26142906

  20. Errare machinale est: The use of error-related potentials in brain-machine interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eChavarriaga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize errors is crucial for efficient behavior. Numerous studies have identified electrophysiological correlates of error recognition in the human brain (error-related potentials, ErrPs. Consequently, it has been proposed to use these signals to improve human-computer interaction (HCI or brain-machine interfacing (BMI. Here, we present a review of over a decade of developments towards this goal. This body of work provides consistent evidence that ErrPs can be successfully detected on a single-trial basis, and that they can be effectively used in both HCI and BMI applications.We first describe the ErrP phenomenon and follow up with an analysis of different strategies to increase the robustness of a system by incorporating single-trial ErrP recognition, either by correcting the machine's actions or by providing means for its error-based adaptation. These approaches can be applied both when the user employs traditional HCI input devices or in combination with another BMI channel.Finally, we discuss the current challenges that have to be overcome in order to fully integrate ErrPs into practical applications. This includes, in particular, the characterization of such signals during real(istic applications, as well as the possibility of extracting richer information from them, going beyond the time-locked decoding that dominates current approaches.

  1. Uniform and Non-uniform Perturbations in Brain-Machine Interface Task Elicit Similar Neural Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta Salas, Michelle; Helms Tillery, Stephen I

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that take place during learning and adaptation can be directly probed with brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). We developed a BMI controlled paradigm that enabled us to enforce learning by introducing perturbations which changed the relationship between neural activity and the BMI's output. We introduced a uniform perturbation to the system, through a visuomotor rotation (VMR), and a non-uniform perturbation, through a decorrelation task. The controller in the VMR was essentially unchanged, but produced an output rotated at 30° from the neurally specified output. The controller in the decorrelation trials decoupled the activity of neurons that were highly correlated in the BMI task by selectively forcing the preferred directions of these cell pairs to be orthogonal. We report that movement errors were larger in the decorrelation task, and subjects needed more trials to restore performance back to baseline. During learning, we measured decreasing trends in preferred direction changes and cross-correlation coefficients regardless of task type. Conversely, final adaptations in neural tunings were dependent on the type controller used (VMR or decorrelation). These results hint to the similar process the neural population might engage while adapting to new tasks, and how, through a global process, the neural system can arrive to individual solutions. PMID:27601981

  2. A recurrent neural network for closed-loop intracortical brain-machine interface decoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussillo, David; Nuyujukian, Paul; Fan, Joline M.; Kao, Jonathan C.; Stavisky, Sergey D.; Ryu, Stephen; Shenoy, Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are useful tools for learning nonlinear relationships in time series data with complex temporal dependences. In this paper, we explore the ability of a simplified type of RNN, one with limited modifications to the internal weights called an echostate network (ESN), to effectively and continuously decode monkey reaches during a standard center-out reach task using a cortical brain-machine interface (BMI) in a closed loop. We demonstrate that the RNN, an ESN implementation termed a FORCE decoder (from first order reduced and controlled error learning), learns the task quickly and significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art method, the velocity Kalman filter (VKF), using the measure of target acquire time. We also demonstrate that the FORCE decoder generalizes to a more difficult task by successfully operating the BMI in a randomized point-to-point task. The FORCE decoder is also robust as measured by the success rate over extended sessions. Finally, we show that decoded cursor dynamics are more like naturalistic hand movements than those of the VKF. Taken together, these results suggest that RNNs in general, and the FORCE decoder in particular, are powerful tools for BMI decoder applications.

  3. Brain-Machine Interface control of a robot arm using actor-critic rainforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Mahmoudi, Babak; Geng, Shijia; Prins, Noeline; Sanchez, Justin C

    2012-01-01

    Here we demonstrate how a marmoset monkey can use a reinforcement learning (RL) Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) to effectively control the movements of a robot arm for a reaching task. In this work, an actor-critic RL algorithm used neural ensemble activity in the monkey's motor cortext to control the robot movements during a two-target decision task. This novel approach to decoding offers unique advantages for BMI control applications. Compared to supervised learning decoding methods, the actor-critic RL algorithm does not require an explicit set of training data to create a static control model, but rather it incrementally adapts the model parameters according to its current performance, in this case requiring only a very basic feedback signal. We show how this algorithm achieved high performance when mapping the monkey's neural states (94%) to robot actions, and only needed to experience a few trials before obtaining accurate real-time control of the robot arm. Since RL methods responsively adapt and adjust their parameters, they can provide a method to create BMIs that are robust against perturbations caused by changes in either the neural input space or the output actions they generate under different task requirements or goals. PMID:23366831

  4. An Actor-Critic architecture and simulator for goal-directed Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Babak; Principe, Jose C; Sanchez, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The Perception-Action Cycle (PAC) is a central component of goal-directed behavior because it links internal percepts with external outcomes in the environment. Using inspiration from the PAC, we are developing a Brain-Machine Interface control architecture that utilizes both motor commands and goal information directly from the brain to navigate to novel targets in an environment. An Actor-Critic algorithm was selected for decoding the neural motor commands because it is a PAC-based computational framework where the perception component is implemented in the critic structure and the actor is responsible for taking actions. We develop in this work a biologically realistic simulator to analyze the performance of the decoder in terms of convergence and target acquisition. Experience from the simulator will guide parameter selection and assist in understanding the architecture before animal experiments. By varying the signal to noise ratio of the neural input and error signal, we were able to demonstrate how the learning rate and initial conditions affect a motor control target selection task. In this framework, the naïve decoder was able to reach targets in the presence of noise in the error signal and neural motor command with 98% accuracy. PMID:19963795

  5. Craniux: A LabVIEW-Based Modular Software Framework for Brain-Machine Interface Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. Degenhart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents “Craniux,” an open-access, open-source software framework for brain-machine interface (BMI research. Developed in LabVIEW, a high-level graphical programming environment, Craniux offers both out-of-the-box functionality and a modular BMI software framework that is easily extendable. Specifically, it allows researchers to take advantage of multiple features inherent to the LabVIEW environment for on-the-fly data visualization, parallel processing, multithreading, and data saving. This paper introduces the basic features and system architecture of Craniux and describes the validation of the system under real-time BMI operation using simulated and real electrocorticographic (ECoG signals. Our results indicate that Craniux is able to operate consistently in real time, enabling a seamless work flow to achieve brain control of cursor movement. The Craniux software framework is made available to the scientific research community to provide a LabVIEW-based BMI software platform for future BMI research and development.

  6. A bidirectional brain-machine interface algorithm that approximates arbitrary force-fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Vato

    Full Text Available We examine bidirectional brain-machine interfaces that control external devices in a closed loop by decoding motor cortical activity to command the device and by encoding the state of the device by delivering electrical stimuli to sensory areas. Although it is possible to design this artificial sensory-motor interaction while maintaining two independent channels of communication, here we propose a rule that closes the loop between flows of sensory and motor information in a way that approximates a desired dynamical policy expressed as a field of forces acting upon the controlled external device. We previously developed a first implementation of this approach based on linear decoding of neural activity recorded from the motor cortex into a set of forces (a force field applied to a point mass, and on encoding of position of the point mass into patterns of electrical stimuli delivered to somatosensory areas. However, this previous algorithm had the limitation that it only worked in situations when the position-to-force map to be implemented is invertible. Here we overcome this limitation by developing a new non-linear form of the bidirectional interface that can approximate a virtually unlimited family of continuous fields. The new algorithm bases both the encoding of position information and the decoding of motor cortical activity on an explicit map between spike trains and the state space of the device computed with Multi-Dimensional-Scaling. We present a detailed computational analysis of the performance of the interface and a validation of its robustness by using synthetic neural responses in a simulated sensory-motor loop.

  7. Assessment of brain-machine interfaces from the perspective of people with paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blabe, Christine H.; Gilja, Vikash; Chestek, Cindy A.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Anderson, Kim D.; Henderson, Jaimie M.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. One of the main goals of brain-machine interface (BMI) research is to restore function to people with paralysis. Currently, multiple BMI design features are being investigated, based on various input modalities (externally applied and surgically implantable sensors) and output modalities (e.g. control of computer systems, prosthetic arms, and functional electrical stimulation systems). While these technologies may eventually provide some level of benefit, they each carry associated burdens for end-users. We sought to assess the attitudes of people with paralysis toward using various technologies to achieve particular benefits, given the burdens currently associated with the use of each system. Approach. We designed and distributed a technology survey to determine the level of benefit necessary for people with tetraplegia due to spinal cord injury to consider using different technologies, given the burdens currently associated with them. The survey queried user preferences for 8 BMI technologies including electroencephalography, electrocorticography, and intracortical microelectrode arrays, as well as a commercially available eye tracking system for comparison. Participants used a 5-point scale to rate their likelihood to adopt these technologies for 13 potential control capabilities. Main Results. Survey respondents were most likely to adopt BMI technology to restore some of their natural upper extremity function, including restoration of hand grasp and/or some degree of natural arm movement. High speed typing and control of a fast robot arm were also of interest to this population. Surgically implanted wireless technologies were twice as ‘likely’ to be adopted as their wired equivalents. Significance. Assessing end-user preferences is an essential prerequisite to the design and implementation of any assistive technology. The results of this survey suggest that people with tetraplegia would adopt an unobtrusive, autonomous BMI system for both

  8. Kinematic and Neurophysiological Consequences of an Assisted-Force-Feedback Brain-Machine Interface Training: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano eSilvoni; Marianna eCavinato; Chiara eVolpato; Giulia eCisotto; Clara eGenna; Michela eAgostini; Andrea eTurolla; Ander eRamos-Murguialday; Francesco ePiccione

    2013-01-01

    In a proof-of-principle prototypical demonstration we describe a new type of brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm for upper limb motor-training. The proposed technique allows a fast contingent and proportionally modulated stimulation of afferent proprioceptive and motor output neural pathways using operant learning. Continuous and immediate assisted-feedback of force proportional to rolandic rhythm oscillations during actual movements was employed and illustrated with a single case experime...

  9. Blending of brain-machine interface and vision-guided autonomous robotics improves neuroprosthetic arm performance during grasping

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, John E; Weiss, Jeffrey M.; Muelling, Katharina; Venkatraman, Arun; Valois, Jean-Sebastien; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J. Andrew; Schwartz, Andrew B.; Collinger, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) offer great potential for restoring upper limb function. However, grasping objects is a complicated task and the signals extracted from the brain may not always be capable of driving these movements reliably. Vision-guided robotic assistance is one possible way to improve BMI performance. We describe a method of shared control where the user controls a prosthetic arm using a BMI and receives assistance with positioning ...

  10. Analysis of neural activity in human motor cortex -- Towards brain machine interface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secundo, Lavi

    The discovery of directional tuned neurons in the primary motor cortex has advanced motor research in several domains. For instance, in the area of brain machine interface (BMI), researchers have exploited the robust characteristic of tuned motor neurons to allow monkeys to learn control of various machines. In the first chapter of this work we examine whether this phenomena can be observed using the less invasive method of recording electrocorticographic signals (ECoG) from the surface of a human's brain. Our findings reveal that individual ECoG channels contain complex movement information about the neuronal population. While some ECoG channels are tuned to hand movement direction (direction specific channels), others are associated to movement but do not contain information regarding movement direction (non-direction specific channels). More specifically, directionality can vary temporally and by frequency within one channel. In addition, a handful of channels contain no significant information regarding movement at all. These findings strongly suggest that directional and non-directional regions of cortex can be identified with ECoG and provide solutions to decoding movement at the signal resolution provided by ECoG. In the second chapter we examine the influence of movement context on movement reconstruction accuracy. We recorded neuronal signals recorded from electro-corticography (ECoG) during performance of cued- and self-initiated movements. ECoG signals were used to train a reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct continuous hand movement. We found that both cued- and self-initiated movements could be reconstructed with similar accuracy from the ECoG data. However, while an algorithm trained on the cued task could reconstruct performance on a subsequent cued trial, it failed to reconstruct self-initiated arm movement. The same task-specificity was observed when the algorithm was trained with self-initiated movement data and tested on the cued task. Thus

  11. A wireless brain-machine interface for real-time speech synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank H Guenther

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs involving electrodes implanted into the human cerebral cortex have recently been developed in an attempt to restore function to profoundly paralyzed individuals. Current BMIs for restoring communication can provide important capabilities via a typing process, but unfortunately they are only capable of slow communication rates. In the current study we use a novel approach to speech restoration in which we decode continuous auditory parameters for a real-time speech synthesizer from neuronal activity in motor cortex during attempted speech. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Neural signals recorded by a Neurotrophic Electrode implanted in a speech-related region of the left precentral gyrus of a human volunteer suffering from locked-in syndrome, characterized by near-total paralysis with spared cognition, were transmitted wirelessly across the scalp and used to drive a speech synthesizer. A Kalman filter-based decoder translated the neural signals generated during attempted speech into continuous parameters for controlling a synthesizer that provided immediate (within 50 ms auditory feedback of the decoded sound. Accuracy of the volunteer's vowel productions with the synthesizer improved quickly with practice, with a 25% improvement in average hit rate (from 45% to 70% and 46% decrease in average endpoint error from the first to the last block of a three-vowel task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the feasibility of neural prostheses that may have the potential to provide near-conversational synthetic speech output for individuals with severely impaired speech motor control. They also provide an initial glimpse into the functional properties of neurons in speech motor cortical areas.

  12. Instantaneous estimation of motor cortical neural encoding for online brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Principe, Jose C.

    2010-10-01

    Recently, the authors published a sequential decoding algorithm for motor brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that infers movement directly from spike trains and produces a new kinematic output every time an observation of neural activity is present at its input. Such a methodology also needs a special instantaneous neuronal encoding model to relate instantaneous kinematics to every neural spike activity. This requirement is unlike the tuning methods commonly used in computational neuroscience, which are based on time windows of neural and kinematic data. This paper develops a novel, online, encoding model that uses the instantaneous kinematic variables (position, velocity and acceleration in 2D or 3D space) to estimate the mean value of an inhomogeneous Poisson model. During BMI decoding the mapping from neural spikes to kinematics is one to one and easy to implement by simply reading the spike times directly. Due to the high temporal resolution of the encoding, the delay between motor cortex neurons and kinematics needs to be estimated in the encoding stage. Mutual information is employed to select the optimal time index defined as the lag for which the spike event is maximally informative with respect to the kinematics. We extensively compare the windowed tuning models with the proposed method. The big difference between them resides in the high firing rate portion of the tuning curve, which is rather important for BMI-decoding performance. This paper shows that implementing such an instantaneous tuning model in sequential Monte Carlo point process estimation based on spike timing provides statistically better kinematic reconstructions than the linear and exponential spike-tuning models.

  13. Comparison of spike sorting and thresholding of voltage waveforms for intracortical brain-machine interface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Breanne P.; Tat, Derek M.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin D.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Thompson, David E.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. For intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), action potential voltage waveforms are often sorted to separate out individual neurons. If these neurons contain independent tuning information, this process could increase BMI performance. However, the sorting of action potentials (‘spikes’) requires high sampling rates and is computationally expensive. To explicitly define the difference between spike sorting and alternative methods, we quantified BMI decoder performance when using threshold-crossing events versus sorted action potentials. Approach. We used data sets from 58 experimental sessions from two rhesus macaques implanted with Utah arrays. Data were recorded while the animals performed a center-out reaching task with seven different angles. For spike sorting, neural signals were sorted into individual units by using a mixture of Gaussians to cluster the first four principal components of the waveforms. For thresholding events, spikes that simply crossed a set threshold were retained. We decoded the data offline using both a Naïve Bayes classifier for reaching direction and a linear regression to evaluate hand position. Main results. We found the highest performance for thresholding when placing a threshold between -3 and -4.5 × Vrms. Spike sorted data outperformed thresholded data for one animal but not the other. The mean Naïve Bayes classification accuracy for sorted data was 88.5% and changed by 5% on average when data were thresholded. The mean correlation coefficient for sorted data was 0.92, and changed by 0.015 on average when thresholded. Significance. For prosthetics applications, these results imply that when thresholding is used instead of spike sorting, only a small amount of performance may be lost. The utilization of threshold-crossing events may significantly extend the lifetime of a device because these events are often still detectable once single neurons are no longer isolated.

  14. A generalizable adaptive brain-machine interface design for control of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuxiao Yang; Shanechi, Maryam M

    2015-08-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) for closed-loop control of anesthesia have the potential to automatically monitor and control brain states under anesthesia. Since a variety of anesthetic states are needed in different clinical scenarios, designing a generalizable BMI architecture that can control a wide range of anesthetic states is essential. In addition, drug dynamics are non-stationary over time and could change with the depth of anesthesia. Hence for precise control, a BMI needs to track these non-stationarities online. Here we design a BMI architecture that generalizes to control of various anesthetic states and their associated neural signatures, and is adaptive to time-varying drug dynamics. We provide a systematic approach to build general parametric models that quantify the anesthetic state and describe the drug dynamics. Based on these models, we develop an adaptive closed-loop controller within the framework of stochastic optimal feedback control. This controller tracks the non-stationarities in drug dynamics, achieves tight control in a time-varying environment, and removes the need for an offline system identification session. For robustness, the BMI also ensures small drug infusion rate variations at steady state. We test the BMI architecture for control of two common anesthetic states, i.e., burst suppression in medically-induced coma and unconsciousness in general anesthesia. Using numerical experiments, we find that the BMI generalizes to control of both these anesthetic states; in a time-varying environment, even without initial knowledge of model parameters, the BMI accurately controls these two different anesthetic states, reducing bias and error more than 70 times and 9 times, respectively, compared with a non-adaptive system. PMID:26736457

  15. Adaptive decoding for brain-machine interfaces through Bayesian parameter updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-12-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) transform the activity of neurons recorded in motor areas of the brain into movements of external actuators. Representation of movements by neuronal populations varies over time, during both voluntary limb movements and movements controlled through BMIs, due to motor learning, neuronal plasticity, and instability in recordings. To ensure accurate BMI performance over long time spans, BMI decoders must adapt to these changes. We propose the Bayesian regression self-training method for updating the parameters of an unscented Kalman filter decoder. This novel paradigm uses the decoder's output to periodically update its neuronal tuning model in a Bayesian linear regression. We use two previously known statistical formulations of Bayesian linear regression: a joint formulation, which allows fast and exact inference, and a factorized formulation, which allows the addition and temporary omission of neurons from updates but requires approximate variational inference. To evaluate these methods, we performed offline reconstructions and closed-loop experiments with rhesus monkeys implanted cortically with microwire electrodes. Offline reconstructions used data recorded in areas M1, S1, PMd, SMA, and PP of three monkeys while they controlled a cursor using a handheld joystick. The Bayesian regression self-training updates significantly improved the accuracy of offline reconstructions compared to the same decoder without updates. We performed 11 sessions of real-time, closed-loop experiments with a monkey implanted in areas M1 and S1. These sessions spanned 29 days. The monkey controlled the cursor using the decoder with and without updates. The updates maintained control accuracy and did not require information about monkey hand movements, assumptions about desired movements, or knowledge of the intended movement goals as training signals. These results indicate that Bayesian regression self-training can maintain BMI control accuracy over long

  16. Selective visual attention to drive cognitive brain machine interfaces: from concepts to neurofeedback and rehabilitation applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine eAstrand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI using motor cortical activity to drive an external effector like a screen cursor or a robotic arm have seen enormous success and proven their great rehabilitation potential. An emerging parallel effort is now directed to BMIs controlled by endogenous cognitive activity, also called cognitive BMIs. While more challenging, this approach opens new dimensions to the rehabilitation of cognitive disorders. In the present work, we focus on BMIs driven by visuospatial attention signals and we provide a critical review of these studies in the light of the accumulated knowledge about the psychophysics, anatomy and neurophysiology of visual spatial attention. Importantly, we provide a unique comparative overview of the several studies, ranging from noninvasive to invasive human and non-human primates studies, that decode attention-related information from ongoing neuronal activity. We discuss these studies in the light of the challenges attention-driven cognitive BMIs have to face. In a second part of the review, we discuss past and current attention-based neurofeedback studies, describing both the covert effects of neurofeedback onto neuronal activity and its overt behavioral effects. Importantly, we compare neurofeedback studies based on the amplitude of cortical activity to studies based on the enhancement of cortical information content. Last, we discuss several lines of future research and applications for attention-driven cognitive BCIs, including the rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, restored communication in locked-in patients, and open-field applications for enhanced cognition in normal subjects. The core motivation of this work is the key idea that the improvement of current cognitive BMIs for therapeutic and open field applications needs to be grounded in a proper interdisciplinary understanding of the physiology of the cognitive function of interest, be it spatial attention, working memory or any other

  17. Tracking Single Units in Chronic, Large Scale, Neural Recordings for Brain Machine Interface Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eEleryan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study of population coding in neurobiological systems, tracking unit identity may be critical to assess possible changes in the coding properties of neuronal constituents over prolonged periods of time. Ensuring unit stability is even more critical for reliable neural decoding of motor variables in intra-cortically controlled brain-machine interfaces (BMIs. Variability in intrinsic spike patterns, tuning characteristics, and single-unit identity over chronic use is a major challenge to maintaining this stability, requiring frequent daily calibration of neural decoders in BMI sessions by an experienced human operator. Here, we report on a unit-stability tracking algorithm that efficiently and autonomously identifies putative single-units that are stable across many sessions using a relatively short duration recording interval at the start of each session. The algorithm first builds a database of features extracted from units' average spike waveforms and firing patterns across many days of recording. It then uses these features to decide whether spike occurrences on the same channel on one day belong to the same unit recorded on another day or not. We assessed the overall performance of the algorithm for different choices of features and classifiers trained using human expert judgment, and quantified it as a function of accuracy and execution time. Overall, we found a trade-off between accuracy and execution time with increasing data volumes from chronically implanted rhesus macaques, with an average of 12 seconds processing time per channel at ~90% classification accuracy. Furthermore, 77% of the resulting putative single-units matched those tracked by human experts. These results demonstrate that over the span of a few months of recordings, automated unit tracking can be performed with high accuracy and used to streamline the calibration phase during BMI sessions.

  18. Long term, stable brain machine interface performance using local field potentials and multiunit spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Robert D.; Wright, Zachary A.; Scheid, Michael R.; Slutzky, Marc W.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to restore movement to people with paralysis. However, a clinically-viable BMI must enable consistently accurate control over time spans ranging from years to decades, which has not yet been demonstrated. Most BMIs that use single-unit spikes as inputs will experience degraded performance over time without frequent decoder re-training. Two other signals, local field potentials (LFPs) and multi-unit spikes (MSPs), may offer greater reliability over long periods and better performance stability than single-unit spikes. Here, we demonstrate that LFPs can be used in a biomimetic BMI to control a computer cursor. Approach. We implanted two rhesus macaques with intracortical microelectrodes in primary motor cortex. We recorded LFP and MSP signals from the monkeys while they performed a continuous reaching task, moving a cursor to randomly-placed targets on a computer screen. We then used the LFP and MSP signals to construct biomimetic decoders for control of the cursor. Main results. Both monkeys achieved high-performance, continuous control that remained stable or improved over nearly 12 months using an LFP decoder that was not retrained or adapted. In parallel, the monkeys used MSPs to control a BMI without retraining or adaptation and had similar or better performance, and that predominantly remained stable over more than six months. In contrast to their stable online control, both LFP and MSP signals showed substantial variability when used offline to predict hand movements. Significance. Our results suggest that the monkeys were able to stabilize the relationship between neural activity and cursor movement during online BMI control, despite variability in the relationship between neural activity and hand movements.

  19. Using reinforcement learning to provide stable brain-machine interface control despite neural input reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Mahmoudi, Babak; Geng, Shijia; Prins, Noeline W; Sanchez, Justin C

    2014-01-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) systems give users direct neural control of robotic, communication, or functional electrical stimulation systems. As BMI systems begin transitioning from laboratory settings into activities of daily living, an important goal is to develop neural decoding algorithms that can be calibrated with a minimal burden on the user, provide stable control for long periods of time, and can be responsive to fluctuations in the decoder's neural input space (e.g. neurons appearing or being lost amongst electrode recordings). These are significant challenges for static neural decoding algorithms that assume stationary input/output relationships. Here we use an actor-critic reinforcement learning architecture to provide an adaptive BMI controller that can successfully adapt to dramatic neural reorganizations, can maintain its performance over long time periods, and which does not require the user to produce specific kinetic or kinematic activities to calibrate the BMI. Two marmoset monkeys used the Reinforcement Learning BMI (RLBMI) to successfully control a robotic arm during a two-target reaching task. The RLBMI was initialized using random initial conditions, and it quickly learned to control the robot from brain states using only a binary evaluative feedback regarding whether previously chosen robot actions were good or bad. The RLBMI was able to maintain control over the system throughout sessions spanning multiple weeks. Furthermore, the RLBMI was able to quickly adapt and maintain control of the robot despite dramatic perturbations to the neural inputs, including a series of tests in which the neuron input space was deliberately halved or doubled. PMID:24498055

  20. Using reinforcement learning to provide stable brain-machine interface control despite neural input reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Pohlmeyer

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interface (BMI systems give users direct neural control of robotic, communication, or functional electrical stimulation systems. As BMI systems begin transitioning from laboratory settings into activities of daily living, an important goal is to develop neural decoding algorithms that can be calibrated with a minimal burden on the user, provide stable control for long periods of time, and can be responsive to fluctuations in the decoder's neural input space (e.g. neurons appearing or being lost amongst electrode recordings. These are significant challenges for static neural decoding algorithms that assume stationary input/output relationships. Here we use an actor-critic reinforcement learning architecture to provide an adaptive BMI controller that can successfully adapt to dramatic neural reorganizations, can maintain its performance over long time periods, and which does not require the user to produce specific kinetic or kinematic activities to calibrate the BMI. Two marmoset monkeys used the Reinforcement Learning BMI (RLBMI to successfully control a robotic arm during a two-target reaching task. The RLBMI was initialized using random initial conditions, and it quickly learned to control the robot from brain states using only a binary evaluative feedback regarding whether previously chosen robot actions were good or bad. The RLBMI was able to maintain control over the system throughout sessions spanning multiple weeks. Furthermore, the RLBMI was able to quickly adapt and maintain control of the robot despite dramatic perturbations to the neural inputs, including a series of tests in which the neuron input space was deliberately halved or doubled.

  1. A symbiotic brain-machine interface through value-based decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mahmoudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the development of Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs, there is a great need to enable users to interact with changing environments during the activities of daily life. It is expected that the number and scope of the learning tasks encountered during interaction with the environment as well as the pattern of brain activity will vary over time. These conditions, in addition to neural reorganization, pose a challenge to decoding neural commands for BMIs. We have developed a new BMI framework in which a computational agent symbiotically decoded users' intended actions by utilizing both motor commands and goal information directly from the brain through a continuous Perception-Action-Reward Cycle (PARC. METHODOLOGY: The control architecture designed was based on Actor-Critic learning, which is a PARC-based reinforcement learning method. Our neurophysiology studies in rat models suggested that Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc contained a rich representation of goal information in terms of predicting the probability of earning reward and it could be translated into an evaluative feedback for adaptation of the decoder with high precision. Simulated neural control experiments showed that the system was able to maintain high performance in decoding neural motor commands during novel tasks or in the presence of reorganization in the neural input. We then implanted a dual micro-wire array in the primary motor cortex (M1 and the NAcc of rat brain and implemented a full closed-loop system in which robot actions were decoded from the single unit activity in M1 based on an evaluative feedback that was estimated from NAcc. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that adapting the BMI decoder with an evaluative feedback that is directly extracted from the brain is a possible solution to the problem of operating BMIs in changing environments with dynamic neural signals. During closed-loop control, the agent was able to solve a reaching task by capturing the action and

  2. Minimizing data transfer with sustained performance in wireless brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorbergsson, Palmi Thor; Garwicz, Martin; Schouenborg, Jens; Johansson, Anders J

    2012-06-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) may be used to investigate neural mechanisms or to treat the symptoms of neurological disease and are hence powerful tools in research and clinical practice. Wireless BMIs add flexibility to both types of applications by reducing movement restrictions and risks associated with transcutaneous leads. However, since wireless implementations are typically limited in terms of transmission capacity and energy resources, the major challenge faced by their designers is to combine high performance with adaptations to limited resources. Here, we have identified three key steps in dealing with this challenge: (1) the purpose of the BMI should be clearly specified with regard to the type of information to be processed; (2) the amount of raw input data needed to fulfill the purpose should be determined, in order to avoid over- or under-dimensioning of the design; and (3) processing tasks should be allocated among the system parts such that all of them are utilized optimally with respect to computational power, wireless link capacity and raw input data requirements. We have focused on step (2) under the assumption that the purpose of the BMI (step 1) is to assess single- or multi-unit neuronal activity in the central nervous system with single-channel extracellular recordings. The reliability of this assessment depends on performance in detection and sorting of spikes. We have therefore performed absolute threshold spike detection and spike sorting with the principal component analysis and fuzzy c-means on a set of synthetic extracellular recordings, while varying the sampling rate and resolution, noise level and number of target units, and used the known ground truth to quantitatively estimate the performance. From the calculated performance curves, we have identified the sampling rate and resolution breakpoints, beyond which performance is not expected to increase by more than 1-5%. We have then estimated the performance of alternative

  3. Robust Brain-Machine Interface Design Using Optimal Feedback Control Modeling and Adaptive Point Process Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanechi, Maryam M; Orsborn, Amy L; Carmena, Jose M

    2016-04-01

    Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain's behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user's motor intention during CLDA-a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to parameter

  4. Toward FRP-Based Brain-Machine Interfaces-Single-Trial Classification of Fixation-Related Potentials.

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    Andrea Finke

    Full Text Available The co-registration of eye tracking and electroencephalography provides a holistic measure of ongoing cognitive processes. Recently, fixation-related potentials have been introduced to quantify the neural activity in such bi-modal recordings. Fixation-related potentials are time-locked to fixation onsets, just like event-related potentials are locked to stimulus onsets. Compared to existing electroencephalography-based brain-machine interfaces that depend on visual stimuli, fixation-related potentials have the advantages that they can be used in free, unconstrained viewing conditions and can also be classified on a single-trial level. Thus, fixation-related potentials have the potential to allow for conceptually different brain-machine interfaces that directly interpret cortical activity related to the visual processing of specific objects. However, existing research has investigated fixation-related potentials only with very restricted and highly unnatural stimuli in simple search tasks while participant's body movements were restricted. We present a study where we relieved many of these restrictions while retaining some control by using a gaze-contingent visual search task. In our study, participants had to find a target object out of 12 complex and everyday objects presented on a screen while the electrical activity of the brain and eye movements were recorded simultaneously. Our results show that our proposed method for the classification of fixation-related potentials can clearly discriminate between fixations on relevant, non-relevant and background areas. Furthermore, we show that our classification approach generalizes not only to different test sets from the same participant, but also across participants. These results promise to open novel avenues for exploiting fixation-related potentials in electroencephalography-based brain-machine interfaces and thus providing a novel means for intuitive human-machine interaction.

  5. Brain-machine interface facilitated neurorehabilitation via spinal stimulation after spinal cord injury: Recent progress and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Monzurul; Rodrigues, Willyam; Pham, Bau Ngoc; Thakor, Nitish V

    2016-09-01

    Restoration of motor function is one of the highest priorities in individuals afflicted with spinal cord injury (SCI). The application of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to neuroprostheses provides an innovative approach to treat patients with sensorimotor impairments. A BMI decodes motor intent from cortical signals to control external devices such as a computer cursor or a robotic arm. Recent BMI systems can now use these motor intent signals to directly activate paretic muscles or to modulate the spinal cord in a way that reengage dormant neuromuscular systems below the level of injury. In this perspective, we review the progress made in the development of brain-machine-spinal-cord interfaces (BMSCIs) and highlight their potential for neurorehabilitation after SCI. The advancement and application of these neuroprostheses goes beyond improved motor control. The use of BMSCI may combine repetitive physical training along with intent-driven neuromodulation to promote neurorehabilitation by facilitating activity-dependent plasticity. Strong evidence suggests that proper timing of volitional neuromodulation facilitates long-term potentiation in the neuronal circuits that can promote permanent functional recovery in SCI subjects. However, the effectiveness of these implantable neuroprostheses must take into account the fact that there will be continuous changes in the interface between the signals of intent and the actual trigger to initiate the motor action. PMID:27216571

  6. 脑机接口技术在航天领域的潜在应用%Brain-Machine Interface Technology for Potential Space Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫; 吴边; 陈卫东; 张韶岷; 代建华; 郑筱祥

    2012-01-01

    The space application of brain-machine interface technology may improve the safety and effect of space operations. The current development of non-invasive brain-machine interface technology is addressed, and potential space applications of brain-machine interface are investigated by introducing the most advanced brain signal monitor technology and decoding model. While the brain-machine interface based on Electro-encephalography are always limited to rate, capacity and transmission accuracy, the limitations will be removed gradually with the development of brain-machine interface technology.%脑机接口技术应用于航天领域可提升空间操作的安全性和效率。介绍非植入式脑机接口技术的发展现状,通过引入最新的脑信号监测技术和解码模型,探讨脑机接口技术在航天领域的潜在应用。目前基于头皮脑电的脑机接口方法受限于速度、容量和传输精度,但这些局限会随着该技术的发展而逐渐减小。

  7. NeuroRex: A Clinical Neural Interface Roadmap for EEG-based Brain Machine Interfaces to a Lower Body Robotic Exoskeleton*

    OpenAIRE

    Jose L. Contreras-Vidal; Grossman, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a translational clinical brain-machine interface (BMI) roadmap for an EEG-based BMI to a robotic exoskeleton (NeuroRex) is presented. This multi-faceted project addresses important engineering and clinical challenges: It addresses the validation of an intelligent, self-balancing, robotic lower-body and trunk exoskeleton (Rex) augmented with EEG-based BMI capabilities to interpret user intent to assist a mobility-impaired person to walk independently. The goal is to impr...

  8. Ultra-low-cost 3D gaze estimation: an intuitive high information throughput compliment to direct brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, W. W.; Faisal, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements are highly correlated with motor intentions and are often retained by patients with serious motor deficiencies. Despite this, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for movement in impaired patients due to poor signal interpretation and lack of control flexibility. We propose that tracking the gaze position in 3D rather than 2D provides a considerably richer signal for human machine interfaces by allowing direct interaction with the environment rather than via computer displays. We demonstrate here that by using mass-produced video-game hardware, it is possible to produce an ultra-low-cost binocular eye-tracker with comparable performance to commercial systems, yet 800 times cheaper. Our head-mounted system has 30 USD material costs and operates at over 120 Hz sampling rate with a 0.5-1 degree of visual angle resolution. We perform 2D and 3D gaze estimation, controlling a real-time volumetric cursor essential for driving complex user interfaces. Our approach yields an information throughput of 43 bits s-1, more than ten times that of invasive and semi-invasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are vastly more expensive. Unlike many BMIs our system yields effective real-time closed loop control of devices (10 ms latency), after just ten minutes of training, which we demonstrate through a novel BMI benchmark—the control of the video arcade game ‘Pong’.

  9. Decoding cognitive states and motor intentions from intracranial EEG: How promising is high-frequency brain activity for brain-machine interfaces?

    OpenAIRE

    Jerbi, Karim; Combrisson, Etienne; Dalal, Sarang,; Vidal, Juan; Hamame, Carlos,; Bertrand, Olivier; Berthoz, Alain; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We provide a brief overview of our recent research into decoding cognitive states and motor intentions from intracranial EEG using high-frequency brain activity for brain-machine interfaces. Appears in: Korczyn AD et al. Epilepsy, cognition, and neuropsychiatry (Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind, part 2), Epilepsy Behav (in press), doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.03.012

  10. Towards a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) for restoration of function after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdoost, Shahab; Frost, Shawn; Van Acker, Gustaf; DeJong, Stacey; Dunham, Caleb; Barbay, Scott; Nudo, Randolph; Mohseni, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 6 million people in the United States are currently living with paralysis in which 23% of the cases are related to spinal cord injury (SCI). Miniaturized closed-loop neural interfaces have the potential for restoring function and mobility lost to debilitating neural injuries such as SCI by leveraging recent advancements in bioelectronics and a better understanding of the processes that underlie functional and anatomical reorganization in an injured nervous system. This paper describes our current progress towards developing a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) that is envisioned to convert in real time the neural command signals recorded from the brain to electrical stimuli delivered to the spinal cord below the injury level. Specifically, the paper reports on a corticospinal interface integrated circuit (IC) as a core building block for such a BMSI that is capable of low-noise recording of extracellular neural spikes from the cerebral cortex as well as muscle activation using intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) in a rat with contusion injury to the thoracic spinal cord. The paper further presents results from a neurobiological study conducted in both normal and SCI rats to investigate the effect of various ISMS parameters on movement thresholds in the rat hindlimb. Coupled with proper signal-processing algorithms in the future for the transformation between the cortically recorded data and ISMS parameters, such a BMSI has the potential to facilitate functional recovery after an SCI by re-establishing corticospinal communication channels lost due to the injury. PMID:25570002

  11. Controlling a Rehabilitation Robot with Brain-Machine Interface: An approach based on Independent Component Analysis and Multiple Kernel Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from severe motor disabilities usually require assistance from other people when doing rehabilitation exercises, which causes the rehabilitation process to be time-consuming and inconvenient. Therefore, we propose an automatic feature extraction method for a brain-machine interface that allows patients to control a robot using their own brain waves. A brain–machine interface (BMI based on the P300 event-related potential (ERP, called Brain Controlled Rehabilitation System (BCRS, was developed to detect the intentions of patients. Using the BCRS, patients can communicate with the robot through their brain waves. However, deciding how to obtain an automatically extracted, useful EEG signal is a difficult and important problem for BMI research. In this paper, Independent Component Analysis – Multiple Kernel Learning (ICA-MKL is used to directly extract a useful signal and build the classification mode for BCRS. The results reveal that this method is useful for automatically extracting the P300 signal and the accuracy is better than MKL. In additional, the same method can be extended into any motor imaginary area and the accuracy of ICA-MKL for brain imaginary data is also good to removing eye-blink artifacts and the accuracy performance is also good.

  12. Development of an implantable wireless ECoG 128ch recording device for clinical brain machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kojiro; Hirata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takafumi; Ando, Hiroshi; Ota, Yuki; Sato, Fumihiro; Morris, Shyne; Yoshida, Takeshi; Matsuki, Hidetoshi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2013-01-01

    Brain Machine Interface (BMI) is a system that assumes user's intention by analyzing user's brain activities and control devices with the assumed intention. It is considered as one of prospective tools to enhance paralyzed patients' quality of life. In our group, we especially focus on ECoG (electro-corti-gram)-BMI, which requires surgery to place electrodes on the cortex. We try to implant all the devices within the patient's head and abdomen and to transmit the data and power wirelessly. Our device consists of 5 parts: (1) High-density multi-electrodes with a 3D shaped sheet fitting to the individual brain surface to effectively record the ECoG signals; (2) A small circuit board with two integrated circuit chips functioning 128 [ch] analogue amplifiers and A/D converters for ECoG signals; (3) A Wifi data communication & control circuit with the target PC; (4) A non-contact power supply transmitting electrical power minimum 400[mW] to the device 20[mm] away. We developed those devices, integrated them, and, investigated the performance. PMID:24110075

  13. Brain-Machine Interface to Control a Prosthetic Arm with Monkey ECoGs during Periodic Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro eMorishita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs are promising technologies to rehabilitate the function of upper limbs in severely paralyzed patients. We succeeded in developing a BMI prosthetic arm for a monkey implanted with electrocorticogram (ECoG electrodes and trained in a reaching task. It had stability in preventing the misclassification of ECoG patterns. However, the latency was about 200 ms as a trade-off for the stability. To improve the response of this BMI prosthetic arm, the generation of a trigger event by decoding muscle activity was adopted. It was performed to predict integrated electromyograms (iEMGs from the ECoGs. Experiments were conducted to verify the availability of this method, and the results confirmed that the proposed method was superior to the conventional one. In addition, a performance test of the proposed method with actually achieved iEMGs instead of predicted iEMGs was performed, and we found that the motor intention is finely expressed through estimated muscle activity from brain activity rather than actual muscle activity.

  14. Brain-machine interfaces for assistive smart homes: A feasibility study with wearable near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Hirayama, Jun-Ichiro; Gupta, Pankaj; Moriya, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Shumpei; Ishikawa, Akihiro; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Ishii, Shin

    2015-08-01

    Smart houses for elderly or physically challenged people need a method to understand residents' intentions during their daily-living behaviors. To explore a new possibility, we here developed a novel brain-machine interface (BMI) system integrated with an experimental smart house, based on a prototype of a wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device, and verified the system in a specific task of controlling of the house's equipments with BMI. We recorded NIRS signals of three participants during typical daily-living actions (DLAs), and classified them by linear support vector machine. In our off-line analysis, four DLAs were classified at about 70% mean accuracy, significantly above the chance level of 25%, in every participant. In an online demonstration in the real smart house, one participant successfully controlled three target appliances by BMI at 81.3% accuracy. Thus we successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using NIRS-BMI in real smart houses, which will possibly enhance new assistive smart-home technologies. PMID:26736459

  15. Brain-machine interfaces can accelerate clarification of the principal mysteries and real plasticity of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    This perspective emphasizes that the brain-machine interface (BMI) research has the potential to clarify major mysteries of the brain and that such clarification of the mysteries by neuroscience is needed to develop BMIs. I enumerate five principal mysteries. The first is “how is information encoded in the brain?” This is the fundamental question for understanding what our minds are and is related to the verification of Hebb’s cell assembly theory. The second is “how is information distributed in the brain?” This is also a reconsideration of the functional localization of the brain. The third is “what is the function of the ongoing activity of the brain?” This is the problem of how the brain is active during no-task periods and what meaning such spontaneous activity has. The fourth is “how does the bodily behavior affect the brain function?” This is the problem of brain-body interaction, and obtaining a new “body” by a BMI leads to a possibility of changes in the owner’s brain. The last is “to what extent can the brain induce plasticity?” Most BMIs require changes in the brain’s neuronal activity to realize higher performance, and the neuronal operant conditioning inherent in the BMIs further enhances changes in the activity. PMID:24904323

  16. Use of a Bayesian maximum-likelihood classifier to generate training data for brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kip A.; Miriani, Rachel M.; Langhals, Nicholas B.; Marzullo, Timothy C.; Kipke, Daryl R.

    2011-08-01

    Brain-machine interface decoding algorithms need to be predicated on assumptions that are easily met outside of an experimental setting to enable a practical clinical device. Given present technological limitations, there is a need for decoding algorithms which (a) are not dependent upon a large number of neurons for control, (b) are adaptable to alternative sources of neuronal input such as local field potentials (LFPs), and (c) require only marginal training data for daily calibrations. Moreover, practical algorithms must recognize when the user is not intending to generate a control output and eliminate poor training data. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate a Bayesian maximum-likelihood estimation strategy to address the issues of isolating quality training data and self-paced control. Six animal subjects demonstrate that a multiple state classification task, loosely based on the standard center-out task, can be accomplished with fewer than five engaged neurons while requiring less than ten trials for algorithm training. In addition, untrained animals quickly obtained accurate device control, utilizing LFPs as well as neurons in cingulate cortex, two non-traditional neural inputs.

  17. Tracking Neural Modulation Depth by Dual Sequential Monte Carlo Estimation on Point Processes for Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; She, Xiwei; Liao, Yuxi; Li, Hongbao; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Zhang, Shaomin; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Principe, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Classic brain-machine interface (BMI) approaches decode neural signals from the brain responsible for achieving specific motor movements, which subsequently command prosthetic devices. Brain activities adaptively change during the control of the neuroprosthesis in BMIs, where the alteration of the preferred direction and the modulation of the gain depth are observed. The static neural tuning models have been limited by fixed codes, resulting in a decay of decoding performance over the course of the movement and subsequent instability in motor performance. To achieve stable performance, we propose a dual sequential Monte Carlo adaptive point process method, which models and decodes the gradually changing modulation depth of individual neuron over the course of a movement. We use multichannel neural spike trains from the primary motor cortex of a monkey trained to perform a target pursuit task using a joystick. Our results show that our computational approach successfully tracks the neural modulation depth over time with better goodness-of-fit than classic static neural tuning models, resulting in smaller errors between the true kinematics and the estimations in both simulated and real data. Our novel decoding approach suggests that the brain may employ such strategies to achieve stable motor output, i.e., plastic neural tuning is a feature of neural systems. BMI users may benefit from this adaptive algorithm to achieve more complex and controlled movement outcomes. PMID:26584486

  18. A Neuromorphic Event-Based Neural Recording System for Smart Brain-Machine-Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Federico; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Neural recording systems are a central component of Brain-Machince Interfaces (BMIs). In most of these systems the emphasis is on faithful reproduction and transmission of the recorded signal to remote systems for further processing or data analysis. Here we follow an alternative approach: we propose a neural recording system that can be directly interfaced locally to neuromorphic spiking neural processing circuits for compressing the large amounts of data recorded, carrying out signal processing and neural computation to extract relevant information, and transmitting only the low-bandwidth outcome of the processing to remote computing or actuating modules. The fabricated system includes a low-noise amplifier, a delta-modulator analog-to-digital converter, and a low-power band-pass filter. The bio-amplifier has a programmable gain of 45-54 dB, with a Root Mean Squared (RMS) input-referred noise level of 2.1 μV, and consumes 90 μW . The band-pass filter and delta-modulator circuits include asynchronous handshaking interface logic compatible with event-based communication protocols. We describe the properties of the neural recording circuits, validating them with experimental measurements, and present system-level application examples, by interfacing these circuits to a reconfigurable neuromorphic processor comprising an array of spiking neurons with plastic and dynamic synapses. The pool of neurons within the neuromorphic processor was configured to implement a recurrent neural network, and to process the events generated by the neural recording system in order to carry out pattern recognition. PMID:26513801

  19. Social Robots, Brain Machine Interfaces and Neuro/Cognitive Enhancers: Three Emerging Science and Technology Products through the Lens of Technology Acceptance Theories, Models and Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Social robotics, brain machine interfaces and neuro and cognitive enhancement products are three emerging science and technology products with wide-reaching impact for disabled and non-disabled people. Acceptance of ideas and products depend on multiple parameters and many models have been developed to predict product acceptance. We investigated which frequently employed technology acceptance models (consumer theory, innovation diffusion model, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behaviour, social cognitive theory, self-determination theory, technology of acceptance model, Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology UTAUT and UTAUT2 are employed in the social robotics, brain machine interfaces and neuro and cognitive enhancement product literature and which of the core measures used in the technology acceptance models are implicit or explicit engaged with in the literature.

  20. Social Robots, Brain Machine Interfaces and Neuro/Cognitive Enhancers: Three Emerging Science and Technology Products through the Lens of Technology Acceptance Theories, Models and Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Wolbring, Gregor; Diep, Lucy; Yumakulov, Sophya; Ball, Natalie; Yergens, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Social robotics, brain machine interfaces and neuro and cognitive enhancement products are three emerging science and technology products with wide-reaching impact for disabled and non-disabled people. Acceptance of ideas and products depend on multiple parameters and many models have been developed to predict product acceptance. We investigated which frequently employed technology acceptance models (consumer theory, innovation diffusion model, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned beh...

  1. Demonstration of a Semi-Autonomous Hybrid Brain-Machine Interface using Human Intracranial EEG, Eye Tracking, and Computer Vision to Control a Robotic Upper Limb Prosthetic

    OpenAIRE

    McMullen, David P.; Hotson, Guy; Katyal, Kapil D.; Wester, Brock A.; Fifer, Matthew S; McGee, Timothy G.; Harris, Andrew; Johannes, Matthew S; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Ravitz, Alan D.; Anderson, William S.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Crone, Nathan E.

    2013-01-01

    To increase the ability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control advanced prostheses such as the modular prosthetic limb (MPL), we are developing a novel system: the Hybrid Augmented Reality Multimodal Operation Neural Integration Environment (HARMONIE). This system utilizes hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics to allow users to identify an object (via eye tracking and computer vision) and initiate (via brain-control) a semi-autonomous reach-grasp-and-drop of the o...

  2. Performance Measurement for Brain-Computer or Brain-Machine Interfaces: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David E.; Quitadamo, Lucia R.; Mainardi, Luca; Laghari, Khalil ur Rehman; Gao, Shangkai; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Simeral, John D.; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Matteucci, Matteo; Falk, Tiago H.; Bianchi, Luigi; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Huggins, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have the potential to be valuable clinical tools. However, the varied nature of BCIs, combined with the large number of laboratories participating in BCI research, makes uniform performance reporting difficult. To address this situation, we present a tutorial on performance measurement in BCI research. Approach A workshop on this topic was held at the 2013 International BCI Meeting at Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, California. This manuscript contains the consensus opinion of the workshop members, refined through discussion in the following months and the input of authors who were unable to attend the workshop. Main Results Checklists for methods reporting were developed for both discrete and continuous BCIs. Relevant metrics are reviewed for different types of BCI research, with notes on their application to encourage uniform application between laboratories. Significance Graduate students and other researchers new to BCI research may find this tutorial a helpful introduction to performance measurement in the field. PMID:24838070

  3. [Neurophysiological Foundations and Practical Realizations of the Brain-Machine Interfaces the Technology in Neurological Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A Ya

    2016-01-01

    Technology brain-computer interface (BCI) based on the registration and interpretation of EEG has recently become one of the most popular developments in neuroscience and psychophysiology. This is due not only to the intended future use of these technologies in many areas of practical human activity, but also to the fact that IMC--is a completely new paradigm in psychophysiology, allowing test hypotheses about the possibilities of the human brain to the development of skills of interaction with the outside world without the mediation of the motor system, i.e. only with the help of voluntary modulation of EEG generators. This paper examines the theoretical and experimental basis, the current state and prospects of development of training, communicational and assisting complexes based on BCI to control them without muscular effort on the basis of mental commands detected in the EEG of patients with severely impaired speech and motor system. PMID:27188154

  4. Towards a naturalistic brain-machine interface: hybrid torque and position control allows generalization to novel dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatbar, Pratik Y; Francis, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Realization of reaching and grasping movements by a paralytic person or an amputee would greatly facilitate her/his activities of daily living. Towards this goal, control of a computer cursor or robotic arm using neural signals has been demonstrated in rodents, non-human primates and humans. This technology is commonly referred to as a Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) and is achieved by predictions of kinematic parameters, e.g. position or velocity. However, execution of natural movements, such as swinging baseball bats of different weights at the same speed, requires advanced planning for necessary context-specific forces in addition to kinematic control. Here we show, for the first time, the control of a virtual arm with representative inertial parameters using real-time neural control of torques in non-human primates (M. radiata). We found that neural control of torques leads to ballistic, possibly more naturalistic movements than position control alone, and that adding the influence of position in a hybrid torque-position control changes the feedforward behavior of these BMI movements. In addition, this level of control was achievable utilizing the neural recordings from either contralateral or ipsilateral M1. We also observed changed behavior of hybrid torque-position control under novel external dynamic environments that was comparable to natural movements. Our results demonstrate that inclusion of torque control to drive a neuroprosthetic device gives the user a more direct handle on the movement execution, especially when dealing with novel or changing dynamic environments. We anticipate our results to be a starting point of more sophisticated algorithms for sensorimotor neuroprostheses, eliminating the need of fully automatic kinematic-to-dynamic transformations as currently used by traditional kinematic-based decoders. Thus, we propose that direct control of torques, or other force related variables, should allow for more natural neuroprosthetic movements by

  5. Ten-dimensional anthropomorphic arm control in a human brain-machine interface: difficulties, solutions, and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodlinger, B.; Downey, J. E.; Tyler-Kabara, E. C.; Schwartz, A. B.; Boninger, M. L.; Collinger, J. L.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. In a previous study we demonstrated continuous translation, orientation and one-dimensional grasping control of a prosthetic limb (seven degrees of freedom) by a human subject with tetraplegia using a brain-machine interface (BMI). The current study, in the same subject, immediately followed the previous work and expanded the scope of the control signal by also extracting hand-shape commands from the two 96-channel intracortical electrode arrays implanted in the subject’s left motor cortex. Approach. Four new control signals, dictating prosthetic hand shape, replaced the one-dimensional grasping in the previous study, allowing the subject to control the prosthetic limb with ten degrees of freedom (three-dimensional (3D) translation, 3D orientation, four-dimensional hand shaping) simultaneously. Main results. Robust neural tuning to hand shaping was found, leading to ten-dimensional (10D) performance well above chance levels in all tests. Neural unit preferred directions were broadly distributed through the 10D space, with the majority of units significantly tuned to all ten dimensions, instead of being restricted to isolated domains (e.g. translation, orientation or hand shape). The addition of hand shaping emphasized object-interaction behavior. A fundamental component of BMIs is the calibration used to associate neural activity to intended movement. We found that the presence of an object during calibration enhanced successful shaping of the prosthetic hand as it closed around the object during grasping. Significance. Our results show that individual motor cortical neurons encode many parameters of movement, that object interaction is an important factor when extracting these signals, and that high-dimensional operation of prosthetic devices can be achieved with simple decoding algorithms. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01364480.

  6. Towards a naturalistic brain-machine interface: hybrid torque and position control allows generalization to novel dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Y Chhatbar

    Full Text Available Realization of reaching and grasping movements by a paralytic person or an amputee would greatly facilitate her/his activities of daily living. Towards this goal, control of a computer cursor or robotic arm using neural signals has been demonstrated in rodents, non-human primates and humans. This technology is commonly referred to as a Brain-Machine Interface (BMI and is achieved by predictions of kinematic parameters, e.g. position or velocity. However, execution of natural movements, such as swinging baseball bats of different weights at the same speed, requires advanced planning for necessary context-specific forces in addition to kinematic control. Here we show, for the first time, the control of a virtual arm with representative inertial parameters using real-time neural control of torques in non-human primates (M. radiata. We found that neural control of torques leads to ballistic, possibly more naturalistic movements than position control alone, and that adding the influence of position in a hybrid torque-position control changes the feedforward behavior of these BMI movements. In addition, this level of control was achievable utilizing the neural recordings from either contralateral or ipsilateral M1. We also observed changed behavior of hybrid torque-position control under novel external dynamic environments that was comparable to natural movements. Our results demonstrate that inclusion of torque control to drive a neuroprosthetic device gives the user a more direct handle on the movement execution, especially when dealing with novel or changing dynamic environments. We anticipate our results to be a starting point of more sophisticated algorithms for sensorimotor neuroprostheses, eliminating the need of fully automatic kinematic-to-dynamic transformations as currently used by traditional kinematic-based decoders. Thus, we propose that direct control of torques, or other force related variables, should allow for more natural

  7. Kinematic and neurophysiological consequences of an assisted-force-feedback brain-machine interface training: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eSilvoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a proof-of-principle prototypical demonstration we describe a new type of brain-machine interface (BMI paradigm for upper limb motor training. The proposed technique allows a fast contingent and proportionally modulated stimulation of afferent proprioceptive and motor output neural pathways using operant learning.Continuous and immediate assisted-feedback of force proportional to rolandic rhythm oscillations during actual movements was employed and illustrated with a single case experiment. One hemiplegic patient was trained for two weeks coupling somatosensory brain oscillations with force field control during a robot mediated centre-out motor task whose execution approaches movements of everyday life. The robot facilitated actual movements adding a modulated force directed to the target, thus providing a non-delayed proprioceptive feedback. Neuro-electric, kinematic and motor-behavioural measures were recorded in pre- and post-assessments without force assistance. Patient’s healthy arm was used as control since neither a placebo control was possible nor other control conditions. We observed a generalized and significant kinematic improvement in the affected arm and a spatial accuracy improvement in both arms, together with an increase and focalization of the somatosensory rhythm changes used to provide assisted-force-feedback. The interpretation of the neurophysiological and kinematic evidences reported here is strictly related to the repetition of the motor-task and the presence of the assisted-force-feedback. Results are described as systematic observations only, without firm conclusions about the effectiveness of the methodology. In this prototypical view, the design of appropriate control conditions is discussed. This study presents a novel operant-learning-based BMI-application for motor training coupling brain oscillations and force feedback during an actual movement.

  8. Coupling brain-machine interfaces with cortical stimulation for brain-state dependent stimulation: enhancing motor cortex excitability for neurorehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Gharabaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor recovery after stroke is an unsolved challenge despite intensive rehabilitation training programs. Brain stimulation techniques have been explored in addition to traditional rehabilitation training to increase the excitability of the stimulated motor cortex. This modulation of cortical excitability augments the response to afferent input during motor exercises, thereby enhancing skilled motor learning by long-term potentiation-like plasticity. Recent approaches examined brain stimulation applied concurrently with voluntary movements to induce more specific use-dependent neural plasticity during motor training for neurorehabilitation. Unfortunately, such approaches are not applicable for the many severely affected stroke patients lacking residual hand function. These patients require novel activity-dependent stimulation paradigms based on intrinsic brain activity. Here, we report on such brain state-dependent stimulation (BSDS combined with haptic feedback provided by a robotic hand orthosis. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and haptic feedback to the hand were controlled by sensorimotor desynchronization during motor-imagery and applied within a brain-machine interface environment in one healthy subject and one patient with severe hand paresis in the chronic phase after stroke. BSDS significantly increased the excitability of the stimulated motor cortex in both healthy and post-stroke conditions, an effect not observed in non-BSDS protocols. This feasibility study suggests that closing the loop between intrinsic brain state, cortical stimulation and haptic feedback provides a novel neurorehabilitation strategy for stroke patients lacking residual hand function, a proposal that warrants further investigation in a larger cohort of stroke patients.

  9. Characterization of Artifacts Produced by Gel Displacement on Non-invasive Brain-Machine Interfaces during Ambulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Álvaro; Salazar-Varas, Rocio; Úbeda, Andrés; Azorín, José M

    2016-01-01

    So far, Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) have been mainly used to study brain potentials during movement-free conditions. Recently, due to the emerging concern of improving rehabilitation therapies, these systems are also being used during gait experiments. Under this new condition, the evaluation of motion artifacts has become a critical point to assure the validity of the results obtained. Due to the high signal to noise ratio provided, the use of wet electrodes is a widely accepted technic to acquire electroencephalographic (EEG signals). To perform these recordings it is necessary to apply a conductive gel between the scalp and the electrodes. This work is focused on the study of gel displacements produced during ambulation and how they affect the amplitude of EEG signals. Data recorded during three ambulation conditions (gait training) and one movement-free condition (BMI motor imagery task) are compared to perform this study. Two phenomenons, manifested as unusual increases of the signals' amplitude, have been identified and characterized during this work. Results suggest that they are caused by abrupt changes on the conductivity between the electrode and the scalp due to gel displacement produced during ambulation and head movements. These artifacts significantly increase the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of EEG recordings at all frequencies from 5 to 90 Hz, corresponding to the main bandwidth of electrocortical potentials. They should be taken into consideration before performing EEG recordings in order to asses the correct gel allocation and to avoid the use of electrodes on certain scalp areas depending on the experimental conditions. PMID:26941601

  10. Design and validation of a real-time spiking-neural-network decoder for brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, Julie; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Boahen, Kwabena

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Cortically-controlled motor prostheses aim to restore functions lost to neurological disease and injury. Several proof of concept demonstrations have shown encouraging results, but barriers to clinical translation still remain. In particular, intracortical prostheses must satisfy stringent power dissipation constraints so as not to damage cortex. Approach. One possible solution is to use ultra-low power neuromorphic chips to decode neural signals for these intracortical implants. The first step is to explore in simulation the feasibility of translating decoding algorithms for brain-machine interface (BMI) applications into spiking neural networks (SNNs). Main results. Here we demonstrate the validity of the approach by implementing an existing Kalman-filter-based decoder in a simulated SNN using the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF), a general method for mapping control algorithms onto SNNs. To measure this system’s robustness and generalization, we tested it online in closed-loop BMI experiments with two rhesus monkeys. Across both monkeys, a Kalman filter implemented using a 2000-neuron SNN has comparable performance to that of a Kalman filter implemented using standard floating point techniques. Significance. These results demonstrate the tractability of SNN implementations of statistical signal processing algorithms on different monkeys and for several tasks, suggesting that a SNN decoder, implemented on a neuromorphic chip, may be a feasible computational platform for low-power fully-implanted prostheses. The validation of this closed-loop decoder system and the demonstration of its robustness and generalization hold promise for SNN implementations on an ultra-low power neuromorphic chip using the NEF.

  11. Invasive brain-machine interfaces: a survey of paralyzed patients’ attitudes, knowledge and methods of information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Jacob; Schwartz, Christina; Heimbach, Bernhard; Aertsen, Ad; Rickert, Jörn; Ball, Tonio

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) are an emerging therapeutic option that can allow paralyzed patients to gain control over assistive technology devices (ATDs). BMI approaches can be broadly classified into invasive (based on intracranially implanted electrodes) and noninvasive (based on skin electrodes or extracorporeal sensors). Invasive BMIs have a favorable signal-to-noise ratio, and thus allow for the extraction of more information than noninvasive BMIs, but they are also associated with the risks related to neurosurgical device implantation. Current noninvasive BMI approaches are typically concerned, among other issues, with long setup times and/or intensive training. Recent studies have investigated the attitudes of paralyzed patients eligible for BMIs, particularly patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These studies indicate that paralyzed patients are indeed interested in BMIs. Little is known, however, about the degree of knowledge among paralyzed patients concerning BMI approaches or about how patients retrieve information on ATDs. Furthermore, it is not yet clear if paralyzed patients would accept intracranial implantation of BMI electrodes with the premise of decoding improvements, and what the attitudes of a broader range of patients with diseases such as stroke or spinal cord injury are towards this new kind of treatment. Approach. Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 131 paralyzed patients for their opinions on invasive BMIs and their attitude toward invasive BMI treatment options. Main results. The majority of the patients knew about and had a positive attitude toward invasive BMI approaches. The group of ALS patients was especially open to the concept of BMIs. The acceptance of invasive BMI technology depended on the improvements expected from the technology. Furthermore, the survey revealed that for paralyzed patients, the Internet is an important source of information on ATDs. Significance. Websites tailored to

  12. Monte Carlo point process estimation of electromyographic envelopes from motor cortical spikes for brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuxi; She, Xiwei; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Shaomin; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Principe, Jose C.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Representation of movement in the motor cortex (M1) has been widely studied in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). The electromyogram (EMG) has greater bandwidth than the conventional kinematic variables (such as position, velocity), and is functionally related to the discharge of cortical neurons. As the stochastic information of EMG is derived from the explicit spike time structure, point process (PP) methods will be a good solution for decoding EMG directly from neural spike trains. Previous studies usually assume linear or exponential tuning curves between neural firing and EMG, which may not be true. Approach. In our analysis, we estimate the tuning curves in a data-driven way and find both the traditional functional-excitatory and functional-inhibitory neurons, which are widely found across a rat’s motor cortex. To accurately decode EMG envelopes from M1 neural spike trains, the Monte Carlo point process (MCPP) method is implemented based on such nonlinear tuning properties. Main results. Better reconstruction of EMG signals is shown on baseline and extreme high peaks, as our method can better preserve the nonlinearity of the neural tuning during decoding. The MCPP improves the prediction accuracy (the normalized mean squared error) 57% and 66% on average compared with the adaptive point process filter using linear and exponential tuning curves respectively, for all 112 data segments across six rats. Compared to a Wiener filter using spike rates with an optimal window size of 50 ms, MCPP decoding EMG from a point process improves the normalized mean square error (NMSE) by 59% on average. Significance. These results suggest that neural tuning is constantly changing during task execution and therefore, the use of spike timing methodologies and estimation of appropriate tuning curves needs to be undertaken for better EMG decoding in motor BMIs.

  13. A confidence metric for using neurobiological feedback in actor-critic reinforcement learning based brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Noeline W; Sanchez, Justin C; Prasad, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) can be used to restore function in people living with paralysis. Current BMIs require extensive calibration that increase the set-up times and external inputs for decoder training that may be difficult to produce in paralyzed individuals. Both these factors have presented challenges in transitioning the technology from research environments to activities of daily living (ADL). For BMIs to be seamlessly used in ADL, these issues should be handled with minimal external input thus reducing the need for a technician/caregiver to calibrate the system. Reinforcement Learning (RL) based BMIs are a good tool to be used when there is no external training signal and can provide an adaptive modality to train BMI decoders. However, RL based BMIs are sensitive to the feedback provided to adapt the BMI. In actor-critic BMIs, this feedback is provided by the critic and the overall system performance is limited by the critic accuracy. In this work, we developed an adaptive BMI that could handle inaccuracies in the critic feedback in an effort to produce more accurate RL based BMIs. We developed a confidence measure, which indicated how appropriate the feedback is for updating the decoding parameters of the actor. The results show that with the new update formulation, the critic accuracy is no longer a limiting factor for the overall performance. We tested and validated the system onthree different data sets: synthetic data generated by an Izhikevich neural spiking model, synthetic data with a Gaussian noise distribution, and data collected from a non-human primate engaged in a reaching task. All results indicated that the system with the critic confidence built in always outperformed the system without the critic confidence. Results of this study suggest the potential application of the technique in developing an autonomous BMI that does not need an external signal for training or extensive calibration. PMID:24904257

  14. A confidence metric for using neurobiological feedback in actor-critic reinforcement learning based brain-machine interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeline Wilhelmina Prins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs can be used to restore function in people living with paralysis. Current BMIs require extensive calibration that increase the set-up times and external inputs for decoder training that may be difficult to produce in paralyzed individuals. Both these factors have presented challenges in transitioning the technology from research environments to activities of daily living (ADL. For BMIs to be seamlessly used in ADL, these issues should be handled with minimal external input thus reducing the need for a technician/caregiver to calibrate the system. Reinforcement Learning (RL based BMIs are a good tool to be used when there is no external training signal and can provide an adaptive modality to train BMI decoders. However, RL based BMIs are sensitive to the feedback provided to adapt the BMI. In actor-critic BMIs, this feedback is provided by the critic and the overall system performance is limited by the critic accuracy. In this work, we developed an adaptive BMI that could handle inaccuracies in the critic feedback in an effort to produce more accurate RL based BMIs. We developed a confidence measure, which indicated how appropriate the feedback is for updating the decoding parameters of the actor. The results show that with the new update formulation, the critic accuracy is no longer a limiting factor for the overall performance. We tested and validated the system on three different data sets: synthetic data generated by an Izhikevich neural spiking model, synthetic data with a Gaussian noise distribution, and data collected from a non-human primate engaged in a reaching task. All results indicated that the system with the critic confidence built in always outperformed the system without the critic confidence. Results of this study suggest the potential application of the technique in developing an autonomous BMI that does not need an external signal for training or extensive calibration.

  15. The Two-Brains Hypothesis: Towards a guide for brain-brain and brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, G; Poznanski, R R; Cacha, L; Bercovich, D

    2015-09-01

    -brain, brain-computer and brain-robot engineering. As they grow even closer, these disciplines involve their own unique complexities, including direction by the laws of inductive physics. So the novel TBH hypothesis has wide fundamental implications, including those related to TMS. These require rethinking and renewed research engaging the fully complementary equivalence of mutual magnetic and electric field induction in the CNS and, within this context, a new mathematics of the brain to decipher higher cognitive operations not possible with current brain-brain and brain-machine interfaces. Bohr may now rest. PMID:26477360

  16. Control of an Ambulatory Exoskeleton with a Brain-Machine Interface for Spinal Cord Injury Gait Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larraz, Eduardo; Trincado-Alonso, Fernando; Rajasekaran, Vijaykumar; Pérez-Nombela, Soraya; Del-Ama, Antonio J; Aranda, Joan; Minguez, Javier; Gil-Agudo, Angel; Montesano, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The closed-loop control of rehabilitative technologies by neural commands has shown a great potential to improve motor recovery in patients suffering from paralysis. Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) can be used as a natural control method for such technologies. BMI provides a continuous association between the brain activity and peripheral stimulation, with the potential to induce plastic changes in the nervous system. Paraplegic patients, and especially the ones with incomplete injuries, constitute a potential target population to be rehabilitated with brain-controlled robotic systems, as they may improve their gait function after the reinforcement of their spared intact neural pathways. This paper proposes a closed-loop BMI system to control an ambulatory exoskeleton-without any weight or balance support-for gait rehabilitation of incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The integrated system was validated with three healthy subjects, and its viability in a clinical scenario was tested with four SCI patients. Using a cue-guided paradigm, the electroencephalographic signals of the subjects were used to decode their gait intention and to trigger the movements of the exoskeleton. We designed a protocol with a special emphasis on safety, as patients with poor balance were required to stand and walk. We continuously monitored their fatigue and exertion level, and conducted usability and user-satisfaction tests after the experiments. The results show that, for the three healthy subjects, 84.44 ± 14.56% of the trials were correctly decoded. Three out of four patients performed at least one successful BMI session, with an average performance of 77.6 1 ± 14.72%. The shared control strategy implemented (i.e., the exoskeleton could only move during specific periods of time) was effective in preventing unexpected movements during periods in which patients were asked to relax. On average, 55.22 ± 16.69% and 40.45 ± 16.98% of the trials (for healthy subjects and

  17. Demonstration of a semi-autonomous hybrid brain-machine interface using human intracranial EEG, eye tracking, and computer vision to control a robotic upper limb prosthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, David P; Hotson, Guy; Katyal, Kapil D; Wester, Brock A; Fifer, Matthew S; McGee, Timothy G; Harris, Andrew; Johannes, Matthew S; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Ravitz, Alan D; Anderson, William S; Thakor, Nitish V; Crone, Nathan E

    2014-07-01

    To increase the ability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control advanced prostheses such as the modular prosthetic limb (MPL), we are developing a novel system: the Hybrid Augmented Reality Multimodal Operation Neural Integration Environment (HARMONIE). This system utilizes hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics to allow users to identify an object (via eye tracking and computer vision) and initiate (via brain-control) a semi-autonomous reach-grasp-and-drop of the object by the MPL. Sequential iterations of HARMONIE were tested in two pilot subjects implanted with electrocorticographic (ECoG) and depth electrodes within motor areas. The subjects performed the complex task in 71.4% (20/28) and 67.7% (21/31) of trials after minimal training. Balanced accuracy for detecting movements was 91.1% and 92.9%, significantly greater than chance accuracies (p robotics, addresses limitations of current BMIs. PMID:24760914

  18. Review of Brain-Machine Interfaces Used in Neural Prosthetics with New Perspective on Somatosensory Feedback through Method of Signal Breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Gabriel W Vattendahl; Rynes, Mathew L; Kelliher, Zachary; Goodwin, Shikha Jain

    2016-01-01

    The brain-machine interface (BMI) used in neural prosthetics involves recording signals from neuron populations, decoding those signals using mathematical modeling algorithms, and translating the intended action into physical limb movement. Recently, somatosensory feedback has become the focus of many research groups given its ability in increased neural control by the patient and to provide a more natural sensation for the prosthetics. This process involves recording data from force sensitive locations on the prosthetics and encoding these signals to be sent to the brain in the form of electrical stimulation. Tactile sensation has been achieved through peripheral nerve stimulation and direct stimulation of the somatosensory cortex using intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). The initial focus of this paper is to review these principles and link them to modern day applications such as restoring limb use to those who lack such control. With regard to how far the research has come, a new perspective for the signal breakdown concludes the paper, offering ideas for more real somatosensory feedback using ICMS to stimulate particular sensations by differentiating touch sensors and filtering data based on unique frequencies. PMID:27313959

  19. Long-Term Training with a Brain-Machine Interface-Based Gait Protocol Induces Partial Neurological Recovery in Paraplegic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Ana R C; Shokur, Solaiman; Morya, Edgard; Campos, Debora S F; Moioli, Renan C; Gitti, Claudia M; Augusto, Patricia B; Tripodi, Sandra; Pires, Cristhiane G; Pereira, Gislaine A; Brasil, Fabricio L; Gallo, Simone; Lin, Anthony A; Takigami, Angelo K; Aratanha, Maria A; Joshi, Sanjay; Bleuler, Hannes; Cheng, Gordon; Rudolph, Alan; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) provide a new assistive strategy aimed at restoring mobility in severely paralyzed patients. Yet, no study in animals or in human subjects has indicated that long-term BMI training could induce any type of clinical recovery. Eight chronic (3-13 years) spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegics were subjected to long-term training (12 months) with a multi-stage BMI-based gait neurorehabilitation paradigm aimed at restoring locomotion. This paradigm combined intense immersive virtual reality training, enriched visual-tactile feedback, and walking with two EEG-controlled robotic actuators, including a custom-designed lower limb exoskeleton capable of delivering tactile feedback to subjects. Following 12 months of training with this paradigm, all eight patients experienced neurological improvements in somatic sensation (pain localization, fine/crude touch, and proprioceptive sensing) in multiple dermatomes. Patients also regained voluntary motor control in key muscles below the SCI level, as measured by EMGs, resulting in marked improvement in their walking index. As a result, 50% of these patients were upgraded to an incomplete paraplegia classification. Neurological recovery was paralleled by the reemergence of lower limb motor imagery at cortical level. We hypothesize that this unprecedented neurological recovery results from both cortical and spinal cord plasticity triggered by long-term BMI usage. PMID:27513629

  20. The Muscle Sensor for on-site neuroscience lectures to pave the way for a better understanding of brain-machine-interface research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Amane; Nagata, Osamu; Togawa, Morio; Sazi, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an expanding field of science to investigate enigmas of brain and human body function. However, the majority of the public have never had the chance to learn the basics of neuroscience and new knowledge from advanced neuroscience research through hands-on experience. Here, we report that we produced the Muscle Sensor, a simplified electromyography, to promote educational understanding in neuroscience. The Muscle Sensor can detect myoelectric potentials which are filtered and processed as 3-V pulse signals to shine a light bulb and emit beep sounds. With this educational tool, we delivered "On-Site Neuroscience Lectures" in Japanese junior-high schools to facilitate hands-on experience of neuroscientific electrophysiology and to connect their text-book knowledge to advanced neuroscience researches. On-site neuroscience lectures with the Muscle Sensor pave the way for a better understanding of the basics of neuroscience and the latest topics such as how brain-machine-interface technology could help patients with disabilities such as spinal cord injuries. PMID:24140267

  1. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio eSakurai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interface (BMI. We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  2. Brain-state classification and a dual-state decoder dramatically improve the control of cursor movement through a brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Nicholas A.; Ruiz-Torres, Ricardo; Perreault, Eric J.; Miller, Lee E.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. It is quite remarkable that brain machine interfaces (BMIs) can be used to control complex movements with fewer than 100 neurons. Success may be due in part to the limited range of dynamical conditions under which most BMIs are tested. Achieving high-quality control that spans these conditions with a single linear mapping will be more challenging. Even for simple reaching movements, existing BMIs must reduce the stochastic noise of neurons by averaging the control signals over time, instead of over the many neurons that normally control movement. This forces a compromise between a decoder with dynamics allowing rapid movement and one that allows postures to be maintained with little jitter. Our current work presents a method for addressing this compromise, which may also generalize to more highly varied dynamical situations, including movements with more greatly varying speed. Approach. We have developed a system that uses two independent Wiener filters as individual components in a single decoder, one optimized for movement, and the other for postural control. We computed an LDA classifier using the same neural inputs. The decoder combined the outputs of the two filters in proportion to the likelihood assigned by the classifier to each state. Main results. We have performed online experiments with two monkeys using this neural-classifier, dual-state decoder, comparing it to a standard, single-state decoder as well as to a dual-state decoder that switched states automatically based on the cursor’s proximity to a target. The performance of both monkeys using the classifier decoder was markedly better than that of the single-state decoder and comparable to the proximity decoder. Significance. We have demonstrated a novel strategy for dealing with the need to make rapid movements while also maintaining precise cursor control when approaching and stabilizing within targets. Further gains can undoubtedly be realized by optimizing the performance of the

  3. Prospect of brain-machine interface in motor disabilities: the future support for multiple sclerosis patient to improve quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, M; Singh, Av; Zamboni, P

    2014-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder, which has impacted health related quality of life (HRQoL) more intensively than any other neurological disorder. The approaches to improve the health standard in MS patient are still a subject of primary importance in medical practice and seek a lot of experimental exploration. The present review briefly explains the anomaly in neuron anatomy and dysfunction in signal transmission arising in the context with the chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), a recent hypothesis related with MS pathophysiology. Subsequently, it insights brain-machine interface (BMI) as an alternative approach to improve the HRQoL of MS subjects. Information sources were searched from peer-reviewed data bases (Medline, BioMed Central, PubMed) and grey-literature databases for data published in 2000 or later. We also did systemic search in edited books, articles in seminar papers, reports extracted from newspapers and scientific magazines, articles accessed from internet; mostly using PubMed, Google search engine and Wikipedia. Out of approximately 178, 240 research articles obtained using selected keywords, those articles were included in the present study which addresses the latest definitions of HRQol and latest scientific and ethical developments in the research of MS and BMI. The article presented a brief survey of CCSVI mediated MS and BMI-approach as a treatment to serve the patients suffering from disabilities as a result of MS, followed by successful precedence of BMI approach. Apart from these, the major findings of selected research articles including the development of parameters to define HRQoL, types and development of BMIs and its role in interconnecting brain with actuators, along with CCSVI being a possible cause of MS have formed the foundations to conclude the findings of the present review article. We propose a perspective BMI approach and promises it holds for future research to improve HRQoL in

  4. Design and Optimization of an EEG-Based Brain Machine Interface (BMI) to an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton for Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Nikunj A; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Abibullaev, Berdakh; Artz, Edward J; Yozbatiran, Nuray; Blank, Amy A; French, James; Karmonik, Christof; Grossman, Robert G; O'Malley, Marcia K; Francisco, Gerard E; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting motor intent from brain activity of chronic stroke patients using an asynchronous electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain machine interface (BMI). Intent was inferred from movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs) measured over an optimized set of EEG electrodes. Successful intent detection triggered the motion of an upper-limb exoskeleton (MAHI Exo-II), to guide movement and to encourage active user participation by providing instantaneous sensory feedback. Several BMI design features were optimized to increase system performance in the presence of single-trial variability of MRCPs in the injured brain: (1) an adaptive time window was used for extracting features during BMI calibration; (2) training data from two consecutive days were pooled for BMI calibration to increase robustness to handle the day-to-day variations typical of EEG, and (3) BMI predictions were gated by residual electromyography (EMG) activity from the impaired arm, to reduce the number of false positives. This patient-specific BMI calibration approach can accommodate a broad spectrum of stroke patients with diverse motor capabilities. Following BMI optimization on day 3, testing of the closed-loop BMI-MAHI exoskeleton, on 4th and 5th days of the study, showed consistent BMI performance with overall mean true positive rate (TPR) = 62.7 ± 21.4% on day 4 and 67.1 ± 14.6% on day 5. The overall false positive rate (FPR) across subjects was 27.74 ± 37.46% on day 4 and 27.5 ± 35.64% on day 5; however for two subjects who had residual motor function and could benefit from the EMG-gated BMI, the mean FPR was quite low (< 10%). On average, motor intent was detected -367 ± 328 ms before movement onset during closed-loop operation. These findings provide evidence that closed-loop EEG-based BMI for stroke patients can be designed and optimized to perform well across multiple days without system recalibration. PMID:27065787

  5. Interfaces for instructional use of simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, de Robert; Jong, de Ton; Vries, de Frits

    1991-01-01

    The learner interface is the component of an instructional system that mediates between a learner and the system. Two fundamentally different approaches for interfaces can be distinguished: conversational methapor and direct manipulation metaphor. Interfaces in both metaphors can be scaled on a dime

  6. Who Needs to Fit in? Who Gets to Stand out? Communication Technologies Including Brain-Machine Interfaces Revealed from the Perspectives of Special Education School Teachers Through an Ableism Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Some new and envisioned technologies such as brain machine interfaces (BMI that are being developed initially for people with disabilities, but whose use can also be expanded to the general public have the potential to change body ability expectations of disabled and non-disabled people beyond the species-typical. The ways in which this dynamic will impact students with disabilities in the domain of special education is explored. Data was drawn from six special education school teachers from one school in Calgary, Alberta. Five sub-themes (social acceptance, not adding to the impairment, fear of judgement by society, pursuing “normality” and meeting the demands of society were identified that fit under the main identified theme of “fitting in by not standing out”. Findings demonstrate a dichotomy in participant views of non- or socially acceptable communication devices. The perception of BMI technology was also explored among special education school teachers, revealing benefits and challenges with the uptake of this technology for students with disabilities. Perceptions of people with disabilities and ableism are presented as conceptual frameworks to interpret the influence and impact of the findings.

  7. Brain-state dependent robotic reaching movement with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton: combining brain-machine interfacing and robotic rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Gharabaghi

    2015-10-01

    Brain-robot interfaces may successfully link three-dimensional robotic training to the participants’ efforts and allow for task-oriented practice of activities of daily living with a physiologically controlled multi-joint exoskeleton. Changes of cortical physiology during the task might also help to make subject-specific adjustments of task difficulty and guide adjunct interventions to facilitate motor learning for functional restoration.

  8. A brain-machine interface to navigate a mobile robot in a planar workspace: enabling humans to fly simulated aircraft with EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akce, Abdullah; Johnson, Miles; Dantsker, Or; Bretl, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an interface for navigating a mobile robot that moves at a fixed speed in a planar workspace, with noisy binary inputs that are obtained asynchronously at low bit-rates from a human user through an electroencephalograph (EEG). The approach is to construct an ordered symbolic language for smooth planar curves and to use these curves as desired paths for a mobile robot. The underlying problem is then to design a communication protocol by which the user can, with vanishing error probability, specify a string in this language using a sequence of inputs. Such a protocol, provided by tools from information theory, relies on a human user's ability to compare smooth curves, just like they can compare strings of text. We demonstrate our interface by performing experiments in which twenty subjects fly a simulated aircraft at a fixed speed and altitude with input only from EEG. Experimental results show that the majority of subjects are able to specify desired paths despite a wide range of errors made in decoding EEG signals. PMID:23268384

  9. 基于Pubmed数据库文献挖掘的近5年脑机交互研究热点的聚类分析%Bibliometric and hotspot analysis of brain-machine interfaces based on pubmed database with literature mining in past five years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金磊; 胡柯嘉

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查有关脑机交互(brain-machine Interfaces,BCI)研究的医学文献,得出近期脑机交互研究热点。方法:应用美国国立医学图书馆开发的Pubmed数据库进行近5年有关脑机交互的文献检索,应用书目共现分析系统(bibliographic Item CO-Occurrence Matrix Builder,BICOMB)进行文献计量分析,SPSS 19.0软件进行聚类分析。结果:通过对脑机交互高频关键词聚类分析绘制树状图,总结得出了3大类研究热点:1)非侵入式的脑机交互信号获取和解码;2)侵入式获取信号的脑机交互研究;3)脑机交互在脑卒中康复中的研究。结论:脑机交互技术目前正在快速发展,但仍需更方便、有效、安全的信号提取及转化技术,以求积极应用于临床治疗。%Objective:To analyze the published articles of brain-machine interfaces and get the recent research hotspot. Methods:Searching brain-machine interfaces literatures through PubMed database of US Congress Library of Medicine in past ifve years, using BICOMB to bibliometric analysis and SPSS 19.0 to cluster analysis. Results:hTree research hotspots were concluded by analyzing the key words:1) non-invasive brain signal acquisition and decoding of brain-machine Interfaces;2) invasive brain signal acquisition of brain-machine Interfaces;3) brain-computer interaction research in stroke rehabilitation. Conclusion:Researches on BCI developed rapidly, but signal acquisition and decoding need more convenient, effective and safer in the future studies and useful clinical practice for BCI is the ifrst priority.

  10. Brain-machine interface circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zjajo, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a complete overview of significant design challenges in respect to circuit miniaturization and power reduction of the neural recording system, along with circuit topologies, architecture trends, and (post-silicon) circuit optimization algorithms. The introduced novel circuits for signal conditioning, quantization, and classification, as well as system configurations focus on optimized power-per-area performance, from the spatial resolution (i.e. number of channels), feasible wireless data bandwidth and information quality to the delivered power of implantable system.

  11. Intention Concepts and Brain-Machine Interfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types...

  12. The Mind and the Machine. On the Conceptual and Moral Implications of Brain-Machine Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Schermer, Maartje

    2009-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces are a growing field of research and application. The increasing possibilities to connect the human brain to electronic devices and computer software can be put to use in medicine, the military, and entertainment. Concrete technologies include cochlear implants, Deep Brain Stimulation, neurofeedback and neuroprosthesis. The expectations for the near and further future are high, though it is difficult to separate hope from hype. The focus in this paper is on the effects...

  13. Brain-computer interface control along instructed paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadtler, P. T.; Ryu, S. I.; Tyler-Kabara, E. C.; Yu, B. M.; Batista, A. P.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are being developed to assist paralyzed people and amputees by translating neural activity into movements of a computer cursor or prosthetic limb. Here we introduce a novel BCI task paradigm, intended to help accelerate improvements to BCI systems. Through this task, we can push the performance limits of BCI systems, we can quantify more accurately how well a BCI system captures the user’s intent, and we can increase the richness of the BCI movement repertoire. Approach. We have implemented an instructed path task, wherein the user must drive a cursor along a visible path. The instructed path task provides a versatile framework to increase the difficulty of the task and thereby push the limits of performance. Relative to traditional point-to-point tasks, the instructed path task allows more thorough analysis of decoding performance and greater richness of movement kinematics. Main results. We demonstrate that monkeys are able to perform the instructed path task in a closed-loop BCI setting. We further investigate how the performance under BCI control compares to native arm control, whether users can decrease their movement variability in the face of a more demanding task, and how the kinematic richness is enhanced in this task. Significance. The use of the instructed path task has the potential to accelerate the development of BCI systems and their clinical translation.

  14. Prospects on Brain-Machine Interfaces for Space System Control

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, C.; de Negueruela, Christina; Millán, José Del R; Tonet, O.; Carpi, F.; Broschart, M.; Ferrez, Pierre W.; Buttfield, Anna; Dario, P.; Citi, L; Laschi, C.; Tombini, M.; Sepulveda, F.; Poli, R.; Palaniappan, R.

    2006-01-01

    The dream of controlling and guiding computer-based systems using human brain signals has slowly but steadily become a reality. The available technology allows real-time implementation of systems that measure neuronal activity, convert their signals, and translate their output for the purpose of controlling mechanical systems. This paper describes the state of the art of non-invasive BMIs and critically investigates both the current technological limits and the future potential that BMIs have...

  15. High-accuracy brain-machine interfaces using feedback information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gi Yeom

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is very important for movement control. However, feedback information has not been directly used to update movement prediction model in the previous BMI studies, although the closed-loop BMI system provides the visual feedback to users. Here, we propose a BMI framework combining image processing as the feedback information with a novel prediction method. The feedback-prediction algorithm (FPA generates feedback information from the positions of objects and modifies movement prediction according to the information. The FPA predicts a target among objects based on the movement direction predicted from the neural activity. After the target selection, the FPA modifies the predicted direction toward the target and modulates the magnitude of the predicted vector to easily reach the target. The FPA repeats the modification in every prediction time points. To evaluate the improvements of prediction accuracy provided by the feedback, we compared the prediction performances with feedback (FPA and without feedback. We demonstrated that accuracy of movement prediction can be considerably improved by the FPA combining feedback information. The accuracy of the movement prediction was significantly improved for all subjects (P<0.001 and 32.1% of the mean error was reduced. The BMI performance will be improved by combining feedback information and it will promote the development of a practical BMI system.

  16. The balancing effect in brain-machine interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pallikari, Fotini

    2016-01-01

    The meta analysis of Intangible Brain Machine Interaction (IMMI) data with random number generators is re-evaluated through the application of rigorous and recognized mathematical tools. The current analysis shows that the statistical average of the true RNG-IMMI data is not shifted from chance by direct mental intervention, thus refuting the IMMI hypothesis. A facet of this general statistical behavior of true RNG-IMMI data is the statistical balancing of scores observed in IMMI tests where ...

  17. The Mind and the Machine. On the Conceptual and Moral Implications of Brain-Machine Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Maartje

    2009-12-01

    Brain-machine interfaces are a growing field of research and application. The increasing possibilities to connect the human brain to electronic devices and computer software can be put to use in medicine, the military, and entertainment. Concrete technologies include cochlear implants, Deep Brain Stimulation, neurofeedback and neuroprosthesis. The expectations for the near and further future are high, though it is difficult to separate hope from hype. The focus in this paper is on the effects that these new technologies may have on our 'symbolic order'-on the ways in which popular categories and concepts may change or be reinterpreted. First, the blurring distinction between man and machine and the idea of the cyborg are discussed. It is argued that the morally relevant difference is that between persons and non-persons, which does not necessarily coincide with the distinction between man and machine. The concept of the person remains useful. It may, however, become more difficult to assess the limits of the human body. Next, the distinction between body and mind is discussed. The mind is increasingly seen as a function of the brain, and thus understood in bodily and mechanical terms. This raises questions concerning concepts of free will and moral responsibility that may have far reaching consequences in the field of law, where some have argued for a revision of our criminal justice system, from retributivist to consequentialist. Even without such a (unlikely and unwarranted) revision occurring, brain-machine interactions raise many interesting questions regarding distribution and attribution of responsibility. PMID:20234874

  18. Integrating robotic action with biologic perception: A brain-machine symbiosis theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Babak

    In patients with motor disability the natural cyclic flow of information between the brain and external environment is disrupted by their limb impairment. Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) aim to provide new communication channels between the brain and environment by direct translation of brain's internal states into actions. For enabling the user in a wide range of daily life activities, the challenge is designing neural decoders that autonomously adapt to different tasks, environments, and to changes in the pattern of neural activity. In this dissertation, a novel decoding framework for BMIs is developed in which a computational agent autonomously learns how to translate neural states into action based on maximization of a measure of shared goal between user and the agent. Since the agent and brain share the same goal, a symbiotic relationship between them will evolve therefore this decoding paradigm is called a Brain-Machine Symbiosis (BMS) framework. A decoding agent was implemented within the BMS framework based on the Actor-Critic method of Reinforcement Learning. The rule of the Actor as a neural decoder was to find mapping between the neural representation of motor states in the primary motor cortex (MI) and robot actions in order to solve reaching tasks. The Actor learned the optimal control policy using an evaluative feedback that was estimated by the Critic directly from the user's neural activity of the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc). Through a series of computational neuroscience studies in a cohort of rats it was demonstrated that NAcc could provide a useful evaluative feedback by predicting the increase or decrease in the probability of earning reward based on the environmental conditions. Using a closed-loop BMI simulator it was demonstrated the Actor-Critic decoding architecture was able to adapt to different tasks as well as changes in the pattern of neural activity. The custom design of a dual micro-wire array enabled simultaneous implantation of MI and

  19. Instruction, Feedback and Biometrics: The User Interface for Fingerprint Authentication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Chris; Johnson, Graham; McCracken, Heather; Al-Saffar, Ahmed

    Biometric authentication is the process of establishing an individual’s identity through measurable characteristics of their behaviour, anatomy or physiology. Biometric technologies, such as fingerprint systems, are increasingly being used in a diverse range of contexts from immigration control, to banking and personal computing. As is often the case with emerging technologies, the usability aspects of system design have received less attention than technical aspects. Fingerprint systems pose a number of challenges for users and past research has identified issues with correct finger placement, system feedback and instruction. This paper describes the development of an interface for fingerprint systems using an iterative, participative design approach. During this process, several different methods for the presentation of instruction and feedback were identified. The different types of instruction and feedback were tested in a study involving 82 participants. The results showed that feedback had a statistically significant effect on overall system performance, but instruction did not. The design recommendations emerging from this study, and the use of participatory design in this context, are discussed.

  20. Improving the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for brain-machine interface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Himadri S; Knaack, Gretchen L; Charkhkar, Hamid; McHail, Daniel G; Kastee, Jemika S; Dumas, Theodore C; Peixoto, Nathalia; Rubinson, Judith F; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2014-06-01

    Conducting polymers, especially poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) based materials, are important for developing highly sensitive and microscale neural probes. In the present work, we show that the conductivity and stability of PEDOT can be significantly increased by switching the widely used counter anion poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) to the smaller tetrafluoroborate (TFB) anion during the electrodeposition of the polymer. Time-dependent impedance measurements of polymer modified implantable microwires were conducted in physiological buffer solutions under accelerated aging conditions and the relative stability of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:TFB modified microwires was compared over time. This study was also extended to carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporated PEDOT:PSS which, according to some reports, is claimed to enhance the stability and electrical performance of the polymer. However, no noticeable difference was observed between PEDOT:PSS and CNT:PEDOT:PSS in our measurements. At the biologically relevant frequency of 1kHz, PEDOT:TFB modified microwires exhibit approximately one order of magnitude higher conductivity and demonstrate enhanced stability over both PEDOT:PSS and CNT:PEDOT:PSS modified microwires. In addition, PEDOT:TFB is not neurotoxic and we show the proof-of-concept for both in vitro and in vivo neuronal recordings using PEDOT:TFB modified microelectrode arrays and chronic electrodes, respectively. Our findings suggest that PEDOT:TFB is a promising conductive polymer coating for the recording of neural activities. PMID:24576579

  1. Brain-machine interfaces in space: Using spontaneous rather than intentionally generated brain signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, E.B.J.; Brouwer, A.M.; Wilschut, E.S.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2010-01-01

    De auteurs bespreken de beperkingen en mogelijkheden van gesuggereerde BMI toepassingen in een ruimtevaart en breken een lans voor BMIs die zijn gebaseerd op spontane in plaats van op doelbewuste hersensignalen

  2. The World Wide Web and Libraries: From Search Interface to Bibliographic Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyche, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The World Wide Web is rapidly being adopted by libraries and database vendors as a front end for bibliographic databases, reflecting the fact that the Web browser is becoming a universal tool. When the Web is also used for bibliographic instruction about these Web-based resources, it is possible to build tutorials incorporating actual screens from a database. The result is a realistic, highly interactive simulation of database search­ing that can provide a very detailed level of instruction.

  3. An empirical appraisal of the effectiveness of adaptive interfaces for instructional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sinclair

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Navigating an information space, particularly in educational hypermedia, has its difficulties. Users may become spatially disoriented, they may be distracted, lose sight of educational objectives, or fail to relate important items of content. The predominant approaches to aid navigation in this in a well-defined information space such as educational software, involves the provision of a range of advanced navigation tools, to employ a strong metaphor and maintain interest through multimedia sequences, or to semantically structure the knowledge in the space according to some cognitively-based theory. However, none of these techniques can account for an individual learner's needs, knowledge, preferences or cognitive abilities. Adaptivity is a particular functionality that may be implemented in educational hypermedia systems in a variety of ways to recognise the importance of an individual discourse with an information space, and to alleviate navigational difficulties on that basis. This paper seeks to provide a broad understanding of some of the instructional and design principles implicit in adaptive educational hypermedia systems, those that use adaptive navigation support techniques and in particular adaptive link annotation. The claim that adaptive techniques can help solve navigation problems is examined through a review of two recent empirical studies that were undertaken to determine the effect of adaptive navigation support on user paths and learning, and a third study, the results of which is being introduced to the literature in this paper. These studies taken together have not shown a clear link between adaptivity and an improvement in learning, but offer some guidance for ongoing productive research in this field.

  4. EEG enhancement for EEG source localization in brain-machine speller

    OpenAIRE

    Babaeeghazvini, Parinaz

    2013-01-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system to communicate with external world through the brain activity. The brain activity is measured by Electro-Encephalography (EEG) and then processed by a BCI system. EEG source reconstruction could be a way to improve the accuracy of EEG classification in EEGbased brain–computer interface (BCI). In this thesis BCI methods were applied on derived sources which by their EEG enhancement it became possible to obtain a more accurate EEG detection and broug...

  5. SSVEP based EEG Interface for Google Street View Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Asim

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) or Brain Machine Interface (BMI) provides direct communication channel between user’s brain and an external device without any requirement of user’s physical movement. Primarily BCI has been employed in medical sciences to facilitate the patients with severe motor, visual and aural impairments. More recently many BCI are also being used as a part of entertainment. BCI differs from Neuroprosthetics, a study within Neuroscience, in terms of its usage; former conne...

  6. A collaborative utility-university project for year two of a comprehensive program of simulator-interfaced light water reactor instruction and research. Second progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop a comprehensive program of simulator-interfaced instruction and research, the American Electric Power Corporation and Centerior Energy Corporation are working with the Nuclear Engineering programs at the University of Cincinnati and The Ohio State University. Funding and resources for the program are being provided by the Department of Energy and the utilities. The program was initiated in September 1993 as the result of a proposal submitted by the Universities to the DOE. The first phase of the program, the development and presentation of a course sequence on commercial nuclear power plant systems design and operation, has been completed. Program instruction began on January 3, 1994 with the first presentation to 29 undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the University of Cincinnati and the Ohio State University. The sequence covered two academic quarters and included visits to each of the nuclear power plants involved in the collaboration. Class lectures were presented in video-classrooms such that instructors at one site could reach not only their own students but students at the other university as well. Class lecture material was developed primarily from similar materials utilized and developed by the utilities to train their own engineers and operators. The initial development effort was described in an earlier progress report

  7. Effect of instructive visual stimuli on neurofeedback training for motor imagery-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toshiyuki; Saeki, Midori; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu; Nakayashiki, Kosei; Takata, Yohei

    2015-10-01

    Event-related desynchronization (ERD) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) from the motor cortex is associated with execution, observation, and mental imagery of motor tasks. Generation of ERD by motor imagery (MI) has been widely used for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) linked to neuroprosthetics and other motor assistance devices. Control of MI-based BCIs can be acquired by neurofeedback training to reliably induce MI-associated ERD. To develop more effective training conditions, we investigated the effect of static and dynamic visual representations of target movements (a picture of forearms or a video clip of hand grasping movements) during the BCI neurofeedback training. After 4 consecutive training days, the group that performed MI while viewing the video showed significant improvement in generating MI-associated ERD compared with the group that viewed the static image. This result suggests that passively observing the target movement during MI would improve the associated mental imagery and enhance MI-based BCIs skills. PMID:25467185

  8. Cognitive State Monitoring and the Design of Adaptive Instruction in Digital Environments: Lessons Learned from Cognitive Workload Assessment using a Passive Brain-Computer Interface Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Peter eGerjets; Carina eWalter; Wolfgang eRosenstiel; Martin eBogdan; Zander, Thorsten O.

    2014-01-01

    According to Cognitive Load Theory, one of the crucial factors for successful learning is the type and amount of working-memory load (WML) learners experience while studying instructional materials. Optimal learning conditions are characterized by providing challenges for learners without inducing cognitive over- or underload. Thus, presenting instruction in a way that WML is constantly held within an optimal range with regard to learners’ current working-memory capacity might be a good metho...

  9. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  10. Interfacing with the brain using organic electronics (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaras, George G.

    2015-10-01

    Implantable electrodes are being used for diagnostic purposes, for brain-machine interfaces, and for delivering electrical stimulation to alleviate the symptoms of diseases such as Parkinson's. The field of organic electronics made available devices with a unique combination of attractive properties, including mixed ionic/electronic conduction, mechanical flexibility, enhanced biocompatibility, and capability for drug delivery. I will present examples of organic electrodes, transistors and other devices for recording and stimulation of brain activity and discuss how they can improve our understanding of brain physiology and pathology, and how they can be used to deliver new therapies.

  11. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Kashihara, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial...

  12. Interface entre neurones et puces structurées électroniques pour la détection de potentiels d'action

    OpenAIRE

    Larramendy, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The interface man / machine had followed of many researches in biotechnology. A part of these researches concern the interconnections brain / machine. Indeed, the brain arranges numerous intellectual connections thanks to neurons. These neurons communicate between them and propagate information thanks to a "bio-electric" signal called action potential. The objective of my doctoral thesis is to measure this signal thanks to ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET). The ISFET process was m...

  13. Perspectives and Potential of the Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSSATTO, G. G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI, also known as Brain-Machine Interface, is a system that allows for the interaction between the user and its surroundings using control signals generated by his brain activity. The improvement of the research on BCI correlates mainly with the advances of Neurophisiology and Computer Science. Initial research was dedicated to the development of devices for the communication of individuals who lost voluntary muscle control but had no cognitive impairment. Nowadays, we find applications in the fields of mobility, communication and the treatment of diseases of user who may or may not have movement impairment. Considering the expansion scenario of the BCI applications, this paper presents a pedagogical description of the recent publication on this field of study. Hence, we descrive the basic concepts related to this research area, as well as some of its applications and limitations.

  14. Feasibility study for future implantable neural-silicon interface devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Armaghany, Allann; Yu, Bo; Mak, Terrence; Tong, Kin-Fai; Sun, Yihe

    2011-01-01

    The emerging neural-silicon interface devices bridge nerve systems with artificial systems and play a key role in neuro-prostheses and neuro-rehabilitation applications. Integrating neural signal collection, processing and transmission on a single device will make clinical applications more practical and feasible. This paper focuses on the wireless antenna part and real-time neural signal analysis part of implantable brain-machine interface (BMI) devices. We propose to use millimeter-wave for wireless connections between different areas of a brain. Various antenna, including microstrip patch, monopole antenna and substrate integrated waveguide antenna are considered for the intra-cortical proximity communication. A Hebbian eigenfilter based method is proposed for multi-channel neuronal spike sorting. Folding and parallel design techniques are employed to explore various structures and make a trade-off between area and power consumption. Field programmable logic arrays (FPGAs) are used to evaluate various structures. PMID:22254974

  15. Fully Online Multicommand Brain-Computer Interface with Visual Neurofeedback Using SSVEP Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovagim Bakardjian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multistage procedure for a real-time brain-machine/computer interface (BCI. The developed system allows a BCI user to navigate a small car (or any other object on the computer screen in real time, in any of the four directions, and to stop it if necessary. Extensive experiments with five young healthy subjects confirmed the high performance of the proposed online BCI system. The modular structure, high speed, and the optimal frequency band characteristics of the BCI platform are features which allow an extension to a substantially higher number of commands in the near future.

  16. Dissecting Local Design: Instructional Leadership, Curriculum and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Matthew Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Local instructional design describes the process of customization that naturally occurs when curriculum innovations interface with local classrooms and schools. Describing the practice of local instructional design can help to explain how curriculum is adapted to local conditions and provides insight on how instructional leaders mediate…

  17. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  18. rtMEG: A Real-Time Software Interface for Magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudre, Gustavo; Parkkonen, Lauri; Bock, Elizabeth; Baillet, Sylvain; Wang, Wei; Weber, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    To date, the majority of studies using magnetoencephalography (MEG) rely on off-line analysis of the spatiotemporal properties of brain activity. Real-time MEG feedback could potentially benefit multiple areas of basic and clinical research: brain-machine interfaces, neurofeedback rehabilitation of stroke and spinal cord injury, and new adaptive paradigm designs, among others. We have developed a software interface to stream MEG signals in real time from the 306-channel Elekta Neuromag MEG system to an external workstation. The signals can be accessed with a minimal delay (≤45 ms) when data are sampled at 1000 Hz, which is sufficient for most real-time studies. We also show here that real-time source imaging is possible by demonstrating real-time monitoring and feedback of alpha-band power fluctuations over parieto-occipital and frontal areas. The interface is made available to the academic community as an open-source resource. PMID:21687573

  19. Development of bioactive conducting polymers for neural interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole-Warren, Laura; Lovell, Nigel; Baek, Sungchul; Green, Rylie

    2010-01-01

    Bioelectrodes for neural recording and neurostimulation are an integral component of a number of neuroprosthetic devices, including the commercially available cochlear implant, and developmental devices, such as the bionic eye and brain-machine interfaces. Current electrode designs limit the application of such devices owing to suboptimal material properties that lead to minimal interaction with the target neural tissue and the formation of fibrotic capsules. In designing an ideal bioelectrode, a number of design criteria must be considered with respect to physical, mechanical, electrical and biological properties. Conducting polymers have the potential to address the synergistic interaction of these properties and show promise as superior coatings for next-generation electrodes in implant devices. PMID:20021239

  20. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  1. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  2. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  3. Instruction-Steam Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Christian James

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents formal elements of instruction-stream compression. We introduce notions of instruction representations, compressors and the general "patternization" function for representations to sequences. We further introduce the Lua-ISC language, an implementation of these elements. Instruction-stream compression algorithms are expressed, independently of the target architecture, in Lua-ISC. The language itself handles instruction decoding and encoding, patternization and compression...

  4. Interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high Tc in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO3 are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO3 and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high Tc in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO3

  5. The Effects of Multimedia Interface Design on Original Learning and Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Theresa D.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research was to compare the learning outcomes of three methods of instruction: a text-based instructional system and two multimedia systems. The two multimedia systems used different interface designs. The first multimedia system used a topic-oriented interface which is somewhat standard in multimedia design. The second multimedia system presented a problem solving context and s...

  6. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  7. Interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.

  8. iPhone User Interface Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Banga, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Written in a cookbook style, this book offers solutions using a recipe based approach. Each recipe contains step-by-step instructions followed by an analysis of what was done in each task and other useful information. The cookbook approach means you can dive into whatever recipes you want in no particular order. The iPhone Interface Cookbook is written from the ground up for people who are new to iOS or application interface design in general. Each chapter discusses the reasoning and design strategy behind critical interface components, as well as how to best integrate each into any iPhone or

  9. Bidirectional neural interface: Closed-loop feedback control for hybrid neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Zane; Lim, Jeffrey; Brown, Sophie; Keller, Melissa; Bugbee, Joseph; Broccard, Frédéric D; Khraiche, Massoud L; Silva, Gabriel A; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2015-08-01

    Closed-loop neural prostheses enable bidirectional communication between the biological and artificial components of a hybrid system. However, a major challenge in this field is the limited understanding of how these components, the two separate neural networks, interact with each other. In this paper, we propose an in vitro model of a closed-loop system that allows for easy experimental testing and modification of both biological and artificial network parameters. The interface closes the system loop in real time by stimulating each network based on recorded activity of the other network, within preset parameters. As a proof of concept we demonstrate that the bidirectional interface is able to establish and control network properties, such as synchrony, in a hybrid system of two neural networks more significantly more effectively than the same system without the interface or with unidirectional alternatives. This success holds promise for the application of closed-loop systems in neural prostheses, brain-machine interfaces, and drug testing. PMID:26737158

  10. Brain-computer interfaces: an overview of the hardware to record neural signals from the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Rubehn, Birthe; Henle, Christian; Kisban, Sebastian; Herwik, Stanislav; Ruther, Patrick; Schuettler, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) record neural signals from cortical origin with the objective to control a user interface for communication purposes, a robotic artifact or artificial limb as actuator. One of the key components of such a neuroprosthetic system is the neuro-technical interface itself, the electrode array. In this chapter, different designs and manufacturing techniques will be compared and assessed with respect to scaling and assembling limitations. The overview includes electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and epicortical brain-machine interfaces to record local field potentials (LFPs) from the surface of the cortex as well as intracortical needle electrodes that are intended to record single-unit activity. Two exemplary complementary technologies for micromachining of polyimide-based arrays and laser manufacturing of silicone rubber are presented and discussed with respect to spatial resolution, scaling limitations, and system properties. Advanced silicon micromachining technologies have led to highly sophisticated intracortical electrode arrays for fundamental neuroscientific applications. In this chapter, major approaches from the USA and Europe will be introduced and compared concerning complexity, modularity, and reliability. An assessment of the different technological solutions comparable to a strength weaknesses opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis might serve as guidance to select the adequate electrode array configuration for each control paradigm and strategy to realize robust, fast, and reliable BCIs. PMID:19660664

  11. Soft Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles de Gennes, Pierre; Edwards, Introduction By Sam

    1997-04-01

    Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. Dirac's college, St. John's of Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This volume contains a much expanded version of the 1994 Dirac Lecture by Nobel Laureate Pierre Gilles de Gennes. The book presents an impressionistic tour of the physics of soft interfaces. Full of insight and interesting asides, it not only provides an accessible introduction to this topic, but also lays down many markers and signposts that will be of interest to researchers in physics or chemistry. Features discussions of wetting and dewetting, the dynamics of different types of interface and adhesion and polymer/polymer welding.

  12. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum......"Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework for...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop the...

  13. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes...

  14. Instructional Software for Biochemistry Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marson Guilherme Andrade

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the world has witnessed a revolution in the expansion and access to knowledge, whi-ch has dramatically changed the relationship between labor and production. According to UNESCO(United Nations Educational, Scientical and Cultural Organization and ILO (International LaborOrganization, in the of information it is fundamental that Higher Education Institutes educate pro-fessionals capable to update their knowledge in the course of professional life. The so-called life-longlearning s pointed out as a request for creating and maintaining jobs, and for supporting the develop-ment of nations as well. In such context, Biochemistry is a eld of knowledge which has outstandinglyexpanded its boundaries. Preparing the next generation of biochemists for the age of informationrequires the development of cognitive skills as an essential educational goal concerning graduationcourses, which have been historically limited to the exposition of contents. The achievement of suchobjective depends on many factors, including the development of suitable instructional materials thatcan improve the teaching and learning experience. This conference deals with the development ofinstructional software at the crossroad of Educational research, Informatics and Biochemistry. Theinvestigative approach leading to the development and improvement of instructional software for Bi-ochemical education will be discussed on the basis of the following issues: i motivating questionsto software development - teaching and learning problems; ii development of digital content: speci-c content, interface and interactivity; iii evaluation of the software s instructional eciency; ivexamples of softwares which have been conceived according to the discussed methodology.

  15. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  16. Programmatic Instructional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Richard E.

    Programmatic instructional development refers to sequenced and coordinated efforts to produce effective instructional programs which cumulate over time and which attain outcomes that would be impossible under non-programmatic projects. As practiced at the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL), it involves the combined efforts of specialists from…

  17. The Strategies Instructional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith

    1989-01-01

    The strategies instructional approach developed at the University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities is described. The approach teaches students strategies in the academic, social, motivational, and executive functioning areas that will enable students to meet content learning demands and modifies instructional environments…

  18. Instruction sequence processing operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns instruction sequences whose execution involves the processing of instructions by an execution environment that offers a family of services and may yield a Boolean value at termination. We introduce a composition operator for families of services and three operators that have a di

  19. Regulations and instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations and instructions for operating the RA reactor consist of the following chapters: general regulations with the fundamental RA reactor characteristics, operating regulations and instructions for the personnel on duty, regulations for accidental conditions, training program for the staff of the Laboratory for reactor operation

  20. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  1. 直接脑控机器人接口技术%Direct Brain-controlled Robot Interface Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏云发; 王越超; 李洪谊; 徐保磊; 李永程

    2012-01-01

    直接脑控机器人接口(Brain-controlled robot interface,BCRI)是一种新型的人-机器人接口技术,是脑-机器接口/脑-计算机接口 (Brain-machine interface,BMI/Brain-computer interface,BCI)在机器人控制领域的重要应用和研究方向.研究者相继在Nature、Science和其他重要国际期刊上报道了相关的实验研究和开发,目前已成为国际前沿研究热点.本文主要围绕BCRI中的控制策略、BMI/BCI模块与机器人多层控制模块的适应和融合、BCRI中的脑信号自适应分类算法以及人、BMI/BCI模块和机器人控制系统的三边自适应展开论述,分析了目前的研究情况、存在的局限和面临的若干重要问题,指出进一步的研究思路和方向.%Direct brain-controlled robot interface (BCRI) is a new type human-robot interface which is an important research and development direction for brain-machine interface (BMI) / brain-computer interface (BCI) in the robot control field. Many experimental researches and developments for BCRI were reported by Nature, Science and other important international journals and it has become an international frontier research hotspot. The paper mainly discussed the control strategies for BCRI, the adaptation and fusion between BMI/BCI module and robot multilayer control architecture module, the adaptive classification algorithms for brain signal used in BCRI and the trilateral adaptation among human, BMI/BCI module and robot control system. The current situation and limitation for BCRI and some important problems faced by BCRI were analyzed and the further research ideas and directions were also pointed out.

  2. Solution In-Line Alpha Counter (SILAC) Instruction Manual-Version 4.00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solution In-Line Alpha Counter (SILAC) provides near real-time alpha activity measurements of aqueous solutions in gloveboxes located in the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The SILAC detector and its interface software were first developed by Joel Farnham at LANL [1]. This instruction manual describes the features of the SILAC interface software and contains the schematic and fabrication instructions for the detector

  3. Instructional Design and the Importance of Instructional Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Florence

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the instructional design process followed by the Maricopa Community College faculty in the creation of instructional modules in Digital Visual Literacy. The paper categorizes 10 tasks that an instructional designer, a teacher, or a trainer performs during the design phase of the instructional design process. The importance of…

  4. Modeling Instruction: The Impact of Professional Development on Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Angela T.; Frick, Tasha M.; Barker, Heather L.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Modeling Instruction holds the potential for transforming science instruction and improving student achievement. Key to the success of Modeling Instruction, however, is the fidelity of implementation of its curriculum. This qualitative study examined the impact of Modeling Instruction professional development on participating teachers'…

  5. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  6. Diversifying Instruction and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The triarchic theory posits that intelligence has analytical, creative, and practical aspects. Instructional and assessment methods should encourage and evaluate all three kinds of abilities, a balanced approach that can reach all students. (SK)

  7. Cross Cultural Instruction: An Instructional Design Case

    OpenAIRE

    Monica W. Tracey; Kelly L. Unger

    2010-01-01

    In an authentic example of linking design and development with learning and performance, an international real estate development firm defined a problem; implementing a cleaning system in the largest mall in the world with a cross-cultural unskilled work force in Dubai, UAE. Partnering with a university instructional design team employing a rapid prototyping methodology and the constructivist ID approach, Layers of Negotiation Model, a comprehensive curriculum was designed. This article descr...

  8. Interfaces habladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Soto Sanfiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y piensa al fenómeno de las Interfaces habladas (IH desde variados puntos de vista y niveles de análisis. El texto se ha concebido con los objetivos específicos de: 1.- procurar una visión panorámica de aspectos de la producción y consumo comunicativo de las IH; 2.- ofrecer recomendaciones para su creación y uso eficaz, y 3.- llamar la atención sobre su proliferación e inspirar su estudio desde la comunicación. A pesar de la creciente presencia de las IF en nues-tras vidas cotidianas, hay ausencia de textos que las caractericen y analicen por sus aspectos comunicativos. El trabajo es pertinente porque el fenómeno significa un cambio respecto a estadios comunica-tivos precedentes con consecuencias en las concepciones intelectuales y emocionales de los usuarios. La proliferación de IH nos abre a nue-vas realidades comunicativas: hablamos con máquinas.

  9. An experiment on experimental instructions

    OpenAIRE

    Bigoni, Maria; Dragone, Davide

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we treat instructions as an experimental variable. Using a public good game, we study how the instructions' format affects the participants' understanding of the experiment, their speed of play and their experimental behavior. We show that longer instructions do not significantly improve the subjects' understanding of the experiment; on-screen instructions shorten average decision times with respect to on-paper instructions, and requiring forced inputs reduces waiting times, in ...

  10. Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2016-06-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. PMID:27068989

  11. Cross Cultural Instruction: An Instructional Design Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica W. Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In an authentic example of linking design and development with learning and performance, an international real estate development firm defined a problem; implementing a cleaning system in the largest mall in the world with a cross-cultural unskilled work force in Dubai, UAE. Partnering with a university instructional design team employing a rapid prototyping methodology and the constructivist ID approach, Layers of Negotiation Model, a comprehensive curriculum was designed. This article describes the project background, initial design, the ID team's work in Dubai, illustrates the product, and summarizes the design experience.

  12. Peer Instruction for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul

    Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.

  13. Instructions for authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors Editorial Board

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
    Author Guidelines
    Authors must submit their papers via email to brain@edusoft.ro (please! or they can create an account and submit their papers online, at www.brain.edusoft.ro. Submited papers must be written in DOC format (Microsoft Word document, in as clear and as simple as possible English. Preferred maximum paper length for the papers is 20 pages, including figures.
    The template for the paper is at this address:
    http://www.edusoft.ro/Template_for_BRAIN.docRAIN vol. 3, issue 3, Instructions for authors

  14. Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…

  15. Enhancing Instructional Design Efficiency: Methodologies Employed by Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roytek, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…

  16. Braided Multi-Electrode Probes (BMEPs) for Neural Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gyo

    Although clinical use of invasive neural interfaces is very limited, due to safety and reliability concerns, the potential benefits of their use in brain machine interfaces (BMIs) seem promising and so they have been widely used in the research field. Microelectrodes as invasive neural interfaces are the core tool to record neural activities and their failure is a critical issue for BMI systems. Possible sources of this failure are neural tissue motions and their interactions with stiff electrode arrays or probes fixed to the skull. To overcome these tissue motion problems, we have developed novel braided multi-electrode probes (BMEPs). By interweaving ultra-fine wires into a tubular braid structure, we obtained a highly flexible multi-electrode probe. In this thesis we described BMEP designs and how to fabricate BMEPs, and explore experiments to show the advantages of BMEPs through a mechanical compliance comparison and a chronic immunohistological comparison with single 50microm nichrome wires used as a reference electrode type. Results from the mechanical compliance test showed that the bodies of BMEPs have 4 to 21 times higher compliance than the single 50microm wire and the tethers of BMEPs were 6 to 96 times higher compliance, depending on combinations of the wire size (9.6microm or 12.7microm), the wire numbers (12 or 24), and the length of tether (3, 5 or 10 mm). Results from the immunohistological comparison showed that both BMEPs and 50microm wires anchored to the skull caused stronger tissue reactions than unanchored BMEPs and 50microm wires, and 50microm wires caused stronger tissue reactions than BMEPs. In in-vivo tests with BMEPs, we succeeded in chronic recordings from the spinal cord of freely jumping frogs and in acute recordings from the spinal cord of decerebrate rats during air stepping which was evoked by mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) stimulation. This technology may provide a stable and reliable neural interface to spinal cord

  17. Secondary Dance Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.

    This manual provides guidelines for dance teachers in secondary schools. A brief statement is made on the purpose and philosophy of dance education, and activities and instructional suggestions are presented for various dance forms: (1) group dance--folk/ethnic, square dance, and social dance; (2) aerobic dance; (3) jazz dance; (4) modern dance;…

  18. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  19. Adaptive Computerized Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Roger D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an artificially intelligent multimedia computerized instruction system capable of developing a conceptual image of what a student is learning while the student is learning it. It focuses on principles of learning and adaptive behavioral control systems theory upon which the system is designed and demonstrates multiple user modes.…

  20. Instructions to authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A more detailed set of instructions can be found in the journal's home page at:Aims and scope Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (JRMGE) is a quarterly journal focused on the latest research achievements in rock mechanics and geotechnical engineering,and provides an opportunity for colleagues from all over the world

  1. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectification refers to the way in which everything (including human beings) is treated as an object, raw material, or resource to be manipulated and used. In this article, objectification refers to the way that education is often reduced to the packaging and delivery of information. A critique of objectification in instructional technology is…

  2. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Voogt; P. Fisser

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss th

  3. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  4. Revisiting "Beyond Instructional Design"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Since the article "Beyond Instructional Design: Making Learning Design a Reality" (Sims, 2006) was published, much has changed in the opportunities we have for learning, and Professor Rod Sims's thinking has evolved. In this article, Professor Rod Sims reflects upon his original article, and he offers an evolved model of learning design,…

  5. Individualistic Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet Can

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to the Instructional Design field. By the constructivism, education systems are moving from a massive structure to the more learner centered and more individualist structure. So far, ID field has adopted and digested the individualism notion partly. This paper proposes an individualistic approach to the…

  6. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  7. Apparel. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Patti

    This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…

  8. Safety instruction no 50

    CERN Multimedia

    Secrétariat SC

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the safety instruction no 50 (IS 50) entitled 'Safety Coordination on CERN Worksites' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/479454/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC unit Secretariat, email: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  9. Simplifying Tennis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil, Jay

    2005-01-01

    How many physical education programs incorporate tennis into the curriculum? How many physical educators feel proficient enough to teach tennis? Equally important, do students truly make progress when tennis is taught? Tennis instruction in secondary physical education settings is often frustrating for students and teachers alike. Many physical…

  10. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  11. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  12. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  13. Safety Instruction No 43

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Instruction No 43 (IS 43) entitled "ASBESTOS - DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS" is available on the web at the following URL: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335809/LAST_RELEASED/ Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. SC Secretariat

  14. Investigating Form-Focused Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2001-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of form-focused instruction research, defines what is meant by form-focused instruction, and discusses the main research methods that have been used to investigate form-focused instruction in terms of a broad distinction between confirmatory and interpretive research. (Author/VWL)

  15. Interface solutions for interface side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffregen Thomas A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-computer interfaces often give rise to a variety of side effects, including eyestrain, headache, fatigue, and motion sickness (aka cybersickness, simulator sickness. We might hope that improvements in interface design would tend to reduce these side effects. Unfortunately, history reveals just the opposite: The incidence and severity of motion sickness (for example is positively related to the progressive sophistication of display technology and systems. In this presentation, I enquire about the future of interface technologies in relation to side effects. I review the types of side effects that occur and what is known about the causes of interface side effects. I suggest new ways of understanding relations between interface technologies and side effects, and new ways to approach the problem of interface side effects.

  16. Interactive radio instruction: developing instructional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, J

    1989-01-01

    The USAID has, since 1972, funded the development of a new methodology for educational radio for young children through 3 projects: the Radio Mathematics PRoject of Nicaragua, the Radio Language Arts Project of Kenya, and the Radio Science PRoject of Papua New Guinea. These projects developed math programs for grades 1-4 and English as a second language for grades 1-3; programs to teach science in grades 4-6 are now being developed. Appropriate techniques were developed to engage young children actively in the learning process. Lessons are planned as a "conversation" between the children and the radio; scripts are written as 1/2 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that written as 12 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that students can contribute their 1/2. Teaching techniques used in all 3 projects include choral responses, simultaneous individual seatwork, and activities using simple materials such as pebbles and rulers. Certain techniques were specific to the subject being taught, or to the circumstances in which the lessons were to be used. Patterned oral drill was used frequently in the English lessons, including sound-cued drills. "Deferred" oral responses were used often in the math lessons. In this method, the children are instructed to solve a problem silently, not giving the answer aloud until requested, thus allowing time for even the slower children to participate. "One-child" questions were used in both English and science: the radio asks a question to be answered by a single child, who is selected on the spot by the classroom teacher. This allows for open-ended questions, but also requires constant supervision of the classroom teacher. Songs and games were used in all programs, and extensively for didactic purposes in the teaching of English. Instructions for science activities are often more complex than in other courses, particularly when the children are using science apparatus, especially when they work in pairs to share scarce

  17. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  18. A Critique of Instructional

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, James

    2010-01-01

    The ‘objectives model’ of curriculum planning, predicated upon behavioural performances, has become the dominant form of curriculum planning in Europe and elsewhere in the world. This paper argues that the objectives model is satisfactory for training or instruction, but falls down when applied to a true sense of ‘education’. The paper outlines 13 limitations on the use of educational objectives. It is argued that those interested in using objectives are guided by evaluation as assessment rat...

  19. Safety instruction No. 36

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that a revised version of Safety Instruction No. 36 (IS 36), entitled "Safety rules for the use of static magnetic fields at CERN" is available on the Web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335801/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC unit secretariat (e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch) SC Secretariat

  20. AXIOLOGICAL MODEL OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushevich I. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents instructional design as a new approach to the issue of developing value-oriented worldview. Scientific research and analysis led the author to summarize instructional design theory, broaden the definition of instructional design and apply it to instruction and learning in a new manner. The goal to build a pattern of instruction aimed at developing learners’ value-oriented worldview required the author to study the existing instructional design model, to analyse and generalize a number of monographs and articles devoted to the problem of building value systems and value orientations, and finally to investigate and apply the new knowledge to real life in the form of experiment. The work conducted brought the author to axiological model of instructional design, which consists of three dimensions: a linear sequence of the events from designing the instructional material to independent learning activities, interaction between a teacher and a learner, pace of learning and design. The article touches upon every dimension, level and stage of the model, describes and defines the procedures that take place on each of them, as well as suggests a possible way to visualize the model in a form of a sketch. The author also points out the advantages of using instructional design as an efficient and smart tool to organize learning and justifies the use of the new instructional design model in XXI century

  1. Interface localization near criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2016-01-01

    The theory of interface localization in near-critical planar systems at phase coexistence is formulated from first principles. We show that mutual delocalization of two interfaces, amounting to interfacial wetting, occurs when the bulk correlation length critical exponent $\

  2. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  3. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew;

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  4. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact these...

  5. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson NS; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. Approach. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like ‘Face in a Crowd’ task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the ‘Crowd’) using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a ‘Crowd Off’ condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Main results. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Significance. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet

  6. PEDOT:PSS interfaces support the development of neuronal synaptic networks with reduced neuroglia response in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada eCellot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of electrodes based on conductive polymers in brain-machine interface technology offers the opportunity to exploit variably manufactured materials to reduce gliosis, indeed the most common brain response to chronically implanted neural electrodes. In fact, the use of conductive polymers, finely tailored in their physical-chemical properties, might result in electrodes with improved adaptability to the brain tissue and increased charge-transfer efficiency. Here we interfaced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS doped with different amounts of ethylene glycol (EG with rat hippocampal primary cultures grown for 3 weeks on these synthetic substrates. We used immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy combined to single cell electrophysiology to assess the biocompatibility of PEDOT:PSS in terms of neuronal growth and synapse formation. We investigated neuronal morphology, density and electrical activity. We reported the novel observation that opposite to neurons, glial cell density was progressively reduced, hinting at the ability of this material to down regulate glial reaction. Thus PEDOT:PSS is an attractive candidate for the design of new implantable electrodes, controlling the extent of glial reactivity without affecting neuronal viability and function.

  7. Future development of instructional television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, H. J.; Denzau, A. T.; Dumolin, J. R.; Singh, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    The use of television in schools as an aid to instruction is proposed for individualized instruction, repetition for slow learners, acceleration for fast learners, and lectures from the best teachers for all students. A dedicated school district cable system, a 40 channel cable to each school and classroom, is considered. This innovation offers an opportunity for improving the quality and content of the school's instruction and for reducing the cost.

  8. USING GOOGLE+ FOR INSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YEE

    Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.

  9. Water at Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin H; Hodgson, Andrew; Liu, Li-Min; Limmer, David T; Michaelides, Angelos; Pedevilla, Philipp; Rossmeisl, Jan; Shen, Huaze; Tocci, Gabriele; Tyrode, Eric; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Werner, Josephina; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-07-13

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives many electrochemical reactions, and the liquid/vapor interface, which governs the uptake and release of trace gases by the oceans and cloud droplets. In this article we review some of the recent experimental and theoretical advances in our knowledge of the properties of aqueous interfaces and discuss open questions and gaps in our understanding. PMID:27232062

  10. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  11. Thread extraction for polyadic instruction sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

    2009-01-01

    Instruction sequences are often fragmented. An important reason for instruction sequence fragmentation is that the execution architecture at hand to execute instruction sequences sets bounds to the size of instruction sequences. In this paper, we study instruction sequences that have been split into

  12. The Instructional Network: Using Facebook to Enhance Undergraduate Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…

  13. Imaginative Instruction: What Master Storytellers Can Teach Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Good instructional storytelling engages students' attention and cognitive abilities to the end of more effective learning, and instructional researchers have discussed whether the principles of storytelling could lead to the same or similar results if applied to educational situations beyond only telling traditional stories. But despite this…

  14. Architecture of a Computer Based Instructional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia PECHEANU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the architecture of a tutorial system that can be used at various engineering graduate and postgraduate courses. The tutorial is using Internet-style WWW services to provide access to the teaching information and the evaluation exercises maintained with a RDMS. The tutorial will consist of server-side applications that process and present teaching material and assessing exercises to the student using the well-known Web interface. All information in the system will be stored in a relational database. By closely sticking to the ANSI SQL specifications, the system can take advantage of a free database managing system running on Linux, the mini-SQL. The tutorial can be used to on-line deliver any courses, creating new, continuing education opportunities. Taking advantage of the modern deployment techniques, the instructional/assessing tutorial offer high degrees of accessibility.

  15. Rotating Solids and Flipping Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grypp, Lynette; Luebeck, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Technology is causing educators to rethink the entire notion of classroom learning, not only with respect to what learning should take place but also where it should take place. One such innovation is flipped instruction, broadly defined by Staker and Horn (2012) as an instructional model in which students learn partly through online delivery and…

  16. Distance Education Instructional Model Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Diane H.; Swan, Michael K.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of graduate students involved in distance education on North Dakota State University's Interactive Video Network included 80 on campus and 13 off. The instructional models rated most effective were role playing, simulation, jurisprudential (Socratic method), memorization, synectics, and inquiry. Direct instruction was rated least…

  17. Instructional Technology and Administrative Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye, Glen G.; and others

    1969-01-01

    "Concerned with the spiraling problems of technology and its impact on instruction, the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) two years ago created the Committee on Technology and Instruction. Since that time the Committee has been active in investigating a number of areas relevant to the impact of technology on the public schools. …

  18. ROTI-OPERATIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Barker,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The instructional model presented here is a combination of systems used by the United States Navy and R. F. Mager's Criteria Referenced Instruction Model for Analysis Design and Implementation. The author has taken what he believes is the best components from each system and established a working model.

  19. Benefits of systematic phonics instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, S.E.H. de; Bosman, A.M.T.; Hasselman, F.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Systematic-phonics instruction appears to be more effective than nonsystematic phonics instruction for teaching reading (Ehri, Nunes, Stahl, Willows, 2001). In the present study, a systematic phonics approach was directly compared with a nonsystematic phonics approach for kindergarten children. Both

  20. Assessment of Instructional Terms (AIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparaque, Idrenne; Fagan, William T.

    Designed to grade children's knowledge of commonly used instructional terms in a particular language arts program, the AIT consists of a verbal part and a situational part. Each part assesses the same commonly used instructional terms: word, begin, letter, name, makes sense, beginning sounds, print, trace, capital letter, rhyme, period, stands…

  1. Professional Cosmetology Practices. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcus, Sharron; Armstrong, Ivan J.

    This publication is designed to assist the instructor and students in understanding the latest concepts and techniques of the instructional phase of cosmetology programs. The instructional units are in five areas: (1) orientation, (2) professional practices: hair, (3) professional practices: skin and nails, (4) cosmetology science, and (5)…

  2. Academic Service Quality and Instructional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Keith; Westbrook, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between academic service quality and instructional quality in higher education. Found a high correlation between academic service and instructional quality, with academic service overlapping instructional quality in three dimensions: enthusiasm, organization, and rapport. (EV)

  3. Impact of mental operation instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Joël; Szeligo, Frank

    2008-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the impact of embedding mental action verbs within instructions. Experiment 1 examined the instructional effects of these verbs on response time to a visual stimulus. Significant response time differences resulted from instructing participants to engage in different mental actions. Using Multidimensional Scaling, Experiment 2 explored how people understand the relationships amongst mental action verbs, resulting in a single "level of processing" dimension. Experiment 3 was designed to further explore the relationship of these verbs to cognition and behaviour. Signal detection analysis was used to determine if participants were shifting their criterion depending on the level of processing suggested in the instruction. Results showed an effect of instruction on response time, but not on criterion, sensitivity, or accuracy. Response time effects were found that were consistent with differences in word characteristics, including meaning. PMID:19071988

  4. Principles for web-based instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanyshyn, Erich I.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents a set of principles for web-based instruction based on literature from instructional design, usability engineering, and human-computer interaction. A questionnaire based on usability and instructional design attempts to show that in order to improve web-based instruction, usability and instructional design need to be taken into consideration when constructing long distance courses via the Web. The results show that usability and instructional design are dependent upon eac...

  5. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these...... shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may...... shape-changing interfaces be used for, (b) which parts of the design space are not well understood, and (c) why studying user experience with shape-changing interfaces is important....

  6. Universal computer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dheere, RFBM

    1988-01-01

    Presents a survey of the latest developments in the field of the universal computer interface, resulting from a study of the world patent literature. Illustrating the state of the art today, the book ranges from basic interface structure, through parameters and common characteristics, to the most important industrial bus realizations. Recent technical enhancements are also included, with special emphasis devoted to the universal interface adapter circuit. Comprehensively indexed.

  7. Definition of interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Almaghout, Hala; Bicici, Ergun; Doherty, Stephen; Gaspari, Federico; Groves, Declan; Toral, Antonio; Vangenabith, Josef; Popovic, Maja; Piperidis, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to define the interfaces for the tools used in the MT development and evaluation scenarios as included in the QTLaunchPad (QTLP) infrastructure. Specification of the interfaces is important for the interaction and interoperability of the tools in the developed QTLP infrastructure. In addressing this aim, the report provides: 1. Descriptions of the common aspects of the tools and their standardized data formats; 2. Descriptions of the interfaces for the tools f...

  8. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  9. Energetics of molecular interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cahen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport of charge carriers through interfaces is crucial to all electronic and optoelectronic devices, in particular devices based on organic molecular films and, especially, monomolecular layers and single molecules. The energetics of molecular interfaces are exceedingly important, therefore, and must be understood in detail so that we can model and control their behavior. This knowledge, however, is not always sufficient, as the very physics of charge carrier transport through molecular interfaces remains, at times, unclear. This article provides an overview of the main issues being researched actively in the field of interfaces involving organic molecules, and points out areas where progress has been made and where basic questions remain unanswered.

  10. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  11. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  12. Tiered Instruction: An Effective Strategy to Differentiation of Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya BELER

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a tiered instructional design on classroom management, attitude and the learning level of students. The instructional program was prepared for an introductory science course for 3rd grade students. The case study research method was used. Observation form, teacher and student interview forms were used to collect data. The teaching program was planned using a tiered instruction method for nine subjects of the “Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow” curriculum theme. The teacher made a short presentation and then students were classified into ability groups. Finally, each group completed learning activity via individual and group tasks based on activities appropriate to their abilities. The results indicate that tiered instruction had positive effects on the learning outcomes of students. All groups completed the classroom activities easily, which increased their motivation. Students participated in activities voluntarily and enthusiastically.

  13. Prediction of stroke thrombolysis outcome using CT brain machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bentley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical decision-step in the emergency treatment of ischemic stroke is whether or not to administer thrombolysis — a treatment that can result in good recovery, or deterioration due to symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (SICH. Certain imaging features based upon early computerized tomography (CT, in combination with clinical variables, have been found to predict SICH, albeit with modest accuracy. In this proof-of-concept study, we determine whether machine learning of CT images can predict which patients receiving tPA will develop SICH as opposed to showing clinical improvement with no haemorrhage. Clinical records and CT brains of 116 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis were collected retrospectively (including 16 who developed SICH. The sample was split into training (n = 106 and test sets (n = 10, repeatedly for 1760 different combinations. CT brain images acted as inputs into a support vector machine (SVM, along with clinical severity. Performance of the SVM was compared with established prognostication tools (SEDAN and HAT scores; original, or after adaptation to our cohort. Predictive performance, assessed as area under receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC, of the SVM (0.744 compared favourably with that of prognostic scores (original and adapted versions: 0.626–0.720; p < 0.01. The SVM also identified 9 out of 16 SICHs, as opposed to 1–5 using prognostic scores, assuming a 10% SICH frequency (p < 0.001. In summary, machine learning methods applied to acute stroke CT images offer automation, and potentially improved performance, for prediction of SICH following thrombolysis. Larger-scale cohorts, and incorporation of advanced imaging, should be tested with such methods.

  14. Interface or Interlace?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Wamberg, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Departing from an analysis of the computer's indeterminate location between medium and machine, this paper problematises the idea of a clear-cut interface in complex computing, especially Augmented Reality. The idea and pratice of the interface is derived from the medium as a representational...... art works, especially Phunsombatlert's Path of Illusion, Dobson's Blendie, the Canadian collective Whisper and Rinaldo's Augmented Fish Reality....

  15. Icinga Monitoring System Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Neculae, Alina Georgiana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a web interface that would be used by the Icinga monitoring system to manage the CMS online cluster, in the experimental site. The interface would allow users to visualize the information in a compressed and intuitive way, as well as modify the information of each individual object and edit the relationships between classes.

  16. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  17. COLLEGE-LEVEL INSTRUCTION: DERIVED RELATIONS AND PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Fienup, Daniel M; Hamelin, Jeffery; Reyes-Giordano, Kimberly; Falcomata, Terry S

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the effectiveness of programmed instruction that integrates derived relations to teach college-level academic material. This method has been demonstrated to be effective and economical in the teaching of complex mathematics and biology concepts. Although this approach may have potential applications with other domains of college learning, more studies are needed to evaluate important technological variables. Studies that employ programmed instruction are discu...

  18. Motivational Measure of the Instruction Compared: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory vs Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

    2012-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

  19. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  20. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States) and Insolves LLC

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  1. Zoology by Self-Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger

    1976-01-01

    A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)

  2. Articulation of Medium of Instruction Politics in the Malaysian Chinese Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Moses; Khan, Mahmud Hasan; Ng, Lee Luan; Cheang, Kin Wai

    2014-01-01

    In postcolonial multilingual societies, matters of education are deeply rooted in the discourse of ethnicity. In Malaysia, the interface between ethnicity and education is reflected in recent debates on the choice of medium of instruction (MOI). In 2002, the Malaysian government introduced English as MOI by replacing Malay, the national language,…

  3. The Function of Gesture in Lexically Focused L2 Instructional Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotrova, Tetyana; Lantolf, James P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediational function of the gesture-speech interface in the instructional conversation that emerged as teachers attempted to explain the meaning of English words to their students in two EFL classrooms in the Ukraine. Its analytical framework is provided by Vygotsky's sociocultural…

  4. Determining Value in Higher Education: The Future of Instructional Technology in a Wal-Mart Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Wilfred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses value and the economy and examines the changing definition of educational value regarding higher education. Trends in instructional technology resulting from changes in expected educational value are described, including resource sharing, specialization, market expansion, privatization, easier human-machine interfaces, feedback systems,…

  5. Can Multimedia Instruction Meet Our Expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta L.; Smith, Stanley G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of multimedia instruction, including differences in goals from those of computer-assisted instruction; guidelines for the successful use of interactive multimedia instruction; the use of multimedia lessons in an introductory chemistry course; applications of multimedia instruction for indexing, hypermedia, simulations,…

  6. Optimal Structures for Multimedia Instruction. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; And Others

    This 2-year study, which took a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of discovering principles for designing effective multimedia instruction, focused on the effects on instructional effectiveness of the discourse structure of instructional materials and the coordination of multiple instructional media. The task domain was a logic box said to…

  7. Instructional Leadership for Quality Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Dumitrascu

    2008-01-01

    According to this study, through leadership training, school principals learn about highquality instruction and about actions that they can take to motivate and support their teachers. Principals then organize professional learning for their teachers and otherwise help teachers improve their classroom practices. With improved instruction, the theory maintains, student achievement will also improve.The study objective of learning for district and school administrators is guided by a theory of ...

  8. The Many Hats of an Instructional Designer: The Development of an Instructional Card Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William; Betrus, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties in defining instructional technology, suggests core competencies, proposes five instructional designer archetypes, and describes the development of an instructional card game designed for graduate students in instructional design to expose them to major responsibilities of an instructional designer and give them insight…

  9. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  10. The computer graphics interface

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrugge Chauveau, Karla; Niles Reed, Theodore; Shepherd, B

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Graphics Interface provides a concise discussion of computer graphics interface (CGI) standards. The title is comprised of seven chapters that cover the concepts of the CGI standard. Figures and examples are also included. The first chapter provides a general overview of CGI; this chapter covers graphics standards, functional specifications, and syntactic interfaces. Next, the book discusses the basic concepts of CGI, such as inquiry, profiles, and registration. The third chapter covers the CGI concepts and functions, while the fourth chapter deals with the concept of graphic obje

  11. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  12. The interface effect

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces are back, or perhaps they never left. The familiar Socratic conceit from the Phaedrus, of communication as the process of writing directly on the soul of the other, has returned to center stage in today's discussions of culture and media. Indeed Western thought has long construed media as a grand choice between two kinds of interfaces. Following the optimistic path, media seamlessly interface self and other in a transparent and immediate connection. But, following the pessimistic path, media are the obstacles to direct communion, disintegrating self and other into misunderstanding

  13. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP reading lessons. This study sought to answer the question: What elements of explicit instruction or instructional moves are included in the five most...

  14. Seeking instructional specificity: An example from analogical instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-12-01

    Broad instructional methods like "interactive engagement" have been shown to be effective, but such general characterization provides little guidance on the details of how to structure instructional materials. In this study, we seek instructional specificity by comparing two ways of using an analogy to learn a target physical principle: (i) applying the analogy to the target physical domain on a case-by-case basis and (ii) using the analogy to create a general rule in the target physical domain. In the discussion sections of a large, introductory physics course (N =2 3 1 ), students who sought a general rule were better able to discover and apply a correct physics principle than students who analyzed the examples case by case. The difference persisted at a reduced level after subsequent direct instruction. We argue that students who performed case-by-case analyses were more likely to focus on idiosyncratic problem-specific features rather than the deep structural features. This study provides an example of investigations into how the specific structure of instructional materials can be consequential for what is learned.

  15. The ATLAS metadata interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMI was chosen as the ATLAS dataset selection interface in July 2006. It is the main interface for searching for ATLAS data using physics metadata criteria. AMI has been implemented as a generic database management framework which allows parallel searching over many catalogues, which may have differing schema. The main features of the web interface will be described; in particular the powerful graphic query builder. The use of XML/XLST technology ensures that all commands can be used either on the web or from a command line interface via a web service. We also describe the overall architecture of ATLAS metadata and the different actors and granularity involved, and the place of AMI within this architecture. We discuss the problems involved in the correlation of metadata of differing granularity, and propose a solution for information mediation

  16. Interface Anywhere Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To illustrate the viability of this technology, a prototype Natural User Interface (NUI) was developed as a proof-of-concept for system control.  Gesture and...

  17. Electrons at helium interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Leiderer, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Two-dimensional layers of charges trapped at the boundaries between the various helium phases strongly interact with these interfaces at high electric fields. The coupling, which leads to an electrohydrodynamic instability, provides new methods for studying helium properties.

  18. Scalable coherent interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs

  19. Silent Speech Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Denby, B; Schultz, T.; Honda, K.; Hueber, T.; Gilbert, J.M.; Brumberg, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The possibility of speech processing in the absence of an intelligible acoustic signal has given rise to the idea of a `silent speech? interface, to be used as an aid for the speech handicapped, or as part of a communications system operating in silence-required or high-background-noise environments. The article first outlines the emergence of the silent speech interface from the fields of speech production, automatic speech processing, speech pathology research, and telec...

  20. Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Maybury, Mark T.

    1992-01-01

    On Monday, 15 July 1991, prior to the Ninth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-91) in Anaheim, California, over 50 scientists and engineers attended the AAAI-91 Workshop on Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces. The purpose of the workshop was threefold: (1) bring together researchers and practitioners to report on current advances in intelligent multimedia interface systems and their underlying theories, (2) foster scientific interchange among these individuals, and (3) evaluat...

  1. Serial interface controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  2. Papers from the Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Jane E.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2014-06-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), also known as brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), translate brain activity into new outputs that replace, restore, enhance, supplement or improve natural brain outputs. BCI research and development has grown rapidly for the past two decades. It is beginning to provide useful communication and control capacities to people with severe neuromuscular disabilities; and it is expanding into new areas such as neurorehabilitation that may greatly increase its clinical impact. At the same time, significant challenges remain, particularly in regard to translating laboratory advances into clinical use. The papers in this special section report some of the work presented at the Fifth International BCI Meeting held on 3-7 June 2013 at the Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, California, USA. Like its predecessors over the past 15 years, this meeting was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and a variety of other governmental and private sponsors [1]. This fifth meeting was organized and managed by a program committee of BCI researchers from throughout the world [2]. It retained the distinctive retreat-style format developed by the Wadsworth Center researchers who organized and managed the first four meetings. The 301 attendees came from 165 research groups in 29 countries; 37% were students or postdoctoral fellows. Of more than 200 extended abstracts submitted for peer review, 25 were selected for oral presentation [3], and 181 were presented as posters [4] and published in the open-access conference proceedings [5]. The meeting featured 19 highly interactive workshops [6] covering the broad spectrum of BCI research and development, as well as many demonstrations of BCI systems and associated technology. Like the first four meetings, this one included attendees and embraced topics from across the broad spectrum of disciplines essential to effective BCI research and development, including

  3. The Evolution of Instructional Design Principles for Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Christopher; Swigger, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses and compares the design and development of computer assisted instruction (CAI) and intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI). Topics discussed include instructional systems design (ISD), artificial intelligence, authoring languages, intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), qualitative models, and emerging issues in instructional…

  4. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  5. Computer-assisted instruction and diagnosis of radiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D; Butler, C; Hodder, R; Allman, R; Woods, J; Riordan, D

    1984-04-01

    Recent advances in computer technology, including high bit-density storage, digital imaging, and the ability to interface microprocessors with videodisk, create enormous opportunities in the field of medical education. This program, utilizing a personal computer, videodisk, BASIC language, a linked textfile system, and a triangulation approach to the interpretation of radiographs developed by Dr. W. L. Thompson, can enable the user to engage in a user-friendly, dynamic teaching program in radiology, applicable to various levels of expertise. Advantages include a relatively more compact and inexpensive system with rapid access and ease of revision which requires little instruction to the user. PMID:6376675

  6. Design and Evaluation of Cell Phone Pointing Interface for Robot Control

    OpenAIRE

    Saso Koceski; Natasa Koceska; Ivica Kocev

    2012-01-01

    In this work a pointing interface based on human gestures using a mobile phone accelerometer for interaction with robots is proposed. Through this interface the user can sketch stroke gestures on a computer screen using the cell phone accelerometer to make a selection and instruct a robot to perform a task. Selection, cancelation and movement, as well as some additional commands such as stop, pause and resume are supported. All the projected gestures are processed using known image analysis a...

  7. Environmental materials and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig

  8. User interface description languages for next generation user interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Shaer, Orit; Jacob, Robert; Green, Mark; LUYTEN, Kris

    2008-01-01

    In recent years HCI researchers have developed a broad range of new interfaces that diverge from the "window, icon, menu, pointing device" (WIMP) paradigm, employing a variety of novel interaction techniques and devices. Developers of these next generation user interfaces face challenges that are currently not addressed by state of the art user interface software tools. As part of the user interface software community’s effort to address these challenges, the concept of a User Interface Descr...

  9. Best practices in writing instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  10. High temperature interface superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  11. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  12. Brain computer interface for operating a robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Humaira; Balasubramaniam, Hari Chand; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2013-10-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a hardware/software based system that translates the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals produced by the brain activity to control computers and other external devices. In this paper, we will present a non-invasive BCI system that reads the EEG signals from a trained brain activity using a neuro-signal acquisition headset and translates it into computer readable form; to control the motion of a robot. The robot performs the actions that are instructed to it in real time. We have used the cognitive states like Push, Pull to control the motion of the robot. The sensitivity and specificity of the system is above 90 percent. Subjective results show a mixed trend of the difficulty level of the training activities. The quantitative EEG data analysis complements the subjective results. This technology may become very useful for the rehabilitation of disabled and elderly people.

  13. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory.

  14. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  15. CAMAC to GPIB interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CAMAC module developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory allows any device conforming to the GPIB standard to be connected to a CAMAC system. This module incorporates a microprocessor to control up to 14 GPIB-compatible instruments using a restricted set of CAMAC F-N-A commands. The marriage of a device-independent bus (IEEE Standard 488-1975) to a computer-independent bus (IEEE Standard 583-1975) provides a general method for interfacing a system of programmable instruments to any computer. This module is being used to interface a variety of interactive devices on a control console to a control computer

  16. UIL -User Interface Language

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, J; CERN. Geneva

    1990-01-01

    Some widget examples, widget categories, the push button widget, menus, the FORM widget, using UIL for an application program, the MOTIF Resource Manager (MRM), execution thread of an application using UIL and MRM, opening hierarchies, binding UIL names to application addresses, fetching widget hierarchies and managing them, changing widget resources using UIL and MRM, fetching literal values from the UID file. Introduction to the User Interface Language, defining a user interface, advantages of using UIL, accessing UID files from the application, UIL Syntax, the UIL module structure, defining a widget instance hierarchy, declaration of literals colors, icons, fonts

  17. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed

  18. Distributed User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gallud, Jose A; Penichet, Victor M R

    2011-01-01

    The recent advances in display technologies and mobile devices is having an important effect on the way users interact with all kinds of devices (computers, mobile devices, laptops, tablets, and so on). These are opening up new possibilities for interaction, including the distribution of the UI (User Interface) amongst different devices, and implies that the UI can be split and composed, moved, copied or cloned among devices running the same or different operating systems. These new ways of manipulating the UI are considered under the emerging topic of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs). DUIs

  19. Unstable nonlocal interface dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Matteo; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Castro, Mario

    2009-06-26

    Nonlocal effects occur in many nonequilibrium interfaces, due to diverse physical mechanisms like diffusive, ballistic, or anomalous transport, with examples from flame fronts to thin films. While dimensional analysis describes stable nonlocal interfaces, we show the morphologically unstable condition to be nontrivial. This is the case for a family of stochastic equations of experimental relevance, paradigmatically including the Michelson-Sivashinsky system. For a whole parameter range, the asymptotic dynamics is scale invariant with dimension-independent exponents reflecting a hidden Galilean symmetry. The usual Kardar-Parisi-Zhang nonlinearity, albeit irrelevant in that parameter range, plays a key role in this behavior. PMID:19659099

  20. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gonzalez-Vargas

    Full Text Available Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI cannot easily accommodate the system's complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources. In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate, decoding (one signal to recognize, and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair, or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces in order to improve the usability of existing low

  1. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  2. Three Logics of Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines conceptions of instructional leadership in the institutional environment. We know that principals' practices affect student learning and that principals are influenced by ideas in the broader environment. This article examines and defines the multiple conceptions of what it means for principals to be instructional…

  3. Dearborn: Modern Standard Arabic Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Week, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a roundup of the Arabic language instruction offered in the Dearborn, Michigan, school district. Only one of the district's 22 elementary schools--Becker--offers Arabic. Pupils receive at least two 40 minute periods of Arabic a week. The school gave up a two-way immersion program, in which students were taught half their…

  4. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  5. The Role of Formal Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at second language acquisition in a classroom setting. It considers whether formal instruction makes a difference to SLA. This is an important issue, because it address the question of the role played by environmental factors in SLA. It is also an important educational issue, as language pedagogy has traditionally operated on the assumption that grammar can be taught.

  6. Attrition Cost Model Instruction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This instruction manual explains in detail how to use the Attrition Cost Model program, which estimates the cost of student attrition for a state's higher education system. Programmed with SAS, this model allows users to instantly calculate the cost of attrition and the cumulative attrition rate that is based on the most recent retention and…

  7. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CATALOG. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    COURSES OF INSTRUCTION, WORKBOOKS, TESTBOOKS, AND EXAMINATIONS ARE LISTED FOR AUTO MECHANICS, CABINET MAKING, CARPENTRY, DRYWALL CONSTRUCTION, RADIO SERVICES, AND 30 OTHER AREAS OF APPRENTICE TRAINING. A SYLLABUS FOR TRAINING PART-TIME TRADE AND TECHNICAL TEACHERS IS INCLUDED WITH TECHNICAL EDUCATION MATERIALS. PRICES ARE LISTED FOR ALL MATERIALS.…

  8. Examining Differentiated Instruction: Teachers Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Today's classrooms are more diverse than ever. In fact, research shows that there will be a steady increase in Hispanic, Asian Americans, and African American students in the coming years. Therefore, differentiated instruction may be the panacea that educators are searching for. This paper commences with an introduction and then segways into a…

  9. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  10. Employing Universal Design for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Universal design for instruction (UDI) is an approach to course design that seeks to create an appropriate learning environment for all students, including those with disabilities. This approach also helps other students to learn the course material in ways most appropriate to their individual learning needs. When done well, this approach has…

  11. Succession Planning for Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Karen; Drewry, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Detailed succession planning helps libraries pass information from one employee to the next. This is crucial in preparing for hiring, turnover, retirements, training of graduate teaching assistants in academic libraries, and other common situations. The authors of this article discuss succession planning for instruction programs in academic…

  12. Safety instruction 51 (IS51)

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that Safety Instruction No. 51 (IS51) entitled 'Operational and Information Procedures in Response to Accidents' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/502036/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC unit secretariat, e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  13. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  14. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  15. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  16. Assistant for instructional development (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P. van; Veldhuis, G.J.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to periodical job rotation within the military, instructional developers are not always experts in their field and are consequently unaware of the types of educational concepts that are available to teach with (Jans & Frazer-Jans, 2004). These observations have led to the construct

  17. Computer-Generated Discharge Instruction Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Okstein, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Patients receiving medical care should be given comprehensive information about their illness, medications, and need for followup. Verbal instructions have many limitations in conveying medical information. In our busy pediatric clinic neither preprinted instruction forms nor instruction check-off sheets could convey large amounts of personalized information for each patient visit. We also noted a great deal of variability in the content and completeness of traditional discharge instructions ...

  18. Effective instruction for English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  19. Artificial Instruction. A Method for Relating Learning Theory to Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan

    Prior research on learning has been linked to instruction by the derivation of general principles of instructional design from learning theories. However, such design principles are often difficult to apply to particular instructional issues. A new method for relating research on learning to instructional design is proposed: Different ways of…

  20. The Roles of Teacher Efficacy in Instructional Innovation: Its Predictive Relations to Constructivist and Didactic Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Youyan; Tan, Gim Hoon; Liau, Albert Kienfie; Lau, Shun; Chua, Bee Leng

    2013-01-01

    Constructivist instruction has been implemented in the current instructional innovation in Singapore. Large scale survey study was conducted to examine the roles of teacher efficacy in implementing the innovative constructivist instruction. The results showed that the positive correlation between teacher efficacy and constructivist instruction was…

  1. Designing groundwater visualization interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Médard De Chardon, Cyrille

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater systems are inherently complex owing to their three-dimensional nature. The impacts of land use activities on groundwater quality and quantity, groundwater pumping, and the interaction of groundwater with surface waters are fundamental hydrogeologic concepts that require effective communication strategies. Using interactive visual interfaces may improve upon current educational techniques and encourage increased public participation in groundwater protection, conservation, and man...

  2. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  3. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  4. Semantic form as interface

    OpenAIRE

    Bierwisch, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    The term interface had a remarkable career over the past several decades, motivated largely by its use in computer science. Although the concept of a "surface common to two areas" (Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 1980) is intuitively clear enough, the range of its application is not very sharp and well defined, a "common surface" is open to a wide range of interpretations.

  5. A Monthly Water-Balance Model Driven By a Graphical User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Markstrom, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a monthly water-balance model driven by a graphical user interface, referred to as the Thornthwaite monthly water-balance program. Computations of monthly water-balance components of the hydrologic cycle are made for a specified location. The program can be used as a research tool, an assessment tool, and a tool for classroom instruction.

  6. A Comparison of Parallelism in Interface Designs for Computer-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Rik; Yu, Tao; Spenkelink, Gerd; Vos, Hans

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an experiment that was carried out with a prototype, designed in conformity with the concept of parallelism and the Parallel Instruction theory (the PI theory). We designed this prototype with five different interfaces, and ran an empirical study in which 18 participants completed an abstract task. The five basic designs…

  7. Students and Instructors Opinions about Piano Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the opinions of the students and piano instructors in the Turkish Education Faculties' Fine Arts Instruction Departments' music instruction programs about piano instruction. The study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the piano instructors and the students who took lessons from them. The study results…

  8. Distributed Instructional Leadership in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Richard; Clifford, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the idea of distributed instructional leadership as a way to understand instructional leadership practice in comprehensive high schools. Our argument is that distributed leadership analyses allow researchers to uncover and explain how instructional improvement in high schools occurs through the efforts of multiple individuals…

  9. 16 CFR 1211.14 - Instruction manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instruction manual. 1211.14 Section 1211.14... STANDARD FOR AUTOMATIC RESIDENTIAL GARAGE DOOR OPERATORS The Standard § 1211.14 Instruction manual. (a) General. (1) A residential garage door operator shall be provided with an instruction manual....

  10. 33 CFR 157.49 - Instruction manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instruction manual. 157.49... Vessel Operation § 157.49 Instruction manual. The master of a tank vessel shall ensure that the instruction manual under § 157.23 is available and used when the cargo or ballast systems are operated....

  11. Form-Focused Instruction: Isolated or Integrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina; Lightbown, Patsy M.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing consensus that form-focused instruction helps learners in communicative or content-based instruction to learn features of the target language that they may not acquire without guidance. The subject of this article is the role of instruction that is provided in separate (isolated) activities or within the context of…

  12. Timeless Rules for Good Instruction. Training Classics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Ron; Armstrong, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes a 1964 book on programmed instruction, "Good Frames and Bad" by Susan Meyer Markle, which presents still-valid principles for instructional programmers: subject matter sophistication; communication, behavior analysis, and diagnostic skills; and commonsense rules for writing good instructional frames (today's computer screens). (SK)

  13. Job Instruction: Its Premisses and Its Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jan A.; Versloot, Bert

    1999-01-01

    The dominant approach to on-the-job training is the job instruction model (experienced colleague as instructor). The model involves task analysis and direct instruction. Task analysis is useful if restricted to elements that benefit from standardization. Direct instruction is effective only if embedded in continuous work improvement and is…

  14. Applying Software Design Methodology to Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J. Philip

    2004-01-01

    The premise of this paper is that computer science has much to offer the endeavor of instructional improvement. Software design processes employed in computer science for developing software can be used for planning instruction and should improve instruction in much the same manner that design processes appear to have improved software. Techniques…

  15. Building Conceptual Understanding through Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee; Mraz, Maryann; Blair, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. This article presents several instructional procedures using research-based vocabulary strategies and explains how to design and adapt those strategies in order to reach desired learning outcomes. Emphasis is placed on research-based principles that…

  16. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  17. Individualizing Student Instruction Precisely: Effects of Child by Instruction Interactions on First Graders’ Literacy Development

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Piasta, Shayne B.; Fishman, Barry; Glasney, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher; Crowe, Elizabeth; Underwood, Phyllis; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings demonstrate that the most effective reading instruction may vary with children’s language and literacy skills. These child X instruction interactions imply that individualizing instruction would be a potent strategy for improving students’ literacy. A cluster-randomized control field trial, conducted in 10 high-moderate poverty schools, examined effects of individualizing literacy instruction. The instruction each first grader received (n=461 in 47 classrooms, mean age = 6.7 y...

  18. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  19. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    , Ojemann J G, Moran D W, Wolpaw J R and Leuthardt E C 2008 Two-dimensional movement control using electrocorticographic signals in humans J. Neural Eng. 5 75 [8] Serruya M D, Hatsopoulos N G, Paninski L, Fellows M R and Donoghue J P 2002 Brain-machine interface: instant neural control of a movement signal Nature 416 141-2 [9] Hochberg L R, Serruya M D, Friehs G M, Mukand J A, Saleh M, Caplan A H, Branner A, Chen D, Penn R D and Donoghue J P 2006 Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia Nature 442 164-71 [10] Collinger J L et al 2013 High-performance neuroprosthetic control by an individual with tetraplegia Lancet 381 557-64 [11] Leuthardt E C, Schalk G, Wolpaw J R, Ojemann J G and Moran D W 2004 A brain-computer interface using electrocorticographic signals in humans J. Neural Eng. 1 63 [12] Maynard E M, Nordhausen C T and Normann R A 1997 The Utah intracortical electrode array: a recording structure for potential brain-computer interfaces Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 102 228-39 1 www.neuromodulation.com/8-june-2013 2 http://neuro.embs.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/05/SymposiumAdvert1.pdf 3 www.gsk.com/explore-gsk/how-we-do-r-and-d/bioelectronics.html 4 www.whitehouse.gov/share/brain-initiative

  20. A digital interface for preset time or voltage measurements using an ionising radiation dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digital interface circuit has been built to terminate charge collection measurements made with an ionising radiation dosemeter. A compact portable measurement system has been assembled, comprising a digital voltmeter, a period timer and the digital interface module. Digital signals from both the voltmeter and the timer are compared with separate preset limits, and the dosemeter measurement is terminated when one of these limits is reached. The operation of the dosemeter is outlined, and the interface circuit is described in detail. Modifications to the voltmeter and timer are described, and comprehensive users' instructions are given

  1. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  2. Easy-to-use interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  3. Easy-to-use interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future

  4. Data communications for a collective operation in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, Daniel A.

    2015-11-19

    Algorithm selection for data communications in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI composed of data communications endpoints, each endpoint including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, endpoints coupled for data communications through the PAMI, including associating in the PAMI data communications algorithms and bit masks; receiving in an origin endpoint of the PAMI a collective instruction, the instruction specifying transmission of a data communications message from the origin endpoint to a target endpoint; constructing a bit mask for the received collective instruction; selecting, from among the associated algorithms and bit masks, a data communications algorithm in dependence upon the constructed bit mask; and executing the collective instruction, transmitting, according to the selected data communications algorithm from the origin endpoint to the target endpoint, the data communications message.

  5. Papers from the Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Jane E.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2014-06-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), also known as brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), translate brain activity into new outputs that replace, restore, enhance, supplement or improve natural brain outputs. BCI research and development has grown rapidly for the past two decades. It is beginning to provide useful communication and control capacities to people with severe neuromuscular disabilities; and it is expanding into new areas such as neurorehabilitation that may greatly increase its clinical impact. At the same time, significant challenges remain, particularly in regard to translating laboratory advances into clinical use. The papers in this special section report some of the work presented at the Fifth International BCI Meeting held on 3-7 June 2013 at the Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, California, USA. Like its predecessors over the past 15 years, this meeting was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and a variety of other governmental and private sponsors [1]. This fifth meeting was organized and managed by a program committee of BCI researchers from throughout the world [2]. It retained the distinctive retreat-style format developed by the Wadsworth Center researchers who organized and managed the first four meetings. The 301 attendees came from 165 research groups in 29 countries; 37% were students or postdoctoral fellows. Of more than 200 extended abstracts submitted for peer review, 25 were selected for oral presentation [3], and 181 were presented as posters [4] and published in the open-access conference proceedings [5]. The meeting featured 19 highly interactive workshops [6] covering the broad spectrum of BCI research and development, as well as many demonstrations of BCI systems and associated technology. Like the first four meetings, this one included attendees and embraced topics from across the broad spectrum of disciplines essential to effective BCI research and development, including

  6. Instructional skills evaluation in nuclear industry training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information to nuclear power plant training managers and their staffs concerning the job performance requirements of instructional personnel to implement prformance-based training programs (also referred to as the Systems Approach Training). The information presented in this report is a compilation of information and lessons learned in the nuclear power industry and in other industries using performance-based training programs. The job performance requirements in this report are presented as instructional skills objectives. The process used to develop the instructional skills objectives is described. Each objective includes an Instructional Skills Statement describing the behavior that is expected and an Instructional Skills Standard describing the skills/knowledge that the individual should possess in order to have achieved mastery. The instructional skills objectives are organized according to the essential elements of the Systems Approach to Training and are cross-referenced to three categories of instructional personnel: developers of instruction, instructors, and instructional managers/supervisors. Use of the instructional skills objectives is demonstrated for reviewing instructional staff training and qualification programs, developing criterion-tests, and reviewing the performance and work products of individual staff members. 22 refs

  7. Politics at the interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2010-01-01

    At the birth of participatory design, there was a strong political consciousness surrounding the design of new technology, the design process in particular, establishing a rich set of methods and tools for user-centered design. Today, the term design has extended its scope of concern beyond...... the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...

  8. Urban Media and Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Joachim; Damsholt, Tine

    2013-01-01

    For ten weeks in 2013, nineteen eclectic students from Anthropology, Ethnology and Design formed cross-disciplinary teams to research existing practices and possible futures in Blågården. Social media is radically changing how urban space is explored, experienced and communicated. For example......, Wonderful Copenhagen and Socialsquare jointly raise these questions: What is the role of social media as interface between the area around Blågårds Plads, its local communities and (potential) visitors, considering perspectives of security, control and planning? What are the challenges and opportunities...... pertaining to local knowledge and social media? Our students' projects are displayed for your enjoyment and exploration! (http://cargocollective.com/umai/About-Urban-Media-and-Interfaces) Tine Damsholt, Karen Waltorp & Joachim Halse – Faculties of Social Sciences, Humanities and Design...

  9. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input and...... have a lot of flexibility in choosing input variables and in assigning values of parameters....

  10. Computer Interfaced Gauss Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Steven; Lai, Alan; Dao, Christine; Hung Vu, Hung

    2013-01-01

    Goal: Gauss Meter Model X01.  Gauss meter model X01 is the hand-held device designed to meet the needs of magnetic industry to measure magnetic fields accurately, provided high-end functionality and performance in an affordable laptop instrument. Magnet testing and sorting have never been easier. Additional features including calculating magnetic field intensity versus time and displaying magnetic field direction on a Graphical User Interface on Computer.  Introduction/Background:  Magnetic f...

  11. Practical Brain Computer Interfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Valbuena Varon, Diana Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that enables users to voluntary send messages or commands without movement. The classical goal of BCI research is to support communication and control for users with impaired communication due to illness or injury. Typical BCI applications are the operation of computer cursors, spelling programs or external devices, such as wheelchairs, robots and neural prostheses. The user sends modulated information to the BCI by engaging in mental...

  12. Standard interface file handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  13. SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Angel; Raines, Matthew; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have very limited diagnostic and no prognostic capabilities, while current smart sensor designs do not have the capability to communicate over Fieldbus networks. The aim is to interface smart sensors with PLCs so that health and status information, such as failure mode identification and measurement tolerance, can be communicated via an industrial Fieldbus such as ControlNet. The SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface (SIFI) is an embedded device that acts as a communication module in a networked smart sensor. The purpose is to enable a smart sensor to communicate health and status information to other devices, such as PLCs, via an industrial Fieldbus networking protocol. The SNE (Smart Network Element) is attached to a commercial off-the-shelf Any bus-S interface module through the SIFI. Numerous Anybus-S modules are available, each one designed to interface with a specific Fieldbus. Development of the SIFI focused on communications using the ControlNet protocol, but any of the Anybus-S modules can be used. The SIFI communicates with the Any-bus module via a data buffer and mailbox system on the Anybus module, and supplies power to the module. The Anybus module transmits and receives data on the Fieldbus using the proper protocol. The SIFI is intended to be connected to other existing SNE modules in order to monitor the health and status of a transducer. The SIFI can also monitor aspects of its own health using an onboard watchdog timer and voltage monitors. The SIFI also has the hardware to drive a touchscreen LCD (liquid crystal display) unit for manual configuration and status monitoring.

  14. Adaptive Brain Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Millán, José del R.

    2003-01-01

    Severely disabled people are largely excluded from the benefits information and communication technologies have brought to our industries, economies, appliances, and general quality of life. But what if that technology would allow them to communicate their wishes or control electronic devices directly through their thoughts alone? This is the goal and promise of the Adaptive Brain Interfaces (ABI) project, which aims to augment natural human capabilities by enabling people to interact with co...

  15. MAN – MACHINE INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bhuvaneswari; R.Hemachandran; Suman Kumar Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Agents trained by learning techniques provide a powerful approximation of state spaces in games that are too large for naive approaches. In the study Genetic Algorithms and Manual Interface was implemented and used to train agents for the board game LUDO. The state space of LUDO is generalized to a small set and encoded to suit the different techniques. The impact of variables and tactics applied in training are determined. Agents based on the techniques performed satisfactory aga...

  16. Standard interface file handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided

  17. Optical Neural Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Melissa R.; Cardin, Jessica A.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded optical actuators and indicators have changed the landscape of neuroscience, enabling targetable control and readout of specific components of intact neural circuits in behaving animals. Here, we review the development of optical neural interfaces, focusing on hardware designed for optical control of neural activity, integrated optical control and electrical readout, and optical readout of population and single-cell neural activity in freely moving mammals.

  18. Inclusive Design in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ZAMFIR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Much instruction starts with abstract representations for which learners have insufficient foundation [1]. The British Standard, BS 7000-6:2005 Guide to Managing Inclusive Design, provides a comprehensive framework that can help all private enterprises, public sector and not-for-profit organizations, build a consistent approach to inclusive design into organizational culture as well as processes [2]. While courses, technology, and student services are typically designed for the narrow range of characteristics of the average student, the practice of universal design in education (UDE considers people with a broad range of characteristics in the design of all educational products and environments [3]. This paper has been designed to provide an overview about the curriculum paradigm consisting in the fusion of the technology and the classroom instruction in economic higher education.

  19. Interface Microstructures in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, Francisca

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper constitutes a compilation as well as an interpretation of the present state of knowledge about the different microstructures developed in the interface areas of concrete, that is, the cement paste-aggregates, the cement paste-reinforcement, the cement paste-fiber, etc. The Chemical reactions taking place in interface areas, the development and morphology of such areas and their strength ^since interfaces are taken as the weakest points of concrete are the aspects dealt with in some detail in this work.

    El presente trabajo constituye un resumen y también una interpretación del estado actual del conocimiento respecto de las diferentes microestructuras que se desarrollan en las zonas interfaciales de los hormigones, es decir: pasta de cemento-áridos, pasta de cemento-armaduras, pasta de cemento-fibras, etc. Las reacciones químicas que tienen lugar en la zona interfacial, el desarrollo y morfología de dicha zona y su resistencia (las interfases se consideran como uno de los puntos débiles del hormigón son los aspectos que con cierto detalle se tratan en el trabajo.

  20. Assessing Electromyographic Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Armando Pires Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic apppliances are increasingly a part of our everyday lives. In particular, mobile devices, with their reduced dimensions with power rivaling desktop computers, have substantially augmented our communication abilities offering instant availability, anywhere, to everyone. These devices have become essential for human communication but also include a more comprehensive tool set to support productivity and leisure applications.However, the many applications commonly available are not adapted to people with special needs. Rather, most popular devices are targeted at teenagers or young adults with excellent eyesight and coordination. What is worse, most of the commonly used assistive control interfaces are not available in a mobile environment where user's position, accommodation and capacities can vary even widely.To try and address people with special needs new approaches and techniques are sorely needed. This paper presents a control interface to allow tetraplegic users to interact with electronic devices. Our method uses myographic information (Electromyography or EMG collected from residually controlled body areas. User evaluations validate electromyography as a daily wearable interface. In particular our results show that EMG can be used even in mobility contexts.

  1. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  2. Integrating computers into calculus instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Jon L.; Pierson, Brian E.

    1994-01-01

    Visualization is key in helping a student understand the fundamentals of Calculus. The new generation of computer literate students, raised in a video-based environment, will expect more than the traditional chalkboard methods in assisting them in this visualization. By integrating computers into the classroom and developing software to assist in mathematics instruction, we can enhance student comprehension of, and ability to apply, mathematics in solving real world problems of interest to th...

  3. An Approach to Interface Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which...... may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point......-to-point communication, but is applicable to synthesis of a multiple client/server environment. The interface description is based on a formalization of communication events....

  4. The instructional media: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, H B

    1975-01-01

    The advantages of using audiovisual instructional techniques in training programs for nurses were noted and administrative strategies for encouraging the effective use of educational technology were provided. Audiovisual instructional techniques can enhance classroom learning, create opportunity for individualized learning programs, and can serve as an effective tool for monitoring and supervising clinical training. In the classroom situation, audiovisual techniques should be incorporated as a basic instructional tool and not simply used to occasionally supplement traditional learning techniques. The use of these tools can free the teacher for more personalized teaching tasks. Educational technology permits instructors to develop individualized learning programs for their students. Students can progress at their own pace and students can learn to manage their own learning process. Audiovisual tools can be used to monitor student-patient interactions. Supervisors can monitor the work of a larger number of students with these devices. These devices also permit students to reexamine and to judge their own performance. Administrations should not view educational technology as a way to reduce costs. Costs will not decline and may, at least initially, increase. Administrators should purchase equipment to fit the needs of the faculty and the students instead of expecting the faculty to develop programs suited to particular types of equipment. The faculty should be provided with assistance to learn how to operate the new equipment. PMID:45869

  5. Vibrational spectroscopy at electrified interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wieckowski, Andrzej; Braunschweig, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Reviews the latest theory, techniques, and applications Surface vibrational spectroscopy techniques probe the structure and composition of interfaces at the molecular level. Their versatility, coupled with their non-destructive nature, enables in-situ measurements of operating devices and the monitoring of interface-controlled processes under reactive conditions. Vibrational Spectroscopy at Electrified Interfaces explores new and emerging applications of Raman, infrared, and non-linear optical spectroscopy for the study of charged interfaces. The book draws from hu

  6. Fencing network direct memory access data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Mamidala, Amith R.

    2015-07-07

    Fencing direct memory access (`DMA`) data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI including data communications endpoints, each endpoint including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the endpoints coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through DMA controllers operatively coupled to a deterministic data communications network through which the DMA controllers deliver data communications deterministically, including initiating execution through the PAMI of an ordered sequence of active DMA instructions for DMA data transfers between two endpoints, effecting deterministic DMA data transfers through a DMA controller and the deterministic data communications network; and executing through the PAMI, with no FENCE accounting for DMA data transfers, an active FENCE instruction, the FENCE instruction completing execution only after completion of all DMA instructions initiated prior to execution of the FENCE instruction for DMA data transfers between the two endpoints.

  7. Progress report (interface segment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 1. Presentations and status reports. T. Fukahori (JAEA) reported on the plans for the www interface layout. Discussions included which functions were needed for new RIPL-3 web pages. The results are summarized in next section. 2. Layout of the interfaces and retrieval tools and web. RIPL-3 home page will include some description about RIPL-3 and link to the Technical report in pdf-format. The web page for 'mass' segment contains same contents as RIPL-2 except the removal of the information about ground state deformation. The abundance data will be replaced by data from the new BNL wallet card (2005 version). The Q-value calculation tool will be also improved. The 'Nuclear Matter Density' will be renamed 'Nucleon Density Distribution'. 'Levels' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved from 'optical' segment and given the name 'deformation'. 'Resonances' segment will be same as before - may be replaced with the new Mughabghab tables. 'Optical' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved to 'optical' segment and given the name 'deformation'. The optical model calculation with ECIS and OPTMAN will be considered and double-folding calculation tool will possibly be provided. 'Densities' segment will be same as before, and the plotting programs will be checked. The 3-7 sets of combination of GC, BSFG, GSFM with/without enhancement factors will be given. 'Gamma' segment will be same as before, with addition of MLO and theoretical GDR calculation. 'Fission' segment will be same as before, and 'Exp.' will be renamed. New barrier evaluations will be added, for example, transition (2+) states. The fission spectrum calculation tool (codes and inputs) may be added. The fundamental format will be kept as before. For new items such as deformed 'nucleon density distribution', double-folding potential, evaluated fission barrier (extension into 3 or more) and fission

  8. Individualizing student instruction precisely: effects of Child x Instruction interactions on first graders' literacy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Piasta, Shayne B; Fishman, Barry; Glasney, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher; Crowe, Elizabeth; Underwood, Phyllis; Morrison, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings demonstrate that the most effective reading instruction may vary with children's language and literacy skills. These Child x Instruction interactions imply that individualizing instruction would be a potent strategy for improving students' literacy. A cluster-randomized control field trial, conducted in 10 high-moderate poverty schools, examined effects of individualizing literacy instruction. The instruction each first grader received (n = 461 in 47 classrooms, mean age = 6.7 years) during fall, winter, and spring was recorded. Comparing intervention-recommended amounts of instruction with observed amounts revealed that intervention teachers individualized instruction more precisely than did comparison teachers. Importantly, the more precisely the children received recommended amounts of instruction, the stronger was their literacy skill growth. Results provide strong evidence of Child x Instruction interaction effects on literacy outcomes. PMID:19236394

  9. Spherical model of growing interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Henkel, Malte; Durang, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Building on an analogy between the ageing behaviour of magnetic systems and growing interfaces, the Arcetri model, a new exactly solvable model for growing interfaces is introduced, which shares many properties with the kinetic spherical model. The long-time behaviour of the interface width and of the two-time correlators and responses is analysed. For all dimensions $d\

  10. False recognition of instruction-set lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Evan T; Chubala, Chrissy M; Spear, Jackie; Jamieson, Randall K; Hockley, William E; Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-01-01

    False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition. PMID:25438094

  11. Music Perception of Cochlear Implant Recipients with Implications for Music Instruction: A Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Feilin; Gfeller, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This review of literature presents a systematic analysis of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant recipients regarding music perception. Specifically, it a) analyzes individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, timbre, and pitch) as they interface with the technical characteristics of cochlear implants and the perceptual abilities of cochlear implant recipients; and b) describes accommodations for music instruction that support successful participation of children with cochlea...

  12. REAL- ESTATE INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to implement the most efficient user interface (UI) for Real-estate in Finland for client companies due to their desire of having this feature in their system. The prototype was supposed to show the clients how the feature works to get needed data for real-estate properties in Finland in their map system. National Land Survey MML of Finland was chosen for tracking the real-estate properties data in the system. The real-estate prototype was developed by Micros...

  13. User interface concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhed, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Three possible goals for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) are: (1) a computational fluid dynamics (as opposed to aerodynamics) algorithm development tool; (2) a specialized research laboratory facility for nearly intractable aerodynamics problems that industry encounters; and (3) a facility for industry to use in its normal aerodynamics design work that requires high computing rates. The central system issue for industry use of such a computer is the quality of the user interface as implemented in some kind of a front end to the vector processor.

  14. Sistema Brain Computer Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Barraza, Juan Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo de final de grado se realizará una aplicación de un sistema Brain Computer Interface en el cual, a partir del dipositivo Mind Wave de la compañía Neurosky, se pretenderá controlar el prototipo de una mano humana. Esta será controlada a partir de las ondas cerebrales medidas por el sensor que el dispositivo dispone. A continuación, la información captada por nuestro medidor de señales de electroencefalográficas será enviada por radiofrecuencia a un stick USB que viene incorpora...

  15. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this...... paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  16. MAN – MACHINE INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Bhuvaneswari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Agents trained by learning techniques provide a powerful approximation of state spaces in games that aretoo large for naive approaches. In the study Genetic Algorithms and Manual Interface was implementedand used to train agents for the board game LUDO. The state space of LUDO is generalized to a small setand encoded to suit the different techniques. The impact of variables and tactics applied in training aredetermined. Agents based on the techniques performed satisfactory against a baseline finite agent, and aGenetic Algorithm based agent performed satisfactory against competitors from the course. Better statespace representations will improve the success of learning based agents.

  17. Interfacing with the Night

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Alex; Parkinson, Adam

    2014-01-01

    In  this  paper,  the  authors  consider  the  interfaces  between academia and dance music. Dance music and club culture are, we argue, important to computer music and the live performance of electronic music, but there are many different difficulties encountered when trying to present electronic dance music within academic contexts. The authors draw upon their experiences as promoters, performers, researchers and audience members to discuss these difficulties and how and why we might negoti...

  18. Man - Machine Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Bhuvaneswari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agents trained by learning techniques provide a powerful approximation of state spaces in games that are too large for naive approaches. In the study Genetic Algorithms and Manual Interface was implemented and used to train agents for the board game LUDO. The state space of LUDO is generalized to a small set and encoded to suit the different techniques. The impact of variables and tactics applied in training are determined. Agents based on the techniques performed satisfactory against a baseline finite agent, and a Genetic Algorithm based agent performed satisfactory against competitors from the course. Better state space representations will improve the success of learning based agents.

  19. Bubble and drop interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miller

    2011-01-01

    The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec

  20. Library Instruction and Academic Success: A Mixed-Methods Assessment of a Library Instruction Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bowles-Terry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – This study examines the connection between student academic success and information literacy instruction. Locally, it allowed librarians to ascertain the institution’s saturation rate for information literacy instruction and identify academic programs not utilizing library instruction services. In a broader application, it provides an argument for a tiered program of information literacy instruction and offers student perspectives on improving a library instruction program.Methods – Focus groups with 15 graduating seniors, all of whom had attended at least one library instruction session, discussed student experiences and preferences regarding library instruction. An analysis of 4,489 academic transcripts of graduating seniors identified differences in grade point average (GPA between students with different levels of library instruction.Results – Students value library instruction for orientation purposes as beginning students, and specialized, discipline-specific library instruction in upper-level courses. There is a statistically significant difference in GPA between graduating seniors who had library instruction in upper-level courses (defined in this study as post-freshman-level and those who did not.Conclusions – Library instruction seems to make the most difference to student success when it is repeated at different levels in the university curriculum, especially when it is offered in upper-level courses. Instruction librarians should differentiate between lower-division and upper-division learning objectives for students in order to create a more cohesive and non-repetitive information literacy curriculum.

  1. Motivational Measure Of The Instruction Compared: 
Instruction Based On The Arcs Motivation Theory 
V.S. Traditional Instruction In Blended Courses

    OpenAIRE

    COLAKOGLU, Ozgur M.; Omur AKDEMIR

    2010-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different experiences for learners in terms of motivation than instruction developed following the standard instructional design procedure for blended courses. Thi...

  2. Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

  3. Laparoscopic simulation interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2006-04-04

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  4. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism in that...... they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some...

  5. THE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODEL FOR MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Emine; UYANGÖR, Sevinç MERT

    2011-01-01

    In this study, to present an instructional model by considering the existing models of instructional design (Addie, ARCS Motivation, Dick and Carey, ASSURE, Seels and Glasgow, Smith and Ragan, Universal, with the elaboration theory of Gerlach and Ely design models) with the nature of mathematics education and to reveal analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation, and to revise levels with lower levels of the instructional design model were aimed. In this study, the qualitative c...

  6. Detection of Junk Instructions in Computer Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The techniques employed by viruses to avoid detection by antivirus scanners are becoming increasingly advanced. One technique commonly used by viruses to evade detection is polymorphism. The level of polymorphism in a virus indicates its ability to create different forms of itself. The use of junk instructions is a common technique to increase the level of polymorphism in a virus. Junk instructions are machine code instructions with no other function than to alter the appearance of a virus. J...

  7. Fluency Instruction in Contemporary Core Reading Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Brady E.

    2011-01-01

    Core reading programs (CRPs) provide the curriculum and guide reading instruction for many classroom teachers. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of reading fluency instruction in current (2008-2011 copyright) grade 2 and 3 top-selling core reading program lessons to answer the following two research questions: (1) How do core reading programs recommend that fluency skills be taught? (2) How do reading fluency instructional practices in core programs compare to eviden...

  8. Instructions

    OpenAIRE

    Production, Co-Action Publishing

    2005-01-01

    Scope and purpose. The International Journal of Circumpolar Health is published by the International Union for Circumpolar Health, the Nordic Society of Arctic Medicine, the University of Oulu, the University of Alaska, Anchorage, and the University of Manitoba. The journal follows the tradition initiated by its predecessor, Arctic Medical Research. The journal specializes in Arctic and Antarctic health issues. It provides a forum for many disciplines, including the biomedical sciences, socia...

  9. Development of MATLAB-Based Digital Signal Processing Teaching Module with Graphical User Interface Environment for Nigerian University

    OpenAIRE

    Oyetunji Samson Ade'; Daniel Ale

    2013-01-01

    The development of a teaching aid module for digital Signal processing (DSP) in Nigeria Universities was undertaken to address the problem associated with non-availability instructional module. This paper annexes the potential of Peripheral Interface Controllers (PICs) with MATLAB resources to develop a PIC-based system with graphic user interface environment suitable for data acquisition and signal processing. The module accepts data from three different sources: real time acquisition, pre-r...

  10. When innovative instructional designs are too innovative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas; Wahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of what happens when innovation of an instructional design is too innovative. The study investigates an implementation process of a new instructional design in nursing education. The new instructional design should be a step away for a functionalist approach to learning...... and it was developed to include, motivate and encourage the students to engage in more situated learning processes. The course is infamous for low attendance and for demotivating the students. The new instructional design utilized teacher-produced video-clips to qualify the students learning in the...

  11. The Multimodal Possibilities of Online Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi-modal analy......The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi...

  12. Effects of Instruction and Stage-Fright on Intelligence Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Joost; Oostdam, Ron

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, it was tried to unravel the influence of various types of instruction on test anxiety levels and, in turn, its influence on intelligence test performance. Three types of instruction were compared: a stressful, achievement-orientated instruction; a reassuring, task-orientated instruction; and an ambiguous instruction.…

  13. Participatory instructional redesign by students and teachers in secondary education: effects on perceptions of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2011). Participatory instructional redesign by students and teachers in secondary education: effects on perceptions of instruction. Instructional Science, 39(5), 737–762.

  14. Do Instructional Practices Contribute to Inequality in Achievement?: The Case of Mathematics Instruction in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodovski, Katerina; Farkas, George

    2007-01-01

    We use multilevel modeling of ECLS-K data (a nationally representative sample of American kindergartners) to describe the process and content of kindergarten mathematics instruction, as well as the associations of such instruction with achievement gaps by social class and race/ethnicity. Where instructional effectiveness is concerned, time spent…

  15. Evidence-Based Instruction Is Not Enough: Strategies for Increasing Instructional Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Moira; Helf, Shawnna; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Even evidence-based instructional methods may not be sufficient for closing achievement gaps. If teachers are not maximizing instructional time, achievement gaps are likely to widen over time; therefore, instruction need not only be effective but efficient as well. The purposes of this article are to (a) provide practitioners with a broad…

  16. Elementary Students' Retention of Environmental Science Knowledge: Connected Science Instruction versus Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…

  17. Individualizing Student Instruction Precisely: Effects of Child x Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Piasta, Shayne B.; Fishman, Barry; Glasney, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher; Crowe, Elizabeth; Underwood, Phyllis; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings demonstrate that the most effective reading instruction may vary with children's language and literacy skills. These Child x Instruction interactions imply that individualizing instruction would be a potent strategy for improving students' literacy. A cluster-randomized control field trial, conducted in 10 high-moderate poverty…

  18. Tutorial Instruction in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Miles

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the tutorial practices of in-service teachers to address the underachievement in the science education of K-12 students. Method: In-service teachers in Virginia and North Carolina were given a survey questionnaire to examine how they tutored students who were in need of additional instruction. Results: When these teachers were asked, “How do you describe a typical one-on-one science tutorial session?” the majority of their responses were categorized as teacher-directed. Many of the teachers would provide a science tutorial session for a student after school for 16-30 minutes, one to three times a week. Respondents also indicated they would rely on technology, peer tutoring, scientific inquiry, or themselves for one-on-one science instruction. Over half of the in-service teachers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they would never rely on outside assistance, such as a family member or an after school program to provide tutorial services in science. Additionally, very few reported that they incorporated the ethnicity, culture, or the native language of ELL students into their science tutoring sessions.

  19. Human-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  20. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    This Ph.D. dissertation takes its offset in the migration of technology and computing power into our physical environment. The consequence of this movement, termed ubiquitous computing (Wieser, 1991), is a new relationship between humans, technology and spaces. In this new context, I seek...... to conceptualize space as more than the physical container for human activity. I do this by investigating space as interface. Based on a theory of space and place set forth by Tuan (Tuan, 1977), and informed by an explorative research approach, I make the distinction between space and place as a Euclidian space...... and a Phenomenological experienced place. In this perspective, place is created by humans as they appropriate space in investing it with emotions and memories and hereby making it meaningful. Space consists of formable physical and digital space, whereas place is made up by four dimensions relating to personal, physical...

  1. Oscars and Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Unwin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphical user interfaces (GUIs are gradually becoming more powerful and more accepted. They are the standard way of interacting with the web and play an increasing role in many software applications. Nevertheless, they have not been generally adopted, and critics point to particular weaknesses and disadvantages. Many of these are due more to flaws in design and implementation than to the basic concepts of GUIs. More attention could be paid to what users want to do and how a GUI might be developed to support these goals. Using a dataset about Oscar nominees and winners, this paper considers what analyses statisticians might carry out and what kind of GUI would be appropriate for these tasks. (It also offers some insights into the Oscars dataset.

  2. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Mark G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  3. Instructable autonomous agents. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Scott Bradley

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible

  4. Ions at hydrophobic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the present understanding of the behavior of ions at the air–water and oil–water interfaces. We argue that while the alkali metal cations remain strongly hydrated and are repelled from the hydrophobic surfaces, the anions must be classified into kosmotropes and chaotropes. The kosmotropes remain strongly hydrated in the vicinity of a hydrophobic surface, while the chaotropes lose their hydration shell and can become adsorbed to the interface. The mechanism of adsorption is still a subject of debate. Here, we argue that there are two driving forces for anionic adsorption: the hydrophobic cavitational energy and the interfacial electrostatic surface potential of water. While the cavitational contribution to ionic adsorption is now well accepted, the role of the electrostatic surface potential is much less clear. The difficulty is that even the sign of this potential is a subject of debate, with the ab initio and the classical force field simulations predicting electrostatic surface potentials of opposite sign. In this paper, we will argue that the strong anionic adsorption found in the polarizable force field simulations is the result of the artificial electrostatic surface potential present in the classical water models. We will show that if the adsorption of anions were as large as predicted by the polarizable force field simulations, the excess surface tension of the NaI solution would be strongly negative, contrary to the experimental measurements. While the large polarizability of heavy halides is a fundamental property and must be included in realistic modeling of the electrolyte solutions, we argue that the point charge water models, studied so far, are incompatible with the polarizable ionic force fields when the translational symmetry is broken. The goal for the future should be the development of water models with very low electrostatic surface potential. We believe that such water models will be compatible with the polarizable force fields

  5. The Interface Fresnel Zone revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Favretto-Cristini, Nathalie; Cristini, Paul; De Bazelaire, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We determine the part of reflectors which actually affects the reflected wavefield, which is of particular interest for the characterization of the interfaces from physical and seismic viewpoints, and for seismic resolution. We reformulate the concepts of Fresnel volumes (FV) and Interface Fresnel zones (IFZ), by accounting for all possible rays defining the isochrone for the source-receiver pair and the specular reflected wave. In the case of a plane homogeneous interface, the results obtain...

  6. Audio Interfaces for Improved Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Carlos; Carrico, Lu&#;s

    2008-01-01

    This chapter focused on how endowing interfaces with audio interaction capabilities can improve their accessibility. To exemplify this outcome the development of several versions of a Digital Talking Book player was presented. This allowed us to show it is possible to maintain the same set of features while stripping the interface of visual components, and still keep it usable for the visually impaired population. The interface development concerns focused on both ends of the interaction spec...

  7. Detonation interaction with an interface

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, D. H.; Shepherd, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Detonation interaction with an interface was investigated, where the interface separated a combustible from an oxidizing or inert mixture. The ethylene-oxygen combustible mixture had a fuel-rich composition to promote secondary combustion with the oxidizer in the turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) that resulted from the interaction. Sharp interfaces were created by using a nitro-cellulose membrane to separate the two mixtures. The membrane was mounted on a wood frame and inserted in the experimental...

  8. Capillary flows with forming interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D

    2007-01-01

    PREFACEINTRODUCTION Free-surface flows in nature and industryScope of the bookFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS Main concepts Governing equations Elements of thermodynamics Classical boundary conditions Physically meaningful solutions and paradoxes of modelingMOVING CONTACT LINES: AN OVERVIEW Essence of the problem Experimental observations Molecular dynamics simulations Review of theoriesThe key to the moving contact-line problemBOUNDARY CONDITIONS ON FORMING INTERFACES Modeling of interfacesConservation lawsLiquid-gas and liquid-solid interfacesLiquid-liquid interfaces SummaryOpen questions an

  9. Antisite defects at oxide interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanghui; Millis, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    We use ab initio calculations to estimate the formation energies of cation (transition-metal) antisite defects at oxide interfaces and to understand the basic physical effects that drive or suppress the formation of these defects. Antisite defects are found to be favored in systems with substantial charge transfer across the interface, while Jahn-Teller distortions and itinerant ferromagnetism can prevent antisite defects and help stabilize atomically sharp interfaces. Our results enable identification of classes of systems that may be more and less susceptible to the formation of antisite defects, and they motivate experimental studies and further theoretical calculations to elucidate the local structure and stability of oxide interface systems.

  10. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing

  11. Instructional Coaching in One Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Cheryl Ann

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines a model of instructional coaching in a middle school using interviews and observations of both teachers and their coaches. During the 2012-2013 school year, Creekside Middle School implemented a new model of instructional coaching that differed from the traditional model of coaching; it focused on student learning…

  12. Rethinking Monolingual Instructional Strategies in Multilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a) the target language (TL) should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students' first language (L1); (b) translation…

  13. Keyboard Instruction in the Music Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appell, Claudia J.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the use of electronic keyboards enables music educators to incorporate technological advances into instruction and take advantage of the popularity of electronic and computerized keyboards. Discusses advantages of electronic keyboard instruction related to student motivation and behavior. Describes methods of incorporating…

  14. Planning for Instructional Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza Mitchell, Regina L.

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges are known for keeping abreast of the latest instructional technologies, but the constant and rapid growth of available technology also presents challenges. This chapter reviews the current literature regarding instructional technology usage, with a focus on beneficial applications of technology for teaching and learning, and…

  15. Putting the Fun Back into Fluency Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Mary Ann; Gregory, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Based on recent research in fluency instruction, the authors present a scenario in which a teacher focuses her fluency instruction on authentic fluency tasks based in performance. Beginning with establishing a student-friendly definition of fluency and culminating with student engagement in fun fluency activities, this article explores the…

  16. International Instructional Systems: How England Measures Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creese, Brian; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Although England was not included in the International Instructional Systems Study because it was not a high-performing jurisdiction by the Study's definition, contributors largely were England-based. Analysing the Study's nine overall aspects of instructional systems, this paper finds that England is out of step with many of the high-performing…

  17. Recoding in Whole Language Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Explains new research findings about how children learn letter-sound correspondences, relates the findings to whole-language reading instruction, and outlines a theory for how children acquire the letter-sound system without direct instruction in phonics. Describes recent findings on phonological processes involved in learning letter-sound…

  18. Analysis of Research Data Management Instruction Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dressel, Willow

    2015-01-01

    Poster given at the 2015 SLA - All Sciences Poster Session. Many academic libraries are developing research data management instruction programs including online guides and workshops. A wealth of materials are available to draw from. However, the quantity and variety can be overwhelming to someone just starting out. This poster examines and compares 17 publicly available research data management instruction materials.

  19. The Practice of Eclectic Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honebein, Peter C.; Sink, Darryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Eclectic instructional design is the process whereby a designer blends ideas from multiple learning theories to construct a learning experience that works better than a course designed from only one theoretical influence. Eclectic instructional designers are those who do not get hung up or rely consistently on any one theory for their designs.…

  20. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  1. Instructional Design Processes and Traditional Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasser, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Traditional colleges who have implemented distance education programs would benefit from using instructional design processes to develop their courses. Instructional design processes provide the framework for designing and delivering quality online learning programs in a highly-competitive educational market. Traditional college leaders play a…

  2. Are Individual Differences Undertreated in Instructional Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional design can be more effective if it is as fixedly dedicated to the accommodation of individual differences as it currently is to the accommodation of subject matters. That is the hypothesis. A menu of accommodation options is provided that is applicable at each of three stages of instructional development or administration: before,…

  3. Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feezell, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary…

  4. Evaluation of an Automated Instruction Shorthand Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jeanne E.

    A field test of the Automated Instruction Shorthand System (Random House) was conducted at the University of Northern Colorado Laboratory School to determine its suitability for future implementation in Colorado schools. The multisensory instructional program conditions the rapid recall of Gregg symbols through use of animated sound color films…

  5. Collaborative Instructional Strategies to Enhance Knowledge Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Darryl C.

    2015-01-01

    To promote knowledge convergence through collaborative learning activities in groups, this qualitative case study involved a layered approach for the design and delivery of a highly collaborative learning environment incorporating various instructional technologies grounded in learning theory. In a graduate-level instructional technology course,…

  6. Implicit and explicit instruction of spelling rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-interventio

  7. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  8. Self-Paced Instruction: Hello, Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.

    1975-01-01

    Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)

  9. An Economic Analysis of Instructional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2013-01-01

    This paper constructs a simple two-tier education framework to analyze the effectiveness of multiple language instruction. Suppose that the government attempts to maximize the average post-education productivity. It is shown that the optimal education policy requires different languages of instruction be adopted in the education system. The…

  10. Authentic Interdisciplinary Instruction: Raising the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnsen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This article addressed the need for authentic interdisciplinary instruction. Authentic interdisciplinary instruction is defined as a learning activity that simultaneously improves student performance related to grade-level standards in two or more disciplines (e.g., science and physical education). The process described for creating authentic…

  11. How Instructional Systems Will Manage Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, John C.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses trends toward the systems approach in education including the development of effective instructional systems in government and industry; the introduction of teaching machines, programed learning, and computer- assisted instruction; and the increase in both the amount and sophistication of educational research and development. (JF)

  12. Motivational Design in Information Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Amanda Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Motivational design theory complements instructional design theory and, when used together, both principles can affect learning, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge retention. In information literacy instruction, motivational design exists throughout the appropriate standards documents. However, there is limited current research on the best…

  13. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  14. Instructional Development--Proactive or Reactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Donald T.; Carleton, J. Robert

    1980-01-01

    Identifies five basic assumptions of the "proactive approach" to instructional development and argues for the use of that approach by instructional technologists in training developed for business organizations. Four tactics for moving an organization in a proactive direction are described, and guidelines followed by a large California bank are…

  15. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  16. Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

  17. Yuk! Peanut Butter Again: Avoiding Instructional Monotony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Mary Alice; Hotchkiss, Phyllis Riley

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for instructional variety based on the differences in the learning style of the students and on the objectives of the curriculum. A models of teaching approach for planning is described. A long-term professional development plan to implement teaching models for instructional variety is presented. (MT)

  18. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horschig, J.M.; Oosterheert, W.; Oostenveld, R.; Jensen, O.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the direct

  19. Design and achievement of modern distance instruction system

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Jianmin; Qu, Yan

    2001-01-01

    Modern Distance Instruction is becoming a new form of instruction. Developing the Internet-based instruction system, which is with the functions of instruction, exercise, testing and supervision, is convenient for distance instruction and individual studies. Based on the practical development of Internet-based instruction system, My paper first introduces the structure, function and speciality of this system. Secondly, it presents the methods, technology and experience in designin...

  20. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Voetmann Christiansen, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences of...... being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition with...

  1. Computer-aided instruction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addresses the use of teleprocessing and time sharing by the RAX IBM system and the possibility to introduce a dialog with the machine to develop an application in which the computer plays the role of a teacher for different pupils at the same time. Two operating modes are thus exploited: a teacher-mode and a pupil-mode. The developed CAI (computer-aided instruction) system comprises a checker to check the course syntax in teacher-mode, a translator to trans-code the course written in teacher-mode into a form which can be processes by the execution programme, and the execution programme which presents the course in pupil-mode

  2. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滢

    2007-01-01

    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI)has emerged,intending to bring language forms instructionback to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types of application.The tentative conclusion is FFI does show some explicit and reliable effects on accuracy and error elimination in language teaching;however,the investigation into its application is not simply either Focus on Form Or Focus on FormS,but focuses on the optimal combination of the two in teaching.

  3. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps

  4. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Voetmann Christiansen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  5. How to Create, Modify, and Interface Aspen In-House and User Databanks for System Configuration 1:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D W

    2000-10-27

    The goal of this document is to provide detailed instructions to create, modify, interface, and test Aspen User and In-House databanks with minimal frustration. The level of instructions are aimed at a novice Aspen Plus simulation user who is neither a programming nor computer-system expert. The instructions are tailored to Version 10.1 of Aspen Plus and the specific computing configuration summarized in the Title of this document and detailed in Section 2. Many details of setting up databanks depend on the computing environment specifics, such as the machines, operating systems, command languages, directory structures, inter-computer communications software, the version of the Aspen Engine and Graphical User Interface (GUI), and the directory structure of how these were installed.

  6. An optical brain computer interface

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, S; Ward, Tomas; Markham, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to brain computer interfacing that uses optical analysis to provide physiological measures of brain function. We describe the optical analysis technique involved and the application of this method to development of our first prototype optical brain computer interface

  7. Integrating and Interfacing Library Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    This overview of local library online systems that integrate several functions covers functional integration, benefits of integrated systems, turnkey systems, minicomputer and microcomputer-based systems, interfacing automated systems, types of interfaces, linking homogenous and heterogeneous systems, role of vendors, library applications, linking…

  8. GRAPHIC INTERFACES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PANA,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using effective the method of calculating Fitness for Service requires the achievement of graphical interfaces. This paper presents an example of such interfaces, made with Visual Basic program and used in the evaluation of pipelines in a research contract [4

  9. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  10. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  11. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  12. Reflectometry on curved interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflectometry is known since long as an interferometric method which can be used to characterize surfaces and thin films regarding their structure and, to a certain degree, composition as well. Properties like layer structures, layer thickness, density, and interface roughness can be determined by fitting the obtained reflectivity data with an appropriate model using a recursive fitting routine. However, one major drawback of the reflectometric method is its restriction to planar surfaces. In this article we demonstrate an approach to apply X-ray and neutron reflectometry to curved surfaces by means of the example of bent bare and coated glass slides. We prove the possibility to observe all features like Fresnel decay, Kiessig fringes, Bragg peaks and off-specular scattering and are able to interpret the data using common fitting software and to derive quantitative results about roughness, layer thickness and internal structure. The proposed method has become practical due to the availability of high quality 2D-detectors. It opens up the option to explore many kinds and shapes of samples, which, due to their geometry, have not been in the focus of reflectometry techniques until now

  13. New DOMS interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nagoya University, the computerized on-line microscope for emulsion analysis for cosmic ray research has been developed since 1973. In the past, the emulsion analysis with microscopes was based on specifically trained observation capability. However, it is indispensable to improve the analysis speed and objectivity by the automation with a computer. The emulsion analysis system in Nagoya University completed in 1978 is composed of more than one DOMS (digitized on-line microscope) which is a Chiyoda microscope with a DC motor and a linear encoder and large and medium size precise stages produced by Mitaka Koki Co. The system is linked with a host computer through controllers. Each measuring terminal operates as an intelligent terminal connected with a serial line. A new DOMS interface is newly designed by standardizing the above controllers, and intended to make the same programs easy to use for the purpose of equalizing the quality of data. Design work premised on the assumption that users can set up systems by combining necessary modules depending on their purposes by packing hardware into modules for every function, following the CAMAC concept. In this report, the total system configuration, crate controller, motor drive, position counter, display, graphic video RAM and ROM writer are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Reflectometry on curved interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Früh, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.frueh@hit.edu.cn [Harbin Institute of Technology, Key Laboratory of Microsystems and Microstructures Manufacturing, Ministry of Education, Micro/Nano Technology Research Centre, Yikuang Street 2, Harbin 150080 (China); Rühm, Adrian [Max-Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly Max-Planck Institute for Metals Research), ZWE FRM II, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Möhwald, Helmuth [Max-Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Department of Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14424 Golm/Potsdam (Germany); Krastev, Rumen [Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at the University of Tuebingen, Marktwiesenstr. 55, 72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Köhler, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.koehler@helmholtz-berlin.de [University of Technology Berlin, Stranski-Laboratorium, Straße des 17. Juni 124, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Institute for Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Reflectometry is known since long as an interferometric method which can be used to characterize surfaces and thin films regarding their structure and, to a certain degree, composition as well. Properties like layer structures, layer thickness, density, and interface roughness can be determined by fitting the obtained reflectivity data with an appropriate model using a recursive fitting routine. However, one major drawback of the reflectometric method is its restriction to planar surfaces. In this article we demonstrate an approach to apply X-ray and neutron reflectometry to curved surfaces by means of the example of bent bare and coated glass slides. We prove the possibility to observe all features like Fresnel decay, Kiessig fringes, Bragg peaks and off-specular scattering and are able to interpret the data using common fitting software and to derive quantitative results about roughness, layer thickness and internal structure. The proposed method has become practical due to the availability of high quality 2D-detectors. It opens up the option to explore many kinds and shapes of samples, which, due to their geometry, have not been in the focus of reflectometry techniques until now.

  15. An interface for mass spectrometer upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an original model of an informational device, realized with microcontrollers and adequate software for the control of analysis apparatus . Many of the physics laboratories are equipped with analysis apparatus which are from an old generation and have a reduced degree of automation. Refurbishment such apparatus with solid state informational structures for automation and control appears to be feasible and thus a means to obtain measurement performances comparable with those of similar apparatus from the last generation. Also such an informational structure can be coupled to a personal computer according the RS 232 standard. The software allows the control of process analysis and processing physical parameters. At the same time other computers can be connected, through the network system, to the computer that assists the analysis apparatus so an enhancing of the control of analysis operations is achieved. Although extremely complex, the software is designed so that the operator can easily communicate with analysis apparatus by a graphical interface which represents the internal structure of apparatus, the technical terms being represented by symbols that can be easily recognized. All the instructions are accompanied by adequate explanations and some examples are given. (authors)

  16. Atomic matching across internal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic structure of internal interfaces in dense-packed systems has been investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). Similarities between the atomic relaxations in heterophase interfaces and certain large-angle grain boundaries have been observed. In both types of interfaces localization of misfit leads to regions of good atomic matching within the interface separated by misfit dislocation-like defects. It appears that, whenever possible, the GB structures assume configurations in which the atomic coordination is not too much different from the ideal lattice. It is suggested that these kinds of relaxations primarily occur whenever the translational periods along the GB are large or when the interatomic distances are incommensurate. Incorporation of low index planes into the GB appears to lead to preferred, i.e. low energy structures, that can be quite dense with good atomic matching across a large fraction of the interface

  17. Interface Input/Output Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Building on the theory of interface automata by de Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch’s I/O, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separation of assumptions...... from guarantees not yet seen in other behavioral interface theories. Moreover we derive the composition operator systematically and formally, guaranteeing that the resulting compositions are always the weakest in the sense of assumptions, and the strongest in the sense of guarantees. We also present a...... method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata....

  18. Cockpit Interfaces, Displays, and Alerting Messages for the Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Palmer, Michael T.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the IM cockpit interfaces, displays, and alerting capabilities that were developed for and used in the IMAC experiment, which was conducted at NASA Langley in the summer of 2015. Specifically, this document includes: (1) screen layouts for each page of the interface; (2) step-by-step instructions for data entry, data verification and input error correction; (3) algorithm state messages and error condition alerting messages; (4) aircraft speed guidance and deviation indications; and (5) graphical display of the spatial relationships between the Ownship aircraft and the Target aircraft. The controller displays for IM will be described in a separate document.

  19. Development of a Control and Vision Interface for an AR.Drone

    OpenAIRE

    Cheema Prasad; Luo Simon; Gibbens Peter

    2016-01-01

    The AR.Drone is a remote controlled quadcopter which is low cost, and readily available for consumers. Therefore it represents a simple test-bed on which control and vision research may be conducted. However, interfacing with the AR.Drone can be a challenge for new researchers as the AR.Drone's application programming interface (API) is built on low-level, bit-wise, C instructions. Therefore, this paper will demonstrate the use of an additional layer of abstraction on the AR.Drone’s API via t...

  20. Differentiating Science Instruction: Secondary science teachers' practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.

  1. Multimodal Neuroelectric Interface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Totah, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing multimodal neuroelectric technologies for augmented human-system interaction. Neuroelectric technologies will add completely new modes of interaction that operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of real-time electromyographic (EMG) pattern recognition for a direct neuroelectric human-computer interface. We recorded EMG signals from an elastic sleeve with dry electrodes, while a human subject performed a range of discrete gestures. A machine-teaming algorithm was trained to recognize the EMG patterns associated with the gestures and map them to control signals. Successful applications now include piloting two Class 4 aircraft simulations (F-15 and 757) and entering data with a "virtual" numeric keyboard. Current research focuses on on-line adaptation of EMG sensing and processing and recognition of continuous gestures. We are also extending this on-line pattern recognition methodology to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This will allow us to bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. Our system can reliably detect P-rhythm (a periodic EEG signal from motor cortex in the 10 Hz range) with a lightweight headset containing saline-soaked sponge electrodes. The data show that EEG p-rhythm can be modulated by real and imaginary motions. Current research focuses on using biofeedback to train of human subjects to modulate EEG rhythms on demand, and to examine interactions of EEG-based control with EMG-based and manual control. Viewgraphs on these neuroelectric technologies are also included.

  2. Curriculum and instruction in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curriculum and instruction in nuclear waste disposal is part of the larger problem of curriculum and instruction in science. At a time when science and technological literacy is crucial to the nation's economic future fewer students are electing to take needed courses in science that might promote such literacy. The problem is directly related to what science teachers teach and how they teach it. Science content that is more relevant and interesting to students must be a part of the curriculum. Science instruction must allow students to be actively involved in investigating or playing the game of science

  3. Teaching Experience and Need for Instructional skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Rezaeian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between working experience and need for instructional skills is of major importance for the teaching and learning process. It seems teachers need to develop their teaching methods inside the class in order to activate students to learn more effectively. The researchers decided to find out if there is any relationship between working experience and need for instructional skills. The data was obtained from more than 31 randomly chosen lecturers through questionnaire from the Faculty of Educational Studies at University Putra Malaysia. From the results, it was concluded that there is no relationship between years of working experience and need for instructional skills.

  4. Intelligent virtual interfaces for telerobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstein, Georges G.; Maybury, Mark T.; Mitchell, Richard B.

    1992-11-01

    One promise of telerobotics is the ability to interact in environments that are distant (e.g., deep sea or deep space), dangerous (e.g., nuclear, chemical, or biological environments), or inaccessible by humans for political or legal reasons. A key component to such interactions are sophisticated human-computer interfaces that can replicate sufficient information about a local environment to permit remote navigation and manipulation. This environment replication can, in part, be provided by technologies such as virtual reality. In addition, however, telerobotic interfaces may need to enhance human-machine interaction to assist users in task performance, for example, governing motion or manipulation controls to avoid obstacles or to restrict interaction with certain objects (e.g., avoiding contact with a live mine or a deep sea treasure). Thus, effective interactions within remote environments require intelligent virtual interfaces to telerobotic devices. In part to address this problem, MITRE is investigating virtual reality architectures that will enable enhanced interaction within virtual environments. Key components to intelligent virtual interfaces include spoken language processing, gesture recognition algorithms, and more generally, task recognition. In addition, these interfaces will eventually have to take into account properties of the user, the task, and discourse context to be more adaptive to the current situation at hand. While our work has not yet investigated the connection of virtual interfaces to external robotic devices, we have begun developing the key components for intelligent virtual interfaces for information and training systems.

  5. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  6. Interface cracks in piezoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorukha, V.; Kamlah, M.; Loboda, V.; Lapusta, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their intrinsic electromechanical coupling behavior, piezoelectric materials are widely used in sensors, actuators and other modern technologies. It is well known that piezoelectric ceramics are very brittle and susceptible to fracture. In many cases, fracture occurs at interfaces as debonding and cracks. This leads to an undesired degradation of electrical and mechanical performance. Because of the practical and fundamental importance of the problem, interface cracks in piezoelectric materials have been actively studied in the last few decades. This review provides a comprehensive survey of recent works on cracks situated at the interface of two materials, at least one of which has piezoelectric or piezoelectromagnetic properties. Different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces are discussed. The oscillating and contact zone models for in-plane straight interface cracks between two dissimilar piezoelectric materials or between piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric ones are reviewed. Different peculiarities related to the investigation of interface cracks in piezoelectric materials for the anti-plane case, for functionally graded and thermopiezoelectric materials are presented. Papers related to magnetoelectroelastic bimaterials, to steady state motion of interface cracks in piezoelectric bimaterials and to circular arc-cracks at the interface of piezoelectric materials are reviewed, and various methods used to address these problems are discussed. The review concludes with an outlook on future research directions.

  7. An evaluation of the use of microcomputer-based laboratory instruction on middle school students' concept attainment and attitudes towards computer-based instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osio, Sergio Albina

    The advent of instructional technology has become an integral part of the learning process, thought by many to be a vital component in the reform of science instruction. Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) is an instructional technology environment in which a computer is connected through its Universal Serial Box (USB) port or an interface (for older models) with sensors to control the experiment, collect data, and generate and interpret graphs. In this study, MBL tools and instructions were used to design an instructional program that integrated ideas in teaching thinking skills so that middle school students from varying levels of differentiated achievement could categorize and create concepts grounded on the Concept Attainment Model of teaching. Data were collected and analyzed based on the procedures of a one-group pretest-posttest experimental design and two research questions. The study provided a quantitative correlation of variables such as MBL to students' pretest-posttest total scores; pretest-posttest total scores to the levels of differentiated achievement and treatment groups. Likewise, a modified student-computer-attitude survey was administered to evaluate students' attitude toward the use of computer technologies. The research findings revealed a 9.1% increase in test scores in the three concepts of investigation; multiple increases in test scores in the three levels of differentiated achievement (22.2% for regular science group, 6.2% for accelerated science group students, and 1% for sheltered science group); and 11.1% mean difference between the MHL group and traditional laboratory group. Simultaneously, participants showed a positive significance of 77% feeling of comfort and confidence towards the use of computer technologies. Eventually, the great potential of MBL technology could play an important role in the reform of science education in the schools of the second largest Unified School District in the country today.

  8. Playful user interfaces interfaces that invite social and physical interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book is about user interfaces to applications that have been designed for social and physical interaction. The interfaces are ‘playful’, that is, users feel challenged to engage in social and physical interaction because that will be fun. The topics that will be present in this book are interactive playgrounds, urban games using mobiles, sensor-equipped environments for playing, child-computer interaction, tangible game interfaces, interactive tabletop technology and applications, full-body interaction, exertion games, persuasion, engagement, evaluation, and user experience. Readers of the book will not only get a survey of state-of-the-art research in these areas, but the chapters in this book will also provide a vision of the future where playful interfaces will be ubiquitous, that is, present and integrated in home, office, recreational, sports and urban environments, emphasizing that in the future in these environments game elements will be integrated and welcomed.

  9. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  10. The molecule-metal interface

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Norbert; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2013-01-01

    Reviewing recent progress in the fundamental understanding of the molecule-metal interface, this useful addition to the literature focuses on experimental studies and introduces the latest analytical techniques as applied to this interface.The first part covers basic theory and initial principle studies, while the second part introduces readers to photoemission, STM, and synchrotron techniques to examine the atomic structure of the interfaces. The third part presents photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution UV photoelectron spectroscopy and electron spin resonance to study the electroni

  11. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  12. Designing end-user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, N

    1988-01-01

    Designing End-User Interfaces: State of the Art Report focuses on the field of human/computer interaction (HCI) that reviews the design of end-user interfaces.This compilation is divided into two parts. Part I examines specific aspects of the problem in HCI that range from basic definitions of the problem, evaluation of how to look at the problem domain, and fundamental work aimed at introducing human factors into all aspects of the design cycle. Part II consists of six main topics-definition of the problem, psychological and social factors, principles of interface design, computer intelligenc

  13. Search-User Interface Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Max

    2011-01-01

    Search User Interfaces (SUIs) represent the gateway between people who have a task to complete, and the repositories of information and data stored around the world. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are many communities who have a vested interest in the way SUIs are designed. There are people who study how humans search for information, and people who study how humans use computers. There are people who study good user interface design, and people who design aesthetically pleasing user interfaces. There are also people who curate and manage valuable information resources, and people who desi

  14. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... content (99.8% Ni and 99.995% Ni) were used to examine the impact of impurities on the polarisation resistance and contact area morphology. The electropolished nickel wires were pressed against a polished 8 mol% YSZ surface. Extensive structural changes from a flat interface to a hill and valley structure...

  15. Preface (to Playful User Interfaces)

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the interface is persuasive, engaging, challenging and aims at helping to provide the user with fun, trying to keep the user motivated, not frustrated or bored, or, in terms of ‘flow theory’, in a state wh...

  16. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described

  17. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-04-16

    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  18. The impact of inquiry-based instructional professional development upon instructional practice: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Frances A.

    This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.

  19. Bolivia: instruction through interactive radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, M M; Tilson, T

    1989-01-01

    The Education Development Center in Bolivia is developing and testing a new application for interactive radio instruction (IRI) to teach health in primary schools. The project is funded by USAID and has been undertaken to help the Bolivian government include health education in primary schools as part of a strategy to reduce child mortality. Each radio health program will be broadcast weekly for school children in twenty-minute segments. The broadcasts and complementary post-broadcast activities will give special emphasis to child survival topics such as oral rehydration therapy and nutrition. Special features include IRI scripts which simulate interaction between the radio teacher and the students, new topics introduced in a systematic way engaging students in problem-solving activities, and extensive oral and written student participation. Complementary IRI program materials will include take-home exercises designed to involve family participation, and teachers' guides to provide teachers with practical hands-on activities to strengthen children's understanding of basic health concepts. Short, in-service training sessions will prepare teachers to facilitate radio classes and carry out post-broadcast activities with students. The potential of IRI to improve student and teacher understanding of health and nutrition is only beginning to be recognized. PMID:12346418

  20. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  1. An Optical Crystallography Instructional Package on Videocassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Richard W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a self-teaching instructional package on color videocassettes, supplemented with audio descriptions, prepared from original super-8mm cinephotomicrographs for use in optical crystallography courses. Production techniques are also reviewed. (Author/JN)

  2. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  3. Sources of Information on Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Walter; And Others

    1970-01-01

    A directory of projects dealing with computer-assisted instruction, primarily at the college level, based on a survey intended to uncover fugitive sources of information in this field (e.g., unpublished project progress reports). (LS)

  4. Media, Individualized Instruction, and Clothing Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Naomi

    1975-01-01

    A system for teaching clothing design (draping or flat pattern) and advanced construction techniques by means of individualized instruction utilizing 8mm color sound filmloop is described. (Author/HB)

  5. Exploring listening strategy instruction through action research

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Listening in a second language is challenge for students and teachers alike. This book provides a personal account of an action research intervention involving listening strategy instruction that investigated the viability of this innovative pedagogy in the Japanese university context.

  6. Accounting Instruction in a Business Learning Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisky, Mildred K.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the individualized audiovisual approach to teaching beginning accounting at a Wisconsin technical college. Discusses how it began as a remedial lab, its theories of individualized instruction, how the pilot project worked, and why this method is used. (CT)

  7. Using Technology with Classroom Instruction that Works. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Matt; Hubbell, Elizabeth R.; Pitler, Howard

    2012-01-01

    If you've upgraded to the second edition of the landmark book "Classroom Instruction That Works," you need this companion guide to help you use technology to support research-based instruction. The authors follow the revised Instructional Planning Guide that makes it easier for you to know when to emphasize each of the instructional strategies,…

  8. Fostering Alphabet Knowledge Development: A Comparison of Two Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Purpura, David J.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive small group instruction in letter names and/or sounds or numbers (treated control). Alphabet instruction followed one of two approaches currently utilized in early childhood classrooms: combined letter name and sound instruction or letter sound only instruction. Thirty-four 15…

  9. Instructional Design Cases and Why We Need Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Craig D.; Boling, Elizabeth; Rowland, Gordon; Smith, Kennon M.

    2012-01-01

    The field of instructional design does not collect and share actual completed instructional designs and designers' reflections on the creation of those designs as an integral, widespread aspect of its practice. This article defines the instructional design case as a means of knowledge building. It lays out the components of instructional design…

  10. REXIB: Remote Experiments Interface Builder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Ferreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote Experimentation is an educational resource that allows teachers to strengthen the practical contents of science & engineering courses. However, building up the interfaces to remote experiments is not a trivial task. Although teachers normally master the practical contents addressed by a particular remote experiment they usually lack the programming skills required to quickly build up the corresponding web interface. This paper describes the automatic generation of experiment interfaces through a web-accessible Java application. The application displays a list of existent modules and once the requested modules have been selected, it generates the code that enables the browser to display the experiment interface. The tools’ main advantage is enabling non-tech teachers to create their own remote experiments.

  11. Interface engineering in organic transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Don Park

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs have triggered intensive research into the molecular and mesoscale structures of organic semiconductor films that determine their charge-transport characteristics. Since the molecular structure and morphology of an organic semiconductor are largely determined by the properties of the interface between the organic film and the insulator, a great deal of research has focused on interface engineering. We review recent progress in interface engineering for the fabrication of high-performance OFETs and, in particular, engineering of the interfaces between semiconductors and insulators. The effects of interfacial characteristics on the molecular and mesoscale structures of π-conjugated molecules and the performance of OFET devices are discussed.

  12. The Simple Publishing Interface (SPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Massart, David; Totschnig, Michael; Klerkx, Joris; Duval, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Ternier, S., Massart, D., Totschnig, M., Klerkx, J., & Duval, E. (2010). The Simple Publishing Interface (SPI). D-Lib Magazine, September/October 2010, Volume 16 Number 9/10, doi:10.1045/september2010-ternier

  13. Teaching Experience and Need for Instructional skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Rezaeian; Narges Nazari

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working experience and need for instructional skills is of major importance for the teaching and learning process. It seems teachers need to develop their teaching methods inside the class in order to activate students to learn more effectively. The researchers decided to find out if there is any relationship between working experience and need for instructional skills. The data was obtained from more than 31 randomly chosen lecturers through questionnaire from the Fa...

  14. Comprehension instruction research-based best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Cathy Collins; Morrow, Lesley Mandel

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive professional resource and text is based on cutting-edge research. In each chapter, leading scholars provide an overview of a particular aspect of comprehension, offer best-practice instructional guidelines and policy recommendations, present key research questions still to be answered, and conclude with stimulating questions for individual study or discussion. Coverage includes such timely topics as differentiated instruction, technology and reading comprehension, teaching English language learners, and the implications of current neuroscientific findings.

  15. Does Discovery-Based Instruction Enhance Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri, L.; Brooks, PJ; Aldrich, NJ; Tenenbaum, HR

    2011-01-01

    Discovery learning approaches to education have recently come under scrutiny (Tobias & Duffy, 2009), with many studies indicating limitations to discovery learning practices. Therefore, 2 meta-analyses were conducted using a sample of 164 studies: The 1st examined the effects of unassisted discovery learning versus explicit instruction, and the 2nd examined the effects of enhanced and/or assisted discovery versus other types of instruction (e.g., explicit, unassisted discovery). Random effect...

  16. Structured Design Strategies for Attitude Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Samuel Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Social psychologists believe that attitudes occur both implicitly and explicitly suggesting that people can think, feel, and behave in ways that are counter to their outward views. Researchers within the field of instructional technology have proposed treatments for explicit attitude manipulation within an instructional situation but have yet to implement strategies that encompass implicit attitudes. Researchers from both fields concur that attitudes are malleable and can be manipulated with ...

  17. Reconstructions at complex oxide interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kleibeuker, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite-type oxides, ABO3, are of high interest since they exhibit a wide variety of properties. Having comparable oxygen backbone structures, perovskite-type oxides can easily be stacked on top of each other with atomic precision. This may result in advanced materials with new or enhanced functionalities. Moreover, near the interface, interplay between the different materials occurs, which may lead to interesting functionalities confined at the interface. For the development of device app...

  18. User Interface Goals, AI Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Henry; Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab

    2009-01-01

    This is an opinion piece about the relationship between the fields of human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The ultimate goal of both fields is to make user interfaces more effective and easier to use for people. But historically, they have disagreed about whether "intelligence" or "direct manipulation" is the better route to achieving this. There is an unjustified perception in HCI that AI is unreliable. There is an unjustified perception in AI that interfaces a...

  19. Coal-shale interface detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  20. Coal-shale interface detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  1. INSTRUCTION OF DIGITAL THREE DIMENSIONAL TOOLS IN THE CONTEXT OF VISUAL COMMUNICATION DESIGN DOMAIN: AN UNDERGRADUATE COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin TÜKER

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, design principles of a ‘three dimensional modeling and animation tool instruction’ have been studied in the context of visual communication design domain by analyzing the ‘Computer Animation and 3D modeling’ course. The course is designed based on constructivist and elaboration theories. Visual design modules have been designed with software instruction modules as an organic inseparable body. Two student groups attended the course as 35 and 15 people. Couse has been analyzed by using qualitative case study techniques and ‘design principles for three dimensional tool instruction instruction’ have been listed as: instruction, technical issues related with software and hardware, instructor, software interface, spatial visualization abilities, course duration and group issues.

  2. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  3. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  4. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eCopenhagen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped, where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  5. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered. (Author)

  6. Science at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the stakes against those who might want to enter. Laboratory sciences interface nature in a peculiar way: by barring real natural objects from entering the lab and by substituting for them reconfigured versions of these objects to work with in research. These supplemental versions of natural objects do refer back to natural processes or conditions, but at the same time they are also autonomous new objects and processes with differential qualities and reproductive powers within laboratory contexts. Laboratory sciences have the disadvantage that their products must be freshly contextualized when they leave the lab to reenter natural environments. In the natural sciences, re-contextualization is often accomplished by transferring some of the conditions that obtained in the lab onto the natural environment. Re-contextualization in the natural sciences may also just be a metaphor for a long chain of processes, involving specialized disciplines, by which some natural scientific results are used to create technologies which are then used in practice - a process that often fails, involves political strategies of persuasion and other complications. Contextualization involves adaptation not only to new laboratory external physical environments but also to the social world. One direction of social science research maintains that a form of (re) contextualization of a much larger scope and impact is evident today in contemporary societies, affecting in tendency all sciences and technological fields. This assessment is encapsulated in the idea that we have progressed from Mode 1 science and technology to a Mode 2 situation where knowledge is generated in the context of application and implication. (author)

  7. Making Blended Instruction Better: Integrating the Principles of Universal Design for Instruction into Course Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Lyman L., III; Koorland, Mark A.; Scott, Sally S.

    2009-01-01

    Online instruction in general and blended instruction in particular have gained a sizable and permanent foothold in postsecondary educational environments. In addition, student diversity has become the norm. Universal design for instruction is a framework that consists of nine principles for instructional design and delivery; it proposes that…

  8. Perceived affordances and constraints regarding instructors' use of Peer Instruction: Implications for promoting instructional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpen, Chandra; Dancy, Melissa; Henderson, Charles

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] In order to promote sustained and impactful educational transformation, it is essential for change agents to understand more about faculty perceptions associated with either adopting or not adopting a research-based instructional strategy (RBIS). In this paper, we use interviews with 35 physics faculty to examine barriers and affordances to the use of the research-based instructional strategy of Peer Instruction. We found that the most common reasons faculty give for aligning their instruction with Peer Instruction is that it is not lecture and they have had positive experiences with Peer Instruction. The most common reasons faculty give for not using Peer Instruction are concerns about the time it will take, the loss of content coverage, and having had bad experiences with it. Additionally, we found the perceived barriers to be very different depending on whether the interviewee was a user of Peer Instruction or not, with nonusers being more concerned with time and users being more concerned with implementation difficulties. It is important for change agents to understand and address concerns faculty have about implementing research-based instructional strategies. Based on these results we offer four recommendations for those interested in promoting educational transformation toward research-based instructional strategies: (1) do not waste a lot of time criticizing lecture-based instruction and convincing faculty of the value of research-based strategies (they are already dissatisfied with lecture), (2) understand and address concerns faculty have about implementing active learning techniques, (3) focus on supporting and encouraging faculty experiences with RBIS, (4) address concerns faculty new to RBIS have about the time and energy needed to change.

  9. Theory of Interface States at Silicon / Transition - - Silicide Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hunhwa

    The Si/NiSi(,2)(111) interface is of both fundamental and techno- logical interest: From the fundamental point of view, it is the best characterized of all semiconductor/metal interfaces, with two well-determined geometries (A and B) involving nearly perfect bonding. (This is because Si and NiSi(,2) have nearly the same lattice spacing.) Consequently, a theoretical treatment of this system makes sense--as it would not for messier systems--and one can have some confidence that the theoretical predictions are relevant to experimental observa- tions. From the technological point of view, Si/NiSi(,2) is representative of the class of semiconductor/metal interfaces that are currently of greatest interest in regard to electronic devices--Si/transition -metal-silicide interfaces. The calculations of this dissertation are for the intrinsic interface states of Si/NiSi(,2)-A geometry. These calculations also provide a foundation for later studies of defects at this interface, and for studies of other related systems, such as CoSi(,2). The calculations employ empirical tight-binding Hamiltonians for both Si and NiSi(,2) (with the parameters fitted to prior calculations of the bulk band structures, which appear to be in agreement with the available experimental data on bulk Si and NiSi(,2)). They also employ Green's function techniques--in particular, the subspace Hamiltonian technique. Our principal results are the following: (1) Interface state disper- sion curves are predicted along the symmetry lines (')(GAMMA)(')M, (')M(')K and (')K(')(GAMMA) of the surface Brillouin zone. (2) A prominent band of interface states is found which disperses downward from an energy within the Si band gap to an energy below the Si valence band edge E(,(upsilon)) as the planar wavevector (')k increases from (')(GAMMA) ((')k = 0) to (')M or (')K (symmetry points at boundary of the surface Brillouin zone). This band of inter- face states should be observable. It produces a peak in the surface

  10. Factors Influencing Junior High School Teachers' Computer-Based Instructional Practices Regarding Their Instructional Evolution Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2007-01-01

    Sandholtz, Ringstaff, & Dwyer (1996) list five stages in the "evolution" of a teacher's capacity for computer-based instruction--entry, adoption, adaptation, appropriation and invention--which hereafter will be called the teacher's computer-based instructional evolution. In this study of approximately six hundred junior high school science and…

  11. Coaching Teachers on Instruction: Developing Instructional Leadership Capacity within a Principal Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franey, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the role of the school site principal has shifted from a focus on school management to one on school leadership. Integral to this new focus is the ability of the principal to be an instructional leader, tasked with improving the instructional practices of teachers. Many principal preparation programs have adopted new…

  12. Instructional Coaches and the Instructional Leadership Team: A Guide for School-Building Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Dean T.; Smith, Gail

    2012-01-01

    For instructional coaches, no two days are ever the same. This unique companion melds theory and practice to show how coaches can seamlessly integrate themselves into the fabric of the school and help teachers improve their practice from day one. Dean Spaulding and Gail Smith address common challenges of coaches and instructional leadership teams,…

  13. Instructional Design as Knowledge Management: A Knowledge-in-Practice Approach to Choosing Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Derrick; Fitzsimmons, Stacey; Flanagan, David

    2016-01-01

    Decisions about instructional methods are becoming more complex, with options ranging from problem sets to experiential service-learning projects. However, instructors not trained in instructional design may make these important decisions based on convenience, comfort, or trends. Instead, this article draws on the knowledge management literature…

  14. Vocabulary Intervention for Kindergarten Students: Comparing Extended Instruction to Embedded Instruction and Incidental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Kapp, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the two studies reported in this article was to evaluate the effectiveness of extended vocabulary instruction during storybook reading with kindergarten students within a small-group intervention setting. Extended vocabulary instruction is characterized by explicit teaching that includes both contextual and definitional information,…

  15. Ten Steps to Complex Learning A New Approach to Instruction and Instructional Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2008). Ten steps to complex learning: A new approach to instruction and instructional design. In T. L. Good (Ed.), 21st century education: A reference handbook (pp. 244-253). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  16. Observing Online Instruction: A Formative Practice toward Awareness and Readiness in Online Instructional Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdall, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research project used a multiple case study methodology, in connection with observational learning to explore to what degree prospective online secondary teachers achieved an awareness of instructional design strategies as they concurrently observed online instruction in two unique online courses: one with student-centered…

  17. Designing Library Instruction for Undergraduates: Combining Instructional Systems Design and Naturalistic Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Delia

    1991-01-01

    The Magazine and Journal Instructional Kit (MAJIK/1) is a HyperCard program delivering basic individualized library instruction. Using a technique derived from naturalistic inquiry, the program's formative evaluation was conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park, with 28 upperclassmen as subjects. They reported little difficulty with…

  18. Interactive Reading Instruction: A Comparison of Proximal and Distal Effects of Instructional Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Jana

    1995-01-01

    This study compared traditional instruction (basal approach) with an interactive instructional conversation (IC) approach for enhancing the language and concept development of five Hispanic students (ages 7-9) with learning disabilities. Proximal measures indicated higher levels of discourse and greater participation with IC, whereas distal…

  19. Instructional Design Factors and the Effectiveness of Web-Based Training/Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Saundra Wall

    A study identified adult learning principles critical for effective Web-based instructional design (WBID), barriers to effective WBID, and practices of professionals who design WBID. National experts in adult education and WBID were interviewed, and the resulting product was an online assessment that 10 Web-based instructional designers completed.…

  20. Universal Design for Instruction: A New Paradigm for Adult Instruction in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sally S.; McGuire, Joan M.; Shaw, Stan F.

    2003-01-01

    Universal design for instruction is presented as a new paradigm for approaching equal educational access for college students with learning disabilities. Topics covered include changing student demographics, instructional challenges, the universal design concept, universal design in educational settings, and applying universal design to college…